WorldWideScience

Sample records for repeat topographic surveys

  1. Interactions between Point Bar Growth and Bank Erosion on a Low Sinuosity Meander Bend in an Ephemeral Channel: Insights from Repeat Topographic Surveys and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursic, M.; Langendoen, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Interactions between point bar growth, bank migration, and hydraulics on meandering rivers are complicated and not well understood. For ephemeral streams, rapid fluctuations in flow further complicate studying and understanding these interactions. This study seeks to answer the following `cause-and-effect' question: Does point bar morphologic adjustment determine where bank erosion occurs (for example, through topographic steering of the flow), or does local bank retreat determine where accretion/erosion occurs on the point bar, or do bank erosion and point bar morphologic adjustment co-evolve? Further, is there a response time between the `cause-and-effect' processes and what variables determine its magnitude and duration? In an effort to answer these questions for an ephemeral stream, a dataset of forty-eight repeat topographic surveys over a ten-year period (1996-2006) of a low sinuosity bend within the Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed, located near Batesville, MS, were utilized in conjunction with continuous discharge measurements to correlate flow variability and erosional and depositional zones, spatially and temporally. Hydraulically, the bend is located immediately downstream of a confluence with a major tributary. Supercritical flumes on both the primary and tributary channels just upstream of the confluence provide continuous measured discharges to the bend over the survey period. In addition, water surface elevations were continuously measured at the upstream and downstream ends of the bend. No spatial correlation trends could be discerned between reach-scale bank retreat, point bar morphologic adjustment, and flow discharge. Because detailed flow patterns were not available, the two-dimensional computer model Telemac2D was used to provide these details. The model was calibrated and validated for a set of runoff events for which more detailed flow data were available. Telemac2D simulations were created for each topographic survey period. Flows

  2. Fine-resolution repeat topographic surveying of dryland landscapes using UAS-based structure-from-motion photogrammetry: Assessing accuracy and precision against traditional ground-based erosion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillian, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Elaksher, Ahmed; Duniway, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry from unmanned aerial system (UAS) imagery is an emerging tool for repeat topographic surveying of dryland erosion. These methods are particularly appealing due to the ability to cover large landscapes compared to field methods and at reduced costs and finer spatial resolution compared to airborne laser scanning. Accuracy and precision of high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from UAS imagery have been explored in many studies, typically by comparing image coordinates to surveyed check points or LiDAR datasets. In addition to traditional check points, this study compared 5 cm resolution DTMs derived from fixed-wing UAS imagery with a traditional ground-based method of measuring soil surface change called erosion bridges. We assessed accuracy by comparing the elevation values between DTMs and erosion bridges along thirty topographic transects each 6.1 m long. Comparisons occurred at two points in time (June 2014, February 2015) which enabled us to assess vertical accuracy with 3314 data points and vertical precision (i.e., repeatability) with 1657 data points. We found strong vertical agreement (accuracy) between the methods (RMSE 2.9 and 3.2 cm in June 2014 and February 2015, respectively) and high vertical precision for the DTMs (RMSE 2.8 cm). Our results from comparing SfM-generated DTMs to check points, and strong agreement with erosion bridge measurements suggests repeat UAS imagery and SfM processing could replace erosion bridges for a more synoptic landscape assessment of shifting soil surfaces for some studies. However, while collecting the UAS imagery and generating the SfM DTMs for this study was faster than collecting erosion bridge measurements, technical challenges related to the need for ground control networks and image processing requirements must be addressed before this technique could be applied effectively to large landscapes.

  3. Repeated 1-cm Resolution Topographic and 2.5-mm Resolution Photomosiac Surveys of Benthic Communities and Fine Scale Bedforms in Monterey Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Hobson, B.; Thomas, H. J.; Henthorn, R.; Martin, E. J.; Bird, L.; Risi, M.; Troni, G.; Paull, C. K.; Rock, S.; Padial, J. A.; Hammond, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute has developed a low altitude, ROV-based seafloor mapping system that combines lidar laser ranging, multibeam sonar, and stereo photographic imagery. When operated at a 3-m altitude, this system maps seafloor topography with a 1-cm lateral resolution and simultaneously collects 2.5-mm resolution color photography. We have twice mapped an 80-m by 80-m area of a chemosynthetic clam community located at 2850-m depth in the Monterey Canyon axis. Both the topography and the photomosaics resolve changes in the clam community over a six-month interval. Many individual animals have moved, and tracks of those animals are visible in the lidar topography. No other changes in the seafloor at this site can be discerned. We have also performed single surveys of bedforms and scours at both 1850-m and 2850-m depths in Monterey Canyon. The highest resolution bathymetry data are collected using a 3DatDepth SL1 lidar laser scanner. This system has a 30° field of view and ranges continuously, achieving a 1 cm sounding spacing at a 3 m altitude and 0.3 m/s speed. Bathymetry data are also collected using a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar. This configuration produces 512 beams across a 135° wide swath; each beam has a 0.5° acrosstrack by 1.0° alongtrack angular width. At a 3-m altitude, the nadir beams have a 2.5 cm acrosstrack and 5 cm alongtrack footprint. Dual Prosilica GX1920 2.4 Mpixel color cameras provide color stereo photography of the seafloor. Illumination is provided by dual xenon strobes. The camera housings have been fitted with corrective optics achieving a 90° field of view with less than 1% distortion. At a 3-m altitude the raw image pixels have a 2.5 mm resolution. Position and attitude data are provided by a Kearfott SeaDevil Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated with a 300 kHz Teledyne RD Instruments Doppler velocity log (DVL). A separate Paroscientific pressure sensor is mounted adjacent to the INS. The INS

  4. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  5. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Bozeman National Topographic Map, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Bozeman National Topographic Map NL12-8 are presented in Volume I and II of this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  6. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Lander National Topographic Map, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Lander National Topographic Map NK12-6 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  7. Adobe Illustrator drawing showing geophysical and topographical survey data and interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Lacey; Ferraby, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Adobe Illustrator drawing at 1:2000 that shows the rasters and interpretations of the geophysics, the topographical contours, and the survey areas, with British National Grid coordinates and Ordnance Survey Master Map data included.

  8. Specification for the U.S. Geological Survey Historical Topographic Map Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allord, Gregory J.; Walter, Jennifer L.; Fishburn, Kristin A.; Shea, Gale A.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides the detailed requirements for producing, archiving, and disseminating a comprehensive digital collection of topographic maps for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Historical Topographic Map Collection (HTMC). The HTMC is a digital archive of about 190,000 printed topographic maps published by the USGS from the inception of the topographic mapping program in 1884 until the last paper topographic map using lithographic printing technology was published in 2006. The HTMC provides a comprehensive digital repository of all scales and all editions of USGS printed topographic maps that is easily discovered, browsed, and downloaded by the public at no cost. The HTMC provides ready access to maps that are no longer available for distribution in print. A digital file representing the original paper historical topographic map is produced for each historical map in the HTMC in georeferenced PDF (GeoPDF) format (a portable document format [PDF] with a geospatial extension).

  9. Topographical distribution of decrements and recovery in muscarinic receptors from rat brains repeatedly exposed to sublethal doses of soman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Jackson, J.L.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E.; McDonough, J.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    [3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to rat brain muscarinic receptors decreased after repeated exposure to soman, a potent organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. The topographical distribution of this decrement was analyzed by quantitative receptor autoradiography. After 4 weeks of soman, three times a week, quinuclidinyl benzilate binding decreased to 67 to 80% of control in frontal and parietal cortex, caudate-putamen, lateral septum, hippocampal body, dentate gyrus, superior colliculus, nucleus of the fifth nerve, and central grey. Minor or no decreases were observed in thalamic or hypothalamic nuclei, reticular formation, pontine nuclei, inferior colliculus, nucleus of the seventh nerve, and cerebellum. Scatchard analyses of saturation curves using frontal cortex sections from soman-treated rats revealed a decrease in maximal quinuclidinyl benzilate binding from that in control rats and a return toward control levels by 24 days without any significant change in affinity. These brain areas showing significant decrements in muscarinic receptors recovered with a similar time course. An estimate of the time for 50% recovery for some of the brain areas was 14 days for superior colliculus, 16 days for cortex, and 19 days for hippocampal body. The application of quantitative receptor autoradiography to analyze receptor alterations has been valuable in localizing the telencephalon as a region more susceptible to change in receptor concentration

  10. Topographical distribution of decrements and recovery in muscarinic receptors from rat brains repeatedly exposed to sublethal doses of soman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Jackson, J.L.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E.; McDonough, J.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    (3H)Quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to rat brain muscarinic receptors decreased after repeated exposure to soman, a potent organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. The topographical distribution of this decrement was analyzed by quantitative receptor autoradiography. After 4 weeks of soman, three times a week, quinuclidinyl benzilate binding decreased to 67 to 80% of control in frontal and parietal cortex, caudate-putamen, lateral septum, hippocampal body, dentate gyrus, superior colliculus, nucleus of the fifth nerve, and central grey. Minor or no decreases were observed in thalamic or hypothalamic nuclei, reticular formation, pontine nuclei, inferior colliculus, nucleus of the seventh nerve, and cerebellum. Scatchard analyses of saturation curves using frontal cortex sections from soman-treated rats revealed a decrease in maximal quinuclidinyl benzilate binding from that in control rats and a return toward control levels by 24 days without any significant change in affinity. These brain areas showing significant decrements in muscarinic receptors recovered with a similar time course. An estimate of the time for 50% recovery for some of the brain areas was 14 days for superior colliculus, 16 days for cortex, and 19 days for hippocampal body. The application of quantitative receptor autoradiography to analyze receptor alterations has been valuable in localizing the telencephalon as a region more susceptible to change in receptor concentration.

  11. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  12. A novel Hartman Shack-based topography system: repeatability and agreement for corneal power with Scheimpflug+Placido topographer and rotating prism auto-keratorefractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Srivastava, Dhruv; Choudhuri, Sounak

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the repeatability and agreement of corneal power using a new Hartman type topographer in comparison to Scheimpflug+Placido and autorefractor devices. In this cross sectional, observational study performed at the cornea services of a specialty hospital, 100 normal eyes (100 consecutive candidates) without any previous ocular surgery or morbidity except refractive error were evaluated. All candidates underwent three measurements each on a Full gradient, Hartman type topographer (FG) (iDesign, AMO), Scheimpflug+Placido topographer (SP) (Sirius, CSO) and rotating prism auto-keratorefractor (AR) (KR1, Nidek). The parameters assessed were flat keratometry (K1), steep keratometry (K2), steep axis (K2 axis), mean K, J 0 and J 45. Intra-device repeatability and inter-device agreement were evaluated. On repeatability analysis, the intra-device means were not significantly different (ANOVA, p > 0.05). Intraclass correlations (ICC) were >0.98 except for J 0 and J 45. In terms of intra-measurement standard deviation (Sw), the SP and FG groups fared better than AR group (p 0.05, R (2) 0.05). ICC ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 (p < 0.001). Regression fits on Bland-Altman plots suggested no clinically significant effect of average values over difference in means. The repeatability of Hartman type topographer in normal eyes is comparable to SP combination device and better than AR. The agreement between the three devices is good. However, we recommend against interchanging these devices between follow-ups or pooling their data.

  13. Optimising UAV topographic surveys processed with structure-from-motion: Ground control quality, quantity and bundle adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mike R.; Robson, Stuart; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Niethammer, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) algorithms are greatly facilitating the production of detailed topographic models based on images collected by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). However, SfM-based software does not generally provide the rigorous photogrammetric analysis required to fully understand survey quality. Consequently, error related to problems in control point data or the distribution of control points can remain undiscovered. Even if these errors are not large in magnitude, they can be systematic, and thus have strong implications for the use of products such as digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophotos. Here, we develop a Monte Carlo approach to (1) improve the accuracy of products when SfM-based processing is used and (2) reduce the associated field effort by identifying suitable lower density deployments of ground control points. The method highlights over-parameterisation during camera self-calibration and provides enhanced insight into control point performance when rigorous error metrics are not available. Processing was implemented using commonly-used SfM-based software (Agisoft PhotoScan), which we augment with semi-automated and automated GCPs image measurement. We apply the Monte Carlo method to two contrasting case studies - an erosion gully survey (Taurodont, Morocco) carried out with an fixed-wing UAV, and an active landslide survey (Super-Sauze, France), acquired using a manually controlled quadcopter. The results highlight the differences in the control requirements for the two sites, and we explore the implications for future surveys. We illustrate DEM sensitivity to critical processing parameters and show how the use of appropriate parameter values increases DEM repeatability and reduces the spatial variability of error due to processing artefacts.

  14. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P., E-mail: godiva@cdtn.br, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  15. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  16. Topographic lidar survey of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, February 6, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    This Data Series Report contains lidar elevation data collected February 6, 2012, for Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana. Point cloud data in lidar data exchange format (LAS) and bare earth digital elevation models (DEMs) in ERDAS Imagine raster format (IMG) are available as downloadable files. The point cloud data—data points described in three dimensions—were processed to extract bare earth data; therefore, the point cloud data are organized into the following classes: 1– and 17–unclassified, 2–ground, 9–water, and 10–breakline proximity. Digital Aerial Solutions, LLC, (DAS) was contracted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to collect and process these data. The lidar data were acquired at a horizontal spacing (or nominal pulse spacing) of 0.5 meters (m) or less. The USGS conducted two ground surveys in small areas on the Chandeleur Islands on February 5, 2012. DAS calculated a root mean square error (RMSEz) of 0.034 m by comparing the USGS ground survey point data to triangulated irregular network (TIN) models built from the lidar elevation data. This lidar survey was conducted to document the topography and topographic change of the Chandeleur Islands. The survey supports detailed studies of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama barrier islands that resolve annual and episodic changes in beaches, berms and dunes associated with processes driven by storms, sea-level rise, and even human restoration activities. These lidar data are available to Federal, State and local governments, emergency-response officials, resource managers, and the general public.

  17. Creation of next generation U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Kari J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is 2 years into a 3-year cycle to create new digital topographic map products for the conterminous United States from data acquired and maintained as part of The National Map databases. These products are in the traditional, USGS topographic quadrangle, 7.5-minute (latitude and longitude) cell format. The 3-year cycle was conceived to follow the acquisition of National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP) orthorectified imagery, a key layer in the new product. In fiscal year (FY) 2009 (ending September 30, 2009), the first year of the 3-year cycle, the USGS produced 13,200 products. These initial products of the “Digital MapBeta” series had limited feature content, including only the NAIP image, some roads, geographic names, and grid and collar information. The products were created in layered georegistered Portable Document Format (PDF) files, allowing users with freely available Adobe® Reader® software to view, print, and perform simple Geographic Information System-like functions. In FY 2010 (ending September 30, 2010), the USGS produced 20,380 products. These products of the “US Topo” series added hydrography (surface water features), contours, and some boundaries. In FY 2011 (ending September 30, 2011), the USGS will complete the initial coverage with US Topo products and will add additional feature content to the maps. The design, development, and production associated with the US Topo products provide management and technical challenges for the USGS and its public and private sector partners. One challenge is the acquisition and maintenance of nationally consistent base map data from multiple sources. Another is the use of these data to create a consistent, current series of cartographic products that can be used by the broad spectrum of traditional topographic map users. Although the USGS and its partners have overcome many of these challenges, many, such as establishing and funding a sustainable base data

  18. Combining 137Cs and topographic surveys for measuring soil erosion/deposition patterns in a rapidly accreting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Narrow, stiff grass hedges are biological barriers designed to slow runoff and capture soils carried in runoff water. This study was designed to measure quantitatively the deposition of soil up slope of a narrow, stiff grass hedge using topographic and 137 Cs surveys. Topographic surveys made in 1991, 1995, and 1998 measured 1 to 2 cm yr -1 of recent sediment deposited up slope of the grass hedge. 137 Cs analyses of soil samples were used to determine the medium-term (45 years) soil redistribution patterns. Erosion rates and patterns determined using 137 Cs measured medium-term erosion near the hedge do not reflect the recent deposition patterns near the grass hedge measured by topographic surveys. Using the combination of topographic and 137 Cs surveys allows a better understanding of the role of grass hedges as barriers for capturing eroding soils and suggest that the recent deposition is associated with the grass hedge but that there is still a net loss of soil near the hedge position over the past 45 years. (author)

  19. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Perryton National Topographic Map, Texas/Oklahoma/Kansas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Perryton National Topographic Map NJ14-10 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  20. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Elko National Topographic Map, Nevada, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Elko national Topographic Map NK11-12 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included

  1. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey, San Angelo National Topographic Map: Texas, West Texas Project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Angelo National Topographic Map NH14-1 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included

  2. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: St. Louis national topographic map, Illinois/Missouri. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the St. Louis National Topographic Map NJ15-6 is presented in this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveying map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  3. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Evansville National Topographic Map, Indiana and Kentucky, southeast US Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Evansville National Topographic Map NJ16-8 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  4. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Winchester National topographic map, Kentucky. Southeast US project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Winchester National Topographic Map NJ16-9 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  5. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Woodward National Topographic Map, Oklahoma, West Texas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Woodward National Topographic Map NJ14-11 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  6. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: San Antonio National Topographic Map, Texas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Antonio National Topographic Map NH14-8 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  7. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Quincy National Topographic map, Illinois/Missouri. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Quincy National Topographic Map NJ15-3 is presented in this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnet field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  8. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey national topographic map: Sonora, Texas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Sonora National Topographic Map NH14-4 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  9. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Burlington National Topographic Map, Illinois/Iowa/Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Burlington National Topographic Map NK15-12 is presented in this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  10. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Death Valley National Topographic Map, Nevada, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analysis of the airborne gamma radiation survey flown for the region identified as the Death Valley National Topographic Map NJ11-11 is presented in the bound Volume of this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  11. Comparison of anterior segment measurements using Sirius Topographer® and Nidek Axial Length-Scan® with assessing repeatability in patients with cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resat Duman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate anterior segment measurements obtained using CSO Sirius Topographer® (CSO, Firenze, Italy and Nidek Axial Length (AL-Scan® (Nidek CO., Gamagori, Japan. Methods: A total of 43 eyes of 43 patients were included in this prospective study. The central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, white-to-white distance (WTW, flat keratometry (K1, steep keratometry (K2, and mean keratometry (K values were randomly measured three times with each device by the same examiner. The intraclass correlation coefficient of repeatability was analyzed. The compatibility of both devices was evaluated using the 95% limits of the agreement proposed by Bland and Altman. Results: Examiner achieved high repeatability for all parameters on each device except the WTW measured by Sirius. All measurements except WTW and K1 taken with the Sirius were higher than that taken with the Nidek AL-Scan®. The difference in CCT, ACD, and WTW values was statistically significant. Conclusion: High repeatability of the measurements was achieved on both devices. Although Km, K1, and K2 measurements of the Sirius and the AL-Scan® showed good agreement, WTW, CCT, and ACD measurements significantly differed between two devices. Thus, anterior segment measurements except for Km, K1, and K2 cannot be used interchangeably between Sirius and Nidek AL-Scan® devices.

  12. Research on the Application of Rapid Surveying and Mapping for Large Scare Topographic Map by Uav Aerial Photography System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z.; Song, Y.; Li, C.; Zeng, F.; Wang, F.

    2017-08-01

    Rapid acquisition and processing method of large scale topographic map data, which relies on the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) low-altitude aerial photogrammetry system, is studied in this paper, elaborating the main work flow. Key technologies of UAV photograph mapping is also studied, developing a rapid mapping system based on electronic plate mapping system, thus changing the traditional mapping mode and greatly improving the efficiency of the mapping. Production test and achievement precision evaluation of Digital Orth photo Map (DOM), Digital Line Graphic (DLG) and other digital production were carried out combined with the city basic topographic map update project, which provides a new techniques for large scale rapid surveying and has obvious technical advantage and good application prospect.

  13. Advantages and disadvantages : longitudinal vs. repeated cross-section surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-20

    The benefits of a longitudinal analysis over a repeated cross-sectional study include increased statistical power and the capability to estimate a greater range of conditional probabilities. With the Puget Sound Transportation Panel (PSTP), and any s...

  14. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin in south-central Louisiana. The entire survey area encompasses 981 square miles....

  15. Neah Bay to Cape Alava, Northwest Coast, Washington State - Topographic Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey)system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver...

  16. Hydrographic & Topographic LIDAR Acquisition, Northwest Coast, Washington State - Bathymetric Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey)system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver...

  17. Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the historical scanned maps in 2011, is to provide a digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of printed topographic maps, and prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic printing process. As the USGS continues the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, the topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, land management planning, and leisure.

  18. The Impact of Repeated Lying on Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Chesney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects on results of participants completing a survey more than once, a phenomenon known as farming. Using data from a real social science study as a baseline, three strategies that participants might use to farm are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Findings show that farming influences survey results and can cause both statistical hypotheses testing Type I (false positive and Type II (false negative errors in unpredictable ways.

  19. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: McIntosh National Topographic Map, North Dakota/South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the McIntosh National Topographic Map NL14-7 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  20. Quantifying uncertainty in high-resolution remotely sensed topographic surveys for ephemeral gully channel monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Robert R.; Momm, Henrique G.; Castillo, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Spatio-temporal measurements of landform evolution provide the basis for process-based theory formulation and validation. Over time, field measurements of landforms have increased significantly worldwide, driven primarily by the availability of new surveying technologies. However, there is no standardized or coordinated effort within the scientific community to collect morphological data in a dependable and reproducible manner, specifically when performing long-term small-scale process investigation studies. Measurements of the same site using identical methods and equipment, but performed at different time periods, may lead to incorrect estimates of landform change as a result of three-dimensional registration errors. This work evaluated measurements of an ephemeral gully channel located on agricultural land using multiple independent survey techniques for locational accuracy and their applicability in generating information for model development and validation. Terrestrial and unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry platforms were compared to terrestrial lidar, defined herein as the reference dataset. Given the small scale of the measured landform, the alignment and ensemble equivalence between data sources was addressed through postprocessing. The utilization of ground control points was a prerequisite to three-dimensional registration between datasets and improved the confidence in the morphology information generated. None of the methods were without limitation; however, careful attention to project preplanning and data nature will ultimately guide the temporal efficacy and practicality of management decisions.

  1. Headwater sediment dynamics in a debris flow catchment constrained by high-resolution topographic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loye, Alexandre; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Theule, Joshua Isaac; Liébault, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    Debris flows have been recognized to be linked to the amounts of material temporarily stored in torrent channels. Hence, sediment supply and storage changes from low-order channels of the Manival catchment, a small tributary valley with an active torrent system located exclusively in sedimentary rocks of the Chartreuse Massif (French Alps), were surveyed periodically for 16 months using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to study the coupling between sediment dynamics and torrent responses in terms of debris flow events, which occurred twice during the monitoring period. Sediment transfer in the main torrent was monitored with cross-section surveys. Sediment budgets were generated seasonally using sequential TLS data differencing and morphological extrapolations. Debris production depends strongly on rockfall occurring during the winter-early spring season, following a power law distribution for volumes of rockfall events above 0.1 m3, while hillslope sediment reworking dominates debris recharge in spring and autumn, which shows effective hillslope-channel coupling. The occurrence of both debris flow events that occurred during the monitoring was linked to recharge from previous debris pulses coming from the hillside and from bedload transfer. Headwater debris sources display an ambiguous behaviour in sediment transfer: low geomorphic activity occurred in the production zone, despite rainstorms inducing debris flows in the torrent; still, a general reactivation of sediment transport in headwater channels was observed in autumn without new debris supply, suggesting that the stored debris was not exhausted. The seasonal cycle of sediment yield seems to depend not only on debris supply and runoff (flow capacity) but also on geomorphic conditions that destabilize remnant debris stocks. This study shows that monitoring the changes within a torrent's in-channel storage and its debris supply can improve knowledge on recharge thresholds leading to debris flow.

  2. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Beeville/Bay City National Topographic Map, Texas Gulf Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    As part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program Geodata International, Inc. of Dallas, Texas, conducted an airborne gamma ray and total magnetic field survey of Beeville/Bay City Quadrangle of the Texas Gulf Coast area. Volume 1 gives the description of the program and results, and volume 2 gives the flight line profile data and statistical analysis results. The Beeville/Bay City Map Sheet shows Tertiary and Quaternary-aged strata which are part of the coastal plain of the Gulf Coast Geosyncline. The Cenozoic sediments overlie Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian rocks, and have a relatively gentle homoclinal dip toward the gulf. The Quaternary and Tertiary sediments of the map sheet overlie the western flank of the Houston-East Texas Embayment, the northeastern side of the Rio Grande Embayment, and the San Marcos Arch. Recent and Pleistocene sediments crop-out in the south and east, and are more extensive in the vicinity of the structural embayments. The Pliocene-aged Goliad Formation crops-out extensively to the northwest. Miocene and Eocene strata occur in the northwestern corner of the map sheet. The uranium deposits occur in the Tertiary strata, but are most intensely mined in the Eocene strata immediately to the west of the map sheet area

  3. Ensonifying Change: Repeat Ultra-High-Resolution Surveys in Monterey Canyon before and after Passage of a Turbidity Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Carvajal, C.; Thomas, H. J.; Maier, K. L.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents are one of the primary means of global sediment transport, yet our understanding of how they interact with the seafloor is hindered by the limited number of direct measurements. The Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE; October 2015 - April 2017) has made great strides in addressing this issue by providing direct measurements of turbidity currents and detailed observations of the resulting seafloor change in Monterey Canyon, offshore California. Here we focus on a section of the canyon at 1850-m water depth, where a Seafloor Instrument Node (SIN) recorded passage of three turbidity currents using a range of sensors, including three upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers. The fastest event at this site had a maximum velocity of 2.8 m/s, and dragged the 430-Kg SIN 26 m down-canyon. Repeat mapping surveys were conducted four times during the CCE, utilizing a prototype ultra-high-resolution mapping system mounted on the ROV Doc Ricketts. The survey platform hosts a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar, a 3DatDepth SL1 subsea LiDAR, two stereo color cameras, and a Kearfott SeaDevil INS. At a survey altitude of 2.5 m above the bed, the system provides remarkable 5-cm resolution multibeam bathymetry, 1-cm resolution LiDAR bathymetry, and 2-mm resolution photomosaics, and can cover a 100-m2 survey area. Surveys of the SIN site prior to and after the fastest event show areas of net deposition/erosion of 60 cm and 20 cm, respectively. Net deposition occurred in the topographic lows between bedforms, while erosion was focused on the bedform crests. At the end of the experiment, transects of sediment cores were taken by ROV within areas of net deposition. The cores show a variety of sedimentary facies, including muds, sands, gravel, and organic rich layers. Gravel layers have sharp erosive bases. The repeat surveys document the dynamic nature of flute-like scours as the flow events erode and deposit material along the canyon floor, as well as the

  4. Topographic and hydrographic GIS dataset for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2010 Minerals Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, P.G.; Moran, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    This dataset contains a collection of 24 folders, each representing a specific U.S. Geological Survey area of interest (AOI; fig. 1), as well as datasets for AOI subsets. Each folder includes the extent, contours, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and hydrography of the corresponding AOI, which are organized into feature vector and raster datasets. The dataset comprises a geographic information system (GIS), which is available upon request from the USGS Afghanistan programs Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/minerals.php), and the maps of the 24 areas of interest of the USGS AOIs.

  5. USGS Historical Topographic Map Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Historical Quadrangle in GeoPDF. The USGS Historical Quadrangle Scanning Project (HQSP) is scanning all scales and all editions of topographic maps published by...

  6. Integrating bathymetric and topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye; Lim, Yong Hui; Tan, Wai Kiat

    2017-11-01

    The quality of bathymetric and topographic resolution significantly affect the accuracy of tsunami run-up and inundation simulation. However, high resolution gridded bathymetric and topographic data sets for Malaysia are not freely available online. It is desirable to have seamless integration of high resolution bathymetric and topographic data. The bathymetric data available from the National Hydrographic Centre (NHC) of the Royal Malaysian Navy are in scattered form; while the topographic data from the Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (JUPEM) are given in regularly spaced grid systems. Hence, interpolation is required to integrate the bathymetric and topographic data into regularly-spaced grid systems for tsunami simulation. The objective of this research is to analyze the most suitable interpolation methods for integrating bathymetric and topographic data with minimal errors. We analyze four commonly used interpolation methods for generating gridded topographic and bathymetric surfaces, namely (i) Kriging, (ii) Multiquadric (MQ), (iii) Thin Plate Spline (TPS) and (iv) Inverse Distance to Power (IDP). Based upon the bathymetric and topographic data for the southern part of Penang Island, our study concluded, via qualitative visual comparison and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) assessment, that the Kriging interpolation method produces an interpolated bathymetric and topographic surface that best approximate the admiralty nautical chart of south Penang Island.

  7. Analyzing Repeated Measures Marginal Models on Sample Surveys with Resampling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Knoke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaged statistical software for analyzing categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample survey data with binary covariates does not appear to be available. Consequently, this report describes a customized SAS program which accomplishes such an analysis on survey data with jackknifed replicate weights for which the primary sampling unit information has been suppressed for respondent confidentiality. First, the program employs the Macro Language and the Output Delivery System (ODS to estimate the means and covariances of indicator variables for the response variables, taking the design into account. Then, it uses PROC CATMOD and ODS, ignoring the survey design, to obtain the design matrix and hypothesis test specifications. Finally, it enters these results into another run of CATMOD, which performs automated direct input of the survey design specifications and accomplishes the appropriate analysis. This customized SAS program can be employed, with minor editing, to analyze general categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample surveys with replicate weights. Finally, the results of our analysis accounting for the survey design are compared to the results of two alternate analyses of the same data. This comparison confirms that such alternate analyses, which do not properly account for the design, do not produce useful results.

  8. Students' perceptions of their learning experiences: A repeat regional survey of healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshire, Claire; Barrett, Neil; Langan, Mark; Harris, Edwin; Wibberley, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Student experience is an international concern and recent research has focused on initiatives to improve students' learning experiences and ultimately reduce attrition levels. To determine similarities and differences between students' perceptions of their learning experiences between 2011 and 2015 in relation to campus-based learning, placement-based learning and personal circumstances. A repeat online survey in 2011 and 2015; using a questionnaire developed from thematic analysis of narrative interviews with a subsample of the target population. Nine universities in the North West of England. A total of 1080 students completed the survey in 2011 and 1983 students in 2015 from a target population of all students studying on commissioned pre-registration healthcare education programmes. An online survey was made available to all undergraduate students studying on Health Education funded programmes within the region and survey respondents were invited to give demographic information and rate their agreement to statements on four-point Likert-type responses. Responses to a repeat survey of healthcare studying in the North West of England in 2015 were strikingly similar overall to those of an original 2011 survey. Although the students were positive overall about their experiences, a number were dissatisfied with some aspects of their experiences - particularly in relation to initial support on campus and whilst studying on placement. Four years on from the original survey, despite a considerable investment in improving students' experiences across the region, there appears to be little change in students' perceptions of their learning experiences CONCLUSION: In the short-term monitoring of student experience needs to be continued; and links to attrition (potential or actual) noted and acted upon. However, given that attrition from these courses has been a long-term problem and the complexity of its resolution a recurrent finding in the literature; new ways of framing

  9. Historical Map & Chart Collection of NOAA's Nautical Charts, Hydrographic Surveys, Topographic Surveys, Geodetic Surveys, City Plans, and Civil War Battle Maps Starting from the mid 1700's

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Map and Chart Collection of the Office of Coast Survey contains over 20000 historical maps and charts from the mid 1700s through the late 1900s. These...

  10. Repeat participation in annual cross-sectional surveys of drug users and its implications for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, P A; Aitken, C K; Breen, C; Dietze, P M

    2018-06-04

    We sought to establish the extent of repeat participation in a large annual cross-sectional survey of people who inject drugs and assess its implications for analysis. We used "porn star names" (the name of each participant's first pet followed by the name of the first street in which they lived) to identify repeat participation in three Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System surveys. Over 2013-2015, 2468 porn star names (96.2%) appeared only once, 88 (3.4%) twice, and nine (0.4%) in all 3 years. We measured design effects, based on the between-cluster variability for selected estimates, of 1.01-1.07 for seven key variables. These values indicate that the complex sample is (e.g.) 7% less efficient in estimating prevalence of heroin use (ever) than a simple random sample, and 1% less efficient in estimating number of heroin overdoses (ever). Porn star names are a useful means of tracking research participants longitudinally while maintaining their anonymity. Repeat participation in the Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System is low (less than 5% per annum), meaning point-prevalence and effect estimation without correction for the lack of independence in observations is unlikely to seriously affect population inference.

  11. Accuracy of velocities from repeated GPS surveys: relative positioning is concerned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Huseyin; Ugur Sanli, D.

    2016-04-01

    Over more than a decade, researchers have been interested in studying the accuracy of GPS positioning solutions. Recently, reporting the accuracy of GPS velocities has been added to this. Researchers studying landslide motion, tectonic motion, uplift, sea level rise, and subsidence still report results from GPS experiments in which repeated GPS measurements from short sessions are used. This motivated some other researchers to study the accuracy of GPS deformation rates/velocities from various repeated GPS surveys. In one of the efforts, the velocity accuracy was derived from repeated GPS static surveys using short observation sessions and Precise Point Positioning mode of GPS software. Velocities from short GPS sessions were compared with the velocities from 24 h sessions. The accuracy of velocities was obtained using statistical hypothesis testing and quantifying the accuracy of least squares estimation models. The results reveal that 45-60 % of the horizontal and none of the vertical solutions comply with the results from 24 h solutions. We argue that this case in which the data was evaluated using PPP should also apply to the case in which the data belonging to long GPS base lengths is processed using fundamental relative point positioning. To test this idea we chose the two IGS stations ANKR and NICO and derive their velocities from the reference stations held fixed in the stable EURASIAN plate. The University of Bern's GNSS software BERNESE was used to produce relative positioning solutions, and the results are compared with those of GIPSY/OASIS II PPP results. First impressions indicate that it is worth designing a global experiment and test these ideas in detail.

  12. Application of UAV-SfM photogrammetry and aerial lidar to a disastrous flood: repeated topographic measurement of a newly formed crevasse splay of the Kinu River, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumida, Atsuto; Uchiyama, Shoichiro; Sugai, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    Geomorphic impacts of a disastrous crevasse splay that formed in September 2015 and its post-formation modifications were quantitatively documented by using repeated, high-definition digital surface models (DSMs) of an inhabited and cultivated floodplain of the Kinu River, central Japan. The DSMs were based on pre-flood (resolution: 2 m) and post-flood (resolution: 1 m) aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data from January 2007 and September 2015, respectively, and on structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry data (resolution: 3.84 cm) derived from aerial photos taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in December 2015. After elimination of systematic errors among the DSMs and down-sampling of the SfM-derived DSM, elevation changes on the order of 10-1 m - including not only topography but also growth of vegetation, vanishing of flood waters, and restoration and repair works - were detected. Comparison of the DSMs showed that the volume eroded by the flood was more than twice the deposited volume in the area within 300-500 m of the breached artificial levee, where the topography was significantly affected. The results suggest that DSMs based on a combination of UAV-SfM and lidar data can be used to quantify, rapidly and in rich detail, topographic changes on floodplains caused by floods.

  13. Presumption of the distribution of the geological structure based on the geological survey and the topographic data in and around the Horonobe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toshihiro; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, a comprehensive research project investigating the deep underground environment in sedimentary rock, is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) at Horonobe-cho in Northern Hokkaido, Japan. One of the main goals of the URL project is to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment. JAEA constructed the geologic map and the database of geological mapping in Horonobe-cho in 2005 based on the existing literatures and 1/200,000 geologic maps published by Geological Survey of Japan, and then updated the geologic map in 2007 based on the results of various investigations which were conducted around the URL as the surface based investigation phase of the URL project. On the other hand, there are many geological survey data which are derived from natural resources (petroleum, natural gas and coal, etc.) exploration in and around Horonobe-cho. In this report, we update the geologic map and the database of the geological mapping based on these geological survey and topographical analysis data in and around the Horonobe area, and construct a digital geologic map and a digital database of geological mapping as GIS. These data can be expected to improve the precision of modeling and analyzing of geological environment including its long-term evaluation. The digital data is attached on CD-ROM. (J.P.N.)

  14. Transportation assimilation revisited: New evidence from repeated cross-sectional survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Based on single cross-sectional data, prior research finds evidence of “transportation assimilation” among U.S. immigrants: the length of stay in the U.S. is negatively correlated with public transit use. This paper revisits this question by using repeated cross-sectional data, and examines the trend of transportation assimilation over time. Methods and results Using 1980, 1990, 2000 1% census and 2010 (1%) American Community Survey, I examine the relationship between the length of stay in the U.S. and public transit ridership among immigrants. I first run regressions separately in four data sets: I regress public transit ridership on the length of stay, controlling for other individual and geographic variables. I then compare the magnitudes of the relationship in four regressions. To study how the rate of transportation assimilation changes over time, I pool the data set and regress public transit ridership on the length of stay and its interactions with year dummies to compare the coefficients across surveys. Results confirm the conclusion of transportation assimilation: as the length of stay in the U.S. increases, an immigrant’s public transit use decreases. However, the repeated cross-section analysis suggests the assimilation rate has been decreasing in the past few decades. Conclusions This paper finds evidence of transportation assimilation: immigrants become less likely to ride public transit as the length of stay in the U.S. increases. The assimilation rate, however, has been decreasing over time. This paper finds that the rate of public transit ridership among new immigrants upon arrival, the geographic distribution of immigrants, and the changing demographics of the U.S. immigrants play roles in affecting the trend of transportation assimilation. PMID:29668676

  15. Topographic lidar survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.; Doran, Kara S.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    This Data Series Report contains lidar elevation data collected from September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast Louisiana, including the coast near Port Fourchon. Most of the data were collected September 5–10, 2012, with a reflight conducted on October 11, 2012, to increase point density in some areas. Point cloud data—data points described in three dimensions—in lidar data exchange format (LAS), and bare earth digital elevation models (DEMs) in ERDAS Imagine raster format (IMG), are available as downloadable files. The point cloud data were processed to extract bare earth data; therefore, the point cloud data are organized into four classes: 1-unclassified, 2-ground, 7-noise and 9-water. Aero-Metric, Inc., was contracted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to collect and process these data.

  16. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael N; Maynard, Sharon; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1) and 3 years after (Group 2) the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology. 131 (80.9%) of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8%) residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3%) indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2) and residents who were not (Group 1). The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed), practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed), and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed). More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04), whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02). The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several negative

  17. Birth in a health facility--inequalities among the Ethiopian women: results from repeated national surveys.

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    Elias Ali Yesuf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uptake of health facilities for delivery care in Ethiopia has not been examined in the light of equality. We investigated differences in institutional deliveries by urbanity, administrative region, economic status and maternal education. METHODS: This study was based on nation-wide repeated surveys undertaken in the years 2000, 2005, and 2011. The surveys used a cluster sampling design. Women of reproductive age were interviewed on the place of their last delivery. Data was analyzed using logistic regressions to estimate the weighted association between birth in a health facility and study's predictors. RESULTS: Utilization of health institutions for deliveries has improved throughout the study period, however, rates remain low (5.4%,2000 and 11.8%,2011. Compared with women from rural places, women from urban areas had independent OR of a health facility delivery of 4.9 (95% CI: 3.4, 7.0, 5.0 (95% CI: 3.6, 6.9, and 4.6 (95% CI: 3.5, 6.0 in 2000, 2005, and 2011, respectively. Women with secondary/higher education had more deliveries in a healthcare facility than women with no education, and these gaps widened over the years (OR: 35.1, 45.0 and 53.6 in 2000, 2005, and 2011, respectively. Women of the upper economic quintile had 3.0-7.2 times the odds of healthcare facility deliveries, compared with the lowest quintile, with no clear trend over the years. While Addis-Ababa and Dire Dawa remained with the highest OR for deliveries in a health facility compared with Amhara, other regions displayed shifts in their relative ranking with Oromiya, SNNPR, Afar, Harari, and Somali getting relatively worse over time. CONCLUSIONS: The disparity related to urbanity or education in the use of health facility for birth in Ethiopia is staggering. There is a small inequality between most regions except Addis Ababa/Dire Dawa and sign of abating inequity between economic strata except for the richest households.

  18. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Daniels

    Full Text Available Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents.This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1 and 3 years after (Group 2 the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology.131 (80.9% of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8% residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3% indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2 and residents who were not (Group 1. The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed, practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed, and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed. More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04, whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02.The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several

  19. Topographic and Hydrographic GIS Datasets for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2014 Mineral Areas of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jessica D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2015-11-18

    Mineral extraction and associated industries play an important role in the Afghan economy, particularly in the “transitional era” of declining foreign aid and withdrawal of foreign troops post 2014. In addition to providing a substantial source of government revenue, other potential benefits of natural resource development include boosted exports, employment opportunities, and strengthened industrialization (Joya, 2012). Continued exploration and investment in these industries has resulted in large economic improvements since 2007, when this series of studies was initiated. At that time, the “Preliminary Non-Fuel Mineral Resource Assessment of Afghanistan” was completed by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Geological Survey (Peters and others, 2007). The assessment published a series of country-wide datasets, including a digital elevation model (DEM), elevation contours, hydrography, transportation routes, geophysics, and cultural datasets (Peters and others, 2007). It also delineated 20 mineralized areas for further study using a geologic-based methodology. A second data product, “Summaries of Important Areas for Mineral Investment and Production Opportunities of Nonfuel Minerals in Afghanistan,” was released by Peters and others in 2011. This work highlighted geologic, geohydrologic, and hyperspectral studies that were carried out in specific Areas of Interest (AOIs) to assess the location and characteristics of mineral resources. Also included in the 2011 publication is a collection of appendixes and inventories of Geographic Information System (GIS) datasets for each of the 24 identified AOIs. A third data product was released in 2013 (Casey and Chirico, 2013), publishing datasets for five different AOIs, two subareas, and one AOI extension. Each dataset contains vector shapefiles of the AOI boundary, streams, roads, and contours at 25-, 50-, and 100-meter (m) intervals, as well as raster files of the AOI’s DEM and hillshade.

  20. Topographic and hydrographic GIS datasets for the Afghan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2013 mineral areas of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brittany N.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan is endowed with a vast amount of mineral resources, and it is believed that the current economic state of the country could be greatly improved through investment in the extraction and production of these resources. In 2007, the “Preliminary Non-Fuel Resource Assessment of Afghanistan 2007” was completed by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghan Geological Survey (Peters and others, 2007). The assessment delineated 20 mineralized areas for further study using a geologic-based methodology. In 2011, a follow-on data product, “Summaries and Data Packages of Important Areas for Mineral Investment and Production Opportunities of Nonfuel Minerals in Afghanistan,” was released (Peters and others, 2011). As part of this more recent work, geologic, geohydrologic, and hyperspectral studies were carried out in the areas of interest (AOIs) to assess the location and characteristics of the mineral resources. The 2011 publication included a dataset of 24 identified AOIs containing subareas, a corresponding digital elevation model (DEM), elevation contours, areal extent, and hydrography for each AOI. In 2012, project scientists identified five new AOIs and two subareas in Afghanistan. These new areas are Ahankashan, Kandahar, Parwan, North Bamyan, and South Bamyan. The two identified subareas include Obatu-Shela and Sekhab-ZamtoKalay, both located within the larger Kandahar AOI. In addition, an extended Kandahar AOI is included in the project for water resource modeling purposes. The dataset presented in this publication consists of the areal extent of the five new AOIs, two subareas, and the extended Kandahar AOI, elevation contours at 100-, 50-, and 25-meter intervals, an enhanced DEM, and a hydrographic dataset covering the extent of the new study area. The resulting raster and vector layers are intended for use by government agencies, developmental organizations, and private companies in Afghanistan to assist with mineral assessments, monitoring

  1. Repeat surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in western Lake Superior: timing, distribution and composition of spawning stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Addison, Peter A.; Seider, Michael J.; Evrard, Lori M.; Geving, Steven A.; Quinlan, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic (AC) and midwater trawl (MT) surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior have been combined with commercial yield to estimate exploitation. To time surveys properly, it is important to understand when adults typically arrive at spawning grounds and how numbers change as the spawning season progresses. We conducted repeat autumn surveys during nighttime hours at coastal sites where commercial roe fisheries occur. Spawner densities increased significantly from October to mid-November, but differences measured at sites sampled from mid- to late-November were comparatively small. Spawners occupied the upper 20–30 m of the water column during mid-November before utilizing a wider range of depths by late-November. We compared repeat AC densities to temporal trends of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in suspended commercial gillnets and found good agreement within sites. Because different gillnet mesh sizes were used in each roe fishery. CPUE and AC density were poorly correlated among sites. We recommend that future surveys be conducted between mid- and late-November, and that MT gear be used to measure cisco densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column where AC estimates may be conservative. Given the short temporal window for assessing spawner density, we believe both AC-MT and gillnet surveys will be needed to ensure that harvest of different stocks is kept at a sustainable level.

  2. Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2014-01-01

    find the OOR to significantly reduce total WTP and to some extent also marginal WTP beyond the capability of the CT applied without the OOR. This suggests that the CT practice should be adapted to fit the potentially different decision processes and repeated choices structure of the Choice Experiment...

  3. Quantifying aboveground forest carbon pools and fluxes from repeat LiDAR surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Eva K. Strand; Lee A. Vierling; John C. Byrne; Jan U. H. Eitel; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Michael J. Falkowski

    2012-01-01

    Sound forest policy and management decisions to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 depend upon accurate methodologies to quantify forest carbon pools and fluxes over large tracts of land. LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying aboveground biomass and thereby carbon pools; however, little work has evaluated the efficacy of repeat LiDAR...

  4. Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    to choose the opt-out alternative if they find the experimentally designed alternatives too expensive. In an empirical Choice Experiment survey we find the Opt-Out Reminder to significantly reduce total WTP and to some extent also marginal WTP beyond the capability of the Cheap Talk applied without the Opt...

  5. Deformation analysis of the repeated positional surveys in the undermined localities using web applications and WMS map services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Talich

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The XML web application for on-line calculations of deformation analysis from the repeated positional surveys using Internet service and data is described. Parameters of deformation field (strain tensors, total dilatations are determined in a grid network covering the zone of interest. Displacement vectors from repeated measurements at given points of a geodetic network represent the imput data of calculation. The calculation is based on application of the theory of continuum mechanics and its fundamental prerequisite is homogeneity of the researched territory.The application currently utilizes the Web Map Services - WMS for the graphic presentation of calculated results as GIS. This service for example enables on-line thematic map composition as defined by the user in the window of Internet explorer based on data given by servers of WMS service. Thus the user does not need to own any geographic data to create his/her GIS.Furthermore there are also given application examples of the repeated geodetic surveys used in the field at localities in the forefront of ČSA giant quarry at Komořany and in the undermined territory in Ostrava region. The examples show the independence of calculated values of tensors from rotation and translation of the coordinate systems in practise. This fact gives the evidence that the deformation analysis is more objective dynamic indicator in the researched area and not only the calculus and representation of point displacement vectors. After registration this application is at all interested persons disposal to on-line calculations via the Internet.

  6. Using repeat electrical resistivity surveys to assess heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics under contrasting vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Bradford, John; Soulsby, Chris

    2018-04-01

    As the relationship between vegetation and soil moisture is complex and reciprocal, there is a need to understand how spatial patterns in soil moisture influence the distribution of vegetation, and how the structure of vegetation canopies and root networks regulates the partitioning of precipitation. Spatial patterns of soil moisture are often difficult to visualise as usually, soil moisture is measured at point scales, and often difficult to extrapolate. Here, we address the difficulties in collecting large amounts of spatial soil moisture data through a study combining plot- and transect-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys to estimate soil moisture in a 3.2 km2 upland catchment in the Scottish Highlands. The aim was to assess the spatio-temporal variability in soil moisture under Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) and heather moorland shrubs (Calluna vulgaris); the two dominant vegetation types in the Scottish Highlands. The study focussed on one year of fortnightly ERT surveys. The surveyed resistivity data was inverted and Archie's law was used to calculate volumetric soil moisture by estimating parameters and comparing against field measured data. Results showed that spatial soil moisture patterns were more heterogeneous in the forest site, as were patterns of wetting and drying, which can be linked to vegetation distribution and canopy structure. The heather site showed a less heterogeneous response to wetting and drying, reflecting the more uniform vegetation cover of the shrubs. Comparing soil moisture temporal variability during growing and non-growing seasons revealed further contrasts: under the heather there was little change in soil moisture during the growing season. Greatest changes in the forest were in areas where the trees were concentrated reflecting water uptake and canopy partitioning. Such differences have implications for climate and land use changes; increased forest cover can lead to greater spatial variability, greater

  7. Adaptive geostatistical sampling enables efficient identification of malaria hotspots in repeated cross-sectional surveys in rural Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinune N Kabaghe

    Full Text Available In the context of malaria elimination, interventions will need to target high burden areas to further reduce transmission. Current tools to monitor and report disease burden lack the capacity to continuously detect fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of disease distribution exhibited by malaria. These tools use random sampling techniques that are inefficient for capturing underlying heterogeneity while health facility data in resource-limited settings are inaccurate. Continuous community surveys of malaria burden provide real-time results of local spatio-temporal variation. Adaptive geostatistical design (AGD improves prediction of outcome of interest compared to current random sampling techniques. We present findings of continuous malaria prevalence surveys using an adaptive sampling design.We conducted repeated cross sectional surveys guided by an adaptive sampling design to monitor the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in children below five years old in the communities living around Majete Wildlife Reserve in Chikwawa district, Southern Malawi. AGD sampling uses previously collected data to sample new locations of high prediction variance or, where prediction exceeds a set threshold. We fitted a geostatistical model to predict malaria prevalence in the area.We conducted five rounds of sampling, and tested 876 children aged 6-59 months from 1377 households over a 12-month period. Malaria prevalence prediction maps showed spatial heterogeneity and presence of hotspots-where predicted malaria prevalence was above 30%; predictors of malaria included age, socio-economic status and ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets.Continuous malaria prevalence surveys using adaptive sampling increased malaria prevalence prediction accuracy. Results from the surveys were readily available after data collection. The tool can assist local managers to target malaria control interventions in areas with the greatest health impact and is

  8. Increasing prevalence of asthma, respiratory symptoms, and allergic diseases: Four repeated surveys from 1993-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek, Grzegorz; Lawson, Joshua; Szumilas, Dawid; Zejda, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Published data shows different prevalence trends depending on the region of Europe. The aim of the study was to analyze time trends of the frequency of the respiratory symptoms and allergic diseases in school children (Silesia, Poland) over the last 21 years. We compared the results of four population-based surveys performed in a town of Chorzow in 1993, 2002, 2007 and 2014 in children aged 7-10 years. All four studies had the same study protocol, recruitment (cluster, school-based sampling), questionnaire (WHO respiratory health questionnaire) and the same principal investigator The surveys included 1130 children in 1993, 1421 children in 2002, 1661 children in 2007 and 1698 in 2014. The results covered a 21 year span and showed a statistically significant (p increase in the prevalence of the following physician-diagnosed disorders (1993-2002-2007-2014): asthma (3.4%-4.8%-8.6%-12,6%); allergic rhinitis (4.3%-11.9%-15.9%-13.9%); atopic dermatitis (3.6%-7.9%-12.0%-13.9%); allergic conjunctivitis (4.3%-7.9%-8.3%-7.9%); A simultaneous increasing trend (p increased proportion of treated children (51.3%-51.3%-69.5%-60.7%) and a lower frequency of presenting current symptoms. Our findings are in line with the concept of a real increase in the occurrence of asthma and allergic disease in children. The pattern involves not only physician-diagnosed allergic diseases but also occurrence of symptoms related to respiratory disorders. Diagnosed asthma is better treated and better controlled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. We identified SSRs in the Laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. We also compared the abundance and distribution of SSRs in L. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coprinopsis cinerea, Ustilago maydis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe grisea, Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the MISA computer program, we detected 277,062 SSRs in the L. bicolor genome representing 8% of the assembled genomic sequence. Among the analyzed basidiomycetes, L. bicolor exhibited the highest SSR density although no correlation between relative abundance and the genome sizes was observed. In most genomes the short motifs (mono- to trinucleotides) were more abundant than the longer repeated SSRs. Generally, in each organism, the occurrence, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the repeat unit increased. Furthermore, each organism had its own common and longest SSRs. In the L. bicolor genome, most of the SSRs were located in intergenic regions (73.3%) and the highest SSR density was observed in transposable elements (TEs; 6,706 SSRs/Mb). However, 81% of the protein-coding genes contained SSRs in their exons, suggesting that SSR polymorphism may alter gene phenotypes. Within a L. bicolor offspring, sequence polymorphism of 78 SSRs was mainly detected in non-TE intergenic regions. Unlike previously developed microsatellite markers, these new ones are spread throughout the genome; these markers could have immediate applications in population genetics.

  10. Repeated 24-hour recalls versus dietary records for estimating nutrient intakes in a national food consumption survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem De Keyzer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The methodology used in the first Belgian food consumption survey followed to a large extent the instructions of the European Food Consumption (EFCOSUM reports, where repeated 24-hour recalls (24HR using EPIC-SOFT were recommended.To evaluate the relative validity of two non-consecutive 24HR using EPIC-SOFT by comparison with 5-day estimated dietary records (EDR. To assess misreporting in energy for both methods by comparing energy intake with energy expenditure from accelerometery in a subsample.A total of 175 subjects (aged 15 and over were recruited to participate in the study. Repeated 24HR were performed with an interval of 2–8 weeks. After completion of the second interview, subjects were instructed to keep an EDR. Dietary intakes were adjusted for within-person variability to reflect usual intakes. A Student's t-test was calculated to assess differences between both methods. Spearman and Kappa correlation coefficients were used to investigate agreement.In total, 127 subjects completed the required repeated 24HR, as well as the five record days. From 76 participants, accelerometer data were available. In both methods, about 35% of participants had ratios of Energy Intake/Total Energy Expenditure (EI/TEE above or below 95% confidence intervals for EI/TEE, suggesting misreporting of energy. Significant differences between the two dietary intake methods were found for total energy, total fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, alcohol, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and iron. In general, intakes from 24HR were higher compared to EDR. Correlation coefficients for all nutrients ranged from 0.16 for thiamine to 0.70 for water.The results from this study show that in the context of nutritional surveillance, duplicate 24HR can be used to asses intakes of protein, carbohydrates, starch, sugar, water, potassium and calcium.

  11. Sexual and contraceptive behavior among female university students in Sweden - repeated surveys over a 25-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhammar, Christina; Ehrsson, Ylva Tiblom; Åkerud, Helena; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja

    2015-03-01

    To study female students' sexual and contraceptive behavior and compare these results with earlier surveys. Comparative, repeated cross-sectional surveys, started in 1989 and repeated every fifth year. Contraceptive counseling delivered at a Student Health Center in Sweden. Female university students (n = 359). Multiple-choice waiting-room questionnaire. Sexual and contraceptive behavior. In 1989, age at first intercourse was 17.6 years vs. 16.7 years in 2014, number of lifetime sexual partners was 4.0 vs. 12.1 in 2014, and number of sexual partners during the previous 12 months was 1.0 vs. 2.8 in 2014. Condom use during first intercourse with the latest partner decreased from 49% to 41% (n = 172 in 2009 vs. n = 148 in 2014: p used a condom during anal sex. A total of 70% (n = 251) made use of pornography, and 48% (n = 121) considered their sexual behavior affected by pornography. Eighty-nine percent (n = 291) wanted two to three children and 9% (n = 33) had thought about freezing eggs for the future. The female students' knowledge about increasing age being correlated with decreased fertility varied. Sexual behavior among female university students has gradually changed during the last 25 years and behavior appears more risky today. As this may have consequences on future reproductive health, it is vital to inform women about consistent and correct condom use and about the limitations of the fertile window. © 2015 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  12. Risk Profiles for Endometriosis in Japanese Women: Results From a Repeated Survey of Self-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Nagai, Kazue; Mizunuma, Hideki; Kubota, Toshiro; Lee, Jung-Su; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and risk factors for endometriosis may differ according to diagnosis methodologies, such as study populations and diagnostic accuracy. We examined risk profiles in imaging-diagnosed endometriosis with and without surgical confirmation in a large population of Japanese women, as well as the differences in risk profiles of endometriosis based on history of infertility. Methods Questionnaires that included items on sites of endometriosis determined by imaging techniques and surgical procedure were mailed to 1025 women who self-reported endometriosis in a baseline survey of the Japan Nurses’ Health Study (n = 15 019). Results Two hundred and ten women had surgically confirmed endometriosis (Group A), 120 had imaging-diagnosed endometriosis without a surgical procedure (Group B), and 264 had adenomyosis (Group C). A short menstrual cycle at 18–22 years of age and cigarette smoking at 30 years of age were associated with significantly increased risk of endometriosis (Group A plus Group B), while older age was associated with risk of adenomyosis (Group C). In women with a history of infertility, a short menstrual cycle was associated with a significantly increased risk of endometriosis in both Group A and Group B, but risk profiles of endometriosis were different between Group A and Group B in women without a history of infertility. Conclusions Women with surgically confirmed endometriosis and those with imaging-diagnosed endometriosis without surgery have basically common risk profiles, but these risk profiles are different from those with adenomyosis. The presence of a history of infertility should be taken into consideration for evaluation of risk profiles. PMID:25716280

  13. Elevation Change of Drangajokull, Iceland, from Cloud-Cleared ICESat Repeat Profiles and GPS Ground-Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Christopher A.; Sigurdsson, Oddur; Williams, Richard, Jr.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    Located on the Vestfirdir Northwest Fjords), DrangaJokull is the northernmost ice map in Iceland. Currently, the ice cap exceeds 900 m in elevation and covered an area of approx.l46 sq km in August 2004. It was about 204 sq km in area during 1913-1914 and so has lost mass during the 20th century. Drangajokull's size and accessibility for GPS surveys as well as the availability of repeat satellite altimetry profiles since late 2003 make it a good subject for change-detection analysis. The ice cap was surveyed by four GPS-equipped snowmobiles on 19-20 April 2005 and has been profiled in two places by Ice, Cloud. and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) 'repeat tracks,' fifteen times from late to early 2009. In addition, traditional mass-balance measurements have been taken seasonally at a number of locations across the ice cap and they show positive net mass balances in 2004/2005 through 2006/2007. Mean elevation differences between the temporally-closest ICESat profiles and the GPS-derived digital-elevation model (DEM)(ICESat - DEM) are about 1.1 m but have standard deviations of 3 to 4 m. Differencing all ICESat repeats from the DEM shows that the overall elevation difference trend since 2003 is negative with losses of as much as 1.5 m/a from same season to same season (and similar elevation) data subsets. However, the mass balance assessments by traditional stake re-measurement methods suggest that the elevation changes where ICESat tracks 0046 and 0307 cross Drangajokull are not representative of the whole ice cap. Specifically, the area has experienced positive mass balance years during the time frame when ICESat data indicates substantial losses. This analysis suggests that ICESat-derived elevations may be used for multi-year change detection relative to other data but suggests that large uncertainties remain. These uncertainties may be due to geolocation uncertainty on steep slopes and continuing cloud cover that limits temporal and spatial coverage across the

  14. Topographic lidar survey of Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana, July 12-14, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    This Data Series Report contains lidar elevation data collected on July 12 and 14, 2013, for Dauphin Island, Alabama, and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana. Classified point cloud data—data points described in three dimensions—in lidar data exchange format (LAS) and bare earth digital elevation models (DEMs) in ERDAS Imagine raster format (IMG) are available as downloadable files. Photo Science, Inc., was contracted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to collect and process these data. The lidar data were acquired at a horizontal spacing (or nominal pulse spacing) of 1 meter (m) or less. The USGS surveyed points within the project area from July 14–23, 2013, for use in ground control and accuracy assessment. Photo Science, Inc., calculated a vertical root mean square error (RMSEz) of 0.012 m by comparing 10 surveyed points to an interpolated elevation surface of unclassified lidar data. The USGS also checked the data using 80 surveyed points and unclassified lidar point elevation data and found an RMSEz of 0.073 m. The project specified an RMSEz of 0.0925 m or less. The lidar survey was acquired to document the short- and long-term changes of several different barrier island systems. Specifically, this survey supports detailed studies of Chandeleur and Dauphin Islands that resolve annual changes in beaches, berms and dunes associated with processes driven by storms, sea-level rise, and even human restoration activities. These lidar data are available to Federal, State and local governments, emergency-response officials, resource managers, and the general public.

  15. Topographic processing in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    deficit in visual processing or visual short-term memory. Interestingly, a classical dissociation could be demonstrated between impaired face memory and preserved topographic memory in two developmental prosopagnosics. We conclude that impairments in topographic memory tend to co-occur with developmental......Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia. To address this formally, we tested two aspects of topographic processing – that is, perception and memory of mountain landscapes shown from different viewpoints. Participants...

  16. Ontology patterns for complex topographic feature yypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2011-01-01

    Complex feature types are defined as integrated relations between basic features for a shared meaning or concept. The shared semantic concept is difficult to define in commonly used geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies. The role of spatial relations between complex feature parts was recognized in early GIS literature, but had limited representation in the feature or coverage data models of GIS. Spatial relations are more explicitly specified in semantic technology. In this paper, semantics for topographic feature ontology design patterns (ODP) are developed as data models for the representation of complex features. In the context of topographic processes, component assemblages are supported by resource systems and are found on local landscapes. The topographic ontology is organized across six thematic modules that can account for basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Types of complex feature attributes include location, generative processes and physical description. Node/edge networks model standard spatial relations and relations specific to topographic science to represent complex features. To demonstrate these concepts, data from The National Map of the U. S. Geological Survey was converted and assembled into ODP.

  17. Volcanic and Hydrothermal Activity of the North Su Volcano: New Insights from Repeated Bathymetric Surveys and ROV Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, J.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.; Yoerger, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bathymetric data from cruises in 2002, 2006, and 2011 were combined and compared to determine the evolution of volcanic activity, seafloor structures, erosional features and to identify and document the distribution of hydrothermal vents on North Su volcano, SuSu Knolls, eastern Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 (WHOI Jason-2) and 2011 (MARUM Quest-4000) combined with repeated bathymetric surveys from 2002 and 2011 are used to identify morphologic features on the slopes of North Su and to track temporal changes. ROV MARUM Quest-4000 bathymetry was used to develop a 10 m grid of the top of North Su to precisely depict recent changes. In 2006, the south slope of North Su was steeply sloped and featured numerous white smoker vents discharging acid sulfate waters. These vents were covered by several tens of meters of sand- to gravel-sized volcanic material in 2011. The growth of this new cone changed the bathymetry of the south flank of North Su up to ~50 m and emplaced ~0.014 km3 of clastic volcanic material. This material is primarily comprised of fractured altered dacite and massive fresh dacite as well as crystals of opx, cpx, olivine and plagioclase. There is no evidence for pyroclastic fragmentation, so we hypothesize that the fragmentation is likely related to hydrothermal explosions. Hydrothermal activity varies over a short (~50 m) lateral distance from 'flashing' black smokers to acidic white smoker vents. Within 2 weeks of observation time in 2011, the white smoker vents varied markedly in activity suggesting a highly episodic hydrothermal system. Based on ROV video recordings, we identified steeply sloping (up to 30°) slopes exposing pillars and walls of hydrothermal cemented volcaniclastic material representing former fluid upflow zones. These features show that hydrothermal activity has increased slope stability as hydrothermal cementation has prevented slope collapse. Additionally, in some places

  18. Modelling of Singapore's topographic transformation based on DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Belle, Iris; Hassler, Uta

    2015-02-01

    Singapore's topography has been heavily transformed by industrialization and urbanization processes. To investigate topographic changes and evaluate soil mass flows, historical topographic maps of 1924 and 2012 were employed, and basic topographic features were vectorized. Digital elevation models (DEMs) for the two years were reconstructed based on vector features. Corresponding slope maps, a surface difference map and a scatter plot of elevation changes were generated and used to quantify and categorize the nature of the topographic transformation. The surface difference map is aggregated into five main categories of changes: (1) areas without significant height changes, (2) lowered-down areas where hill ranges were cut down, (3) raised-up areas where valleys and swamps were filled in, (4) reclaimed areas from the sea, and (5) new water-covered areas. Considering spatial proximity and configurations of different types of changes, topographic transformation can be differentiated as either creating inland flat areas or reclaiming new land from the sea. Typical topographic changes are discussed in the context of Singapore's urbanization processes. The two slope maps and elevation histograms show that generally, the topographic surface of Singapore has become flatter and lower since 1924. More than 89% of height changes have happened within a range of 20 m and 95% have been below 40 m. Because of differences in land surveying and map drawing methods, uncertainties and inaccuracies inherent in the 1924 topographic maps are discussed in detail. In this work, a modified version of a traditional scatter plot is used to present height transformation patterns intuitively. This method of deriving categorical maps of topographical changes from a surface difference map can be used in similar studies to qualitatively interpret transformation. Slope maps and histograms were also used jointly to reveal additional patterns of topographic change.

  19. Topographic Effects in Geoid Determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars E. Sjöberg

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, geoid determination is applied by Stokes’ formula with gravity anomalies after removal of the attraction of the topography by a simple or refined Bouguer correction, and restoration of topography by the primary indirect topographic effect (PITE after integration. This technique leads to an error of the order of the quasigeoid-to-geoid separation, which is mainly due to an incomplete downward continuation of gravity from the surface to the geoid. Alternatively, one may start from the modern surface gravity anomaly and apply the direct topographic effect on the anomaly, yielding the no-topography gravity anomaly. After downward continuation of this anomaly to sea-level and Stokes integration, a theoretically correct geoid height is obtained after the restoration of the topography by the PITE. The difference between the Bouguer and no-topography gravity anomalies (on the geoid or in space is the “secondary indirect topographic effect”, which is a necessary correction in removing all topographic signals. In modern applications of an Earth gravitational model (EGM in geoid determination a topographic correction is also needed in continental regions. Without the correction the error can range to a few metres in the highest mountains. The remove-compute-restore and Royal Institute of Technology (KTH techniques for geoid determinations usually employ a combination of Stokes’ formula and an EGM. Both techniques require direct and indirect topographic corrections, but in the latter method these corrections are merged as a combined topographic effect on the geoid height. Finally, we consider that any uncertainty in the topographic density distribution leads to the same error in gravimetric and geometric geoid estimates, deteriorating GNSS-levelling as a tool for validating the topographic mass distribution correction in a gravimetric geoid model.

  20. Longitudinal survey of Staphylococcus aureus in cystic fibrosis patients using a multiple-locus variable-number of tandem-repeats analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnaud Gilles; Moissenet Didier; Corvol Harriet; Fauroux Brigitte; Corbineau Gaëlle; Hormigos Katia; Vu-Thien Hoang; Pourcel Christine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is frequent and may be due to colonization by a few pathogenic lineages. Systematic genotyping of all isolates, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is necessary to identify such lineages and follow their evolution in patients. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA/VNTR) was used to survey S. aureus clinical isolates in a French ...

  1. History of the topographic branch (division)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard T.; Frye, Helen M.

    2009-01-01

    the Pacific Coast. These expeditions were sent out by the War Department and were in charge of Army officers. It is interesting to note that such generals as George G. Meade, J.C. Fremont, Joseph E. Johnston, W.F. Smith, John Pope, A.W. Whipple, J.G. Parke, G.K. Warren, and H.L. Abbott, all officers of the Corps of Topographic Engineers, had charge of expeditions and were among our earliest map makers. Unfortunately, the data obtained by these editions were not of sufficient accuracy to serve as a basis for topographic maps of value other than in illustrating their voluminous reports. During this early period, numerous surveys were undertaken within the original Thirteen States, by the Federal government and by the States. The most important were those carried on by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, which made an accurate survey of the Atlantic Coastline and established a triangulation system that was of so high a standard as to constitute the first and only accurate data for topographic mapping obtained before the Civil War. The Coast and Geodetic Survey, while charting the coast and rivers, also mapped a strip of country extending a few miles inland, the relief being shown by means of hachures, together with contour lines, until 1846 when the first government topographic map on which the relief was shown by contours alone was made, covering an area in the vicinity of Boston Harbor. In 1835, however, the Geological and Topographical Survey of Maryland had issued a map on which the relief was shown by contours, and this is believed to be the first contoured map issued in this country. The outbreak of the Civil War stopped all mapping activities other than those needed by the U.S. Army. During the war, topographic surveys were carried on throughout the war zone under the supervision of the Corps of Engineers, the topographers being civilian employees. After the war, the country west of the Mississippi again became the center of the mapping activities

  2. Topographical ability in Developmental Prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klargaard, Solja; Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    and topographical short-term memory (2 sec delay). The stimulus material consisted of computer-generated mountain landscapes shown from seven different viewpoints. In comparison with controls, the individuals with DP had no difficulty in perceiving the spatial aspects of the landscapes, but some were impaired...... in the short-term retention of these mountain landscapes. No systematic relationship (correlation) was found between recognition memory for faces and landscapes. Indeed, three cases with DP showed a statistically significant classical dissociation between these domains. Additional testing revealed...... that the deficit in topographical memory did not relate systematically to impaired visual short-term memory or recognition of more complex material. In conclusion, some individuals with DP show subtle deficits in topographical memory. Importantly, the deficits in topographical memory and face recognition do...

  3. 2013 NOAA Oahu Topographic Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oahu, Hawaii Elevation Data Task Order involves collecting and delivering topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and...

  4. U.S. Topographic Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — isotop.bin - topographic data for conterminous U.S. projected on an 8 km grid. Projection is Albers, central meridian = 96 degrees West, base latitude = 0 degrees...

  5. a Standardized Approach to Topographic Data Processing and Workflow Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, J. M.; Bailey, P.; Glenn, N. F.; Hensleigh, J.; Hudak, A. T.; Shrestha, R.; Spaete, L.

    2013-12-01

    An ever-increasing list of options exist for collecting high resolution topographic data, including airborne LIDAR, terrestrial laser scanners, bathymetric SONAR and structure-from-motion. An equally rich, arguably overwhelming, variety of tools exists with which to organize, quality control, filter, analyze and summarize these data. However, scientists are often left to cobble together their analysis as a series of ad hoc steps, often using custom scripts and one-time processes that are poorly documented and rarely shared with the community. Even when literature-cited software tools are used, the input and output parameters differ from tool to tool. These parameters are rarely archived and the steps performed lost, making the analysis virtually impossible to replicate precisely. What is missing is a coherent, robust, framework for combining reliable, well-documented topographic data-processing steps into a workflow that can be repeated and even shared with others. We have taken several popular topographic data processing tools - including point cloud filtering and decimation as well as DEM differencing - and defined a common protocol for passing inputs and outputs between them. This presentation describes a free, public online portal that enables scientists to create custom workflows for processing topographic data using a number of popular topographic processing tools. Users provide the inputs required for each tool and in what sequence they want to combine them. This information is then stored for future reuse (and optionally sharing with others) before the user then downloads a single package that contains all the input and output specifications together with the software tools themselves. The user then launches the included batch file that executes the workflow on their local computer against their topographic data. This ZCloudTools architecture helps standardize, automate and archive topographic data processing. It also represents a forum for discovering and

  6. Global repeat discovery and estimation of genomic copy number in a large, complex genome using a high-throughput 454 sequence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varala Kranthi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive computational and database tools are available to mine genomic and genetic databases for model organisms, but little genomic data is available for many species of ecological or agricultural significance, especially those with large genomes. Genome surveys using conventional sequencing techniques are powerful, particularly for detecting sequences present in many copies per genome. However these methods are time-consuming and have potential drawbacks. High throughput 454 sequencing provides an alternative method by which much information can be gained quickly and cheaply from high-coverage surveys of genomic DNA. Results We sequenced 78 million base-pairs of randomly sheared soybean DNA which passed our quality criteria. Computational analysis of the survey sequences provided global information on the abundant repetitive sequences in soybean. The sequence was used to determine the copy number across regions of large genomic clones or contigs and discover higher-order structures within satellite repeats. We have created an annotated, online database of sequences present in multiple copies in the soybean genome. The low bias of pyrosequencing against repeat sequences is demonstrated by the overall composition of the survey data, which matches well with past estimates of repetitive DNA content obtained by DNA re-association kinetics (Cot analysis. Conclusion This approach provides a potential aid to conventional or shotgun genome assembly, by allowing rapid assessment of copy number in any clone or clone-end sequence. In addition, we show that partial sequencing can provide access to partial protein-coding sequences.

  7. Seafloor Topographic Analysis in Staged Ocean Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M.; Okawa, M.; Osawa, K.; Kadoshima, K.; Asakawa, E.; Sumi, T.

    2017-12-01

    J-MARES (Research and Development Partnership for Next Generation Technology of Marine Resources Survey, JAPAN) has been designing a low-expense and high-efficiency exploration system for seafloor hydrothermal massive sulfide deposits in "Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP)" granted by the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan since 2014. We designed a method to focus mineral deposit prospective area in multi-stages (the regional survey, semi-detail survey and detail survey) by extracted topographic features of some well-known seafloor massive sulfide deposits from seafloor topographic analysis using seafloor topographic data acquired by the bathymetric survey. We applied this procedure to an area of interest more than 100km x 100km over Okinawa Trough, including some known seafloor massive sulfide deposits. In Addition, we tried to create a three-dimensional model of seafloor topography by SfM (Structure from Motion) technique using multiple image data of Chimney distributed around well-known seafloor massive sulfide deposit taken with Hi-Vision camera mounted on ROV in detail survey such as geophysical exploration. Topographic features of Chimney was extracted by measuring created three-dimensional model. As the result, it was possible to estimate shape of seafloor sulfide such as Chimney to be mined by three-dimensional model created from image data taken with camera mounted on ROV. In this presentation, we will discuss about focusing mineral deposit prospective area in multi-stages by seafloor topographic analysis using seafloor topographic data in exploration system for seafloor massive sulfide deposit and also discuss about three-dimensional model of seafloor topography created from seafloor image data taken with ROV.

  8. Mapping snow depth in complex alpine terrain with close range aerial imagery - estimating the spatial uncertainties of repeat autonomous aerial surveys over an active rock glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Jason; Marcer, Marco; Bodin, Xavier; Brenning, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Snow depth mapping in open areas using close range aerial imagery is just one of the many cases where developments in structure-from-motion and multi-view-stereo (SfM-MVS) 3D reconstruction techniques have been applied for geosciences - and with good reason. Our ability to increase the spatial resolution and frequency of observations may allow us to improve our understanding of how snow depth distribution varies through space and time. However, to ensure accurate snow depth observations from close range sensing we must adequately characterize the uncertainty related to our measurement techniques. In this study, we explore the spatial uncertainties of snow elevation models for estimation of snow depth in a complex alpine terrain from close range aerial imagery. We accomplish this by conducting repeat autonomous aerial surveys over a snow-covered active-rock glacier located in the French Alps. The imagery obtained from each flight of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is used to create an individual digital elevation model (DEM) of the snow surface. As result, we obtain multiple DEMs of the snow surface for the same site. These DEMs are obtained from processing the imagery with the photogrammetry software Agisoft Photoscan. The elevation models are also georeferenced within Photoscan using the geotagged imagery from an onboard GNSS in combination with ground targets placed around the rock glacier, which have been surveyed with highly accurate RTK-GNSS equipment. The random error associated with multi-temporal DEMs of the snow surface is estimated from the repeat aerial survey data. The multiple flights are designed to follow the same flight path and altitude above the ground to simulate the optimal conditions of repeat survey of the site, and thus try to estimate the maximum precision associated with our snow-elevation measurement technique. The bias of the DEMs is assessed with RTK-GNSS survey observations of the snow surface elevation of the area on and surrounding

  9. Repeat survey of current practice regarding corticosteroid prophylaxis for patients at increased risk of adverse reaction to intravascular contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, S. [Department of Radiology, Wishaw General Hospital, Lanarkshire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, 50, Netherton Street, Wishaw, Lanarkshire ML2 0DP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sureshradhakrish@hotmail.com; Manoharan, S. [Department of Radiology, Wishaw General Hospital, Lanarkshire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, 50, Netherton Street, Wishaw, Lanarkshire ML2 0DP (United Kingdom); Fleet, M. [Department of Radiology, Wishaw General Hospital, Lanarkshire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, 50, Netherton Street, Wishaw, Lanarkshire ML2 0DP (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the findings of a survey undertaken by us in 2002 regarding steroid premedication given in radiology departments to reduce the risk of adverse reactions in patients at increased risk of intravascular contrast media reactions with a similar survey published in 1994 by R. Seymour et al. The high risk patients considered in our survey were patients with history of asthma, drug allergies, hay fever and eczema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 225 questionnaires were sent to the consultant in charge for audit for radiology departments from the list given by the Royal College of Radiologists. 175 of the 225 questionnaires were returned (response rate 77.8%) and of these 172 were analysed with respect to the type, dose and duration of steroids. RESULTS: Compared to the survey in 1994, it was found that the number of departments who use steroid cover for all category of risk factors had increased compared to previous survey (73.8% in 2002 versus 55.3% in 1994 (p=0.001). There is now almost universal use of non-ionic contrast 98.8% versus 82.4% in 1994 (p=0.001). There is no agreed policy among radiology departments for the need or the dose or duration of steroid cover. CONCLUSION: Despite the more widespread use of non-ionic contrast media, the use of steroid premedication has increased which is contrary to what is expected as the incidence of adverse reaction to non ionic media is less than ionic contrast media.

  10. Adverse Health Effects Associated with Increased Activity at Kīlauea Volcano: A Repeated Population-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Bernadette M.

    2013-01-01

    Eruptive activity at the Kīlauea volcano (Hawai`i, USA) has increased since 2008 resulting in volcanic air pollution (vog) at levels exceeding the national air quality standard for sulfur dioxide. Previous investigations during lower vog levels found adverse cardiorespiratory effects in the residents. The purpose of this 2012 survey was to reassess and compare the impact of the increased volcanic activity on population health. Prevalence of cardiorespiratory signs, symptoms, and diseases was ...

  11. HIV Futures 8: Protocol for a Repeated Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Survey of People Living with HIV in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Jennifer; Brown, Graham; Lyons, Anthony; Thorpe, Rachel; Dowsett, Gary W.; Lucke, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction More than 27,000 Australians currently live with HIV. Most of these people have access to quality clinical care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can expect good general health. However, HIV-related stigma is a problem and many people living with HIV experience poorer than average mental health. Issues of aging are also of increasing concern. This paper describes the methods and sample for the HIV Futures 8 study, a national survey of people living with HIV in Australia that...

  12. VT 100K DRG USGS Topographic Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Vermont Topographic Maps dataset (TOPOVT100K) is a raster image of a scanned USGS 1:100,000 scale topographic map excluding the collar...

  13. US Topo: topographic maps for the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    US Topo is the next generation of topographic maps from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Arranged in the familiar 7.5-minute quadrangle format, digital US Topo maps are designed to look and feel (and perform) like the traditional paper topographic maps for which the USGS is so well known. In contrast to paper-based maps, US Topo maps provide modern technical advantages that support faster, wider public distribution and enable basic, on-screen geographic analysis for all users. The US Topo quadrangle map has been redesigned so that map elements are visually distinguishable with the imagery turned on and off, while keeping the file size as small as possible. The US Topo map redesign includes improvements to various display factors, including symbol definitions (color, line thickness, line symbology, area fills), layer order, and annotation fonts. New features for 2013 include the following: a raster shaded relief layer, military boundaries, cemeteries and post offices, and a US Topo cartographic symbols legend as an attachment. US Topo quadrangle maps are available free on the Web. Each map quadrangle is constructed in GeoPDF® format using key layers of geographic data (orthoimagery, roads, geographic names, topographic contours, and hydrographic features) from The National Map databases. US Topo quadrangle maps can be printed from personal computers or plotters as complete, full-sized, maps or in customized sections, in a user-desired specific format. Paper copies of the maps can also be purchased from the USGS Store. Download links and a users guide are featured on the US Topo Web site. US Topo users can turn geographic data layers on and off as needed; they can zoom in and out to highlight specific features or see a broader area. File size for each digital 7.5-minute quadrangle, about 30 megabytes. Associated electronic tools for geographic analysis are available free for download. The US Topo provides the Nation with a topographic product that users can

  14. A prospective survey on the incidence of chest malignancies after repeated fluoroscopy during artificial pneumothorax therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitabatake, Takashi; Kurokawa, Shigeki; Yamasaki, Michio; Sato, Toshiro; Kurokawa, Hisae

    1975-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated in 4 sanatoria in Niigata Prefecture between 1941 and 1961 were followed up by a mail questionnaire. Of 2756 patients, 1193 responded and sent back effective information, letters to 1224 were returned because of uncertain or unknown new address, 326 did not respond, and 13 were excluded because of incomplete answers. Out of the 1193 effective responders, 568 had been treated by artificial pneumothorax (the pneumothorax group), and 552 had not been treated by pneumothorax (the control group). There were 65 deaths in the pneumothorax group, but none of them were from chest malignancies; and 40 deaths in the control group with 4 from chest malignancies. In this survey, there was no evidence of an increased number of chest malignancies (including leukemia) after pneumothorax fluoroscopy. (auth.)

  15. Prospective survey on the incidence of chest malignancies after repeated fluoroscopy during artificial pneumothorax therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitabatake, T; Kurokawa, S; Yamasaki, M; Sato, T; Kurokawa, H [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-10-01

    Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated in 4 sanatoria in Niigata Prefecture between 1941 and 1961 were followed up by a mail questionnaire. Of 2756 patients, 1193 responded and sent back effective information, letters to 1224 were returned because of uncertain or unknown new address, 326 did not respond, and 13 were excluded because of incomplete answers. Out of the 1193 effective responders, 568 had been treated by artificial pneumothorax (the pneumothorax group), and 552 had not been treated by pneumothorax (the control group). There were 65 deaths in the pneumothorax group, but none of them were from chest malignancies; and 40 deaths in the control group with 4 from chest malignancies. In this survey, there was no evidence of an increased number of chest malignancies (including leukemia) after pneumothorax fluoroscopy.

  16. Topographic Beta Spiral and Onshore Intrusion of the Kuroshio Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-Zhou; Huang, Rui Xin; Yin, Bao-shu; Feng, Xing-Ru; Chen, Hai-ying; Qi, Ji-Feng; Xu, Ling-jing; Shi, Yun-long; Cui, Xuan; Gao, Guan-Dong; Benthuysen, Jessica A.

    2018-01-01

    The Kuroshio intrusion plays a vitally important role in carrying nutrients to marginal seas. However, the key mechanism leading to the Kuroshio intrusion remains unclear. In this study we postulate a mechanism: when the Kuroshio runs onto steep topography northeast of Taiwan, the strong inertia gives rise to upwelling over topography, leading to a left-hand spiral in the stratified ocean. This is called the topographic beta spiral, which is a major player regulating the Kuroshio intrusion; this spiral can be inferred from hydrographic surveys. In the world oceans, the topographic beta spirals can be induced by upwelling generated by strong currents running onto steep topography. This is a vital mechanism regulating onshore intruding flow and the cross-shelf transport of energy and nutrients from the Kuroshio Current to the East China Sea. This topographic beta spiral reveals a long-term missing link between the oceanic general circulation theory and shelf dynamic theory.

  17. Assessing malaria control in the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana through repeated surveys using the RBM tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjuik Martin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of Roll Back Malaria (RBM is to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality by 50% by the year 2010, and still further thereafter until the disease becomes no more a threat to public health. To contribute to the monitoring and evaluation process of this goal, two surveys were carried out in 2000 and 2003 in households and health facilities in the Kassena-Nankana district, northern Ghana using the RBM-WHO/AFRO monitoring and evaluation tools for malaria control activities. Methods Data were collected from mothers/caretakers on signs/symptoms of the most recent malaria attack for their under five year old children; the management actions that they took and their perception of health services provided at the health facilities, bednet use, antenatal attendance and place of delivery for the most recent pregnancy, malaria prophylaxis during their last pregnancy. Community health workers and herbalist/traditional healers were also interviewed about the types of health services they provide to community members. Results The results revealed a significant improvement in knowledge among mothers/caretakers over the three-year period; this affected caretakers' initial management of illnesses of their young children. The management in terms of the type and dosage of drugs used also improved significantly (p The intensification of malaria control activities and awareness creation in this district over a three year period had started demonstrating positive results towards reducing malaria disease burden. Conclusion Periodic performance assessments through surveys as described and prompt feedback of results to stakeholders in the locality serves as a catalyst to improving malaria control in malaria-endemic countries.

  18. [Computer optical topography: a study of the repeatability of the results of human body model examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnadskiĭ, V N

    2007-01-01

    The problem of repeatability of the results of examination of a plastic human body model is considered. The model was examined in 7 positions using an optical topograph for kyphosis diagnosis. The examination was performed under television camera monitoring. It was shown that variation of the model position in the camera view affected the repeatability of the results of topographic examination, especially if the model-to-camera distance was changed. A study of the repeatability of the results of optical topographic examination can help to increase the reliability of the topographic method, which is widely used for medical screening of children and adolescents.

  19. Seamount ecology and dynamics: A multidisciplinary data set from repeated surveys at different seamounts in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean (2003 - 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, C.; Christiansen, B.; Denda, A.; George, K. H.; Kaufmann, M.; Maranhão, M.; Martin, B.; Metzger, T.; Peine, F.; Schuster, A.; Springer, B.; Stefanowitsch, B.; Turnewitsch, R.; Wehrmann, H.

    2016-02-01

    Seamounts are amongst the most common physiographic open ocean systems, but remoteness and geographic complexity have limited the number of integrated and multidisciplinary seamount surveys in the past. As a consequence, important aspects of seamount ecology and dynamics remain poorly studied. Here we present a multi-parameter data set from individual and repeated seamount surveys conducted at different sites in the Northeast Atlantic and Eastern Mediterranean between 2003 and 2013. The main objective of these surveys was to establish a collection of ecosystem relevant descriptors and to develop a better understanding of seamount ecosystem composition and variability in different dynamical and bio-geographic environments. Measurements were conducted at four seamounts in the Northeast Atlantic (Ampère, Sedlo, Seine, Senghor) and two seamounts in the Eastern Mediterranean (Anaximenes, Eratosthenes). The data set comprises records from a total number of 11 cruises including physical oceanography (temperature, salinity, pressure, currents), biology (phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, benthos) and biogeochemistry (sedimentary particle dynamics, carbon flux). The resulting multi-disciplinary data collection provides a unique opportunity for comparative studies of seamount ecosystem structure and dynamics between different physical, biological and biogeochemical regimes

  20. Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.

  1. Glacier development and topographic context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Moreno, J. I.; Nogués-Bravo, David; Chueca-Cía, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the topographic context of the remaining glaciated areas in the Maladeta Massif (Central Spanish Pyrenees). These ice-covered surfaces have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) in an attempt at correlating the presence of ice with a range of topographic...... and recent evolution of each glacial body. Thus, the joint effect of altitude, exposure to incoming solar radiation, slope and mean curvature is able to explain more than 70 per cent of the observed variance. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....... variables obtained from a digital elevation model. The use of generalized additive models and binary regression tree models enabled us (i) to quantify the spatial variability in the distribution of glaciers attributable to characteristics of the local terrain, (ii) to investigate the interaction between...

  2. Research on Topographic Map Updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Javorović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of interpretability of panchromatic satellite image IRS-1C integrated with multispectral Landsat TM image with the purpose of updating the topographic map sheet at the scale of 1:25 000 has been described. The geocoding of source map was based on trigonometric points of the map sheet. Satellite images were geocoded using control points selected from the map. The contents of map have been vectorized and topographic database designed. The digital image processing improved the interpretability of images. Then, the vectorization of new contents was made. The change detection of the forest and water area was defined by using unsupervised classification of spatial and spectral merged images. Verification of the results was made using corresponding aerial photographs. Although this methodology could not insure the complete updating of topographic map at the scale of 1:25 000, the database has been updated with huge amount of data. Erdas Imagine 8.3. software was used. 

  3. Topographic characterization of glazed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froeberg, Linda; Hupa, Leena

    2008-01-01

    Detailed characterization of surface microstructure, i.e. phase composition and surface geometry, has become an important criterion of glazed ceramics. Topographic characterization is an important parameter in, e.g. estimating the influence of additional films on the average roughness of a surface. Also, the microscaled and nanoscaled roughnesses correlate with the cleanability and the self-cleaning properties of the surfaces. In this work the surface geometry of several matte glazes were described by topography and roughness as given by whitelight confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Different measuring parameters were compared to justify the usefulness of the techniques in giving a comprehensive description of the surface microstructure. The results suggest that confocal microscopy is well suited for giving reliable topographical parameters for matte surfaces with microscaled crystals in the surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was better suited for smooth surfaces or for describing the local topographic parameters of closely limited areas, e.g. the surroundings of separate crystals in the surface

  4. Topographic characterization of glazed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeberg, Linda [Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: lfroberg@abo.fi; Hupa, Leena [Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2008-01-15

    Detailed characterization of surface microstructure, i.e. phase composition and surface geometry, has become an important criterion of glazed ceramics. Topographic characterization is an important parameter in, e.g. estimating the influence of additional films on the average roughness of a surface. Also, the microscaled and nanoscaled roughnesses correlate with the cleanability and the self-cleaning properties of the surfaces. In this work the surface geometry of several matte glazes were described by topography and roughness as given by whitelight confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Different measuring parameters were compared to justify the usefulness of the techniques in giving a comprehensive description of the surface microstructure. The results suggest that confocal microscopy is well suited for giving reliable topographical parameters for matte surfaces with microscaled crystals in the surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was better suited for smooth surfaces or for describing the local topographic parameters of closely limited areas, e.g. the surroundings of separate crystals in the surface.

  5. Location matters: trends in inequalities in child mortality in Indonesia. Evidence from repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Andrew; Firth, Sonja; Marthias, Tiara; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable improvements in life expectancy and other human development indicators in Indonesia are thought to mask considerable disparities between populations in the country. We examine the existence and extent of these disparities by measuring trends and inequalities in the under-five mortality rate and neonatal mortality rate across wealth, education and geography. Using data from seven waves of the Indonesian Demographic and Health Surveys, direct estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were generated for 1980-2011. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured by rate differences and ratios, and where possible, slope and relative indices of inequality. Disparities were assessed by levels of rural/urban location, island groups, maternal education and household wealth. Declines in national rates of under-five and neonatal mortality have accorded with reductions of absolute inequalities in clusters stratified by wealth, maternal education and rural/urban location. Across these groups, relative inequalities have generally stabilised, with possible increases with respect to mortality across wealth subpopulations. Both relative and absolute inequalities in rates of under-five and neonatal mortality stratified by island divisions have widened. Indonesia has made considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, with the largest reductions happening before the Asian financial crisis (1997-98) and decentralisation (2000). Hasty implementation of decentralisation reforms may have contributed to a slowdown in mortality rate reduction thereafter. Widening inequities between the most developed provinces of Java-Bali and those of other island groupings should be of particular concern for a country embarking on an ambitious plan for universal health coverage by 2019. A focus on addressing the key supply side barriers to accessing health care and on the social determinants of health in remote and disadvantaged regions will

  6. Location matters: trends in inequalities in child mortality in Indonesia. Evidence from repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodge

    Full Text Available Considerable improvements in life expectancy and other human development indicators in Indonesia are thought to mask considerable disparities between populations in the country. We examine the existence and extent of these disparities by measuring trends and inequalities in the under-five mortality rate and neonatal mortality rate across wealth, education and geography.Using data from seven waves of the Indonesian Demographic and Health Surveys, direct estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were generated for 1980-2011. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured by rate differences and ratios, and where possible, slope and relative indices of inequality. Disparities were assessed by levels of rural/urban location, island groups, maternal education and household wealth.Declines in national rates of under-five and neonatal mortality have accorded with reductions of absolute inequalities in clusters stratified by wealth, maternal education and rural/urban location. Across these groups, relative inequalities have generally stabilised, with possible increases with respect to mortality across wealth subpopulations. Both relative and absolute inequalities in rates of under-five and neonatal mortality stratified by island divisions have widened.Indonesia has made considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, with the largest reductions happening before the Asian financial crisis (1997-98 and decentralisation (2000. Hasty implementation of decentralisation reforms may have contributed to a slowdown in mortality rate reduction thereafter. Widening inequities between the most developed provinces of Java-Bali and those of other island groupings should be of particular concern for a country embarking on an ambitious plan for universal health coverage by 2019. A focus on addressing the key supply side barriers to accessing health care and on the social determinants of health in remote and

  7. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    evaluating the deployment repeatability builds upon the testing or analysis of deployment kinematics (Chapter 6) and adds repetition. Introduction...material yield or failure during a test. For the purposes of this chapter, zero shift will refer to permanent changes in the structure, while reversible ...the content of other chapters in this book: Gravity Compensation (Chapter 4) and Deployment Kinematics and Dynamics (Chapter 6). Repeating the

  8. High-Resolution Seafloor Observations of an Active Mud Volcano Offshore SW Taiwan - Results of a Repeated Survey after Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H. H.; Chen, T. T.; Liu, C. S.; Su, C. C.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Chen, Y. H.

    2017-12-01

    Mud Volcano V (MV5) is an active submarine mud volcano sitting on top of a mud diapir ridge at water depths of 600 m in the active margin offshore of southwestern Taiwan. This cone-shape mud volcano is almost 3-km-wide, 200-m-high, with 9.5° slopes, and explosively ejects streams of mud every 1.5-3 minutes. It was first mapped in 2013 with MBARI's mapping AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle). In 2017, a repeated AUV mapping survey was conducted to see if significant bathymetric changes took place since 2013, and to investigate the fluxes of fluids that pass through diapiric structures in an active continental margin. In addition to high-resolution bathymetry (1-m-resolution), sub-bottom profiling and side-scan sonar data acquired by the AUV, and videos and samples collected by MBARI's miniROV, we also incorporate multichannel seismic reflection data and gravity core sample analyses in this study. AUV bathymetry data reveal that there are two gryphons on the eastern slope of MV5. In the 2017 survey the mapped sizes of the two side cones were 80 m wide, 35 m long, 20 m relief and 40 m wide, 40 m long, 12 m relief, respectively. Comparing the bathymetry mapped in the 2017 AUV survey with that surveyed in 2013, no obvious overall morphological changes in MV5 are detected, except around the two gryphons. In the time period between the surveys, due to venting of mud from the two gryphons, two series of flow deposits which can be up to 5 meters thick are observed along the slope in the east side of both gryphons. The center depressions of these two gryphons have increased by 1-5 meters depth in their west side. Seismic and sub-bottom profiles reveal amplitude anomalies in the sub-strata of MV5 which indicate possible fluid migration paths of mud flows from deep. The trace of mud flow from the top of MV5 to its foot can be delineated from the side-scan sonar images. On the basis of 210Pbex chronology dating method, the sedimentation rate on the surface of MV5 is very slow

  9. Short-Term Changes in Anemia and Malaria Parasite Prevalence in Children under 5 Years during One Year of Repeated Cross-Sectional Surveys in Rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaghe, Alinune N.; Chipeta, Michael G.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; McCann, Robert S.; van Vugt, Michèle; Grobusch, Martin P.; Takken, Willem; Phiri, Kamija S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. In stable transmission areas, malaria is the leading cause of anemia in children. Anemia in children is proposed as an added sensitive indicator for community changes in malaria prevalence. We report short-term temporal variations of malaria and anemia prevalence in rural Malawian children. Data from five repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted over 1 year in rural communities in Chikwawa District, Malawi, were analyzed. Different households were sampled per survey; all children, 6–59 months, in sampled household were tested for malaria parasitemia and hemoglobin levels using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDT) and Hemocue 301, respectively. Malaria symptoms, recent treatment (2 weeks) for malaria, anthropometric measurements, and sociodemographic details were recorded. In total, 894 children were included from 1,377 households. The prevalences of mRDT positive and anemia (Hb anemia and parasite prevalence varied differently. Overall, unadjusted and adjusted relative risks of anemia in mRDT-positive children were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.09–1.57) and 1.36 (1.13–1.63), respectively. Changes in anemia prevalence differed with short-term changes in malaria prevalence, although malaria is an important factor in anemia. PMID:28820717

  10. Social and health outcomes following upgrades to a national housing standard: a multilevel analysis of a five-wave repeated cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortinga, Wouter; Jones, Nikki; Lannon, Simon; Jenkins, Huw

    2017-12-02

    While existing research indicates that housing improvements are associated with health improvements, less is known about the wider social and health benefits of meeting national housing standards, as well as those of their specific constituent measures. This study evaluates the impacts of a managed housing upgrade programme through a repeated cross-sectional survey design. A five-wave repeated cross-sectional survey was conducted over a seven-year period from 2009 to 2016 (n = 2075; n = 2219; n = 2015; n = 1991; and n = 1709, respectively). The study followed a managed upgrade programme designed to meet a national social housing standard over an extended period. The data were analysed from a multilevel perspective to take account of the time-dependent nature of the observations and differences in socio-demographic composition. The installation of the majority of individual housing measures (new windows and doors; boilers; kitchens; bathrooms; electrics; loft insulation; and cavity/external wall insulation) were associated with improvements in several social (housing suitability, satisfaction, and quality; thermal comfort and household finances) and health (mental, respiratory and general health) outcomes; and analyses showed relationships between the number of measures installed and the total amount invested on the one hand and the social and health outcomes on the other. There were however a few exceptions. Most notably, the installation of cavity wall insulation was associated with poorer health outcomes, and did not lead to better social outcomes. Also, no association was found between the number of measures installed and respiratory health. The study suggests that substantial housing investments through a managed upgrade programme may result in better social and health outcomes, and that the size of the improvements are proportionate to the number of measures installed and amount invested. However, there may be risks associated with specific

  11. Application of Ifsar Technology in Topographic Mapping: JUPEM's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Ahamad

    2018-05-01

    The application of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) in topographic mapping has increased during the past decades. This is due to the advantages that IFSAR technology offers in solving data acquisition problems in tropical regions. Unlike aerial photography, radar technology offers wave penetration through cloud cover, fog and haze. As a consequence, images can be made free of any natural phenomenon defects. In Malaysia, Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (JUPEM) has been utilizing the IFSAR products since 2009 to update topographic maps at 1 : 50,000 map scales. Orthorectified radar imagery (ORI), Digital Surface Models (DSM) and Digital Terrain Models (DTM) procured under the project have been further processed before the products are ingested into a revamped mapping workflow consisting of stereo and mono digitizing processes. The paper will highlight the experience of Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (DSMM)/ JUPEM in using such technology in order to speed up mapping production.

  12. 2011 SWFWMD Topographic Lidar: Hillsborough County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFWMD regularly uses digital topographic information to support regulatory, land management and acquisition, planning, engineering and habitat restoration projects....

  13. 2011 SWFWMD Topographic Lidar: Pasco County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFWMD regularly uses digital topographic information to support regulatory, land management and acquisition, planning, engineering and habitat restoration projects....

  14. Repeating Marx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Christian; Monticelli, Lara

    2018-01-01

    This introduction sets out the context of the special issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”, which was published on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary on 5 May 2018. First, we give a brief overview of contemporary capitalism’s development...... and its crises. Second, we argue that it is important to repeat Marx today. Third, we reflect on lessons learned from 200 years of struggles for alternatives to capitalism. Fourth, we give an overview of the contributions in this special issue. Taken together, the contributions in this special issue show...... that Marx’s theory and politics remain key inspirations for understanding exploitation and domination in 21st-century society and for struggles that aim to overcome these phenomena and establishing a just and fair society. We need to repeat Marx today....

  15. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    large cohort of trials to spot unusual cases. However, deployment repeatability is inherently a nonlinear phenomenon, which makes modeling difficult...and GEMS tip position were both tracked during ground testing by a laser target tracking system. Earlier SAILMAST testing in 2005 [8] used...recalls the strategy used by SRTM, where a constellation of lights was installed at the tip of the boom and a modified star tracker was used to track tip

  16. Corneal topographer based on the Hartmann test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Yobani; Galeano, Janneth C

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to show the performance of a topographer based on the Hartmann test for convex surfaces of F/# approximately 1. This topographer, called "Hartmann Test topographer (HT topographer)," is a prototype developed in the Physics Department of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. From the Hartmann pattern generated by the surface under test, and by the Fourier analysis and the optical aberration theory we obtain the sagitta (elevation map) of the surface. Then, taking the first and the second derivatives of the sagitta in the radial direction we obtain the meridional curvature map. The method is illustrated with an example. To check the performance of the HT topographer a toric surface, a revolution aspherical surface, and two human corneas were measured. Our results are compared with those obtained with a Placido ring topographer (Tomey TMS-4 videokeratoscope), and we show that our curvature maps are similar to those obtained with the Placido ring topographer. The HT topographer is able to reconstruct the corneal topography potentially eradicating the skew ray problem, therefore, corneal defects can be visualized more. The results are presented by elevation and meridional curvature maps.

  17. US Topo—Topographic maps for the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Carswell, William J.

    2017-06-23

    Building on the success of 125 years of mapping, the U.S. Geological Survey created US Topo, a georeferenced digital map produced from The National Map data. US Topo maps are designed to be used like the traditional 7.5-minute quadrangle paper topographic maps for which the U.S. Geological Survey is so well known. However, in contrast to paper-based maps, US Topo maps provide modern technological advantages that support faster, wider public distribution and basic, onscreen geospatial analysis, including the georeferencing capability to display the ground coordinate location as the user moves the cursor around the map.

  18. Impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on the health of Canadians: repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Sabrina; Labonté, Ronald; Bancej, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Despite a clear impact on the Canadian economy, little is known about the subsequent health impacts of the 2008 global financial crisis (GFC) in this country. This study fills this gap in knowledge by conducting a repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Data from 7 cycles (2007-2013) of the CCHS were combined to form a large data set representative of the Canadian working-age population (15-64 years) residing in 1 of 10 provinces. A logistic regression model was used to determine whether exposure to various periods of the GFC resulted in increased odds of reporting poor mental health. Exposure was categorised into 4 periods based on political and economic indicators, as follows: precrisis period (baseline), initial crisis period, stimulus period and austerity period. Other outcomes investigated included: anxiety disorders (AD), mood disorders (MD), poor physical health and health-related behaviours (heavy alcohol drinking (HAD) and decreased fruit/vegetable consumption (FVC)). A significant increased odds of reporting poor mental health was observed during the austerity period compared with the precrisis period (OR=1.26 (1.16 to 1.32)); findings remain significant when adjusted for sex, marital status and education. Exposure to the austerity period was also significantly associated with increased odds of reporting AD, MD, HAD and decreased odds of FVC. No significant associations were observed for the poor self-perceived physical health variable. Statistically significant associations were observed between several negative health outcomes and the austerity period when compared with the precrisis period. Austerity has been linked to worsening health in other studies and represents an example of how the policy response can have greater detrimental impact on health than the financial crisis itself. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. Changes in prevalence of workplace violence against doctors in all medical specialties in Norway between 1993 and 2014: a repeated cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Ingrid Hjulstad; Baste, Valborg; Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G; Morken, Tone

    2017-08-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether reported prevalence of experienced threats, real acts of violence and debilitating fear of violence among Norwegian doctors have increased over the last two decades. Repeated cross-sectional survey. All healthcare levels and medical specialties in Norway. Representative samples of Norwegian doctors in 1993 (n=2628) and 2014 (n=1158). Relative risk (RR) of self-reported prevalence of work-time experiences of threats and real acts of violence, and of being physically or psychologically unfit during the last 12 months due to fear of violence, in 2014 compared with 1993, adjusted by age, gender and medical specialty. There were no differences in self-reported threats (adjusted RR=1.01, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.08) or real acts (adjusted RR=0.90, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.03) of violence when comparing 2014 with 1993. The proportion of doctors who had felt unfit due to fear of violence decreased from 1993 to 2014 (adjusted RR=0.53, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.73). Although still above average, the proportion of doctors in psychiatry who reported real acts of violence decreased substantially from 1993 to 2014 (adjusted RR=0.75, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.95). A substantial proportion of doctors experience threats and real acts of violence during their work-time career, but there was no evidence that workplace violence has increased over the last two decades. Still, the issue needs to be addressed as part of the doctors' education and within work settings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress in Finland from 1979 to 2002: a population-based repeated cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talala Kirsi M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the decades, global public health efforts have sought to reduce socio-economic health differences, including differences in mental health. Only a few studies have examined changes in socio-economic differences in psychological symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to assess trends in socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress over a 24-year time period in Finland. Methods The data source is a repeated cross-sectional survey “Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population” (AVTK, from the years 1979 to 2002, divided into five study periods. Indicators for socio-economic status included employment status from the survey, and educational level and household income from the Statistics Finland register data. We studied the age group of 25–64 years (N = 70115; average annual response rate 75%. Outcome measures were single questions of self-reported insomnia and stress. Results The overall prevalence of insomnia was 18-19% and that of stress 16-19%. Compared to the first study period, 1979–1982, the prevalence of stress increased until study period 1993–1997. The prevalence of insomnia increased during the last study period, 1998–2002. Respondents who were unemployed or had retired early reported more insomnia and stress over time among both men and women. Lower education was associated with more insomnia especially among men; and conversely, with less stress among both sexes. Compared to the highest household income level, those in the intermediate levels of income had less stress whereas those in the lowest income levels had more stress among both sexes. Income level differences in insomnia were less consistent. In general, socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress fluctuated some, but did not change substantially over the study period 1979–2002. Conclusions Self-reported insomnia and stress were more common during later study periods. The

  1. Quantifying the Spatio-temporal Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Carbon Storage Using Repeat Lidar Surveys and Multispectral Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, L.; Taillie, P. J.; Smith, J. W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Sound coastal land-use policy and management decisions to mitigate or adapt to sea level rise impacts depend on understanding vegetation responses to sea level rise over large extents. Accurate methodologies to quantify these changes are necessary to understand the continued production of the ecosystem services upon which human health and well-being depend. This research quantifies spatio-temporal changes in aboveground biomass altered by sea level rise across North Carolina's coastal plain using a combination of repeat-acquisition lidar data and multi-temporal satellite imagery. Using field data from across the study area, we evaluated the reliability of multi-temporal lidar data with disparate densities and accuracies to detect changes along a coastal vegetation gradient from marsh to forested wetland. Despite an 18 fold increase in lidar point density between survey years (2001, 2014), the relationships between lidar-derived heights and field-measured heights were similar (adjusted r2; 0.6 -0.7). Random Forest, a machine learning algorithm, was used to separately predict above-ground biomass pools at the landscape-scale for the two time periods using the 98 field plots as reference data. Models performed well for both years (adjusted r2; 0.67-0.85). The 2001 model required the addition of Landsat spectral indices to meet the same adjusted r2 values as the 2014 model, which utilized lidar-derived metrics alone. Of the many potential lidar-derived predictor metrics, median and mean vegetation height were the best predictors in both time periods. To measure the spatial patterns of biomass change across the landscape, we subtracted the 2001 biomass model from the 2014 model and found significant spatial heterogeneity in biomass change across both the vegetation gradient and across the peninsula over the 12-year time period. In forested areas, we found a mean increase in aboveground biomass whereas in transition zones, marshes and freshwater emergent wetlands we

  2. [Changes in knowledge, attitudes, and smoking behavior among young people in Germany. Results of repeated, representative surveys by the BZgA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, B; Töppich, J

    2010-02-01

    Following an increase in tobacco consumption among 12 to 17 year olds between 1993 and 1997, a policy mix comprising various structural and behavioral prevention measures was implemented in Germany. One element of this policy mix is the "rauchfrei" ("smoke-free") youth campaign of the BZgA (Federal Centre for Health Education), a combination of media that reaches a large number of youth, personal communication, and setting-based interventions. The aim is to prevent young people from starting to smoke and to promote the cessation of smoking at an early stage. Based on a multistage intervention model, wide coverage of the measures should be achieved among young people, as well as changes in knowledge, attitudes, social norms, and behavioral intentions. Based on the intervention model, repeated, representative cross-sectional surveys were conducted to examine the development of these indicators and of tobacco consumption. Five studies were conducted during the period from 2003 to 2008, each comprising between 1,220 and 2,780 computer-assisted telephone interviews with randomly selected young people between the ages of 12 and 17. The percentage of young people reached by information offered on the subject of not smoking rose between 2003 and 2008. Participation in school-based prevention measures also rose. There was an increase in knowledge regarding the harmful substances contained in cigarette smoke, and in the percentage of young people who rated active and passive smoking as being harmful to health. In addition, the attitude towards smoking of young people who have never smoked became more critical, as did that perceived in the social environment. The proportion of young people who smoke declined substantially, from 27.5% (2001) to 15.4% (2008), and there was been a major rise in the number who have never smoked, from 40.5% (2001) to 60.6% (2008). The change in knowledge-based risk assessments, attitudes, and social norms should be further promoted by mass media

  3. Spatial Relation Predicates in Topographic Feature Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Caro, Holly K.

    2013-01-01

    Topographic data are designed and widely used for base maps of diverse applications, yet the power of these information sources largely relies on the interpretive skills of map readers and relational database expert users once the data are in map or geographic information system (GIS) form. Advances in geospatial semantic technology offer data model alternatives for explicating concepts and articulating complex data queries and statements. To understand and enrich the vocabulary of topographic feature properties for semantic technology, English language spatial relation predicates were analyzed in three standard topographic feature glossaries. The analytical approach drew from disciplinary concepts in geography, linguistics, and information science. Five major classes of spatial relation predicates were identified from the analysis; representations for most of these are not widely available. The classes are: part-whole (which are commonly modeled throughout semantic and linked-data networks), geometric, processes, human intention, and spatial prepositions. These are commonly found in the ‘real world’ and support the environmental science basis for digital topographical mapping. The spatial relation concepts are based on sets of relation terms presented in this chapter, though these lists are not prescriptive or exhaustive. The results of this study make explicit the concepts forming a broad set of spatial relation expressions, which in turn form the basis for expanding the range of possible queries for topographical data analysis and mapping.

  4. Unsupervised detection of salt marsh platforms: a topographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Guillaume C. H.; Mudd, Simon M.; Clubb, Fiona J.

    2018-03-01

    Salt marshes filter pollutants, protect coastlines against storm surges, and sequester carbon, yet are under threat from sea level rise and anthropogenic modification. The sustained existence of the salt marsh ecosystem depends on the topographic evolution of marsh platforms. Quantifying marsh platform topography is vital for improving the management of these valuable landscapes. The determination of platform boundaries currently relies on supervised classification methods requiring near-infrared data to detect vegetation, or demands labour-intensive field surveys and digitisation. We propose a novel, unsupervised method to reproducibly isolate salt marsh scarps and platforms from a digital elevation model (DEM), referred to as Topographic Identification of Platforms (TIP). Field observations and numerical models show that salt marshes mature into subhorizontal platforms delineated by subvertical scarps. Based on this premise, we identify scarps as lines of local maxima on a slope raster, then fill landmasses from the scarps upward, thus isolating mature marsh platforms. We test the TIP method using lidar-derived DEMs from six salt marshes in England with varying tidal ranges and geometries, for which topographic platforms were manually isolated from tidal flats. Agreement between manual and unsupervised classification exceeds 94 % for DEM resolutions of 1 m, with all but one site maintaining an accuracy superior to 90 % for resolutions up to 3 m. For resolutions of 1 m, platforms detected with the TIP method are comparable in surface area to digitised platforms and have similar elevation distributions. We also find that our method allows for the accurate detection of local block failures as small as 3 times the DEM resolution. Detailed inspection reveals that although tidal creeks were digitised as part of the marsh platform, unsupervised classification categorises them as part of the tidal flat, causing an increase in false negatives and overall platform

  5. Unsupervised detection of salt marsh platforms: a topographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. H. Goodwin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt marshes filter pollutants, protect coastlines against storm surges, and sequester carbon, yet are under threat from sea level rise and anthropogenic modification. The sustained existence of the salt marsh ecosystem depends on the topographic evolution of marsh platforms. Quantifying marsh platform topography is vital for improving the management of these valuable landscapes. The determination of platform boundaries currently relies on supervised classification methods requiring near-infrared data to detect vegetation, or demands labour-intensive field surveys and digitisation. We propose a novel, unsupervised method to reproducibly isolate salt marsh scarps and platforms from a digital elevation model (DEM, referred to as Topographic Identification of Platforms (TIP. Field observations and numerical models show that salt marshes mature into subhorizontal platforms delineated by subvertical scarps. Based on this premise, we identify scarps as lines of local maxima on a slope raster, then fill landmasses from the scarps upward, thus isolating mature marsh platforms. We test the TIP method using lidar-derived DEMs from six salt marshes in England with varying tidal ranges and geometries, for which topographic platforms were manually isolated from tidal flats. Agreement between manual and unsupervised classification exceeds 94 % for DEM resolutions of 1 m, with all but one site maintaining an accuracy superior to 90 % for resolutions up to 3 m. For resolutions of 1 m, platforms detected with the TIP method are comparable in surface area to digitised platforms and have similar elevation distributions. We also find that our method allows for the accurate detection of local block failures as small as 3 times the DEM resolution. Detailed inspection reveals that although tidal creeks were digitised as part of the marsh platform, unsupervised classification categorises them as part of the tidal flat, causing an increase in false negatives

  6. Topographic Correction of GPR Profiles Based on Laser Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Zhong, Ruofei; Li, Jia Cun; Zeng, Fanyang

    2014-01-01

    Data obtained by GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) are displayed as a continuous cross-sectional profile. Surface, generally, is not flat. As a result, the image becomes distorted and the depth calculated from the surface no longer represents the true and exact position of electrically distinctive layers and objects in materials. In order to get real geologic cross section, GPR data must be corrected. This is paper discusses a new method using the color point cloud data obtained by a Vehicle-borne laser scanning system to compensate for elevation fluctuate. Elevation profile can be extracted from topographic data of survey site acquired using laser scanner, which can then be used to offset the error of GPR data. Through the discrete points in the survey line, each trace of the profile has its own elevation value showing a vertical difference from the reference profile with maximum elevation, then time shifts value of traces vertical offset versus the reference trace of profile can be obtained. At last, the results of topographic correction for radargrams that look extremely like the real geologic cross section are presented, which allows us to get a better profile interpretation and position of the objects and layers in the subsurface

  7. Results of repeat bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at the Amelia Earhart Bridge on U.S. Highway 59 over the Missouri River at Atchison, Kansas, 2009-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected six times by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Transportation, in the vicinity of Amelia Earhart Bridge on U.S. Highway 59 over the Missouri River at Atchison, Kansas. A multibeam echosounder mapping system and an acoustic Doppler current meter were used to obtain channel-bed elevations and depth-averaged velocities for a river reach approximately 2,300 feet long and extending across the active channel of the Missouri River. The bathymetric and velocimetric surveys provide a “snapshot” of the channel conditions at the time of each survey, and document changes to the channel-bed elevations and velocities during the course of construction of a new bridge for U.S. Highway 59 downstream from the Amelia Earhart Bridge. The baseline survey in June 2009 revealed substantial scour holes existed at the railroad bridge piers upstream from and at pier 10 of the Amelia Earhart Bridge, with mostly uniform flow and velocities throughout the study reach. After the construction of a trestle and cofferdam on the left (eastern) bank downstream from the Amelia Earhart Bridge, a survey on June 2, 2010, revealed scour holes with similar size and shape as the baseline for similar flow conditions, with slightly higher velocities and a more substantial contraction of flow near the bridges than the baseline. Subsequent surveys during flooding conditions in June 2010 and July 2011 revealed substantial scour near the bridges compared to the baseline survey caused by the contraction of flow; however, the larger flood in July 2011 resulted in less scour than in June 2010, partly because the removal of the cofferdam for pier 5 of the new bridge in March 2011 diminished the contraction near the bridges. Generally, the downstream part of the study reach exhibited varying amounts of scour in all of the surveys except the last when compared to the baseline. During the final survey, velocities throughout the

  8. White Oak Creek Watershed topographic map and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrow, N.D.

    1981-04-01

    On March 22, 1978 a contract was let to Accu-Air Surveys, Inc., of Seymour, Indiana, to produce a topographic map of the White Oak Creek Watershed. Working from photography and ground control surveys, Accu-Air produced a map to ORNL's specifications. The map is in four sections (N.W., N.E., S.W., S.E.) at a scale of 1:2400. Contour intervals are 5 ft (1.5 m) with accented delineations every 25 ft (7.6 m). The scribe method was used for the finished map. Planimetric features, roads, major fence lines, drainage features, and tree lines are included. The ORNL grid is the primary coordinate system which is superimposed on the state plain coordinates

  9. Topographic Anterograde and Retrograde Memory for Spatial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was on the effects of haloperidol injection on anterograde and retrograde topographic memories for spatial behaviours in Long Evan rats. Twelve Long Evan albino rats weighing 0.5 – 0.8 kg (6 males, 6 females) were used for the study. Complex Maze Box of 14 unit T Alley from the Royal Institute of ...

  10. Extracting topographic structure from digital elevation data for geographic information-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Susan K.; Domingue, Julia O.

    1988-01-01

    Software tools have been developed at the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center to extract topographic structure and to delineate watersheds and overland flow paths from digital elevation models. The tools are specialpurpose FORTRAN programs interfaced with general-purpose raster and vector spatial analysis and relational data base management packages.

  11. Eficacia del Orbscan II y Pentacam en la evaluación de los mapas de elevación en candidatos a cirugía refractiva mediante un análisis de repetibilidad Efficacy of Orbscan II® and Pentacam® topographers by a repeatability analysis when assessing elevation maps in candidates to refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Blanco

    2009-09-01

    sample of 68 eyes. The concordance between the two devices and the coefficient of repeatability were measured following the parameters of the British Standard Institution by the Bland-Altman concordance analysis and the Lin concordance correlation coefficient.
    Results: The coefficient of repeatability at the point of maximum anterior elevation was 68.29% with the Orbscan and 24.20% with the Pentacam. The concordance correlation coefficient was 0.64 (CI 95%: 0.48-0.76 with the Orbscan and 0.94 with the Pentacam (CI 95%: 0.91-0.96. The coefficient of repeatability at the point of maximum posterior elevation was 38.7% with the Orbscan and 68.0% with the Pentacam. The concordance correlation coefficient was 0.69 with the Orbscan (CI 95%: 0.55-0.80 with a precision of 0.71 and an accuracy of 0.97, and 0.24 with the Pentacam (CI 95%: 0.00-0.45 with a precision of 0.24 and an accuracy of 0.99.
    Conclusions: Measurement of the point of maximum posterior elevation is better with the Orbscan II and less precise with the Pentacam. The random error can be reduced by using the mean of three assessments and can serve as a guide in the search of diagnostic devices with minimum absolute relative error in all measurements.

  12. A topographic feature taxonomy for a U.S. national topographic mapping ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2013-01-01

    Using legacy feature lists from the U.S. National Topographic Mapping Program of the twentieth century, a taxonomy of features is presented for purposes of developing a national topographic feature ontology for geographic mapping and analysis. After reviewing published taxonomic classifications, six basic classes are suggested; terrain, surface water, ecological regimes, built-up areas, divisions, and events. Aspects of ontology development are suggested as the taxonomy is described.

  13. From nano to micro: topographical scale and its impact on cell adhesion, morphology and contact guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Sathe, Sharvari R; Yim, Evelyn K F

    2016-01-01

    Topography, among other physical factors such as substrate stiffness and extracellular forces, is known to have a great influence on cell behaviours. Optimization of topographical features, in particular topographical dimensions ranging from nanoscale to microscale, is the key strategy to obtain the best cellular performance for various applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey on the significance of sizes of topography and their impacts on cell adhesion, morphology and alignment, and neurite guidance. Also recent works mimicking the hierarchical structure of natural extracellular matrix by combining both nanoscale and microscale topographies are highlighted. (topical review)

  14. Repeated multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of 15 selected bridge crossings along the Missouri River from Niobrara to Rulo, Nebraska, during the flood of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Densmore, Brenda K.; Strauch, Kellan R.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, unprecedented flooding in the Missouri River prompted transportation agencies to increase the frequency of monitoring riverbed elevations near bridges that cross the Missouri River. Hydrographic surveys were completed in cooperation with the Nebraska Department of Roads, using a multibeam echosounder at 15 highway bridges spanning the Missouri River from Niobrara to Rulo, Nebraska during and after the extreme 2011 flood. Evidence of bed elevation change near bridge piers was documented. The greatest amount of bed elevation change during the 2011 flood documented for this study occurred at the Burt County Missouri River Bridge at Decatur, Nebraska, where scour of about 45 feet, from before flooding, occurred between a bridge abutment and pier. Of the remaining sites, highway bridges where bed elevation change near piers appeared to have exceeded 10 feet include the Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge at Blair, Nebr., Bellevue Bridge at Bellevue, Nebr., and Nebraska City Bridge at Nebraska City, Nebr. Hydrographic surveys at 14 of the 15 sites were completed in mid-July and again in early October or late-November 2011. Near three of the bridges, the bed elevation of locations surveyed in July increased by more than 10 feet, on average, by late October or early November 2011. Bed elevations increased between 1 and 10 feet, on average, near six bridges. Near the remaining four bridges, bed elevations decreased between 1 and 4 feet, on average, from July to late October or early November.

  15. Urban forest topographical mapping using UAV LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putut Ash Shidiq, Iqbal; Wibowo, Adi; Kusratmoko, Eko; Indratmoko, Satria; Ardhianto, Ronni; Prasetyo Nugroho, Budi

    2017-12-01

    Topographical data is highly needed by many parties, such as government institution, mining companies and agricultural sectors. It is not just about the precision, the acquisition time and data processing are also carefully considered. In relation with forest management, a high accuracy topographic map is necessary for planning, close monitoring and evaluating forest changes. One of the solution to quickly and precisely mapped topography is using remote sensing system. In this study, we test high-resolution data using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) collected from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to map topography and differentiate vegetation classes based on height in urban forest area of University of Indonesia (UI). The semi-automatic and manual classifications were applied to divide point clouds into two main classes, namely ground and vegetation. There were 15,806,380 point clouds obtained during the post-process, in which 2.39% of it were detected as ground.

  16. Ontology-based integration of topographic data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitermark, HT; van Oosterom, PJM; Mars, NJI; Molenaar, M

    The integration of topographic data sets is defined as the process of establishing relationships between corresponding object instances in different, autonomously produced, topographic data sets of the same geographic space. The problem of integrating topographic data sets is in finding these

  17. Survey of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and their associated Cas proteins (CRISPR/Cas) systems in multiple sequenced strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostria-Hernández, Martha Lorena; Sánchez-Vallejo, Carlos Javier; Ibarra, J Antonio; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2015-08-04

    In recent years the emergence of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains has been an increasingly common event. This opportunistic species is one of the five main bacterial pathogens that cause hospital infections worldwide and multidrug resistance has been associated with the presence of high molecular weight plasmids. Plasmids are generally acquired through horizontal transfer and therefore is possible that systems that prevent the entry of foreign genetic material are inactive or absent. One of these systems is CRISPR/Cas. However, little is known regarding the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and their associated Cas proteins (CRISPR/Cas) system in K. pneumoniae. The adaptive immune system CRISPR/Cas has been shown to limit the entry of foreign genetic elements into bacterial organisms and in some bacteria it has been shown to be involved in regulation of virulence genes. Thus in this work we used bioinformatics tools to determine the presence or absence of CRISPR/Cas systems in available K. pneumoniae genomes. The complete CRISPR/Cas system was identified in two out of the eight complete K. pneumoniae genomes sequences and in four out of the 44 available draft genomes sequences. The cas genes in these strains comprises eight cas genes similar to those found in Escherichia coli, suggesting they belong to the type I-E group, although their arrangement is slightly different. As for the CRISPR sequences, the average lengths of the direct repeats and spacers were 29 and 33 bp, respectively. BLAST searches demonstrated that 38 of the 116 spacer sequences (33%) are significantly similar to either plasmid, phage or genome sequences, while the remaining 78 sequences (67%) showed no significant similarity to other sequences. The region where the CRISPR/Cas systems were located is the same in all the Klebsiella genomes containing it, it has a syntenic architecture, and is located among genes encoding for proteins likely involved in

  18. Quantitative topographic differentiation of the neonatal EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Karel; Krajca, Vladimír; Roth, Zdenek; Melichar, Jan; Petránek, Svojmil

    2006-09-01

    To test the discriminatory topographic potential of a new method of the automatic EEG analysis in neonates. A quantitative description of the neonatal EEG can contribute to the objective assessment of the functional state of the brain, and may improve the precision of diagnosing cerebral dysfunctions manifested by 'disorganization', 'dysrhythmia' or 'dysmaturity'. 21 healthy, full-term newborns were examined polygraphically during sleep (EEG-8 referential derivations, respiration, ECG, EOG, EMG). From each EEG record, two 5-min samples (one from the middle of quiet sleep, the other from the middle of active sleep) were subject to subsequent automatic analysis and were described by 13 variables: spectral features and features describing shape and variability of the signal. The data from individual infants were averaged and the number of variables was reduced by factor analysis. All factors identified by factor analysis were statistically significantly influenced by the location of derivation. A large number of statistically significant differences were also established when comparing the effects of individual derivations on each of the 13 measured variables. Both spectral features and features describing shape and variability of the signal are largely accountable for the topographic differentiation of the neonatal EEG. The presented method of the automatic EEG analysis is capable to assess the topographic characteristics of the neonatal EEG, and it is adequately sensitive and describes the neonatal electroencephalogram with sufficient precision. The discriminatory capability of the used method represents a promise for their application in the clinical practice.

  19. Cross-National Comparisons of Time Trends in Overweight Inequality by Socioeconomic Status Among Women Using Repeated Cross-Sectional Surveys From 37 Developing Countries, 1989–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic diseases are now among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in lower income countries. Although traditionally related to higher individual socioeconomic status (SES) in these contexts, the associations between SES and chronic disease may be actively changing. Furthermore, country-level contextual factors, such as economic development and income inequality, may influence the distribution of chronic disease by SES as well as how this distribution has changed over time. Using overweight status as a health indicator, the authors studied repeated cross-sectional data from women aged 18–49 years in 37 developing countries to assess within-country trends in overweight inequalities by SES between 1989 and 2007 (n = 405,550). Meta-regression was used to examine the associations between gross domestic product and disproportionate increases in overweight prevalence by SES, with additional testing for modification by country-level income inequality. In 27 of 37 countries, higher SES (vs. lower) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence; in the remaining 10 countries, lower SES (vs. higher) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence. Gross domestic product was positively related to faster increase in overweight prevalence among the lower wealth groups. Among countries with a higher gross domestic product, lower income inequality was associated with faster overweight growth among the poor. PMID:21300855

  20. Cross-national comparisons of time trends in overweight inequality by socioeconomic status among women using repeated cross-sectional surveys from 37 developing countries, 1989-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Popkin, Barry M

    2011-03-15

    Chronic diseases are now among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in lower income countries. Although traditionally related to higher individual socioeconomic status (SES) in these contexts, the associations between SES and chronic disease may be actively changing. Furthermore, country-level contextual factors, such as economic development and income inequality, may influence the distribution of chronic disease by SES as well as how this distribution has changed over time. Using overweight status as a health indicator, the authors studied repeated cross-sectional data from women aged 18-49 years in 37 developing countries to assess within-country trends in overweight inequalities by SES between 1989 and 2007 (n=405,550). Meta-regression was used to examine the associations between gross domestic product and disproportionate increases in overweight prevalence by SES, with additional testing for modification by country-level income inequality. In 27 of 37 countries, higher SES (vs. lower) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence; in the remaining 10 countries, lower SES (vs. higher) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence. Gross domestic product was positively related to faster increase in overweight prevalence among the lower wealth groups. Among countries with a higher gross domestic product, lower income inequality was associated with faster overweight growth among the poor. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of progress towards universal health coverage for people with disabilities in Afghanistan: a multilevel analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Kumar, Praveen; Ballard, Ellis; Chandola, Tarani

    2017-08-01

    Since 2002, Afghanistan has made much effort to achieve universal health coverage. According to the UN Sustainable Development Goal 3, target eight, the provision of quality care to all must include usually underserved groups, including people with disabilities. We investigated whether a decade of international investment in the Afghan health system has brought quality health care to this group. We used data from two representative household surveys, one done in 2005 and one in 2013, in 13 provinces of Afghanistan, that included questions about activity limitations and functioning difficulties, socioeconomic factors, perceived availability of health care, and experience with coverage of health-care needs. We used multilevel modelling and tests for interaction to investigate factors associated with differences in perception between timepoints and whether village remoteness affected changes in perception. The 2005 survey included 334 people, and the 2013 survey included 961 people. Mean age, employment, and asset levels of participants with disabilities increased slightly between 2005 and 2013, but the level of education decreased. Formal education and higher asset level were associated with improved availability of health care and positive experience with coverage of health-care needs, whereas being employed was only associated with the latter. Perceived availability of health care and positive experience with coverage of health-care needs significantly worsened in 2013 compared with in 2005 (227 [69%] perceived that services were available in 2005 vs 405 [44%] in 2013, pAfghanistan, particularly in remote areas. Health policy in Afghanistan will need to address attitudinal, social, and accessibility barriers to health care. Swedish International Development Agency. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  3. Topographic relationships for design rainfalls over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F.; Hutchinson, M. F.; The, C.; Beesley, C.; Green, J.

    2016-02-01

    Design rainfall statistics are the primary inputs used to assess flood risk across river catchments. These statistics normally take the form of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that are derived from extreme value probability distributions fitted to observed daily, and sub-daily, rainfall data. The design rainfall relationships are often required for catchments where there are limited rainfall records, particularly catchments in remote areas with high topographic relief and hence some form of interpolation is required to provide estimates in these areas. This paper assesses the topographic dependence of rainfall extremes by using elevation-dependent thin plate smoothing splines to interpolate the mean annual maximum rainfall, for periods from one to seven days, across Australia. The analyses confirm the important impact of topography in explaining the spatial patterns of these extreme rainfall statistics. Continent-wide residual and cross validation statistics are used to demonstrate the 100-fold impact of elevation in relation to horizontal coordinates in explaining the spatial patterns, consistent with previous rainfall scaling studies and observational evidence. The impact of the complexity of the fitted spline surfaces, as defined by the number of knots, and the impact of applying variance stabilising transformations to the data, were also assessed. It was found that a relatively large number of 3570 knots, suitably chosen from 8619 gauge locations, was required to minimise the summary error statistics. Square root and log data transformations were found to deliver marginally superior continent-wide cross validation statistics, in comparison to applying no data transformation, but detailed assessments of residuals in complex high rainfall regions with high topographic relief showed that no data transformation gave superior performance in these regions. These results are consistent with the understanding that in areas with modest topographic relief, as

  4. Analyzing post-wildfire erosional processes and topographic change using hydrologic monitoring and Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry at the storm event scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, R. J.; Barth, N. C.; Gray, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydro-geomorphic response in recently burned watersheds is highly dependent on the timing and magnitude of subsequent rainstorms. Recent advancements in surveying and monitoring techniques using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry can support the rapid estimation of near cm-scale topographic response of headwater catchments (ha to km2). However, surface change due to shallow erosional processes such as sheetwash and rilling remain challenging to measure at this spatial extent and the storm event scale. To address this issue, we combined repeat UAV-SfM surveys with hydrologic monitoring techniques and field investigations to characterize post-wildfire erosional processes and topographic change on a storm-by-storm basis. The Las Lomas watershed ( 15 ha) burned in the 2016 San Gabriel Complex Fire along the front range of the San Gabriel Mountains, southern California. Surveys were conducted with a consumer grade UAV; twenty-six SfM control markers; two rain gages, and two pressure transducers were installed in the watershed. The initial SfM-derived point cloud generated from 422 photos contains 258 million points; the DEM has a resolution of 2.42 cm/pixel and a point density of 17.1 pts/cm2. Rills began forming on hillslopes and minor erosion occurred within the channel network during the first low intensity storms of the rainy season. Later more intense storms resulted in substantial geomorphic change. Hydrologic data indicate that during one of the intense storms total cumulative rainfall was 58.20 mm and peak 5-min intensity was 38.4 mm/hr. Poststorm field surveys revealed evidence of debris flows, flash flooding, erosion, and fluvial aggradation in the channel network, and rill growth and gully formation on hillslopes. Analyses of the SfM models indicate erosion dominated topographic change in steep channels and on hillslopes; aggradation dominated change in low gradient channels. A contrast of 5 cm exists between field

  5. Assessing the repeatability of terrestrial laser scanning for monitoring gully topography: A case study from Aratula, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicholas Robert; Armston, John; Stiller, Isaac; Muir, Jasmine

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is a powerful tool for quantifying gully morphology and monitoring change over time. This is due to the high sampling density, sub-centimetre positional accuracies (x, y, z), flexibility of survey configurations and ability to link multiple TLS scans together. However, to ensure correct interpretation of results, research is needed to test the repeatability of TLS derived products to quantify the accuracy and separate 'false' from 'true' geomorphic change. In this study, we use the RIEGL VZ400 scanner to test the repeatability of TLS datasets for mapping gully morphology. We then quantify change following a rainfall event of approximately 100 mm. Our study site, located in south-east Queensland, Australia was chosen to be challenging from a repeatability perspective with high topographic variability. The TLS data capture involved three sets of linked scans: one survey pre-rainfall, to be compared to two surveys post-rainfall acquired on consecutive days. Change is considered negligible in the two post-rainfall scans to test survey repeatability. To verify TLS accuracy, an independent dataset of gully extent and spot heights were acquired using traditional total station techniques. Results confirm that the TLS datasets can be registered multi-temporally at sub-centimetre levels of accuracy in three dimensions. Total station and TLS elevation samples showed strong agreement with a mean error and standard deviation (SD) of residuals equal to 0.052 and 0.047 m, respectively (n = 889). Significantly, our repeatability tests found that return type and pulse deviation influence the accuracy and repeatability of DEMs in gully environments. Analysis of consecutive day datasets showed that DEMs derived from first return data recorded 40% higher SD of residual error than DEMs using multiple return data. A significant empirical relationship between pulse deviation and the variance of residuals for repeat DEMs is also shown (r2 = 0

  6. The Burden of Repeated Mood Episodes in Bipolar I Disorder: Results From the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Amy T; West, Amy E; Eisner, Lori; Baek, Jihyun; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between previous mood episodes and clinical course/functioning in a community sample (National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions [NESARC]). Subjects (n = 909) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, criteria for bipolar I disorder and provided data on number of previous episode recurrences. Number of previous mood episodes was used to predict outcomes at wave 1 and wave 2 of the NESARC. Previous mood episodes accounted for small but unique variance in outcomes. Recurrence was associated with poorer functioning, psychiatric and medical comorbidity, and increased odds of suicidality, disability, unemployment, and hospitalization at wave 1. Recurrences were associated with greater risk for new onset suicidality, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, unemployment, and poor functioning by wave 2. The course of bipolar disorder does worsen with progressive mood episodes but is attenuated in community, relative to clinical samples. Interventions to prevent future relapse may be particularly important to implement early in the course of illness.

  7. Magnetic and topographic correlations in Co nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciria, M.; Arnaudas, J.I.; Huttel, Y.; Gomez, H.; Cebollada, A.; Armelles, G.

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of the magnetic domains structure in Co films grown on AlN composed of particles with nominal thicknesses between 3 and 15 nm. The images taken by using a scanning force microscope show that as the film thickness increases the domains have the magnetization vector pointing out of the plane, and that the magnetization in the particle tends to be in a single domain state with the particle boundaries being the main source for domains boundaries. The variation of the magnetic and topographic correlation functions in terms of the particle thickness suggests that the magnetic state is formed by a correlated super-spin glass structure

  8. STM topographical images of C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Zhang, P.; Moskovits, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper STM topographical images of C 60 are reported. The images are consistent with a molecule approximately 9 Angstrom in diameter possessing the now-famous soccer ball structure. With the molecule deposited on gold, its atomic structure is not resolved. On graphite the structure of the within the borders of the C 60 molecule is dominated by that of the graphite forming a moire-like pattern. Some evidence of atomic structure is seen in multilayers of C 60 where some five- and six-membered rings are visible. These may, however, be features of fragments of the fullerene rather than whole molecules

  9. Youth exposure to in-vehicle second-hand smoke and their smoking behaviours: trends and associations in repeated national surveys (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet; Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George; Taylor, Steve; Edwards, Richard

    2015-03-01

    To extend the limited international evidence on youth in-vehicle second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure by examining trends in New Zealand, a country with a national smoke-free goal and indoors smoke-free environment legislation. We tracked exposure rates and explored the associations between in-vehicle SHS exposure and smoking behaviours. In-home exposure was also examined for comparative purposes. Data were collected in annual surveys of over 25 000 year 10 school students (14-15-year olds) for a 7-year period (2006-2012). Questions covered smoking behaviour, exposure to smoking and demographics. Youth SHS exposure rates in-vehicle and in-home trended down slightly over time (pvehicle in the previous week in 2012. However, marked inequalities in exposure between ethnic groups, and by school-based socioeconomic position, persisted. The strongest association with SHS exposure was parental smoking (eg, for both parents versus neither smoking in 2012: in-vehicle SHS exposure adjusted OR: 7.4; 95% CI: 6.5 to 8.4). After adjusting for seven other factors associated with initiation, logistic regression analyses revealed statistically significant associations of in-vehicle SHS exposure with susceptibility to initiation and smoking. The slow decline in SHS exposure in vehicles and the lack of progress in reducing relative inequalities is problematic. To accelerate progress, the New Zealand Government could follow the example of other jurisdictions and prohibit smoking in cars carrying children. Other major policy interventions, beside enhanced smoke-free environments, will also likely be required if New Zealand is to achieve its 2025 smoke-free nation goal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Automated Detection of Salt Marsh Platforms : a Topographic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, G.; Mudd, S. M.; Clubb, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring the topographic evolution of coastal marshes is a crucial step toward improving the management of these valuable landscapes under the pressure of relative sea level rise and anthropogenic modification. However, determining their geometrically complex boundaries currently relies on spectral vegetation detection methods or requires labour-intensive field surveys and digitisation.We propose a novel method to reproducibly isolate saltmarsh scarps and platforms from a DEM. Field observations and numerical models show that saltmarshes mature into sub-horizontal platforms delineated by sub-vertical scarps: based on this premise, we identify scarps as lines of local maxima on a slope*relief raster, then fill landmasses from the scarps upward, thus isolating mature marsh platforms. Non-dimensional search parameters allow batch-processing of data without recalibration. We test our method using lidar-derived DEMs of six saltmarshes in England with varying tidal ranges and geometries, for which topographic platforms were manually isolated from tidal flats. Agreement between manual and automatic segregation exceeds 90% for resolutions of 1m, with all but one sites maintaining this performance for resolutions up to 3.5m. For resolutions of 1m, automatically detected platforms are comparable in surface area and elevation distribution to digitised platforms. We also find that our method allows the accurate detection of local bloc failures 3 times larger than the DEM resolution.Detailed inspection reveals that although tidal creeks were digitised as part of the marsh platform, automatic detection classifies them as part of the tidal flat, causing an increase in false negatives and overall platform perimeter. This suggests our method would benefit from a combination with existing creek detection algorithms. Fallen blocs and pioneer zones are inconsistently identified, particularly in macro-tidal marshes, leading to differences between digitisation and the automated method

  11. Simulating and quantifying legacy topographic data uncertainty: an initial step to advancing topographic change analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasklewicz, Thad; Zhu, Zhen; Gares, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Rapid technological advances, sustained funding, and a greater recognition of the value of topographic data have helped develop an increasing archive of topographic data sources. Advances in basic and applied research related to Earth surface changes require researchers to integrate recent high-resolution topography (HRT) data with the legacy datasets. Several technical challenges and data uncertainty issues persist to date when integrating legacy datasets with more recent HRT data. The disparate data sources required to extend the topographic record back in time are often stored in formats that are not readily compatible with more recent HRT data. Legacy data may also contain unknown error or unreported error that make accounting for data uncertainty difficult. There are also cases of known deficiencies in legacy datasets, which can significantly bias results. Finally, scientists are faced with the daunting challenge of definitively deriving the extent to which a landform or landscape has or will continue to change in response natural and/or anthropogenic processes. Here, we examine the question: how do we evaluate and portray data uncertainty from the varied topographic legacy sources and combine this uncertainty with current spatial data collection techniques to detect meaningful topographic changes? We view topographic uncertainty as a stochastic process that takes into consideration spatial and temporal variations from a numerical simulation and physical modeling experiment. The numerical simulation incorporates numerous topographic data sources typically found across a range of legacy data to present high-resolution data, while the physical model focuses on more recent HRT data acquisition techniques. Elevation uncertainties observed from anchor points in the digital terrain models are modeled using "states" in a stochastic estimator. Stochastic estimators trace the temporal evolution of the uncertainties and are natively capable of incorporating sensor

  12. Delineation, characterization, and classification of topographic eminences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gaurav

    Topographic eminences are defined as upwardly rising, convex shaped topographic landforms that are noticeably distinct in their immediate surroundings. As opposed to everyday objects, the properties of a topographic eminence are dependent not only on how it is conceptualized, but is also intrinsically related to its spatial extent and its relative location in the landscape. In this thesis, a system for automated detection, delineation and characterization of topographic eminences based on an analysis of digital elevation models is proposed. Research has shown that conceptualization of eminences (and other landforms) is linked to the cultural and linguistic backgrounds of people. However, the perception of stimuli from our physical environment is not subject to cultural or linguistic bias. Hence, perceptually salient morphological and spatial properties of the natural landscape can form the basis for generically applicable detection and delineation of topographic eminences. Six principles of cognitive eminence modeling are introduced to develop the philosophical foundation of this research regarding eminence delineation and characterization. The first step in delineating eminences is to automatically detect their presence within digital elevation models. This is achieved by the use of quantitative geomorphometric parameters (e.g., elevation, slope and curvature) and qualitative geomorphometric features (e.g., peaks, passes, pits, ridgelines, and valley lines). The process of eminence delineation follows that of eminence detection. It is posited that eminences may be perceived either as monolithic terrain objects, or as composites of morphological parts (e.g., top, bottom, slope). Individual eminences may also simultaneously be conceived as comprising larger, higher order eminence complexes (e.g., mountain ranges). Multiple algorithms are presented for the delineation of simple and complex eminences, and the morphological parts of eminences. The proposed eminence

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF WATER SURFACES USING AIRBORNE TOPOGRAPHIC LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Smeeckaert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate Digital Terrain Models (DTM are inevitable inputs for mapping areas subject to natural hazards. Topographic airborne laser scanning has become an established technique to characterize the Earth surface: lidar provides 3D point clouds allowing a fine reconstruction of the topography. For flood hazard modeling, the key step before terrain modeling is the discrimination of land and water surfaces within the delivered point clouds. Therefore, instantaneous shoreline, river borders, inland waters can be extracted as a basis for more reliable DTM generation. This paper presents an automatic, efficient, and versatile workflow for land/water classification of airborne topographic lidar data. For that purpose, a classification framework based on Support Vector Machines (SVM is designed. First, a restricted set of features, based only 3D lidar point coordinates and flightline information, is defined. Then, the SVM learning step is performed on small but well-targeted areas thanks to an automatic region growing strategy. Finally, label probabilities given by the SVM are merged during a probabilistic relaxation step in order to remove pixel-wise misclassification. Results show that survey of millions of points are labelled with high accuracy (>95% in most cases for coastal areas, and >89% for rivers and that small natural and anthropic features of interest are still well classified though we work at low point densities (0.5–4 pts/m2. Our approach is valid for coasts and rivers, and provides a strong basis for further discrimination of land-cover classes and coastal habitats.

  14. UAV photogrammetry for topographic monitoring of coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, J. A.; Henriques, R.

    2015-06-01

    Coastal areas suffer degradation due to the action of the sea and other natural and human-induced causes. Topographical changes in beaches and sand dunes need to be assessed, both after severe events and on a regular basis, to build models that can predict the evolution of these natural environments. This is an important application for airborne LIDAR, and conventional photogrammetry is also being used for regular monitoring programs of sensitive coastal areas. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to map and monitor sand dunes and beaches. A very light plane (SwingletCam) equipped with a very cheap, non-metric camera was used to acquire images with ground resolutions better than 5 cm. The Agisoft Photoscan software was used to orientate the images, extract point clouds, build a digital surface model and produce orthoimage mosaics. The processing, which includes automatic aerial triangulation with camera calibration and subsequent model generation, was mostly automated. To achieve the best positional accuracy for the whole process, signalised ground control points were surveyed with a differential GPS receiver. Two very sensitive test areas on the Portuguese northwest coast were analysed. Detailed DSMs were obtained with 10 cm grid spacing and vertical accuracy (RMS) ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 cm, which is very similar to the image ground resolution (3.2-4.5 cm). Where possible to assess, the planimetric accuracy of the orthoimage mosaics was found to be subpixel. Within the regular coastal monitoring programme being carried out in the region, UAVs can replace many of the conventional flights, with considerable gains in the cost of the data acquisition and without any loss in the quality of topographic and aerial imagery data.

  15. Generating Topographic Map Data from Classification Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Höhle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of classification results as topographic map data requires cartographic enhancement and checking of the geometric accuracy. Urban areas are of special interest. The conversion of the classification result into topographic map data of high thematic and geometric quality is subject of this contribution. After reviewing the existing literature on this topic, a methodology is presented. The extraction of point clouds belonging to line segments is solved by the Hough transform. The mathematics for deriving polygons of orthogonal, parallel and general line segments by least squares adjustment is presented. A unique solution for polylines, where the Hough parameters are optimized, is also given. By means of two data sets land cover maps of six classes were produced and then enhanced by the proposed method. The classification used the decision tree method applying a variety of attributes including object heights derived from imagery. The cartographic enhancement is carried out with two different levels of quality. The user’s accuracies for the classes “impervious surface” and “building” were above 85% in the “Level 1” map of Example 1. The geometric accuracy of building corners at the “Level 2” maps is assessed by means of reference data derived from ortho-images. The obtained root mean square errors (RMSE of the generated coordinates (x, y were RMSEx = 1.2 m and RMSEy = 0.7 m (Example 1 and RMSEx = 0.8 m and RMSEy = 1.0 m (Example 2 using 31 and 62 check points, respectively. All processing for Level 1 (raster data could be carried out with a high degree of automation. Level 2 maps (vector data were compiled for the classes “building” and “road and parking lot”. For urban areas with numerous classes and of large size, universal algorithms are necessary to produce vector data fully automatically. The recent progress in sensors and machine learning methods will support the generation of topographic map data of high

  16. Population-wide weight loss and regain in relation to diabetes burden and cardiovascular mortality in Cuba 1980-2010: repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Manuel; Bilal, Usama; Orduñez, Pedro; Benet, Mikhail; Morejón, Alain; Caballero, Benjamín; Kennelly, Joan F; Cooper, Richard S

    2013-04-09

    To evaluate the associations between population-wide loss and gain in weight with diabetes prevalence, incidence, and mortality, as well as cardiovascular and cancer mortality trends, in Cuba over a 30 year interval. Repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends. Cuba and the province of Cienfuegos, from 1980 to 2010. Measurements in Cienfuegos included a representative sample of 1657, 1351, 1667, and 1492 adults in 1991, 1995, 2001, and 2010, respectively. National surveys included a representative sample of 14 304, 22 851, and 8031 participants in 1995, 2001, and 2010, respectively. Changes in smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, and body weight were tracked from 1980 to 2010 using national and regional surveys. Data for diabetes prevalence and incidence were obtained from national population based registries. Mortality trends were modelled using national vital statistics. Rapid declines in diabetes and heart disease accompanied an average population-wide loss of 5.5 kg in weight, driven by an economic crisis in the mid-1990s. A rebound in population weight followed in 1995 (33.5% prevalence of overweight and obesity) and exceeded pre-crisis levels by 2010 (52.9% prevalence). The population-wide increase in weight was immediately followed by a 116% increase in diabetes prevalence and 140% increase in diabetes incidence. Six years into the weight rebound phase, diabetes mortality increased by 49% (from 9.3 deaths per 10 000 people in 2002 to 13.9 deaths per 10 000 people in 2010). A deceleration in the rate of decline in mortality from coronary heart disease was also observed. In relation to the Cuban experience in 1980-2010, there is an association at the population level between weight reduction and death from diabetes and cardiovascular disease; the opposite effect on the diabetes and cardiovascular burden was seen on population-wide weight gain.

  17. Biodiversity and Topographic Complexity: Modern and Geohistorical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, Catherine; Smiley, Tara M.; Terry, Rebecca; Davis, Edward B.; DeSantis, Larisa R.G.; Fox, David L.; Hopkins, Samantha S.B.; Jezkova, Tereza; Matocq, Marjorie D.; Matzke, Nick; McGuire, Jenny L.; Mulch, Andreas; Riddle, Brett R.; Roth, V. Louise; Samuels, Joshua X.; Strömberg, Caroline A.E.; Yanites, Brian J.

    2018-01-01

    Topographically complex regions on land and in the oceans feature hotspots of biodiversity that reflect geological influences on ecological and evolutionary processes. Over geologic time, topographic diversity gradients wax and wane over millions of years, tracking tectonic or climatic history. Topographic diversity gradients from the present day and the past can result from the generation of species by vicariance or from the accumulation of species from dispersal into a region with strong environmental gradients. Biological and geological approaches must be integrated to test alternative models of diversification along topographic gradients. Reciprocal illumination among phylogenetic, phylogeographic, ecological, paleontological, tectonic, and climatic perspectives is an emerging frontier of biogeographic research. PMID:28196688

  18. 2009 SWFWMD Topographic Lidar: Peace River South (Florida)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFWMD regularly uses digital topographic information to support regulatory, land management and acquisition, planning, engineering and habitat restoration projects....

  19. Topographic Signatures of Meandering Rivers with Differences in Outer Bank Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S. A.; Belmont, P.

    2014-12-01

    Within a given valley setting, interactions between river hydraulics, sediment, topography, and vegetation determine attributes of channel morphology, including planform, width and depth, slope, and bed and bank properties. These feedbacks also govern river behavior, including migration and avulsion. Bank cohesion, from the addition of fine sediment and/or vegetation has been recognized in flume experiments as a necessary component to create and maintain a meandering channel planform. Greater bank cohesion slows bank erosion, limiting the rate at which a river can adjust laterally and preventing so-called "runaway widening" to a braided state. Feedbacks of bank cohesion on channel hydraulics and sediment transport may thus produce distinct topographic signatures, or patterns in channel width, depth, and point bar transverse slope. We expect that in bends of greater outer bank cohesion the channel will be narrower, deeper, and bars will have greater transverse slopes. Only recently have we recognized that biotic processes may imprint distinct topographic signatures on the landscape. This study explores topographic signatures of three US rivers: the lower Minnesota River, near Mankato, MN, the Le Sueur River, south central MN, and the Fall River, Rocky Mountain National Park, CO. Each of these rivers has variability in outer bank cohesion, quantified based on geotechnical and vegetation properties, and in-channel topography, which was derived from rtkGPS and acoustic bathymetry surveys. We present methods for incorporating biophysical feedbacks into geomorphic transport laws so that models can better simulate the spatial patterns and variability of topographic signatures.

  20. Friction Anisotropy with Respect to Topographic Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties. PMID:23248751

  1. Using UAV photogrammetry to study topographic change: application to Saskatchewan Glacier, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier Cardinal, G.; Demuth, M. N.; Kinnard, C.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers are an important source of fresh water in the headwaters of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, and ongoing climate warming could reduce their future hydrological contribution. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAVs) are an emergent technology that allow studying glacial processes with an unprecedented level of detail, but their usefulness for deriving accurate topographic data on glaciers has not yet been fully assessed. In this perspective we tested the use of a UAV platform to acquire images at a very high spatial resolution (using the Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithm. A detailed assessment of DEM errors was performed by cross-validation of an network of ground control points (GCPs) deployed on the glacier surface. The influence of checkpoint position in the network, border effects, number of photos calibrated and GPS accuracy were examined. Topographical changes were measured from the DEM difference and surface displacements estimated by applying feature tracking techniques to the orthomosaics. Further, the dominant scales of topographic spatial variability were examined using a semivariogram analysis of the DEMs. Results show that UAV-based photogrammetry is promising to further our understanding of high-resolution glacier surface processes and to perform repeat, on-demand monitoring of glacier changes, but their application on remote glaciers remains challenging.

  2. Evaluation of corneal higher order aberrations in normal topographic patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzajani

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Based on results in this study, there were a good correlation between corneal topographic pattern and corneal HOAs in normal eyes. These results indicate that the corneal HOAs values are largely determined by the topographic patterns. A larger sample size would perhaps have been beneficial to yield in more accurate outcomes.

  3. Comparative analysis of extracted heights from topographic maps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topographic maps represent the three-dimensional landscape by providing relief information in the form of contours in addition to plan information on which natural and man-made landmarks are quite accurately represented. Height information, extractible from topographic maps, comes in handy for most land use planning.

  4. Why Gas Hydrate Occurrenced Over Topographic Highs in Shenhu Area Northern South China Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Methane gas hydrate has been drilled by China Geological Survey in shenhu area northern south china sea in 2007 .Shenhu area is located in the middle-lower continental slope and 17 submarine canyons are incised into the shelf,gas hydrtae was observed in boreholes over topographic highs,but origin of the hydrate is controversial.Accumulation of gas hydrate is depending on temperature-pressure field and supply quantities of methane and some other factors,in the same depth of the shallow sediments there is the same press,so temperature field and supply quantities of methane become the most important factors.Lachenbruch(1968) calculated the topographic disturbance to geothermal gradients,in shenhu area consistent local variations were observed, notably low heat flow values over prominent topographic highs and high heat flow values over the flanks of the topographic highs. At some localities over a horizontal distance of 2.5 km, heat flow increased by as much as 50%, from typical values of 65 to 100 mW/m2 .Some vertical fractures were observed beneath topographic highs in previous studies.Based on the profile across borehole SH7,we designed four experiments:A,uniform distribution of heat flux with no vertical fractures;B,Uniform distribution of heat flux with vertical fractures beneath geographic highs;C,uneven distribution of heat flux with no vertical fractures;D,uneven distribution of heat flux with vertical fractures beneath geographic highs.According to previous studies,we restored Palaeobathymetry,abundance of organic matters, sandstone-madstone ratio ,porosity and permeability of each,and parameters of vertical fractures.The result of experiment D shows the similar distribution characteristic with the drilling result,so We believe that low heat flux and Vertical fractures are the most important factors . This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China(grant no. 41406080).

  5. Adaptive topographic mass correction for satellite gravity and gravity gradient data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, Nils; Szwillus, Wolfgang; Götze, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface modelling with gravity data includes a reliable topographic mass correction. Since decades, this mandatory step is a standard procedure. However, originally methods were developed for local terrestrial surveys. Therefore, these methods often include defaults like a limited correction area of 167 km around an observation point, resampling topography depending on the distance to the station or disregard the curvature of the earth. New satellite gravity data (e.g. GOCE) can be used for large scale lithospheric modelling with gravity data. The investigation areas can include thousands of kilometres. In addition, measurements are located in the flight height of the satellite (e.g. ~250 km for GOCE). The standard definition of the correction area and the specific grid spacing around an observation point was not developed for stations located in these heights and areas of these dimensions. This asks for a revaluation of the defaults used for topographic correction. We developed an algorithm which resamples the topography based on an adaptive approach. Instead of resampling topography depending on the distance to the station, the grids will be resampled depending on its influence at the station. Therefore, the only value the user has to define is the desired accuracy of the topographic correction. It is not necessary to define the grid spacing and a limited correction area. Furthermore, the algorithm calculates the topographic mass response with a spherical shaped polyhedral body. We show examples for local and global gravity datasets and compare the results of the topographic mass correction to existing approaches. We provide suggestions how satellite gravity and gradient data should be corrected.

  6. The impact of a tobacco point-of-sale display ban on youth in the United Kingdom: findings from a repeat cross-sectional survey pre-, mid- and post-implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Ford

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The display of tobacco products at the point-of-sale (POS allows tobacco companies to showcase their products and communicate with consumers. Evidence suggests that exposure to POS tobacco displays is associated with impulse tobacco purchasing among adult smokers and smoking susceptibility among never smoking youth. In the United Kingdom (UK a ban on the open display of tobacco products was phased in between 2012 and 2015. Three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Survey were used to examine the impact of the ban on youth pre-, mid- and post-implementation. Methods A repeat cross-sectional survey was conducted with 11-16 year olds across the UK. Data was collected via an in-home face-to-face interview and self-completion questionnaire at three time points: pre- (2011, n=1373, mid- (2014, n=1205, and post-display ban (2016, n=1213. We examined whether the salience of displays was associated with smoking susceptibility among never smokers. Measures also explored cigarette brand awareness, attractiveness of displays and support for a display ban. Results In 2011, pre-ban, susceptibility to smoke was positively associated with noticing cigarettes displayed at POS and higher brand awareness. Susceptibility to smoke decreased from 28% in 2011 (pre-ban to 18% in 2016 (post-ban, with the mean number of brands recalled falling from 1.56 (SD=1.88 in 2011 to 1.01 (SD=1.42 in 2016. With respect to support for the ban, in 2016 the vast majority of our sample (87% indicated that shops should have to keep cigarettes behind closed shutters. They also felt that having them behind closed shutters made them seem unappealing (73% and made them think that it's not ok to smoke (83%. Conclusions That smoking susceptibility was lower following the ban suggests that placing tobacco out of sight helps safeguard young people and justifies this policy approach in the UK and elsewhere.

  7. Topographic mapping of electroencephalography coherence in hypnagogic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Hayashi, M; Hori, T

    1998-04-01

    The present study examined the topographic characteristics of hypnagogic electroencephalography (EEG), using topographic mapping of EEG power and coherence corresponding to nine EEG stages (Hori's hypnagogic EEG stages). EEG stages 1 and 2, the EEG stages 3-8, and the EEG stage 9 each correspond with standard sleep stage W, 1 and 2, respectively. The dominant topographic components of delta and theta activities increased clearly from the vertex sharp-wave stage (the EEG stages 6 and 7) in the anterior-central areas. The dominant topographic component of alpha 3 activities increased clearly from the EEG stage 9 in the anterior-central areas. The dominant topographic component of sigma activities increased clearly from the EEG stage 8 in the central-parietal area. These results suggested basic sleep process might start before the onset of sleep stage 2 or of the manually scored spindles.

  8. IMPACT OF DIFFERENT TOPOGRAPHIC CORRECTIONS ON PREDICTION ACCURACY OF FOLIAGE PROJECTIVE COVER (FPC IN A TOPOGRAPHICALLY COMPLEX TERRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ediriweera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative retrieval of land surface biological parameters (e.g. foliage projective cover [FPC] and Leaf Area Index is crucial for forest management, ecosystem modelling, and global change monitoring applications. Currently, remote sensing is a widely adopted method for rapid estimation of surface biological parameters in a landscape scale. Topographic correction is a necessary pre-processing step in the remote sensing application for topographically complex terrain. Selection of a suitable topographic correction method on remotely sensed spectral information is still an unresolved problem. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of topographic corrections on the prediction of FPC in hilly terrain using an established regression model. Five established topographic corrections [C, Minnaert, SCS, SCS+C and processing scheme for standardised surface reflectance (PSSSR] were evaluated on Landsat TM5 acquired under low and high sun angles in closed canopied subtropical rainforest and eucalyptus dominated open canopied forest, north-eastern Australia. The effectiveness of methods at normalizing topographic influence, preserving biophysical spectral information, and internal data variability were assessed by statistical analysis and by comparing field collected FPC data. The results of statistical analyses show that SCS+C and PSSSR perform significantly better than other corrections, which were on less overcorrected areas of faintly illuminated slopes. However, the best relationship between FPC and Landsat spectral responses was obtained with the PSSSR by producing the least residual error. The SCS correction method was poor for correction of topographic effect in predicting FPC in topographically complex terrain.

  9. Topographic and hydraulic controls over alluviation on a bedrock template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, David; Heritage, George; Entwistle, Neil; Tooth, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    Bedrock-alluvial anastomosed channels found in dryland rivers are characterised by an over-wide channel cut into the host rock containing a network of interconnecting bedrock sub-channels separated by bedrock influenced interfluve areas. Whilst the channels remain largely free of sediment the interfluves display varying levels of alluviation ranging from bare rock, sand sheets and silt drapes through to consolidated bedrock core bars, islands and lateral deposits. Examination of the sedimentary units associated with the bedrock anastomosed reaches of the Sabie river in the Kruger National Park, South Africa reveal a repeating sequence of coarse sand / fine gravel grading through to silt representing successive flood related depositional units. Unit development in relation to the bedrock template was investigated using pre-flood aerial imagery of bedrock core bar locations and post flood LiDAR data of bedrock anastomosed sites stripped during the 2000 and 2012 extreme flood events. This revealed a propensity for bar development associated with bedrock hollows disconnected from the principal high-energy sub-channels. 2-D morpho-dynamic modelling was used to further investigate spatial patterns of deposition over the bedrock template. Although topographic lows displayed mid-range velocities during peak flow events, these are likely to be preferential routing areas, with sediments stalling in low energy areas on the falling limb of floods. It is also likely that vegetation development plays a fundamental role in the development of alluviated zones, through increasing strength of alluvial units and capturing new sediments. With these results in mind we present a conceptual model for the development of bedrock-core bars, the fundamental unit in bedrock-alluvial anastomosed channels.

  10. A gimbal platform stabilization for topographic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele, Mangiameli, E-mail: michele.mangiameli@dica.unict.it; Giuseppe, Mussumeci [Dept. of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    The aim of this work is the stabilization of a Gimbal platform for optical sensors acquisitions in topographic applications using mobile vehicles. The stabilization of the line of sight (LOS) consists in tracking the command velocity in presence of nonlinear noise due to the external environment. The hardware architecture is characterized by an Ardupilot platform that allows the control of both the mobile device and the Gimbal. Here we developed a new approach to stabilize the Gimbal platform, which is based on neural network. For the control system, we considered a plant that represents the transfer function of the servo system control model for an inertial stabilized Gimbal platform. The transductor used in the feed-back line control is characterized by the Rate Gyro transfer function installed onboard of Ardupilot. For the simulation and investigation of the system performance, we used the Simulink tool of Matlab. Results show that the hardware/software approach is efficient, reliable and cheap for direct photogrammetry, as well as for general purpose applications using mobile vehicles.

  11. Nanoscale Topographical Characterization of Orbital Implant Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Salerno

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for an ideal orbital implant is still ongoing in the field of ocular biomaterials. Major limitations of currently-available porous implants include the high cost along with a non-negligible risk of exposure and postoperative infection due to conjunctival abrasion. In the effort to develop better alternatives to the existing devices, two types of new glass-ceramic porous implants were fabricated by sponge replication, which is a relatively inexpensive method. Then, they were characterized by direct three-dimensional (3D contact probe mapping in real space by means of atomic force microscopy in order to assess their surface micro- and nano-features, which were quantitatively compared to those of the most commonly-used orbital implants. These silicate glass-ceramic materials exhibit a surface roughness in the range of a few hundred nanometers (Sq within 500–700 nm and topographical features comparable to those of clinically-used “gold-standard” alumina and polyethylene porous orbital implants. However, it was noted that both experimental and commercial non-porous implants were significantly smoother than all the porous ones. The results achieved in this work reveal that these porous glass-ceramic materials show promise for the intended application and encourage further investigation of their clinical suitability.

  12. Integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löberg, Johanna, E-mail: Johanna.Loberg@dentsply.com [Dentsply Implants, Box 14, SE-431 21 Mölndal (Sweden); Mattisson, Ingela [Dentsply Implants, Box 14, SE-431 21 Mölndal (Sweden); Ahlberg, Elisabet [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-01-30

    In an attempt to reduce the need for animal studies in dental implant applications, a new model has been developed which combines well-known surface characterization methods with theoretical biomechanical calculations. The model has been named integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC), and gives a comprehensive description of the surface topography and the ability of the surface to induce retention strength with bone. IBTSC comprises determination of 3D-surface roughness parameters by using 3D-scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and calculation of the ability of different surface topographies to induce retention strength in bone by using the local model. Inherent in this integrated approach is the use of a length scale analysis, which makes it possible to separate different size levels of surface features. The IBTSC concept is tested on surfaces with different level of hierarchy, induced by mechanical as well as chemical treatment. Sequential treatment with oxalic and hydrofluoric acid results in precipitated nano-sized features that increase the surface roughness and the surface slope on the sub-micro and nano levels. This surface shows the highest calculated shear strength using the local model. The validity, robustness and applicability of the IBTSC concept are demonstrated and discussed.

  13. THE DESIGN AND PRODUCT OF NATIONAL 1:1000000 CARTOGRAPHIC DATA OF TOPOGRAPHIC MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available National administration of surveying, mapping and geoinformation started to launch the project of national fundamental geographic information database dynamic update in 2012. Among them, the 1:50000 database was updated once a year, furthermore the 1:250000 database was downsized and linkage-updated on the basis. In 2014, using the latest achievements of 1:250000 database, comprehensively update the 1:1000000 digital line graph database. At the same time, generate cartographic data of topographic map and digital elevation model data. This article mainly introduce national 1:1000000 cartographic data of topographic map, include feature content, database structure, Database-driven Mapping technology, workflow and so on.

  14. Topographic map analysis to determine Arjuno-Welirang volcanostratigraphy and implication for geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriani, Lestari; Satriana, Joshua; Aulian Chalik, Citra; Syahputra Mulyana, Reza; Hafidz, Muhammad; Suryantini

    2017-12-01

    Volcanostratigraphy study is used for supporting geothermal exploration on preliminary survey. This study is important to identify volcanic eruption center which shows potential area of geothermal heat source. The purpose of volcanostratigraphy study in research area is going to distinguish the characteristics of volcanic eruption product that construct the volcanic body. The analysis of Arjuno-Welirang volcanostratigraphy identification are based on topographic maps of Malang sheet with 1:100.000 scale, 1:50.000 scale, and a geological map. Regarding to the delineation of ridge and river, we determine five crowns, three hummocks, one brigade and one super brigade. The crowns consist of Ringgit, Welirang, Arjuno, Kawi, and Penanggungan, the hummocks comprise of Kembar III, Kembar II, and Kembar I, the brigade is Arjuno-Welirang, and the super brigade is Tengger. Based on topographic map interpretation and geothermal prospect evaluation method analysis, shows that Arjuno-Welirang prospect area have good geothermal resource potential.

  15. Updating National Topographic Data Base Using Change Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan, E.; Felus, Y. A.; Tal, Y.; Zilberstien, O.; Elihai, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The traditional method for updating a topographic database on a national scale is a complex process that requires human resources, time and the development of specialized procedures. In many National Mapping and Cadaster Agencies (NMCA), the updating cycle takes a few years. Today, the reality is dynamic and the changes occur every day, therefore, the users expect that the existing database will portray the current reality. Global mapping projects which are based on community volunteers, such as OSM, update their database every day based on crowdsourcing. In order to fulfil user's requirements for rapid updating, a new methodology that maps major interest areas while preserving associated decoding information, should be developed. Until recently, automated processes did not yield satisfactory results, and a typically process included comparing images from different periods. The success rates in identifying the objects were low, and most were accompanied by a high percentage of false alarms. As a result, the automatic process required significant editorial work that made it uneconomical. In the recent years, the development of technologies in mapping, advancement in image processing algorithms and computer vision, together with the development of digital aerial cameras with NIR band and Very High Resolution satellites, allow the implementation of a cost effective automated process. The automatic process is based on high-resolution Digital Surface Model analysis, Multi Spectral (MS) classification, MS segmentation, object analysis and shape forming algorithms. This article reviews the results of a novel change detection methodology as a first step for updating NTDB in the Survey of Israel.

  16. Development and evaluation of a specialized task taxonomy for spatial planning - A map literacy experiment with topographic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, Victoria; Coetzee, Serena; Çöltekin, Arzu

    2017-05-01

    Topographic maps are among the most commonly used map types, however, their complex and information-rich designs depicting natural, human-made and cultural features make them difficult to read. Regardless of their complexity, spatial planners make extensive use of topographic maps in their work. On the other hand, various studies suggest that map literacy among the development planning professionals in South Africa is not very high. The widespread use of topographic maps combined with the low levels of map literacy presents challenges for effective development planning. In this paper we address some of these challenges by developing a specialized task taxonomy based on systematically assessed map literacy levels; and conducting an empirical experiment with topographic maps to evaluate our task taxonomy. In such empirical studies if non-realistic tasks are used, the results of map literacy tests may be skewed. Furthermore, experience and familiarity with the studied map type play a role in map literacy. There is thus a need to develop map literacy tests aimed at planners specifically. We developed a taxonomy of realistic map reading tasks typically executed during the planning process. The taxonomy defines six levels tasks of increasing difficulty and complexity, ranging from recognising symbols to extracting knowledge. We hypothesized that competence in the first four levels indicates functional map literacy. In this paper, we present results from an empirical experiment with 49 map literate participants solving a subset of tasks from the first four levels of the taxonomy with a topographic map. Our findings suggest that the proposed taxonomy is a good reference for evaluating topographic map literacy. Participants solved the tasks on all four levels as expected and we therefore conclude that the experiment based on the first four levels of the taxonomy successfully determined the functional map literacy of the participants. We plan to continue the study for the

  17. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  18. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  19. Quantum repeated games revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable. (paper)

  20. A fast approach to generate large-scale topographic maps based on new Chinese vehicle-borne Lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmei, Han; Bogang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Large -scale topographic maps are important basic information for city and regional planning and management. Traditional large- scale mapping methods are mostly based on artificial mapping and photogrammetry. The traditional mapping method is inefficient and limited by the environments. While the photogrammetry methods(such as low-altitude aerial mapping) is an economical and effective way to map wide and regulate range of large scale topographic map but doesn't work well in the small area due to the high cost of manpower and resources. Recent years, the vehicle-borne LIDAR technology has a rapid development, and its application in surveying and mapping is becoming a new topic. The main objective of this investigation is to explore the potential of vehicle-borne LIDAR technology to be used to fast mapping large scale topographic maps based on new Chinese vehicle-borne LIDAR system. It studied how to use the new Chinese vehicle-borne LIDAR system measurement technology to map large scale topographic maps. After the field data capture, it can be mapped in the office based on the LIDAR data (point cloud) by software which programmed by ourselves. In addition, the detailed process and accuracy analysis were proposed by an actual case. The result show that this new technology provides a new fast method to generate large scale topographic maps, which is high efficient and accuracy compared to traditional methods

  1. The chang’E-1 topographic atlas of the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chunlai; Mu, Lingli; Ren, Xin; Zuo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This atlas is based on the lunar global Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of Chang'E-1 (CE-1), and presents CCD stereo image data with digital photogrammetry. The spatial resolution of the DEM in this atlas is 500m, with horizontal accuracy of 192m and vertical accuracy of 120m. Color-shaded relief maps with contour lines are used to show the lunar topographical characteristics. The topographical data gathered by CE-1 can provide fundamental information for the study of lunar topographical, morphological and geological structures, as well as for lunar evolution research.

  2. Repeat migration and disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  3. Biodiversity and Topographic Complexity: Modern and Geohistorical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, Catherine; Smiley, Tara M; Terry, Rebecca; Davis, Edward B; DeSantis, Larisa R G; Fox, David L; Hopkins, Samantha S B; Jezkova, Tereza; Matocq, Marjorie D; Matzke, Nick; McGuire, Jenny L; Mulch, Andreas; Riddle, Brett R; Roth, V Louise; Samuels, Joshua X; Strömberg, Caroline A E; Yanites, Brian J

    2017-03-01

    Topographically complex regions on land and in the oceans feature hotspots of biodiversity that reflect geological influences on ecological and evolutionary processes. Over geologic time, topographic diversity gradients wax and wane over millions of years, tracking tectonic or climatic history. Topographic diversity gradients from the present day and the past can result from the generation of species by vicariance or from the accumulation of species from dispersal into a region with strong environmental gradients. Biological and geological approaches must be integrated to test alternative models of diversification along topographic gradients. Reciprocal illumination among phylogenetic, phylogeographic, ecological, paleontological, tectonic, and climatic perspectives is an emerging frontier of biogeographic research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Topographic features over the continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Machado, T.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    water depth and the continental shelfedge several interesting topographic features such as Terraces, Karstic structures associated with pinnacles and troughs and smooth dome shaped reef structures are recorded. The nature of these features...

  5. 2006 URS Corporation Bare Earth Topographic Lidar: Shawsheen River, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — URS Corporation contracted EarthData International to aquire topographic elevation data for 82 square miles in Essex and Middlesex Counties, Massachusetts during...

  6. Topographic Digital Raster Graphics - USGS DIGITAL RASTER GRAPHICS

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — USGS Topographic Digital Raster Graphics downloaded from LABINS (http://data.labins.org/2003/MappingData/drg/drg_stpl83.cfm). A digital raster graphic (DRG) is a...

  7. A Visual Framework for Digital Reconstruction of Topographic Maps

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem; Smith, Neil; Wittmann, Roland; Schneider, Jens

    2014-01-01

    , this method has broad applicability for digitization and reconstruction of the world's old topographic maps that are often the only record of past landscapess and cultural heritage before their destruction under modern development.

  8. Evaluation of topographic index in relation to terrain roughness and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of landslide susceptibility (Yesilnacar and Topal .... network. Topographic index is used by different researchers considering different DEM grid ...... TOPMODEL into GIS; Environ. .... ping: A comparison of logistic regression and neural net-.

  9. 2012 USACE Post Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Coastal Connecticut

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data has been acquired and developed by the U.S. Corps of Engineers ST. Louis District to collect and deliver topographic elevation point data derived from...

  10. Topographic mapping support in the South African military during the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    andre

    In doing so, the operational importance of topographic maps is also ...... Police and later the South African Defence Force tried to stem this growing tide and ... first annual intake of national service women, and though trained internally as.

  11. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Fiser, Andras; Roderick, Steven L.; Takiff, Howard E.; Blanchard, John S.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S,T,A,V][D,N][L,F]-[S,T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Myc...

  12. Geologic and topographic maps of the Kabul South 30' x 60' quadrangle, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    This report consists of two map sheets, this pamphlet, and a collection of database files. Sheet 1 is the geologic map with three highly speculative cross sections, and sheet 2 is a topographic map that comprises all the support data for the geologic map. Both maps (sheets 1 and 2) are produced at 1:100,000-scale and are provided in Geospatial PDF format that preserves the georegistration and original layering. The database files include images of the topographic hillshade (shaded relief) and color-topography files used to create the topographic maps, a copy of the Landsat image, and a gray-scale basemap. Vector data from each of the layers that comprise both maps are provided in the form of Arc/INFO shapefiles. Most of the geologic interpretations and all of the topographic data were derived exclusively from images. A variety of image types were used, and each image type corresponds to a unique view of the geology. The geologic interpretations presented here are the result of comparing and contrasting between the various images and making the best uses of the strengths of each image type. A limited amount of fieldwork, in the spring of 2004 and the fall of 2006, was carried out within the quadrangle, but all the war-related dangers present in Afghanistan restricted its scope, duration, and utility. The maps that are included in this report represent works-in-progress in that they are simply intended to be the best possible product for the time available and conditions that exist during the early phases of reconstruction in Afghanistan. This report has been funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as a part of several broader programs that USAID designed to stimulate growth in the energy and mineral sectors of the Afghan economy. The main objective is to provide maps that will be used by scientists of the Afghan Ministry of Mines, the Afghanistan Geological Survey, and the Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office in their efforts

  13. Geologic and Topographic Maps of the Kabul North 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    This report consists of two map sheets, this pamphlet, and a collection of database files. Sheet 1 is the geologic map with two highly speculative cross sections, and sheet 2 is a topographic map that comprises all the support data for the geologic map. Both maps (sheets 1 and 2) are produced at 1:100,000-scale and are provided in GeoPDF format that preserves the georegistration and original layering. The database files include images of the topographic hillshade (shaded relief) and color-topography files used to create the topographic maps, a copy of the Landsat image, and a gray-scale basemap. Vector data from each of the layers that comprise both maps are provided in the form of Arc/INFO shapefiles. Most of the geologic interpretations and all of the topographic data were derived exclusively from images. A variety of image types were used, and each image type corresponds to a unique view of the geology. The geologic interpretations presented here are the result of comparing and contrasting between the various images and making the best uses of the strengths of each image type. A limited amount of fieldwork, in the spring of 2004 and the fall of 2006, was carried out within the quadrangle, but all the war-related dangers present in Afghanistan restricted its scope, duration, and utility. The maps that are included in this report represent works-in-progress in that they are simply intended to be the best possible product for the time available and conditions that exist during the early phases of reconstruction in Afghanistan. This report has been funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as a part of several broader programs that USAID designed to stimulate growth in the energy and mineral sectors of the Afghan economy. The main objective is to provide maps that will be used by scientists of the Afghan Ministry of Mines, the Afghanistan Geological Survey, and the Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office in their efforts to rebuild

  14. UPDATING NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC DATA BASE USING CHANGE DETECTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Keinan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method for updating a topographic database on a national scale is a complex process that requires human resources, time and the development of specialized procedures. In many National Mapping and Cadaster Agencies (NMCA, the updating cycle takes a few years. Today, the reality is dynamic and the changes occur every day, therefore, the users expect that the existing database will portray the current reality. Global mapping projects which are based on community volunteers, such as OSM, update their database every day based on crowdsourcing. In order to fulfil user's requirements for rapid updating, a new methodology that maps major interest areas while preserving associated decoding information, should be developed. Until recently, automated processes did not yield satisfactory results, and a typically process included comparing images from different periods. The success rates in identifying the objects were low, and most were accompanied by a high percentage of false alarms. As a result, the automatic process required significant editorial work that made it uneconomical. In the recent years, the development of technologies in mapping, advancement in image processing algorithms and computer vision, together with the development of digital aerial cameras with NIR band and Very High Resolution satellites, allow the implementation of a cost effective automated process. The automatic process is based on high-resolution Digital Surface Model analysis, Multi Spectral (MS classification, MS segmentation, object analysis and shape forming algorithms. This article reviews the results of a novel change detection methodology as a first step for updating NTDB in the Survey of Israel.

  15. Evaluation of Different Topographic Corrections for Landsat TM Data by Prediction of Foliage Projective Cover (FPC in Topographically Complex Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisira Ediriweera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reflected radiance in topographically complex areas is severely affected by variations in topography; thus, topographic correction is considered a necessary pre-processing step when retrieving biophysical variables from these images. We assessed the performance of five topographic corrections: (i C correction (C, (ii Minnaert, (iii Sun Canopy Sensor (SCS, (iv SCS + C and (v the Processing Scheme for Standardised Surface Reflectance (PSSSR on the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM reflectance in the context of prediction of Foliage Projective Cover (FPC in hilly landscapes in north-eastern Australia. The performance of topographic corrections on the TM reflectance was assessed by (i visual comparison and (ii statistically comparing TM predicted FPC with ground measured FPC and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging-derived FPC estimates. In the majority of cases, the PSSSR method performed best in terms of eliminating topographic effects, providing the best relationship and lowest residual error when comparing ground measured FPC and LiDAR FPC with TM predicted FPC. The Minnaert, C and SCS + C showed the poorest performance. Finally, the use of TM surface reflectance, which includes atmospheric correction and broad Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF effects, seemed to account for most topographic variation when predicting biophysical variables, such as FPC.

  16. Topographic change detection at select archeological sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Minasian, Diane L.; Kayen, Robert; Dealy, Timothy P.; Bedford, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Human occupation in Grand Canyon, Arizona, dates from at least 11,000 years before present to the modern era. For most of this period, the only evidence of human occupation in this iconic landscape is provided by archeological sites. Because of the dynamic nature of this environment, many archeological sites are subject to relatively rapid topographic change. Quantifying the extent, magnitude, and cause of such change is important for monitoring and managing these archeological sites. Such quantification is necessary to help inform the continuing debate on whether and how controlled releases from Glen Canyon Dam, located immediately upstream of Grand Canyon National Park, are affecting site erosion rates, artifact transport, and archeological resource preservation along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Although long-term topographic change resulting from a variety of natural processes is inherent in the Grand Canyon region, continued erosion of archeological sites threatens both the archeological resources and our future ability to study evidence of past cultural habitation. Thus, this subject is of considerable interest to National Park Service managers and other stakeholders in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. Understanding the causes and effects of archeological site erosion requires a knowledge of several factors, including the location, timing, and magnitude of the changes occurring in relation to archeological resources, the rates of change, and the relative contribution of potential causes. These potential causes include sediment depletion associated with managed flows from Glen Canyon Dam, site-specific weather and overland flow patterns, visitor impacts, and long-term regional climate change. To obtain this information, highly accurate, spatially specific data are needed from sites undergoing change. Using terrestrial lidar techniques, and building upon three previous surveys of archeological sites performed in 2006 and 2007, we

  17. Civil Engineering and Building Service Topographic Permanent Landmarks Network. Spatial Coordinate Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepadatu Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a modern concept of adaptation conditions for achieving objectives that respond simultaneously to at least three major requirements: economic, social and environmental. Achieving sustainable development cannot be accomplished without a change of mentality of people and without communities able to use resources rationally and efficiently. For an efficient application programs surveying topography discipline the students have imagined and created a network of local topographic permanent terminals required for reporting the rectangular coordinates of applications. In order to obtain more accurate values of these coordinates we have made several types of measurements that will be presented in detail in this work.

  18. Monitoring of a burning conical heap by combining topographical mapping with infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, O.; Antczak, E.; Defer, D.; Duthoit, B.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most used method for monitoring a slag heap is the air infrared thermography. Even if it permit to survey a large area and provide a well contrasted display of dangerous areas, this method is expensive, perturbed by atmospheric conditions and cannot offer an accurate localization of defects. In order to mitigate this disadvantage, the LAMH, in association with Groupe Charbonnages de France, set up a method based on topographic and infrared thermographic cross reading which is more accurate, less expensive and, in a near future, will permit a monitoring of combustion reaction. (authors)

  19. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  20. simple sequence repeat (SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  1. Topographic Features of Five K-file Brands in Iranian Market: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahravan, Arash; Gorjestani, Hedayat; Izadi, Arash; Mortazavi, Nazanin

    2018-01-01

    Endodontic files which are used to clean and shape the root canal space differ from each other regarding technical specifications. Recently, K-type files are repeatedly studied on their cutting efficiency. This study aims to evaluate the tip design and cutting efficiency of 5 brands of K-files, available in Iran dental market (naming Dentsply, Thomas, Mani, Perfect and Larmrose). In this descriptive study, topographic features of file tips were investigated by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Those features included tip symmetry, tip design, tip angle, and the distance from the tip to the lowest flute. SEM images (×250 magnification) of files were prepared. Statistical tests (Fisher's exact test, Chi -square, ANOVA, and t test) were used and P brands. No significant differences were found with respect to distance from the file tip to the lowermost flute between different file brands of this study ( P =0.2, One way ANOVA). Dentsply and Mani files possessed the most symmetrical tips and greatest tip angles. With respect to tip length, all 5 brands were satisfactory. However, neither of 5 brands evaluated topographically were outstanding in every aspect.

  2. Topographical Hill Shading Map Production Based Tianditu (map World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Zha, Z.; Tang, D.; Yang, J.

    2018-04-01

    TIANDITU (Map World) is the public version of National Platform for Common Geospatial Information Service, and the terrain service is an important channel for users on the platform. With the development of TIANDITU, topographical hill shading map production for providing and updating global terrain map on line becomes necessary for the characters of strong intuition, three-dimensional sense and aesthetic effect. As such, the terrain service of TIANDITU focuses on displaying the different scales of topographical data globally. And this paper mainly aims to research the method of topographical hill shading map production globally using DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data between the displaying scales about 1 : 140,000,000 to 1 : 4,000,000, corresponded the display level from 2 to 7 on TIANDITU website.

  3. Topographical heterogeneity in transparent PVA hydrogels studied by AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanick, Ashit Kumar; Gupta, Siddhi, E-mail: siddhigupta@nmlindia.org; Mishra, Trilochan; Sinha, Arvind

    2012-02-01

    Physically crosslinked poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels have a wide range of biomedical applications. Transparent and stable PVA hydrogels synthesized by freeze-thawing method are potential candidates to be used as tissue engineering scaffolds provided they exhibit suitable topographical roughness and surface energy. The effect of processing parameters i.e., polymer concentration and number of freeze-thaw cycles on the resulting topography of the freeze-thawed transparent hydrogels has been studied and quantified using non-contact mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM) and image analysis. Simultaneously captured phase contrast images have revealed significant information about morphological changes in the topographical features and crystallinity of the hydrogels. Topographical roughness was found to decrease as a function of number of freeze-thaw cycles.

  4. Comparative Study of IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the Netherlands, Based on a 5-Year Nationwide Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, J.L. de; Ingen, J. van; Vries, G. de; Erkens, C.; Sebek, M.; Mulder, A.; Sloot, R.; Brandt, A.M. van den; Enaimi, M.; Kremer, K.; Supply, P.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a

  5. Comparative study of IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism and variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the Netherlands, based on a 5-year nationwide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; van Ingen, Jakko; de Vries, Gerard; Erkens, Connie; Sebek, Maruschka; Mulder, Arnout; Sloot, Rosa; van den Brandt, Anne-Marie; Enaimi, Mimount; Kremer, Kristin; Supply, Philip; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a

  6. Rapid Topographic Mapping Using TLS and UAV in a Beach-dune-wetland Environment: Case Study in Freeport, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J.; Wang, G.; Xiong, L.; Zhou, X.; England, E.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal regions are naturally vulnerable to impact from long-term coastal erosion and episodic coastal hazards caused by extreme weather events. Major geomorphic changes can occur within a few hours during storms. Prediction of storm impact, costal planning and resilience observation after natural events all require accurate and up-to-date topographic maps of coastal morphology. Thus, the ability to conduct rapid and high-resolution-high-accuracy topographic mapping is of critical importance for long-term coastal management and rapid response after natural hazard events. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) techniques have been frequently applied to beach and dune erosion studies and post hazard responses. However, TLS surveying is relatively slow and costly for rapid surveying. Furthermore, TLS surveying unavoidably retains gray areas that cannot be reached by laser pulses, particularly in wetland areas where lack of direct access in most cases. Aerial mapping using photogrammetry from images taken by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has become a new technique for rapid topographic mapping. UAV photogrammetry mapping techniques provide the ability to map coastal features quickly, safely, inexpensively, on short notice and with minimal impact. The primary products from photogrammetry are point clouds similar to the LiDAR point clouds. However, a large number of ground control points (ground truth) are essential for obtaining high-accuracy UAV maps. The ground control points are often obtained by GPS survey simultaneously with the TLS survey in the field. The GPS survey could be a slow and arduous process in the field. This study aims to develop methods for acquiring a huge number of ground control points from TLS survey and validating point clouds obtained from photogrammetry with the TLS point clouds. A Rigel VZ-2000 TLS scanner was used for developing laser point clouds and a DJI Phantom 4 Pro UAV was used for acquiring images. The aerial images were processed with the

  7. Volumetric evolution of Surtsey, Iceland, from topographic maps and scanning airborne laser altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J.B.; Williams, R.S.; Frawley, J.J.; Krabill, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The volumetric evolution of Surtsey has been estimated on the basis of digital elevation models derived from NASA scanning airborne laser altimeter surveys (20 July 1998), as well as digitized 1:5,000-scale topographic maps produced by the National Land Survey of Iceland and by Norrman. Subaerial volumes have been computed from co-registered digital elevation models (DEM's) from 6 July 1968, 11 July 1975, 16 July 1993, and 20 July 1998 (scanning airborne laser altimetry), as well as true surface area (above mean sea level). Our analysis suggests that the subaerial volume of Surtsey has been reduced from nearly 0.100 km3 on 6 July 1968 to 0.075 km3 on 20 July 1998. Linear regression analysis of the temporal evolution of Surtsey's subaerial volume indicates that most of its subaerial surface will be at or below mean sea-level by approximately 2100. This assumes a conservative estimate of continuation of the current pace of marine erosion and mass-wasting on the island, including the indurated core of the conduits of the Surtur I and Surtur II eruptive vents. If the conduits are relatively resistant to marine erosion they will become sea stacks after the rest of the island has become a submarine shoal, and some portions of the island could survive for centuries. The 20 July 1998 scanning laser altimeter surveys further indicate rapid enlargement of erosional canyons in the northeastern portion of the partial tephra ring associated with Surtur I. Continued airborne and eventually spaceborne topographic surveys of Surtsey are planned to refine the inter-annual change of its subaerial volume.

  8. Large Topographic Rises on Venus: Implications for Mantle Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Bindschandler, Duane L.; Senske, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Topographic rises on Venus have been identified that are interpreted to be the surface manifestation of mantle upwellings. These features are classified into groups based on their dominant morphology. Atla and Beta Regiones are classified as rift-dominated, Dione, western Eistla, Bell, and Imdr Regiones as volcano-dominated, and Themis, eastern Eistla, and central Eistla Regiones as corona-dominated. At several topographic rises, geologic indicators were identified that may provide evidence of uplifted topography (e.g., volcanic flow features trending upslope). We assessed the minimum contribution of volcanic construction to the topography of each rise, which in general represents less than 5% of the volume of the rise, similar to the volumes of edifices at terrestrial hotspot swells. The total melt volume at each rise is approximated to be 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 6) cu km. The variations in morphology, topography, and gravity signatures at topographic rises are not interpreted to indicate variations in stage of evolution of a mantle upwelling. Instead, the morphologic variations between the three classes of topographic rises are interpreted to indicate the varying influences of lithospheric structure, plume characteristics, and regional tectonic environment. Within each class, variations in topography, gravity, and amount of volcanism may be indicative of differing stages of evolution. The similarity between swell and volcanic volumes for terrestrial and Venusian hotspots implies comparable time-integrated plume strengths for individual upwellings on the two planets.

  9. Topographic Pattern Distribution of Head And Neck Squamous Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    value of 71% of SCC in Turkey. Nevertheless a similar report documented a relatively lower value especially in. Yemen where head and neck SCC constituted only 8% of all head and neck cancers. Reports from Yemen revealed that oral cavity SCC was the most common topographic site of all head and. 3 neck cancers.

  10. Topographic Brain Mapping: A Window on Brain Function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniski, Walt M.

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews the method of topographic mapping of the brain's electrical activity. Multiple electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes and computerized analysis of the EEG signal are used to generate maps of frequency and voltage (evoked potential). This relatively new technique holds promise in the evaluation of children with behavioral and…

  11. Rehabilitation in a complex case of topographical disorientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, Lies; van de Wege, Anja; Haaxma, Rob; Snoek, Jos W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the rehabilitation process of a patient with severe topographical disorientation. The study demonstrates the sustained effects of a tailor-made, meticulous rehabilitation programme based on the gradual development of compensatory strategies. The patient (RB) had a memory

  12. Idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia: two topographic facial pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María L; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gili, Pablo; Caminero, Ana B; Cebrián, José L

    2010-09-01

    To describe 2 topographic facial pain conditions with the pain clearly localized in the eye (idiopathic ophthalmodynia) or in the nose (idiopathic rhinalgia), and to propose their distinction from persistent idiopathic facial pain. Persistent idiopathic facial pain, burning mouth syndrome, atypical odontalgia, and facial arthromyalgia are idiopathic facial pain syndromes that have been separated according to topographical criteria. Still, some other facial pain syndromes might have been veiled under the broad term of persistent idiopathic facial pain. Through a 10-year period we have studied all patients referred to our neurological clinic because of facial pain of unknown etiology that might deviate from all well-characterized facial pain syndromes. In a group of patients we have identified 2 consistent clinical pictures with pain precisely located either in the eye (n=11) or in the nose (n=7). Clinical features resembled those of other localized idiopathic facial syndromes, the key differences relying on the topographic distribution of the pain. Both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location, and may deserve a nosologic status just as other focal pain syndromes of the face. Whether all such focal syndromes are topographic variants of persistent idiopathic facial pain or independent disorders remains a controversial issue.

  13. Research Note Topographical units and soil types prove more ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The floristic data (species presence at each site) were grouped into Land Types, topographical units and broad soil types. Each group was analysed independently using multivariate detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and the mean similarity test. The floristic data in each Land Type showed a 42% range of ...

  14. Modelling topographic potential for erosion and deposition using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helena Mitasova; Louis R. Iverson

    1996-01-01

    Modelling of erosion and deposition in complex terrain within a geographical information system (GIS) requires a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM), reliable estimation of topographic parameters, and formulation of erosion models adequate for digital representation of spatially distributed parameters. Regularized spline with tension was integrated within a...

  15. Influence of salt concentration and topographical position on water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water resource quality (WRQ) is affected by salt concentration and topographical position. Indeed, an increase in salt concentration, which decreases water availability for animal and plant nutrition, and lower altitude, which diminishes the potential for production of hydropower, negatively affects WRQ. Therefore, it is useful ...

  16. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  17. The Role of Emotional Landmarks on Topographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the role of emotional landmarks on human navigation has been almost totally neglected in psychological research. Therefore, the extent to which positive and negative emotional landmarks affect topographical memory as compared to neutral emotional landmark was explored. Positive, negative and neutral affect-laden images were selected as landmarks from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS Inventory. The Walking Corsi test (WalCT was used in order to test the landmark-based topographical memory. Participants were instructed to learn and retain an eight-square path encompassing positive, negative or neutral emotional landmarks. Both egocentric and allocentric frames of references were considered. Egocentric representation encompasses the object’s relation to the self and it is generated from sensory data. Allocentric representation expresses a location with respect to an external frame regardless of the self and it is the basis for long-term storage of complex layouts. In particular, three measures of egocentric and allocentric topographical memory were taken into account: (1 the ability to learn the path; (2 the ability to recall by walking the path five minutes later; (3 the ability to reproduce the path on the outline of the WalCT. Results showed that both positive and negative emotional landmarks equally enhanced the learning of the path as compared to neutral emotional landmarks. In addition, positive emotional landmarks improved the reproduction of the path on the map as compared to negative and neutral emotional landmarks. These results generally show that emotional landmarks enhance egocentric-based topographical memory, whereas positive emotional landmarks seem to be more effective for allocentric-based topographical memory.

  18. The Role of Emotional Landmarks on Topographical Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Piccardi, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of the role of emotional landmarks on human navigation has been almost totally neglected in psychological research. Therefore, the extent to which positive and negative emotional landmarks affect topographical memory as compared to neutral emotional landmark was explored. Positive, negative and neutral affect-laden images were selected as landmarks from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) Inventory. The Walking Corsi test (WalCT) was used in order to test the landmark-based topographical memory. Participants were instructed to learn and retain an eight-square path encompassing positive, negative or neutral emotional landmarks. Both egocentric and allocentric frames of references were considered. Egocentric representation encompasses the object's relation to the self and it is generated from sensory data. Allocentric representation expresses a location with respect to an external frame regardless of the self and it is the basis for long-term storage of complex layouts. In particular, three measures of egocentric and allocentric topographical memory were taken into account: (1) the ability to learn the path; (2) the ability to recall by walking the path five minutes later; (3) the ability to reproduce the path on the outline of the WalCT. Results showed that both positive and negative emotional landmarks equally enhanced the learning of the path as compared to neutral emotional landmarks. In addition, positive emotional landmarks improved the reproduction of the path on the map as compared to negative and neutral emotional landmarks. These results generally show that emotional landmarks enhance egocentric-based topographical memory, whereas positive emotional landmarks seem to be more effective for allocentric-based topographical memory.

  19. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  20. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... coordinators estimate the effect on coordination fees? Does the supposed benefit that mobile repeater stations... allow the licensing and operation of vehicular repeater systems and other mobile repeaters by public... email: [email protected] or phone: 202-418- 0530 or TTY: 202-418-0432. For detailed instructions for...

  1. The characteristic and changes of the event-related potentials (ERP and brain topographic maps before and after treatment with rTMS in subjective tinnitus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS treatment. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. RESULTS: Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating soundsin control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN and late discriminative negativity (LDNcomponent at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. CONCLUSIONS: The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect.

  2. The characteristic and changes of the event-related potentials (ERP) and brain topographic maps before and after treatment with rTMS in subjective tinnitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haidi; Xiong, Hao; Yu, Rongjun; Wang, Changming; Zheng, Yiqing; Zhang, Xueyuan

    2013-01-01

    To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating sounds)in control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN)component at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect.

  3. Digital elevation model production from scanned topographic contour maps via thin plate spline interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soycan, Arzu; Soycan, Metin

    2009-01-01

    GIS (Geographical Information System) is one of the most striking innovation for mapping applications supplied by the developing computer and software technology to users. GIS is a very effective tool which can show visually combination of the geographical and non-geographical data by recording these to allow interpretations and analysis. DEM (Digital Elevation Model) is an inalienable component of the GIS. The existing TM (Topographic Map) can be used as the main data source for generating DEM by amanual digitizing or vectorization process for the contours polylines. The aim of this study is to examine the DEM accuracies, which were obtained by TMs, as depending on the number of sampling points and grid size. For these purposes, the contours of the several 1/1000 scaled scanned topographical maps were vectorized. The different DEMs of relevant area have been created by using several datasets with different numbers of sampling points. We focused on the DEM creation from contour lines using gridding with RBF (Radial Basis Function) interpolation techniques, namely TPS as the surface fitting model. The solution algorithm and a short review of the mathematical model of TPS (Thin Plate Spline) interpolation techniques are given. In the test study, results of the application and the obtained accuracies are drawn and discussed. The initial object of this research is to discuss the requirement of DEM in GIS, urban planning, surveying engineering and the other applications with high accuracy (a few deci meters). (author)

  4. Creating a three level building classification using topographic and address-based data for Manchester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M.; Chen, D.

    2014-11-01

    Buildings, the basic unit of an urban landscape, host most of its socio-economic activities and play an important role in the creation of urban land-use patterns. The spatial arrangement of different building types creates varied urban land-use clusters which can provide an insight to understand the relationships between social, economic, and living spaces. The classification of such urban clusters can help in policy-making and resource management. In many countries including the UK no national-level cadastral database containing information on individual building types exists in public domain. In this paper, we present a framework for inferring functional types of buildings based on the analysis of their form (e.g. geometrical properties, such as area and perimeter, layout) and spatial relationship from large topographic and address-based GIS database. Machine learning algorithms along with exploratory spatial analysis techniques are used to create the classification rules. The classification is extended to two further levels based on the functions (use) of buildings derived from address-based data. The developed methodology was applied to the Manchester metropolitan area using the Ordnance Survey's MasterMap®, a large-scale topographic and address-based data available for the UK.

  5. 2013 NOAA Topographic Lidar: U.S. Virgin Islands (St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Virgin Islands Topographic LiDAR project collected topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and ranging...

  6. 2013 NOAA Topographic Lidar: US Virgin Islands Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Virgin Islands Topographic LiDAR Task Order involved collecting and delivering topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light...

  7. ANALYSIS OF RADAR AND OPTICAL SPACE BORNE DATA FOR LARGE SCALE TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Normally, in order to provide high resolution 3 Dimension (3D geospatial data, large scale topographical mapping needs input from conventional airborne campaigns which are in Indonesia bureaucratically complicated especially during legal administration procedures i.e. security clearance from military/defense ministry. This often causes additional time delays besides technical constraints such as weather and limited aircraft availability for airborne campaigns. Of course the geospatial data quality is an important issue for many applications. The increasing demand of geospatial data nowadays consequently requires high resolution datasets as well as a sufficient level of accuracy. Therefore an integration of different technologies is required in many cases to gain the expected result especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. Another important issue in this context is the fast delivery of relevant data which is expressed by the term “Rapid Mapping”. In this paper we present first results of an on-going research to integrate different data sources like space borne radar and optical platforms. Initially the orthorectification of Very High Resolution Satellite (VHRS imagery i.e. SPOT-6 has been done as a continuous process to the DEM generation using TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data. The role of Ground Control Points (GCPs from GNSS surveys is mandatory in order to fulfil geometrical accuracy. In addition, this research aims on providing suitable processing algorithm of space borne data for large scale topographical mapping as described in section 3.2. Recently, radar space borne data has been used for the medium scale topographical mapping e.g. for 1:50.000 map scale in Indonesian territories. The goal of this on-going research is to increase the accuracy of remote sensing data by different activities, e.g. the integration of different data sources (optical and radar or the usage of the GCPs in both, the optical and the

  8. Repeated causal decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in such situations and how they use their knowledge to adapt to changes in the decision context. Our studies show that decision makers' behavior is strongly contingent on their causal beliefs and that people exploit their causal knowledge to assess the consequences of changes in the decision problem. A high consistency between hypotheses about causal structure, causally expected values, and actual choices was observed. The experiments show that (a) existing causal hypotheses guide the interpretation of decision feedback, (b) consequences of decisions are used to revise existing causal beliefs, and (c) decision makers use the experienced feedback to induce a causal model of the choice situation even when they have no initial causal hypotheses, which (d) enables them to adapt their choices to changes of the decision problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Topographic evolution of a continental indenter: The eastern Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Prasicek, Günther; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The topographic evolution of the eastern Southern Alps (ESA) is controlled by the Late Oligocene - Early Miocene indentation of the Adriatic microplate into an overthickened orogenic wedge emplaced on top of the European plate. Rivers follow topographic gradients that evolve during continental collision and in turn incise into bedrock counteracting the formation of topography. In principle, erosional surface processes tend to establish a topographic steady state so that an interpretation of topographic metrics in terms of the latest tectonic history should be straightforward. However, a series of complications impede deciphering the topographic record of the ESA. The Pleistocene glaciations locally excavated alpine valleys and perturbed fluvial drainages. The Late Miocene desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea and the uplift of the northern Molasse Basin led to significant base level changes in the far field of the ESA and the Eastern Alps (EA), respectively. Among this multitude of mechanisms, the processes that dominate the current topographic evolution of the ESA and the ESA-EA drainage divide have not been identified and a number of questions regarding the interaction of crustal deformation, erosion and climate in shaping the present-day topography remain. We demonstrate the expected topographic effects of each mechanism in a 1-dimensional model and compare them with observed channel metrics. Modern uplift rates are largely consistent with long-term exhumation in the ESA and with variations in the normalized steepness index (ksn) indicating a stable uplift and erosion pattern since Miocene times. We find that ksn increases with uplift rate and declines from the indenter tip in the northwest to the foreland basin in the southeast. The number and magnitude of knickpoints and the distortion in longitudinal channel profiles similarly decrease towards the east. Most knickpoints probably evolved during Pleistocene glaciation cycles, but may represent the incrementally

  10. Surface forces between rough and topographically structured interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Esben

    2017-01-01

    Within colloidal science, direct or indirect measurements of surface forces represent an important tool for developing a fundamental understanding of colloidal systems, as well as for predictions of the stability of colloidal suspensions. While the general understanding of colloidal interactions...... and manufactured materials, which possess topographical variations. Further, with technological advances in nanotechnology, fabrication of nano- or micro-structured surfaces has become increasingly important for many applications, which calls for a better understanding of the effect of surface topography...... on the interaction between interfaces. This paper presents a review of the current state of understanding of the effect of surface roughness on DLVO forces, as well as on the interactions between topographically structured hydrophobic surfaces in water. While the first case is a natural choice because it represents...

  11. 2011 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Topographic LiDAR: Massachusetts and New Hampshire

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain classified topographic and bathymetric lidar data as unclassified valid topographic data (1), valid topographic data classified as ground (2),...

  12. Correction of systematic behaviour in topographical surface analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Baruffi, Federico; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Four specimens in the sub-micrometre range and with different polishing were topographically investigated in fiveareas over their respective surfaces. Uncertainties were evaluated with and without correction for systematicbehaviour and successively analysed by a design of experiment (DOE). Result...... showed that the correction forsystematic behaviour allowed for a lower value of the estimated uncertainty when the correction was adequate tocompletely recognise the systematic effects. If not, the correction can produce an overestimation of the uncertainty....

  13. Representation for dialect recognition using topographic independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qu

    2004-10-01

    In dialect speech recognition, the feature of tone in one dialect is subject to changes in pitch frequency as well as the length of tone. It is beneficial for the recognition if a representation can be derived to account for the frequency and length changes of tone in an effective and meaningful way. In this paper, we propose a method for learning such a representation from a set of unlabeled speech sentences containing the features of the dialect changed from various pitch frequencies and time length. Topographic independent component analysis (TICA) is applied for the unsupervised learning to produce an emergent result that is a topographic matrix made up of basis components. The dialect speech is topographic in the following sense: the basis components as the units of the speech are ordered in the feature matrix such that components of one dialect are grouped in one axis and changes in time windows are accounted for in the other axis. This provides a meaningful set of basis vectors that may be used to construct dialect subspaces for dialect speech recognition.

  14. Study on Site Conditions Based on Topographic Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Wang, X.; Yuan, X.; Chen, M.; Dou, A.

    2018-04-01

    The travel-time averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30m (Vs30) below the Earth's surface is widely used to classify sites in many building codes. Vs30 is also used to estimate site classification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs), and the distribution of Vs30 has been mapped in a region or country. An alternative method has recently been proposed for evaluating global seismic site conditions or Vs30, from the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEMs (digital elevation models). The basic premise of the method is that the topographic slope can be used as a reliable proxy for Vs30 in the absence of geologically and geotechnically based site-condition maps through correlations between Vs30 measurements and topographic gradient. Here, we use different resolutions (3 arcsec, 30 arcsec) DEM data to get Vs30 data separately, analyze and compare the difference of Vs30 data and site conditions obtained from different resolution DEM data. Shandong Province in eastern China and Sichuan Province in Western China are studied respectively. It is found that the higher resolution data is better at defining spatial topographic features than the 30c data, but less improvement in its correlation with Vs30.

  15. Topographic stress and catastrophic collapse of volcanic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, S.; Perron, J. T.; Martel, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Flank collapse of volcanic islands can devastate coastal environments and potentially induce tsunamis. Previous studies have suggested that factors such as volcanic eruption events, gravitational spreading, the reduction of material strength due to hydrothermal alteration, steep coastal cliffs, or sea level change may contribute to slope instability and induce catastrophic collapse of volcanic flanks. In this study, we examine the potential influence of three-dimensional topographic stress perturbations on flank collapses of volcanic islands. Using a three-dimensional boundary element model, we calculate subsurface stress fields for the Canary and Hawaiian islands to compare the effects of stratovolcano and shield volcano shapes on topographic stresses. Our model accounts for gravitational stresses from the actual shapes of volcanic islands, ambient stress in the underlying plate, and the influence of pore water pressure. We quantify the potential for slope failure of volcanic flanks using a combined model of three-dimensional topographic stress and slope stability. The results of our analysis show that subsurface stress fields vary substantially depending on the shapes of volcanoes, and can influence the size and spatial distribution of flank failures.

  16. STUDY ON SITE CONDITIONS BASED ON TOPOGRAPHIC SLOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The travel-time averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30m (Vs30 below the Earth’s surface is widely used to classify sites in many building codes. Vs30 is also used to estimate site classification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs, and the distribution of Vs30 has been mapped in a region or country. An alternative method has recently been proposed for evaluating global seismic site conditions or Vs30, from the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEMs (digital elevation models. The basic premise of the method is that the topographic slope can be used as a reliable proxy for Vs30 in the absence of geologically and geotechnically based site-condition maps through correlations between Vs30 measurements and topographic gradient. Here, we use different resolutions (3 arcsec, 30 arcsec DEM data to get Vs30 data separately, analyze and compare the difference of Vs30 data and site conditions obtained from different resolution DEM data. Shandong Province in eastern China and Sichuan Province in Western China are studied respectively. It is found that the higher resolution data is better at defining spatial topographic features than the 30c data, but less improvement in its correlation with Vs30.

  17. Detecting geomorphic processes and change with high resolution topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Simon; Hurst, Martin; Grieve, Stuart; Clubb, Fiona; Milodowski, David; Attal, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    The first global topographic dataset was released in 1996, with 1 km grid spacing. It is astonishing that in only 20 years we now have access to tens of thousands of square kilometres of LiDAR data at point densities greater than 5 points per square meter. This data represents a treasure trove of information that our geomorphic predecessors could only dream of. But what are we to do with this data? Here we explore the potential of high resolution topographic data to dig deeper into geomorphic processes across a wider range of landscapes and using much larger spatial coverage than previously possible. We show how this data can be used to constrain sediment flux relationships using relief and hillslope length, and how this data can be used to detect landscape transience. We show how the nonlinear sediment flux law, proposed for upland, soil mantled landscapes by Roering et al. (1999) is consistent with a number of topographic tests. This flux law allows us to predict how landscapes will respond to tectonic forcing, and we show how these predictions can be used to detect erosion rate perturbations across a range of tectonic settings.

  18. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  19. Spotlight on topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alburquerque-Sendín F

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Alburquerque-Sendín,1 Pascal Madeleine,2 César Fernández-de-las-Peñas,3 Paula Rezende Camargo,4 Tania Fátima Salvini4 1Department of Socio-Sanitary Sciences, Radiology and Physical Medicine, Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; 2Physical Activity and Human Performance Group, SMI, Department of Health Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 3Department of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain; 4Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil Abstract: Mechanical hyperalgesia defined as decreased pressure pain thresholds (PPTs is commonly associated with pain. In this narrative review, we report the current state of the art within topographical pressure sensitivity maps. Such maps are based on multiple PPT assessments. The PPTs are assessed by an a priori defined grid with special focus on both spatial and temporal summation issues. The grid covers the muscle or the body region of interest using absolute or relative values determined from anatomical landmarks or anthropometric values. The collected PPTs are interpolated by Shepard or Franke and Nielson interpolation methods to create topographical pressure sensitivity maps. This new imaging technique has proven to be valuable in various disciplines including exercise physiology, neurology, physical therapy, occupational medicine, oncology, orthopedics, and sport sciences. The reviewed papers have targeted different body regions like the scalp, low back, neck–shoulder, and upper and lower extremities. The maps have delineated spatial heterogeneity in the pressure pain sensitivity underlining the different extents of pressure pain hyperalgesia in both experimentally induced and disease-associated pain conditions. Furthermore, various intervention studies have proven the utility of topographical pressure pain

  20. Topographic Steering of Enhanced Ice Flow at the Bottleneck Between East and West Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Kate; Ross, Neil; Ferraccioli, Fausto

    2018-01-01

    Hypothesized drawdown of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet through the “bottleneck” zone between East and West Antarctica would have significant impacts for a large proportion of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Earth observation satellite orbits and a sparseness of radio echo sounding data have restricted...... investigations of basal boundary controls on ice flow in this region until now. New airborne radio echo sounding surveys reveal complex topography of high relief beneath the southernmost Weddell/Ross ice divide, with three subglacial troughs connecting interior Antarctica to the Foundation and Patuxent Ice...... Streams and Siple Coast ice streams. These troughs route enhanced ice flow through the interior of Antarctica but limit potential drawdown of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet through the bottleneck zone. In a thinning or retreating scenario, these topographically controlled corridors of enhanced flow could...

  1. Topographic precursors and geological structures of deep-seated catastrophic landslides caused by Typhoon Talas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Tsou, Ching-Ying; Matsushi, Yuki; Hiraishi, Narumi; Matsuzawa, Makoto

    2013-11-01

    Typhoon Talas crossed the Japanese Islands between 2 and 5 September 2011, causing more than 70 deep-seated catastrophic landslides in a Jurassic to Paleogene-lower Miocene accretion complex. Detailed examination of the topographic features of 10 large landslides before the event, recorded on 1-m DEMs based on airborne laser scanner surveys, showed that all landslides had small scarps near their future crowns prior to the slide, and one landslide had linear depressions along its future crown as precursor topographic features. These scarps and linear depressions were caused by gravitational slope deformation that preceded the catastrophic failure. Although the scarps may have been enlarged by degradation, their sizes relative to the whole slopes suggest that minimal slope deformation had occurred in the period immediately before the catastrophic failure. The scarp ratio, defined as the ratio of length of a scarp to that of the whole slope both measured along the slope line, ranged from 5% to 21%. Careful examination of aerial photographs from another four large landslides, for which no high-resolution DEMs were available, suggested that they also developed scarps at their heads beforehand. Twelve of the 14 landslides we surveyed in the field had sliding surfaces with wedge-shaped discontinuities that consisted of faults and bedding, suggesting that the buildup of pore pressure occurs readily on wedge-shaped discontinuities in a gravitationally deformed rock body. Most of the faults were undulatory and were probably thrust faults that formed during accretion. Other types of gravitational deformation were also active; e.g., flexural toppling and buckling were observed to have preceded one landslide.

  2. The evolution of active Lavina di Roncovetro landslides by multi-temporal high-resolution topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isola, Ilaria; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Favalli, Massimiliano; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Mucchi, Lorenzo; Intrieri, Emanuele; Pizziolo, Marco; Bertolini, Giovanni; Trippi, Federico; Casagli, Nicola; Schina, Rosa; Carnevale, Ennio

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution topographic data has been collected over the Lavina di Roncovetro active landslide (Reggio Emilia, Italy) for about 3 years by using various methods and technologies. Tha Lavina di Roncovetro landslide can be considered as a fluid-viscous mudflow, which can reach a down flow maximum rate of 10 m/day. The landslide started between the middle and the end of the XIX century and since then it has had a rapid evolution mainly characterized by the rapid retrogression of the crown to the extent that now reaches the top of Mount Staffola. In the frame of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12ENV/IT/001033) the Lavina di Roncovetro landslide has been periodically tracked using technologies that span from the LiDAR, both terrestrial and aerial, to the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry method based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and aerial survey. These data are used to create six high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DEMs), which imaged the landslide surface on March 2014, October 2014, June 2015, July 2015, January 2016 and December 2016. Multi-temporal high-resolution topographic data have been used for qualitative and quantitative morphometric analysis and topographic change detection of the landslide with the aim to estimate and map the volume of removed and/or accumulated material, the average rates of vertical and horizontal displacement and the deformation structures affecting the landslide over the investigated period.

  3. Remotely Characterizing the Topographic and Thermal Evolution of Kīlauea's Lava Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, M. E.; Vaughan, R. G.; Poland, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    New technologies in satellite data acquisition and the continuous development of analysis software capabilities are greatly improving the ability of scientists to monitor volcanoes in near-real-time. Satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) data are used to monitor and analyze new and ongoing volcanic activity by identifying and quantifying surface thermal characteristics and lava flow discharge rates. Improved detector sensitivities provide unprecedented spatial detail in visible to shortwave infrared (VSWIR) satellite imagery. The acquisition of stereo and tri-stereo visible imagery, as well as SAR, by an increasing number of satellite systems enables the creation of digital elevation models (DEMs) at higher temporal frequencies and resolutions than in the past. Free, user-friendly software programs, such as NASA's Ames Stereo Pipeline and Google Earth Engine, ease the accessibility and usability of satellite data to users unfamiliar with traditional analysis techniques. An effective and efficient integration of these technologies can be utilized towards volcano monitoring.Here, we use the active lava flows from the East Rift Zone vents of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i as a testing ground for developing new techniques in multi-sensor volcano remote sensing. We use DEMs generated from stereo and tri-stereo images captured by the WorldView3 and Pleiades satellite systems to assess topographic changes over time at the active flow fields. Time-series data of lava flow area, thickness, and discharge rate developed from thermal emission measurements collected by ASTER, Landsat 8, and WorldView3 are compared to satellite-detected topographic changes and to ground observations of flow development to identify behavioral patterns and to monitor flow field evolution. We explore methods of combining these visual and TIR data sets collected by multiple satellite systems with a variety of resolutions and repeat times. Our ultimate goal is to develop integrative tools for near

  4. Film repeats in radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwan, A. Z.; Al-Shakharah, A. I

    1997-01-01

    During a one year period, 4910 radiographs of 55780 films were repeated. The objective of our study was to analyse and to classify the causes in order to minimize the repeats, cut the expenses and to provide optimal radiographs for accurate diagnosis. Analysis of the different factors revealed that, 43.6% of film repeats in our service were due to faults in exposure factors, centering comprises 15.9% of the repeats, while too much collimation was responsible for 7.6% of these repeats. All of which can be decreased by awareness and programmed training of technicians. Film blurring caused by patient motion was also responsible for 4.9% for radiographs reexamination, which can be minimized by detailed explanation to the patient and providing the necessary privacy. Fogging of X-Ray films by improper storage or inadequate handling or processing faults were responsible for 14.5% in repeats in our study. Methods and criteria for proper storage and handling of films were discussed. Recommendation for using modern day-light and laser processor has been high lighted. Artefacts are noticeably high in our cases, due to spinal dresses and frequent usage of precious metals for c osmotic purposes in this part of the world. The repeated films comprise 8.8% of all films We conclude that, the main factor responsible for repeats of up to 81.6% of cases was the technologists, thus emphasizing the importance of adequate training of the technologists. (authors). 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 table

  5. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  6. Repeated Prescribed Burning in Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Infrequent burning weather, low flammability of the aspen-hardwood association, and prolific sprouting and seeding of shrubs and hardwoods made repeated dormant season burning a poor tool to convert good site aspen to conifers. Repeat fall burns for wildlife habitat maintenance is workable if species composition changes are not important.

  7. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  8. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  9. Repeatability of visual acuity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, T W; Bailey, I L; Bullimore, M A

    1998-05-01

    This study investigates features of visual acuity chart design and acuity testing scoring methods which affect the validity and repeatability of visual acuity measurements. Visual acuity was measured using the Sloan and British Standard letter series, and Landolt rings. Identifiability of the different letters as a function of size was estimated, and expressed in the form of frequency-of-seeing curves. These functions were then used to simulate acuity measurements with a variety of chart designs and scoring criteria. Systematic relationships exist between chart design parameters and acuity score, and acuity score repeatability. In particular, an important feature of a chart, that largely determines the repeatability of visual acuity measurement, is the amount of size change attributed to each letter. The methods used to score visual acuity performance also affect repeatability. It is possible to evaluate acuity score validity and repeatability using the statistical principles discussed here.

  10. DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT: DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT FOR 1991 1:1200 TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS FOR USE ON THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knop, M.F.; Grant, T.A.; Bonisolli, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    This Data Qualification Report (DQR) is prepared in accordance with the provisions of AP-SIII.2Q, Rev. 0, ICN 3, Qualification of Unqualified Data and the Documentation of Rationale for Accepted Data and Data Qualification Plan for 1991 Topographic Maps 1:1200 Scale for use on the Yucca Mountain Project, DQP-WHS-CI-000001, Rev. 00 (BSC 2002a). This DQR presents an evaluation of a set of 90 topographic sheets at 1:1200 scale (and an associated electronic file) that covers an approximate 18 square mile area surrounding the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository surface facilities location in Midway Valley, Nevada. These maps, that require qualification, are now being used to determine the physical characteristics of watershed sub-areas, interconnecting channels, and drainage channel cross-sections for hydrologic engineering studies of the north portal pad and vicinity. The result of this effort is to qualify one data tracking number (DTN) containing the electronic version of the mapping data. This DTN is: M09906COV98462.000. Coverage: TOP02FTS. The underlying quality assurance (QA) issue associated with these topographic maps is that the maps were originally designated as not for use in the design of items important to safety, waste isolation, and/or of programmatic importance. The maps were therefore generated outside the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) QA program. Based on a comparison with corroborating information, this report concludes that the topographic maps are qualified. The comparison found that the mapping was reasonably accurate when compared with other mapping and survey data within the coverage area of the maps. Relative map accuracy was found to be very good and suitable for the hydrologic engineering studies being considered. Absolute accuracy is good but could not be demonstrated to comply with national map accuracy standards. Point locations that require high absolute accuracy should be

  11. Estimating variability in placido-based topographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounis, George A; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; Kymionis, George D; Ginis, Harilaos S; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2007-10-01

    To describe a new software tool for the detailed presentation of corneal topography measurements variability by means of color-coded maps. Software was developed in Visual Basic to analyze and process a series of 10 consecutive measurements obtained by a topographic system on calibration spheres, and individuals with emmetropic, low, high, and irregular astigmatic corneas. Corneal surface was segmented into 1200 segments and the coefficient of variance of each segment's keratometric dioptric power was used as the measure of variability. The results were presented graphically in color-coded maps (Variability Maps). Two topographic systems, the TechnoMed C-Scan and the TOMEY Topographic Modeling System (TMS-2N), were examined to demonstrate our method. Graphic representation of coefficient of variance offered a detailed representation of examination variability both in calibration surfaces and human corneas. It was easy to recognize an increase in variability, as the irregularity of examination surfaces increased. In individuals with high and irregular astigmatism, a variability pattern correlated with the pattern of corneal topography: steeper corneal areas possessed higher variability values compared with flatter areas of the same cornea. Numerical data permitted direct comparisons and statistical analysis. We propose a method that permits a detailed evaluation of the variability of corneal topography measurements. The representation of the results both graphically and quantitatively improves interpretability and facilitates a spatial correlation of variability maps with original topography maps. Given the popularity of topography based custom refractive ablations of the cornea, it is possible that variability maps may assist clinicians in the evaluation of corneal topography maps of patients with very irregular corneas, before custom ablation procedures.

  12. Topographical characteristics and principal component structure of the hypnagogic EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Hayashi, M; Hori, T

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the dominant topographic components of electroencephalographs (EEG) and their behavior during the waking-sleeping transition period. Somnography of nocturnal sleep was recorded on 10 male subjects. Each recording, from "lights-off" to 5 minutes after the appearance of the first sleep spindle, was analyzed. The typical EEG patterns during hypnagogic period were classified into nine EEG stages. Topographic maps demonstrated that the dominant areas of alpha-band activity moved from the posterior areas to anterior areas along the midline of the scalp. In delta-, theta-, and sigma-band activities, the differences of EEG amplitude between the focus areas (the dominant areas) and the surrounding areas increased as a function of EEG stage. To identify the dominant topographic components, a principal component analysis was carried out on a 12-channel EEG data set for each of six frequency bands. The dominant areas of alpha 2- (9.6-11.4 Hz) and alpha 3- (11.6-13.4 Hz) band activities moved from the posterior to anterior areas, respectively. The distribution of alpha 2-band activity on the scalp clearly changed just after EEG stage 3 (alpha intermittent, < 50%). On the other hand, alpha 3-band activity became dominant in anterior areas after the appearance of vertex sharp-wave bursts (EEG stage 7). For the sigma band, the amplitude of extensive areas from the frontal pole to the parietal showed a rapid rise after the onset of stage 7 (the appearance of vertex sharp-wave bursts). Based on the results, sleep onset process probably started before the onset of sleep stage 1 in standard criteria. On the other hand, the basic sleep process may start before the onset of sleep stage 2 or the manually scored spindles.

  13. 3D Marine MT Modeling for a Topographic Seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B., Sr.; Yin, C.; Ren, X.; Liu, Y.; Huang, X.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    As an effective geophysical tool, marine magnetotelluric (MMT) exploration has been widely used in offshore oil and gas exploration. Accordingly, the MMT forward modelling has made big progress. However, most of the researches are focused on a flat seafloor. In this paper, we present a 3D finite-element (FE) algorithm for marine MT forward modelling based on unstructured grids that can accurately model the MMT responses for a topographic seafloor. The boundary value problem for the forward modelling is described by an Helmholtz equation together with the boundary conditions derived by assuming the electrical polarizations respectively along the x- and y-direction on the top surface of the modelling domain. Applying the Galerkin method to the boundary value problem and substituting the unstructured finite-element vector shape function into the equation, we derive the final large linear system for the two polarizations, from which the EM fields is obtained for the calculation of impedance apparent resistivities and phases. To verify the effectiveness of our algorithm, we compare our modelling results with those by Key's (2013) 2D marine MT open source code of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Figure 1). From Figure 1, one sees that the two agree well, implying that our 3D modelling method based unstructured FE is an effective modelling tool for topographic seafloor. From the MMT modelling responses for other topographic seafloor models (not shown here), we further observe that 1) the apparent resistivities have a similar profile pattern to the topography at the seafloor; 2) at the edges of the topography, there exist sharp changes; 3) the seafloor topography may dominate the responses from the abnormal bodies under the seafloor. This paper is supported by Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (41530320), China Natural Science Foundation for Young Scientists (41404093), and Key National Research Project of China (2016YFC0303100, 2017YFC0601900)

  14. Topographical Anisotropy and Wetting of Ground Stainless Steel Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Bellmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic and physico-chemical methods were used for a comprehensive surface characterization of different mechanically modified stainless steel surfaces. The surfaces were analyzed using high-resolution confocal microscopy, resulting in detailed information about the topographic properties. In addition, static water contact angle measurements were carried out to characterize the surface heterogeneity of the samples. The effect of morphological anisotropy on water contact angle anisotropy was investigated. The correlation between topography and wetting was studied by means of a model of wetting proposed in the present work, that allows quantifying the air volume of the interface water drop-stainless steel surface.

  15. Uncertainty in Historical Land-Use Reconstructions with Topographic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaim Dominik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the outcomes of the uncertainty investigation of a long-term forest cover change analysis in the Polish Carpathians (nearly 20,000 km2 and Swiss Alps (nearly 10,000 km2 based on topographic maps. Following Leyk et al. (2005 all possible uncertainties are grouped into three domains - production-oriented, transformation- oriented and application-oriented. We show typical examples for each uncertainty domain, encountered during the forest cover change analysis and discuss consequences for change detection. Finally, a proposal for reliability assessment is presented.

  16. X-ray topographic method of investigation of phase objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levonyan, L.V.

    2001-01-01

    The intensity distribution of the monochromatized synchrotron radiation transmitting through the phase object and crystal-analyzer in Laue geometry is considered. It is shown that the local angular deviation of the incident radiation caused by the refraction on structural inhomogeneities of the object under investigation is directly transferred to the X-ray topographic image. In the absence of the phase object the latter consists of parallel straight fringes with a slowly decreasing period. The presence of the phase object changes the shape and period of fringes. The influence of the spatial and temporal coherence on the image is discussed. 5 refs

  17. Comparative Study of IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the Netherlands, Based on a 5-Year Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; van Ingen, Jakko; de Vries, Gerard; Erkens, Connie; Sebek, Maruschka; Mulder, Arnout; Sloot, Rosa; van den Brandt, Anne-Marie; Enaimi, Mimount; Kremer, Kristin; Supply, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a detailed evaluation on discriminatory power and agreement with findings in a cluster investigation was performed on 3,975 tuberculosis cases during the period of 2004 to 2008. The level of discrimination of the two typing methods did not differ substantially: RFLP typing yielded 2,733 distinct patterns compared to 2,607 in VNTR typing. The global concordance, defined as isolates labeled unique or identically distributed in clusters by both methods, amounted to 78.5% (n = 3,123). Of the remaining 855 cases, 12% (n = 479) of the cases were clustered only by VNTR, 7.7% (n = 305) only by RFLP typing, and 1.8% (n = 71) revealed different cluster compositions in the two approaches. A cluster investigation was performed for 87% (n = 1,462) of the cases clustered by RFLP. For the 740 cases with confirmed or presumed epidemiological links, 92% were concordant with VNTR typing. In contrast, only 64% of the 722 cases without an epidemiological link but clustered by RFLP typing were also clustered by VNTR typing. We conclude that VNTR typing has a discriminatory power equal to IS6110 RFLP typing but is in better agreement with findings in a cluster investigation performed on an RFLP-clustering-based cluster investigation. Both aspects make VNTR typing a suitable method for tuberculosis surveillance systems. PMID:23363841

  18. Prevalence of smoking restrictions and child exposure to secondhand smoke in cars and homes: a repeated cross-sectional survey of children aged 10-11 years in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Littlecott, Hannah J; Ahmed, Nilufar; Lewis, Sophia; Sulley, Gillian; Jones, Elen; Holliday, Jo

    2015-01-30

    Small increases in smoking restrictions in cars and homes were reported after legislation prohibiting smoking in public places. Few studies examine whether these changes continued in the longer term. This study examines changes in restrictions on smoking in cars and homes, and child exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in these locations, since 2008 postlegislation surveys in Wales. State-maintained primary schools in Wales (n=75). Children aged 10-11 years (year 6) completed CHETS (CHild exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke) Wales surveys in 2007 (n=1612) and 2008 (n=1605). A replication survey (CHETS Wales 2) was conducted in 2014, including 1601 children. Children's reports of whether smoking was allowed in their car or home and exposure to SHS in a car or home the previous day. The percentage of children who reported that smoking was allowed in their family vehicle fell from 18% to 9% in 2014 (OR=0.42; 95% CI 0.33 to 0.54). The percentage living in homes where smoking was allowed decreased from 37% to 26% (OR=0.30; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.43). Among children with a parent who smoked, one in five and one in two continued to report that smoking was allowed in their car and home. The percentage reporting SHS exposure in a car (OR=0.52; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) or home (OR=0.44; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.53) the previous day also fell. Children from poorer families remained less likely to report smoking restrictions. Smoking in cars and homes has continued to decline. Substantial numbers of children continue to report that smoking is allowed in cars and homes, particularly children from poorer families. A growing number of countries have legislated, or plan to legislate, banning smoking in cars carrying children. Attention is needed to the impact of legislation on child health and health inequalities, and reducing smoking in homes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Topographic filtering simulation model for sediment source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Se Jong; Wilcock, Peter; Hobbs, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    We propose a Topographic Filtering simulation model (Topofilter) that can be used to identify those locations that are likely to contribute most of the sediment load delivered from a watershed. The reduced complexity model links spatially distributed estimates of annual soil erosion, high-resolution topography, and observed sediment loading to determine the distribution of sediment delivery ratio across a watershed. The model uses two simple two-parameter topographic transfer functions based on the distance and change in elevation from upland sources to the nearest stream channel and then down the stream network. The approach does not attempt to find a single best-calibrated solution of sediment delivery, but uses a model conditioning approach to develop a large number of possible solutions. For each model run, locations that contribute to 90% of the sediment loading are identified and those locations that appear in this set in most of the 10,000 model runs are identified as the sources that are most likely to contribute to most of the sediment delivered to the watershed outlet. Because the underlying model is quite simple and strongly anchored by reliable information on soil erosion, topography, and sediment load, we believe that the ensemble of simulation outputs provides a useful basis for identifying the dominant sediment sources in the watershed.

  20. Topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments acceptance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Dochat, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    During the summer of 1996, the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and its accompanying three-dimensional (3-D) visualization tool, the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS), were delivered to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL and Mechanical Technology, Inc., performed final acceptance testing of the TMS during the next eight months. The TMS was calibrated and characterized during this period. This paper covers the calibration, characterization, and acceptance testing of the TMS. Development of the TMS and ICERVS was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of characterization and remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a 3-D, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is the mapping of the interior of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts and to obtain baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors as well as data on changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Washington site, the TMS is designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid, variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention

  1. AN INVESTIGATION OF AUTOMATIC CHANGE DETECTION FOR TOPOGRAPHIC MAP UPDATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Duncan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the landscape are constantly occurring and it is essential for geospatial and mapping organisations that these changes are regularly detected and captured, so that map databases can be updated to reflect the current status of the landscape. The Chief Directorate of National Geospatial Information (CD: NGI, South Africa's national mapping agency, currently relies on manual methods of detecting changes and capturing these changes. These manual methods are time consuming and labour intensive, and rely on the skills and interpretation of the operator. It is therefore necessary to move towards more automated methods in the production process at CD: NGI. The aim of this research is to do an investigation into a methodology for automatic or semi-automatic change detection for the purpose of updating topographic databases. The method investigated for detecting changes is through image classification as well as spatial analysis and is focussed on urban landscapes. The major data input into this study is high resolution aerial imagery and existing topographic vector data. Initial results indicate the traditional pixel-based image classification approaches are unsatisfactory for large scale land-use mapping and that object-orientated approaches hold more promise. Even in the instance of object-oriented image classification generalization of techniques on a broad-scale has provided inconsistent results. A solution may lie with a hybrid approach of pixel and object-oriented techniques.

  2. Topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments acceptance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gary A.; Dochat, G. R.

    1997-09-01

    During the summer of 1996, the topographical mapping system (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and its accompanying three-dimensional (3-D) visualization tool, the interactive computer-enhanced remote-viewing system (ICERVS), were delivered to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL and Mechanical Technology, Inc., performed final acceptance testing of the TMS during the next eight months. The TMS was calibrated and characterized during this period. This paper covers the calibration, characterization, and acceptance testing of the TMS. Development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of characterization and remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a 3-D, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is the mapping of the interior of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts and to obtain baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors as well as data on changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Washington site, the TMS is designed to be a self-contained, compact, reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid, variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention.

  3. Capabilities of current wildfire models when simulating topographical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanski, A.; Jenkins, M.; Krueger, S. K.; McDermott, R.; Mell, W.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate predictions of the growth, spread and suppression of wild fires rely heavily on the correct prediction of the local wind conditions and the interactions between the fire and the local ambient airflow. Resolving local flows, often strongly affected by topographical features like hills, canyons and ridges, is a prerequisite for accurate simulation and prediction of fire behaviors. In this study, we present the results of high-resolution numerical simulations of the flow over a smooth hill, performed using (1) the NIST WFDS (WUI or Wildland-Urban-Interface version of the FDS or Fire Dynamic Simulator), and (2) the LES version of the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-LES) model. The WFDS model is in the initial stages of development for application to wind flow and fire spread over complex terrain. The focus of the talk is to assess how well simple topographical flow is represented by WRF-LES and the current version of WFDS. If sufficient progress has been made prior to the meeting then the importance of the discrepancies between the predicted and measured winds, in terms of simulated fire behavior, will be examined.

  4. Topographic changes and their driving factors after 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Wang, M.; Xie, J.; Liu, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake caused topographic change in the stricken areas because of the formation of numerous coseismic landslides. The emergence of new landslides and debris flows and movement of loose materials under the driving force of heavy rainfall could further shape the local topography. Dynamic topographic changes in mountainous areas stricken by major earthquakes have a strong linkage to the development and occurrence of secondary disasters. However, little attention has been paid to continuously monitoring mountain environment change after such earthquakes. A digital elevation model (DEM) is the main feature of the terrain surface, in our research, we extracted DEM in 2013 and 2015 of a typical mountainous area severely impacted by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from the ZY-3 stereo pair images with validation by field measurement. Combined with the elevation dataset in 2002 and 2010, we quantitatively assessed elevation changes in different years and qualitatively analyzed spatiotemporal variation of the terrain and mass movement across the study area. The results show that the earthquake stricken area experienced substantial elevation changes caused by seismic forces and subsequent rainfalls. Meanwhile, deposits after the earthquake are mainly accumulated on the river-channels and mountain ridges and deep gullies which increase the risk of other geo-hazards. And the heavy rainfalls after the earthquake have become the biggest driver of elevation reduction, which overwhelmed elevation increase during the major earthquake. Our study provided a better understanding of subsequent hazards and risks faced by residents and communities stricken by major earthquakes.

  5. Bilateral topographic symmetry patterns across Aphrodite Terra, Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crumpler, L.S.; Head, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Western Aphrodite Terra, Venus, is characterized by a series of parallel linear structural discontinuities 2000--4000 km in length and 100--200 km wide, which strike at high angles to the general topographic trend of the Aphrodite Terra highlands. The broad chracteristics of the cross-strike discontinuities (CSDs) are similar to both strike-slip fault zones and terrestrial oceanic fracture zones. In an effort to distinguish between these two hypotheses, topographic profiles were taken across Aphrodite Terra to test for bilateral symmetry of the type associated with thermal boundary layer topography at divergent plate boundaries on Earth. In addition to a broad bilateral symmetry at a range of angles across Aphrodite Terra, detailed bilateral symmetry is observed within domains between linear discontinuities in directions generally parallel to the strike of the discontinuities. In addition, within a domain the centers of symmetry of several profiles define a linear rise crest that is oriented normal to the bounding CSDs and terminates against them

  6. Topographic variations in chaos on Europa: Implications for diapiric formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    Disrupted terrain, or chaos, on Europa, might have formed through melting of a floating ice shell from a subsurface ocean [Cam et al., 1998; Greenberg et al., 19991, or breakup by diapirs rising from the warm lower portion of the ice shell [Head and Pappalardo, 1999; Collins et al., 20001. Each model makes specific and testable predictions for topographic expression within chaos and relative to surrounding terrains on local and regional scales. High-resolution stereo-controlled photoclinometric topography indicates that chaos topography, including the archetypal Conamara Chaos region, is uneven and commonly higher than surrounding plains by up to 250 m. Elevated and undulating topography is more consistent with diapiric uplift of deep material in a relatively thick ice shell, rather than melt-through and refreezing of regionally or globally thin ice by a subsurface ocean. Vertical and horizontal scales of topographic doming in Conamara Chaos are consistent with a total ice shell thickness >15 km. Contact between Europa's ocean and surface may most likely be indirectly via diapirism or convection.

  7. A Visual Framework for Digital Reconstruction of Topographic Maps

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem

    2014-09-30

    We present a framework for reconstructing Digital Elevation Maps (DEM) from scanned topographic maps. We first rectify the images to ensure that maps fit together without distortion. To segment iso-contours, we have developed a novel semi-automated method based on mean-shifts that requires only minimal user interaction. Contour labels are automatically read using an OCR module. To reconstruct the output DEM from scattered data, we generalize natural neighbor interpolation to handle the transfinite case (contours and points). To this end, we use parallel vector propagation to compute a discrete Voronoi diagram of the constraints, and a modified floodfill to compute virtual Voronoi tiles. Our framework is able to handle tens of thousands of contours and points and can generate DEMs comprising more than 100 million samples. We provide quantitative comparison to commercial software and show the benefits of our approach. We furthermore show the robustness of our method on a massive set of old maps predating satellite acquisition. Compared to other methods, our framework is able to accurately and efficiently generate a final DEM despite inconsistencies, sparse or missing contours even for highly complex and cluttered maps. Therefore, this method has broad applicability for digitization and reconstruction of the world\\'s old topographic maps that are often the only record of past landscapess and cultural heritage before their destruction under modern development.

  8. Relationships between Arctic shrub dynamics and topographically derived hydrologic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Adam T; Cairns, David M

    2011-01-01

    Shrub expansion is a global phenomenon that is gaining increased attention in the Arctic. Recent work employing the use of oblique aerial photographs suggested a consistent pattern of positive change in shrub cover across the North Slope of Alaska. The greatest amounts of change occurred in valley slopes and floodplains. We studied the association between shrub cover change and topographically derived hydrologic characteristics in five areas in northern Alaska between the 1970s and 2000s. Change in total shrub cover ranged from − 0.65% to 46.56%. Change in floodplain shrub cover ranged from 3.38% to 76.22%. Shrubs are preferentially expanding into areas of higher topographic wetness index (TWI) values where the potential for moisture accumulation or drainage is greater. In addition, we found that floodplain shrub development was strongly associated with high TWI values and a decreasing average distance between shrubs and the river bank. This suggests an interacting influence of substrate removal and stabilization as a consequence of increased vegetation cover.

  9. Topographic Correction Module at Storm (TC@Storm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaksek, K.; Cotar, K.; Veljanovski, T.; Pehani, P.; Ostir, K.

    2015-04-01

    Different solar position in combination with terrain slope and aspect result in different illumination of inclined surfaces. Therefore, the retrieved satellite data cannot be accurately transformed to the spectral reflectance, which depends only on the land cover. The topographic correction should remove this effect and enable further automatic processing of higher level products. The topographic correction TC@STORM was developed as a module within the SPACE-SI automatic near-real-time image processing chain STORM. It combines physical approach with the standard Minnaert method. The total irradiance is modelled as a three-component irradiance: direct (dependent on incidence angle, sun zenith angle and slope), diffuse from the sky (dependent mainly on sky-view factor), and diffuse reflected from the terrain (dependent on sky-view factor and albedo). For computation of diffuse irradiation from the sky we assume an anisotropic brightness of the sky. We iteratively estimate a linear combination from 10 different models, to provide the best results. Dependent on the data resolution, we mask shades based on radiometric (image) or geometric properties. The method was tested on RapidEye, Landsat 8, and PROBA-V data. Final results of the correction were evaluated and statistically validated based on various topography settings and land cover classes. Images show great improvements in shaded areas.

  10. Acoustically sticky topographic metasurfaces for underwater sound absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hunki; Jung, Myungki; Kim, Minsoo; Shin, Ryung; Kang, Shinill; Ohm, Won-Suk; Kim, Yong Tae

    2018-03-01

    A class of metasurfaces for underwater sound absorption, based on a design principle that maximizes thermoviscous loss, is presented. When a sound meets a solid surface, it leaves a footprint in the form of thermoviscous boundary layers in which energy loss takes place. Considered to be a nuisance, this acoustic to vorticity/entropy mode conversion and the subsequent loss are often ignored in the existing designs of acoustic metamaterials and metasurfaces. The metasurface created is made of a series of topographic meta-atoms, i.e., intaglios and reliefs engraved directly on the solid object to be concealed. The metasurface is acoustically sticky in that it rather facilitates the conversion of the incident sound to vorticity and entropy modes, hence the thermoviscous loss, leading to the desired anechoic property. A prototype metasurface machined on a brass object is tested for its anechoicity, and shows a multitude of absorption peaks as large as unity in the 2-5 MHz range. Computations also indicate that a topographic metasurface is robust to hydrostatic pressure variation, a quality much sought-after in underwater applications.

  11. Ferromagnetic resonance in a topographically modulated permalloy film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenar, J.; Tucciarone, P.; Lee, R. J.; Tice, D.; Chang, R. P. H.; Lee, S. J.; Nevirkovets, I. P.; Heinonen, O.; Ketterson, J. B.

    2015-04-01

    A major focus within the field of magnonics involves the manipulation and control of spin-wave modes. This is usually done by patterning continuous soft magnetic films. Here, we report on work in which we use topographic modifications of a continuous magnetic thin film, rather than lithographic patterning techniques, to modify the ferromagnetic resonance spectrum. To demonstrate this technique we have performed in-plane, broadband, ferromagnetic resonance studies on a 100-nm-thick permalloy film sputtered onto a colloidal crystal with individual sphere diameters of 200 nm. Effects resulting from the, ideally, sixfold-symmetric underlying colloidal crystal were studied as a function of the in-plane field angle through experiment and micromagnetic modeling. Experimentally, we find two primary modes; the ratio of the intensities of these two modes exhibits a sixfold dependence. Detailed micromagnetic modeling shows that both modes are quasiuniform and nodeless in the unit cell but that they reside in different demagnetized regions of the unit cell. Our results demonstrate that topographic modification of magnetic thin films opens additional directions for manipulating ferromagnetic resonant excitations.

  12. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Barrett; Haddad, D.E.; Rockwell, T.K.; Arrowsmith, R.; Madugo, C.; Zielke, O.; Scharer, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter-scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator’s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  13. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data

    KAUST Repository

    Salisbury, J. Barrett

    2015-10-24

    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter- scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator\\'s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  14. Stunting coexisting with overweight in 2·0-4·9-year-old Indonesian children: prevalence, trends and associated risk factors from repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmi, Cut Novianti; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-10-01

    The persistence of undernutrition, along with overweight and obesity, constitute the double burden of malnutrition. The present study aimed to: (i) describe the prevalence and trends of concurrent stunting and overweight in Indonesian children; (ii) identify potentially associated risk factors; and (iii) determine whether stunted children are at greater risk of overweight compared with those of healthy height. A secondary data analysis of children aged 2·0-4·9 years in four cross-sectional studies of the Indonesian Family Life Survey. Children's height and BMI Z-scores were calculated based on the WHO Child Growth Standards (2006). We defined 'concurrent stunting and overweight' as height-for-age Z-score +1. Multivariate generalised linear latent and mixed models were used to determine associated risk factors. Thirteen out of twenty-seven provinces in Indonesia. Children (n 4101) from four waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (1993-2007). There were inconsistent trends in the prevalence of concurrent stunting and overweight from waves 1 to 4. Children were more likely to be stunted and overweight when they were in the youngest age group (2·0-2·9 years), were weaned after the age of 6 months, had short-statured mothers or lived in rural areas. Stunted children were significantly more likely to be overweight than healthy-height children (OR>1) but did not differ significantly different across each wave (OR=1·34-2·01). Concurrent stunting and overweight occurs in Indonesian children aged 2·0-4·9 years. Current policies and programmes need to be tailored for the management of this phenomenon.

  15. Health and health behaviours before and during the Great Recession, overall and by socioeconomic status, using data from four repeated cross-sectional health surveys in Spain (2001-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoll, Xavier; Toffolutti, Veronica; Malmusi, Davide; Palència, Laia; Borrell, Carme; Suhrcke, Marc

    2015-09-07

    The objective of this study was to estimate changes over time in health status and selected health behaviours during the Great Recession, in the period 2011/12, in Spain, both overall, and according to socioeconomic position and gender. We applied a before-after estimation on data from four editions of the Spanish National Health Survey: 2001, 2003/04, 2006/07 and 2011/12. This involved applying linear probability regression models accounting for time-trends and with robust standard errors, using as outcomes self-reported health and health behaviours, and as the main explanatory variable a dummy "Great Recession" for the 2011/12 survey edition. All the computations were run separately by gender. The final sample consisted of 47,156 individuals aged between 25 and 64 years, economically active at the time of the interview. We also assessed the inequality of the effects across socio-economic groups. The probability of good self-reported health increased for women (men) by 9.6 % (7.6 %) in 2011/12, compared to the long term trend. The changes are significant for all educational levels, except for the least educated. Some healthy behaviours also improved but results were rather variable. Adverse dietary changes did, however, occur among men (though not women) who were unemployed (e.g., the probability of declaring eating fruit daily changed by -12.1 %), and among both men (-21.8 %) and women with the lowest educational level (-15.1 %). Socioeconomic inequalities in health and health behaviour have intensified, in the period 2011/12, in at least some respects, especially regarding diet. While average self-reported health status and some health behaviours improved during the economic recession, in 2011/12, this improvement was unequal across different socioeconomic groups.

  16. Unravelling spatio-temporal evapotranspiration patterns in topographically complex landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzen, Daniel; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Lane, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation co-evolves with soils and topography under a given long-term climatic forcing. Previous studies demonstrated a strong eco-hydrologic feedback between topography, vegetation and energy and water fluxes. Slope orientation (aspect and gradient) alter the magnitude of incoming solar radiation resulting in larger evaporative losses and less water availability on equator-facing slopes. Furthermore, non-local water inputs from upslope areas potentially contribute to available water at downslope positions. The combined effect of slope orientation and drainage position creates complex spatial patterns in biological productivity and pedogenesis, which in turn alter the local hydrology. In complex upland landscapes, topographic alteration of incoming radiation can cause substantial aridity index (ratio of potential evapotranspiration to precipitation) variations over small spatial extents. Most of the upland forests in south-east Australia are located in an aridity index (AI) range of 1-2, around the energy limited to water limited boundary, where forested systems are expected to be most sensitive to AI changes. In this research we aim to improve the fundamental understanding of spatio-temporal evolution of evapotranspiration (ET) patterns in complex terrain, accounting for local topographic effects on system properties (e.g. soil depth, sapwood area, leaf area) and variation in energy and water exchange processes due to slope orientation and drainage position. Six measurement plots were set-up in a mixed species eucalypt forest on a polar and equatorial-facing hillslope (AI ˜1.3 vs. 1.8) at varying drainage position (ridge, mid-slope, gully), while minimizing variations in other factors, e.g. geology and weather patterns. Sap flow, soil water content, incoming solar radiation and throughfall were continuously monitored at field sites spanning a wide range of soil depth (0.5 - >3m), maximum tree heights (17 - 51m) and LAI (1.2 - 4.6). Site-specific response curves

  17. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  18. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  19. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  20. Topographic recording of the Slalom racing route in snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Giovanis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present research was the study and evaluation of the theodolite’s (topographic speedometer use in tracing a path in slalom racing on snow conditions with 58 gates and also to record the optimal method of tracing a slalom route in relation to: a the "velocity" of the race track (degree of difficulty of slalom, b safety of tracing the slalom route. Methods: This research was based on methodology and measurements of a race track in giant slalom with 35 gates in the ski resort "3-5 Pigadia" of Naoussa - Greece. The topographic speedometer was fixed in place at the start of the route. From this point, measurements were taken, for the placement of all 58 gates throughout the route. The measurement was taken using the pole-prism, placed in each interior gate turn, at which the theodolite was aimed. With the help of topographic speedometer the following geometrical parameters have been registered: distance between the gates (Δs, altitude difference of points (Δh with an accuracy up to 1cm, terrain slope (θ, gate angular deviation (δ with an accuracy of up to 1 minute of the angle (°. This allows the creation of the top-view, side-view (profile and three-dimensional aspect of the track, under race conditions on snow and not on dry ground. Results: The correlation coefficient (r between the geometry factor (V.gs and average the above geometry parameters had the following respective values: V.gs -Ms = 0,15, V.gs -Mθ = - 0,52, V.gs -Mδ = - 0,29 for 58 gates on a level of statistical significance of p < 0,05. Conclusions: The first part comprised of 10 gates was the "fastest" (V.gs = 18 degrees of the total slalom route in Naoussa with 58 gates (V.gs = 14 degrees. With the above criteria, slaloms will be compared to each other and will be evaluated against age and safety.

  1. Untangling Topographic and Climatic Forcing of Earthflow Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, N. J.; Nereson, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Earthflows commonly form in steep river canyons and are argued to initiate from rapid incision that destabilizes hill slope toes. At the same time, earthflows are known to exhibit a temporal pattern of movement that is correlated with seasonal precipitation and associated changes in effective stress. In this contribution, we use infinite slope analysis to illuminate the relative roles of topographic slope and climate (via its control on pore fluid pressure) in influencing earthflow motion at Oak Ridge earthflow, near San Jose, CA. To this end, we synthesize two years of shallow (2.7 m depth) pore fluid pressure data and continuous GPS-derived velocities with an 80-year record of historical deformation derived from tracking of trees and rocks on orthophotos along much of the 1.4 km length and 400 m relief of the earthflow. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that motion of Oak Ridge earthflow occurs as frictional sliding along a discrete failure surface, as argued for other earthflows. Spatial patterns of sliding velocity along the earthflow show the same sensitivity to topographic slope for five discrete periods of historical sliding, accelerating by roughly an order of magnitude along a 20 degree increase in earthflow gradient. In contrast, during the 2016-2017 winter, velocity increased much more rapidly for an equivalent increase in driving stress due to pore-fluid pressure rise at our GPS antenna. During this time period, Oak Ridge earthflow moved approximately 30 cm and we observed a relatively simple, non-linear relationship between GPS-derived sliding velocity and shallow pore fluid pressure. Rapid sliding in 2016-2017 (> 0.6 cm/day) occurred exclusively during the week following a large winter storm event that raised pore pressures to seasonal highs within only 1-2 days of the storm peak. These observations suggests that a mechanism, such as dilatant strengthening, acts to stabilize velocities for a given value of pore fluid pressure in the landslide mass

  2. True Polar Wander of Enceladus From Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Soderlund, Krista M.; Thomas, Peter C.; Helfenstein, Paul; Hedman, Matthew M.; Burns, Joseph A.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2016-10-01

    Besides the relative motion of lithospheric plates, the Earth as a whole moves with respect to its rotation pole, as shown by paleomagnetic, astrometric and geodetic measurements [1]. Such so-called true polar wander (TPW) occurs because our planet's moments of inertia change temporally owing to internal thermal convection and to the redistribution of surficial mass during ice ages. Thus, to conserve angular momentum while losing rotational energy, Earth's axis of maximum moment of inertia aligns with its spin axis. Theoreticians suspect similar reorientations of other celestial bodies but supporting evidence is fragmentary, at best [2]. Here we report the discovery of a global series of topographic lows on Saturn's satellite Enceladus indicating that this synchronously locked moon has undergone reorientation by ~55°. We use improved topographic data from spherical harmonic expansion of Cassini limb [3,4,5] and stereogrammetric [5,6,7] measurements to characterize regional topography over the surface of Enceladus. We identify a group of nearly antipodal basins orthogonal to a topographic basin chain tracing a non-equatorial circumglobal belt across Enceladus' surface. We argue that the belt and the antipodal regions are fossil remnants of old equator and poles, respectively. These lows are argued to arise from isostasic compensation [7,8] with their pattern reflecting variations in internal dynamics of the ice shell. Our hypothesis is consistent with many geological features visible in Cassini images [9].References:[1] Mitrovica, J.X. & Wahr, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 39, 577-616 (2011).[2] Matsuyama, I. et al. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 42, 605-634 (2014).[3] Thomas, P.C. et al. Icarus, 190, 573-584 (2007).[4] Thomas, P.C. Icarus, 208, 395-401 (2010).[5] Thomas, P.C. et al. Icarus, 264, 37-47 (2016).[6] Edwards, K. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 53, 1219-1222 (1987).[7] Schenk, P.M. & McKinnon, W. B

  3. THE STATUS OF TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING IN THE WORLD A UNGGIM–ISPRS PROJECT 2012–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Konecny

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In December 2011, UNGGIM initiated a cooperative project with ISPRS to resume the former UN Secretariat studies on the status of topographic mapping in the world, conducted between 1968 and 1986. After the design of a questionnaire with 27 questions, the UNGGIM Secretariat sent the questionnaires to the UN member states. 115 replies were received from the 193 member states and regions thereof. Regarding the global data coverage and age, the UN questionnaire survey was supplemented by data from the Eastview database. For each of the 27 questions, an interactive viewer was programmed permitting the analysis of the results. The authoritative data coverage at the various scale ranges has greatly increased between 1986 and 2012. Now, a 30 % 1 : 25 000 map data coverage and a 75 % 1 : 50 000 map data coverage has been completed. Nevertheless, there is still an updating problem, as data for some countries is 10 to 30 years old. Private Industry, with Google, Microsoft and Navigation system providers, have undertaken huge efforts to supplement authoritative mapping. For critical areas on the globe, MGCP committed to military mapping at 1 : 50 000. ISPRS has decided to make such surveys a sustainable issue by establishing a working group.

  4. The Status of Topographic Mapping in the World a Unggim-Isprs Project 2012-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecny, G.; Breitkopf, U.; Radtke, A.

    2016-06-01

    In December 2011, UNGGIM initiated a cooperative project with ISPRS to resume the former UN Secretariat studies on the status of topographic mapping in the world, conducted between 1968 and 1986. After the design of a questionnaire with 27 questions, the UNGGIM Secretariat sent the questionnaires to the UN member states. 115 replies were received from the 193 member states and regions thereof. Regarding the global data coverage and age, the UN questionnaire survey was supplemented by data from the Eastview database. For each of the 27 questions, an interactive viewer was programmed permitting the analysis of the results. The authoritative data coverage at the various scale ranges has greatly increased between 1986 and 2012. Now, a 30 % 1 : 25 000 map data coverage and a 75 % 1 : 50 000 map data coverage has been completed. Nevertheless, there is still an updating problem, as data for some countries is 10 to 30 years old. Private Industry, with Google, Microsoft and Navigation system providers, have undertaken huge efforts to supplement authoritative mapping. For critical areas on the globe, MGCP committed to military mapping at 1 : 50 000. ISPRS has decided to make such surveys a sustainable issue by establishing a working group.

  5. Applying Topographic Classification, Based on the Hydrological Process, to Design Habitat Linkages for Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwon Mo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodiversity surrogates has been discussed in the context of designing habitat linkages to support the migration of species affected by climate change. Topography has been proposed as a useful surrogate in the coarse-filter approach, as the hydrological process caused by topography such as erosion and accumulation is the basis of ecological processes. However, some studies that have designed topographic linkages as habitat linkages, so far have focused much on the shape of the topography (morphometric topographic classification with little emphasis on the hydrological processes (generic topographic classification to find such topographic linkages. We aimed to understand whether generic classification was valid for designing these linkages. First, we evaluated whether topographic classification is more appropriate for describing actual (coniferous and deciduous and potential (mammals and amphibians habitat distributions. Second, we analyzed the difference in the linkages between the morphometric and generic topographic classifications. The results showed that the generic classification represented the actual distribution of the trees, but neither the morphometric nor the generic classification could represent the potential animal distributions adequately. Our study demonstrated that the topographic classes, according to the generic classification, were arranged successively according to the flow of water, nutrients, and sediment; therefore, it would be advantageous to secure linkages with a width of 1 km or more. In addition, the edge effect would be smaller than with the morphometric classification. Accordingly, we suggest that topographic characteristics, based on the hydrological process, are required to design topographic linkages for climate change.

  6. The modulation of canine mesenchymal stem cells by nano-topographic cues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Joshua A.; Ly, Irene; Borjesson, Dori L.; Nealey, Paul F.; Russell, Paul; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising cellular therapeutic for the treatment of a variety of disorders. On transplantation, MSCs interact with diverse extracellular matrices (ECMs) that vary dramatically in topographic feature type, size and surface order. In order to investigate the impact of these topographic cues, surfaces were fabricated with either isotropically ordered holes or anisotropically ordered ridges and grooves. To simulate the biologically relevant nano through micron size scale, a series of topographically patterned substrates possessing features of differing pitch (pitch=feature width+groove width) were created. Results document that the surface order and size of substratum topographic features dramatically modulate fundamental MSC behaviors. Topographically patterned (ridge+groove) surfaces were found to significantly impact MSC alignment, elongation, and aspect ratio. Novel findings also demonstrate that submicron surfaces patterned with holes resulted in increased MSC alignment to adjacent cells as well as increased migration rates. Overall, this study demonstrates that the presentation of substratum topographic cues dramatically influence MSC behaviors in a size and shape dependent manner. The response of MSCs to substratum topographic cues was similar to other cell types that have been studied previously with regards to cell shape on ridge and groove surfaces but differed with respect to proliferation and migration. This is the first study to compare the impact of anisotropically ordered ridge and groove topographic cues to isotropically order holed topographic cues on fundamental MSC behaviors across a range of biologically relevant size scales.

  7. The modulation of canine mesenchymal stem cells by nano-topographic cues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Joshua A.; Ly, Irene [Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States); Borjesson, Dori L. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States); Nealey, Paul F. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Russell, Paul [Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States); Murphy, Christopher J., E-mail: cjmurphy@ucdavis.edu [Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising cellular therapeutic for the treatment of a variety of disorders. On transplantation, MSCs interact with diverse extracellular matrices (ECMs) that vary dramatically in topographic feature type, size and surface order. In order to investigate the impact of these topographic cues, surfaces were fabricated with either isotropically ordered holes or anisotropically ordered ridges and grooves. To simulate the biologically relevant nano through micron size scale, a series of topographically patterned substrates possessing features of differing pitch (pitch=feature width+groove width) were created. Results document that the surface order and size of substratum topographic features dramatically modulate fundamental MSC behaviors. Topographically patterned (ridge+groove) surfaces were found to significantly impact MSC alignment, elongation, and aspect ratio. Novel findings also demonstrate that submicron surfaces patterned with holes resulted in increased MSC alignment to adjacent cells as well as increased migration rates. Overall, this study demonstrates that the presentation of substratum topographic cues dramatically influence MSC behaviors in a size and shape dependent manner. The response of MSCs to substratum topographic cues was similar to other cell types that have been studied previously with regards to cell shape on ridge and groove surfaces but differed with respect to proliferation and migration. This is the first study to compare the impact of anisotropically ordered ridge and groove topographic cues to isotropically order holed topographic cues on fundamental MSC behaviors across a range of biologically relevant size scales.

  8. Does a 3-week critical research appraisal course affect how students perceive their appraisal skills and the relevance of research for clinical practice? A repeated cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter

    2015-01-01

    Research utilisation is essential in developing evidence-based practices; although many students may be generally able to adopt such skills, there are reports of barriers related to critical appraisal skills. To explore how students perceive the relevance of research to future clinical practice and patients, and to what extent they read research (including reading pattern). Additionally, the objective was to explore whether a three-week intensive course in critical appraisal of research could affect these variables. A cross-sectional survey design, with a pre- and post-test. One large university college in Southeastern Norway. 196 multidisciplinary healthcare students at baseline and 147 after three weeks. A purposely-designed 21 item questionnaire was used to quantify students' attitudes towards using research and critical thinking. The questionnaire was based on themes emerging from prior focus group interviews with 10 nursing and social educator students as well as from the existing literature. At baseline, 6.1% and 7.1% of respondents perceived the research to be of little or very little importance for their future work and patients, respectively. Furthermore, 83.2% reported that they seldom or very seldom read scientific papers. At baseline, 40 different patterns of reading a scientific paper were identified. Additionally, 7.1% of respondents reported to read the introduction, methods and conclusion in combination. Significantly improved scores were found after completing the three-week course related to a) relevance of research for future work (pskills in critical appraisal (pstudents' practical critical appraisal skills improved their view of the relevance of research for patients, future work as well as their own critical appraisal skills. Prospective studies are warranted to explore the effects of such teaching modules in the long-term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Topographic brain mapping of emotion-related hemisphere asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschmann, R; Wittling, W

    1992-03-01

    The study used topographic brain mapping of visual evoked potentials to investigate emotion-related hemisphere asymmetries. The stimulus material consisted of color photographs of human faces, grouped into two emotion-related categories: normal faces (neutral stimuli) and faces deformed by dermatological diseases (emotional stimuli). The pictures were presented tachistoscopically to 20 adult right-handed subjects. Brain activity was recorded by 30 EEG electrodes with linked ears as reference. The waveforms were averaged separately with respect to each of the two stimulus conditions. Statistical analysis by means of significance probability mapping revealed significant differences between stimulus conditions for two periods of time, indicating right hemisphere superiority in emotion-related processing. The results are discussed in terms of a 2-stage-model of emotional processing in the cerebral hemispheres.

  10. Synchrotron white beam topographic studies of gallium arsenide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.; Graeff, W.

    1997-01-01

    A series of samples cut out from different types of gallium arsenide crystals with low dislocation density were studied by means of white beam synchrotron topography. The investigation was performed with transmission and black-reflection projection methods and transmission section method. Some of topographs in transmission geometry provided a very high sensitivity suitable for revealing small precipitates. The transmission section images significantly differed depending on the wavelength and absorption. In some cases a distinct Pendelloesung fringes and fine details of dislocation and precipitates images were observed. It was possible to reproduce the character of these images by means of numerical simulation based on integration of Takagi-Taupin equations. Due to more convenient choice of radiation, synchrotron back-reflection projection topography provided much better visibility of dislocations than analogous realized with conventional X-ray sources. (author)

  11. Computed Tomography Imaging of the Topographical Anatomy of Canine Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimtrox, R.; Yonkova, P.; Vladova, D.; Kostov, D.

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the topographical anatomy of canine prostate gland by computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic imaging purposes. ÐœATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven clinically healthy mongrel male dogs at the age of 3−4 years and body weight of 10−15 kg were submitted to transverse computerized axial tomography (CAT) with cross section thickness of 5 mm. RESULTS: The CT image of canine prostate is visualized throughout the scans of the pelvis in the planes through the first sacral vertebra (S1) dorsally; the bodies of iliac bones laterally and cranially to the pelvic brim (ventrally). The body of prostate appears as an oval homogenous relatively hypo dense finding with soft tissue density. The gland is well differentiated from the adjacent soft tissues. CONCLUSION: By means of CT, the cranial part of prostate gland in adult dogs aged 3−4 years exhibited an abdominal localization. (author)

  12. Topographic evolution of sandbars: Flume experiment and computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Logan, Brandy L.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of sandbar formation and evolution were carried out in a laboratory flume and the topographic characteristics of these barforms were compared to predictions from a computational flow and sediment transport model with bed evolution. The flume experiment produced sandbars with approximate mode 2, whereas numerical simulations produced a bed morphology better approximated as alternate bars, mode 1. In addition, bar formation occurred more rapidly in the laboratory channel than for the model channel. This paper focuses on a steady-flow laboratory experiment without upstream sediment supply. Future experiments will examine the effects of unsteady flow and sediment supply and the use of numerical models to simulate the response of barform topography to these influences.

  13. Forsmark site investigation. Interpretation of topographic lineaments 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Hans

    2003-04-01

    SKB performs site investigations for localization of a deep repository for high level radioactive waste. The site investigations are performed in two municipalities; Oesthammar and Oskarshamn. The Forsmark investigation area is situated in Oesthammar, close to the Forsmark nuclear power plant. The purpose of interpretation of lineaments from topographic data is to identify linear features (lineaments), which may correspond to deformation zones in the bedrock. The data will be combined with interpretations of lineaments from airborne geophysical data in order to produce an integrated lineament interpretation for the Forsmark area. This integrated interpretation will be combined with geological data in order to establish a bedrock geological map of the Forsmark area. The area for the lineament interpretation is the same as that selected for the bedrock mapping activities during 2002, i.e. the land area around Forsmark

  14. Topographic laser ranging and scanning principles and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Jie

    2008-01-01

    A systematic, in-depth introduction to theories and principles of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology is long overdue, as it is the most important geospatial data acquisition technology to be introduced in recent years. An advanced discussion, this text fills the void.Professionals in fields ranging from geology, geography and geoinformatics to physics, transportation, and law enforcement will benefit from this comprehensive discussion of topographic LiDAR principles, systems, data acquisition, and data processing techniques. The book covers ranging and scanning fundamentals, and broad, contemporary analysis of airborne LiDAR systems, as well as those situated on land and in space. The authors present data collection at the signal level in terms of waveforms and their properties; at the system level with regard to calibration and georeferencing; and at the data level to discuss error budget, quality control, and data organization. They devote the bulk of the book to LiDAR data processing and inform...

  15. Topographic characterization of nanostructures on curved polymer surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Petersen, Jan C.; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2014-01-01

    The availability of portable instrumentation for characterizing surface topography on the micro- and nanometer scale is very limited. Particular the handling of curved surfaces, both concave and convex, is complicated or not possible on current instrumentation. However, the currently growing use...... method with a portable instrument that can be used in a production environment, and topographically characterize nanometer-scale surface structures on both flat and curved surfaces. To facilitate the commercialization of injection moulded polymer parts featuring nanostructures, it is pivotal...... of injection moulding of polymer parts featuring nanostructured surfaces, requires an instrument that can characterize these structures to ensure replication-confidence between master structure and replicated polymer parts. This project concerns the development of a metrological traceable quality control...

  16. Basal-topographic control of stationary ponds on a continuously moving landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, J.A.; McKenna, J.P.; Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Slumgullion landslide in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado has been moving for at least the last few hundred years and has multiple ponds on its surface. We have studied eight ponds during 30 trips to the landslide between July 1998 and July 2007. During each trip, we have made observations on the variability in pond locations and water levels, taken ground-based photographs to document pond water with respect to moving landslide material and vegetation, conducted Global Positioning System surveys of the elevations of water levels and mapped pond sediments on the landslide surface. Additionally, we have used stereo aerial photographs taken in October 1939, October 1940 and July 2000 to measure topographic profiles of the eight pond locations, as well as a longitudinal profile along the approximate centerline of the landslide, to examine topographic changes over a 60- to 61-year period of time. Results from field observations, analyses of photographs, mapping and measurements indicate that all pond locations have remained spatially stationary for 60-300 years while landslide material moves through these locations. Water levels during the observation period were sensitive to changes in the local, spring-fed, stream network, and to periodic filling of pond locations by sediment from floods, hyperconcentrated flows, mud flows and debris flows. For pond locations to remain stationary, the locations must mimic depressions along the basal surface of the landslide. The existence of such depressions indicates that the topography of the basal landslide surface is irregular. These results suggest that, for translational landslides that have moved distances larger than the dimensions of the largest basal topographic irregularities (about 200 m at Slumgullion), landslide surface morphology can be used as a guide to the morphology of the basal slip surface. Because basal slip surface morphology can affect landslide stability, kinematic models and stability

  17. Trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors: repeated cross-sectional surveys from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1984–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernstsen Linda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an overall decrease in incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD, but the reduction in IHD risk factors has been greater among those with higher social position. Increased social inequalities in IHD mortality in Scandinavian countries is often referred to as the Scandinavian “public health puzzle”. The objective of this study was to examine trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension and high total cholesterol over the last three decades among Norwegian middle-aged women and men. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional data from The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT: HUNT 1 (1984–1986, HUNT 2 (1995–1997 and HUNT 3 (2006–2008, women and men 40–59 years old. Educational inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII and The Relative Index of Inequality (RII. Results Smoking prevalence increased for all education groups among women and decreased in men. Relative and absolute educational inequalities in smoking widened in both genders, with significantly higher absolute inequalities among women than men in the two last surveys. Diabetes prevalence increased in all groups. Relative inequalities in diabetes were stable, while absolute inequalities increased both among women (p = 0.05 and among men (p = 0.01. Hypertension prevalence decreased in all groups. Relative inequalities in hypertension widened over time in both genders. However, absolute inequalities in hypertension decreased among women (p = 0.05 and were stable among men (p = 0.33. For high total cholesterol relative and absolute inequalities remained stable in both genders. Conclusion Widening absolute educational inequalities in smoking and diabetes over the last three decades gives rise to concern. The mechanisms behind these results are less clear, and future studies are needed to assess if educational

  18. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  19. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    The Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 and Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis

  20. Dental Fear in Children with Repeated Tooth Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negovetić Vranić, Dubravka; Ivančić Jokić, Nataša; Bakarčić, Danko; Carek, Andreja; Rotim, Željko; Verzak, Željko

    2016-06-01

    Tooth injuries are serious clinical conditions. Some children experience dental trauma only once, while others are more prone to repeated tooth injuries. Repeated dental trauma occurs in 19.4% to 30% of patients. Pain and dental trauma are the most common reasons for fear and anxiety. The main objective of this study was to investigate how dental trauma, as well as repeated dental trauma affects the occurrence and development of dental fear in children. The study was conducted on a random sample of 147 subjects (88 boys and 59 girls) aged 5-8 and 9-12 years. Subjects in both age groups were divided into subroups without dental trauma, with one dental trauma and with repeated dental trauma. The validated Children’s Fear Survey Schedule – Dental Subscale was used on fear assessment. Results showed that only 12.2% of children without trauma, 33.3% with one trauma and 51.7% with repeated trauma were not afraid of injection. Older children had a significantly lower fear of injections, touch of an unknown person, choking, going to the hospital and people in white uniforms. Dentist was not the cause of fear in 65.5% of patients with repeated trauma. With each repeated injury of teeth, the degree of their fear of dental treatment was lower.

  1. Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. Md; Solomatine, D. P.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2015-01-01

    Topographic data, such as digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential input in flood inundation modelling. DEMs can be derived from several sources either through remote sensing techniques (spaceborne or airborne imagery) or from traditional methods (ground survey). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the light detection and ranging (lidar), and topographic contour maps are some of the most commonly used sources of data for DEMs. These DEMs are characterized by different precision and accuracy. On the one hand, the spatial resolution of low-cost DEMs from satellite imagery, such as ASTER and SRTM, is rather coarse (around 30 to 90 m). On the other hand, the lidar technique is able to produce high-resolution DEMs (at around 1 m), but at a much higher cost. Lastly, contour mapping based on ground survey is time consuming, particularly for higher scales, and may not be possible for some remote areas. The use of these different sources of DEM obviously affects the results of flood inundation models. This paper shows and compares a number of 1-D hydraulic models developed using HEC-RAS as model code and the aforementioned sources of DEM as geometric input. To test model selection, the outcomes of the 1-D models were also compared, in terms of flood water levels, to the results of 2-D models (LISFLOOD-FP). The study was carried out on a reach of the Johor River, in Malaysia. The effect of the different sources of DEMs (and different resolutions) was investigated by considering the performance of the hydraulic models in simulating flood water levels as well as inundation maps. The outcomes of our study show that the use of different DEMs has serious implications to the results of hydraulic models. The outcomes also indicate that the loss of model accuracy due to re-sampling the highest resolution DEM (i.e. lidar 1 m) to lower resolution is much less than the loss of model accuracy due

  2. Predicting aboveground forest biomass with topographic variables in human-impacted tropical dry forest landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salinas-Melgoza, Miguel A.; Skutsch, Margaret; Lovett, Jon C.

    2018-01-01

    Topographic variables such as slope and elevation partially explain spatial variations in aboveground biomass (AGB) within landscapes. Human activities that impact vegetation, such as cattle grazing and shifting cultivation, often follow topographic features and also play a key role in determining

  3. Influence of different topographic correction strategies on mountain vegetation classification accuracy in the Lancang Watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; de Wulf, Robert R.; van Coillie, Frieke M. B.; Verbeke, Lieven P. C.; de Clercq, Eva M.; Ou, Xiaokun

    2011-01-01

    Mapping of vegetation using remote sensing in mountainous areas is considerably hampered by topographic effects on the spectral response pattern. A variety of topographic normalization techniques have been proposed to correct these illumination effects due to topography. The purpose of this study was to compare six different topographic normalization methods (Cosine correction, Minnaert correction, C-correction, Sun-canopy-sensor correction, two-stage topographic normalization, and slope matching technique) for their effectiveness in enhancing vegetation classification in mountainous environments. Since most of the vegetation classes in the rugged terrain of the Lancang Watershed (China) did not feature a normal distribution, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were employed as a classifier. Comparing the ANN classifications, none of the topographic correction methods could significantly improve ETM+ image classification overall accuracy. Nevertheless, at the class level, the accuracy of pine forest could be increased by using topographically corrected images. On the contrary, oak forest and mixed forest accuracies were significantly decreased by using corrected images. The results also showed that none of the topographic normalization strategies was satisfactorily able to correct for the topographic effects in severely shadowed areas.

  4. Teaching Topographic Map Skills and Geomorphology Concepts with Google Earth in a One-Computer Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Tsai, Bor-Wen; Chen, Che-Ming

    2018-01-01

    Teaching high-school geomorphological concepts and topographic map reading entails many challenges. This research reports the applicability and effectiveness of Google Earth in teaching topographic map skills and geomorphological concepts, by a single teacher, in a one-computer classroom. Compared to learning via a conventional instructional…

  5. Coordination in continuously repeated games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeren, A.J.T.M.; Schumacher, J.M.; Engwerda, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to describe the effectiveness of coordination in a continuously repeated two-player game. We study how the choice of a decision rule by a coordinator affects the strategic behavior of the players, resulting in more or less cooperation. Our model requires the analysis

  6. Repeated checking causes memory distrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain why in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) checkers distrust in memory persists despite extensive checking. It is argued that: (1) repeated checking increases familiarity with the issues checked; (2) increased familiarity promotes conceptual processing which inhibits

  7. NOAA's Shoreline Survey Maps - Raster NOAA-NOS Shoreline Survey Manuscripts that define the shoreline and alongshore natural and man-made features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOS coastal survey maps (often called t-sheet or tp-sheet maps) are special use planimetric or topographic maps that precisely define the shoreline and alongshore...

  8. Topographical controls on soil moisture distribution and runoff response in a first order alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Daniele; Gobbi, Alberto; Mantese, Nicola; Borga, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Hydrological processes driving runoff generation in mountain basins depend on a wide number of factors which are often strictly interconnected. Among them, topography is widely recognized as one of the dominant controls influencing soil moisture distribution in the root zone, depth to water table and location and extent of saturated areas possibly prone to runoff production. Morphological properties of catchments are responsible for the alternation between steep slopes and relatively flat areas which have the potentials to control the storage/release of water and hence the hydrological response of the whole watershed. This work aims to: i) identify the role of topography as the main factor controlling the spatial distribution of near-surface soil moisture; ii) evaluate the possible switch in soil moisture spatial organization between wet and relatively dry periods and the stability of patterns during triggering of surface/subsurface runoff; iii) assess the possible connection between the develop of an ephemeral river network and the groundwater variations, examining the influence of the catchment topographical properties on the hydrological response. Hydro-meteorological data were collected in a small subcatchment (Larch Creek Catchment, 0.033 km²) of Rio Vauz basin (1.9 km²), in the eastern Italian Alps. Precipitation, discharge, water table level over a net of 14 piezometric wells and volumetric soil moisture at 0-30 cm depth were monitored continuously during the late spring-early autumn months in 2007 and 2008. Soil water content at 0-6 and 0-20 cm depth was measured manually during 22 field surveys in summer 2007 over a 44-sampling point experimental plot (approximately 3000 m²). In summer 2008 the sampling grid was extended to 64 points (approximately 4500 m²) and 28 field surveys were carried out. The length of the ephemeral stream network developed during rainfall events was assessed by a net of 24 Overland Flow Detectors (OFDs), which are able to

  9. 30 CFR Appendix to Part 253 - List of U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Comal; La Leona; La Parra Ranch NE; Laguna Vista; Lake Austin; Lake Como; Lake Stephenson; Lamar; Long... Canyon; Encinitas; Gaviota; Goleta; Guadalupe; Imperial Beach; Laguna Beach; La Jolla; Las Pulgas Canyon... SE; Steinhatchee SW; Sugar Hill; Sumner; Suwannee; Tampa; Tarpon Springs; Valparaiso; Venice; Vista...

  10. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey, Reno national topographic map, Nevada. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Reno Map Sheet covers part of western Nevada between latitudes 39 0 and 40 0 north and longitudes 118 0 and 120 0 west. The area includes parts of Churchill, Mineral, Nye, Douglas, Lyon, Storey and Washoe counties. The area is located within the limits of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province but borders the Sierra Nevada immediately to its west. The eastern half of the Reno Map Sheet is dominated by the Carson Sink. The western half of the map sheet contains a greater number of ranges. The basin areas are less extensive. In the western half of the map sheet Mesozoic aged metamorphic rocks occur as isolated outcrops surrounded by Cenozoic deposits or Cretaceous plutonic rocks. Metamorphism of the volcanic and sedimentary rocks occurred prior to and during the plutonic intrusions. Extensive portions of southern Washoe and Storey counties are covered by Late Pleistocene and Recent alluvial deposits and alluvial fans. In the eastern half of the map sheet the peripheral mountain ranges are underlain by Cenozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Mesozoic rocks of Triassic to Middle Jurassic age occur throughout the mountain ranges. The narrower eastern valleys are underlain by Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine deposits which are approximately contemporaneous with the Pleistocene aged deposits of Lake Lahontan which formerly occupied the Carson Sink. Much of the present day topography of the basins and ranges is a result of intermittent Cenozoic structural deformation which continues to the present. The major uranium ore occurrences are in Storey and Washoe counties and are closely associated with the Cenozoic volcanic or volcano-sedimentary rocks. In the Red Rock Canyon area and in Churchill County uranium concentration is specifically related to lignitic shale or lignite occurrences

  11. 2006 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Topographic LiDAR: Connecticut Coastline Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. By positioning laser range finding with the use of 1...

  12. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: San Francisco Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary purpose of this project was to develop a consistent and accurate surface elevation dataset derived from high-accuracy Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  13. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic Lidar: Channel Islands, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for 197 square miles covering five islands off the coast of Los Angeles, California. These islands are part of the Channel Islands...

  14. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Mobile Bay, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract: G10PC00026 Task Order Number: G10PD00578 LiDAR was collected at a nominal pulse spacing of 2.0 meters for a 700 square mile area to the east of Mobile...

  15. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 1 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Vermillion, Iberia, St. Mary, Terrebonne, and Lafourche...

  16. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 2 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Tammany Parishes,...

  17. 2009 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Androscoggin County, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract Number: G10PC00026 USGS Task Order: G10PD01737 LiDAR was collected at a 1.0 points per square meter (1.0m GSD) for the county of Androscoggin, Maine...

  18. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  19. Spatial and topographic trends in forest expansion and biomass change, from regional to local scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buma, Brian; Barrett, Tara M

    2015-09-01

    Natural forest growth and expansion are important carbon sequestration processes globally. Climate change is likely to increase forest growth in some regions via CO2 fertilization, increased temperatures, and altered precipitation; however, altered disturbance regimes and climate stress (e.g. drought) will act to reduce carbon stocks in forests as well. Observations of asynchrony in forest change is useful in determining current trends in forest carbon stocks, both in terms of forest density (e.g. Mg ha(-1) ) and spatially (extent and location). Monitoring change in natural (unmanaged) areas is particularly useful, as while afforestation and recovery from historic land use are currently large carbon sinks, the long-term viability of those sinks depends on climate change and disturbance dynamics at their particular location. We utilize a large, unmanaged biome (>135 000 km(2) ) which spans a broad latitudinal gradient to explore how variation in location affects forest density and spatial patterning: the forests of the North American temperate rainforests in Alaska, which store >2.8 Pg C in biomass and soil, equivalent to >8% of the C in contiguous US forests. We demonstrate that the regional biome is shifting; gains exceed losses and are located in different spatio-topographic contexts. Forest gains are concentrated on northerly aspects, lower elevations, and higher latitudes, especially in sheltered areas, whereas loss is skewed toward southerly aspects and lower latitudes. Repeat plot-scale biomass data (n = 759) indicate that within-forest biomass gains outpace losses (live trees >12.7 cm diameter, 986 Gg yr(-1) ) on gentler slopes and in higher latitudes. This work demonstrates that while temperate rainforest dynamics occur at fine spatial scales (biomass accumulation suggest the potential for relatively rapid biome shifts and biomass changes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Topographically Engineered Large Scale Nanostructures for Plasmonic Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Sangram K.; Santiago, Kevin C.; Rutherford, Gugu N.; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate that a nanostructured metal thin film can achieve enhanced transmission efficiency and sharp resonances and use a large-scale and high-throughput nanofabrication technique for the plasmonic structures. The fabrication technique combines the features of nanoimprint and soft lithography to topographically construct metal thin films with nanoscale patterns. Metal nanogratings developed using this method show significantly enhanced optical transmission (up to a one-order-of-magnitude enhancement) and sharp resonances with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~15nm in the zero-order transmission using an incoherent white light source. These nanostructures are sensitive to the surrounding environment, and the resonance can shift as the refractive index changes. We derive an analytical method using a spatial Fourier transformation to understand the enhancement phenomenon and the sensing mechanism. The use of real-time monitoring of protein-protein interactions in microfluidic cells integrated with these nanostructures is demonstrated to be effective for biosensing. The perpendicular transmission configuration and large-scale structures provide a feasible platform without sophisticated optical instrumentation to realize label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing.

  1. Topographic Evaluation of Aphasia in 100 Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ghandehari

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aphasia is a common manifestation of stroke and evaluation of relationships of aphasia and brain topography could lead to better understanding of cognitive neurophysiology. Methods: 100 stroke patients with aphasia admitted in Valie-Asr hospital, Khorasan since April 2003 were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. Diagnosis of stroke and aphasia was made by a neurologist and topography of involved cerebrovascular territories confirmed by topographic maps of brain in CT scan. Results: Global, Broca and Wernicke subtypes of aphasia constituted 52%, 40% and 6% of the cases, respectively. Based on the usual nourishment of Broca and Wernicke areas by anterior and posterior cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery, 79% of Global, 47% of Broca and 50% of Wernicke aphasias had compatible infarct topography. The infarct topography in other cases was not congruent with the involved linguistic areas of their brain. Conclusion: Specific cerebrovascular topography for subtypes of aphasia in stroke patients was not found. The effects of cerebrovascular lesions on linguistic functions are not predictable by their topography in CT scan.

  2. Surface topographical and structural analysis of Ag+-implanted polymethylmethacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, Shafaq; Rafique, M. Shahid; Saleemi, Farhat; Naab, Fabian; Toader, Ovidiu; Sagheer, Riffat; Bashir, Shazia; Zia, Rehana; Siraj, Khurram; Iqbal, Saman

    2016-01-01

    Specimens of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were implanted with 400-keV Ag + ions at different ion fluences ranging from 1 × 10 14 to 5 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 using a 400-kV NEC ion implanter. The surface topographical features of the implanted PMMA were investigated by a confocal microscope. Modifications in the structural properties of the implanted specimens were analyzed in comparison with pristine PMMA by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. UV–Visible spectroscopy was applied to determine the effects of ion implantation on optical transmittance of the implanted PMMA. The confocal microscopic images revealed the formation of hillock-like microstructures along the ion track on the implanted PMMA surface. The increase in ion fluence led to more nucleation of hillocks. The XRD pattern confirmed the amorphous nature of pristine and implanted PMMA, while the Raman studies justified the transformation of Ag + -implanted PMMA into amorphous carbon at the ion fluence of ⩾5 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 . Moreover, the decrease in optical transmittance of PMMA is associated with the formation of hillocks and ion-induced structural modifications after implantation.

  3. Identification and topographical characterisation of microbial nanowires in Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sure, Sandeep; Torriero, Angel A J; Gaur, Aditya; Li, Lu Hua; Chen, Ying; Tripathi, Chandrakant; Adholeya, Alok; Ackland, M Leigh; Kochar, Mandira

    2016-03-01

    Extracellular pili-like structures (PLS) produced by cyanobacteria have been poorly explored. We have done detailed topographical and electrical characterisation of PLS in Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73120 using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). TEM analysis showed that N. punctiforme produces two separate types of PLS differing in their length and diameter. The first type of PLS are 6-7.5 nm in diameter and 0.5-2 µm in length (short/thin PLS) while the second type of PLS are ~20-40 nm in diameter and more than 10 µm long (long/thick PLS). This is the first study to report long/thick PLS in N. punctiforme. Electrical characterisation of these two different PLS by CAFM showed that both are electrically conductive and can act as microbial nanowires. This is the first report to show two distinct PLS and also identifies microbial nanowires in N. punctiforme. This study paves the way for more detailed investigation of N. punctiforme nanowires and their potential role in cell physiology and symbiosis with plants.

  4. Selective scene perception deficits in a case of topographical disorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Lowe, Matthew X; Pishdadian, Sara; Rivest, Josée; Cant, Jonathan S; Moscovitch, Morris

    2017-07-01

    Topographical disorientation (TD) is a neuropsychological condition characterized by an inability to find one's way, even in familiar environments. One common contributing cause of TD is landmark agnosia, a visual recognition impairment specific to scenes and landmarks. Although many cases of TD with landmark agnosia have been documented, little is known about the perceptual mechanisms which lead to selective deficits in recognizing scenes. In the present study, we test LH, a man who exhibits TD and landmark agnosia, on measures of scene perception that require selectively attending to either the configural or surface properties of a scene. Compared to healthy controls, LH demonstrates perceptual impairments when attending to the configuration of a scene, but not when attending to its surface properties, such as the pattern of the walls or whether the ground is sand or grass. In contrast, when focusing on objects instead of scenes, LH demonstrates intact perception of both geometric and surface properties. This study demonstrates that in a case of TD and landmark agnosia, the perceptual impairments are selective to the layout of scenes, providing insight into the mechanism of landmark agnosia and scene-selective perceptual processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Topographical mapping system for hazardous and radiological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Bernacki, B.E.; Pardini, A.

    1995-01-01

    This report focuses on the results of the acceptance test of the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) delivered to the Hanford site. The TMS was tested for accuracy over the specified range of 45 feet. The TMS was also tested to ensure that the unit could be deployed through multiple risers and maintain accuracy and registration of the surface mapping data. In addition, the TMS was disassembled and reassembled and redeployed to test field replacement of modules that make up the sensor head that is deployed in the vapor space of Underground Storage Tanks such as those located at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. The results from these tests along with temperature testing on the complete system and radiation testing of selected susceptible components are covered in this report. The primary purpose of the TMS is to generate reliable and accurate three-dimensional maps of the internal surfaces of storage tank. One use for these mapping systems is in creating and maintaining a current map of the tank interior as input to a robotic ''world model'' that is used to test remediation strategies or plan robot trajectories. Another use is tracking the movement of the waste surface as it responds to expanding bubbles of trapped Gas. A third use of the TMS is to perform a volumetric analysis of the amount of waste removed from the tanks during remediation

  6. Topographic control of oceanic flows in deep passages and straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J. A.

    1998-08-01

    Saddle points between neighboring deep ocean basins are the sites of unidirectional flow from one basin to the next, depending on the source of bottom water. Flow in these sites appears to be topographically controlled so the interface between the bottom water and the water above adjusts itself to permit bottom water flow from the basin that contains a source of bottom water into the next. Examples in the Atlantic include flow in the Romanche Fracture Zone, the Vema Channel, the Ceara Abyssal Plain, the Anegada-Jungfern passage, and the Discovery Gap, but there are many more. Theoretical predictions of volume flux using a method that requires only conductivity-temperature-depth data archives and detailed knowledge of bathymetry near the saddle point are compared with volume flux estimates using current meters and/or geostrophic estimates for seven cases. The ratio of prediction to volume flux estimate ranges from 1.0 to 2.7. Some ocean straits that separate adjacent seas are also found to critically control bidirectional flows between basins. Theory of the influence of rotation on such critical flows is reviewed. Predictions of volume flux in eight cases are compared with ocean estimates of volume flux from traditional methods.

  7. Topographic diagnosis of parathyroid tumor by CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Harioka, Toshio; Morita, Rikuji

    1981-01-01

    In order to detect the hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland(s), CT scan over the neck was performed in patients with parathyroid disorders, including 10 primary hyperparathyroidism (6 bone type, 3 stone type and 1 chemical type), 8 chronic renal failure on hemodialysis with renal osteodystrophy and 2 multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA) type I. We used a whole-body scanner (CT/T, GE). The slice thickness was 5 mm. All patients were scanned from the sternal notch upward to the larynx, and were enhanced by the administration of 30% DIP Conray for 15 min. The results of the topographic diagnosis were compared with the surgical findings. Precise preoperative localization was accomplished in 9/10 adenomas in primary hyperparathyroidism, 27/32 hyperplasias in secondary hyperparathyroidism, and 2/4 hyperplasias in MEA type I. The smallest lesion weighed 0.2 g. It was shown that CT scan over the neck was a noninvasive and simple method to define the localization of hyperfunctionig parathyroid gland(s). (author)

  8. The Moon's largest craters and basins images and topographic maps from LRO, GRAIL, and Kaguya

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    This most recent book from lunar expert Charles J. Byrne combines the latest comprehensive imagery, topography and gravity data from all three recent Moon missions, Kaguya, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and GRAIL. These major polar-orbit surveys are presented here in compact form for the convenience of amateur and practical astronomers concerned with the Moon. Chosen from the Near and Far Side's large craters and basins over 200 km in diameter, each of the 71 highlighted features is depicted with a two-page presentation of the data that includes false color topographic maps next to the mission images. Additionally, the features are presented in the estimated chronological sequence of their creation, based on a consideration of stratigraphy (overlapping layers from neighboring features) and the relative degradation of surface features.  Using this sequence as a way to convey the relative ages of lunar features, the author presents various theories concerning the Moon’s impact and thermal history ...

  9. Larval fish assemblages in coastal waters of central Greece: reflections of topographic and oceanographic heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Somarakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Patterns in the mesoscale distribution of larval fish in the coastal waters of central Greece, an area of high topographic and bathymetric complexity, were analysed using samples collected during two ichthyoplankton surveys in July 1998 and June 1999. Salinities were lower in the eastern (Aegean part of the study area due to the influence of waters originating from the Black Sea. In this region, larvae of many epipelagic and benthopelagic (typically summer spawning species were less abundant in June 1999, when waters were significantly cooler, compared to July 1998. Multivariate analyses identified ‘neritic’ and ‘pelagic’ groups of stations dominated by larvae of epipelagic/bethopelagic (typically shelf dwelling and mesopelagic species. In the west (Ionian Sea, a prominent third group of stations located in the deep and highly enclosed Korinthiakos Gulf was also defined with very high abundances of mesopelagic fish larvae. However, the genera Cyclothone and Vinciguerria that dominated the neighbouring offshore assemblage of the Ionian Sea were absent from this gulf. In the study area, Korinthiakós Gulf ( > 900 m and North Evoikos ( > 400 m Gulf comprise unique ‘fjord-like’ ecosystems in the Mediterranean with increased productivity and significantly cooler deep waters compared to adjacent open sea basins.

  10. Online learning in repeated auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Weed, Jonathan; Perchet, Vianney; Rigollet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by online advertising auctions, we consider repeated Vickrey auctions where goods of unknown value are sold sequentially and bidders only learn (potentially noisy) information about a good's value once it is purchased. We adopt an online learning approach with bandit feedback to model this problem and derive bidding strategies for two models: stochastic and adversarial. In the stochastic model, the observed values of the goods are random variables centered around the true value of t...

  11. Constraining the Distribution of Vertical Slip on the South Heli Shan Fault (Northeastern Tibet) From High-Resolution Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Haiyun; Zheng, Wenjun; Ge, Weipeng; Zhang, Peizhen; Zeng, Jiangyuan; Yu, Jingxing

    2018-03-01

    Reconstruction of the along-fault slip distribution provides an insight into the long-term rupture patterns of a fault, thereby enabling more accurate assessment of its future behavior. The increasing wealth of high-resolution topographic data, such as Light Detection and Ranging and photogrammetric digital elevation models, allows us to better constrain the slip distribution, thus greatly improving our understanding of fault behavior. The South Heli Shan Fault is a major active fault on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we built a 2 m resolution digital elevation model of the South Heli Shan Fault based on high-resolution GeoEye-1 stereo satellite imagery and then measured 302 vertical displacements along the fault, which increased the measurement density of previous field surveys by a factor of nearly 5. The cumulative displacements show an asymmetric distribution along the fault, comprising three major segments. An increasing trend from west to east indicates that the fault has likely propagated westward over its lifetime. The topographic relief of Heli Shan shows an asymmetry similar to the measured cumulative slip distribution, suggesting that the uplift of Heli Shan may result mainly from the long-term activity of the South Heli Shan Fault. Furthermore, the cumulative displacements divide into discrete clusters along the fault, indicating that the fault has ruptured in several large earthquakes. By constraining the slip-length distribution of each rupture, we found that the events do not support a characteristic recurrence model for the fault.

  12. Relationship between income and repeat criminal victimization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Justus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of income on repeat criminal victimization in Brazil using data from the 2009 National Household Sample Survey and its special supplement on victimization and access to justice. Two count-data models were estimated for four types of crime: theft, robbery, attempted theft/robbery, and physical assault. A positive nonlinear effect of income on repeat victimization for the three types of property crimes and a negative nonlinear effect of income on physical assault were observed.

  13. A repeating fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  14. The effects of digital elevation model resolution on the calculation and predictions of topographic wetness indices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drover, Damion, Ryan

    2011-12-01

    One of the largest exports in the Southeast U.S. is forest products. Interest in biofuels using forest biomass has increased recently, leading to more research into better forest management BMPs. The USDA Forest Service, along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Georgia and Oregon State University are researching the impacts of intensive forest management for biofuels on water quality and quantity at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Surface runoff of saturated areas, transporting excess nutrients and contaminants, is a potential water quality issue under investigation. Detailed maps of variable source areas and soil characteristics would therefore be helpful prior to treatment. The availability of remotely sensed and computed digital elevation models (DEMs) and spatial analysis tools make it easy to calculate terrain attributes. These terrain attributes can be used in models to predict saturated areas or other attributes in the landscape. With laser altimetry, an area can be flown to produce very high resolution data, and the resulting data can be resampled into any resolution of DEM desired. Additionally, there exist many maps that are in various resolutions of DEM, such as those acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. Problems arise when using maps derived from different resolution DEMs. For example, saturated areas can be under or overestimated depending on the resolution used. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEM resolution on the calculation of topographic wetness indices used to predict variable source areas of saturation, and to find the best resolutions to produce prediction maps of soil attributes like nitrogen, carbon, bulk density and soil texture for low-relief, humid-temperate forested hillslopes. Topographic wetness indices were calculated based on the derived terrain attributes, slope and specific catchment area, from five different DEM resolutions. The DEMs were resampled from LiDAR, which is a

  15. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3468, Chak Wardak Syahgerd (509) and Kabul (510) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  16. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3564, Chahriaq (Joand) (405) and Gurziwan (406) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  17. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3364, Pasa-Band (417) and Kejran (418) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  18. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  19. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3266, Ourzgan (519) and Moqur (520) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  20. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3568, Polekhomri (503) and Charikar (504) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  1. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  2. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3466, Lal-Sarjangal (507) and Bamyan (508) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  3. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  4. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3670, Jam-Kashem (223) and Zebak (224) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  5. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  6. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3164, Lashkargah (605) and Kandahar (606) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  7. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  8. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3264, Nawzad-Musa-Qala (423) and Dehrawat (424) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  9. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chesht-Sharif (410) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  10. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-E-Pur-Chaman (422) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  11. The Relationship between Vestibular Function and Topographical Memory in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Henry Previc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research during the past two decades has demonstrated an important role of the vestibular system in topographical orientation and memory and the network of neural structures associated with them. Almost all of the supporting data have come from animal or human clinical studies, however. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the link between vestibular function and topographical memory in normal elderly humans. Twenty-five participants aged 70 to 85 years who scored from mildly impaired to normal on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment received three topographical memory tests: the Camden Topographical Recognition Memory Test (CTMRT, a computerized topographical mental rotation test (TMRT, and a virtual pond maze (VPM. They also received six vestibular or oculomotor tests: optokinetic nystagmus (OKN, visual pursuit (VP, actively generated vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, the sensory orientation test (SOT for posture, and two measures of rotational memory (error in degrees, or RMº, and correct directional recognition, or RM→. The only significant bivariate correlations were among the three vestibular measures primarily assessing horizontal canal function (VOR, RMº, and RM→. A multiple regression analysis showed significant relationships between vestibular and demographic predictors and both the TMRT (R=.78 and VPM (R=.66 measures. The significant relationship between the vestibular and topographical memory measures supports the theory that vestibular loss may contribute to topographical memory impairment in the elderly.

  12. Tampa Bay Topographic/Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In this joint demonstration project for the Tampa Bay region, NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have merged NOAA bathymetric...

  13. Topographic characteristics of keratoconus among a sample of Jordanian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Abu Ameerh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To identify topographic characteristics of keratoconus in a Jordanian sample.METHODS:This study characterized 210 corneas affected with keratoconus presenting to Jordan University Hospital. Patients were diagnosed based on clinical examinations and Pentacam imaging. Eyes of males (n=101 were of a similar proportion to females (n=109. All of the 111 patients were affected bilaterally. Ages ranged between 13 and 44y with a mean age of 25.2y.RESULTS:Results revealed significant differences between males and females at the level of the flat curvature power, basement membrane thickness and size of the anterior chamber. Eyes were arranged in three groups based on severity levels:mild, moderate and severe determined by the mean curvature power (Km. Results show that the flat (K1 and steep (K2 curvature powers, corneal asphericity coefficient (QV, thinnest point, pachy apex and basement membrane thickness are significantly different among the three groups, but not the corneal and anterior chamber volumes. Morphological analyses, based on sagittal maps, show no differences in keratometric values between eyes with different sagittal patterns except for the vertical location of the pachy apex relative to the pupil center and the thinnest point. Eyes with the island front elevation map are significantly more affected than eyes with the U shape and the ridge pattern.CONCLUSION:All keratometric values measured except for corneal and anterior chamber volumes vary significantly with disease severity. The vertical pachy apex location correlates well with severity levels while the horizontal location seems to have no effect. Our study also indicates that front elevation maps may be a better predictor of the severity of keratoconus than sagittal maps.

  14. Topographic instability of flow in a rotating fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Patarashvili

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Here are presented the results of experimental and theoretical studies on a stability of zonal geostrophic flows in the rotating layer of the shallow water. In the experiments, a special apparatus by Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory Georgian Academy of Science was used. This apparatus represents a paraboloid of rotation, which can be set in a regulable rotation around the vertical axis. Maximal diameter of the paraboloid is 1.2 m, radius of curvature in the pole is 0.698 m. In the paraboloid, water spreads on walls as a layer uniform on height under the period of rotation 1.677 s. Against a background of the rotating fluid, the zonal flows are formed by the source-sink system. It consists of two concentric circular perforations on the paraboloid bottom (width is 0.3 cm, radiuses are 8.4 and 57.3 cm, respectively; water can be pumped through them with various velocities and in all directions. It has been established that under constant vertical depth of the rotating fluid the zonal flows are stable. There are given the measurements of the radial profiles for the water level and velocity in the stationary regime. It has been found that zonal flows may lose stability under the presence of the radial gradient of full depth formed by a change of angular velocity of paraboloid rotation. An instability origin results in the loss of flow axial symmetry and in the appearance of self-excited oscillations in the zonal flow. At the given angular velocity of rotation, instability is observed only in the definite range of intensities of the source-sink system. The theoretical estimations are performed in the framework of the equations of the shallow water theory, including the terms describing the bottom friction. It has been shown that the instability of zonal flows found experimentally has a topographical nature and is related with non-monotone dependence of the potential vorticity on radius.

  15. The Influence of Topographic Obstacles on Basaltic Lava Flow Morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Meerscheidt, H. C.; Brand, B. D.; deWet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hamilton, C. W.; Samuels, R.

    2014-12-01

    Smooth pāhoehoe and jagged ´áā represent two end-members of a textural spectrum that reflects the emplacement characteristics of basaltic lava flows. However, many additional textures (e.g., rubbly and slabby pāhoehoe) reflect a range of different process due to lava flow dynamics or interaction with topography. Unfortunately the influence of topography on the distribution of textures in basaltic lava flows is not well-understood. The 18 ± 1.0 ka Twin Craters lava flow in the Zuni-Bandera field (New Mexico, USA) provides an excellent site to study the morphological changes of a lava flow that encountered topographic obstacles. The flow field is 0.2-3.8 km wide with a prominent central tube system that intersects and wraps around a 1000 m long ridge, oriented perpendicular to flow. Upstream of the ridge, the flow has low-relief inflation features extending out and around the ridge. This area includes mildly to heavily disrupted pāhoehoe with interdispersed agglutinated masses, irregularly shaped rubble and lava balls. Breakouts of ´áā and collapse features are also common. These observations suggest crustal disruption due to flow-thickening upstream from the ridge and the movement of lava out and around the obstacle. While the ridge influenced the path of the tube, which wraps around the southern end of the ridge, the series of collapse features and breakouts of ´áā along the tube system are more likely a result of changes in flux throughout the tube system because these features are found both upstream and downstream of the obstacle. This work demonstrates that topography can significantly influence the formation history and surface disruption of a flow field, and in some cases the influence of topography can be separated from the influences of changes in flux along a tube system.

  16. Tactile Robotic Topographical Mapping Without Force or Contact Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kevin; Melko, Joseph; Krajewski, Joel; Cady, Ian

    2008-01-01

    A method of topographical mapping of a local solid surface within the range of motion of a robot arm is based on detection of contact between the surface and the end effector (the fixture or tool at the tip of the robot arm). The method was conceived to enable mapping of local terrain by an exploratory robot on a remote planet, without need to incorporate delicate contact switches, force sensors, a vision system, or other additional, costly hardware. The method could also be used on Earth for determining the size and shape of an unknown surface in the vicinity of a robot, perhaps in an unanticipated situation in which other means of mapping (e.g., stereoscopic imaging or laser scanning with triangulation) are not available. The method uses control software modified to utilize the inherent capability of the robotic control system to measure the joint positions, the rates of change of the joint positions, and the electrical current demanded by the robotic arm joint actuators. The system utilizes these coordinate data and the known robot-arm kinematics to compute the position and velocity of the end effector, move the end effector along a specified trajectory, place the end effector at a specified location, and measure the electrical currents in the joint actuators. Since the joint actuator current is approximately proportional to the actuator forces and torques, a sudden rise in joint current, combined with a slowing of the joint, is a possible indication of actuator stall and surface contact. Hence, even though the robotic arm is not equipped with contact sensors, it is possible to sense contact (albeit with reduced sensitivity) as the end effector becomes stalled against a surface that one seeks to measure.

  17. Topographical evaluation of the mandibular canal through panoramic radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Macedo Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mandibular canal is located inside the body of the mandible and may have anatomical variations. The topographic knowledge of the mandibular canal by the Dental surgeons is fundamental to achieving success in surgical planning, anesthetics and clinical interventions involving the jaw. To study the anatomy of the mandibular canal through panoramic radiographs. A retrospective descriptive study, developed after review and approval by the Ethics and Research Committee with the number of opinion 431095. Were analyzed 252 panoramic radiographs of patients of male and female attended in dental clinics UNINOVAFAPI University Center, Teresina-Pi, Brazil. The radiographs were analyzed with the aid of a light box and each antimere the jaw was observed separately. The classification of Nortjé and Langlais for description of the topography of the mandibular canal were used. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 18.0. There was a prevalence of 38.89% in both antimeres, of mandibular channel the Type II. The type IV was present in 25.4% in the right hemi-arch and 26.6% on the left. Mandibular canal with unilateral bifurcation was observed in 0.77% of the sample and molar straight channel has not been identified. We observed anatomical variations as for the number and path, of the mandibular canal with the highest prevalence of Types II and IV, and the absence of bifurcations. Most was mandibular channels showed no bifurcation. The panoramic radiograph showed up an aid important to identify the mandibular canal and its variations.

  18. Factors Associated with Clinical and Topographical Features of Laryngeal Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gustavo Corrêa Reis

    Full Text Available Laryngeal tuberculosis (LTB is the most frequent granulomatous disease of the larynx and represents less than 2% of extrapulmonary TB cases. There are no pathognomonic clinical and endoscopic features of this disease and studies on LTB that can assist in its diagnostic characterization are lacking.To identify factors associated with clinical and topographical features of LTB.a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from the medical records of 36 patients with confirmed LTB diagnosis.Dysphonia and cough were the main symptoms presented by patients and the true vocal folds the most frequently affected site. The average of the duration of the disease evolution was significantly higher in patients with dysphonia than in patients without this symptom. We observed association between dysphonia and true vocal fold lesions and between odynophagia and lesions in the epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds. Odynophagia was more frequent in individuals with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites. Weight loss equal or above 10% of the body weight was more frequent in patients with odynophagia as first symptom and in patients with ulcerated lesion. Dyspnea on exertion was more frequent in individuals with more extensive laryngeal lesions. The percentage of smokers with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites was greater than that found in non-smokers. Laryngeal tissue fragment bacilloscopy and culture examinations were less positive than sputum ones.Smoking appears to be associated with the development of more extensive LTB lesions, and LTB with dyspnea on exertion and odynophagia with consequent impairment of nutritional status. We emphasize the need for histopathologic confirmation, once positive sputum bacteriological examinations seem not to necessarily reflect laryngeal involvement.

  19. Factors Associated with Clinical and Topographical Features of Laryngeal Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, João Gustavo Corrêa; Reis, Clarissa Souza Mota; da Costa, Daniel César Silva; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Rolla, Valéria Cavalcanti; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal tuberculosis (LTB) is the most frequent granulomatous disease of the larynx and represents less than 2% of extrapulmonary TB cases. There are no pathognomonic clinical and endoscopic features of this disease and studies on LTB that can assist in its diagnostic characterization are lacking. To identify factors associated with clinical and topographical features of LTB. a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from the medical records of 36 patients with confirmed LTB diagnosis. Dysphonia and cough were the main symptoms presented by patients and the true vocal folds the most frequently affected site. The average of the duration of the disease evolution was significantly higher in patients with dysphonia than in patients without this symptom. We observed association between dysphonia and true vocal fold lesions and between odynophagia and lesions in the epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds. Odynophagia was more frequent in individuals with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites. Weight loss equal or above 10% of the body weight was more frequent in patients with odynophagia as first symptom and in patients with ulcerated lesion. Dyspnea on exertion was more frequent in individuals with more extensive laryngeal lesions. The percentage of smokers with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites was greater than that found in non-smokers. Laryngeal tissue fragment bacilloscopy and culture examinations were less positive than sputum ones. Smoking appears to be associated with the development of more extensive LTB lesions, and LTB with dyspnea on exertion and odynophagia with consequent impairment of nutritional status. We emphasize the need for histopathologic confirmation, once positive sputum bacteriological examinations seem not to necessarily reflect laryngeal involvement.

  20. Topographic evolution of Yosemite Valley from Low Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy-Lang, A.; Shuster, D. L.; Cuffey, K. M.; Fox, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this contribution, we interrogate the timing of km-scale topography development in the region around Yosemite Valley, California. Our goal is to determine when this spectacular glacial valley was carved, and how this might help address controversy surrounding the topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada. At the scale of the range, two rival hypotheses are each supported by different datasets. Low-temperature thermochronology supports the idea that the range has been high-standing since the Cretaceous, whereas geomorphic evidence suggests that much of the elevation of the Sierra Nevada was attained during the Pliocene. Recent work by McPhillips and Brandon (2012) suggests instead that both ideas are valid, with the range losing much elevation during the Cenozoic, but regaining it during Miocene surface uplift.At the local scale, the classic study of Matthes (1930) determined that most of Yosemite Valley was excavated by the Sherwin-age glaciation that ended ~1 Ma. The consensus view is in agreement, although some argue that nearby comparable valleys comparable were carved long ago (e.g., House et al., 1998). If the Quaternary and younger glaciations were responsible for the bulk of the valley's >1 km depth, we might expect apatite (U-Th)/He ages at the valley floor to be histories at these locations, these data constrain patterns of valley topography development through time. We also supplement these data with zircon 4He/3He thermochronometry, which is a newly developed method that provides information on continuous cooling paths through ~120-220 °C. We will present both the apatite and zircon 4He/3He data and, in conjunction with thermo-kinematic modeling, discuss the ability and limitations of these data to test models of Sierra Nevada topography development through time. Matthes (1930) USGS Professional Paper House et al. (1998) Nature McPhillips and Brandon (2012) American Journal of Science

  1. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  3. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  4. New Topographic Maps of Io Using Voyager and Galileo Stereo Imaging and Photoclinometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, O. L.; Schenk, P. M.; Hoogenboom, T.

    2012-03-01

    Stereo and photoclinometry processing have been applied to Voyager and Galileo images of Io in order to derive regional- and local-scale topographic maps of 20% of the moon’s surface to date. We present initial mapping results.

  5. 2013 Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GADNR) Topographic Lidar: Barrow, Clarke, Madison and Oglethorpe Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Contract: EA133C11CQ0009 NOAA Task Order Number: T0013 The PS FY13 GA DNR Elevation Data Task Order involves collecting and delivering topographic elevation...

  6. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern...

  7. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern Oriente)...

  8. Topographic Data Development for Miami County 1m LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. State Base Map for GIS – New Digital Topographic Map of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Srbinoski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI built in accordance with INSPIRE directive is to standardize spatial data infrastructure on national level. In that direction, topographic maps are a basic platform for acquiring spatial data within geoinformation systems and one of the most important  segments of NSDI. This paper presents methodology of establishing the new digital topographic map of the Republic of Macedonia titled “State Base Map for GIS in Macedonia”. This paper analyzes geometrical accuracy of new digital topographic maps. Production of the new digital topographic map has been the most important cartographic project in the Republic of Macedonia since it became independent.

  10. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lower Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint, on behalf of multiple agencies, collected topographic lidar of the Lower Columbia River area. Field data collection took place between the dates of...

  11. 2012 USACE Post Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Rhode Island and Massachusetts Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) represents 354.272 square miles of coastline for Rhode Island...

  12. A dedicated system for topographical working memory: evidence from domain-specific interference tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L; Nori, R; Boccia, M; Barbetti, S; Verde, P; Guariglia, C; Ferlazzo, F

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we used single- and dual-task conditions to investigate the nature of topographical working memory to better understand what type of task can hamper performance during navigation. During dual-task conditions, we considered four different sources of interference: motor (M), spatial motor (SM), verbal (i.e. articulatory suppression AS) and spatial environmental (SE). In order to assess the nature of topographical working memory, we used the Walking Corsi Test, asking the participants to perform two tasks simultaneously (M, SM, AS and SE). Our results showed that only spatial-environmental interference hampers the execution of a topographical working memory task, suggesting a task-domain-specific effect. We also found general gender differences in the topographical working memory capabilities: men were more proficient than women, regardless of the type of interferences. However, like men, women performed worse when a spatial-environmental interference was present.

  13. MGN V RDRS 5 GLOBAL DATA RECORD TOPOGRAPHIC V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the Magellan Global Topographic Data Record (GTDR). The range to surface is derived by fitting altimeter echoes from the fan-beam altimetry...

  14. 2010 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Topographic Lidar: Coastal Massachusetts and Rhode Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  15. Complex Relationships of the Effects of Topographic Characteristics and Susceptible Tree Cover on Burn Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Joo Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires and burn severity mosaics have profound impacts on the post-fire dynamics and complexity of forest ecosystems. Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between topographic variables and susceptible tree covers with regard to burn severity. However, these relationships have not been fully elucidated, because most studies have assumed linearity in these relationships. Therefore, we examined the linearity and the nonlinearity in the relationships between topographic variables and susceptible tree covers with burn severity by comparing linear and nonlinear models. The site of the Samcheok fire, the largest recorded forest fire in Korea, was used as the study area. We generated 802 grid cells with a 500-m resolution that encompassed the entire study area and collected a dataset that included the topographic variables and percentage of red pine trees, which are the most susceptible tree cover types in Korea. We used conventional linear models and generalized additive models to estimate the linear and the nonlinear models based on topographic variables and Japanese red pine trees. The results revealed that the percentage of red pine trees had linear effects on burn severity, reinforcing the importance of silviculture and forest management to lower burn severity. Meanwhile, the topographic variables had nonlinear effects on burn severity. Among the topographic variables, elevation had the strongest nonlinear effect on burn severity, possibly by overriding the effects of susceptible fuels over elevation effects or due to the nonlinear effects of topographic characteristics on pre-fire fuel conditions, including the spatial distribution and availability of susceptible tree cover. To validate and generalize the nonlinear effects of elevation and other topographic variables, additional research is required at different fire sites with different tree cover types in different geographic locations.

  16. Vector Topographic Map Data over the BOREAS NSA and SSA in SIF Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, David; Nickeson, Jaime; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set contains vector contours and other features of individual topographic map sheets from the National Topographic Series (NTS). The map sheet files were received in Standard Interchange Format (SIF) and cover the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA) at scales of 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. The individual files are stored in compressed Unix tar archives.

  17. The applicability of space imagery to the small-scale topographic mapping of developing countries: A case study — the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.; El Niweiri, A. E. H.

    After reviewing the current status of topographic mapping in Sudan, the paper considers the possible applications of space inagery to the topographic mapping of the country at 1 : 100,000 scale. A comprehensive series of tests of the geometric accuracy and interpretability of six types of space imagery taken by the Landsat MSS, RBV and TM sensors, the MOMS scanner, the ESA Metric Camera and NASA's Large Format Camera have been conducted over a test area established in the Red Sea Hills area of Sudan supplemented by further interpretation tests carried out over the area of Khartoum and the Gezira. The results of these tests are given together with those from comparative tests carried out with other images acquired by the same sensors over test areas in developed countries (UK and USA). Further collateral information on topographic mapping at 1 : 100,000 scale from SPOT imagery has been provided by the Ordnance Survey based on its tests and experience in North Yemen. The paper concludes with an analysis of the possibilities of mapping the main (non-equatorial) area of Sudan at 1 : 100,000 scale based on the results of the extensive series of tests reported in the paper and elsewhere. Consideration is also given to the infrastructure required to support such a programme.

  18. Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature, pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system; (2) develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amount of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. High compression ratio can be achieved to allow minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities; and (3) integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of

  19. Topographic and Structural Effects on Dike Propagation and Eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Gaffney

    2006-01-01

    We have modeled magma flow in a dike rising in a crack whose strike runs from a highland or ridge to an adjacent lowland to determine the effect of topography on the flow, using a 3D hydromechanical code, FLAC3D (http://www.itascacg.com). The aperture, a, is calculated as a variable in a sheet of zones of fixed width d during the simulation as a function of model deformation. The permeability tensor of each zone is adjusted at each time step in response to the pressure in the cell according to the relationship k ij = (delta) ij α 3 /12μd, which is obtained by equating the flow through the layer of permeable zones from Darcy's law with Poiseuille's law under the same gradient. The fluid viscosity is μ, and the crack width is a We found a distinct tendency for the flow to be diverted away from the highland end of the strike toward the lowland. For the 4-km long strike length we modeled, eruption was offset between 500 and 1250 m toward the lowland from the center of the strike length. Separation of the geometric effect of the topography from the topographic overburden effect on lateral confining stresses at the crack indicates that both contribute to the effect. Although this analysis explains a tendency for volcanic eruptions to occur in low lands, it does not preclude eruptions on highlands. If the strike on the dike is parallel to the length of a ridge, the effect described here will not operate. Another possibility is that the strike length of a dike may be so short that its strike does not extend far beyond the edge of the ridge. A separate simulation used a 2D discrete element code, UDEC (http://www.itascacg.com) to investigate the interaction of magma in a vertical dike with normal faults and stratigraphy. We found that steeper faults are more easily intruded and that, as the magma rises to within a few hundred meters of the surface, sills are intruded into stratigraphic discontinuities in the hanging wall but not into the foot wall. The particular

  20. Topographic and Structural Effects on Dike Propagation and Eruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gaffney

    2006-04-13

    We have modeled magma flow in a dike rising in a crack whose strike runs from a highland or ridge to an adjacent lowland to determine the effect of topography on the flow, using a 3D hydromechanical code, FLAC3D (http://www.itascacg.com). The aperture, a, is calculated as a variable in a sheet of zones of fixed width d during the simulation as a function of model deformation. The permeability tensor of each zone is adjusted at each time step in response to the pressure in the cell according to the relationship k{sub ij} = {delta}{sub ij} {alpha}{sup 3}/12{mu}d, which is obtained by equating the flow through the layer of permeable zones from Darcy's law with Poiseuille's law under the same gradient. The fluid viscosity is {mu}, and the crack width is a We found a distinct tendency for the flow to be diverted away from the highland end of the strike toward the lowland. For the 4-km long strike length we modeled, eruption was offset between 500 and 1250 m toward the lowland from the center of the strike length. Separation of the geometric effect of the topography from the topographic overburden effect on lateral confining stresses at the crack indicates that both contribute to the effect. Although this analysis explains a tendency for volcanic eruptions to occur in low lands, it does not preclude eruptions on highlands. If the strike on the dike is parallel to the length of a ridge, the effect described here will not operate. Another possibility is that the strike length of a dike may be so short that its strike does not extend far beyond the edge of the ridge. A separate simulation used a 2D discrete element code, UDEC (http://www.itascacg.com) to investigate the interaction of magma in a vertical dike with normal faults and stratigraphy. We found that steeper faults are more easily intruded and that, as the magma rises to within a few hundred meters of the surface, sills are intruded into stratigraphic discontinuities in the hanging wall but not into the

  1. Historic Low Wall Detection via Topographic Parameter Images Derived from Fine-Resolution DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hone-Jay Chu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coral walls protect vegetation gardens from strong winds that sweep across Xiji Island, Taiwan Strait for half the year. Topographic parameters based on light detection and ranging (LiDAR-based high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM provide obvious correspondence with the expected form of landscape features. The information on slope, curvature, and openness can help identify the location of landscape features. This study applied the automatic landscape line detection to extract historic vegetable garden wall lines from a LiDAR-derived DEM. The three rapid processes used in this study included the derivation of topographic parameters, line extraction, and aggregation. The rules were extracted from a decision tree to check the line detection from multiple topographic parameters. Results show that wall line detection with multiple topographic parameter images is an alternative means of obtaining essential historic wall feature information. Multiple topographic parameters are highly related to low wall feature identification. Furthermore, the accuracy of wall feature detection is 74% compared with manual interpretation. Thus, this study provides rapid wall detection systems with multiple topographic parameters for further historic landscape management.

  2. Estimating continuous floodplain and major river bed topography mixing ordinal coutour lines and topographic points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, J. S.; Dartevelle, M.; Delenne, C.; Rousseau, A.

    2017-12-01

    Floodplain and major river bed topography govern many river biophysical processes during floods. Despite the grow of direct topographic measurements from LiDARS on riverine systems, it still room to develop methods for large (e.g. deltas) or very local (e.g. ponds) riverine systems that take advantage of information coming from simple SAR or optical image processing on floodplain, resulting from waterbodies delineation during flood up or down, and producing ordered coutour lines. The next challenge is thus to exploit such data in order to estimate continuous topography on the floodplain combining heterogeneous data: a topographic points dataset and a located but unknown and ordered contourline dataset. This article is comparing two methods designed to estimate continuous topography on the floodplain mixing ordinal coutour lines and continuous topographic points. For both methods a first estimation step is to value each contourline with elevation and a second step is next to estimate the continuous field from both topographic points and valued contourlines. The first proposed method is a stochastic method starting from multigaussian random-fields and conditional simualtion. The second is a deterministic method based on radial spline fonction for thin layers used for approximated bivariate surface construction. Results are first shown and discussed from a set of synoptic case studies presenting various topographic points density and topographic smoothness. Next, results are shown and discuss on an actual case study in the Montagua laguna, located in the north of Valparaiso, Chile.

  3. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmi, S M; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps

  4. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.; Maity, A.; Mammen, E.; Yu, K.

    2009-01-01

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements

  5. Perceived importance of attributes on hotel guests' repeat visit intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Emir, Oktay; Kozak, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Based on the empirical evidence in the related literature, we can emphasize that customer satisfaction and repeat patronage in the hotel industry has been well researched. Over the past two decades, many researchers as well as businesses have conducted surveys on visitors' satisfaction in order to measure customer perceptions of quality attributes of hotel or hospitality services. However, there is a lack of research paying attention to the empirical investigation of the self-perceived direct...

  6. 2011 USGS Topographic LiDAR: Suwannee River Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Task Order No. G10PD00236 USGS Contract No. G10PC00093 The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Suwannee River Expansion in...

  7. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  8. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  9. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility

  10. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  11. Hybrid FRC under repeated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlos, K.; Babal, B.; Nuernbergerova, T.

    1993-01-01

    Fibre reinforced concretes (FRC) containing several volume fractions in different ratios of two types of fibres - polypropylene and steel, were tested under repeated loading. Mechanical properties of specimens - cubes 150/150/150 mm (for compressive strength), prisms 100/100/400 (for flexural strength), short cylinders 150/60 mm (for impact strength) have been experimentally investigated before and after cyclic loading at the age of 28 days curing time. Mix proportions were designed after DIN 1045 with max. aggregate size 8 mm and grading curve B 8. Portland Cement PC 400 in the amount of 450 kg. m -3 was applied and W/C ratio 0.55. Workability of mixes was measured by Vebe method and regulated by plasticizing admixture Ligoplast Na. Maximum hybrid fibre volume fraction (polypropylene + steel) was 1.0%. Dynamic forces generated in Schenck testing machine with frequency 16 Hz had sinusoidal wave form varying between 0.7 and 0.1 of static mechanical characteristics. The number of cycles in all tests was 10 5 . The residual MOR at static four point bending test and working diagram force-deflection was carried out as well. The impact properties after repeated loading in compression were tested by means of falling weight test. Relationships between composition of fibre composites with different combination of polypropylene (0.2, 0.3, 0.5% by volume) and steel (0.5, 0.7, and 0.8% by volume) fibre content were obtained and technological properties of mixes as well. (author)

  12. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  13. The leucine-rich repeat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C

    2008-08-01

    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  14. A topo-graph model for indistinct target boundary definition from anatomical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui; Wang, Xiuying; Zhou, Jianlong; Gong, Guanzhong; Eberl, Stefan; Yin, Yong; Wang, Lisheng; Feng, Dagan; Fulham, Michael

    2018-06-01

    It can be challenging to delineate the target object in anatomical imaging when the object boundaries are difficult to discern due to the low contrast or overlapping intensity distributions from adjacent tissues. We propose a topo-graph model to address this issue. The first step is to extract a topographic representation that reflects multiple levels of topographic information in an input image. We then define two types of node connections - nesting branches (NBs) and geodesic edges (GEs). NBs connect nodes corresponding to initial topographic regions and GEs link the nodes at a detailed level. The weights for NBs are defined to measure the similarity of regional appearance, and weights for GEs are defined with geodesic and local constraints. NBs contribute to the separation of topographic regions and the GEs assist the delineation of uncertain boundaries. Final segmentation is achieved by calculating the relevance of the unlabeled nodes to the labels by the optimization of a graph-based energy function. We test our model on 47 low contrast CT studies of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 10 contrast-enhanced CT liver cases and 50 breast and abdominal ultrasound images. The validation criteria are the Dice's similarity coefficient and the Hausdorff distance. Student's t-test show that our model outperformed the graph models with pixel-only, pixel and regional, neighboring and radial connections (p-values <0.05). Our findings show that the topographic representation and topo-graph model provides improved delineation and separation of objects from adjacent tissues compared to the tested models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Integration of ground-based laser scanner and aerial digital photogrammetry for topographic modelling of Vesuvio volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesci, Arianna; Fabris, Massimo; Conforti, Dario; Loddo, Fabiana; Baldi, Paolo; Anzidei, Marco

    2007-05-01

    This work deals with the integration of different surveying methodologies for the definition of very accurate Digital Terrain Models (DTM) and/or Digital Surface Models (DSM): in particular, the aerial digital photogrammetry and the terrestrial laser scanning were used to survey the Vesuvio volcano, allowing the total coverage of the internal cone and surroundings (the whole surveyed area was about 3 km × 3 km). The possibility to reach a very high precision, especially from the laser scanner data set, allowed a detailed description of the morphology of the volcano. The comparisons of models obtained in repeated surveys allow a detailed map of residuals providing a data set that can be used for detailed studies of the morphological evolution. Moreover, the reflectivity information, highly correlated to materials properties, allows for the measurement and quantification of some morphological variations in areas where structural discontinuities and displacements are present.

  16. Application of PALSAR-2 remote sensing data for structural geology and topographic mapping in Kelantan river basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2016-06-01

    Natural hazards of geological origin are one of major problem during heavy monsoons rainfall in Kelantan state, peninsular Malaysia. Several landslides occur in this region are obviously connected to geological and topographical features, every year. Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are particularly applicable for detection of geological structural and topographical features in tropical conditions. In this study, Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-2), remote sensing data were used to identify high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslide in the Kelantan river basin. Adaptive Local Sigma filter was selected and applied to accomplish speckle reduction and preserving both edges and features in PALSAR-2 fine mode observation images. Different polarization images were integrated to enhance geological structures. Additionally, directional filters were applied to the PALSAR-2 Local Sigma resultant image for edge enhancement and detailed identification of linear features. Several faults, drainage patterns and lithological contact layers were identified at regional scale. In order to assess the results, fieldwork and GPS survey were conducted in the landslide affected zones in the Kelantan river basin. Results demonstrate the most of the landslides were associated with N-S, NNW-SSE and NE-SW trending faults, angulate drainage pattern and metamorphic and Quaternary units. Consequently, geologic structural map were produced for Kelantan river basin using recent PALSAR-2 data, which could be broadly applicable for landslide hazard assessment and delineation of high potential risk and susceptible areas. Landslide mitigation programmes could be conducted in the landslide recurrence regions for reducing catastrophes leading to economic losses and death.

  17. Three dimensional fuzzy influence analysis of fitting algorithms on integrated chip topographic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhong Wei; Wang, Yi Jun; Ye, Bang Yan; Brauwer, Richard Kars

    2012-01-01

    In inspecting the detailed performance results of surface precision modeling in different external parameter conditions, the integrated chip surfaces should be evaluated and assessed during topographic spatial modeling processes. The application of surface fitting algorithms exerts a considerable influence on topographic mathematical features. The influence mechanisms caused by different surface fitting algorithms on the integrated chip surface facilitate the quantitative analysis of different external parameter conditions. By extracting the coordinate information from the selected physical control points and using a set of precise spatial coordinate measuring apparatus, several typical surface fitting algorithms are used for constructing micro topographic models with the obtained point cloud. In computing for the newly proposed mathematical features on surface models, we construct the fuzzy evaluating data sequence and present a new three dimensional fuzzy quantitative evaluating method. Through this method, the value variation tendencies of topographic features can be clearly quantified. The fuzzy influence discipline among different surface fitting algorithms, topography spatial features, and the external science parameter conditions can be analyzed quantitatively and in detail. In addition, quantitative analysis can provide final conclusions on the inherent influence mechanism and internal mathematical relation in the performance results of different surface fitting algorithms, topographic spatial features, and their scientific parameter conditions in the case of surface micro modeling. The performance inspection of surface precision modeling will be facilitated and optimized as a new research idea for micro-surface reconstruction that will be monitored in a modeling process

  18. Three dimensional fuzzy influence analysis of fitting algorithms on integrated chip topographic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhong Wei; Wang, Yi Jun [Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou (China); Ye, Bang Yan [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Brauwer, Richard Kars [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India)

    2012-10-15

    In inspecting the detailed performance results of surface precision modeling in different external parameter conditions, the integrated chip surfaces should be evaluated and assessed during topographic spatial modeling processes. The application of surface fitting algorithms exerts a considerable influence on topographic mathematical features. The influence mechanisms caused by different surface fitting algorithms on the integrated chip surface facilitate the quantitative analysis of different external parameter conditions. By extracting the coordinate information from the selected physical control points and using a set of precise spatial coordinate measuring apparatus, several typical surface fitting algorithms are used for constructing micro topographic models with the obtained point cloud. In computing for the newly proposed mathematical features on surface models, we construct the fuzzy evaluating data sequence and present a new three dimensional fuzzy quantitative evaluating method. Through this method, the value variation tendencies of topographic features can be clearly quantified. The fuzzy influence discipline among different surface fitting algorithms, topography spatial features, and the external science parameter conditions can be analyzed quantitatively and in detail. In addition, quantitative analysis can provide final conclusions on the inherent influence mechanism and internal mathematical relation in the performance results of different surface fitting algorithms, topographic spatial features, and their scientific parameter conditions in the case of surface micro modeling. The performance inspection of surface precision modeling will be facilitated and optimized as a new research idea for micro-surface reconstruction that will be monitored in a modeling process.

  19. Enhancement of osteogenesis on micro/nano-topographical carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone–nanohydroxyapatite biocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Anxiu [College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Liu, Xiaochen [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gao, Xiang; Deng, Feng [College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Deng, Yi, E-mail: 18210357357@163.com [College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Wei, Shicheng, E-mail: weishicheng99@163.com [College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China)

    2015-03-01

    As an FDA-approved implantable material, carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFRPEEK) possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human cortical bone and is a prime candidate to replace conventional metallic implants. The bioinertness and inferior osteogenic properties of CFRPEEK, however, limit its clinical application as orthopedic/dental implants. The present work aimed at developing a novel carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone–nanohydroxyapatite (PEEK/CF/n-HA) ternary biocomposite with micro/nano-topographical surface for the enhancement of the osteogenesis as a potential bioactive material for bone grafting and bone tissue-engineering applications. The combined modification of oxygen plasma and sand-blasting could improve the hydrophily and generate micro/nano-topographical structures on the surface of the CFRPEEK-based ternary biocomposite. The results clearly showcased that the micro-/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF ternary biocomposite demonstrated the outstanding ability to promote the proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cells in vitro as well as to boost the osseointegration between implant and bone in vivo, thereby boding well application to bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A novel micro/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF ternary biocomposite was developed. • The modified PEEK biocomposite promotes proliferation and differentiation of cells. • In vivo osseointegration of the micro/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF was enhanced.

  20. Sandmeier model based topographic correction to lunar spectral profiler (SP) data from KAGUYA satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Bo; Wang, Jing-Ran; Guo, Peng-Ju; Wang, Ming-Chang

    2014-09-01

    The Moon may be considered as the frontier base for the deep space exploration. The spectral analysis is one of the key techniques to determine the lunar surface rock and mineral compositions. But the lunar topographic relief is more remarkable than that of the Earth. It is necessary to conduct the topographic correction for lunar spectral data before they are used to retrieve the compositions. In the present paper, a lunar Sandmeier model was proposed by considering the radiance effect from the macro and ambient topographic relief. And the reflectance correction model was also reduced based on the Sandmeier model. The Spectral Profile (SP) data from KAGUYA satellite in the Sinus Iridum quadrangle was taken as an example. And the digital elevation data from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter are used to calculate the slope, aspect, incidence and emergence angles, and terrain-viewing factor for the topographic correction Thus, the lunar surface reflectance from the SP data was corrected by the proposed model after the direct component of irradiance on a horizontal surface was derived. As a result, the high spectral reflectance facing the sun is decreased and low spectral reflectance back to the sun is compensated. The statistical histogram of reflectance-corrected pixel numbers presents Gaussian distribution Therefore, the model is robust to correct lunar topographic effect and estimate lunar surface reflectance.

  1. Elevational Shifts in the Topographic Position of Polylepis Forest Stands in the Andes of Southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Toivonen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The patchy distribution of high-Andean treeline forests has provoked discussion about the relative importance of anthropogenic and climatic causes of this pattern, both of which vary with topography. We aimed to understand the topographic controls on the distribution of Polylepis subsericans treeline forests in the Andes of southern Peru, and the changes in these controls along an elevational gradient. We mapped Polylepis forests in the Cordillera Urubamba, Cusco, using high-resolution aerial images and related forest cover to topographic variables extracted from a digital terrain model (30-m resolution. The variables were selected based on their expected biological relevance for tree growth at high elevations. We constructed logistic regression models of forest cover, separately for each of five 100-m elevational belts. To deal with spatial autocorrelation, models were based on randomized 10% subsampling of the data with 1000 repetitions. The results suggest a consistent shift in topographic preference with elevation, with forests at lower elevations showing a preference for topographically protected sites near rivers and forests at higher elevations being increasingly restricted to north-facing and well-drained sites. Our study offers the first indication of the ability of Andean treeline forests to benefit from the topographic heterogeneity of the high-Andes. Providing that dispersal and establishment are possible, local relocation between microsites could help these forests to persist regionally in spite of changing climatic conditions.

  2. Simulation of machine-specific topographic indices for use across platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ashraf M; Roberts, Cynthia; Lembach, Richard; Herderick, Edward E; McMahon, Timothy T

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this project is to simulate the current published topographic indices used for the detection and evaluation of keratoconus to allow their application to maps acquired from multiple topographic machines. A retrospective analysis was performed on 21 eyes of 14 previously diagnosed keratoconus patients from a single practice using a Tomey TMS-1, an Alcon EyeMap, and a Keratron Topographer. Maps that could not be processed or that contained processing errors were excluded from analysis. Topographic indices native to each of the three devices were recorded from each map. Software was written in ANSI standard C to simulate the indices based on the published formulas and/or descriptions to extend the functionality of The Ohio State University Corneal Topography Tool (OSUCTT), a software package designed to accept the input from many corneal topographic devices and provide consistent display and analysis. Twenty indices were simulated. Linear regression analysis was performed between each simulated index and the corresponding native index. A cross-platform comparison using regression analysis was also performed. All simulated indices were significantly correlated with the corresponding native indices (p simulated. Cross-platform comparisons may be limited for specific indices.

  3. An association between human hippocampal volume and topographical memory in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eHartley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between human hippocampal structure and topographical memory was investigated in healthy adults (N=30. Structural MR images were acquired, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to estimate local gray matter volume throughout the brain. A complementary automated mesh-based segmentation approach was used to independently isolate and measure specified structures including the hippocampus. Topographical memory was assessed using a version of the Four Mountains Task, a short test designed to target hippocampal spatial function. Each item requires subjects to briefly study a landscape scene before recognizing the depicted place from a novel viewpoint and under altered non-spatial conditions when presented amongst similar alternative scenes. Positive correlations between topographical memory performance and hippocampal volume were observed in both VBM and segmentation-based analyses. Score on the topographical memory task was also correlated with the volume of some subcortical structures, extra-hippocampal gray matter and total brain volume, with the most robust and extensive covariation seen in circumscribed neocortical regions in the insula and anterior temporal lobes. Taken together with earlier findings, the results suggest that global variations in brain morphology affect the volume of the hippocampus and its specific contribution to topographical memory. We speculate that behavioral variation might arise directly through the impact of resource constraints on spatial representations in the hippocampal formation and its inputs, and perhaps indirectly through an increased reliance on non-allocentric strategies.

  4. Evaluation and parameterization of ATCOR3 topographic correction method for forest cover mapping in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Vincent; Vanacker, Veerle; Lambin, Eric F.

    2012-08-01

    A topographic correction of optical remote sensing data is necessary to improve the quality of quantitative forest cover change analyses in mountainous terrain. The implementation of semi-empirical correction methods requires the calibration of model parameters that are empirically defined. This study develops a method to improve the performance of topographic corrections for forest cover change detection in mountainous terrain through an iterative tuning method of model parameters based on a systematic evaluation of the performance of the correction. The latter was based on: (i) the general matching of reflectances between sunlit and shaded slopes and (ii) the occurrence of abnormal reflectance values, qualified as statistical outliers, in very low illuminated areas. The method was tested on Landsat ETM+ data for rough (Ecuadorian Andes) and very rough mountainous terrain (Bhutan Himalayas). Compared to a reference level (no topographic correction), the ATCOR3 semi-empirical correction method resulted in a considerable reduction of dissimilarities between reflectance values of forested sites in different topographic orientations. Our results indicate that optimal parameter combinations are depending on the site, sun elevation and azimuth and spectral conditions. We demonstrate that the results of relatively simple topographic correction methods can be greatly improved through a feedback loop between parameter tuning and evaluation of the performance of the correction model.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF THE VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION FEEDBACK SYSTEM FOR THE DUTCH TOPOGRAPHICAL KEY REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grus

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Topographical Key Register has become an open data the amount of users increased enormously. The highest grow was in the private users group. The increasing number of users and their growing demand for high actuality of the topographic data sets motivates the Dutch Kadaster to innovate and improve the Topographical Key Register (BRT. One of the initiatives was to provide a voluntary geographical information project aiming at providing a user-friendly feedback system adjusted to all kinds of user groups. The feedback system is a compulsory element of the Topographical Key Register in the Netherlands. The Dutch Kadaster is obliged to deliver a feedback system and the key-users are obliged to use it. The aim of the feedback system is to improve the quality and stimulate the usage of the data. The results of the pilot shows that the user-friendly and open to everyone feedback system contributes enormously to improve the quality of the topographic dataset.

  6. Reduction of Topographic Effect for Curve Number Estimated from Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Yan; Lin, Chao-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method is commonly used in hydrology to estimate direct runoff volume. The CN is the empirical parameter which corresponding to land use/land cover, hydrologic soil group and antecedent soil moisture condition. In large watersheds with complex topography, satellite remote sensing is the appropriate approach to acquire the land use change information. However, the topographic effect have been usually found in the remotely sensed imageries and resulted in land use classification. This research selected summer and winter scenes of Landsat-5 TM during 2008 to classified land use in Chen-You-Lan Watershed, Taiwan. The b-correction, the empirical topographic correction method, was applied to Landsat-5 TM data. Land use were categorized using K-mean classification into 4 groups i.e. forest, grassland, agriculture and river. Accuracy assessment of image classification was performed with national land use map. The results showed that after topographic correction, the overall accuracy of classification was increased from 68.0% to 74.5%. The average CN estimated from remotely sensed imagery decreased from 48.69 to 45.35 where the average CN estimated from national LULC map was 44.11. Therefore, the topographic correction method was recommended to normalize the topographic effect from the satellite remote sensing data before estimating the CN.

  7. a Semi-Empirical Topographic Correction Model for Multi-Source Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sa; Tian, Xinpeng; Liu, Qiang; Wen, Jianguang; Ma, Yushuang; Song, Zhenwei

    2018-04-01

    Topographic correction of surface reflectance in rugged terrain areas is the prerequisite for the quantitative application of remote sensing in mountainous areas. Physics-based radiative transfer model can be applied to correct the topographic effect and accurately retrieve the reflectance of the slope surface from high quality satellite image such as Landsat8 OLI. However, as more and more images data available from various of sensors, some times we can not get the accurate sensor calibration parameters and atmosphere conditions which are needed in the physics-based topographic correction model. This paper proposed a semi-empirical atmosphere and topographic corrction model for muti-source satellite images without accurate calibration parameters.Based on this model we can get the topographic corrected surface reflectance from DN data, and we tested and verified this model with image data from Chinese satellite HJ and GF. The result shows that the correlation factor was reduced almost 85 % for near infrared bands and the classification overall accuracy of classification increased 14 % after correction for HJ. The reflectance difference of slope face the sun and face away the sun have reduced after correction.

  8. Topographical effects of climate dataset and their impacts on the estimation of regional net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. Qing; Feng, Feng X.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we first built and compared two different climate datasets for Wuling mountainous area in 2010, one of which considered topographical effects during the ANUSPLIN interpolation was referred as terrain-based climate dataset, while the other one did not was called ordinary climate dataset. Then, we quantified the topographical effects of climatic inputs on NPP estimation by inputting two different climate datasets to the same ecosystem model, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), to evaluate the importance of considering relief when estimating NPP. Finally, we found the primary contributing variables to the topographical effects through a series of experiments given an overall accuracy of the model output for NPP. The results showed that: (1) The terrain-based climate dataset presented more reliable topographic information and had closer agreements with the station dataset than the ordinary climate dataset at successive time series of 365 days in terms of the daily mean values. (2) On average, ordinary climate dataset underestimated NPP by 12.5% compared with terrain-based climate dataset over the whole study area. (3) The primary climate variables contributing to the topographical effects of climatic inputs for Wuling mountainous area were temperatures, which suggest that it is necessary to correct temperature differences for estimating NPP accurately in such a complex terrain.

  9. Enhancement of osteogenesis on micro/nano-topographical carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone–nanohydroxyapatite biocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Anxiu; Liu, Xiaochen; Gao, Xiang; Deng, Feng; Deng, Yi; Wei, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    As an FDA-approved implantable material, carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFRPEEK) possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human cortical bone and is a prime candidate to replace conventional metallic implants. The bioinertness and inferior osteogenic properties of CFRPEEK, however, limit its clinical application as orthopedic/dental implants. The present work aimed at developing a novel carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone–nanohydroxyapatite (PEEK/CF/n-HA) ternary biocomposite with micro/nano-topographical surface for the enhancement of the osteogenesis as a potential bioactive material for bone grafting and bone tissue-engineering applications. The combined modification of oxygen plasma and sand-blasting could improve the hydrophily and generate micro/nano-topographical structures on the surface of the CFRPEEK-based ternary biocomposite. The results clearly showcased that the micro-/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF ternary biocomposite demonstrated the outstanding ability to promote the proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cells in vitro as well as to boost the osseointegration between implant and bone in vivo, thereby boding well application to bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A novel micro/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF ternary biocomposite was developed. • The modified PEEK biocomposite promotes proliferation and differentiation of cells. • In vivo osseointegration of the micro/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF was enhanced

  10. An Improved Physics-Based Model for Topographic Correction of Landsat TM Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainong Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical remotely sensed images in mountainous areas are subject to radiometric distortions induced by topographic effects, which need to be corrected before quantitative applications. Based on Li model and Sandmeier model, this paper proposed an improved physics-based model for the topographic correction of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM images. The model employed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI thresholds to approximately divide land targets into eleven groups, due to NDVI’s lower sensitivity to topography and its significant role in indicating land cover type. Within each group of terrestrial targets, corresponding MODIS BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function products were used to account for land surface’s BRDF effect, and topographic effects are corrected without Lambertian assumption. The methodology was tested with two TM scenes of severely rugged mountain areas acquired under different sun elevation angles. Results demonstrated that reflectance of sun-averted slopes was evidently enhanced, and the overall quality of images was improved with topographic effect being effectively suppressed. Correlation coefficients between Near Infra-Red band reflectance and illumination condition reduced almost to zero, and coefficients of variance also showed some reduction. By comparison with the other two physics-based models (Sandmeier model and Li model, the proposed model showed favorable results on two tested Landsat scenes. With the almost half-century accumulation of Landsat data and the successive launch and operation of Landsat 8, the improved model in this paper can be potentially helpful for the topographic correction of Landsat and Landsat-like data.

  11. Responses of Tree Growths to Tree Size, Competition, and Topographic Conditions in Sierra Nevada Forests Using Bi-temporal Airborne LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Su, Y.; Tao, S.; Guo, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Trees in the Sierra Nevada (SN) forests are experiencing rapid changes due to human disturbances and climatic changes. An improved monitoring of tree growth and understanding of how tree growth responses to different impact factors, such as tree competition, forest density, topographic and hydrologic conditions, are urgently needed in tree growth modeling. Traditional tree growth modeling mainly relied on field survey, which was highly time-consuming and labor-intensive. Airborne Light detection and ranging System (ALS) is increasingly used in forest survey, due to its high efficiency and accuracy in three-dimensional tree structure delineation and terrain characterization. This study successfully detected individual tree growth in height (ΔH), crown area (ΔA), and crown volume (ΔV) over a five-year period (2007-2012) using bi-temporal ALS data in two conifer forest areas in SN. We further analyzed their responses to original tree size, competition indices, forest structure indices, and topographic environmental parameters at individual tree and forest stand scales. Our results indicated ΔH was strongly sensitive to topographic wetness index; whereas ΔA and ΔV were highly responsive to forest density and original tree sizes. These ALS based findings in ΔH were consistent with field measurements. Our study demonstrated the promising potential of using bi-temporal ALS data in forest growth measurements and analysis. A more comprehensive study over a longer temporal period and a wider range of forest stands would give better insights into tree growth in the SN, and provide useful guides for forest growth monitoring, modeling, and management.

  12. Topographic precursors and geological structures of deep-seated catastrophic landslides caused by typhoon Talas, determined from the analysis of high-resolution DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Tsou, Ching-Ying; Matsushi, Yuki

    2013-04-01

    Typhoon Talas crossed the Japanese Islands between 2 and 5 September 2011, causing more than 70 deep-seated catastrophic landslides in a Jurassic to Paleogene-Early Miocene accretion complex. Detailed examination of the topographic features of 10 large landslides before the event, recorded on DEMs with a resolution of 1 m (based on airborne laser scanner surveys), showed that all of the landslides had small scarplets near their future crowns prior to the slide, and one landslide had linear depressions along its future crown as precursor topographic features. These scarplets and linear depressions were caused by gravitational slope deformation that preceded the catastrophic failure. Strains, defined by the ratio of the length of a scarplet to the length of the whole slope (as measured along the slope line), ranged from 5% to 21%, and are the first reliable numerical data relating to the topographic precursor features of large and catastrophic landslides. Careful examination of aerial photographs from another four large landslides, for which no high-resolution DEMs were available, suggested that they also developed scarplets at their heads beforehand, which are not precisely quantified. Twelve of the 14 landslides we surveyed in the field had sliding surfaces with wedge-shaped discontinuities that consisted of faults, shear surfaces that formed during accretion, and bedding, suggesting that the buildup of pore pressure occurs readily in a gravitationally deformed rock body containing wedge-shaped discontinuities. Other types of gravitational deformation were also active; e.g., flexural toppling and buckling were each observed to have preceded one landslide.

  13. Comparison of Satellite Surveying to Traditional Surveying Methods for the Resources Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, B. P.; Osborne, V. J.; Kruger, M. L.

    Modern ground-based survey methods involve detailed survey, which provides three-space co-ordinates for surveyed points, to a high level of accuracy. The instruments are operated by surveyors, who process the raw results to create survey location maps for the subject of the survey. Such surveys are conducted for a location or region and referenced to the earth global co- ordinate system with global positioning system (GPS) positioning. Due to this referencing the survey is only as accurate as the GPS reference system. Satellite survey remote sensing utilise satellite imagery which have been processed using commercial geographic information system software. Three-space co-ordinate maps are generated, with an accuracy determined by the datum position accuracy and optical resolution of the satellite platform.This paper presents a case study, which compares topographic surveying undertaken by traditional survey methods with satellite surveying, for the same location. The purpose of this study is to assess the viability of satellite remote sensing for surveying in the resources industry. The case study involves a topographic survey of a dune field for a prospective mining project area in Pakistan. This site has been surveyed using modern surveying techniques and the results are compared to a satellite survey performed on the same area.Analysis of the results from traditional survey and from the satellite survey involved a comparison of the derived spatial co- ordinates from each method. In addition, comparisons have been made of costs and turnaround time for both methods.The results of this application of remote sensing is of particular interest for survey in areas with remote and extreme environments, weather extremes, political unrest, poor travel links, which are commonly associated with mining projects. Such areas frequently suffer language barriers, poor onsite technical support and resources.

  14. An experimental and theoretical study of pendellösung fringes in synchrotron section topographs of silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, J; Tuomi, T

    1990-01-01

    X-ray section topographs of nearly perfect Czochralski-grown wafers were made with synchrotron radiation having a continuous spectrum. An intensity curve measured from the x-ray film is compared to the calculated curve obtained using the dynamical theory of x-ray diffraction. A computer simulation of the topograph is also presented. A good agreement between theory and experiment is found except in the middle part of the topograph.

  15. New implementation of a shear-force microscope suitable to study topographical features over wide areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustione, A.; Cricenti, A.; Piacentini, M.; Felici, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    A new implementation of a shear-force microscope is described that uses a shear-force detection system to perform topographical imaging of large areas (∼1x1 mm 2 ). This implementation finds very interesting application in the study of archeological or artistic samples. Three dc motors are used to move a sample during a scan, allowing the probe tip to follow the surface and to face height differences of several tens of micrometers. This large-area topographical imaging mode exploits new subroutines that were added to the existing homemade software; these subroutines were created in Microsoft VISUAL BASIC 6.0 programming language. With this new feature our shear-force microscope can be used to study topographical details over large areas of archaeological samples in a nondestructive way. We show results detecting worn reliefs over a coin

  16. Optimization of Structural Design for Sustainable Construction of Transmission Tower Based on Topographical Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muda, Zakaria Che; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Mustapha, Kamal Nasharuddin; Omar, Rohayu Che; Usman, Fathoni; Alam, Md Ashrafu

    2013-01-01

    Optimization of transmission tower structures is traditionally based on either optimization of members sizes with fixed topographical shape or based on structural analysis modelling strategies without taking cognizance of fabrication and constructability issue facing the contractors . This paper look into an integrated optimum design approach strategies whereby size, shape and topology are combined together with the fabrication issues in the construction of the transmission tower. The topographical algorithm is based on changing the inclination degree of the legs of the tower at first with optimum individual members sizing and later rationalized member sizes are performed through member groupings for the ease fabrication and construction of the transmission tower. The optimum weight using topographical algorithm obtained for the transmission tower is 10,924 kg for singular members and 18,430 kg for element grouping at 10° inclination angle.

  17. Laser-ranging scanning system to observe topographical deformations of volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, T; Takabe, M; Mizutani, K; Itabe, T

    1997-02-20

    We have developed a laser-ranging system to observe the topographical structure of volcanoes. This system can be used to measure the distance to a target by a laser and shows the three-dimensional topographical structure of a volcano with an accuracy of 30 cm. This accuracy is greater than that of a typical laser-ranging system that uses a corner-cube reflector as a target because the reflected light jitters as a result of inclination and unevenness of the target ground surface. However, this laser-ranging system is useful for detecting deformations of topographical features in which placement of a reflector is difficult, such as in volcanic regions.

  18. Kilometer-Scale Topographic Roughness of Mercury: Correlation with Geologic Features and Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    2014-01-01

    We present maps of the topographic roughness of the northern circumpolar area of Mercury at kilometer scales. The maps are derived from range profiles obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument onboard the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. As measures of roughness, we used the interquartile range of profile curvature at three baselines: 0.7 kilometers, 2.8 kilometers, and 11 kilometers. The maps provide a synoptic overview of variations of typical topographic textures. They show a dichotomy between the smooth northern plains and rougher, more heavily cratered terrains. Analysis of the scale dependence of roughness indicates that the regolith on Mercury is thicker than on the Moon by approximately a factor of three. Roughness contrasts within northern volcanic plains of Mercury indicate a younger unit inside Goethe basin and inside another unnamed stealth basin. These new data permit interplanetary comparisons of topographic roughness.

  19. Simulation and Analysis of the Topographic Effects on Snow-Free Albedo over Rugged Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalei Hao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Topography complicates the modeling and retrieval of land surface albedo due to shadow effects and the redistribution of incident radiation. Neglecting topographic effects may lead to a significant bias when estimating land surface albedo over a single slope. However, for rugged terrain, a comprehensive and systematic investigation of topographic effects on land surface albedo is currently ongoing. Accurately estimating topographic effects on land surface albedo over a rugged terrain presents a challenge in remote sensing modeling and applications. In this paper, we focused on the development of a simplified estimation method for snow-free albedo over a rugged terrain at a 1-km scale based on a 30-m fine-scale digital elevation model (DEM. The proposed method was compared with the radiosity approach based on simulated and real DEMs. The results of the comparison showed that the proposed method provided adequate computational efficiency and satisfactory accuracy simultaneously. Then, the topographic effects on snow-free albedo were quantitatively investigated and interpreted by considering the mean slope, subpixel aspect distribution, solar zenith angle, and solar azimuth angle. The results showed that the more rugged the terrain and the larger the solar illumination angle, the more intense the topographic effects were on black-sky albedo (BSA. The maximum absolute deviation (MAD and the maximum relative deviation (MRD of the BSA over a rugged terrain reached 0.28 and 85%, respectively, when the SZA was 60° for different terrains. Topographic effects varied with the mean slope, subpixel aspect distribution, SZA and SAA, which should not be neglected when modeling albedo.

  20. Simulation of X-ray topographs: a new method to calculate the diffracted field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.A.M.; Epelboin, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The precision of the numerical algorithms used to integrate the Takagi-Taupin equations has been in the past a severe limitation for the simulation of accurate topographs. The intensity, especially in the direct image of the defect, is underestimated. This has forbidden the use of the reciprocity theorem for the simulation of traverse and white-beam synchrotron topographs. A new algorithm is described, based on two different methods of expressing the partial-derivative equations, which permits a faster and more accurate calculation. (orig.)

  1. Separating topographical and chemical analysis of nanostructure of polymer composite in low voltage SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Q; Plenderleith, R A; Claeyssens, F; Rodenburg, C; Dapor, M; Rimmer, S

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of separating the topographical and chemical information in a polymer nano-composite using low-voltage SEM imaging is demonstrated, when images are acquired with a Concentric Backscattered (CBS) detector. This separation of chemical and topographical information is based on the different angular distribution of electron scattering which were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation based on angular restricted detection was applied to a semi-branched PNIPAM/PEGDA interpenetration network for which a linear relationship of topography SEM contrast and feature height data was observed. (paper)

  2. How to design a cartographic continuum to help users to navigate between two topographic styles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Jérémie; Touya, Guillaume; Hoarau, Charlotte; Christophe, Sidonie

    2018-05-01

    Geoportals and geovisualization tools provide to users various cartographic abstractions that describe differently a geographical space. Our purpose is to be able to design cartographic continuums, i.e. a set of in-between maps allowing users to navigate between two topographic styles. This paper addresses the problem of the interpolation between two topographic abstractions with different styles. We detail our approach in two steps. Firstly, we setup a comparison in order to identify which structural elements of a cartographic abstraction should be interpolated. Secondly, we propose an approach based on two design methods for maps interpolation.

  3. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  4. Topographic Patterns of Mortality and Succession in the Alpine Treeline Ecotone Suggest Hydrologic Controls on Post-Fire Tree Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, D. R.; Hopkinson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Alpine Treeline Ecotone (ATE), the transition zone between closed canopy forest and alpine tundra, is a prominent vegetation pattern in mountain regions. At continental scales, the elevation of ATE is negatively correlated with latitude and is generally explained by thermal limitations. However, at landscape scales, precipitation and moisture regimes can suppress ATE elevation below thermal limits, causing variability and patterning in ATE position. Recent studies have investigated the relative effects of hydroclimatic variables on ATE position at multiple scales, but less attention has been given to interactions between hydroclimatic variables and disturbance agents, such as fire. Observing change in the ATE at sufficient spatial resolution and temporal extent to identify correlations between topographic variables and disturbance agents has proved challenging. Recent advances in monoplotting have enabled the extraction of canopy cover information from oblique photography, at a resolution of 20 m. Using airborne lidar and repeat photography from the Mountain Legacy Project, we observed canopy cover change in West Castle Watershed (Alberta, Canada; 103 km2; 49.3° N, 114.4° W) over a 92-year period (i.e. 1914-2006). Two wildfires, occurring 1934 and 1936, affected 63% of the watershed area, providing an opportunity to contrast topographic patterns of mortality and succession in the ATE, while factoring by exposure to fire. Slope aspect was a strong predictor of mortality and succession: the frequency of mortality was four times higher in fire-exposed areas, with 72% of all mortality occurring on south- and east-facing slope aspects; the frequency of succession was balanced between fire-exposed and unexposed areas, with 66% of all succession occurred on north- and east-facing slope aspects. Given previous experiments have demonstrated that moisture limitation inhibits tree establishment, suppressing elevation of ATE below thermal growth boundaries, we hypothesize

  5. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  6. simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 212 primer pairs selected, based on repeat patterns of n≥8 for di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeat ... Cluster analysis revealed a high genetic similarity among the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding lines which could reduce the genetic gain in ..... The multiple allele characteristic of SSR com-.

  7. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan; Manolescu, Ioana; Afanasiev, Loredana; Feng, Jieling; Gou, G.; Hadjieleftheriou, Marios; Harizopoulos, Stavros; Kalnis, Panos; Karanasos, Konstantinos; Laurent, Dominique; Lupu, M.; Onose, N.; Ré , C.; Sans, Virginie; Senellart, Pierre; Wu, T.; Shasha, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  8. Vertical structure, biomass and topographic association of deep-pelagic fishes in relation to a mid-ocean ridge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, T. T.; Porteiro, F. M.; Heino, M.; Byrkjedal, I.; Langhelle, G.; Anderson, C. I. H.; Horne, J.; Søiland, H.; Falkenhaug, T.; Godø, O. R.; Bergstad, O. A.

    2008-01-01

    The assemblage structure and vertical distribution of deep-pelagic fishes relative to a mid-ocean ridge system are described from an acoustic and discrete-depth trawling survey conducted as part of the international Census of Marine Life field project MAR-ECO . The 36-station, zig-zag survey along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR; Iceland to the Azores) covered the full depth range (0 to >3000 m), from the surface to near the bottom, using a combination of gear types to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the pelagic fauna. Abundance per volume of deep-pelagic fishes was highest in the epipelagic zone and within the benthic boundary layer (BBL; 0-200 m above the seafloor). Minimum fish abundance occurred at depths below 2300 m but above the BBL. Biomass per volume of deep-pelagic fishes over the MAR reached a maximum within the BBL, revealing a previously unknown topographic association of a bathypelagic fish assemblage with a mid-ocean ridge system. With the exception of the BBL, biomass per volume reached a water column maximum in the bathypelagic zone between 1500 and 2300 m. This stands in stark contrast to the general "open-ocean" paradigm that biomass decreases exponentially from the surface downwards. As much of the summit of the MAR extends into this depth layer, a likely explanation for this mid-water maximum is ridge association. Multivariate statistical analyses suggest that the dominant component of deep-pelagic fish biomass over the northern MAR was a wide-ranging bathypelagic assemblage that was remarkably consistent along the length of the ridge from Iceland to the Azores. Integrating these results with those of previous studies in oceanic ecosystems, there appears to be adequate evidence to conclude that special hydrodynamic and biotic features of mid-ocean ridge systems cause changes in the ecological structure of deep-pelagic fish assemblages relative to those at the same depths over abyssal plains. Lacking terrigenous input of

  9. Imprint lithography provides topographical nanocues to guide cell growth in primary cortical cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, S.; Luttge, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a technology platform to study the effect of nanocues on the cell growth direction in primary cortical cell culture. Topographical cues to cells are provided using nanoscale features created by Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography, coated with polyethylenimine. We

  10. Validation of solar radiation surfaces from MODIS and reanalysis data over topographically complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Schroeder; Robbie Hember; Nicholas C. Coops; Shunlin Liang

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude and distribution of incoming shortwave solar radiation (SW) has significant influence on the productive capacity of forest vegetation. Models that estimate forest productivity require accurate and spatially explicit radiation surfaces that resolve both long- and short-term temporal climatic patterns and that account for topographic variability of the land...

  11. Topographical Short-Term Memory Differentiates Alzheimer's Disease From Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bird, C.M.; Chan, D.; Hartley, T.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Rossor, M.N.; Burgess, N.

    2010-01-01

    We used a recently developed test of spatial memory-the Four Mountains Test-to investigate the core cognitive processes underpinning topographical disorientation in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Performance of these clinical groups was

  12. Classification of topographical pattern of spasticity in cerebral palsy: a registry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Susan M; Carlin, John B; Reddihough, Dinah S

    2011-01-01

    This study used data from a population-based cerebral palsy (CP) registry and systematic review to assess the amount of heterogeneity between registries in topographical patterns when dichotomised into unilateral (USCP) and bilateral spastic CP (BSCP), and whether the terms diplegia and quadriplegia provide useful additional epidemiological information. From the Victorian CP Register, 2956 individuals (1658 males, 1298 females), born 1970-2003, with spastic CP were identified. The proportions with each topographical pattern were analysed overall and by gestational age. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess temporal trends. For the review, data were systematically collected on topographical patterns from 27 registries. Estimates of heterogeneity were obtained, overall and by region, reporting period and definition of quadriplegia. Among individuals born <32 weeks, 48% had diplegia, whereas the proportion for children born ≥ 32 weeks was 24% (p < 0.001). Evidence was weak for a temporal trend in the relative proportions of USCP and BSCP (p = 0.038), but much clearer for an increase in the proportion of spastic diplegia relative to quadriplegia (p < 0.001). The review revealed wide variations across studies in the proportion of diplegia (range 34-90%) and BSCP (range 51-86%). These findings argue against a topographical classification based solely on laterality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human-driven topographic effects on the distribution of forest in a flat, lowland agricultural region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Complex topography buffers forests against deforestation in mountainous regions. However, it is unknown if terrain also shapes forest distribution in lowlands where human impacts are likely to be less constrained by terrain. In such regions, if important at all, topographic effects will depend...

  14. Short communication: Multi-scale topographic anisotropy patterns on a Barrier Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Bishop, Michael; Wernette, Phil

    2017-11-01

    Barrier islands exhibit a range of landforms that reflect the complex and varied combination of coastal and aeolian processes realized over the evolution of the island. A detailed analysis of the topography can be used to describe the evolution of a barrier island and provide insight on how it may be affected by a change in sea level, storm activity and wind exposure patterns. Topographic anisotropy, or the directional dependence of relief of landforms, can be used to determine the relative importance of different processes to island evolution at a range of scales. This short communication describes the use of scale-dependent topographic anisotropy to characterize the structure of Santa Rosa Island in northwest Florida. Scale-dependent topographic relief and asymmetry were assessed from a LiDAR-derived DEM from May 2004, a few months before the island experienced widespread erosion and overwash during Hurricane Ivan. This application demonstrates how anisotropy can be used to identify unique scale-dependent structures that can be used to interpret the evolution of this barrier island. Results of this preliminary study further highlight the potential of using topographic anisotropy to controls on barrier island response and recovery to storms as well as island resiliency with sea level rise and storm activity.

  15. Simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Volker; Preissner, Curt A; Hla, Saw-Wai; Wang, Kangkang; Rosenmann, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    A method and system for performing simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast analysis in a scanning, tunneling microscope. The method and system also includes nanofabricated coaxial multilayer tips with a nanoscale conducting apex and a programmable in-situ nanomanipulator to fabricate these tips and also to rotate tips controllably.

  16. Cleanability Improvement of Cotton Fabrics Through Their Topographical Changes Due to the Conditioning with Cellulase Enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvimontes, A.; Lant, N.J.; Dutschk, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In this study, topographical changes of woven cotton fabrics conditioned with a cellulase enzyme during several wash–dry cycles are systematically studied. A recent study of cellulase enzyme effect on cellulose films has proven that this substance selectively attacks amorphous regions of cellulose,

  17. Dendrochronological analysis of white oak growth patterns across a topographic moisture gradient in southern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander K. Anning; Darrin L. Rubino; Elaine K. Sutherland; Brian C. McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    Moisture availability is a key factor that influences white oak (Quercus alba L.) growth and wood production. In unglaciated eastern North America, available soil moisture varies greatly along topographic and edaphic gradients. This study was aimed at determining the effects of soil moisture variability and macroclimate on white oak growth in mixed-oak forests of...

  18. Adapting forest management to climate change using bioclimate models with topographic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; James J. Worrall; Suzanne B. Marchetti; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2015-01-01

    Bioclimate models incorporating topographic predictors as surrogates for microclimate effects are developed for Populus tremuloides and Picea engelmannii to provide the fine-grained specificity to local terrain required for adapting management of three Colorado (USA) national forests (1.28 million ha) and their periphery to climate change. Models were built with the...

  19. Topographical memory analyzed in mice using the Hamlet test, a novel complex maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzier, Lucie; Gilabert, Damien; Rossel, Mireille; Trousse, Françoise; Maurice, Tangui

    2018-03-01

    The Hamlet test is an innovative device providing a complex environment for testing topographic memory in mice. Animals were trained in groups for weeks in a small village with a central agora, streets expanding from it towards five functionalized houses, where they can drink, eat, hide, run, interact with a stranger mouse. Memory was tested by depriving mice from water or food and analyzing their ability to locate the Drink/Eat house. Exploration and memory were analyzed in different strains, gender, and after different training periods and delays. After 2 weeks training, differences in exploration patterns were observed between strains, but not gender. Neuroanatomical structures activated by training, identified using FosB/ΔFosB immunolabelling, showed an involvement of the hippocampus-subiculum-parahippocampal gyrus axis and dopaminergic structures. Training increased hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation and neuronal maturation) and modified the amnesic efficacy of muscarinic or nicotinic cholinergic antagonists. Moreover, topographical disorientation in Alzheimer's disease was addressed using intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid β 25-35 peptide in trained mice. When retested after 7 days, Aβ 25-35 -treated mice showed memory impairment. The Hamlet test specifically allows analysis of topographical memory in mice, based on complex environment. It offers an innovative tool for various ethological or pharmacological research needs. For instance, it allowed to examine topographical disorientation, a warning sign in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural correlates of British sign language comprehension: spatial processing demands of topographic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSweeney, Mairéad; Woll, Bencie; Campbell, Ruth; Calvert, Gemma A; McGuire, Philip K; David, Anthony S; Simmons, Andrew; Brammer, Michael J

    2002-10-01

    In all signed languages used by deaf people, signs are executed in "sign space" in front of the body. Some signed sentences use this space to map detailed "real-world" spatial relationships directly. Such sentences can be considered to exploit sign space "topographically." Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we explored the extent to which increasing the topographic processing demands of signed sentences was reflected in the differential recruitment of brain regions in deaf and hearing native signers of the British Sign Language. When BSL signers performed a sentence anomaly judgement task, the occipito-temporal junction was activated bilaterally to a greater extent for topographic than nontopographic processing. The differential role of movement in the processing of the two sentence types may account for this finding. In addition, enhanced activation was observed in the left inferior and superior parietal lobules during processing of topographic BSL sentences. We argue that the left parietal lobe is specifically involved in processing the precise configuration and location of hands in space to represent objects, agents, and actions. Importantly, no differences in these regions were observed when hearing people heard and saw English translations of these sentences. Despite the high degree of similarity in the neural systems underlying signed and spoken languages, exploring the linguistic features which are unique to each of these broadens our understanding of the systems involved in language comprehension.

  1. ToF-SIMS measurements with topographic information in combined images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sabrina; Ziegler, Georg; Hutter, Herbert

    2013-09-01

    In 2D and 3D time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometric (ToF-SIMS) analysis, accentuated structures on the sample surface induce distorted element distributions in the measurement. The origin of this effect is the 45° incidence angle of the analysis beam, recording planar images with distortion of the sample surface. For the generation of correct element distributions, these artifacts associated with the sample surface need to be eliminated by measuring the sample surface topography and applying suitable algorithms. For this purpose, the next generation of ToF-SIMS instruments will feature a scanning probe microscope directly implemented in the sample chamber which allows the performance of topography measurements in situ. This work presents the combination of 2D and 3D ToF-SIMS analysis with topographic measurements by ex situ techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), confocal microscopy (CM), and digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The concept of the combination of topographic and ToF-SIMS measurements in a single representation was applied to organic and inorganic samples featuring surface structures in the nanometer and micrometer ranges. The correct representation of planar and distorted ToF-SIMS images was achieved by the combination of topographic data with images of 2D as well as 3D ToF-SIMS measurements, using either AFM, CM, or DHM for the recording of topographic data.

  2. Classification of Topographical Pattern of Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy: A Registry Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Susan M.; Carlin, John B.; Reddihough, Dinah S.

    2011-01-01

    This study used data from a population-based cerebral palsy (CP) registry and systematic review to assess the amount of heterogeneity between registries in topographical patterns when dichotomised into unilateral (USCP) and bilateral spastic CP (BSCP), and whether the terms diplegia and quadriplegia provide useful additional epidemiological…

  3. Determination of Important Topographic Factors for Landslide Mapping Analysis Using MLP Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutasem Sh. Alkhasawneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of the natural disasters that occur in Malaysia. Topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, general curvature, plan curvature, and profile curvature are considered as the main causes of landslides. In order to determine the dominant topographic factors in landslide mapping analysis, a study was conducted and presented in this paper. There are three main stages involved in this study. The first stage is the extraction of extra topographic factors. Previous landslide studies had identified mainly six topographic factors. Seven new additional factors have been proposed in this study. They are longitude curvature, tangential curvature, cross section curvature, surface area, diagonal line length, surface roughness, and rugosity. The second stage is the specification of the weight of each factor using two methods. The methods are multilayer perceptron (MLP network classification accuracy and Zhou's algorithm. At the third stage, the factors with higher weights were used to improve the MLP performance. Out of the thirteen factors, eight factors were considered as important factors, which are surface area, longitude curvature, diagonal length, slope angle, elevation, slope aspect, rugosity, and profile curvature. The classification accuracy of multilayer perceptron neural network has increased by 3% after the elimination of five less important factors.

  4. Tracing the Base: A Topographic Test for Collusive Basing-Point Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Iwan; Schinkel, Maarten Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Basing-point pricing is known to have been abused by geographically dispersed firms in order to eliminate competition on transportation costs. This paper develops a topographic test for collusive basing-point pricing. The method uses transaction data (prices, quantities) and customer project site

  5. Tracing the base: A topographic test for collusive basing-point pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, I.; Schinkel, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Basing-point pricing is known to have been abused by geographically dispersed firms in order to eliminate competition on transportation costs. This paper develops a topographic test for collusive basing-point pricing. The method uses transaction data (prices, quantities) and customer project site

  6. Discovery and analysis of topographic features using learning algorithms: A seamount case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentine, A.P.; Kalnins, L.M.; Trampert, J.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and cataloging occurrences of particular topographic features are important but time-consuming tasks. Typically, automation is challenging, as simple models do not fully describe the complexities of natural features. We propose a new approach, where a particular class of neural network

  7. Comparison Between Topographic Expression of RADARSAT and DEM in Simpang Pulai to Pos Selim, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.Ramli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar and digital elevation model had been utilised in many structural studies. The main objective of this study is to compare the RADARSAT and digital elevation model for lineament interpretation which probably represent the main joints or faults along the Simpang Pulai to Pos Selim highway, Malaysia. These joints and faults may influence the instability along the highway. Manual comparison in terms of topographical aspect was undertaken between RADARSAT with 25 m spatial resolution and digital elevation model derived from 20 m contour interval of the topographical map. The previously interpreted lineaments of more than 2 km in the study area was draped over the RADARSAT and digital elevation model to compared whether the lineament concurred with the topographical representation. The interpreted lineaments were derived from Landsat TM of 1990 and 2002, where the DEM had been utilised in the negative lineament determination. It is concluded that the application RADARSAT is not very useful in terms of topographical expression in the structural geological interpretation for the study area compared to DEM derived from contour data. Further work is suggested before any conclusion can be confidently derived.

  8. Improved Topographic Normalization for Landsat TM Images by Introducing the MODIS Surface BRDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In rugged terrain, the accuracy of surface reflectance estimations is compromised by atmospheric and topographic effects. We propose a new method to simultaneously eliminate atmospheric and terrain effects in Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM images based on a 30 m digital elevation model (DEM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS atmospheric products. Moreover, we define a normalized factor of a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF to convert the sloping pixel reflectance into a flat pixel reflectance by using the Ross Thick-Li Sparse BRDF model (Ambrals algorithm and MODIS BRDF/albedo kernel coefficient products. Sole atmospheric correction and topographic normalization were performed for TM images in the upper stream of the Heihe River Basin. The results show that using MODIS atmospheric products can effectively remove atmospheric effects compared with the Fast Line-of-Sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH model and the Landsat Climate Data Record (CDR. Moreover, superior topographic effect removal can be achieved by considering the surface BRDF when compared with the surface Lambertian assumption of topographic normalization.

  9. Elements of the Chicxulub Impact Structure as revealed in SRTM and surface GPS topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrick, M.; Kinsland, G. L.; Sanchez, G.; Cardador, M. H.

    2003-04-01

    Pope et al have utilized elevations from the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) gravity data files to show that the main component of the surface expression of the Chicxu-lub Impact Structure is a roughly semi-circular, low-relief depression about 90 km in diameter. They also identified other topographic features and the elements of the buried impact which possibly led to the development of these features. Kinsland et al presented a connection between these topographic anomalies, small gravity anomalies and buried structure of the impact. Shaded relief images from recently acquired SRTM elevation data clearly show the circular depression of the crater and the moat/cenote ring. In addition we can readily identify Inner trough 1, Inner trough 2 and Outer trough as defined by Pope et al. The agreement between the topographic maps of Pope et al, Kinsland et al and SRTM data are remarkable considering that the distribution and types of data in the sets are so different. We also have ground topographic data collected with a special "autonomous differ-ential GPS" system during summer 2002. Profiles from these data generally agree with both the gravity data based topographic maps and profiles extracted from the SRTM data. Preliminary analyses of our new data, SRTM and GPS, have uncovered features not previously recognized: 1) as shown by the GPS data the moat/cenote ring consists of two distinct depressions separated by about 10 km...perhaps separate ring faults, 2) in the SRTM data over the southern part of the crater and on southward for perhaps 20 km beyond the moat/ cenote ring there exists a pattern, as yet unexplained, of roughly concentric topographic features whose center lies at about 21deg 40min N and 89deg 25min W, about 50km NNE of the moat/cenote ring center. The corroboration and better definition of the previously recognized topographic features yielded by the two new forms of data strengthens the cases for these fea-tures and for their relevance to the underlying

  10. Topographic attributes as a guide for automated detection or highlighting of geological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseur, Sophie; Le Men, Thibaud; Guglielmi, Yves

    2015-04-01

    Photogrammetry or LIDAR technology combined with photography allow geoscientists to obtain 3D high-resolution numerical representations of outcrops, generally termed as Digital Outcrop Models (DOM). For over a decade, these 3D numerical outcrops serve as support for precise and accurate interpretations of geological features such as fracture traces or plans, strata, facies mapping, etc. These interpretations have the benefit to be directly georeferenced and embedded into the 3D space. They are then easily integrated into GIS or geomodeler softwares for modelling in 3D the subsurface geological structures. However, numerical outcrops generally represent huge data sets that are heavy to manipulate and hence to interpret. This may be particularly tedious as soon as several scales of geological features must be investigated or as geological features are very dense and imbricated. Automated tools for interpreting geological features from DOMs would be then a significant help to process these kinds of data. Such technologies are commonly used for interpreting seismic or medical data. However, it may be noticed that even if many efforts have been devoted to easily and accurately acquire 3D topographic point clouds and photos and to visualize accurate 3D textured DOMs, few attentions have been paid to the development of algorithms for automated detection of the geological structures from DOMs. The automatic detection of objects on numerical data generally assumes that signals or attributes computed from this data allows the recognition of the targeted object boundaries. The first step consists then in defining attributes that highlight the objects or their boundaries. For DOM interpretations, some authors proposed to use differential operators computed on the surface such as normal or curvatures. These methods generally extract polylines corresponding to fracture traces or bed limits. Other approaches rely on the PCA technology to segregate different topographic plans

  11. Topographic controls on shallow groundwater levels in a steep, prealpine catchment: When are the TWI assumptions valid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinderer, M.; van Meerveld, H.J.; Seibert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Topographic indices like the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) have been used to predict spatial patterns of average groundwater levels and to model the dynamics of the saturated zone during events (e.g., TOPMODEL). However, the assumptions underlying the use of the TWI in hydrological models, of

  12. Application of carbon nanotubes to topographical resolution enhancement of tapered fiber scanning near field optical microscopy probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, S. T.; Jarvis, S. P.

    2003-05-01

    Scanning near field optical microscopy (SNOM) probes are typically tapered optical fibers with metallic coatings. The tip diameters are generally in excess of 300 nm and thus provide poor topographical resolution. Here we report on the attachment multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the probes in order to substantially enhance the topographical resolution, without adversely affecting the optical resolution.

  13. MorphoTester: An Open Source Application for Morphological Topographic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Winchester

    Full Text Available The increased prevalence and affordability of 3D scanning technology is beginning to have significant effects on the research questions and approaches available for studies of morphology. As the current trend of larger and more precise 3D datasets is unlikely to slow in the future, there is a need for efficient and capable tools for high-throughput quantitative analysis of biological shape. The promise and the challenge of implementing relatively automated methods for characterizing surface shape can be seen in the example of dental topographic analysis. Dental topographic analysis comprises a suite of techniques for quantifying tooth surfaces and component features. Topographic techniques have provided insight on mammalian molar form-function relationships and these methods could be applied to address other topics and questions. At the same time implementing multiple complementary topographic methods can have high time and labor costs, and comparability of data formats and approaches is difficult to predict. To address these challenges I present MorphoTester, an open source application for visualizing and quantifying topography from 3D triangulated polygon meshes. This application is Python-based and is free to use. MorphoTester implements three commonly used dental topographic metrics-Dirichlet normal energy, relief index, and orientation patch count rotated (OPCR. Previous OPCR algorithms have used raster-based grid data, which is not directly interchangeable with vector-based triangulated polygon meshes. A 3D-OPCR algorithm is provided here for quantifying complexity from polygon meshes. The efficacy of this metric is tested in a sample of mandibular second molars belonging to four species of cercopithecoid primates. Results suggest that 3D-OPCR is at least as effective for quantifying complexity as previous approaches, and may be more effective due to finer resolution of surface data considered here. MorphoTester represents an advancement

  14. Accuracy of topographic index models at identifying ephemeral gully trajectories on agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshukov, Aleksey Y.; Sekaluvu, Lawrence; Hutchinson, Stacy L.

    2018-04-01

    Topographic index (TI) models have been widely used to predict trajectories and initiation points of ephemeral gullies (EGs) in agricultural landscapes. Prediction of EGs strongly relies on the selected value of critical TI threshold, and the accuracy depends on topographic features, agricultural management, and datasets of observed EGs. This study statistically evaluated the predictions by TI models in two paired watersheds in Central Kansas that had different levels of structural disturbances due to implemented conservation practices. Four TI models with sole dependency on topographic factors of slope, contributing area, and planform curvature were used in this study. The observed EGs were obtained by field reconnaissance and through the process of hydrological reconditioning of digital elevation models (DEMs). The Kernel Density Estimation analysis was used to evaluate TI distribution within a 10-m buffer of the observed EG trajectories. The EG occurrence within catchments was analyzed using kappa statistics of the error matrix approach, while the lengths of predicted EGs were compared with the observed dataset using the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) statistics. The TI frequency analysis produced bi-modal distribution of topographic indexes with the pixels within the EG trajectory having a higher peak. The graphs of kappa and NSE versus critical TI threshold showed similar profile for all four TI models and both watersheds with the maximum value representing the best comparison with the observed data. The Compound Topographic Index (CTI) model presented the overall best accuracy with NSE of 0.55 and kappa of 0.32. The statistics for the disturbed watershed showed higher best critical TI threshold values than for the undisturbed watershed. Structural conservation practices implemented in the disturbed watershed reduced ephemeral channels in headwater catchments, thus producing less variability in catchments with EGs. The variation in critical thresholds for all

  15. Topographically-controlled site conditions drive vegetation pattern on inland dunes in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewerniak, Piotr; Jankowski, Michał

    2017-07-01

    The inland dunes of Central Europe are commonly overplanted by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) monocultures in which the primary occurrence of the natural vegetation pattern is obliterated. We hypothesize that on naturally revegetated inland dunes the pattern is clear and driven by topographically-controlled site conditions. To test this hypothesis, we addressed the following research questions: (1) Does topography drive vegetation patterns on inland dunes and if so, what are main differences between vegetation in varying relief positions? (2) To what extent does topography involve the variability of microclimates and of soil properties, and how does the topographically-induced differentiation of these site conditions control vegetation patterns? We conducted interdisciplinary studies (applying floristic, pedological and microclimatic research techniques) on a naturally revegetated inland dune area situated on a military artillery training ground near Toruń, northern Poland. We investigated vegetation patterns with reference to three topographical position variants (north-facing slopes, south-facing slopes, and intra-dune depressions). We found distinct differences in vegetation characteristics covering the aforementioned topographical positions. This primarily concerned species composition of ground vegetation: Calluna vulgaris was dominant species on north-facing slopes, Corynephorus canescens on south-facing slopes, while Calamagrostis epigejos in intra-dune depressions. In comparison to dune slopes, the depressions were characterized by much higher biodiversity of vascular plant species. This followed the most favorable soil conditions for the existence of plants (higher moisture and nutrient pools) occurring in low topographical positions. However, tree succession was most advanced not in depressions, where the competitive impact of tall grasses on seedlings was recognized, but on north-facing slopes. Based on our results, we formulated some suggestions, which

  16. LANDSLIDES IDENTIFICATION USING AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA DERIVED TOPOGRAPHIC TERRAIN ATTRIBUTES AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pawłuszek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the availability of high-resolution Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS data, substantial progress in geomorphological research, especially in landslide analysis, has been carried out. First and second order derivatives of Digital Terrain Model (DTM have become a popular and powerful tool in landslide inventory mapping. Nevertheless, an automatic landslide mapping based on sophisticated classifiers including Support Vector Machine (SVM, Artificial Neural Network or Random Forests is often computationally time consuming. The objective of this research is to deeply explore topographic information provided by ALS data and overcome computational time limitation. For this reason, an extended set of topographic features and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used to reduce redundant information. The proposed novel approach was tested on a susceptible area affected by more than 50 landslides located on Rożnów Lake in Carpathian Mountains, Poland. The initial seven PCA components with 90% of the total variability in the original topographic attributes were used for SVM classification. Comparing results with landslide inventory map, the average user’s accuracy (UA, producer’s accuracy (PA, and overall accuracy (OA were calculated for two models according to the classification results. Thereby, for the PCA-feature-reduced model UA, PA, and OA were found to be 72%, 76%, and 72%, respectively. Similarly, UA, PA, and OA in the non-reduced original topographic model, was 74%, 77% and 74%, respectively. Using the initial seven PCA components instead of the twenty original topographic attributes does not significantly change identification accuracy but reduce computational time.

  17. Topographic separation of two sympatric palms in the central Amazon - does dispersal play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes de Freitas, Cintia; Capellotto Costa, Flávia Regina; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Balslev, Henrik

    2012-02-01

    Despite broadly overlapping geographic distributions in the central Amazon basin, two congeneric palm species (Attalea attaleoides and Attalea microcarpa) have topographically separated distributions on a local scale in Reserva Ducke near Manaus. Our aim here was to determine if this local scale separation can be linked to (1) seedling stage specialization to different habitat conditions of the two species, and/or (2) environmentally-controlled seed dispersal. We assessed the role of these potential drivers by mapping the local distribution of the two species over a 25-km2 grid and testing for correlation to seed removal and seed germination patterns using seed sowing experiments. 360 seeds of each species were sown in 30 uniformly distributed plots (12 seeds of each species in each plot), and seed removal and germination were subsequently monitored. Adult populations of the two species showed opposite distribution patterns linked to topography. However, there was little evidence for specialization to different habitat conditions at the seedling stage: after 11 months, 26.1% of seeds of A. microcarpa had germinated along the entire topographic gradient, albeit with a tendency toward higher germination in more inclined areas. For A. attaleoides, only 2.2% seeds had germinated, and again along the entire topographic gradient. In contrast, there was evidence for environmentally-controlled seed dispersal: for both species, seed removal was higher in flat areas. Presence of adults did not affect germination or seed removal. Our results suggest that topographically differentiated distributions of A. attaleoides and A. microcarpa may be reinforced by steep slope avoidance by their seed dispersers. A direct environmental control mechanism remains to be identified to explain the consistent topographic associations, but our results show that this mechanism does not work at the seed germination stage.

  18. Fabrication of disposable topographic silicon oxide from sawtoothed patterns: control of arrays of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heesook; Yoo, Hana; Park, Soojin

    2010-05-18

    Disposable topographic silicon oxide patterns were fabricated from polymeric replicas of sawtoothed glass surfaces, spin-coating of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) thin films, and thermal annealing at certain temperature and followed by oxygen plasma treatment of the thin PDMS layer. A simple imprinting process was used to fabricate the replicated PDMS and PS patterns from sawtoothed glass surfaces. Next, thin layers of PDMS films having different thicknesses were spin-coated onto the sawtoothed PS surfaces and annealed at 60 degrees C to be drawn the PDMS into the valley of the sawtoothed PS surfaces, followed by oxygen plasma treatment to fabricate topographic silicon oxide patterns. By control of the thickness of PDMS layers, silicon oxide patterns having various line widths were fabricated. The silicon oxide topographic patterns were used to direct the self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films via solvent annealing process. A highly ordered PS-b-P2VP micellar structure was used to let gold precursor complex with P2VP chains, and followed by oxygen plasma treatment. When the PS-b-P2VP thin films containing gold salts were exposed to oxygen plasma environments, gold salts were reduced to pure gold nanoparticles without changing high degree of lateral order, while polymers were completely degraded. As the width of trough and crest in topographic patterns increases, the number of gold arrays and size of gold nanoparticles are tuned. In the final step, the silicon oxide topographic patterns were selectively removed by wet etching process without changing the arrays of gold nanoparticles.

  19. UAS-Borne Photogrammetry for Surface Topographic Characterization: A Ground-Truth Baseline for Future Change Detection and Refinement of Scaled Remotely-Sensed Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppersmith, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Vigil, S.; Dzur, R.; Norskog, K.; Kelley, R.; Miller, L.

    2015-12-01

    While long-term objectives of monitoring and verification regimes include remote characterization and discrimination of surficial geologic and topographic features at sites of interest, ground truth data is required to advance development of remote sensing techniques. Increasingly, it is desirable for these ground-based or ground-proximal characterization methodologies to be as nimble, efficient, non-invasive, and non-destructive as their higher-altitude airborne counterparts while ideally providing superior resolution. For this study, the area of interest is an alluvial site at the Nevada National Security Site intended for use in the Source Physics Experiment's (Snelson et al., 2013) second phase. Ground-truth surface topographic characterization was performed using a DJI Inspire 1 unmanned aerial system (UAS), at very low altitude (clouds. Within the area of interest, careful installation of surveyed ground control fiducial markers supplied necessary targets for field collection, and information for model georectification. The resulting model includes a Digital Elevation Model derived from 2D imagery. It is anticipated that this flexible and versatile characterization process will provide point cloud data resolution equivalent to a purely ground-based LiDAR scanning deployment (e.g., 1-2cm horizontal and vertical resolution; e.g., Sussman et al., 2012; Schultz-Fellenz et al., 2013). In addition to drastically increasing time efficiency in the field, the UAS method also allows for more complete coverage of the study area when compared to ground-based LiDAR. Comparison and integration of these data with conventionally-acquired airborne LiDAR data from a higher-altitude (~ 450m) platform will aid significantly in the refinement of technologies and detection capabilities of remote optical systems to identify and detect surface geologic and topographic signatures of interest. This work includes a preliminary comparison of surface signatures detected from varying

  20. Development of analog watch with minute repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigami, Tomio; Aoyama, Shigeru; Osa, Takashi; Igarashi, Kiyotaka; Ikegami, Tomomi

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor with large scale integration was developed for an electronic minute repeater. It is equipped with the synthetic struck sound circuit to generate natural struck sound necessary for the minute repeater. This circuit consists of an envelope curve drawing circuit, frequency mixer, polyphonic mixer, and booster circuit made by using analog circuit technology. This large scale integration is a single chip microcomputer with motor drivers and input ports in addition to the synthetic struck sound circuit, and it is possible to make an electronic system of minute repeater at a very low cost in comparison with the conventional type.

  1. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.

  2. Spatial Variation in Bird Community Composition in Relation to Topographic Gradient and Forest Heterogeneity in a Central Amazonian Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cintra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of landscape features and forest structure on the avian community at the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke near Manaus, in the Brazilian Amazon. We sampled the landscape and forest in 72 50 × 50 m plots systematically distributed in the reserve, covering an area of 6,400 ha. The avifauna was sampled using mist nets and acoustic surveys near the plots. We found no significant relationships between landscape features and forest components in the plots and the number of bird species and individuals sampled. Results of Principal Coordinate Analyses, however, showed that bird species composition changes along a topographic gradient (plateau-slope-valley, and also in relation to leaf litter depth and distance to forest streams. We also found compositional differences in the avian community on the eastern and western water basins that compose the reserve. Our results suggest that although most bird species occur throughout the reserve, many species track differences in the landscape and the forest structure.

  3. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  4. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3570, Tagab-E-Munjan (505) and Asmar-Kamdesh (506) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  5. Topographic Map of Quadrangles 3062 and 2962, Charburjak (609), Khanneshin (610), Gawdezereh (615), and Galachah (616) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  6. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3566, Sang-Charak (501) and Sayghan-O-Kamard (502) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  7. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3768 and 3668, Imam-Saheb (215), Rustaq (216), Baghlan (221), and Taloqan (222) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the

  8. Interaction of a monopole vortex with an isolated topographic feature in a three-layer geophysical flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Ryzhov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of a three-layer, quasi-geostrophic analytical model of an f-plane geophysical flow, the Lagrangian advection induced by the interaction of a monopole vortex with an isolated topographic feature is addressed. Two different cases when the monopole is located either within the upper or the middle layer are of our interest. In the bottom layer, there is a delta-function topographic feature, which generates a closed recirculation region in its vicinity due to the background flow. This recirculation region extends to the middle and upper layers, and it plays the role of a topographic vortex. The interaction between the monopole and the topographic vortex causes a complex, including chaotic, advection of fluid particles. We show that the model's parameters, namely the monopole and topographic vortices' strengths and initial positions, and the layers' depths and densities, are responsible for the diverse advection patterns. While the patterns are rather complicated, one can single out two major processes, which mostly govern the fluid particle advection. The first one is the variation in time of the system's phase space structure, so that within the closed region of the topographic vortex, there appear periodically unclosed particle pathways by which the particles leave the topographic vortex. The second one is chaotic advection that arises from the nonstationarity of the monopole–topography interaction.

  9. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  10. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar; Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar; Adhikari, M. D.; Nayak, Avinash; Devaraj, N.; Ghosh, Soumalya K.; Mahajan, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2013-12-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Construction Method of the Topographical Features Model for Underwater Terrain Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lihui

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrain database is the reference basic for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV to implement underwater terrain navigation (UTN functions, and is the important part of building topographical features model for UTN. To investigate the feasibility and correlation of a variety of terrain parameters as terrain navigation information metrics, this paper described and analyzed the underwater terrain features and topography parameters calculation method. Proposing a comprehensive evaluation method for terrain navigation information, and constructing an underwater navigation information analysis model, which is associated with topographic features. Simulation results show that the underwater terrain features, are associated with UTN information directly or indirectly, also affect the terrain matching capture probability and the positioning accuracy directly.

  13. Elements of the Chicxulub Impact Structure as Revealed in SRTM and Surface GPS Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsland, Gary L.; Sanchez, Gary; Kobrick, Michael; Cardador, Manuel Hurtado

    2003-01-01

    Pope et al. [1] utilized the elevations from the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) gravity data files to show that the main component of the surface expression of the Chicxulub Impact Structure is a roughly semi-circular, lowrelief depression about 90 km in diameter. They also identified other topographic features and the elements of the buried impact, which possibly led to the development of these features. These are summarized in Table 1. Kinsland et al. [2] presented a connection between these topographic anomalies, small gravity anomalies and buried structure of the impact. Very recently we have acquired digital topography data from NASA s Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Our subset covers 6 square degrees from 20deg N 91degW to 22deg N 88degW (corner to corner) with a pixel size of about 90m. This area includes all of the identified portion of the crater on land.

  14. RELIEVE: A FORTRAN 77 program for numerical and graphical processing of digital topographic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.J.; Gorostiza, C.

    1995-01-01

    The RELIEVE program was developed in order to its integration with the expert system SIRENAS, in the frame of the Industrial Risks Programme, within the CIEMAT center. For accomplishing this mentioned system, arose the necessity of an additional component enabled for analyzing the topography (relieve) of the territory in which the focused site is located. That is just the mission of the RELIEVE program. Basically RELIEVE analyses the digitalized data points of a determinate topographic area, around a location of interest. The program allows us estimation by numerical techniques, using IMSL library, of the deep width, and other geometrical characteristics of the valley that is involved in. Optionally RELIEVE produces also graphical outputs concerning 3D representation of topographical map, level curves, sections of interest considered in the valley, etc., by means of the DISSPLA II library, running in the IBM system of the CIEMAT. (Author) 5 refs

  15. The influence of target structure on topographical features produced by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, J.L.; Grant, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Ion beam erosion of solid surfaces often results in the development of distinctive topographical features. The relationship between the type of features formed by ion erosion and target structure has been investigated. Single crystals of copper and nickel and the amorphous alloy Metglas have been bombarded to high doses (approx. >=10 19 ions cm -2 ) with 40 keV Ar + and P + . Topography changes were monitored using SEM and structural changes by TEM. Targets that retain their long range crystallinity show sharply defined, regular features that are related to the target structure. Targets that are highly disordered, either intrinsically or as a result of the ion bombardment, produce diffuse, smaller features. Those differences are observed at all stages in topographical evolution. (orig.)

  16. ISO 19157 standard application in technological process of the production of digital topographic maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobnjak Siniša M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Standardization in the field of geographical information related to the definition of the system of collection, preparation, storage, maintenance, presentation and sharing of geographic information. Quality information of available spatial data are vital in the process of selecting a dataset where data value is directly related to its quality. Users of spatial data can choose data from multiple datasets. Therefore. It is necessary to compare the quality of datasets and determine which best meet customer requirements. Digital topographic maps for its visuality, brevity and easy of use have a big advantage over other spatial datasets and is therefore fully justified request for the development of the system of determining, evaluating and impart their quality. The main objective of this paper is to describe the possibilities of application of ISO 19157 'Geographic information - Data quality' standard in technological process of the production of digital topographic maps.

  17. Technical know-how for the investigation and modelling of topographic evolution for site characterisation - 59171

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, Ryosuke; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Niizato, Tadafumi; Nakayasu, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Geological hazard assessments are being used to make important decisions relevant to nuclear facilities such as a repository for deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. With respect to such repositories, topographic evolution is a key issue for description of the long-term evolution of a groundwater flow characteristics in time spans of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. The construction of topographic evolution models is complex, involving tacit knowledge and working processes. Therefore, it is important to externalise, that is to explicitly present the tacit knowledge and decision-making processes used by experts in the model building unambiguously, with thorough documentation and to provide key knowledge to support planning and implementation of investigations. In this study, documentation of the technical know-how used for the construction of a topographic evolution model is demonstrated. The process followed in the construction of the model is illustrated using task-flow logic diagrams; the process involves four main tasks with several sub-tasks. The task-flow followed for an investigation to estimate uplift rates linked to the task-flow for the modelling of topographic evolution is also illustrated. In addition, the decision-making processes in the investigation are expressed in logical IF-THEN format for each task. Based on the documented technical know-how, an IT-based Expert System was constructed. In future work, it is necessary to analyse the knowledge, including the management of uncertainties in the modelling and investigations, and to integrate fundamental ideas for managing uncertainties with expert system. (authors)

  18. Behaviour of earth’s crust due to topographic loads derived by inverse and direct isostasy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Abd-Elmotaal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of the earth’s crust due to topographic loads can be derived by either inverse or direct approach. As for the inverse approach, it is postulated that the density anomaly is proportional to the earth’s radius vector so that it is linearly related to topography by a convolution of the topography and an isotropic kernel function. Accordingly, one can prove that the attraction of the compensating masses is also a convolution of the topography and an isotropic isostatic response function. Such an isostatic response function can be determined by deconvolution. This paper gives the derivation of such a deconvolution by means of spherical harmonics. A practical determination of the isotropic isostatic response function needs the harmonic analysis of both the topography and the attraction of the compensating masses. Applying the principle of inverse isostasy, by which we aim to achieve zero isostatic anomalies, then the attraction of the compensating masses equals the Bouguer anomalies with an opposite sign. The harmonic analysis of the Bouguer anomalies is thus a combination of the harmonic analysis of the topographic potential and the already existing global reference models. As for the direct approach, consider that the earth’s crust is an infinite thin plate subject to topographic loads. The solution of such a bent plate represents the displacement of the earth’s crust due to topographic loads. The paper illustrates that the exact solution of the bent plate is given by the Kelvin function keix. A practical application has been carried out for both approaches using EGM96 and GPM98CR geopotential earth models as well as TUG87 and TBASE digital height models. The results show that the estimated isotropic isostatic response functions derived by the inverse approach behave similarly as that given by direct approach represented by the Kelvin function keix.

  19. FCJ-169 Mapping Moving-Image Culture: Topographical Interface and YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    This article considers cartographic and topographical aesthetics of digital interface and network navigation through the example of YouTube’s post-Cosmic Panda redesign, which visualizes the vastness of the site’s stored content while conveying contiguity and accessibility. Focussing on YouTube’s visual rhetoric of the screen-frame and thumbnails, this article explores affinities with the mosaic and grid, two visual forms historically significant to cartographic production and organization. B...

  20. Large Scale Topographic Maps Generalisation and Visualization Based on New Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Dinar, Ilma; Ključanin, Slobodanka; Poslončec-Petrić, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Integrating spatial data from different sources results in visualization which is the last step in the process of digital basic topographic maps creation. Sources used for visualization are existing real estate cadastre database orthophoto plans and digital terrain models. Analogue cadastre plans were scanned and georeferenced according to existing regulations and used for toponyms. Visualization of topologically inspected geometric primitives was performed based on the ''Collection of cartog...

  1. Seasonal and Topographical Factors Affecting Breeding Sites of Culex Larvae in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Warabhorn PREECHAPORN; Mullica JAROENSUTASINEE; Krisanadej JAROENSUTASINEE; Jirawat SAETON

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how the seasons affect the key breeding sites of Culex larvae in three topographical areas: mangrove, rice paddy and mountainous areas. We examined how the number of Culex larvae varied in different types of water containers. Water containers were categorised into the following groups: indoor/outdoor containers, artificial/natural containers, earthen/plastic containers, containers with/without lids and dark/light coloured containers. Samples were collected from 300 hou...

  2. Converting Topographic Maps into Digital Form to Aid in Archeological Research in the Peten, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Serena R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of my project was to convert a topographical map into digital form so that the data can be manipulated and easily accessed in the field. With the data in this particular format, Dr. Sever and his colleagues can highlight the specific features of the landscape that they require for their research of the ancient Mayan civilization. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can also be created from the digitized contour features adding another dimension to their research.

  3. TOPOGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION AND SPECIALIZED AREAS IN THE RETINA OF Callopistes palluma: GANGLION CELL LAYER

    OpenAIRE

    Inzunza, Oscar; Barros B., Zitta; Bravo, Hermes

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the topographic distribution and cell body size of neurons (ganglion and displaced amacrine) of layer 8 of the retina in the chilean reptile Callopistes palluma; using whole mount retinaswith nissl stain. Callopistes palluma retina has an area centralis without fovea in which the ganglion cell density amounts 20.000 cells / µm2 while the displaced amacrine neurons is about 7.000 cells / µm2. This neural density decreased gradually towards the peripheral retina. A hor...

  4. Simulation and Analysis of Topographic Effect on Land Surface Albedo over Mountainous Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, D.; Wen, J.; Xiao, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface albedo is one of the significant geophysical variables affecting the Earth's climate and controlling the surface radiation budget. Topography leads to the formation of shadows and the redistribution of incident radiation, which complicates the modeling and estimation of the land surface albedo. Some studies show that neglecting the topography effect may lead to significant bias in estimating the land surface albedo for the sloping terrain. However, for the composite sloping terrain, the topographic effects on the albedo remain unclear. Accurately estimating the sub-topographic effect on the land surface albedo over the composite sloping terrain presents a challenge for remote sensing modeling and applications. In our study, we focus on the development of a simplified estimation method for land surface albedo including black-sky albedo (BSA) and white-sky albedo (WSA) of the composite sloping terrain at a kilometer scale based on the fine scale DEM (30m) and quantitatively investigate and understand the topographic effects on the albedo. The albedo is affected by various factors such as solar zenith angle (SZA), solar azimuth angle (SAA), shadows, terrain occlusion, and slope and aspect distribution of the micro-slopes. When SZA is 30°, the absolute and relative deviations between the BSA of flat terrain and that of rugged terrain reaches 0.12 and 50%, respectively. When the mean slope of the terrain is 30.63° and SZA=30°, the absolute deviation of BSA caused by SAA can reach 0.04. The maximal relative and relative deviation between the WSA of flat terrain and that of rugged terrain reaches 0.08 and 50%. These results demonstrate that the topographic effect has to be taken into account in the albedo estimation.

  5. Follow up of intraocular lens subluxation with a combined topographer/aberrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios A. Kontadakis; George D. Kymionis; Vardhaman P. Kankariya; Ioannis G. Pallikaris

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report a 36-year-old patient with intraocular lens (IOL) subluxation that was followed for IOL stability with evaluation of images captured with the iTrace combined aberrometer/topographer. Methods: The patient had undergone phacoemulsification with IOL implantation for congenital cataract 15 years before. He presented with bilateral IOL subluxation, more severe in his right eye. Right eye was operated for IOL exchange and left eye was followed with the iTrace images. The image...

  6. Multi-scale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Grohmann, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Surface roughness is an important geomorphological variable which has been used in the earth and planetary sciences to infer material properties, current/past processes and the time elapsed since formation. No single definition exists, however within the context of geomorphometry we use surface roughness as a expression of the variability of a topographic surface at a given scale, where the scale of analysis is determined by the size of the landforms or geomorphic features of interest. Six te...

  7. Hydrological Networks and Associated Topographic Variation as Templates for the Spatial Organization of Tropical Forest Vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Detto, Matteo; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the spatial variability in tropical forest structure and biomass, and the mechanisms that underpin this variability, is critical for designing, interpreting, and upscaling field studies for regional carbon inventories. We investigated the spatial structure of tropical forest vegetation and its relationship to the hydrological network and associated topographic structure across spatial scales of 10-1000 m using high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived mean canopy profile heigh...

  8. Topographic conditions and physical activity behaviour of young adults in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Barbara; Gollner, Erwin; Schnabel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In Austria there is an east-west divide concerning the amount of physical activity that has been detected. This is associated with poorer health in the eastern region of Austria compared to the western. Experts think that differences in topographic conditions might be a reason for these differences. However this hypothesis until now has not been scientifically proven. This study incorporates a multi-staged approach. First, outdoor physical activity behaviour (levels of exercise, favourite act...

  9. Computer program user's manual for FIREFINDER digital topographic data verification library dubbing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceres, M.; Heselton, L. R., III

    1981-11-01

    This manual describes the computer programs for the FIREFINDER Digital Topographic Data Verification-Library-Dubbing System (FFDTDVLDS), and will assist in the maintenance of these programs. The manual contains detailed flow diagrams and associated descriptions for each computer program routine and subroutine. Complete computer program listings are also included. This information should be used when changes are made in the computer programs. The operating system has been designed to minimize operator intervention.

  10. Effect of post crosslinking haze on the repeatability of Scheimpflug-based and slit-scanning imaging devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of postcollagen crosslinking (CXL haze on the measurement and repeatability of pachymetry and mean keratometry (Km of four corneal topographers. Materials and Methods: Sixty eyes of sixty patients with progressive keratoconus who had undergone accelerated CXL (ACXL underwent imaging with a scanning slit imaging device (Orbscan II and three Scheimpflug imaging devices (Pentacam HR, Sirius, and Galilei. Post-ACXL haze was measured using the densitometry software on the Pentacam HR. Readings of the thinnest corneal thickness (TCT and Km from three scans of each device were analyzed. Effect of haze on the repeatability of TCT and Km measurements was evaluated using regression models. Repeatability was assessed by coefficient of variation. Results: Corneal densitometry in different zones affected the repeatability of TCT measurement of Orbscan (P < 0.05 significantly but not the repeatability of TCT with Pentacam HR and Sirius (P = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively. Km values were affected by haze when measured with the Pentacam HR (P < 0.05. The repeatability of Km readings for all devices was unaffected by haze. In the anterior 0–2 mm and 2–6 mm zone, TCT (P = 0.43 and 0.45, respectively, Km values (P = 0.4 and 0.6, respectively, repeatability of TCT (P = 0.1 in both zones, and Km (P = 0.5 and 0.1, respectively with Galilei were found to be the most reliable. Conclusion: Galilei measurements appear to be least affected by post-ACXL haze when compared with other devices. Hence, topography measurements in the presence of haze need to be interpreted with caution.

  11. Role of interoceptive accuracy in topographical changes in emotion-induced bodily sensations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won-Mo; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Ye-Seul; Wallraven, Christian; Chae, Younbyoung

    2017-01-01

    The emotion-associated bodily sensation map is composed of a specific topographical distribution of bodily sensations to categorical emotions. The present study investigated whether or not interoceptive accuracy was associated with topographical changes in this map following emotion-induced bodily sensations. This study included 31 participants who observed short video clips containing emotional stimuli and then reported their sensations on the body map. Interoceptive accuracy was evaluated with a heartbeat detection task and the spatial patterns of bodily sensations to specific emotions, including anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral, were visualized using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) analyses. Distinct patterns of bodily sensations were identified for different emotional states. In addition, positive correlations were found between the magnitude of sensation in emotion-specific regions and interoceptive accuracy across individuals. A greater degree of interoceptive accuracy was associated with more specific topographical changes after emotional stimuli. These results suggest that the awareness of one’s internal bodily states might play a crucial role as a required messenger of sensory information during the affective process. PMID:28877218

  12. Tensor SOM and tensor GTM: Nonlinear tensor analysis by topographic mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Tohru; Furukawa, Tetsuo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose nonlinear tensor analysis methods: the tensor self-organizing map (TSOM) and the tensor generative topographic mapping (TGTM). TSOM is a straightforward extension of the self-organizing map from high-dimensional data to tensorial data, and TGTM is an extension of the generative topographic map, which provides a theoretical background for TSOM using a probabilistic generative model. These methods are useful tools for analyzing and visualizing tensorial data, especially multimodal relational data. For given n-mode relational data, TSOM and TGTM can simultaneously organize a set of n-topographic maps. Furthermore, they can be used to explore the tensorial data space by interactively visualizing the relationships between modes. We present the TSOM algorithm and a theoretical description from the viewpoint of TGTM. Various TSOM variations and visualization techniques are also described, along with some applications to real relational datasets. Additionally, we attempt to build a comprehensive description of the TSOM family by adapting various data structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Topographic outcomes after corneal collagen crosslinking in progressive keratoconus: 1-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro C. Tiveron Jr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: We aimed to report and analyze topographic and refractive outcomes following corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL in patients with progressive keratoconus (KC. Methods: We performed a retrospective, analytical, and observational study of 100 eyes from 74 progressive KC patients who underwent CXL at the Eye Hospital of Paraná. Keratometric values were analyzed preoperatively as well as 3 and 12 months postoperatively. Results: For a total of 100 eyes, 68 belonged to male patients. The mean age of our study population was 19.9 ± 5.61 years. The average visual acuity and topographic parameters overall were stable after 1 year (p<0.05. After 3 months, steepest keratometry reading (K2 and maximum keratometry (Kmax were significantly decreased (p<0.05. Regarding topographic astigmatism (dK, there was no significant difference between the 3-month and 12-month follow-ups. When we made comparisons between genders following CXL, there were no significant differences related to the changes in Kmax, K2, and spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity (SCDVA. Conclusions: CXL promoted stabilization or improvement of keratometric values and visual acuity. We found that keratoconus apex stability may be achieved 3 months after the procedure. There was no significant difference in keratometric and refractive values measured between male and female patients.

  14. Spatial recognition test: A novel cognition task for assessing topographical memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havolli, Enes; Hill, Mark Dw; Godley, Annie; Goetghebeur, Pascal Jd

    2017-06-01

    Dysfunction in topographical memory is a core feature of several neurological disorders. There is a large unmet medical need to address learning and memory deficits as a whole in central nervous system disease. There are considerable efforts to identify pro-cognitive compounds but current methods are either lengthy or labour intensive. Our test used a two chamber apparatus and is based on the preference of rodents to explore novel environments. It was used firstly to assess topographical memory in mice at different retention intervals (RI) and secondly to investigate the effect of three drugs reported to be beneficial for cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease, namely: donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Animals show good memory performance at all RIs tested under four hours. At the four-hour RI, animals show a significantly poorer memory performance which can be rescued using donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam. Using this test we established and validated a spatial recognition paradigm to address topographical memory in mice by showing a decremental time-induced forgetting response and reversing this decrease in performance using pharmacological tools. The spatial recognition test differs from more commonly used visuospatial laboratory tests in both throughput capability and potentially neuroanatomical substrate. This test has the potential to be used to assess cognitive performance in transgenic animals, disease models and to screen putative cognitive enhancers or depressors.

  15. The role of topographic structure and soil macrofauna presence at spoil heaps during spontaneous succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Alena; Vachová, Pavla; Vach, Marek

    2016-04-01

    This research was investigating whether topographic features, which determine soil nutrient and moisture distribution, in combination with soil fauna (wireworm and earthworm) presence, affect plant community composition at a spontaneously revegetated post mining area with an undulating surface. Two sites of different age with 3 types of topographic features were selected, soil moisture and nutrient content were measured, plant community composition and soil macrofauna community was sampled at each position. Wireworms were present at all positions and were most abundant at bottoms of waves at the younger site; their presence was correlated with several plant species, but the direction of the interaction isn't clear. Earthworms were only present at the older site and had highest abundance at flat sections. Earthworm presence affected the amount of nitrogen in soil - the most nitrogen content was at the site with highest earthworm density and was followed by higher diversity of plant community. The plant community composition was generally correlated with plant available nutrient content - especially P and N. We infer that topographic features affect nutrient and soil fauna distribution, which consequently influences plant community composition.

  16. Making sense of sparse rating data in collaborative filtering via topographic organization of user preference patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcicová, Gabriela; Tino, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We introduce topographic versions of two latent class models (LCM) for collaborative filtering. Latent classes are topologically organized on a square grid. Topographic organization of latent classes makes orientation in rating/preference patterns captured by the latent classes easier and more systematic. The variation in film rating patterns is modelled by multinomial and binomial distributions with varying independence assumptions. In the first stage of topographic LCM construction, self-organizing maps with neural field organized according to the LCM topology are employed. We apply our system to a large collection of user ratings for films. The system can provide useful visualization plots unveiling user preference patterns buried in the data, without loosing potential to be a good recommender model. It appears that multinomial distribution is most adequate if the model is regularized by tight grid topologies. Since we deal with probabilistic models of the data, we can readily use tools from probability and information theories to interpret and visualize information extracted by our system.

  17. Debris flow-induced topographic changes: effects of recurrent debris flow initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yuan; Wang, Qun

    2017-08-12

    Chushui Creek in Shengmu Village, Nantou County, Taiwan, was analyzed for recurrent debris flow using numerical modeling and geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis. The two-dimensional water flood and mudflow simulation program FLO-2D were used to simulate debris flow induced by rainfall during typhoon Herb in 1996 and Mindulle in 2004. Changes in topographic characteristics after the debris flows were simulated for the initiation of hydrological characteristics, magnitude, and affected area. Changes in topographic characteristics included those in elevation, slope, aspect, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), and hypsometric curve integral (HI), all of which were analyzed using GIS spatial analysis. The results show that the SPI and peak discharge in the basin increased after a recurrence of debris flow. The TWI was higher in 2003 than in 2004 and indicated higher potential of landslide initiation when the slope of the basin was steeper. The HI revealed that the basin was in its mature stage and was shifting toward the old stage. Numerical simulation demonstrated that the parameters' mean depth, maximum depth, affected area, mean flow rate, maximum flow rate, and peak flow discharge were increased after recurrent debris flow, and peak discharge occurred quickly.

  18. Effects of topographic data quality on estimates of shallow slope stability using different regolith depth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.

    2017-01-01

    Thickness of colluvium or regolith overlying bedrock or other consolidated materials is a major factor in determining stability of unconsolidated earth materials on steep slopes. Many efforts to model spatially distributed slope stability, for example to assess susceptibility to shallow landslides, have relied on estimates of constant thickness, constant depth, or simple models of thickness (or depth) based on slope and other topographic variables. Assumptions of constant depth or thickness rarely give satisfactory results. Geomorphologists have devised a number of different models to represent the spatial variability of regolith depth and applied them to various settings. I have applied some of these models that can be implemented numerically to different study areas with different types of terrain and tested the results against available depth measurements and landslide inventories. The areas include crystalline rocks of the Colorado Front Range, and gently dipping sedimentary rocks of the Oregon Coast Range. Model performance varies with model, terrain type, and with quality of the input topographic data. Steps in contour-derived 10-m digital elevation models (DEMs) introduce significant errors into the predicted distribution of regolith and landslides. Scan lines, facets, and other artifacts further degrade DEMs and model predictions. Resampling to a lower grid-cell resolution can mitigate effects of facets in lidar DEMs of areas where dense forest severely limits ground returns. Due to its higher accuracy and ability to penetrate vegetation, lidar-derived topography produces more realistic distributions of cover and potential landslides than conventional photogrammetrically derived topographic data.

  19. Exhumation and topographic evolution of the Namche Barwa Syntaxis, eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Herman, Frédéric; Fellin, Maria Giuditta; Maden, Colin

    2018-01-01

    The Namche Barwa Syntaxis, as one of the most tectonically active regions, remains an appropriate place to explore the relationship between tectonics, surface processes, and landscape evolution. Two leading models have been proposed for the formation and evolution of this syntaxis, including the tectonic aneurysm model and the syntaxis expansion model. Here we use a multi-disciplinary approach based on low-temperature thermochronometry, numerical modeling, river profile and topographic analyses to investigate the interactions between tectonics, erosion, and landscape evolution and to test these models. Our results emphasize the presence of young cooling ages (i.e., River, to the north of the syntaxis. Using numerical modeling we argue that a recent increase in exhumation rate is required to expose these young ages. Our river analysis reveals spatial variations in channel steepness, which we interpret to reflect the rock uplift pattern. By establishing the relationship between erosion rates and topographic features, we find that erosion rates are poorly to weakly correlated with topographic features, suggesting that the landscape is still evolving. Altogether, these results seem better explained by a mechanism that involves a northward expansion of the syntaxis, which causes high rock uplift rates to the north of the syntaxis and a transient state of topography adjusting to an evolving tectonic setting.

  20. A suite of global, cross-scale topographic variables for environmental and biodiversity modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatulli, Giuseppe; Domisch, Sami; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Parmentier, Benoit; Ranipeta, Ajay; Malczyk, Jeremy; Jetz, Walter

    2018-03-01

    Topographic variation underpins a myriad of patterns and processes in hydrology, climatology, geography and ecology and is key to understanding the variation of life on the planet. A fully standardized and global multivariate product of different terrain features has the potential to support many large-scale research applications, however to date, such datasets are unavailable. Here we used the digital elevation model products of global 250 m GMTED2010 and near-global 90 m SRTM4.1dev to derive a suite of topographic variables: elevation, slope, aspect, eastness, northness, roughness, terrain roughness index, topographic position index, vector ruggedness measure, profile/tangential curvature, first/second order partial derivative, and 10 geomorphological landform classes. We aggregated each variable to 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 km spatial grains using several aggregation approaches. While a cross-correlation underlines the high similarity of many variables, a more detailed view in four mountain regions reveals local differences, as well as scale variations in the aggregated variables at different spatial grains. All newly-developed variables are available for download at Data Citation 1 and for download and visualization at http://www.earthenv.org/topography.