WorldWideScience

Sample records for repeat topographic surveys

  1. Geomorphic process from topographic form: automating the interpretation of repeat survey data in river valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprak, Alan; Caster, Joshua J.; Bangen, Sara G.; Sankey, Joel B.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to quantify the processes driving geomorphic change in river valley margins is vital to geomorphologists seeking to understand the relative role of transport mechanisms (e.g. fluvial, aeolian, and hillslope processes) in landscape dynamics. High-resolution, repeat topographic data are becoming readily available to geomorphologists. By contrasting digital elevation models derived from repeat surveys, the transport processes driving topographic changes can be inferred, a method termed ‘mechanistic segregation.’ Unfortunately, mechanistic segregation largely relies on subjective and time consuming manual classification, which has implications both for its reproducibility and the practical scale of its application. Here we present a novel computational workflow for the mechanistic segregation of geomorphic transport processes in geospatial datasets. We apply the workflow to seven sites along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, where geomorphic transport is driven by a diverse suite of mechanisms. The workflow performs well when compared to field observations, with an overall predictive accuracy of 84% across 113 validation points. The approach most accurately predicts changes due to fluvial processes (100% accuracy) and aeolian processes (96%), with reduced accuracy in predictions of alluvial and colluvial processes (64% and 73%, respectively). Our workflow is designed to be applicable to a diversity of river systems and will likely provide a rapid and objective understanding of the processes driving geomorphic change at the reach and network scales. We anticipate that such an understanding will allow insight into the response of geomorphic transport processes to external forcings, such as shifts in climate, land use, or river regulation, with implications for process-based river management and restoration.

  2. Dynamic Feedbacks Between Flow, Erosion and Evolving River Bank Roughness Revealed Through Repeat High-Resolution Topographic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.; Rinaldi, M.; Teruggi, L. B.; Ostuni, D.

    2012-12-01

    Bank erosion is a key process in fluvial dynamics, with significant fractions of the total sediment load being sourced from river banks. Studies have shown that hydraulic erosion of the bank toe is a driving factor of long term rates of bank retreat. Fluvial bank erosion rates are often quantified using an excess shear stress model where the erosion rate is a function of the boundary shear stress applied by the flow above a critical threshold. Research has shown that the form roughness induced by natural topographic bank features such as slumps, spurs and embayments, is a major component of the spatially-averaged total shear stress. The skin friction component of this shear stress is typically an order of magnitude less than the total, meaning that the form roughness provides an important control on bank erosion rates. However, measuring the relative components of the total shear stress for a natural system is not straightforward. In this research we apply the method of Kean and Smith [2006, J. Geophys. Res., 111(4), F04009, doi:10.1029/2006JF000467] to partition the form and skin drag components of river bank roughness for an eroding bank of the Cecina River in central Italy. This method approximates the form drag component of the roughness along a longitudinal bank profile as a series of user defined Gaussian curves, with the skin friction component estimated through analysis of the deviations of the data from the fitted curves. For our site, a temporal sequence (2003 - 2011) of high-resolution topographic surveys has been collected through a combination of photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning. For each survey five vertically equidistant profiles are extracted and analysed alongside DEMs of difference and associated flow data modelled using the distributed hydrological model MOBIDIC. The data are used to explore the dynamic feedbacks that exist between river discharge, bank erosion processes and bank form roughness, revealing insights into the self

  3. High resolution survey for topographic surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, L. C.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Tan, Z.

    2014-02-01

    In this decade, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is getting popular in many fields such as reconstruction, monitoring, surveying, as-built of facilities, archaeology, and topographic surveying. This is due the high speed in data collection which is about 50,000 to 1,000,000 three-dimensional (3D) points per second at high accuracy. The main advantage of 3D representation for the data is that it is more approximate to the real world. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show the use of High-Definition Surveying (HDS), also known as 3D laser scanning for topographic survey. This research investigates the effectiveness of using terrestrial laser scanning system for topographic survey by carrying out field test in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor. The 3D laser scanner used in this study is a Leica ScanStation C10. Data acquisition was carried out by applying the traversing method. In this study, the result for the topographic survey is under 1st class survey. At the completion of this study, a standard of procedure was proposed for topographic data acquisition using laser scanning systems. This proposed procedure serves as a guideline for users who wish to utilize laser scanning system in topographic survey fully.

  4. Fine-resolution repeat topographic surveying of dryland landscapes using UAS-based structure-from-motion photogrammetry: Assessing accuracy and precision against traditional ground-based erosion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillian, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Elaksher, Ahmed; Duniway, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry from unmanned aerial system (UAS) imagery is an emerging tool for repeat topographic surveying of dryland erosion. These methods are particularly appealing due to the ability to cover large landscapes compared to field methods and at reduced costs and finer spatial resolution compared to airborne laser scanning. Accuracy and precision of high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from UAS imagery have been explored in many studies, typically by comparing image coordinates to surveyed check points or LiDAR datasets. In addition to traditional check points, this study compared 5 cm resolution DTMs derived from fixed-wing UAS imagery with a traditional ground-based method of measuring soil surface change called erosion bridges. We assessed accuracy by comparing the elevation values between DTMs and erosion bridges along thirty topographic transects each 6.1 m long. Comparisons occurred at two points in time (June 2014, February 2015) which enabled us to assess vertical accuracy with 3314 data points and vertical precision (i.e., repeatability) with 1657 data points. We found strong vertical agreement (accuracy) between the methods (RMSE 2.9 and 3.2 cm in June 2014 and February 2015, respectively) and high vertical precision for the DTMs (RMSE 2.8 cm). Our results from comparing SfM-generated DTMs to check points, and strong agreement with erosion bridge measurements suggests repeat UAS imagery and SfM processing could replace erosion bridges for a more synoptic landscape assessment of shifting soil surfaces for some studies. However, while collecting the UAS imagery and generating the SfM DTMs for this study was faster than collecting erosion bridge measurements, technical challenges related to the need for ground control networks and image processing requirements must be addressed before this technique could be applied effectively to large landscapes.

  5. Repeated 1-cm Resolution Topographic and 2.5-mm Resolution Photomosiac Surveys of Benthic Communities and Fine Scale Bedforms in Monterey Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Hobson, B.; Thomas, H. J.; Henthorn, R.; Martin, E. J.; Bird, L.; Risi, M.; Troni, G.; Paull, C. K.; Rock, S.; Padial, J. A.; Hammond, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute has developed a low altitude, ROV-based seafloor mapping system that combines lidar laser ranging, multibeam sonar, and stereo photographic imagery. When operated at a 3-m altitude, this system maps seafloor topography with a 1-cm lateral resolution and simultaneously collects 2.5-mm resolution color photography. We have twice mapped an 80-m by 80-m area of a chemosynthetic clam community located at 2850-m depth in the Monterey Canyon axis. Both the topography and the photomosaics resolve changes in the clam community over a six-month interval. Many individual animals have moved, and tracks of those animals are visible in the lidar topography. No other changes in the seafloor at this site can be discerned. We have also performed single surveys of bedforms and scours at both 1850-m and 2850-m depths in Monterey Canyon. The highest resolution bathymetry data are collected using a 3DatDepth SL1 lidar laser scanner. This system has a 30° field of view and ranges continuously, achieving a 1 cm sounding spacing at a 3 m altitude and 0.3 m/s speed. Bathymetry data are also collected using a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar. This configuration produces 512 beams across a 135° wide swath; each beam has a 0.5° acrosstrack by 1.0° alongtrack angular width. At a 3-m altitude, the nadir beams have a 2.5 cm acrosstrack and 5 cm alongtrack footprint. Dual Prosilica GX1920 2.4 Mpixel color cameras provide color stereo photography of the seafloor. Illumination is provided by dual xenon strobes. The camera housings have been fitted with corrective optics achieving a 90° field of view with less than 1% distortion. At a 3-m altitude the raw image pixels have a 2.5 mm resolution. Position and attitude data are provided by a Kearfott SeaDevil Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated with a 300 kHz Teledyne RD Instruments Doppler velocity log (DVL). A separate Paroscientific pressure sensor is mounted adjacent to the INS. The INS

  6. Field surveying and topographic mapping in Alaska: 1947-83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's earliest presence in Alaska dates back to 1889. A decade later, topographic mapping became an integral part of the Geological Survey's Alaska program, mostly as reconnaissance-type mapping and special-purpose mapping of specific sites. It was not until after World War II that the Survey's Alaska topographic mapping efforts began to bear fruit.

  7. Topographic Survey Data for the São Francisco River near Torrinha, Bahia, Brazil, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Topographic survey data were collected along planned lines from the river water surface to the top of the bank in the study area. Topographic survey data collection...

  8. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  9. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Millett National Topographic Map, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Millett National Topographic Map NJ11-2 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included.

  10. Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Topographic survey of Eureka Township, Published in unknown, Eureka County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. It is described as 'Topographic survey of...

  11. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, February 6, 2012 -- Bare Earth DEMs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic Lidar survey was conducted on February 6, 2012, over the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana. The data were collected at a nominal pulse space of 0.5-meter...

  12. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, February 6, 2012 -- Bare Earth DEMs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic Lidar survey was conducted on February 6, 2012, over the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana. The data were collected at a nominal pulse space of 0.5-meter...

  13. Topographical survey work and stake out of an agroindustrial building from Periam village, Timis county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Luminita Barliba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the project was to achieve a topographic survey works and mapping of an agro-purpose storage for vegetables and fruits produced by the existing farms from the village. The work theme includes achieving of cadastral plans base on a 1/5000 scale, using  measurements for all studied locations and land cadastre units. GPS technology used in thickening RGNS, namely the determination of network support, lead to the lifting of all topographical stake out of  the contour points. (Bârliba Luminiţa Livia, et. all.,2004, After that, the points were used as starting points for execution the tracing of the surface construction with the support of a total station. For topographical survey was used a V82 South GNSS receiver with two frequencies and 7 channels which allows RTK positioning in real time and then it was used  permanent topographic station nearby Timisoara (TIM1.2.3. After overlapping the situation plan and  plan developed by an architect, it was made the stake out of industrial building’s foundation with Leica Total Station 1205+, through the dedicated "Stakeout" software. Topographical works generally pursue two base objectives: the topographical survey completed by a digital representation of a small land area and staking out the construction building  respectively implementing the projects on the ground (Bârliba Luminiţa Livia, et. all.,2005. This paper demonstrated that it is possible to achieve the optimal time of all field and office operations with precision and accuracy parameters required by the topographical laws and rules.

  14. Corneal Topographic and Aberrometric Measurements Obtained with a Multidiagnostic Device in Healthy Eyes: Intrasession Repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Piñero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the intrasession repeatability of corneal curvature, eccentricity, and aberrometric measurements obtained with a multidiagnostic device in healthy eyes. Methods. This study enrolled 107 eyes of 107 patients ranging in age from 23 to 65 years. All of them underwent a complete anterior segment examination with the VX120 system (Visionix-Luneau Technologies, Chartres, France. Three consecutive measurements were obtained. The within-subject standard deviation (Sw, intrasubject precision (1.96×Sw, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated. Results. All Sw for corneal power measurements were below 0.26 D, with ICC above 0.982. The Sw for corneal astigmatism at different areas (3, 5, and 7 mm was below 0.21 D, with ICC above 0.913. Concerning the axis of astigmatism, its Sw was below 11.27°, with ICC above 0.975. The Sw and ICC for corneal eccentricity were 0.067 and 0.957, respectively. The Sw and ICC for high-order aberration root mean square (RMS were 0.048 µm and 0.901, respectively. For 3rd- and 4th-order aberrometric parameters, all Sw were below 0.037 µm and all ICC were higher than 0.84, except for quadrafoil RMS (ICC: 0.689. Conclusions. The multidiagnostic device evaluated is able to provide consistent measurements of corneal power, eccentricity, and third- and fourth-order aberrations in healthy eyes.

  15. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  16. Can high resolution 3D topographic surveys provide reliable grain size estimates in gravel bed rivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, E.; Smith, M. W.; Klaar, M. J.; Brown, L. E.

    2017-09-01

    High resolution topographic surveys such as those provided by Structure-from-Motion (SfM) contain a wealth of information that is not always exploited in the generation of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). In particular, several authors have related sub-metre scale topographic variability (or 'surface roughness') to sediment grain size by deriving empirical relationships between the two. In fluvial applications, such relationships permit rapid analysis of the spatial distribution of grain size over entire river reaches, providing improved data to drive three-dimensional hydraulic models, allowing rapid geomorphic monitoring of sub-reach river restoration projects, and enabling more robust characterisation of riverbed habitats. However, comparison of previously published roughness-grain-size relationships shows substantial variability between field sites. Using a combination of over 300 laboratory and field-based SfM surveys, we demonstrate the influence of inherent survey error, irregularity of natural gravels, particle shape, grain packing structure, sorting, and form roughness on roughness-grain-size relationships. Roughness analysis from SfM datasets can accurately predict the diameter of smooth hemispheres, though natural, irregular gravels result in a higher roughness value for a given diameter and different grain shapes yield different relationships. A suite of empirical relationships is presented as a decision tree which improves predictions of grain size. By accounting for differences in patch facies, large improvements in D50 prediction are possible. SfM is capable of providing accurate grain size estimates, although further refinement is needed for poorly sorted gravel patches, for which c-axis percentiles are better predicted than b-axis percentiles.

  17. A novel Hartman Shack-based topography system: repeatability and agreement for corneal power with Scheimpflug+Placido topographer and rotating prism auto-keratorefractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Srivastava, Dhruv; Choudhuri, Sounak

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the repeatability and agreement of corneal power using a new Hartman type topographer in comparison to Scheimpflug+Placido and autorefractor devices. In this cross sectional, observational study performed at the cornea services of a specialty hospital, 100 normal eyes (100 consecutive candidates) without any previous ocular surgery or morbidity except refractive error were evaluated. All candidates underwent three measurements each on a Full gradient, Hartman type topographer (FG) (iDesign, AMO), Scheimpflug+Placido topographer (SP) (Sirius, CSO) and rotating prism auto-keratorefractor (AR) (KR1, Nidek). The parameters assessed were flat keratometry (K1), steep keratometry (K2), steep axis (K2 axis), mean K, J 0 and J 45. Intra-device repeatability and inter-device agreement were evaluated. On repeatability analysis, the intra-device means were not significantly different (ANOVA, p > 0.05). Intraclass correlations (ICC) were >0.98 except for J 0 and J 45. In terms of intra-measurement standard deviation (Sw), the SP and FG groups fared better than AR group (p 0.05, R (2) 0.05). ICC ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 (p < 0.001). Regression fits on Bland-Altman plots suggested no clinically significant effect of average values over difference in means. The repeatability of Hartman type topographer in normal eyes is comparable to SP combination device and better than AR. The agreement between the three devices is good. However, we recommend against interchanging these devices between follow-ups or pooling their data.

  18. A survey of FRB fields: Limits on repeatability

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, E; Keane, E F; van Straten, W; Bailes, M; Barr, E D; Barsdell, B R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Caleb, M; Champion, D J; Flynn, C; Jameson, A; Kramer, M; Ng, C; Possenti, A; Stappers, B W

    2015-01-01

    Several theories exist to explain the source of the bright, millisecond duration pulses known as fast radio bursts (FRBs). If the progenitors of FRBs are non-cataclysmic, such as giant pulses from pulsars, pulsar-planet binaries, or magnetar flares, FRB emission may be seen to repeat. We have undertaken a survey of the fields of eight known FRBs from the High Time Resolution Universe survey to search for repeating pulses. Although no repeat pulses were detected the survey yielded the detection of a new FRB, described in Petroff et al. (2015a). From our observations we rule out periodic repeating sources with periods P $\\leq$ 8.6 hours and rule out sources with periods 8.6 < P < 21 hours at the 90% confidence level. At P $\\geq$ 21 hours our limits fall off as ~1/P. Dedicated and persistent observations of FRB source fields are needed to rule out repetition on longer timescales, a task well-suited to next generation wide-field transient detectors.

  19. Creation of next generation U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Kari J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is 2 years into a 3-year cycle to create new digital topographic map products for the conterminous United States from data acquired and maintained as part of The National Map databases. These products are in the traditional, USGS topographic quadrangle, 7.5-minute (latitude and longitude) cell format. The 3-year cycle was conceived to follow the acquisition of National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP) orthorectified imagery, a key layer in the new product. In fiscal year (FY) 2009 (ending September 30, 2009), the first year of the 3-year cycle, the USGS produced 13,200 products. These initial products of the “Digital MapBeta” series had limited feature content, including only the NAIP image, some roads, geographic names, and grid and collar information. The products were created in layered georegistered Portable Document Format (PDF) files, allowing users with freely available Adobe® Reader® software to view, print, and perform simple Geographic Information System-like functions. In FY 2010 (ending September 30, 2010), the USGS produced 20,380 products. These products of the “US Topo” series added hydrography (surface water features), contours, and some boundaries. In FY 2011 (ending September 30, 2011), the USGS will complete the initial coverage with US Topo products and will add additional feature content to the maps. The design, development, and production associated with the US Topo products provide management and technical challenges for the USGS and its public and private sector partners. One challenge is the acquisition and maintenance of nationally consistent base map data from multiple sources. Another is the use of these data to create a consistent, current series of cartographic products that can be used by the broad spectrum of traditional topographic map users. Although the USGS and its partners have overcome many of these challenges, many, such as establishing and funding a sustainable base data

  20. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Death Valley National Topographic Map, Nevada, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-17

    The results of analysis of the airborne gamma radiation survey flown for the region identified as the Death Valley National Topographic Map NJ11-11 is presented in the bound Volume of this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also.

  1. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Socorro National Topographic Map, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-28

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Socorro National Topographic Map NI13-4 is presented in this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included.

  2. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey, San Angelo National Topographic Map: Texas, West Texas Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Angelo National Topographic Map NH14-1 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included.

  3. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Perryton National Topographic Map, Texas/Oklahoma/Kansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Perryton National Topographic Map NJ14-10 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also.

  4. Topographical surveys: Classical method versus 3D laser scanning. Case study - An application in civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoraş, I.-R.; Covăsnianu, A.; Pleşu, G.; Benedict, B.

    2009-04-01

    The paper describes an experiment which took place in Iasi town, Romania, consisted in two different topographical survey techniques applied for one and the same objective placed in a block within the city (western part) - a thermal power station. The purpose was to compare those methods and to determine which one is proper to be used in this domain in terms of fastness, optimization and speed of data processing. First technique applied for our survey was the classical one, with a total station. Using the CAD technique, we obtained a final product (a dwg file) and a list of coordinates (a text file). The second method, which we focused our attention more, was the measurement with a very precise 3D laser scanstation, also very suitable in archeology. The data obtained were processed with special software. Result was a 3D model of the thermal power plant composed of measurable cloud point data. Finally, analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of each method, we came to the conclusion that the 3D laser scanning which we used matches well the application, in this case civil engineering, but the future of accepting and implementing this technique is in the hands of Romanian authorities.

  5. Meter Accuracy Seafloor Geodesy using Repeated Multibeam Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSanto, J. B.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    Ship-board multibeam surveys are a useful tool in measuring tectonic deformation of the seafloor, having been used to measure the ~50 m of surface slip along the Japan trench during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake with an uncertainty of 20 m (Fujiwara et al, 2011, Science). In this study, we investigate the improvement in positioning accuracy obtainable when comparing multibeam and sidescan surveys repeated along the same track to within 1/10 of the critical baseline and taken at a slow ship speed of 1 knot. We compare two surveys of the Juan de Fuca Ridge axis fitting these criteria with two coincident surveys of the Cocos Ridge, taken at 11 knots. Both pairs of surveys were collected using a Simrad EM120 sonar system aboard the RV Roger Revelle. We find the multibeam surveys of the Juan de Fuca ridge axis sufficient to measure displacements accurate to better than 2 m, a marked improvement over the 50 m accuracy of the Cocos ridge surveys. Likewise, we can measure displacement accurate to 2 m using the sidescan data from the Juan de Fuca surveys. This accuracy is sufficient to observe meter-level horizontal movements on the deep ocean associated with large earthquakes and landslides.

  6. Microtopography of bare peat: an objective classification from high-resolution topographic survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark; Warburton, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands globally are at risk of degradation through increased susceptibility to erosion as a result of climate change. For peatland restoration practices to be designed efficiently and evaluated effectively, quantification of eroded peat volumes is required alongside an understanding of the processes responsible for their degradation. Owing to the unique material properties of peat, fine-scale microtopographic expressions of surface processes are especially pronounced and present a potentially rich source of geomorphological information; providing valuable insights into the stability and dominant surface process regimes. Bare peat is highly responsive to changing environmental forces acting at the near surface and characteristic microtopographies emerge in response to rainfall, surface wash, wind action and fluctuations in surface temperature (both drying and freezing). Spatial and temporal variations in surface roughness reflect contrasts in the physical properties of the peat and key erosion processes acting in combination. We present the first conceptual framework to rigorously describe bare peat microtopography and use Structure-from-Motion (SfM) surveys to quantify roughness for different peat surfaces. Through application of a survey-grade structured-light hand-held 3D imager (Mantis Vision F5-Short Range) which can represent sub-millimetre topographic variability in field conditions, we present the most reliable field validation of SfM at the plot scale (classification system derived from decision tree analysis. After training on 66% of the data, the decision tree correctly classified 85% of plots into microtopographic types using 5 roughness metrics each of which quantified a different aspect of the surface variability. We show that through a combination of roughness metrics, microtopographic types can be identified objectively from high resolution survey data, aiding the interpretation of sediment budgets and providing a much-needed geomorphological

  7. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted from September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast Louisiana, including the...

  8. Topographic Lidar Survey of Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana, July 12-14, 2013 -- Classified Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted July 12-14, 2013 over Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana. Lidar data...

  9. Topographic Lidar Survey of Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana, July 12-14, 2013 -- Classified Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted July 12-14, 2013 over Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana. Lidar data...

  10. Topographic Lidar Survey of Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana, July 12-14, 2013 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted on July 12-14, 2013 over Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana. The data...

  11. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted from September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast Louisiana, including...

  12. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted from September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast Louisiana, including the...

  13. Topographic Lidar Survey of Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana, July 12-14, 2013 -- Bare Earth Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic lidar survey was conducted on July 12-14, 2013 over Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana. The data...

  14. A portable UAV LIDAR system for coastal topographic surveys and sea surface measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Philip L.-F.; Tseng, Kuo-Hsin; Yeh, Sunny

    2017-04-01

    A light-weight UAV system for coastal topography and coastal sea surface measurements is developed. This system is based on techniques of a multirotor UAV, a light detection and ranging (LIDAR), an inertial measurement unit, and a real-time kinematic global navigation satellite system (RTK-GNSS). The synchronization and data recording are achieved using Labview. This system can be operated in a very low attitude flight within a range of 10m that can provide very high resolution of point cloud data. The performance of this system has been tested and calibrated with known targets. The vertical root-mean-square error is less than about 10 cm, depending on the flight height. Applications of the system, including coastal topographic surveys, tidal elevation measurement, wave measurements, and bottom roughness measurements are presented and discussed. The tide and wave measurements are compared with in-situ measurements using pressure sensors. The results of comparison suggest that this system is a useful tool to measure the sea surface elevation and topography. The challenges of applying this system are also discussed.

  15. Habitat Modeling in Complex Streams: Comparison of Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Traditional Surveying Techniques for Topographic Surface Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hession, W. C.; Kozarek, J. L.; Resop, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate stream topography measurement is important for many environmental and ecological applications, such as hydraulic modeling and habitat characterization. Topological surveys are commonly created from point measurements using methods such as total station or global positioning system (GPS) surveying. However, surveying can be time intensive and limited by poor spatial resolution and difficulty in measuring complex morphology such as boulder-filled mountain streams. This can lead to measurement and interpolation errors, which can propagate to model uncertainty. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has the potential to create high resolution, high accuracy topographic maps. Two methods, total station surveying and TLS, were used to measure the topography for an 80-meter forested reach on the Staunton River in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA. The 2,500 surveyed points were directly compared to the TLS point cloud (approximately 9,500,000 points). The total station and TLS datasets were processed to create unique digital elevation models (DEM) of the stream reach. The resulting DEMs were used to evaluate uncertainties in topographic surfaces due to errors in traditional surveying techniques, to evaluate the propagation of uncertainty due to these errors in habitat modeling, and to evaluate the efficacy of utilizing TLS for complex, boulder streams. Comparison of resulting topography of a complex boulder stream using terrestrial laser scanning (grey-scale surfaces) and total station surveying (grid lines).

  16. Three-dimensional dynamic topographic survey of granular flows using photogrammetric techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallavalle, D.; Scotton, P.; Tecca, P. R.

    2012-04-01

    In order to better characterize the behavior of fast dry granular mass movements, such as dense snow or rock avalanches, laboratory analyses have been undertaken in a model scale (Froude similarity, geometrical scale of the order of 50:1 - 100:1). To this end, an experimental flume, consisting of two planes with adjustable inclination, has been used: the upstream plane, with slope varying from 15% to 60%, simulates the flowing zone and the downstream plane, with slopes ranging from 0% to 30%, simulates the deposition zone. The experimental apparatus has been completed in order to obtain a three-dimensional dynamic topographic survey of the sliding free surface, using photogrammetric techniques. The experiments are being performed using a maximum of eight industrial digital video-cameras. A full photogrammetric camera calibration process has been first conducted in order to define the parameters of inner orientation of the cameras and of the objective lenses distortion, in order to reduce the uncertainties in the collinearity equations. The recording time is digitally triggered at the same time to all the cameras. A dedicated acquisition code, based on LabView software, has been realized to achieve the best accuracy in the frames synchronization. The surface is reconstructed, at different times, using the frames taken at the same instant from the different video-cameras. The photogrammetric analysis has being performed by means of commercial dedicated software. As a final product of the research it is expected the tuning of an automatic procedure for the photogrammetric analysis of the series of frames taken in order to describe the dynamic evolution of the motion of a granular mass driven by the gravity and the limits of the proposed techniques. The dynamic three-dimensional reconstruction of the free surface of the sliding granular mass will be used in the calibration process of granular mathematical-numerical models. The comprehension and the estimation of the

  17. Survey of simple sequence repeats in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, L; Huang, J F; Feng, G Q; Wang, X W; Wang, Y; Chen, B Y; Qiao, Y S

    2013-07-30

    The use of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites, as genetic markers has become popular due to their abundance and variation in length among individuals. In this study, we investigated linkage groups (LGs) in the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and demonstrated variation in the abundances, densities, and relative densities of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were more common than longer repeats in all LGs examined. Perfect SSRs were the predominant SSR type found and their abundance was extremely stable among LGs and chloroplasts. Abundances of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were positively correlated with LG size, whereas those of tetranucleotide and hexanucleotide SSRs were not. Generally, in each LG, the abundance, relative abundance, relative density, and the proportion of each unique SSR all declined rapidly as the repeated unit increased. Furthermore, the lengths and frequencies of SSRs varied among different LGs.

  18. 2006 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Alameda County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data set is a survey of Alameda County in Northern California. The entire survey covers approximately 868.382 square miles....

  19. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin in south-central Louisiana. The entire survey area encompasses 981 square miles....

  20. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin in south-central Louisiana. The entire survey area encompasses 981 square...

  1. Topographic Accessability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The topographic accessibility index is a measure of elevation in relation to valley floor corrected for variation in valley floor elevation across the western United...

  2. Neah Bay to Cape Alava, Northwest Coast, Washington State - Topographic Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey)system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver...

  3. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, February 6, 2012 -- Classified Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Series Report contains lidar elevation data collected February 6, 2012, over the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana. LAS 1.2 formatted point data files were...

  4. Hydrographic & Topographic LIDAR Acquisition, Northwest Coast, Washington State - Bathymetric Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey)system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver...

  5. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, February 6, 2012 -- Classified Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Series Report contains lidar elevation data collected February 6, 2012, over the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana. LAS 1.2 formatted point data files were...

  6. Optimising UAV topographic surveys processed with structure-from-motion: Ground control quality, quantity and bundle adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, S.; Niethammer, U.

    2017-03-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) algorithms greatly facilitate the production of detailed topographic models from photographs collected using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). However, the survey quality achieved in published geomorphological studies is highly variable, and sufficient processing details are never provided to understand fully the causes of variability. To address this, we show how survey quality and consistency can be improved through a deeper consideration of the underlying photogrammetric methods. We demonstrate the sensitivity of digital elevation models (DEMs) to processing settings that have not been discussed in the geomorphological literature, yet are a critical part of survey georeferencing, and are responsible for balancing the contributions of tie and control points. We provide a Monte Carlo approach to enable geomorphologists to (1) carefully consider sources of survey error and hence increase the accuracy of SfM-based DEMs and (2) minimise the associated field effort by robust determination of suitable lower-density deployments of ground control. By identifying appropriate processing settings and highlighting photogrammetric issues such as over-parameterisation during camera self-calibration, processing artefacts are reduced and the spatial variability of error minimised. We demonstrate such DEM improvements with a commonly-used SfM-based software (PhotoScan), which we augment with semi-automated and automated identification of ground control points (GCPs) in images, and apply to two contrasting case studies - an erosion gully survey (Taroudant, Morocco) and an active landslide survey (Super-Sauze, France). In the gully survey, refined processing settings eliminated step-like artefacts of up to 50 mm in amplitude, and overall DEM variability with GCP selection improved from 37 to 16 mm. In the much more challenging landslide case study, our processing halved planimetric error to 0.1 m, effectively doubling the frequency at which changes in

  7. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Suwannee River Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Task Order No. G10PD00236 USGS Contract No. G10PC00093 The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Suwannee River Expansion in...

  8. The Impact of Repeated Lying on Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Chesney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects on results of participants completing a survey more than once, a phenomenon known as farming. Using data from a real social science study as a baseline, three strategies that participants might use to farm are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Findings show that farming influences survey results and can cause both statistical hypotheses testing Type I (false positive and Type II (false negative errors in unpredictable ways.

  9. Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the historical scanned maps in 2011, is to provide a digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of printed topographic maps, and prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic printing process. As the USGS continues the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, the topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, land management planning, and leisure.

  10. Quantifying uncertainty in high-resolution remotely sensed topographic surveys for ephemeral gully channel monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Robert R.; Momm, Henrique G.; Castillo, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Spatio-temporal measurements of landform evolution provide the basis for process-based theory formulation and validation. Over time, field measurements of landforms have increased significantly worldwide, driven primarily by the availability of new surveying technologies. However, there is no standardized or coordinated effort within the scientific community to collect morphological data in a dependable and reproducible manner, specifically when performing long-term small-scale process investigation studies. Measurements of the same site using identical methods and equipment, but performed at different time periods, may lead to incorrect estimates of landform change as a result of three-dimensional registration errors. This work evaluated measurements of an ephemeral gully channel located on agricultural land using multiple independent survey techniques for locational accuracy and their applicability in generating information for model development and validation. Terrestrial and unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry platforms were compared to terrestrial lidar, defined herein as the reference dataset. Given the small scale of the measured landform, the alignment and ensemble equivalence between data sources was addressed through postprocessing. The utilization of ground control points was a prerequisite to three-dimensional registration between datasets and improved the confidence in the morphology information generated. None of the methods were without limitation; however, careful attention to project preplanning and data nature will ultimately guide the temporal efficacy and practicality of management decisions.

  11. Sediment transport and erosional processes of a mountain bedrock channel using high-resolution topographic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yu-Hsuan; Shyu, J. Bruce H.

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, spatial information with high resolution and accuracy have become widely available, thanks to the rapid technological developments. Such data have been applied in a variety of topics, including the digitization and monitoring of outcrops and the construction of digital elevation models (DEMs) of landscapes. In fluvial geomorphology, it is critical to understand the sediment transport and erosional processes of bedrock channels, but previously this is generally done using computer numerical simulations or minimized experiments. Therefore, this study intends to observe in situ fluvial sediment transport and erosional processes using terrestrial laser scanning (also called "ground LiDAR") and structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry in a mountain bedrock channel in eastern Taiwan. Along the Swallow Grotto (Yanzikou) section of the Liwu River, there are many large boulders with different sizes that are up to more than ten meters. Most of these boulders came from rock fall events of a nearby tributary, and are gneiss in composition, distinctively different from the bedrock of the river channel (marble). Thus in this study, we chose these boulders as our survey targets. We applied ground LiDAR survey to observe the movement of the boulders, and to understand the transportation threshold of sediments under different flow conditions. For those giant boulders that do not seem to be moveable under regular fluvial conditions, we suspect that bedrock erosional processes apply to them. We then used SfM photogrammetry to monitor the erosion of particular boulders. By constructing 3D models of the boulders before and after flooding events, we will be able to analyze the amount and location of erosion occurred on the boulders. Combining these different datasets and results, we hope to further understand the sediment transport and erosional processes of bedrock channels.

  12. Topographic and hydrographic survey data for the São Francisco River near Torrinha, Bahia, Brazil, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2015-10-21

    Navigable inland waterways, including lakes, rivers, and reservoirs, are important transportation routes for people and goods in Brazil. Natural and anthropogenic effects coupled with recent severe droughts have led to decreased inland waterway navigation. The Company for Development of the São Francisco and Parnaíba River Valleys (CODEVASF) has recognized the decrease in waterway navigation and is investing resources to help restore selected reaches of the São Francisco River for navigation. In 2011, CODEVASF signed an agreement with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) seeking technical assistance and engineering expertise in waterway navigation and bank stabilization. The Torrinha-Itacoatiara study reach near Torrinha, Bahia was 1 of 12 conceptual waterway navigation improvement feasibility studies and was the focus of this study. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the USACE and CODEVASF, collected topographic and hydrographic data from May 22 to June 12, 2014, to provide baseline data for supporting computational streamflow models.

  13. Topographic and hydrographic survey data for the São Francisco River near Torrinha, Bahia, Brazil, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2015-10-21

    Navigable inland waterways, including lakes, rivers, and reservoirs, are important transportation routes for people and goods in Brazil. Natural and anthropogenic effects coupled with recent severe droughts have led to decreased inland waterway navigation. The Company for Development of the São Francisco and Parnaíba River Valleys (CODEVASF) has recognized the decrease in waterway navigation and is investing resources to help restore selected reaches of the São Francisco River for navigation. In 2011, CODEVASF signed an agreement with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) seeking technical assistance and engineering expertise in waterway navigation and bank stabilization. The Torrinha-Itacoatiara study reach near Torrinha, Bahia was 1 of 12 conceptual waterway navigation improvement feasibility studies and was the focus of this study. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the USACE and CODEVASF, collected topographic and hydrographic data from May 22 to June 12, 2014, to provide baseline data for supporting computational streamflow models.

  14. Analysis of the repeatability of time-lapse 3d vsp multicomponent surveys, delhi field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Mariana Fernandes de

    Delhi Field is a producing oil field located in northeastern Louisiana. In order to monitor the CO2 sweep efficiency, time-lapse 3D seismic data have been acquired in this area. Time-lapse studies are increasingly used to evaluate changes in the seismic response induced by the production of hydrocarbons or the injection of water, CO2 or steam into a reservoir. A 4D seismic signal is generated by a combination of production and injection effects within the reservoir as well as non-repeatability effects. In order to get reliable results from time-lapse seismic methods, it is important to distinguish the production and injection effects from the non-repeatability effects in the 4D seismic signal. Repeatability of 4D land seismic data is affected by several factors. The most significant of them are: source and receiver geometry inaccuracies, differences in seismic sources signatures, variations in the immediate near surface and ambient non-repeatable noise. In this project, two 3D multicomponent VSP surveys acquired in Delhi Field were used to quantify the relative contribution of each factor that can affect the repeatability in land seismic data. The factors analyzed in this study were: source and receiver geometry inaccura- cies, variations in the immediate near surface and ambient non-repeatable noise. This study showed that all these factors had a significant impact on the repeatability of the successive multicomponent VSP surveys in Delhi Field. This project also shows the advantages and disadvantages in the use of different repeata- bility metrics, normalized-root-mean-square (NRMS) difference and signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) attribute, to evaluate the level of seismic repeatability between successive time-lapse seismic surveys. It is observed that NRMS difference is greatly influenced by time-shifts and that SDR attribute combined with the time-shift may give more distinct and representative repeatability information than the NRMS difference.

  15. Compte rendu de: Maggie Morrow, Mike Morrow, Tony Judd, & Geoff Phillipson 2010. Desert RATS. Rock Art Topographical Survey in Egypt's Eastern Desert. Oxford: BAR International Series 2166, 254 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Quellec, Jean-Loïc

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Compte rendu de: Maggie Morrow, Mike Morrow, Tony Judd, & Geoff Phillipson 2010. Desert RATS. Rock Art Topographical Survey in Egypt's Eastern Desert. Oxford: BAR International Series 2166, 254 p.

  16. The potential of small unmanned aircraft systems and structure-from-motion for topographic surveys: A test of emerging integrated approaches at Cwm Idwal, North Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, T. N.; Midgley, N. G.; Graham, D. J.; Labadz, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Novel topographic survey methods that integrate both structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry and small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) are a rapidly evolving investigative technique. Due to the diverse range of survey configurations available and the infancy of these new methods, further research is required. Here, the accuracy, precision and potential applications of this approach are investigated. A total of 543 images of the Cwm Idwal moraine-mound complex were captured from a light (< 5 kg) semi-autonomous multi-rotor unmanned aircraft system using a consumer-grade 18 MP compact digital camera. The images were used to produce a DSM (digital surface model) of the moraines. The DSM is in good agreement with 7761 total station survey points providing a total vertical RMSE value of 0.517 m and vertical RMSE values as low as 0.200 m for less densely vegetated areas of the DSM. High-precision topographic data can be acquired rapidly using this technique with the resulting DSMs and orthorectified aerial imagery at sub-decimetre resolutions. Positional errors on the total station dataset, vegetation and steep terrain are identified as the causes of vertical disagreement. Whilst this aerial survey approach is advocated for use in a range of geomorphological settings, care must be taken to ensure that adequate ground control is applied to give a high degree of accuracy.

  17. 47 CFR 73.312 - Topographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Broadcast Stations § 73.312 Topographic data. (a) In the preparation of the profile graphs previously... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Topographic data. 73.312 Section 73.312... elevation or contour intervals shall be taken from United States Geological Survey Topographic...

  18. GPS RTK 技术在地形测量中的应用%An Application of Topographic Survey of GPS RTK Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国新

    2016-01-01

    简要阐述了 GPS RTK 技术的基本原理,并通过在地形测量中的应用,介绍了 GPS RTK 的作业流程以及分析了它的优缺点。%This paper,through practical application in topographic survey,briefly expounds the basic principle of GPS RTK technology.And it introduces the operation process of GPS RTK in analysis of its advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Historical Map & Chart Collection of NOAA's Nautical Charts, Hydrographic Surveys, Topographic Surveys, Geodetic Surveys, City Plans, and Civil War Battle Maps Starting from the mid 1700's

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Map and Chart Collection of the Office of Coast Survey contains over 20000 historical maps and charts from the mid 1700s through the late 1900s. These...

  20. Application of super total station instrument technology in the complex topographic survey%超站仪技术在复杂地形测量中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国明; 李国庆; 吕健; 吴晓萍

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, due to the rapid development of infrastructure and the conduct of the 5. 12 post-disaster reconstruction in China, topographic measurements increased significantly. However, as many of the construction area of the terrain is more complicated, for measurements made new demands, in addition to improving the conventional measurement methods, more efficient e-quipment are also needed to provide technical support. In this paper, taking Xianxugou 1:500 post-earthquake Geological Disaster Engineering Projects in Jiuzhaigou County of Sichuan Province for example, it introduced the principle of super total station in topographic measurement Combined with the construction area, it discussed the implementation methods, notes, measuring result' s repeatability and reproducibility and so on were analyzed. Finally, a method of measuring in complex terrain was taken. Super total station had more advantage than common measurement instruments in complex topographical surveys. This method would have a significant impact on other surveys.%由于很多施工区域的地形较为复杂,对测量工作提出了新的要求,除改进常规测量方法外,同时需要更高效的仪器提供技术保障.本文以震后四川省九寨沟县鲜浒沟地质灾害工程1:500地形测绘项目为例,介绍了超站仪在地形测量中的应用原理,结合施工区,讨论了其实施方法、注意事项、对测量成果的重复性、复现性等问题进行了分析,提出了复杂地形测量的新方法.实践证明,超站仪在复杂地形测量工作中较常规测量仪器有较大的优势.

  1. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Topographic Moisture Potential of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated topographic moisture potential classes for the contiguous United States. These topographic moisture potential classes...

  2. Repeated surveys by acoustic Doppler current profiler for flow and sediment dynamics in a tidal river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, R. L.; Burau, J. R.

    2005-11-01

    A strategy of repeated surveys by acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was applied in a tidal river to map velocity vectors and suspended-sediment indicators. The Sacramento River at the junction with the Delta Cross Channel at Walnut Grove, California, was surveyed over several tidal cycles in the Fall of 2000 and 2001 with a vessel-mounted ADCP. Velocity profiles were recorded along flow-defining survey paths, with surveys repeated every 27 min through a diurnal tidal cycle. Velocity vectors along each survey path were interpolated to a three-dimensional Cartesian grid that conformed to local bathymetry. A separate array of vectors was interpolated onto a grid from each survey. By displaying interpolated vector grids sequentially with computer animation, flow dynamics of the reach could be studied in three-dimensions as flow responded to the tidal cycle. Velocity streamtraces in the grid showed the upwelling of flow from the bottom of the Sacramento River channel into the Delta Cross Channel. The sequential display of vector grids showed that water in the canal briefly returned into the Sacramento River after peak flood tides, which had not been known previously. In addition to velocity vectors, ADCP data were processed to derive channel bathymetry and a spatial indicator for suspended-sediment concentration. Individual beam distances to bed, recorded by the ADCP, were transformed to yield bathymetry accurate enough to resolve small bedforms within the study reach. While recording velocity, ADCPs also record the intensity of acoustic backscatter from particles suspended in the flow. Sequential surveys of backscatter intensity were interpolated to grids and animated to indicate the spatial movement of suspended sediment through the study reach. Calculation of backscatter flux through cross-sectional grids provided a first step for computation of suspended-sediment discharge, the second step being a calibrated relation between backscatter intensity and sediment

  3. Repeated count surveys help standardize multi-agency estimates of American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Nathan J.; Gardner, Beth; Schweitzer, Sara H.; Boettcher, Ruth; Wilke, Alexandra L.; Addison, Lindsay; Swilling, William R.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    The extensive breeding range of many shorebird species can make integration of survey data problematic at regional spatial scales. We evaluated the effectiveness of standardized repeated count surveys coordinated across 8 agencies to estimate the abundance of American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) breeding pairs in the southeastern United States. Breeding season surveys were conducted across coastal North Carolina (90 plots) and the Eastern Shore of Virginia (3 plots). Plots were visited on 1–5 occasions during April–June 2013. N-mixture models were used to estimate abundance and detection probability in relation to survey date, tide stage, plot size, and plot location (coastal bay vs. barrier island). The estimated abundance of oystercatchers in the surveyed area was 1,048 individuals (95% credible interval: 851–1,408) and 470 pairs (384–637), substantially higher than estimates that did not account for detection probability (maximum counts of 674 individuals and 316 pairs). Detection probability was influenced by a quadratic function of survey date, and increased from mid-April (~0.60) to mid-May (~0.80), then remained relatively constant through June. Detection probability was also higher during high tide than during low, rising, or falling tides. Abundance estimates from N-mixture models were validated at 13 plots by exhaustive productivity studies (2–5 surveys wk−1). Intensive productivity studies identified 78 breeding pairs across 13 productivity plots while the N-mixture model abundance estimate was 74 pairs (62–119) using only 1–5 replicated surveys season−1. Our results indicate that standardized replicated count surveys coordinated across multiple agencies and conducted during a relatively short time window (closure assumption) provide tremendous potential to meet both agency-level (e.g., state) and regional-level (e.g., flyway) objectives in large-scale shorebird monitoring programs.

  4. Participation in a mail survey: role of repeated mailings and characteristics of nonrespondents among recent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, B; Kaminski, M; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Hollebecque, V

    1999-04-01

    This study analysed the characteristics of respondent and nonrespondent mothers at each stage of a survey procedure, from a initial questionnaire to a reminder letter and two repeated mailings. Of 938 mothers of liveborn children who, while maternity inpatients, received a questionnaire and information about a mail survey to follow 2 months later, 828 completed and returned the initial questionnaire, 708 agreed to participate in the mail survey and were sent the mail questionnaire, and 612 finally completed and returned the questionnaire at 2 months. There were differences between respondents and non-respondents for socio-demographic factors at each stage of the process. The final response rate to the mail questionnaire was higher among mothers who were younger, were breast feeding, and had more education, an occupation and fewer children. The characteristics of late respondents were intermediate between those of early to middle respondents and nonrespondents for age, educational level, breast feeding and occupation. Maternal and infant health varied only slightly according to response status. Repeated mailings increased response and diminished selection. A mail questionnaire after contact in a maternity ward is a cost-effective means of gathering data about a large sample of recent mothers and their children.

  5. Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of sesame (Sesamum indicum) from a genome survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Wang, Linhai; Zhang, Yanxin; Qi, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Xiaoling; Ding, Xia; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xiurong

    2014-04-22

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum), an important oil crop, is widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions. It provides part of the daily edible oil allowance for almost half of the world's population. A limited number of co-dominant markers has been developed and applied in sesame genetic diversity and germplasm identity studies. Here we report for the first time a whole genome survey used to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to detect the genetic diversity of sesame germplasm. From the initial assembled sesame genome, 23,438 SSRs (≥5 repeats) were identified. The most common repeat motif was dinucleotide with a frequency of 84.24%, followed by 13.53% trinucleotide, 1.65% tetranucleotide, 0.3% pentanucleotide and 0.28% hexanucleotide motifs. From 1500 designed and synthesised primer pairs, 218 polymorphic SSRs were developed and used to screen 31 sesame accessions that from 12 countries. STRUCTURE and phylogenetic analyses indicated that all sesame accessions could be divided into two groups: one mainly from China and another from other countries. Cluster analysis classified Chinese major sesame varieties into three groups. These novel SSR markers are a useful tool for genetic linkage map construction, genetic diversity detection, and marker-assisted selective sesame breeding.

  6. The high resolution topographic evolution of an active retrogressive thaw slump compiled from a decade of photography, ground surveys, laser scans and satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, B. T.; Barnhart, T. B.; Rowland, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing imagery has enables the temporal reconstruction of thermal erosion features including lakes, shorelines and hillslope failures in remote Arctic locations, yet these planar data limit analysis to lines and areas. This study explores the application of varying techniques to reconstruct the three dimensional evolution of a single thermal erosion feature using a mixture of opportunistic oblique photos, ground surveys and satellite imagery. At the Selawik River retrogressive thaw slump in northwest Alaska, a bush plane collected oblique aerial photos when the feature was first discovered in 2004 and in subsequent years. These images were recently processed via Structure from Motion to generate georeferenced point clouds for the years prior to the initiation of our research. High resolution ground surveys in 2007, 2009 and 2010 were completed using robotic total station. Terrestrial laser scans (TLS) were collected in the summers of 2011 and 2012. Analysis of stereo satellite imagery from 2012 and 2015 enable continued monitoring of the feature after ground campaigns ended. As accurate coregistraion between point clouds is vital to topographic change detection, all prior and subsequent datasets were georeferenced to stable features observed in the 2012 TLS scan. Though this coregistration introduces uncertainty into each image, the magnitudes of uncertainty are significantly smaller than the topographic changes detected. Upslope retreat of the slump headwall generally decreases over time as the slump floor progresses from a highly dissected gully topography to a low relief, earthflow dominated depositional plane. The decreasing slope of the slump floor diminishes transport capacity, resulting in the progressive burial of the slump headwall, thus decreasing headwall retreat rates. This self-regulation of slump size based on feature relief and transport capacity suggests a capacity to predict the maximum size a given feature can expand to before

  7. 2006 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Bare Earth Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract Number: 01CRCN0014 In Spring, 2006 Sanborn was contracted by the USGS to survey aprocimately 1,735 square miles of western Whatcom and Skagit Counties...

  8. 2006 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Bare Earth Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract Number: 01CRCN0014 In Spring, 2006 Sanborn was contracted by the USGS to survey aprocimately 1,735 square miles of western Whatcom and Skagit Counties...

  9. Application of UAV-SfM photogrammetry and aerial lidar to a disastrous flood: repeated topographic measurement of a newly formed crevasse splay of the Kinu River, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumida, Atsuto; Uchiyama, Shoichiro; Sugai, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    Geomorphic impacts of a disastrous crevasse splay that formed in September 2015 and its post-formation modifications were quantitatively documented by using repeated, high-definition digital surface models (DSMs) of an inhabited and cultivated floodplain of the Kinu River, central Japan. The DSMs were based on pre-flood (resolution: 2 m) and post-flood (resolution: 1 m) aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data from January 2007 and September 2015, respectively, and on structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry data (resolution: 3.84 cm) derived from aerial photos taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in December 2015. After elimination of systematic errors among the DSMs and down-sampling of the SfM-derived DSM, elevation changes on the order of 10-1 m - including not only topography but also growth of vegetation, vanishing of flood waters, and restoration and repair works - were detected. Comparison of the DSMs showed that the volume eroded by the flood was more than twice the deposited volume in the area within 300-500 m of the breached artificial levee, where the topography was significantly affected. The results suggest that DSMs based on a combination of UAV-SfM and lidar data can be used to quantify, rapidly and in rich detail, topographic changes on floodplains caused by floods.

  10. Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2014-01-01

    Hypothetical bias continues to be a major challenge for stated preference methods. Cheap Talk (CT) has been found to be an effective remedy in some applications, though empirical results are ambiguous. We discuss reasons why CT may fail to effectively remove specific types of hypothetical bias...... in Choice Experiments. We suggest augmenting CT in Choice Experiments with a so-called Opt-Out Reminder (OOR). Prior to each choice set, the OOR explicitly instructs respondents to choose the opt-out alternative, if they find the experimentally designed alternatives too expensive. In an empirical survey we...... find the OOR to significantly reduce total WTP and to some extent also marginal WTP beyond the capability of the CT applied without the OOR. This suggests that the CT practice should be adapted to fit the potentially different decision processes and repeated choices structure of the Choice Experiment...

  11. The pros and cons of topographic surveys using terrestrial or airborne platforms and their applicability in ICZM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Gonçalves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are very dynamic land-ocean interfaces, shaped by natural and human factors. Coasts are often densely occupied and modified by man-made structures, changing their natural dynamics and their ability to adapt to changing environments. Over the last decades, coastal erosion has become a serious problem threatening not only local economies but also valuable habitats, such as dunes, lagoons and salt marshes. The assessment of coastal morphology and its dynamics is essential to quantify and understand changes, particularly those due to climate hazards and human intervention. We present several observation systems used to obtain digital elevation models: a video-based terrestrial mobile mapping system (MMS, a plane and two low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (AUV equipped with digital cameras. The systems are compared in terms of their features, the information they can provide and their applicability in ICZM. Methods differ in terms of: operating conditions, ease of deployment, costs (both in terms of time and money and in the terrain and area they can cover. They also differ in precision (between less than 5 and 20 cm, depending on equipment and flight height, though all of the proposed systems are precise enough to assess changes in morphology that exceed short-term variations. Terrestrial mobile mapping systems are easy to deploy and suited to cover a few square kilometres, but they need adequate access. An airplane is much more efficient and less invasive. It covers any type of terrain but implies more costs, logistics and equipment. UAV, like delta wings and small helicopters are better suited for small areas. Delta wings are faster, but helicopters are more flexible in their movement. They are limited by battery life, and cannot be used with stronger winds (above ~20 km/h. The choice of an observation system will depend on the specific survey objectives and on the characteristics of the surveyed area. Type and accessibility of the

  12. The relationship between repeated unintended pregnancies and current contraceptive use: National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) 2006-2008 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yui; Masho, Saba; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the number of unintended pregnancies and current contraceptive use. This is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, which included 4,052 women between the ages of 15 and 44 years. A statistically significant association was found between the nonuse of contraceptives and repeated unintended pregnancies, as well as among those who used an effective contraceptive method and repeated unintended pregnancies. Nurses are encouraged to ask questions about intendedness of pregnancies during women's visits and help women choose appropriate contraceptive methods.

  13. 3D laser scanner application in topographic survey%三维激光扫描仪在地形测量中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子坡; 李晓静

    2013-01-01

    三维激光扫描仪与全球定位系统(GPS)的结合是数字测图的又一次创新和进步,其具有简捷、高效、高清晰的数据获取能力,与传统测绘相比具有劳动强度低、时间短、测图的灵活性强,智能化、兼容性强等优势。本文介绍了三维激光扫描仪应用的现状,并与传统数据采集方式进行了比较,并结合实例将三维激光扫描技术应用于大比例尺地形测量中,结果表明了三维激光扫描技术方案能够很好的取代传统测量方式,保证测绘数据质量,能够提高作业效率。%The 3D laser scanner and a global positioning system (GPS) is combined with another innovation and progress in digital mapping, which is a simple, efficient, high resolution data acquisition capacity, compared with the traditional mapping has the advantages of low labor intensity, time is short, mapping flexibility, intelligent, strong compatibility and other advantages. This paper introduces the present situation of the application of 3D laser scanner, and compared with the traditional data acquisition methods, combined with the example, the application of 3D laser scanning technology in large scale topographic survey, results show that the 3D laser scanning technology to replace the traditional measurement methods are good, ensure the quality of Surveying and mapping data, can improve the efficiency of.

  14. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael N; Maynard, Sharon; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1) and 3 years after (Group 2) the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology. 131 (80.9%) of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8%) residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3%) indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2) and residents who were not (Group 1). The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed), practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed), and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed). More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04), whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02). The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several negative

  15. Accounting for uncertainty in volumes of seabed change measured with repeat multibeam sonar surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, Alexandre C. G.; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hulands, Lachlan; Kennedy, David M.

    2015-12-01

    Seafloors of unconsolidated sediment are highly dynamic features; eroding or accumulating under the action of tides, waves and currents. Assessing which areas of the seafloor experienced change and measuring the corresponding volumes involved provide insights into these important active sedimentation processes. Computing the difference between Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) obtained from repeat Multibeam Echosounders (MBES) surveys has become a common technique to identify these areas, but the uncertainty in these datasets considerably affects the estimation of the volumes displaced. The two main techniques used to take into account uncertainty in volume estimations are the limitation of calculations to areas experiencing a change in depth beyond a chosen threshold, and the computation of volumetric confidence intervals. However, these techniques are still in their infancy and, as a result, are often crude, seldom used or poorly understood. In this article, we explored a number of possible methodological advances to address this issue, including: (1) using the uncertainty information provided by the MBES data processing algorithm CUBE, (2) adapting fluvial geomorphology techniques for volume calculations using spatially variable thresholds and (3) volumetric histograms. The nearshore seabed off Warrnambool harbour - located in the highly energetic southwest Victorian coast, Australia - was used as a test site. Four consecutive MBES surveys were carried out over a four-months period. The difference between consecutive DEMs revealed an area near the beach experiencing large sediment transfers - mostly erosion - and an area of reef experiencing increasing deposition from the advance of a nearby sediment sheet. The volumes of sediment displaced in these two areas were calculated using the techniques described above, both traditionally and using the suggested improvements. We compared the results and discussed the applicability of the new methodological improvements

  16. Geomorphic change detection using repetitive topographic surveys and DEMs of Differences: Implementation for short-term transformation of the ice-cored moraines in the Petuniabukta, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Marek

    2015-04-01

    The exposed glacial forelands are supposed to be intensively transformed by geomorphological processes due to the paraglacial adjustment of the topography. To recognize how high is the activity of such processes, we monitored the transformation rates of ice-cored moraines on the forelands of two glaciers, Ebbabreen and Ragnarbreen, both of which are located near the Petuniabukta at the northern end of the Billefjorden. The main objectives were to: (1) analyse the spatial and temporal aspects of debris flow activity in cm-scale, (2) quantify the short-term (seasonal and intra-seasonal) rate of volume changes, (3) compare transformations of the ice-cored moraine surfaces due to active geomorphic processes (including dead-ice backwasting and debris mass movements) with transformations caused by dead-ice downwasting only. The short-term (yearly and weekly) dynamics of mass-wasting processes were studied in a cm-scale using repetitive topographic scanning. In total, four different locations were scanned, containing seven active debris flows or other mass wasting processes, and including non-active surfaces. Sites were chosen to ensure representation from different parts of the end moraine, different types of dominant processes (debris flows, debris falls, etc.) as well as different types of morphology (exposed ice cliffs, steep debris slope, gentle debris flows lobes, etc.). Altogether, the total scanned area was about 14,200 m2, of which 5,500 m2 were transformed by the active mass movement processes. Ten measurement sessions were carried out: three in summer of 2012, three in summer of 2013, and four in summer of 2014, which allowed for assessing the seasonal (annual) and intra-seasonal (weekly) variations. The results of the surveys in the form of cloud points were used to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) with cell size 0.05 m. Subtracting DEMs from subsequent time periods created DEMs of Differences - DoDs, which enabled us to investigate the volume of and

  17. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael N.; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Background Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. Methods This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1) and 3 years after (Group 2) the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology. Results 131 (80.9%) of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8%) residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3%) indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2) and residents who were not (Group 1). The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed), practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed), and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed). More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04), whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02). Conclusions The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents’ interest in nephrology

  18. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Lolium Species Surveyed on Nuclear Simple Sequence Repeat and Cytoplasmic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Cai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess the genetic diversity and population structure of Lolium species, we used 32 nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR markers and 7 cytoplasmic gene markers to analyze a total of 357 individuals from 162 accessions of 9 Lolium species. This survey revealed a high level of polymorphism, with an average number of alleles per locus of 23.59 and 5.29 and an average PIC-value of 0.83 and 0.54 for nuclear SSR markers and cytoplasmic gene markers, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that 16.27 and 16.53% of the total variation was due to differences among species, with the remaining 56.35 and 83.47% due to differences within species and 27.39 and 0% due to differences within individuals in 32 nuclear SSR markers set and 6 chloroplast gene markers set, respectively. The 32 nuclear SSR markers detected three subpopulations among 357 individuals, whereas the 6 chloroplast gene markers revealed three subpopulations among 160 accessions in the STRUCTURE analysis. In the clustering analysis, the three inbred species clustered into a single group, whereas the outbreeding species were clearly divided, especially according to nuclear SSR markers. In addition, almost all Lolium multiflorum populations were clustered into group C4, which could be further divided into three subgroups, whereas Lolium perenne populations primarily clustered into two groups (C2 and C3, with a few lines that instead grouped with L. multiflorum (C4 or Lolium rigidum (C6. Together, these results will useful for the use of Lolium germplasm for improvement and increase the effectiveness of ryegrass breeding.

  19. Tidewater Dynamics at Store Glacier, West Greenland from Daily Repeat UAV Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, A., II; Ryan, J.; Toberg, N.; Todd, J.; Christoffersen, P.; Snooke, N.; Box, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    A significant component of the Greenland ice sheet's mass wasteage to sea level rise is attributed to the acceleration and dynamic thinning at its tidewater margins. To improve understanding of the rapid mass loss processes occurring at large tidewater glaciers, we conducted a suite of daily repeat aerial surveys across the terminus of Store Glacier, a large outlet draining the western Greenland Ice Sheet, from May to July 2014 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-y8kauAVAfE). A suite flock of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) were equipped with digital cameras, which, in combination with onboard GPS, enabled production of high spatial resolution orthophotos and digital elevation models (DEMs) using standard structure-from-motion techniques. These data provide insight into the short-term dynamics of Store Glacier surrounding the break-up of the sea-ice mélange that occurred between 4 and 7 June. Feature tracking of the orthophotos reveals that mean speed of the terminus is 16 - 18 md-1, which was independently verified against a high temporal resolution time-series derived from an expendable/telemetric GPS deployed at the terminus. Differencing the surface area of successive orthophotos enable quantification of daily calving rates, which significantly increase just after melange break-up. Likewise, by differencing bulk freeboard volume of icebergs through time we could also constrain the magnitude and variation of submarine melt. We calculate a mean submarine melt rate of 0.18 md-1 throughout the spring period with relatively little supraglacial runoff and no active meltwater plumes to stimulate fjord circulation and upwelling of deeper, warmer water masses. Finally, we relate calving rates to the zonation and depth of water-filled crevasses, which were prominent across parts of the terminus from June onwards.

  20. Tidewater dynamics at Store Glacier, West Greenland from daily repeat UAV surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jonathan; Hubbard, Alun; Toberg, Nick; Box, Jason; Todd, Joe; Christoffersen, Poul; Neal, Snooke

    2017-04-01

    A significant component of the Greenland ice sheet's mass wasteage to sea level rise is attributed to the acceleration and dynamic thinning at its tidewater margins. To improve understanding of the rapid mass loss processes occurring at large tidewater glaciers, we conducted a suite of daily repeat aerial surveys across the terminus of Store Glacier, a large outlet draining the western Greenland Ice Sheet, from May to July 2014 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-y8kauAVAfE). The unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were equipped with digital cameras, which, in combination with onboard GPS, enabled production of high spatial resolution orthophotos and digital elevation models (DEMs) using standard structure-from-motion techniques. These data provide insight into the short-term dynamics of Store Glacier surrounding the break-up of the sea-ice mélange that occurred between 4 and 7 June. Feature tracking of the orthophotos reveals that mean speed of the terminus is 16 - 18 m per day, which was independently verified against a high temporal resolution time-series derived from an expendable/telemetric GPS deployed at the terminus. Differencing the surface area of successive orthophotos enable quantification of daily calving rates, which significantly increase just after melange break-up. Likewise, by differencing bulk freeboard volume of icebergs through time we could also constrain the magnitude and variation of submarine melt. We calculate a mean submarine melt rate of 0.18 m per day throughout the spring period with relatively little supraglacial runoff and no active meltwater plumes to stimulate fjord circulation and upwelling of deeper, warmer water masses. Finally, we relate calving rates to the zonation and depth of water-filled crevasses, which were prominent across parts of the terminus from June onwards.

  1. Surveying Topographic Map Quickly Based on 3D Laser Scanner in Hilly Region%基于地面三维激光扫描仪的丘陵地区地形快速测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷峰; 杨润萍

    2014-01-01

    以 Riegl VZ -400地面三维激光扫描仪对丘陵地区地形测绘为例,探讨了此技术应用于地形测绘的方法及作业流程,最后通过实测的地形数据,分析了地面激光扫描仪在地形测绘应用中的可行性及有待于解决的一些问题。%By means of the application and practice of Riegl VZ-400 on the project of topographic surveying in the hilly region,the paper discusses the methods and processes for this technique used in topographic surveying.Through the measured terrain data,the application of the ground 3D laser scanner on topographic surveying is feasible and some of the issues to be resolved are pointed out in the end.

  2. Topographic and Hydrographic GIS Datasets for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2014 Mineral Areas of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jessica D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2015-11-18

    Mineral extraction and associated industries play an important role in the Afghan economy, particularly in the “transitional era” of declining foreign aid and withdrawal of foreign troops post 2014. In addition to providing a substantial source of government revenue, other potential benefits of natural resource development include boosted exports, employment opportunities, and strengthened industrialization (Joya, 2012). Continued exploration and investment in these industries has resulted in large economic improvements since 2007, when this series of studies was initiated. At that time, the “Preliminary Non-Fuel Mineral Resource Assessment of Afghanistan” was completed by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Geological Survey (Peters and others, 2007). The assessment published a series of country-wide datasets, including a digital elevation model (DEM), elevation contours, hydrography, transportation routes, geophysics, and cultural datasets (Peters and others, 2007). It also delineated 20 mineralized areas for further study using a geologic-based methodology. A second data product, “Summaries of Important Areas for Mineral Investment and Production Opportunities of Nonfuel Minerals in Afghanistan,” was released by Peters and others in 2011. This work highlighted geologic, geohydrologic, and hyperspectral studies that were carried out in specific Areas of Interest (AOIs) to assess the location and characteristics of mineral resources. Also included in the 2011 publication is a collection of appendixes and inventories of Geographic Information System (GIS) datasets for each of the 24 identified AOIs. A third data product was released in 2013 (Casey and Chirico, 2013), publishing datasets for five different AOIs, two subareas, and one AOI extension. Each dataset contains vector shapefiles of the AOI boundary, streams, roads, and contours at 25-, 50-, and 100-meter (m) intervals, as well as raster files of the AOI’s DEM and hillshade.

  3. Topographic and hydrographic GIS datasets for the Afghan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2013 mineral areas of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brittany N.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan is endowed with a vast amount of mineral resources, and it is believed that the current economic state of the country could be greatly improved through investment in the extraction and production of these resources. In 2007, the “Preliminary Non-Fuel Resource Assessment of Afghanistan 2007” was completed by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghan Geological Survey (Peters and others, 2007). The assessment delineated 20 mineralized areas for further study using a geologic-based methodology. In 2011, a follow-on data product, “Summaries and Data Packages of Important Areas for Mineral Investment and Production Opportunities of Nonfuel Minerals in Afghanistan,” was released (Peters and others, 2011). As part of this more recent work, geologic, geohydrologic, and hyperspectral studies were carried out in the areas of interest (AOIs) to assess the location and characteristics of the mineral resources. The 2011 publication included a dataset of 24 identified AOIs containing subareas, a corresponding digital elevation model (DEM), elevation contours, areal extent, and hydrography for each AOI. In 2012, project scientists identified five new AOIs and two subareas in Afghanistan. These new areas are Ahankashan, Kandahar, Parwan, North Bamyan, and South Bamyan. The two identified subareas include Obatu-Shela and Sekhab-ZamtoKalay, both located within the larger Kandahar AOI. In addition, an extended Kandahar AOI is included in the project for water resource modeling purposes. The dataset presented in this publication consists of the areal extent of the five new AOIs, two subareas, and the extended Kandahar AOI, elevation contours at 100-, 50-, and 25-meter intervals, an enhanced DEM, and a hydrographic dataset covering the extent of the new study area. The resulting raster and vector layers are intended for use by government agencies, developmental organizations, and private companies in Afghanistan to assist with mineral assessments, monitoring

  4. Repeat surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in western Lake Superior: timing, distribution and composition of spawning stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Addison, Peter A.; Seider, Michael J.; Evrard, Lori M.; Geving, Steven A.; Quinlan, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic (AC) and midwater trawl (MT) surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior have been combined with commercial yield to estimate exploitation. To time surveys properly, it is important to understand when adults typically arrive at spawning grounds and how numbers change as the spawning season progresses. We conducted repeat autumn surveys during nighttime hours at coastal sites where commercial roe fisheries occur. Spawner densities increased significantly from October to mid-November, but differences measured at sites sampled from mid- to late-November were comparatively small. Spawners occupied the upper 20–30 m of the water column during mid-November before utilizing a wider range of depths by late-November. We compared repeat AC densities to temporal trends of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in suspended commercial gillnets and found good agreement within sites. Because different gillnet mesh sizes were used in each roe fishery. CPUE and AC density were poorly correlated among sites. We recommend that future surveys be conducted between mid- and late-November, and that MT gear be used to measure cisco densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column where AC estimates may be conservative. Given the short temporal window for assessing spawner density, we believe both AC-MT and gillnet surveys will be needed to ensure that harvest of different stocks is kept at a sustainable level.

  5. Estimating ice-melange properties with repeat UAV surveys over Store Glacier, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toberg, Nick; Ryan, Johnny; Christoffersen, Poul; Snooke, Neal; Todd, Joe; Hubbard, Alun

    2016-04-01

    observed melange height with the model of hydrostatic equilibrium, we estimate the mean thickness to be 126 m. Whereas the mean melange elevation did not change appreciably in our study area, from the date observations started on 13 May until it disintegrated 4-8 June, we found daily melange elevation change up to 140 % of the observed mean value when tabular icebergs were added to it. Observations showed this increase in melange thickness halted calving and that calving did not resume until the melange had thinned and returned to the observed mean value. We found the mean daily speed of the melange to be 46 m/day, from 13 May to 4 June, whereas the terminus of the glacier flowed with a mean daily velocity of 16 m/day while the melange was present. The higher mean speed of the melange is explained by the motion of large tabular icebergs, which travelled hundreds of metres into the fjord over the course of a single day. The imagery collected over Store Glacier provide evidence that large tidewater glaciers are stabilized by proglacial ice mélange forming in winter. When melange was present, large calving events strengthened melange by adding to its overall thickness distribution, stopping calving altogether for up to several days following a large calving event, and slowing the flow of the glacier to half of the speed observed the previous day. When the melange was advected suddenly down the fjord, with no apparent weakening, the glacier responded by increasing both flow speed and calving rate simultaneously. The data produced from repeat UAV surveys clearly demonstrates the potential of this new and rapidly advancing method of data collection.

  6. Application of Aerial Survey by Drone in S urveying of 1∶500 Topographic Map of Tingkou Reservoir%无人机航测在亭口水库1∶500地形测量中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦旺; 刘凯

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with features of the aerial survey by drone, landmark point and check point in field are arranged.Through the out-door aerial photo by drone and the joint application of software such as Pix4DMapper, CASS and ArcGIS, etc, precision of plane and eleva-tion of the final topographic map satisfies requirementsof 1∶500 topographic map.This provides application of drone in the survey of compli-cated topography of reservoir with the complete solution.%根据无人机航测技术的特点,布设野外地标点和检核点,通过无人机外业航摄及内业中联合使用Pix4DMapper、CASS和ArcGIS等软件,使最终地形图的平面和高程精度达到了1∶500地形图的要求,为无人机在复杂的水库地形测量中的应用提供了一套完整的解决方案。

  7. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in three genomes of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongmei

    2016-06-15

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites, which composed of tandem repeated short units of 1-6 bp, have been paying attention continuously. Here, the distribution, composition and polymorphism of microsatellites and compound microsatellites were analyzed in three available genomes of Candida species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata and Candida orthopsilosis). The results show that there were 118,047, 66,259 and 61,119 microsatellites in genomes of C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata and C. orthopsilosis, respectively. The SSRs covered more than 1/3 length of genomes in the three species. The microsatellites, which just consist of bases A and (or) T, such as (A)n, (T)n, (AT)n, (TA)n, (AAT)n, (TAA)n, (TTA)n, (ATA)n, (ATT)n and (TAT)n, were predominant in the three genomes. The length of microsatellites was focused on 6 bp and 9 bp either in the three genomes or in its coding sequences. What's more, the relative abundance (19.89/kbp) and relative density (167.87 bp/kbp) of SSRs in sequence of mitochondrion of C. glabrata were significantly great than that in any one of genomes or chromosomes of the three species. In addition, the distance between any two adjacent microsatellites was an important factor to influence the formation of compound microsatellites. The analysis may be helpful for further studying the roles of microsatellites in genomes' origination, organization and evolution of Candida species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    reasons why Cheap Talk may fail to effectively remove hypothetical bias, especially in Choice Experiments. In this light, we suggest augmenting Cheap Talk in Choice Experiments with a so-called Opt-Out Reminder. Prior to each single choice set, the Opt-Out Reminder explicitly instructs respondents...... to choose the opt-out alternative if they find the experimentally designed alternatives too expensive. In an empirical Choice Experiment survey we find the Opt-Out Reminder to significantly reduce total WTP and to some extent also marginal WTP beyond the capability of the Cheap Talk applied without the Opt...... Talk with a dynamic Opt-Out Reminder can be an effective and promising improvement in the ongoing effort to remedy the particular types of hypothetical bias that potentially continue to invalidate Choice Experiment surveys....

  9. Repeat Finding Techniques, Data Structures and Algorithms in DNA sequences: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeson Kaniwa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA sequencing technologies keep getting faster and cheaper leading to massive availability of entire human genomes. This massive availability calls for better analysis tools with a potential to realize a shift from reactive to predictive medicine. The challenge remains, since the entire human genomes need more space and processing power than that can be offered by a standard Desktop PC for their analysis. A background of key concepts surrounding the area of DNA analysis is given and a review of selected prominent algorithms used in this area. The significance of this paper would be to survey the concepts surrounding DNA analysis so as to provide a deep rooted understanding and knowledge transfer regarding existing approaches for DNA analysis using Burrows-Wheeler transform, Wavelet tree and their respective strengths and weaknesses. Consequent to this survey, the paper attempts to provide some directions for future research.

  10. Community treatment orders in the UK 5 years on: a repeat national survey of psychiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRidder, Ritz; Molodynski, Andrew; Manning, Catherine; McCusker, Pearse; Rugkåsa, Jorun

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Community treatment orders (CTOs) are increasingly embedded into UK practice and their use continues to rise. However, they remain highly controversial. We surveyed psychiatrists to establish their experiences and current opinions of using CTOs and to compare findings with our previous survey conducted in 2010. Results The opinions of psychiatrists in the UK have not changed since 2010 in spite of recent evidence questioning the effectiveness of CTOs. Clinical factors (the need for engagement and treatment adherence, and the achievement of adherence and improved insight) remain the most important considerations in initiating and discharging a CTO. Clinical implications Given the accumulating evidence from research and clinical practice that CTOs do not improve outcomes, it is concerning that psychiatrists' opinions have not altered in response, particularly given the implications for patient care. PMID:27280030

  11. Time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in stunting prevalence: analyses of repeated national surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio JD; Black, Robert E; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-01-01

    Objective Much is known about national trends in child undernutrition, but there is little information on how socioeconomic inequalities are evolving over time. We aimed to assess socioeconomic inequalities in stunting prevalence over time. Setting Nationally representative household surveys from 25 low and middle income countries. Design We selected nationally representative surveys carried out since the mid-1990s for which information was available on asset indices and on child anthropometry. We identified twenty-five countries which had at least two surveys over an interval of 10 or more years, totaling 87 surveys. Stunting prevalence was calculated according to wealth quintiles. Absolute and relative inequalities were calculated, and time trends were obtained by regression. Results National prevalence declined significantly in 22 of the 25 countries. In 18 out of 25 countries, relative reductions among the rich than among the poor. Overall, there was no indication that inequalities improved. Striking examples are Nepal, with a 17·0 percent points decline in stunting per decade, but where inequalities increased sharply, and Brazil where stunting fell by 6·7 percent points and inequalities were all but eliminated. Conclusions Global progress in reducing stunting has not been accompanied by improved equity, but countries varied markedly in how successful they were in reducing prevalence among the poorest children. It is important to document how some countries were able to reduce inequalities, so that these lessons can be used to foster global progress, particularly in light of the increased importance of within-country inequalities in the post-2015 agenda. PMID:25521530

  12. Adaptive geostatistical sampling enables efficient identification of malaria hotspots in repeated cross-sectional surveys in rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, Michael G.; McCann, Robert S.; Phiri, Kamija S.; van Vugt, Michèle; Takken, Willem; Diggle, Peter; Terlouw, Anja D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In the context of malaria elimination, interventions will need to target high burden areas to further reduce transmission. Current tools to monitor and report disease burden lack the capacity to continuously detect fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of disease distribution exhibited by malaria. These tools use random sampling techniques that are inefficient for capturing underlying heterogeneity while health facility data in resource-limited settings are inaccurate. Continuous community surveys of malaria burden provide real-time results of local spatio-temporal variation. Adaptive geostatistical design (AGD) improves prediction of outcome of interest compared to current random sampling techniques. We present findings of continuous malaria prevalence surveys using an adaptive sampling design. Methods We conducted repeated cross sectional surveys guided by an adaptive sampling design to monitor the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in children below five years old in the communities living around Majete Wildlife Reserve in Chikwawa district, Southern Malawi. AGD sampling uses previously collected data to sample new locations of high prediction variance or, where prediction exceeds a set threshold. We fitted a geostatistical model to predict malaria prevalence in the area. Findings We conducted five rounds of sampling, and tested 876 children aged 6–59 months from 1377 households over a 12-month period. Malaria prevalence prediction maps showed spatial heterogeneity and presence of hotspots—where predicted malaria prevalence was above 30%; predictors of malaria included age, socio-economic status and ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets. Conclusions Continuous malaria prevalence surveys using adaptive sampling increased malaria prevalence prediction accuracy. Results from the surveys were readily available after data collection. The tool can assist local managers to target malaria control interventions in areas with the

  13. Geodetic deformations in the Central-Southern Apennines (Italy) from repeated GPS surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpelloni, E.; Baldi, P. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Pesci, A.; Riguzzi, F.; Anzidei, M.; Casula, G.; Galvani, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    It was computed the horizontal strain rate field for a sector of the Central-Southern Apennines (Italy) from GPS data collected during yearly repeated campaigns performed from 1994 to 2000 on the GeoModAp (Geodynamic Modeling of the Appennines) geodetic network. Site velocities were obtained starting from the daily coordinates and covariance solutions, using a Kalman filter approach. The residual velocity field with respect to a Eurasian fixed reference frame shows two different prevalent motion trends, NE-ward for the the eastern sector of the network and NW-ward for the western one. The mean strain rate tensor, obtained from a least square inversion method, shows a significant extensional deformation (1.2 x 10{sup -}8 strain/yr) normal to the Apennine chain, in agreement with seismological and neotectonic data. On the basis of the network dimension, of about 250 km, this value gives a well constrained estimate of about 3.0 plus or minus 0.2 mm/yr of the extensional velocity oriented N55E, normal to the chain axis. The results show a transition of the strain rate field from about N-S compression in the Tyrrhenian side to about NE-SW extension toward the Adriatic, which depicts a more complex deformation pattern.

  14. Oral health behavior patterns among Tanzanian university students: a repeat cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Masalu, Joyce Rose

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study examines oral health behavioral trends and the development of sociodemographic differences in oral health behaviors among Tanzanian students between 1999 and 2000. METHODS: The population targeted was students attending the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS) at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted and a total of 635 and 981 students, respectively, completed questionnaires in 1999 and 2001. RESULTS: Cross-tabulation analyses revealed that in 1999, the rates of abstinence from tobacco use, and of soft drink consumption, regular dental checkups, and intake of chocolate/candy were 84%, 51%, 48%, and 12%, respectively, among students of urban origin and 83%, 29%, 37%, and 5% among their rural counterparts. The corresponding rates in 2001 were 87%, 56%, 50%, and 9% among urban students and 84%, 44%, 38%, and 4% among rural ones. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for sex, age, place of origin, educational level, year of survey, and their interaction terms revealed a significant increase in the rate of soft drink consumption, implementation of oral hygiene measures, and abstinence from tobacco use between 1999 and 2001. Social inequalities observed in 1999, with urban students being more likely than their rural counterparts to take soft drinks and go for regular dental checkups, had leveled off by 2001. CONCLUSION: This study provides initial evidence of oral health behavioral trends, that may be utilized in the planning of preventive programs among university students in Tanzania.

  15. Oral health behavior patterns among Tanzanian university students: a repeat cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose This study examines oral health behavioral trends and the development of sociodemographic differences in oral health behaviors among Tanzanian students between 1999 and 2000. Methods The population targeted was students attending the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted and a total of 635 and 981 students, respectively, completed questionnaires in 1999 and 2001. Results Cross-tabulation analyses revealed that in 1999, the rates of abstinence from tobacco use, and of soft drink consumption, regular dental checkups, and intake of chocolate/candy were 84%, 51%, 48%, and 12%, respectively, among students of urban origin and 83%, 29%, 37%, and 5% among their rural counterparts. The corresponding rates in 2001 were 87%, 56%, 50%, and 9% among urban students and 84%, 44%, 38%, and 4% among rural ones. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for sex, age, place of origin, educational level, year of survey, and their interaction terms revealed a significant increase in the rate of soft drink consumption, implementation of oral hygiene measures, and abstinence from tobacco use between 1999 and 2001. Social inequalities observed in 1999, with urban students being more likely than their rural counterparts to take soft drinks and go for regular dental checkups, had leveled off by 2001. Conclusion This study provides initial evidence of oral health behavioral trends, that may be utilized in the planning of preventive programs among university students in Tanzania.

  16. Exploration of regional fundamental topographic surveying and mapping by a combination method%一种混合法区域基础地形图测绘探索方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗伟; 杨化超; 王胜利; 卢晓攀; 王平论; 赵朝贺; 张磊; 刘文静

    2013-01-01

    为满足皇藏峪国家森林公园规划建设对大比例尺地形图的迫切需求并针对测区的实际地形地貌情况,本文提出采用无人机低空摄影测量和工程测量相结合的混合测图方法完成区域的基础地形图测绘,对其基本流程、技术关键及实施效果进行了详细的总结和分析.基础测绘成果满足了实际规划建设的需要,通过不同方法的优势互补既保证了成图精度又降低了作业强度.%In order to meet the urgent needs of large-scale topographic maps in the planning and construction of Huangcangyu National Forest Park,the method of integrating UAV low altitude photogrammetry and engineering survey was proposed to complete regional fundamental topographic survey and mapping.This paper gave the detailed summary and analysis of its basic processes,key technology and implementation effect.The basic surveying and mapping result could meet the needs of the actual planning and construction.Through the complementary advantages of different methods,it would ensure the mapping accuracy and reduce the operation strength.

  17. Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    reasons why Cheap Talk may fail to effectively remove hypothetical bias, especially in Choice Experiments. In this light, we suggest augmenting Cheap Talk in Choice Experiments with a so-called Opt-Out Reminder. Prior to each single choice set, the Opt-Out Reminder explicitly instructs respondents...... Talk with a dynamic Opt-Out Reminder can be an effective and promising improvement in the ongoing effort to remedy the particular types of hypothetical bias that potentially continue to invalidate Choice Experiment surveys.......Hypothetical bias remains a major problem when valuing non-market goods with stated preference methods. Originally developed for Contingent Valuation studies, Cheap Talk has been found to effectively reduce hypothetical bias in some applications, though empirical results are ambiguous. We discuss...

  18. HIV Futures 8: Protocol for a Repeated Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Survey of People Living with HIV in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jennifer; Brown, Graham; Lyons, Anthony; Thorpe, Rachel; Dowsett, Gary W; Lucke, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    More than 27,000 Australians currently live with HIV. Most of these people have access to quality clinical care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can expect good general health. However, HIV-related stigma is a problem and many people living with HIV experience poorer than average mental health. Issues of aging are also of increasing concern. This paper describes the methods and sample for the HIV Futures 8 study, a national survey of people living with HIV in Australia that aimed to identify factors that support health and well-being among this population. HIV Futures 8 forms part of a series of cross-sectional surveys (The "HIV Futures" studies) that have been repeated periodically since 1997. In the most recent survey, participants were able to opt into a prospective longitudinal study. HIV Futures 8 was open to people aged over 17 who were living with HIV. Data were collected in 2015/2016 using a self-complete survey that contained approximately 250 items related to physical and mental health, use of ART, HIV exposure and testing, financial security, social connectedness, relationships, life satisfaction, resilience, stigma, use of health and support services, and health literacy. To enable comparison of cross-sectional data over time, questionnaire items were consistent with those used in previous HIV Futures surveys. In HIV Futures 8, participants were invited to volunteer coded information that will allow longitudinal follow-up when participants complete subsequent HIV Futures surveys. The survey was advertised through the networks of HIV organizations, on social media and through HIV clinics and services. HIV Futures 8 was completed by 895 participants. This represents approximately 3.8% of the total number of people living with diagnosed HIV in Australia in 2014. Findings from HIV Futures 8 will contribute important insights into the complexity of factors that support physical and mental well-being among people living with HIV. The findings will also

  19. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. We identified SSRs in the Laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. We also compared the abundance and distribution of SSRs in L. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coprinopsis cinerea, Ustilago maydis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe grisea, Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the MISA computer program, we detected 277,062 SSRs in the L. bicolor genome representing 8% of the assembled genomic sequence. Among the analyzed basidiomycetes, L. bicolor exhibited the highest SSR density although no correlation between relative abundance and the genome sizes was observed. In most genomes the short motifs (mono- to trinucleotides) were more abundant than the longer repeated SSRs. Generally, in each organism, the occurrence, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the repeat unit increased. Furthermore, each organism had its own common and longest SSRs. In the L. bicolor genome, most of the SSRs were located in intergenic regions (73.3%) and the highest SSR density was observed in transposable elements (TEs; 6,706 SSRs/Mb). However, 81% of the protein-coding genes contained SSRs in their exons, suggesting that SSR polymorphism may alter gene phenotypes. Within a L. bicolor offspring, sequence polymorphism of 78 SSRs was mainly detected in non-TE intergenic regions. Unlike previously developed microsatellite markers, these new ones are spread throughout the genome; these markers could have immediate applications in population genetics.

  20. Social disparities in children’s exposure to second hand smoke at home: a repeated cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisinger Charlotta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS is an important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. We hypothesised that there has been a growth in social inequality in children’s exposure to SHS at home over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate temporal change in smoking in homes including children, focusing on the socioeconomic differences. Methods Data is from a repeated cross-sectional survey, ‘Health Profiles of the Capital Region of Denmark’ conducted in 2007 and 2010, in 29 municipalities. The response rate was 52.3%, in both surveys. Our study included persons aged 25 to 64, living with children ≤15 years of age; N=9,289 in 2007 and 12,696 in 2010. Analyses were weighted for size of municipality and for non-response, which was higher among men and among persons who were younger, had a lower income, were living alone, were unemployed, and/or were of an ethnicity other than Danish. Regression analyses were used to investigate smoking in homes including children across parent/adult education levels, focusing on temporal changes. Results There were significant large socioeconomic differences in both 2007 and 2010. In 2010 it was more than 11 times more likely for a child to be exposed to SHS at home if the parent had very low education than if they were highly educated (p Conclusions Marked social inequalities in children’s exposure to SHS and a significant temporal decrease in exposure, independent of the education level of the parent/adult, were found in repeated large cross-sectional population-based studies. Social disparities have persisted over time, but not increased. Both clinical and population policy interventions will be needed in order to control child SHS exposure. We call for legislative protection of children from tobacco smoke inside their home as a supplement to parental education and support for smoking cessation.

  1. Reproducibility of Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) in Repeat Surveys of Men Who have Sex with Men, Unguja, Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Ahmed; Haji, Shaaban; Khamis, Maryam; Said, Christen; Khalid, Farhat; Dahoma, Mohammed; Ali, Ameir; Othman, Asha; Welty, Susie; McFarland, Willi

    2017-07-01

    To assess the reproducibility of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in obtaining comparable samples across two survey rounds, we conducted integrated bio-behavioral surveillance surveys (IBBSS) using RDS in 2007 and 2011 among men who have sex with men (MSM) on Unguja island in Zanzibar. Differences in the two rounds were assessed by comparing RDS-adjusted population estimates, stratified estimates, and bottleneck plots. Participants in the 2011 survey round were younger (31.4 vs. 9.9% under 19 years old, p < 0.001), more likely to have tested for HIV in the last year (53.7 vs. 10.6%, p < 0.001), and less likely to have injected drugs in the last 3 months (1.0 vs. 23.2%, p < 0.001) compared to participants in the 2007 round. HIV prevalence was 12.3% in 2007 compared to 2.6% in 2011 (p < 0.001). The difference in HIV prevalence persisted after stratifying and adjusting for known differences in the two surveys rounds. Bottleneck plots suggest that recruitment chains were "trapped" in the social networks of MSM who injected drugs to a greater extent in 2007 than in 2011. We conclude that the two rounds of RDS sampled different subsets of the MSM population on Unguja, particularly with respect to inclusion of MSM within the social networks of people who inject drugs. Findings underscore the need to evaluate the reproducibility of RDS in repeated rounds of IBBSS and to develop new sampling methods for key populations at high risk for HIV in order to track the epidemic, develop evidence-based prevention and care programs, and assess their impact.

  2. Methane Seeps in the Gulf of Mexico: repeat acoustic surveying shows highly temporally and spatially variable venting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, B. C.; Raineault, N.

    2016-02-01

    Scientists have recognized that natural seeps account for a large amount of methane emissions. Despite their widespread occurrence in areas like the Gulf of Mexico, little is known about the temporal variability and site-scale spatial variability of venting over time. We used repeat acoustic surveys to compare multiple days of seep activity and determine the changes in the locus of methane emission and plume height. The Sleeping Dragon site was surveyed with an EM302 multibeam sonar on three consecutive days in 2014 and 4 days within one week in 2015. The data revealed three distinctive plume regions. The locus of venting varied by 10-60 meters at each site. The plume that exhibited the least spatial variability in venting, was also the most temporally variable. This seep was present in one-third of survey dates in 2014 and three quarters of survey dates in 2015, showing high day-to-day variability. The plume height was very consistent for this plume, whereas the other plumes were more consistent temporally, but varied in maximum plume height detection by 25-85 m. The single locus of emission at the site that had high day-to-day variability may be due to a single conduit for methane release, which is sometimes closed off by carbonate or clathrate hydrate formation. In addition to day-to-day temporal variability, the locus of emission at one site was observed to shift from a point-source in 2014 to a diffuse source in 2015 at a nearby location. ROV observations showed that one of the seep sites that closed off temporarily, experienced an explosive breakthrough of gas, releasing confined methane and blowing out rock. The mechanism that causes on/off behavior of certain plumes, combined with the spatial variability of the locus of methane release shown in this study may point to carbonate or hydrate formation in the seep plumbing system and should be further investigated.

  3. Elevation Change of Drangajokull, Iceland, from Cloud-Cleared ICESat Repeat Profiles and GPS Ground-Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Christopher A.; Sigurdsson, Oddur; Williams, Richard, Jr.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    Located on the Vestfirdir Northwest Fjords), DrangaJokull is the northernmost ice map in Iceland. Currently, the ice cap exceeds 900 m in elevation and covered an area of approx.l46 sq km in August 2004. It was about 204 sq km in area during 1913-1914 and so has lost mass during the 20th century. Drangajokull's size and accessibility for GPS surveys as well as the availability of repeat satellite altimetry profiles since late 2003 make it a good subject for change-detection analysis. The ice cap was surveyed by four GPS-equipped snowmobiles on 19-20 April 2005 and has been profiled in two places by Ice, Cloud. and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) 'repeat tracks,' fifteen times from late to early 2009. In addition, traditional mass-balance measurements have been taken seasonally at a number of locations across the ice cap and they show positive net mass balances in 2004/2005 through 2006/2007. Mean elevation differences between the temporally-closest ICESat profiles and the GPS-derived digital-elevation model (DEM)(ICESat - DEM) are about 1.1 m but have standard deviations of 3 to 4 m. Differencing all ICESat repeats from the DEM shows that the overall elevation difference trend since 2003 is negative with losses of as much as 1.5 m/a from same season to same season (and similar elevation) data subsets. However, the mass balance assessments by traditional stake re-measurement methods suggest that the elevation changes where ICESat tracks 0046 and 0307 cross Drangajokull are not representative of the whole ice cap. Specifically, the area has experienced positive mass balance years during the time frame when ICESat data indicates substantial losses. This analysis suggests that ICESat-derived elevations may be used for multi-year change detection relative to other data but suggests that large uncertainties remain. These uncertainties may be due to geolocation uncertainty on steep slopes and continuing cloud cover that limits temporal and spatial coverage across the

  4. Reinventing the National Topographic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, A.; Ilves, R.

    2016-06-01

    The National Land Survey (NLS) has had a digital topographic database (TDB) since 1992. Many of its features are based on the Basic Map created by M. Kajamaa in 1947, mapping first completed in 1977. The basis for the renewal of the TDB begun by investigating the value of the TDB, a study made by the Aalto University in 2014 and a study on the new TDB system 2030 published by the Ministry of Agriculture in 2015. As a result of these studies the NLS set up a programme for creating a new National Topographic Database (NTDB) in beginning of 2015. First new version should be available in 2019. The new NTDB has following key features: 1) it is based on processes where data is naturally maintained, 2) it is quality managed, 3) it has persistent Ids, 4) it supports 3D, 4D, 5) it is based on standards. The technical architecture is based on interoperable modules. A website for following the development of the NTDB can be accessed for more information: http://kmtk.maanmittauslaitos.fi/.

  5. Representation and Requirement of Special Surface Features Elements in Aerial Survey Topographic Map of Mining Area%矿区航测地形图特殊地物要素的表示方法及要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文卓; 李胜天

    2012-01-01

    The application of aerial photogrametry method to the production of area can greatly improve the efficiency of the coal resources survey, which he for industrial construction in mining area quickly and accurately by displaying tural dements on the topographic map. terrain and geologic map in mining lps to provide basic data and maps the unique facilities and architec-%采用航测方法制作矿区地形地质图,可以大幅度提高煤炭资源调查研究工作的效率。如何快速和准确地为矿区工业建设提供基础数据和图件,在地形图上准确无误地表达矿区特有设施和建筑要素是本文研究的重点。

  6. Repeated nationwide point-prevalence surveys of antimicrobial use in Swedish hospitals: data for actions 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gunilla; Struwe, Johan; Cars, Otto; Hanberger, Håkan; Odenholt, Inga; Prag, Mårten; Skärlund, Katarina; Ulleryd, Peter; Erntell, Mats

    2016-06-23

    This study sought to analyse antimicrobial pressure, indications for treatment, and compliance with treatment recommendations and to identify possible problem areas where inappropriate use could be improved through interventions by the network of the local Swedish Strategic Programme Against Antibiotic Resistance (Strama) groups. Five point-prevalence surveys were performed in between 49 and 72 participating hospitals from 2003 to 2010. Treatments were recorded for 19 predefined diagnosis groups and whether they were for community-acquired infection, hospital-acquired infection, or prophylaxis. Approximately one-third of inpatients were treated with antimicrobials. Compliance with guidelines for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with narrow-spectrum penicillin was 17.0% during baseline 2003-2004, and significantly improved to 24.2% in 2010. Corresponding figures for quinolone use in uncomplicated cystitis in women were 28.5% in 2003-2004, and significantly improved, decreasing to 15.3% in 2010. The length of surgical prophylaxis improved significantly when data for a single dose and 1 day were combined, from 56.3% in 2003-2004 to 66.6% in 2010. Improved compliance was possibly the effect of active local feedback, repeated surveys, and increasing awareness of antimicrobial resistance. Strama groups are important for successful local implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs in Sweden.

  7. Urban speleology applied to groundwater and geo-engineering studies: underground topographic surveying of the ancient Arca D’Água galleries catchworks (Porto, NW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Porto settlement (Northwest Portugal, Iberian Peninsula was originally built in the twelfth century and has been developed on granitic hill slopes of the Douro riverside, being one of the oldest cities in Europe. In the urban area of Porto, the second most important city of the Portuguese mainland, there is a population of about 216,000 inhabitants. This study highlights the importance of urban speleological mapping applied to groundwater and geo-engineering studies. All the water that flows from the so-called Paranhos or Arca D’Água springs is captured by catchwork galleries and their utilization date back around 1120 AD. Paranhos spring galleries catchworks (c. 3,3 km extension and a -21m below ground level was one of the main water supplies to Porto City for more than six centuries and, nowadays, these waters are still appropriate for irrigation uses. Topographic, geological, geophysical and hydrogeological data were collected and interpreted, allowing the definition of a hydrogeotechnical zoning. All these features were mapped and overlaid using GIS mapping techniques. This multidisciplinary approach offers a good potential for reliable urban speleological and geo-engineering studies of Arca D’Água site.

  8. Digital topographic map showing the extents of glacial ice and perennial snowfields at Mount Rainier, Washington, based on the LiDAR survey of September 2007 to October 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel E.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Swinney, Darin D.

    2010-01-01

    In response to severe flooding in November 2006, the National Park Service contracted for a high-resolution aerial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topographic survey of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. Due to inclement weather, this survey was performed in two stages: early September 2007 and September-October 2008. The total surveyed area of 241,585 acres includes an approximately 100-m-wide buffer zone around the Park to ensure complete coverage and adequate point densities at survey edges. Final results averaged 5.73 laser first return points/m2 over forested and high-elevation terrain, with a vertical accuracy of 3.7 cm on bare road surfaces and mean relative accuracy of 11 cm, based on comparisons between flightlines. Bare-earth topography, as developed by the contractor, is included in this release. A map of the 2007-2008 limits of glaciers and perennial snowfields was developed by digitizing 1:2,000 to 1:5,000 slope and shaded-relief images derived from the LiDAR topography. Edges of snow and exposed ice are readily seen in such images as sharp changes in surface roughness and slope. Ice mantled by moraine can be distinguished by the moraine's distinctly high roughness due to ice motion and melting, local exposures of smooth ice, and commonly by the presence of crevasses and shear boundaries. A map of the 1970 limits of ice and perennial snow was also developed by digitizing the snow and ice perimeters as depicted on the hydrologic separates used to produce the 1:24,000 topographic maps of the Mount Rainier region. These maps, produced in 1971, were derived from September 1970 aerial photographs. Boundaries between adjacent glacier systems were estimated and mapped from drainage divides, including partly emergent rock ridges, lines of diverging slope, and medial moraines. This data release contains the bare-earth LiDAR data as an ESRI grid file (DS549-Rainier_LiDAR.zip), the glacial limits derived from the USGS 1970 aerial photographs of the

  9. Prospect- and Mine-Related Features from U.S. Geological Survey 7.5- and 15-Minute Topographic Quadrangle Maps of the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are part of a larger USGS project to develop an updated geospatial database of mines, mineral deposits and mineral regions in the United States. Mine and...

  10. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012 -- Classified Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Series Report contains lidar elevation data collected September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast...

  11. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Southeast Louisiana Barrier Islands, from September 5 to October 11, 2012 -- Classified Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Series Report contains lidar elevation data collected September 5 to October 11, 2012, for the barrier islands of Alabama, Mississippi and southeast...

  12. Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth and elevation ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image...

  13. Topographic lidar survey of Dauphin Island, Alabama and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana, July 12-14, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2014-01-01

    This Data Series Report contains lidar elevation data collected on July 12 and 14, 2013, for Dauphin Island, Alabama, and Chandeleur, Stake, Grand Gosier and Breton Islands, Louisiana. Classified point cloud data—data points described in three dimensions—in lidar data exchange format (LAS) and bare earth digital elevation models (DEMs) in ERDAS Imagine raster format (IMG) are available as downloadable files. Photo Science, Inc., was contracted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to collect and process these data. The lidar data were acquired at a horizontal spacing (or nominal pulse spacing) of 1 meter (m) or less. The USGS surveyed points within the project area from July 14–23, 2013, for use in ground control and accuracy assessment. Photo Science, Inc., calculated a vertical root mean square error (RMSEz) of 0.012 m by comparing 10 surveyed points to an interpolated elevation surface of unclassified lidar data. The USGS also checked the data using 80 surveyed points and unclassified lidar point elevation data and found an RMSEz of 0.073 m. The project specified an RMSEz of 0.0925 m or less. The lidar survey was acquired to document the short- and long-term changes of several different barrier island systems. Specifically, this survey supports detailed studies of Chandeleur and Dauphin Islands that resolve annual changes in beaches, berms and dunes associated with processes driven by storms, sea-level rise, and even human restoration activities. These lidar data are available to Federal, State and local governments, emergency-response officials, resource managers, and the general public.

  14. Impact monitoring of the national scale up of zinc treatment for childhood diarrhea in Bangladesh: repeat ecologic surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Larson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea has the potential to save 400,000 under-five lives per year in lesser developed countries. In 2004 the World Health Organization (WHO/UNICEF revised their clinical management of childhood diarrhea guidelines to include zinc. The aim of this study was to monitor the impact of the first national campaign to scale up zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea in Bangladesh. METHODS/FINDINGS: Between September 2006 to October 2008 seven repeated ecologic surveys were carried out in four representative population strata: mega-city urban slum and urban nonslum, municipal, and rural. Households of approximately 3,200 children with an active or recent case of diarrhea were enrolled in each survey round. Caretaker awareness of zinc as a treatment for childhood diarrhea by 10 mo following the mass media launch was attained in 90%, 74%, 66%, and 50% of urban nonslum, municipal, urban slum, and rural populations, respectively. By 23 mo into the campaign, approximately 25% of urban nonslum, 20% of municipal and urban slum, and 10% of rural under-five children were receiving zinc for the treatment of diarrhea. The scale-up campaign had no adverse effect on the use of oral rehydration salt (ORS. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term monitoring of scale-up programs identifies important gaps in coverage and provides the information necessary to document that intended outcomes are being attained and unintended consequences avoided. The scale-up of zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea rapidly attained widespread awareness, but actual use has lagged behind. Disparities in zinc coverage favoring higher income, urban households were identified, but these were gradually diminished over the two years of follow-up monitoring. The scale up campaign has not had any adverse effect on the use of ORS. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  15. 投弃式温盐深测量仪在海底地形测量中的应用%Applications of XCTD Profiling System in Seabed Topographic Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董庆亮; 陈东; 李明叁; 陆高锋; 蒋小俊; 徐华庆

    2013-01-01

    介绍了投弃式温盐深测量仪(XCTD)的原理和特点,利用它获得的声速剖面数据与声速剖面仪测量的声速剖面数据进行了精度对比,论述了在特殊环境下,利用多波束测深系统进行海底地形测量时,使用XCTD进行声速剖面测量的优势,解决了测量船停车才能进行声速剖面测量的弊端,显著提高了多波束测深系统作业的效率.%In the process of seabed topographic measurement,the multibeam system needs to carry out the sound velocity profiling.In this paper,we introduce the principle and characteristics of XCTD,and compare the accuracy of sound velocity profiling data acquired by XCTD system with that by sound velocity profiler to discuss the advantage of XCTD profiling in multibeam surveying of seabed topography under special environment,which solves the problem that the surveying ship cannot conduct soud velocity profiling until it stops,and improves the efficiency of multibeam systems.

  16. Topographical Correction on Gravity Data in Complex Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangZhanjun; LiuYunxiang; ChaiYupu

    2003-01-01

    Discussed in this paper was the pre-processing procedure for gravity data, including topographical correction,intermediary layer correction etc. The necessity to utilize aerial photogram to do topographical correction in middle area was discussed, and a real examples given showing the effect. We discussed the problems caused by the maximum radius for conventional correction, the necessity of extending the radius for topographical correction, the corresponding method for calculation of topographical correction, and the standard of optimally selecting the radium for topographical correction.This method could raise the data accuracy of gravity survey in the complex mountainous areas by several millil-gals-several tens milli-gals reaching the exploration effect as well as in plain area almost.

  17. Mars synthetic topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.S.C.

    1978-01-01

    Topographic contour maps of Mars are compiled by the synthesis of data acquired from various scientific experiments of the Mariner 9 mission, including S-band radio-occulation, the ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS), the infrared radiometer (IRR), the infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) and television imagery, as well as Earth-based radar information collected at Goldstone, Haystack, and Arecibo Observatories. The entire planet is mapped at scales of 1:25,000,000 and 1:25,000,000 using Mercator, Lambert, and polar stereographic map projections. For the computation of map projections, a biaxial spheroid figure is adopted. The semimajor and semiminor axes are 3393.4 and 3375.7 km, respectively, with a polar flattening of 0.0052. For the computation of elevations, a topographic datum is defined by a gravity field described in terms of spherical harmonics of fourth order and fourth degree combined with a 6.1-mbar occulation pressure surface. This areoid can be approximated by a triaxial ellipsoid with semimajor axes of A = 3394.6 km and B = 3393.3 km and a semiminor axis of C = 3376.3 km. The semimajor axis A intersects the Martian surface at longitude 105??W. The dynamic flattening of Mars is 0.00525. The contour intercal of the maps is 1 km. For some prominent features where overlapping pictures from Mariner 9 are available, local contour maps at relatively larger scales were also compiled by photogrammetric methods on stereo plotters. ?? 1978.

  18. Monitoring the Anthropogenic Impact on the Muddy Coast by Means of Topographic and Bathymetric Surveys North of the Yellow River Mouth, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guanghai; YAN Tong; WANG Xiuqin; ZHONG Delin

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the artificial-diversion of the Yellow River Mouth for extensive petroleum exploration, beginning in August 1996, on the morphology of the mud flat coast are discussed. Changes in the morphology of the coastal zone were monitored during the period from 1996 to 2000. A Golden Software system was used to calculate the differential surfaces between the surveys in order to investigate the local patterns of accretion and erosion and to determine the volume changes between consecutive surveys. Volumetric studies showed that the net accretion in the study period was about 1.7×108 m3. Between July 1996 and October 1996, a time interval characterized by intense runoff, an accumulation of about 4×108 m3 occurred. In the period from October 1996 to October 1998, a period of diminution in runoff and sediment supply in the upstream, erosion of 8.9×107 m3 occurred, indicating sediment starvation of the area. Between October 1998 and October 2000, due to an inadequate supply of runoff and sediment, about 1.4×108 m3 of sediments was eroded and transported offshore.

  19. Ontology patterns for complex topographic feature yypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2011-01-01

    Complex feature types are defined as integrated relations between basic features for a shared meaning or concept. The shared semantic concept is difficult to define in commonly used geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies. The role of spatial relations between complex feature parts was recognized in early GIS literature, but had limited representation in the feature or coverage data models of GIS. Spatial relations are more explicitly specified in semantic technology. In this paper, semantics for topographic feature ontology design patterns (ODP) are developed as data models for the representation of complex features. In the context of topographic processes, component assemblages are supported by resource systems and are found on local landscapes. The topographic ontology is organized across six thematic modules that can account for basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Types of complex feature attributes include location, generative processes and physical description. Node/edge networks model standard spatial relations and relations specific to topographic science to represent complex features. To demonstrate these concepts, data from The National Map of the U. S. Geological Survey was converted and assembled into ODP.

  20. A 125 year history of topographic mapping and GIS in the U.S. Geological Survey 1884-2009, part 2: 1980-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usery, E. Lynn; Varanka, Dalia; Finn, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) entered the mainstream of developments in computer-assisted technology for mapping during the 1970s. The introduction by USGS of digital line graphs (DLGs), digital elevation models (DEMs), and land use data analysis (LUDA) nationwide land-cover data provided a base for the rapid expansion of the use of GIS in the 1980s. Whereas USGS had developed the topologically structured DLG data and the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS) for land-cover data, the Map Overlay Statistical System (MOSS), a nontopologically structured GIS software package developed by Autometric, Inc., under contract to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, dominated the use of GIS by federal agencies in the 1970s. Thus, USGS data was used in MOSS, but the topological structure, which later became a requirement for GIS vector datasets, was not used in early GIS applications. The introduction of Esri's ARC/INFO in 1982 changed that, and by the end of the 1980s, topological structure for vector data was essential, and ARC/INFO was the dominant GIS software package used by federal agencies.

  1. Microstation平台在水下地形测量数据处理中的应用%Application of Microstation platform in processing of underwater topographic survey data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小武; 赵杏英; 张娜

    2013-01-01

    首先分析了南方CASS软件在水下地形测量数据处理中的弱势,接着以Microstation软件平台为例,论述了该软件在水下地形测量后期数据处理的作业思路,即以Descartes软件进行点云数据处理、STM构建和等高线生成、利用Geopak进行库容计算。最后分析了该方法与传统数据处理流程的优势以及后期需要改进的方面。%The paper firstly analyzes the disadvantages of South CASS Software in underwater data pro-cessing. Then taking Microstation software platform for example, discusses the working ideas on the lat-ter processing of underwater topographic survey data, namely uses Descartes software to process point cloud data, build STM and generate contour and adopts Geopak software to calculate storage capacity. Finally, compared to traditional method in data processing, the paper analyzes the advantages of this method as well as aspects need to be improved.

  2. History of the topographic branch (division)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard T.; Frye, Helen M.

    2009-01-01

    the Pacific Coast. These expeditions were sent out by the War Department and were in charge of Army officers. It is interesting to note that such generals as George G. Meade, J.C. Fremont, Joseph E. Johnston, W.F. Smith, John Pope, A.W. Whipple, J.G. Parke, G.K. Warren, and H.L. Abbott, all officers of the Corps of Topographic Engineers, had charge of expeditions and were among our earliest map makers. Unfortunately, the data obtained by these editions were not of sufficient accuracy to serve as a basis for topographic maps of value other than in illustrating their voluminous reports. During this early period, numerous surveys were undertaken within the original Thirteen States, by the Federal government and by the States. The most important were those carried on by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, which made an accurate survey of the Atlantic Coastline and established a triangulation system that was of so high a standard as to constitute the first and only accurate data for topographic mapping obtained before the Civil War. The Coast and Geodetic Survey, while charting the coast and rivers, also mapped a strip of country extending a few miles inland, the relief being shown by means of hachures, together with contour lines, until 1846 when the first government topographic map on which the relief was shown by contours alone was made, covering an area in the vicinity of Boston Harbor. In 1835, however, the Geological and Topographical Survey of Maryland had issued a map on which the relief was shown by contours, and this is believed to be the first contoured map issued in this country. The outbreak of the Civil War stopped all mapping activities other than those needed by the U.S. Army. During the war, topographic surveys were carried on throughout the war zone under the supervision of the Corps of Engineers, the topographers being civilian employees. After the war, the country west of the Mississippi again became the center of the mapping activities

  3. Topographic measurements of Little Holland Tract, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Topographic data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2015 for the Little Holland Tract in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California. The...

  4. Topographic measurements of Little Holland Tract, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, 2015, using backpack GPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Topographic data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2015 for Little Holland Tract in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California. The data...

  5. Global repeat discovery and estimation of genomic copy number in a large, complex genome using a high-throughput 454 sequence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varala Kranthi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive computational and database tools are available to mine genomic and genetic databases for model organisms, but little genomic data is available for many species of ecological or agricultural significance, especially those with large genomes. Genome surveys using conventional sequencing techniques are powerful, particularly for detecting sequences present in many copies per genome. However these methods are time-consuming and have potential drawbacks. High throughput 454 sequencing provides an alternative method by which much information can be gained quickly and cheaply from high-coverage surveys of genomic DNA. Results We sequenced 78 million base-pairs of randomly sheared soybean DNA which passed our quality criteria. Computational analysis of the survey sequences provided global information on the abundant repetitive sequences in soybean. The sequence was used to determine the copy number across regions of large genomic clones or contigs and discover higher-order structures within satellite repeats. We have created an annotated, online database of sequences present in multiple copies in the soybean genome. The low bias of pyrosequencing against repeat sequences is demonstrated by the overall composition of the survey data, which matches well with past estimates of repetitive DNA content obtained by DNA re-association kinetics (Cot analysis. Conclusion This approach provides a potential aid to conventional or shotgun genome assembly, by allowing rapid assessment of copy number in any clone or clone-end sequence. In addition, we show that partial sequencing can provide access to partial protein-coding sequences.

  6. Topographical ability in Developmental Prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klargaard, Solja; Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    and topographical short-term memory (2 sec delay). The stimulus material consisted of computer-generated mountain landscapes shown from seven different viewpoints. In comparison with controls, the individuals with DP had no difficulty in perceiving the spatial aspects of the landscapes, but some were impaired...... in the short-term retention of these mountain landscapes. No systematic relationship (correlation) was found between recognition memory for faces and landscapes. Indeed, three cases with DP showed a statistically significant classical dissociation between these domains. Additional testing revealed...... that the deficit in topographical memory did not relate systematically to impaired visual short-term memory or recognition of more complex material. In conclusion, some individuals with DP show subtle deficits in topographical memory. Importantly, the deficits in topographical memory and face recognition do...

  7. 2013 NOAA Oahu Topographic Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oahu, Hawaii Elevation Data Task Order involves collecting and delivering topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and...

  8. U.S. Topographic Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — isotop.bin - topographic data for conterminous U.S. projected on an 8 km grid. Projection is Albers, central meridian = 96 degrees West, base latitude = 0 degrees...

  9. Repeatability and accuracy of the new Scheimpflug-Placido topographer for measuring corneal refractive power in myopic eyes%新型Scheimpflug眼前节全景仪评估近视患者角膜屈光力的重复性和准确性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘超; 黄锦海; 华焱军; 谭维娜; 鲁伟聪; 王勤美

    2014-01-01

    目的 采用Sirius眼前节全景仪2种方法获得近视患者角膜屈光力,评估其重复性与准确性.方法 前瞻性研究.52例(52眼)接受LASIK术前检查的近视患者,平均年龄为(21.6±4.8)岁,平均等效球镜度为(-4.8±2.1)D;分别应用Keratron角膜地形图仪和Sirius眼前节全景仪测量角膜屈光力,每只眼连续测量3次.Keratron提供角膜模拟屈光力Km,Sirius提供2种角膜屈光力:角膜模拟屈光力Sim K和不同入瞳直径下光路追迹法获得的入瞳角膜屈光力(MPE).变异系数、Cronbach's Alpha系数及组内相关系数评估Sirius获得的角膜屈光力的重复性;采用重复测量方差分析比较Sirius获得的Sim K、MPE与Keratron获得的Km之间的差异;采用Pearson相关分析Sim K、MPE和Km之间的相关性,Bland-Altman图评估Sim K、MPE和Km之间的一致性.结果 Sim K、MPE3、MPE4、MPE4.5、MPE5、MPE6、MPE7、Km分别为(42.91±1.52)D、(42.25±1.50)D、(42.42±1.52)D、(42.52±1.52)D、(42.63±1.55)D、(42.87±1.57)D、(43.11±1.60)D、(42.99±1.50)D.Sirius测量的所有参数变异系数均小于1%,Cronbach's Alpha系数和组内相关系数均大于0.99.Sim K比Km平均小0.08 D,差异有统计学意义(t=4.11,P<0.01).MPE3比Km平均小0.74 D,差异有统计学意义(t=32.00,P<0.01).Pearson相关分析显示Sim K、MPE与Km均有密切的相关性(r均>0.98,P<0.01).Bland-Altman图显示Sim K与Km、MPE3与Km的95%一致性区间分别为(-0.35 D,0.19 D)、(-1.07 D,-0.41 D).结论 Sirius 2种方法获得的近视患者角膜屈光力具有很好的重复性.Sim K和Km具有很好的一致性,可以替代使用.光路追迹法获得的角膜屈光力明显低于Km,不能直接代入IOL计算公式.%Objective To assess the repeatability and accuracy of two instruments for measuring corneal refractive power in myopic eyes:the Scheimpflug-Placido topographer (Sirius) and the Keratron topographer.Methods Fifty-two eyes of 52 pre-LASIK myopic volunteers whose

  10. Study on the Boundary Survey in the Tenure Collective Forest the Technique of Overlaying the Digital Orthophoto Maps and the Topographic Maps%航空遥感技术在林改宗地勘界中的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹杰

    2011-01-01

    In the reform of the collective forest right system, delineating parcel forestland is the core content. Using high resolution and large scale aerial orthoimage and electronic vector topographic map overlay for forest land surveying technology, the study shows that the work efficiency and sketch precision are higherthan the traditional topographic map drew parcel method.%指出了在集体林权制度改革中,林地宗地勾绘是核心内容,分析了采用高分辨率大比例尺航空正射影像图与电子矢量化地形图叠加进行林改宗地勘界,研究表明:其技术比传统地形图上勾绘宗地方法更能提高工作效率及勾绘精度。

  11. Mapping snow depth in complex alpine terrain with close range aerial imagery - estimating the spatial uncertainties of repeat autonomous aerial surveys over an active rock glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Jason; Marcer, Marco; Bodin, Xavier; Brenning, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Snow depth mapping in open areas using close range aerial imagery is just one of the many cases where developments in structure-from-motion and multi-view-stereo (SfM-MVS) 3D reconstruction techniques have been applied for geosciences - and with good reason. Our ability to increase the spatial resolution and frequency of observations may allow us to improve our understanding of how snow depth distribution varies through space and time. However, to ensure accurate snow depth observations from close range sensing we must adequately characterize the uncertainty related to our measurement techniques. In this study, we explore the spatial uncertainties of snow elevation models for estimation of snow depth in a complex alpine terrain from close range aerial imagery. We accomplish this by conducting repeat autonomous aerial surveys over a snow-covered active-rock glacier located in the French Alps. The imagery obtained from each flight of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is used to create an individual digital elevation model (DEM) of the snow surface. As result, we obtain multiple DEMs of the snow surface for the same site. These DEMs are obtained from processing the imagery with the photogrammetry software Agisoft Photoscan. The elevation models are also georeferenced within Photoscan using the geotagged imagery from an onboard GNSS in combination with ground targets placed around the rock glacier, which have been surveyed with highly accurate RTK-GNSS equipment. The random error associated with multi-temporal DEMs of the snow surface is estimated from the repeat aerial survey data. The multiple flights are designed to follow the same flight path and altitude above the ground to simulate the optimal conditions of repeat survey of the site, and thus try to estimate the maximum precision associated with our snow-elevation measurement technique. The bias of the DEMs is assessed with RTK-GNSS survey observations of the snow surface elevation of the area on and surrounding

  12. Repeat survey of current practice regarding corticosteroid prophylaxis for patients at increased risk of adverse reaction to intravascular contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, S. [Department of Radiology, Wishaw General Hospital, Lanarkshire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, 50, Netherton Street, Wishaw, Lanarkshire ML2 0DP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sureshradhakrish@hotmail.com; Manoharan, S. [Department of Radiology, Wishaw General Hospital, Lanarkshire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, 50, Netherton Street, Wishaw, Lanarkshire ML2 0DP (United Kingdom); Fleet, M. [Department of Radiology, Wishaw General Hospital, Lanarkshire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, 50, Netherton Street, Wishaw, Lanarkshire ML2 0DP (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the findings of a survey undertaken by us in 2002 regarding steroid premedication given in radiology departments to reduce the risk of adverse reactions in patients at increased risk of intravascular contrast media reactions with a similar survey published in 1994 by R. Seymour et al. The high risk patients considered in our survey were patients with history of asthma, drug allergies, hay fever and eczema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 225 questionnaires were sent to the consultant in charge for audit for radiology departments from the list given by the Royal College of Radiologists. 175 of the 225 questionnaires were returned (response rate 77.8%) and of these 172 were analysed with respect to the type, dose and duration of steroids. RESULTS: Compared to the survey in 1994, it was found that the number of departments who use steroid cover for all category of risk factors had increased compared to previous survey (73.8% in 2002 versus 55.3% in 1994 (p=0.001). There is now almost universal use of non-ionic contrast 98.8% versus 82.4% in 1994 (p=0.001). There is no agreed policy among radiology departments for the need or the dose or duration of steroid cover. CONCLUSION: Despite the more widespread use of non-ionic contrast media, the use of steroid premedication has increased which is contrary to what is expected as the incidence of adverse reaction to non ionic media is less than ionic contrast media.

  13. Topographical research in the canabae of Brigetio in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Bartus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article introduces a recently started project which aims at studying the topography of the canabae and legionary fortress of Brigetio using non-destructive methods such as aerial photography and different geophysical surveys. After a brief summary of earlier research, the methods and results of the topographical work carried out in 2014 will be discussed below.

  14. 浅谈IMU/DGPS技术在1∶10000比例尺地形图测绘中的应用%Discussion on the Application of IMU/DGPS Technology in Surveying and Mapping of 1∶10000 Topographic Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔炜; 王宝山

    2011-01-01

    通过IMU/DGPS技术在实际测绘生产项目中的应用,研究该技术条件下1∶10 000比例尺地形图测绘外业像控布设方案,试验、分析内业空三加密精度,调整像控方案,最终为IMU/DGPS技术在1∶10 000比例尺地形图测绘中的应用提供相关的技术参考。%Through the application of IMU/DGPS technology in practical surveying and mapping production project,this paper studied the layout plan for field photograph control survey of 1∶10000 topographic map,tested and analyzed the accuracy of triangulation,and optimized the scheme of photograph control survey.Finally,it provided the technical reference for the application of IMU/DGPS technology in surveying and mapping of 1∶10000 topographic map.

  15. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Ustilaginoidea virens genome and the development of microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mina; Yu, Junjie; Li, Huanhuan; Wang, Yahui; Yin, Xiaole; Bo, Huiwen; Ding, Hui; Zhou, Yuxin; Liu, Yongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Ustilaginoidea virens is the causal agent of rice false smut, causing quantitative and qualitative losses in rice industry. However, the development and application of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for genetic diversity studies in U. virens were limited. This study is the first to perform large-scale development of SSR markers of this pathogen at the genome level, to (1) compare these SSR markers with those of other fungi, (2) analyze the pattern of the SSRs, and (3) obtain more informative genetic markers. U. virens is rich in SSRs, and 13,778 SSRs were identified with a relative abundance of 349.7SSRs/Mb. The most common motifs in the genome or in noncoding regions were mononucleotides, whereas trinucleotides in coding sequences. A total of 6 out of 127 primers were randomly selected to be used to analyze 115 isolates, and these 6 primers showed high polymorphism in U. virens. This study may serve as an important resource for molecular genetic studies in U. virens.

  16. Assessing controls on cross-shelf phytoplankton and suspended particle distributions using repeated bio-optical glider surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderikx Freitas, Fernanda; Siegel, David A.; Washburn, Libe; Halewood, Stuart; Stassinos, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Characterizing the space/time variability of bio-optical properties is essential to understand the mechanisms that control cross-shelf phytoplankton and suspended particle distributions in coastal waters. Approximately 400 high-resolution cross-shelf sections of bio-optical properties collected with an oceanographic glider in the coastal Santa Barbara Channel, California, revealed complex relationships among optical properties and environmental conditions. Surface waves were found as a proximate control on suspended sediment variability for both inner and midshelves. Increases in phytoplankton abundances attributed to horizontal advection and upwelling events were observed only on episodic time scales. The lack of all-encompassing linear relationships between environmental forcings and changes in cross-shelf phytoplankton highlights the challenge of decoupling bio-optical signals from their controlling processes in coastal zones where phytoplankton distributions are patchy, and where nearshore and offshore phytoplankton populations and suspended sediments often occupy the same portion of the water column. Clear relationships between runoff and productivity were not observed. Temporal variability of suspended particles and phytoplankton distributions were roughly independent from each other during stratified conditions. Synchronous increases in phytoplankton and suspended sediments were observed when associated with strong upwelling events that may induce mixing and promote productivity. The repeated glider sections illustrated many processes regulating phytoplankton and particle transport in the innershelf and showed the difficulty in establishing general connections between high-frequency changes in optical properties and potential environmental forcings in a complex coastal environment.

  17. Repeated cross-sectional survey of patient-reported asthma control in Europe in the past 5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Demoly

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the main goal of asthma management guidelines is to achieve and maintain clinical control, reported levels of not well-controlled asthma remain high. The aim of this analysis was to compare the levels of asthma control and the associated impact on patients' health status in Europe in 2006, 2008 and 2010. An additional outcome was the comparison of the burden of asthma with diabetes. Data were obtained from the cross-sectional, self-reported, European National Health and Wellness Surveys conducted in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Asthma control (Asthma Control Test™; QualityMetric, Inc., Lincoln, RI, USA and health status (Short Form (SF-12 health survey and the Work Productivity Loss and Activity Impairment questionnaire were assessed. In 2010, the proportion of treated asthma patients assessed as having not well-controlled asthma was 53.5%, compared with 56.6% and 55.0% in 2008 and 2006, respectively. A significant reduction in not well-controlled asthma was observed in Germany between 2006 (72.3% and 2010 (62.5%; p=0.005. Fluctuations in control levels were observed in other countries. For all surveys, having at least well-controlled asthma was associated with a significantly lower number of healthcare contacts in the previous 6 months, better mean±sd SF-12 scores for the physical (data for 2010: not well controlled 39.9±11.38, at least well-controlled 48.0±9.89; p<0.001 and mental (data for 2010: not well-controlled 40.6±10.95, at least well-controlled 45.0±10.91; p<0.001 components, and significantly less impact on Work Productivity Loss and Activity Impairment. Asthma and diabetes were associated with a similar overall negative impact on health status. A substantial proportion of asthmatics remain not well-controlled across five European countries, resulting in a significant impact on health resources and patients' health status. The overall burden of asthma appears to be similar to that of diabetes.

  18. US Topo: topographic maps for the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    US Topo is the next generation of topographic maps from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Arranged in the familiar 7.5-minute quadrangle format, digital US Topo maps are designed to look and feel (and perform) like the traditional paper topographic maps for which the USGS is so well known. In contrast to paper-based maps, US Topo maps provide modern technical advantages that support faster, wider public distribution and enable basic, on-screen geographic analysis for all users. The US Topo quadrangle map has been redesigned so that map elements are visually distinguishable with the imagery turned on and off, while keeping the file size as small as possible. The US Topo map redesign includes improvements to various display factors, including symbol definitions (color, line thickness, line symbology, area fills), layer order, and annotation fonts. New features for 2013 include the following: a raster shaded relief layer, military boundaries, cemeteries and post offices, and a US Topo cartographic symbols legend as an attachment. US Topo quadrangle maps are available free on the Web. Each map quadrangle is constructed in GeoPDF® format using key layers of geographic data (orthoimagery, roads, geographic names, topographic contours, and hydrographic features) from The National Map databases. US Topo quadrangle maps can be printed from personal computers or plotters as complete, full-sized, maps or in customized sections, in a user-desired specific format. Paper copies of the maps can also be purchased from the USGS Store. Download links and a users guide are featured on the US Topo Web site. US Topo users can turn geographic data layers on and off as needed; they can zoom in and out to highlight specific features or see a broader area. File size for each digital 7.5-minute quadrangle, about 30 megabytes. Associated electronic tools for geographic analysis are available free for download. The US Topo provides the Nation with a topographic product that users can

  19. Assessing malaria control in the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana through repeated surveys using the RBM tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjuik Martin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of Roll Back Malaria (RBM is to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality by 50% by the year 2010, and still further thereafter until the disease becomes no more a threat to public health. To contribute to the monitoring and evaluation process of this goal, two surveys were carried out in 2000 and 2003 in households and health facilities in the Kassena-Nankana district, northern Ghana using the RBM-WHO/AFRO monitoring and evaluation tools for malaria control activities. Methods Data were collected from mothers/caretakers on signs/symptoms of the most recent malaria attack for their under five year old children; the management actions that they took and their perception of health services provided at the health facilities, bednet use, antenatal attendance and place of delivery for the most recent pregnancy, malaria prophylaxis during their last pregnancy. Community health workers and herbalist/traditional healers were also interviewed about the types of health services they provide to community members. Results The results revealed a significant improvement in knowledge among mothers/caretakers over the three-year period; this affected caretakers' initial management of illnesses of their young children. The management in terms of the type and dosage of drugs used also improved significantly (p The intensification of malaria control activities and awareness creation in this district over a three year period had started demonstrating positive results towards reducing malaria disease burden. Conclusion Periodic performance assessments through surveys as described and prompt feedback of results to stakeholders in the locality serves as a catalyst to improving malaria control in malaria-endemic countries.

  20. Morphology of the southern African geomagnetic field derived from observatory and repeat station survey observations: 2005-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, P. B.; Korte, M.

    2016-02-01

    Geomagnetic field data from four observatories and annual field surveys between 2005 and 2015 provide a detailed description of Earth's magnetic field changes over South Africa, Namibia and Botswana on time scales of less than 1 year. The southern African area is characterized by rapid changes in the secular variation pattern and lies in close proximity to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) where the geomagnetic field intensity is almost 30 % weaker than in other regions at similar latitudes around the globe. Several geomagnetic secular acceleration (SA) pulses (geomagnetic jerks) around 2007, 2010 and 2012 could be identified over the last decade in southern Africa. We present a new regional field model for declination and horizontal and vertical intensity over southern Africa (Southern African REGional (SAREG)) which is based on field survey and observatory data and covering the time interval from 2005 to 2014, i.e. including the period between 2010 and 2013 when no low Earth-orbiting vector field satellite data are available. A comparative evaluation between SAREG and global field models like CHAOS-5, the CHAMP, Orsted and SAC-C model of the Earth's magnetic field and International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF-12) reveals that a simple regional field model based on a relatively dense ground network is able to provide a realistic representation of the geomagnetic field in this area. We particularly note that a global field model like CHAOS-5 does not always indicate similar short-period patterns in the field components as revealed by observatory data, while representing the general secular variation reasonably well during the time interval without near-Earth satellite vector field data. This investigation further shows the inhomogeneous occurrence and distribution of secular variation impulses in the different geomagnetic field components and at different locations in southern African.

  1. Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.

  2. Digital workstation for Venus topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, Paul; Haag, Nils N.; Maupin, Jerry A.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Wu, Sherman S.

    1993-10-01

    A digital workstation was developed and is currently at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Flagstaff, Arizona to be used for Venus topographic mapping. The system is based on a mapping and geocoding image correlation (GIS MAGIC) system developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the creation of precisely geocoded imagery data bases for both optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. A multitude of data from various sources has been processed, including conventional aerial photographs, airborne and orbital SAR, and Spot. This paper covers the GIS MAGIC development history, hardware/software features and capabilities. Also covered are the types of modifications required to accommodate Venus radar data and results which can be achieved using the GIS MAGIC System.

  3. Comparison of Topographic Correction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Richter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of topographic correction methods is conducted for Landsat-5 TM, Landsat-7 ETM+, and SPOT-5 imagery from different geographic areas and seasons. Three successful and known methods are compared: the semi-empirical C correction, the Gamma correction depending on the incidence and exitance angles, and a modified Minnaert approach. In the majority of cases the modified Minnaert approach performed best, but no method is superior in all cases.

  4. Research on Topographic Map Updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Javorović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of interpretability of panchromatic satellite image IRS-1C integrated with multispectral Landsat TM image with the purpose of updating the topographic map sheet at the scale of 1:25 000 has been described. The geocoding of source map was based on trigonometric points of the map sheet. Satellite images were geocoded using control points selected from the map. The contents of map have been vectorized and topographic database designed. The digital image processing improved the interpretability of images. Then, the vectorization of new contents was made. The change detection of the forest and water area was defined by using unsupervised classification of spatial and spectral merged images. Verification of the results was made using corresponding aerial photographs. Although this methodology could not insure the complete updating of topographic map at the scale of 1:25 000, the database has been updated with huge amount of data. Erdas Imagine 8.3. software was used. 

  5. Location matters: trends in inequalities in child mortality in Indonesia. Evidence from repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodge

    Full Text Available Considerable improvements in life expectancy and other human development indicators in Indonesia are thought to mask considerable disparities between populations in the country. We examine the existence and extent of these disparities by measuring trends and inequalities in the under-five mortality rate and neonatal mortality rate across wealth, education and geography.Using data from seven waves of the Indonesian Demographic and Health Surveys, direct estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were generated for 1980-2011. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured by rate differences and ratios, and where possible, slope and relative indices of inequality. Disparities were assessed by levels of rural/urban location, island groups, maternal education and household wealth.Declines in national rates of under-five and neonatal mortality have accorded with reductions of absolute inequalities in clusters stratified by wealth, maternal education and rural/urban location. Across these groups, relative inequalities have generally stabilised, with possible increases with respect to mortality across wealth subpopulations. Both relative and absolute inequalities in rates of under-five and neonatal mortality stratified by island divisions have widened.Indonesia has made considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, with the largest reductions happening before the Asian financial crisis (1997-98 and decentralisation (2000. Hasty implementation of decentralisation reforms may have contributed to a slowdown in mortality rate reduction thereafter. Widening inequities between the most developed provinces of Java-Bali and those of other island groupings should be of particular concern for a country embarking on an ambitious plan for universal health coverage by 2019. A focus on addressing the key supply side barriers to accessing health care and on the social determinants of health in remote and

  6. Application of Satellite Image Auxiliary Mapping Technique in Port Engineering Topographic Survey%卫星图像辅助测绘技术在港口工程地形测量中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志渠; 王建峰

    2011-01-01

    With the development of satellite remote sensing technology, the precision and definition of satellite image is higher than before. Therefore, public satellite image may be used an assistance to map small scale topographic plan. A port project is taken as an example to research the method to map small scale topographic plan with satellite images auxiliary mapping technique, discuss the operation process and major technical puzzles, and put forward practical advice.%随着卫星遥感技术的不断发展,卫星图像的精度和清晰度越来越高,利用公用卫星图像辅助测绘小比例尺地形图成为可能.以某港口工程项目为例,研究利用卫星图像辅助测绘技术绘制小比例尺地形图的方法,探讨其具体操作流程和主要技术问题,提出相关实用性建议.

  7. Topographic controls on moraine distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Iestyn; Lovell, Harold

    2014-05-01

    Ice-marginal moraines are a foundation of our understanding of the extent and fluctuations of palaeoglaciers, and are often used as indirect proxies for palaeoclimate; this link is based on the assumption that moraine distribution is palaeoclimatically-controlled. Here, we use a dataset of ~8,500 ice-marginal moraines to assess the role played by topography in regulating their distribution, and challenge the assumption that moraines can be readily used as indirect proxies for palaeoclimate. We find evidence that topography plays an important role in moraine formation, preservation and ease of identification. At a global scale, this is reflected by 'erosional feedback', which leads to the gradual reduction in ice extent over successive glacial cycles, and the preservation of detailed moraine records. At a regional scale (e.g. the scale of individual mountain massifs), erosional feedback remains important, but other factors, such as the propensity for moraines to form at topographic 'pinning points', are also significant. At a local scale (e.g. for cirque-type glaciers), erosional feedback is less significant, but factors such as physical barriers to ice flow are important. We conclude by suggesting that: (i) palaeoclimatic significance should not automatically be attached to moraine positions; (ii) chronologically grouping (or correlating) moraines on the basis of their geospatial distribution should be undertaken with caution; (iii) where possible, topographic factors should be taken into consideration when using moraines to reconstruct the dimensions of palaeoglaciers, particularly when making links to palaeoclimate.

  8. A Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the N 49 Region around the Soft Gamma-Ray Repeater 0526-66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, S.; Henden, A. A.; Geppert, U.; Greiner, J.; Guetter, H. H.; Hartmann, D. H.; Kouveliotou, C.; Luginbuhl, C. B.; Stecklurn, B.; Vrba, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of a deep near-infrared survey of the vicinity of supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which contains the soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) 0526-66. Two of the four confirmed SGRs are potentially associated with compact stellar clusters. We thus searched for a similar association of SGR0526-66, and find the unexplored young stellar cluster SL 463 at a projected distance of approx. 30 pc from the SGR. This constitutes the third cluster-SGR link, and lends support to scenarios in which SGR progenitors originate in young, embedded clusters. If real, the cluster-SGR association constrains the age and thus the initial mass of these stars. In addition, our high-resolution images of the super- nova remnant N49 reveal an area of excess K-band flux in the southeastern part of the SNR. This feature coincides with the maximum flux area at 8.28 microns as detected by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX satellite), which we identify with IRAS 052594607.

  9. 2011 SWFWMD Topographic Lidar: Pasco County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFWMD regularly uses digital topographic information to support regulatory, land management and acquisition, planning, engineering and habitat restoration projects....

  10. 2007 SWFWMD Topographic Lidar: Lake Placid (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFWMD regularly uses digital topographic information to support regulatory, land management and acquisition, planning, engineering and habitat restoration projects....

  11. 2011 SWFWMD Topographic Lidar: Hillsborough County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFWMD regularly uses digital topographic information to support regulatory, land management and acquisition, planning, engineering and habitat restoration projects....

  12. Landscape features, standards, and semantics in U.S. national topographic mapping databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the contrast between local, field-surveyed topographical representation and feature representation in digital, centralized databases and to clarify their ontological implications. The semantics of these two approaches are contrasted by examining the categorization of features by subject domains inherent to national topographic mapping. When comparing five USGS topographic mapping domain and feature lists, results indicate that multiple semantic meanings and ontology rules were applied to the initial digital database, but were lost as databases became more centralized at national scales, and common semantics were replaced by technological terms.

  13. Extracting topographic characteristics of landforms typical of Canadian agricultural landscapes for agri-environmental modeling. I. Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.; Lobb, D.A.; McConkey, B.G.; MacMillan, R.A.; Moulin, A.; Fraser, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Soil and topographic information are key inputs for many agri-environmental models and there are linkages between soil and topography at the Field scale. A major source of soil data is soil databases established based on field soil survey. Although both soil and topographic information are recorded

  14. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Topographic Moisture Potential of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Jill J.; Sayre, Roger G.; Comer, Patrick; Warner, Harumi

    2009-01-01

    As part of an effort to map terrestrial ecosystems, the U.S. Geological Survey has generated topographic moisture potential classes to be used in creating maps depicting standardized, terrestrial ecosystem models for the conterminous United States, using an ecosystems classification developed by NatureServe. A biophysical stratification approach, developed for South America and now being implemented globally, was used to model the ecosystem distributions. Substrate moisture regimes strongly influence the differentiation and distribution of terrestrial ecosystems, and therefore topographic moisture potential is one of the key input layers in this biophysical stratification. The method used to produce these topographic moisture potential classes was based on the derivation of ground moisture potential using a combination of computed topographic characteristics (CTI, slope, and aspect) and mapped National Wetland Inventory (NWI) boundaries. This method does not use climate or soil attributes to calculate relative topographic moisture potential since these characteristics are incorporated into the ecosystem model though other input layers. All of the topographic data used for this assessment were derived from the USGS 30-meter National Elevation Dataset (NED ) including the National Compound Topographic Index (CTI). The CTI index is a topographically derived measure of slope for a raster cell and the contributing area from upstream raster cells, and thus expresses potential for water flow to a point. In other words CTI data are 'a quantification of the position of a site in the local landscape', where the lowest values indicate ridges and the highest values indicate stream channels, lakes and ponds. These CTI values were compared to independent estimates of water accumulation by obtaining geospatial data from a number of sample locations representing two types of NWI boundaries: freshwater emergent wetlands and freshwater forested/shrub wetlands. Where these shorelines

  15. UAV Data Processing for Large Scale Topographical Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2014-06-01

    Large scale topographical mapping in the third world countries is really a prominent challenge in geospatial industries nowadays. On one side the demand is significantly increasing while on the other hand it is constrained by limited budgets available for mapping projects. Since the advent of Act Nr.4/yr.2011 about Geospatial Information in Indonesia, large scale topographical mapping has been on high priority for supporting the nationwide development e.g. detail spatial planning. Usually large scale topographical mapping relies on conventional aerial survey campaigns in order to provide high resolution 3D geospatial data sources. Widely growing on a leisure hobby, aero models in form of the so-called Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) bring up alternative semi photogrammetric aerial data acquisition possibilities suitable for relatively small Area of Interest (AOI) i.e. Indonesia this area size can be used as a mapping unit since it usually concentrates on the basis of sub district area (kecamatan) level. In this paper different camera and processing software systems will be further analyzed for identifying the best optimum UAV data acquisition campaign components in combination with the data processing scheme. The selected AOI is covering the cultural heritage of Borobudur Temple as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. A detailed accuracy assessment will be concentrated within the object feature of the temple at the first place. Feature compilation involving planimetric objects (2D) and digital terrain models (3D) will be integrated in order to provide Digital Elevation Models (DEM) as the main interest of the topographic mapping activity. By doing this research, incorporating the optimum amount of GCPs in the UAV photo data processing will increase the accuracy along with its high resolution in 5 cm Ground Sampling Distance (GSD). Finally this result will be used as the benchmark for alternative geospatial data acquisition in the future in which it can support

  16. EAST OJAI SURVEY, VENTURA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Field Survey for East Ojai FIS mostly consists of hydraulic structures survey as well as geological and geomorphologic surveys. No topographic surveys are rendered...

  17. Impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on the health of Canadians: repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Sabrina; Labonté, Ronald; Bancej, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Despite a clear impact on the Canadian economy, little is known about the subsequent health impacts of the 2008 global financial crisis (GFC) in this country. This study fills this gap in knowledge by conducting a repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Data from 7 cycles (2007-2013) of the CCHS were combined to form a large data set representative of the Canadian working-age population (15-64 years) residing in 1 of 10 provinces. A logistic regression model was used to determine whether exposure to various periods of the GFC resulted in increased odds of reporting poor mental health. Exposure was categorised into 4 periods based on political and economic indicators, as follows: precrisis period (baseline), initial crisis period, stimulus period and austerity period. Other outcomes investigated included: anxiety disorders (AD), mood disorders (MD), poor physical health and health-related behaviours (heavy alcohol drinking (HAD) and decreased fruit/vegetable consumption (FVC)). A significant increased odds of reporting poor mental health was observed during the austerity period compared with the precrisis period (OR=1.26 (1.16 to 1.32)); findings remain significant when adjusted for sex, marital status and education. Exposure to the austerity period was also significantly associated with increased odds of reporting AD, MD, HAD and decreased odds of FVC. No significant associations were observed for the poor self-perceived physical health variable. Statistically significant associations were observed between several negative health outcomes and the austerity period when compared with the precrisis period. Austerity has been linked to worsening health in other studies and represents an example of how the policy response can have greater detrimental impact on health than the financial crisis itself. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  18. Quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in medical records: evaluation of combined interventions in a teaching hospital by repeated point prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercheval, C; Gillet, M; Maes, N; Albert, A; Frippiat, F; Damas, P; Van Hees, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to improve the quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in the computerized medical records of inpatients. A prospective, uncontrolled, interrupted time series (ITS) study was conducted by repeated point prevalence survey (PPS) to audit the quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in the medical records before and after a combined intervention strategy (implementation of guidelines, distribution of educational materials, educational outreach visits, group educational interactive sessions) from the antimicrobial stewardship team (AST) in the academic teaching hospital (CHU) of Liège, Belgium. The primary outcome measure was the documentation rate on three quality indicators in the computerized medical records: (1) indication for treatment, (2) antibiotics prescribed, and (3) duration or review date. Segmented regression analysis was used to analyze the ITS. The medical records of 2306 patients receiving antibiotics for an infection (1177 in the pre-intervention period and 1129 in the post-intervention period) were analyzed. A significant increase in mean percentages in the post-intervention period was observed as compared with the pre-intervention period for the three quality indicators (indication documented 83.4 ± 10.4 % vs. 90.3 ± 6.6 %, p = 0.0013; antibiotics documented 87.9 ± 9.0 % vs. 95.6 ± 5.1 %, p documented 31.9 ± 15.4 % vs. 67.7 ± 15.2 %, p documentation rate in the computerized medical records for the three quality indicators.

  19. 南极格罗夫山核心区冰下地形测绘%SUBGLACIAL TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS IN THE KERNEL AREA OF THE GROVE MOUNTAINS,ANTARCTICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽民; 谭智; 艾松涛; 刘海燕; 王立影

    2014-01-01

    格罗夫山地区位于中山站和冰穹A之间,是中国进行南极内陆科学综合考察的重点区。我们先后组织过5次格罗夫山地区的考察工作,开展了地质构造、古气候环境、陨石、冰盖运动监测、基础测绘和气象观测等多学科考察研究。2010年中国第26次南极科学考察期间,格罗夫山考察队利用专业探地雷达对格罗夫山东部核心区进行了冰下地形测绘工作。本文利用野外采集的测量数据(GPS/GPR数据),经数据处理后,利用专业的制图软件CorelDraw首次绘制出了格罗夫山核心区两幅冰下地形图,初步揭开了这一区域冰原岛峰冰下的地貌形态,对于今后研究整个格罗夫山地区真实的基岩地貌和可能存在的上新世古冰下沉积盆地具有探索性意义。本文还对哈丁山-萨哈罗夫岭间横截面进行分析,发现这两个冰原岛峰之间的槽谷形态已经发育成熟。%The Grove Mountains are located in a remote area of inland Antarctica between Zhongshan Station and Ice Dome A. China has organized five scientific investigations in the Grove Mountains, researching geological structure,ancient climate,and meteorites,monitoring ice movement,conducting basic mapping,meteorological observations,and other multi-disciplinary observational studies.During the 26th Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition in 201 0,the Grove Mountains investigation team used specialized ground penetrating radar (GPR)for topographic mapping under the ice in the eastern kernel area of the Grove Mountains.In this paper,global positioning system (GPS ) and GPR data are processed using professional graphics software to produce two subglacial topographic maps of the Grove Mountains kernel area.The maps revealed the structure of the nunataks and the bedrock in this area,and identified a possible sedimentary basin under the Pliocene epoch fossil ice.In ad-dition,cross-sectional analysis of the area between

  20. Using Repeat LiDAR Surveys to Determine the Geomorphic Changes Related the Removal of the Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzek, C. D.; Ely, L. L.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    The removal of the Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon in October 2007 released an estimated 430,000 m3 of sand and gravel downstream. Field surveys by Major and others (Major and others, USGS Professional Paper 1792) following the dam removal documented deposition of nearly half of the eroded sediment (215,000 m3) in the first 2 km downstream of the dam within a year of breaching. However, the fate of more than 200,000 m3 of chiefly sand transported farther downstream is uncertain. In the current study, five sequential LiDAR data sets from 2006 to 2011 were used to quantify sediment storage and erosion in the 40 km from the former dam site to the confluence with the Columbia River to track the downstream movement of the sediment released from the reservoir. We hypothesized that a pulse of sediment from the dam removal would be distinguished by a successive downstream growth of sediment bars through time. The LiDAR imagery includes two data sets acquired before the dam removal and three afterward. Geomorphic Change Detection software (GCD) (gcd.joewheaton.org) was used to quantify the locations and volume of sediment erosion and deposition through the successive years of LiDAR imagery. GCD allows for error assessment of each LiDAR-derived digital elevation map (DEM) and propagates the combined errors when differencing two repeat surveys. This process allows creation of DEM of Difference (DoD) maps with associated uncertainty estimates. Preliminary results of the LiDAR analysis agree with the previous field estimates of deposition within the first 2 km from the former dam. Following the initial phase of deposition immediately downstream of the dam breach, the subsequent surveys (2008-2011) show an erosional front beginning to migrate downstream through the newly deposited sediment. Many of the sediment bars still remained in 2011, but were reduced in size. After calibrating the model in the 2-km reach below the dam, we analyzed the additional 38 km of channel

  1. Geometric accuracy of topographical objects at Polish topographic maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ławniczak Radzym

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of research concerned verifying the accuracy of the location and shape of selected lakes presented on topographical maps from various periods, drawn up on different scales. The area of research covered lakes situated in North-Western Poland on the Międzychód-Sieraków Lakeland. An analysis was performed of vector maps available in both analogue and digital format. The scales of these studies range from 1:50 000 to 1:10 000. The source materials were current for the years 1907 through 2013. The shape and location of lakes have been verified directly by means of field measurements performed using the GPS technology with an accuracy class of RTK. An analysis was performed of the location and shape of five lakes. The analysed water regions were vectorised, and their vector images were used to determine quantitative features: the area and length of the shoreline. Information concerning the analysed lakes obtained from the maps was verified on the basis of direct field measurements performed using a GPS RTK receiver. Use was made of georeferential corrections provided by the NAVGEO service or a virtual reference station generated by the ASG EUPOS system. A compilation of cartographic and field data formed the basis for a comparison of the actual area and the length of the shoreline of the studied lakes. Cartographic analyses made it possible to single out the most reliable cartographic sources, which could be used for the purposes of hydrographical analyses. The course of shorelines shows the attached map.

  2. Geometric accuracy of topographical objects at Polish topographic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ławniczak, Radzym; Kubiak, Jarosław

    2016-06-01

    The objective of research concerned verifying the accuracy of the location and shape of selected lakes presented on topographical maps from various periods, drawn up on different scales. The area of research covered lakes situated in North-Western Poland on the Międzychód-Sieraków Lakeland. An analysis was performed of vector maps available in both analogue and digital format. The scales of these studies range from 1:50 000 to 1:10 000. The source materials were current for the years 1907 through 2013. The shape and location of lakes have been verified directly by means of field measurements performed using the GPS technology with an accuracy class of RTK. An analysis was performed of the location and shape of five lakes. The analysed water regions were vectorised, and their vector images were used to determine quantitative features: the area and length of the shoreline. Information concerning the analysed lakes obtained from the maps was verified on the basis of direct field measurements performed using a GPS RTK receiver. Use was made of georeferential corrections provided by the NAVGEO service or a virtual reference station generated by the ASG EUPOS system. A compilation of cartographic and field data formed the basis for a comparison of the actual area and the length of the shoreline of the studied lakes. Cartographic analyses made it possible to single out the most reliable cartographic sources, which could be used for the purposes of hydrographical analyses. The course of shorelines shows the attached map.

  3. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America 200509 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth and elevation ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image...

  5. 2010 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) Topographic Lidar: Louisiana Coast, Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi Barrier Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) classified (ASPRS LAS classifications) dataset is a topographic survey conducted for the Task Order 007 Aerial Survey 2010...

  6. 2009 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) Topographic Lidar: South Texas Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) classified (ASPRS LAS classifications) dataset is a topographic survey conducted for the West Texas Aerial Survey 2009...

  7. Vojne topografske karte / Military topographic maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Borisov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available U radu se prikazuje stanje vojnih topografskih karata u Srbiji i Crnoj Gori, kao i pregled i razvoj topografsko-kartografskih sistema u nekoliko zemalja u svetu. Jedan od zadataka koje Partnerstvo za mir postavlja iz domena geoinformacija jeste izrada novih vojnih topografskih karata. / The article shows the military topographic maps in Serbia and Montenegro. Also, it gives the overview and development of topographic-cartographic systems of some countries in the world. One of the goals that Partnership for Peace has set, concerning cartography, is the making of new military topographic map.

  8. Longitudinal survey of Staphylococcus aureus in cystic fibrosis patients using a multiple-locus variable-number of tandem-repeats analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergnaud Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF is frequent and may be due to colonization by a few pathogenic lineages. Systematic genotyping of all isolates, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA is necessary to identify such lineages and follow their evolution in patients. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA/VNTR was used to survey S. aureus clinical isolates in a French paediatric CF centre. Results During a 30 months period, 108 patients, aged 2 to 21 years, regularly followed up at the centre, provided sputum for culture. From 79 patients, a total of 278 isolates were genotyped by MLVA, resolving into 110 genotypes and 19 clonal complexes (CC composed of similar or closely related isolates. 71% of the strains were distributed into four main CCs, in term of number of isolates and number of genotypes. Spa (Staphylococcus protein A typing was performed on representative samples, showing an excellent concordance with MLVA. In 17 patients, strains from two to four different CCs were recovered over time. On six occasions, S. aureus isolates with the same genotype were shared by 2 different patients and they belonged to one of the four main clusters. Methicillin-resistance was observed in 60% of the isolates, 90% of which belonged to the main clonal complexes CC8, CC45 and CC5. In 5 patients, methicillin-resistance of S. aureus isolates was not associated with the mecA gene: for four patients, it was due to overproduction of β-lactamase, leading to BOR-SA (borderline S. aureus isolates, while a strain showing probably a new modified penicillin-binding capacity (MOD-SA was observed from one patient. Conclusion Systematic genotyping of S. aureus isolates recovered from sputum of CF children allows a thorough analysis of the strains responsible for sporadic as well as chronic colonization and the follow up of their evolution over time

  9. [Changes in knowledge, attitudes, and smoking behavior among young people in Germany. Results of repeated, representative surveys by the BZgA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, B; Töppich, J

    2010-02-01

    Following an increase in tobacco consumption among 12 to 17 year olds between 1993 and 1997, a policy mix comprising various structural and behavioral prevention measures was implemented in Germany. One element of this policy mix is the "rauchfrei" ("smoke-free") youth campaign of the BZgA (Federal Centre for Health Education), a combination of media that reaches a large number of youth, personal communication, and setting-based interventions. The aim is to prevent young people from starting to smoke and to promote the cessation of smoking at an early stage. Based on a multistage intervention model, wide coverage of the measures should be achieved among young people, as well as changes in knowledge, attitudes, social norms, and behavioral intentions. Based on the intervention model, repeated, representative cross-sectional surveys were conducted to examine the development of these indicators and of tobacco consumption. Five studies were conducted during the period from 2003 to 2008, each comprising between 1,220 and 2,780 computer-assisted telephone interviews with randomly selected young people between the ages of 12 and 17. The percentage of young people reached by information offered on the subject of not smoking rose between 2003 and 2008. Participation in school-based prevention measures also rose. There was an increase in knowledge regarding the harmful substances contained in cigarette smoke, and in the percentage of young people who rated active and passive smoking as being harmful to health. In addition, the attitude towards smoking of young people who have never smoked became more critical, as did that perceived in the social environment. The proportion of young people who smoke declined substantially, from 27.5% (2001) to 15.4% (2008), and there was been a major rise in the number who have never smoked, from 40.5% (2001) to 60.6% (2008). The change in knowledge-based risk assessments, attitudes, and social norms should be further promoted by mass media

  10. The Impact Analysis of Topographic Relief for UAV Low Altitude Aerial Survey: Taking Dongqiao Town, Longhai City as an Example%地形起伏对无人机低空航测影响分析——以东桥镇、龙海市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永年; 李秀丽

    2013-01-01

    结合福建地区两次无人机低空航测项目,发现地形起伏是无人机低空航测中一个很大的影响因素.它不仅对飞行作业产生很大的影响,并且对后期的空中三角测量精度有很大的干预.本文通过数据的比较,提出高程信息在无人机低空航测中的重要性,应引起足够的重视.%On the basis of two UAV low altitude aerial project in Fijian area, we found topographic relief is a big influence factor on UAV low altitude aerial survey. It not only has a significant impact on flight operations, but also the later aerial triangulation accuracy, puts forward the importance of height information in UAV low altitude aerial survey through the comparison of the data, to which e-nough attention should be paid.

  11. A note on the topographic distortion of magnetotelluric impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vallianatos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotelluric surveys are prone to interpretation errors in the presence of rough topography, which may need to be compensated for. In the present work we assume that the surface of the Earth is simulated by a single-valued, twice differentiable function f(x,y. By appropriately expanding the surface magnetic field, we obtain the distorted magnetotelluric impedance tensor in terms of an expansion depending on the external radii of curvature of f(x,y at the observation point and on skin depth. Based on first principles, an analytic estimation of the topographic corrections of the magnetotelluric impedance tensor is obtained.

  12. Development of a seamless multisource topographic/bathymetric elevation model of Tampa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, D.; Wilson, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many applications of geospatial data in coastal environments require knowledge of the nearshore topography and bathymetry. However, because existing topographic and bathymetric data have been collected independently for different purposes, it has been difficult to use them together at the land/water interface owing to differences in format, projection, resolution, accuracy, and datums. As a first step toward solving the problems of integrating diverse coastal datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are collaborating on a joint demonstration project to merge their data for the Tampa Bay region of Florida. The best available topographic and bathymetric data were extracted from the USGS National Elevation Dataset and the NOAA hydrographic survey database, respectively. Before being merged, the topographic and bathymetric datasets were processed with standard geographic information system tools to place them in a common horizontal reference frame. Also, a key part of the preprocessing was transformation to a common vertical reference through the use of VDatum, a new tool created by NOAA's National Geodetic Survey for vertical datum conversions. The final merged product is a seamless topographic/bathymetric model covering the Tampa Bay region at a grid spacing of 1 arc-second. Topographic LIDAR data were processed and merged with the bathymetry to demonstrate the incorporation of recent third party data sources for several test areas. A primary application of a merged topographic/bathymetric elevation model is for user-defined shoreline delineation, in which the user decides on the tidal condition (for example, low or high water) to be superimposed on the elevation data to determine the spatial position of the water line. Such a use of merged topographic/bathymetric data could lead to the development of a shoreline zone, which could reduce redundant mapping efforts by federal, state, and local agencies

  13. Spatial Relation Predicates in Topographic Feature Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Caro, Holly K.

    2013-01-01

    Topographic data are designed and widely used for base maps of diverse applications, yet the power of these information sources largely relies on the interpretive skills of map readers and relational database expert users once the data are in map or geographic information system (GIS) form. Advances in geospatial semantic technology offer data model alternatives for explicating concepts and articulating complex data queries and statements. To understand and enrich the vocabulary of topographic feature properties for semantic technology, English language spatial relation predicates were analyzed in three standard topographic feature glossaries. The analytical approach drew from disciplinary concepts in geography, linguistics, and information science. Five major classes of spatial relation predicates were identified from the analysis; representations for most of these are not widely available. The classes are: part-whole (which are commonly modeled throughout semantic and linked-data networks), geometric, processes, human intention, and spatial prepositions. These are commonly found in the ‘real world’ and support the environmental science basis for digital topographical mapping. The spatial relation concepts are based on sets of relation terms presented in this chapter, though these lists are not prescriptive or exhaustive. The results of this study make explicit the concepts forming a broad set of spatial relation expressions, which in turn form the basis for expanding the range of possible queries for topographical data analysis and mapping.

  14. A Watered-Down Topographic Map. Submarine Ring of Fire--Grades 6-8. Topographic and Bathymetric Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This activity is designed to teach about topographic maps and bathymetric charts. Students are expected to create a topographic map from a model landform, interpret a simple topographic map, and explain the difference between topographic and bathymetric maps. The activity provides learning objectives, a list of needed materials, key vocabulary…

  15. A stochastic simulation model to determine the sample size of repeated national surveys to document freedom from bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwermer Heinzpeter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International trade regulations require that countries document their livestock's sanitary status in general and freedom from specific infective agents in detail provided that import restrictions should be applied. The latter is generally achieved by large national serological surveys and risk assessments. The paper describes the basic structure and application of a generic stochastic model for risk-based sample size calculation of consecutive national surveys to document freedom from contagious disease agents in livestock. Methods In the model, disease spread during the time period between two consecutive surveys was considered, either from undetected infections within the domestic population or from imported infected animals. The @Risk model consists of the domestic spread in-between two national surveys; the infection of domestic herds from animals imported from countries with a sanitary status comparable to Switzerland or lower sanitary status and the summary sheet which summed up the numbers of resulting infected herds of all infection pathways to derive the pre-survey prevalence in the domestic population. Thereof the pre-survey probability of freedom from infection and required survey sample sizes were calculated. A scenario for detection of infected herds by general surveillance was included optionally. Results The model highlights the importance of residual domestic infection spread and characteristics of different import pathways. The sensitivity analysis revealed that number of infected, but undetected domestic herds and the multiplicative between-survey-spread factor were most correlated with the pre-survey probability of freedom from infection and the resulting sample size, respectively. Compared to the deterministic pre-cursor model, the stochastic model was therefore more sensitive to the previous survey's results. Undetected spread of infection in the domestic population between two surveys gained more

  16. Results of repeat bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at the Amelia Earhart Bridge on U.S. Highway 59 over the Missouri River at Atchison, Kansas, 2009-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected six times by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Transportation, in the vicinity of Amelia Earhart Bridge on U.S. Highway 59 over the Missouri River at Atchison, Kansas. A multibeam echosounder mapping system and an acoustic Doppler current meter were used to obtain channel-bed elevations and depth-averaged velocities for a river reach approximately 2,300 feet long and extending across the active channel of the Missouri River. The bathymetric and velocimetric surveys provide a “snapshot” of the channel conditions at the time of each survey, and document changes to the channel-bed elevations and velocities during the course of construction of a new bridge for U.S. Highway 59 downstream from the Amelia Earhart Bridge. The baseline survey in June 2009 revealed substantial scour holes existed at the railroad bridge piers upstream from and at pier 10 of the Amelia Earhart Bridge, with mostly uniform flow and velocities throughout the study reach. After the construction of a trestle and cofferdam on the left (eastern) bank downstream from the Amelia Earhart Bridge, a survey on June 2, 2010, revealed scour holes with similar size and shape as the baseline for similar flow conditions, with slightly higher velocities and a more substantial contraction of flow near the bridges than the baseline. Subsequent surveys during flooding conditions in June 2010 and July 2011 revealed substantial scour near the bridges compared to the baseline survey caused by the contraction of flow; however, the larger flood in July 2011 resulted in less scour than in June 2010, partly because the removal of the cofferdam for pier 5 of the new bridge in March 2011 diminished the contraction near the bridges. Generally, the downstream part of the study reach exhibited varying amounts of scour in all of the surveys except the last when compared to the baseline. During the final survey, velocities throughout the

  17. 3-Dimensional Topographic Models for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. W.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Stockman, S.; Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently undertaken a program to develop educational tools using 3-dimensional solid models of digital elevation data acquired by the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) for Mars as well as a variety of sources for elevation data of the Earth. This work is made possible by the use of rapid prototyping technology to construct solid 3-Dimensional models of science data. We recently acquired rapid prototyping machine that builds 3-dimensional models in extruded plastic. While the machine was acquired to assist in the design and development of scientific instruments and hardware, it is also fully capable of producing models of spacecraft remote sensing data. We have demonstrated this by using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data and Earth based topographic data to produce extruded plastic topographic models which are visually appealing and instantly engage those who handle them.

  18. Scales of Topographic Dependence of Alpine Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. F.

    2002-12-01

    Scales of topographic dependence of daily precipitation over the Swiss Alps are examined using a new multivariate precipitation interpolation technique. The method of additive regression splines has been designed to incorporate spatially varying dependences on several topographic variables. It avoids the "curse of dimension" by restricting the underlying spline structure to be two-dimensional. This is in keeping with the overall goal of delivering essentially two-dimensional maps. Moreover, it permits a separation between physical process, as represented by various topographic variables, and the empirically determined, continuous two-dimensional effects of these variables on precipitation across the landscape. The analysis determines horizontal and vertical scales of the interaction of precipitation with topography. A common limitation with existing precipitation interpolation methods lies in their difficulty in identifying effective topographic parameters other than elevation. Orographic effects associated with slope and aspect are often discussed but are not always statistically significant. The effects of two topographic parameters, the northern and eastern components of the unit normal to an appropriately vertically exaggerated digital elevation model, are investigated. These parameters have some basis in process modelling studies and, unlike topographic aspect, are continuous functions of horizontal position. They are used to identify significant topographic aspect effects on precipitation without prior knowledge of the prevailing wind field. Short range correlation structure has rarely been explicitly identified in precipitation interpolation studies but its impact is surprisingly strong. Evidence for its existence in these precipitation data was provided in an earlier study but effective methods for calibrating such correlation in spline analyses have only recently been developed. The spatial scale of correlation found here, around 5 km, is large enough to

  19. Multi-temporal topographic models in fluvial systems: are accuracies enough to change the temporal and spatial scales of our studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericat, Damià; Ramos, Ester; Brasington, James; Muñoz, Efrén; Béjar, María; Gibbins, Chris; Batalla, Ramon J.; Tena, Álvaro; Smith, Mark; Wheaton, Joe

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in topography are offering a set of opportunities that deserve a critical evaluation before being successfully applied. Terrestrial Laser Scanning opened a new world by offering the opportunity to obtain topographic models at unprecedented resolutions. The time involved in data acquisition, although has substantially improved by means of fast scanners and new mobile platforms, limited the spatial and temporal scales in which such technique could be applied. Automatic Digital Photogrammetry or Structure from Motion is now offering a new set of opportunities and challenges. This technique possesses the trilogy a geomorphologist is looking to fully understand how landforms change and which are the main causes and consequences: speed, cost and resolution. But, a set of questions arise after all post-processing involved in these novel datasets: are accuracies enough to jump at large spatial scales? Can we repeat topographic surveys and depict small magnitude but relatively high frequent landform deformations overcoming the minimum level of detection of our comparisons? In this paper we present some of the preliminary results obtained in the background of MorphSed (www.morphsed.es). Morphsed is analysing the morpho-sedimentary dynamics of a fluvial system at multiple temporal scales. Multi-event topographic models (DEMs) are obtained by means of Structure from Motion using close range aerial photography obtained in a 12-km channel reach of the wandering Upper River Cinca (Southern Pyrenees, Iberian Peninsula). Topographic channel changes are critically analysed based on the quality of the developed models. DEMs obtained at different periods are compared (DoD). Two general comparisons are performed: (a) comparison of topographic models obtained before and after low magnitude channel changes, and (b) comparison of models acquired before and after major channel disturbances. Special attention is paid to the role of the ground control, data density and

  20. The Design and Product of National 1:1000000 Cartographic Data of Topographic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guizhi

    2016-06-01

    National administration of surveying, mapping and geoinformation started to launch the project of national fundamental geographic information database dynamic update in 2012. Among them, the 1:50000 database was updated once a year, furthermore the 1:250000 database was downsized and linkage-updated on the basis. In 2014, using the latest achievements of 1:250000 database, comprehensively update the 1:1000000 digital line graph database. At the same time, generate cartographic data of topographic map and digital elevation model data. This article mainly introduce national 1:1000000 cartographic data of topographic map, include feature content, database structure, Database-driven Mapping technology, workflow and so on.

  1. From nano to micro: topographical scale and its impact on cell adhesion, morphology and contact guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Sathe, Sharvari R.; Yim, Evelyn K. F.

    2016-05-01

    Topography, among other physical factors such as substrate stiffness and extracellular forces, is known to have a great influence on cell behaviours. Optimization of topographical features, in particular topographical dimensions ranging from nanoscale to microscale, is the key strategy to obtain the best cellular performance for various applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey on the significance of sizes of topography and their impacts on cell adhesion, morphology and alignment, and neurite guidance. Also recent works mimicking the hierarchical structure of natural extracellular matrix by combining both nanoscale and microscale topographies are highlighted.

  2. Increasing Belief in the Effectiveness of HIV Treatment as Prevention : Results of Repeated, National Surveys of Australian Gay and Bisexual Men, 2013-15

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holt, Martin; Lea, Toby; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; Murphy, Dean; Rosengarten, Marsha; Crawford, David; Ellard, Jeanne; Kolstee, Johann; de Wit, John

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed Australian gay and bisexual men, assessing belief in HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) and support for early treatment. We identified the characteristics of participants who believed in TasP and supported early treatment using multivariate logistic regression. In 2013, 1316 men particip

  3. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  4. A topographic feature taxonomy for a U.S. national topographic mapping ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2013-01-01

    Using legacy feature lists from the U.S. National Topographic Mapping Program of the twentieth century, a taxonomy of features is presented for purposes of developing a national topographic feature ontology for geographic mapping and analysis. After reviewing published taxonomic classifications, six basic classes are suggested; terrain, surface water, ecological regimes, built-up areas, divisions, and events. Aspects of ontology development are suggested as the taxonomy is described.

  5. Survey of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and their associated Cas proteins (CRISPR/Cas) systems in multiple sequenced strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostria-Hernández, Martha Lorena; Sánchez-Vallejo, Carlos Javier; Ibarra, J Antonio; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela

    2015-08-04

    In recent years the emergence of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains has been an increasingly common event. This opportunistic species is one of the five main bacterial pathogens that cause hospital infections worldwide and multidrug resistance has been associated with the presence of high molecular weight plasmids. Plasmids are generally acquired through horizontal transfer and therefore is possible that systems that prevent the entry of foreign genetic material are inactive or absent. One of these systems is CRISPR/Cas. However, little is known regarding the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and their associated Cas proteins (CRISPR/Cas) system in K. pneumoniae. The adaptive immune system CRISPR/Cas has been shown to limit the entry of foreign genetic elements into bacterial organisms and in some bacteria it has been shown to be involved in regulation of virulence genes. Thus in this work we used bioinformatics tools to determine the presence or absence of CRISPR/Cas systems in available K. pneumoniae genomes. The complete CRISPR/Cas system was identified in two out of the eight complete K. pneumoniae genomes sequences and in four out of the 44 available draft genomes sequences. The cas genes in these strains comprises eight cas genes similar to those found in Escherichia coli, suggesting they belong to the type I-E group, although their arrangement is slightly different. As for the CRISPR sequences, the average lengths of the direct repeats and spacers were 29 and 33 bp, respectively. BLAST searches demonstrated that 38 of the 116 spacer sequences (33%) are significantly similar to either plasmid, phage or genome sequences, while the remaining 78 sequences (67%) showed no significant similarity to other sequences. The region where the CRISPR/Cas systems were located is the same in all the Klebsiella genomes containing it, it has a syntenic architecture, and is located among genes encoding for proteins likely involved in

  6. Corneal Topographical Changes Flollowing Strabismus Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaiGH; WangZ

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To study corneal topographical changes after strabismus surgery.Methods:Computer-aided corneal topography was used in 43 strabismus patients(45 eyes)one or two days prior to and six or seven ays after strabismus surgery.The spherical and cylindrical equivalents were calculated based on the simulated keratometry.Results:After the surgery,only the changes at 3mm in the inferior quadrant were statistically significant.The changes at 3mm in the rest quadrants and the changes at 7mm were no significant.Significant changes in spherical equivalent were found post-operatively.neither the horizontal nor the verical meridional equivalent showed significant changes after surgery.Conclusions:The results of corneal topographical changes following strabismus surgery in our preliminary study indicated the little effect of strabismus surgery on corneal curvature and corneal astigmatism.

  7. Seafloor displacement at Kumano-nada caused by the 2004 off Kii Peninsula earthquakes, detected through repeated GPS/Acoustic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.; Miura, S.; Osada, Y.; Tsuka, K.; Tabei, T.

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, we started monitoring crustal deformation at Kumano-nada in the Nankai trough using the GPS/Acoustic technique. We observed a large southward seafloor displacement of ˜30 cm associated with the off Kii Peninsula earthquake, which occurred in September 2004, between our two survey campaigns in August and November 2004. The observed seafloor displacement is larger than that predicted from a slip model derived solely from GPS measurements on land. This may indicate the earthquake fault is slightly shallower and extends move to the NW than previously estimated.

  8. Ontology-based integration of topographic data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitermark, HT; van Oosterom, PJM; Mars, NJI; Molenaar, M

    2005-01-01

    The integration of topographic data sets is defined as the process of establishing relationships between corresponding object instances in different, autonomously produced, topographic data sets of the same geographic space. The problem of integrating topographic data sets is in finding these relati

  9. Predicting Potential Evaporation in Topographically Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohafkan, M.; Thompson, S. E.; Hamilton, M. P.

    2012-12-01

    Predicting and understanding the water cycle in topographically complex terrain poses challenges for upscaling point-scale measurements of water and energy balance and for downscaling observations made from remote sensing or predictions made via global circulation models. This study evaluates hydrologic and climate data drawn from a spatially-distributed wireless sensor network at the Blue Oak Ranch Reserve near San Jose, California to investigate the influence of topographic variation, landscape position, and local ecology (vegetation) on one core component of the water balance: potential evaporation. High-resolution observations of solar radiation, ambient temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity are combined with canopy maps generated from LiDAR flyovers to develop spatially-distributed predictions of potential evaporation. These data are compared to estimates of EP based on inverse modeling of surface soil moisture data. Preliminary results suggest that the spatial structure of microclimate at Blue Oak Ranch Reserve is dominated by variations around the elevation gradient, with strong nocturnal inversions hypothesized to reflect the influence of the coastal marine layer. Estimates of EP based on the Penman-Monteith equation suggest that EP could vary by up to a factor of 5 across the site, with differences in vapor pressure deficit and canopy height largely responsible for this variability. The results suggest that a) large differences in the timing and magnitude of water stress could arise in topographically complex terrain due to localized differences in energy balance, and b) both localized and regional effects need to be accounted for when downscaling climate data over topographically complex sites. 2) Color map showing preliminary estimates of annual EP incorporating canopy information (spatially-distributed values of aerodynamic resistance and LAI) drawn from LiDAR imagery. The effect of the resistance on the dynamics is striking in its ability to

  10. Cross-national comparisons of time trends in overweight inequality by socioeconomic status among women using repeated cross-sectional surveys from 37 developing countries, 1989-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Popkin, Barry M

    2011-03-15

    Chronic diseases are now among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in lower income countries. Although traditionally related to higher individual socioeconomic status (SES) in these contexts, the associations between SES and chronic disease may be actively changing. Furthermore, country-level contextual factors, such as economic development and income inequality, may influence the distribution of chronic disease by SES as well as how this distribution has changed over time. Using overweight status as a health indicator, the authors studied repeated cross-sectional data from women aged 18-49 years in 37 developing countries to assess within-country trends in overweight inequalities by SES between 1989 and 2007 (n=405,550). Meta-regression was used to examine the associations between gross domestic product and disproportionate increases in overweight prevalence by SES, with additional testing for modification by country-level income inequality. In 27 of 37 countries, higher SES (vs. lower) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence; in the remaining 10 countries, lower SES (vs. higher) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence. Gross domestic product was positively related to faster increase in overweight prevalence among the lower wealth groups. Among countries with a higher gross domestic product, lower income inequality was associated with faster overweight growth among the poor.

  11. SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC GENERALIZATION OF TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hao-wen; LI Zhi-lin; AI Ting-hua

    2006-01-01

    With the construction of spatial data infrastructure, automated topographic map generalization becomes an indispensable component in the community of cartography and geographic information science. This paper describes a topographic map generalization system recently developed by the authors. The system has the following characteristics: 1) taking advantage of three levels of automation, i.e. fully automated generalization, batch generalization,and interactive generalization, to undertake two types of processes, i.e. intelligent inference process and repetitive operation process in generalization; 2) making use of two kinds of sources for generalizing rule library, i.e. written specifications and cartographers' experiences, to define a six-element structure to describe the rules; 3) employing a hierarchical structure for map databases, logically and physically; 4) employing a grid indexing technique and undo/redo operation to improve database retrieval and object generalization efficiency. Two examples of topographic map generalization are given to demonstrate the system. It reveals that the system works well. In fact, this system has been used for a number of projects and it has been found that a great improvement in efficiency compared with traditional map generalization process can be achieved.

  12. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  13. Topographic relationships for design rainfalls over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F.; Hutchinson, M. F.; The, C.; Beesley, C.; Green, J.

    2016-02-01

    Design rainfall statistics are the primary inputs used to assess flood risk across river catchments. These statistics normally take the form of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves that are derived from extreme value probability distributions fitted to observed daily, and sub-daily, rainfall data. The design rainfall relationships are often required for catchments where there are limited rainfall records, particularly catchments in remote areas with high topographic relief and hence some form of interpolation is required to provide estimates in these areas. This paper assesses the topographic dependence of rainfall extremes by using elevation-dependent thin plate smoothing splines to interpolate the mean annual maximum rainfall, for periods from one to seven days, across Australia. The analyses confirm the important impact of topography in explaining the spatial patterns of these extreme rainfall statistics. Continent-wide residual and cross validation statistics are used to demonstrate the 100-fold impact of elevation in relation to horizontal coordinates in explaining the spatial patterns, consistent with previous rainfall scaling studies and observational evidence. The impact of the complexity of the fitted spline surfaces, as defined by the number of knots, and the impact of applying variance stabilising transformations to the data, were also assessed. It was found that a relatively large number of 3570 knots, suitably chosen from 8619 gauge locations, was required to minimise the summary error statistics. Square root and log data transformations were found to deliver marginally superior continent-wide cross validation statistics, in comparison to applying no data transformation, but detailed assessments of residuals in complex high rainfall regions with high topographic relief showed that no data transformation gave superior performance in these regions. These results are consistent with the understanding that in areas with modest topographic relief, as

  14. Assessing the repeatability of terrestrial laser scanning for monitoring gully topography: A case study from Aratula, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicholas Robert; Armston, John; Stiller, Isaac; Muir, Jasmine

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is a powerful tool for quantifying gully morphology and monitoring change over time. This is due to the high sampling density, sub-centimetre positional accuracies (x, y, z), flexibility of survey configurations and ability to link multiple TLS scans together. However, to ensure correct interpretation of results, research is needed to test the repeatability of TLS derived products to quantify the accuracy and separate 'false' from 'true' geomorphic change. In this study, we use the RIEGL VZ400 scanner to test the repeatability of TLS datasets for mapping gully morphology. We then quantify change following a rainfall event of approximately 100 mm. Our study site, located in south-east Queensland, Australia was chosen to be challenging from a repeatability perspective with high topographic variability. The TLS data capture involved three sets of linked scans: one survey pre-rainfall, to be compared to two surveys post-rainfall acquired on consecutive days. Change is considered negligible in the two post-rainfall scans to test survey repeatability. To verify TLS accuracy, an independent dataset of gully extent and spot heights were acquired using traditional total station techniques. Results confirm that the TLS datasets can be registered multi-temporally at sub-centimetre levels of accuracy in three dimensions. Total station and TLS elevation samples showed strong agreement with a mean error and standard deviation (SD) of residuals equal to 0.052 and 0.047 m, respectively (n = 889). Significantly, our repeatability tests found that return type and pulse deviation influence the accuracy and repeatability of DEMs in gully environments. Analysis of consecutive day datasets showed that DEMs derived from first return data recorded 40% higher SD of residual error than DEMs using multiple return data. A significant empirical relationship between pulse deviation and the variance of residuals for repeat DEMs is also shown (r2 = 0

  15. Increasing Belief in the Effectiveness of HIV Treatment as Prevention: Results of Repeated, National Surveys of Australian Gay and Bisexual Men, 2013-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Martin; Lea, Toby; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; Murphy, Dean; Rosengarten, Marsha; Crawford, David; Ellard, Jeanne; Kolstee, Johann; de Wit, John

    2016-07-01

    We surveyed Australian gay and bisexual men, assessing belief in HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) and support for early treatment. We identified the characteristics of participants who believed in TasP and supported early treatment using multivariate logistic regression. In 2013, 1316 men participated; 1251 participated in 2015. Belief in TasP increased from 2.6 % in 2013 to 13.1 % in 2015 (p HIV treatment was associated with being younger, living in New South Wales and being in paid employment. We recommend continued monitoring of the growing gap in belief about TasP between HIV-positive men and HIV-negative/untested men.

  16. Changes in the macrozoobenthos of the intertidal zone at Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea): a survey of 1984 repeated in 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Katharina; Buchholz, Friedrich

    2006-09-01

    Changes in the presence and absence of invertebrates as well as in species conspicuousness were documented in a rocky intertidal community based on surveys in 1984 and 2002. In 2002 six vertically and/or morphologically different stations of an intertidal platform were sampled. Five of these six habitats had already been surveyed in 1984. Replicating precisely the method of the first assessment, presence/absence changes as well as changes in species conspicuousness of 83 invertebrate species were documented, indicating that this intertidal community changed considerably during the 18-year interval. Compared with the study in 1984, 27 species newly appeared, whereas 32 species disappeared. Furthermore, 16 species increased in conspicuousness, whereas eight invertebrates decreased. The total number of species in 2002 was 154 versus 158 in 1984. Although algal species were not recorded as thoroughly as invertebrates, a massive decline in cover of Halidrys siliquosa was noted. Conversely, two invasive algal species became established after 1984, Sargassum muticum (since 1988), a cosmopolitan fucoid alga that prefers shallow subtidal areas for colonization, and Mastocarpus stellatus (introduction in the 1980s) that particularly colonized areas in the mid intertidal. In 1984 the mid intertidal zone was dominated by the brown alga Fucus serratus, whereas in 2002 the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the periwinkle Littorina littorea were the most conspicuous organisms. Annual mean sea surface temperature (BAH measurements) warmed by 1.1°C over the past four decades. Range-related community shifts, introductions of non-indigenous species and the input of pollutants, are considered to explain long-term ecological changes in the invertebrate community at Helgoland.

  17. 2010 Fresno Reservoir Sedimentation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Fresno Reservoir in June of 2010 to develop a topographic map and compute a storage-elevation relationship...

  18. Glendo Reservoir 2003 Sedimenation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Glendo Reservoir in May and July of 2003 and January 2005 to develop a new topographic map and compute a present...

  19. Creating abstract topographic representations: implications for coding, learning and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Chris J

    2009-06-01

    Topographic maps are a fundamental and ubiquitous feature of the sensory and motor regions of the brain. There is less evidence for the existence of conventional topographic maps in associational areas of the brain such as the prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex. The existence of topographically arranged anatomical projections is far more widespread and occurs in associational regions of the brain as well as sensory and motor regions: this points to a more widespread existence of topographically organised maps within associational cortex than currently recognised. Indeed, there is increasing evidence that abstract topographic representations may also occur in these regions. For example, a topographic mnemonic map of visual space has been described in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and topographically arranged visuospatial attentional signals have been described in parietal association cortex. This article explores how abstract representations might be extracted from sensory topographic representations and subsequently code abstract information. Finally a simple model is presented that shows how abstract topographic representations could be integrated with other information within the brain to solve problems or form abstract associations. The model uses correlative firing to detect associations between different types of stimuli. It is flexible because it can produce correlations between information represented in a topographic or non-topographic coordinate system. It is proposed that a similar process could be used in high-level cognitive operations such as learning and reasoning.

  20. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  1. Multiple imputation of completely missing repeated measures data within person from a complex sample: application to accelerometer data in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benmei; Yu, Mandi; Graubard, Barry I; Troiano, Richard P; Schenker, Nathaniel

    2016-12-10

    The Physical Activity Monitor component was introduced into the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to collect objective information on physical activity including both movement intensity counts and ambulatory steps. Because of an error in the accelerometer device initialization process, the steps data were missing for all participants in several primary sampling units, typically a single county or group of contiguous counties, who had intensity count data from their accelerometers. To avoid potential bias and loss in efficiency in estimation and inference involving the steps data, we considered methods to accurately impute the missing values for steps collected in the 2003-2004 NHANES. The objective was to come up with an efficient imputation method that minimized model-based assumptions. We adopted a multiple imputation approach based on additive regression, bootstrapping and predictive mean matching methods. This method fits alternative conditional expectation (ace) models, which use an automated procedure to estimate optimal transformations for both the predictor and response variables. This paper describes the approaches used in this imputation and evaluates the methods by comparing the distributions of the original and the imputed data. A simulation study using the observed data is also conducted as part of the model diagnostics. Finally, some real data analyses are performed to compare the before and after imputation results. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Variability of land degradation along topographic transects in two Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Anaya-Romero, María; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Jordán, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; de la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of topography, soil factors and climate conditions on land degradation along topographic transects in two Mediterranean areas: Seville (southern Spain) and El-Fayoum (northern Egypt). Elevation and slope gradient information from both study sites were obtained from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, processed using ENVI 4.7. Additionally, topographic transects were developed using ArcGIS 10 software. To represent the highest variability in elevation, lithology, soil and land use in each site, one representative topographic transect from El-Fayoum and two topographic transects from Seville were selected. Soil characteristics along each of the topographic transect were obtained by mapping land surveying and laboratory analyses data. MicroLEIS DSS (Pantanal and Raizal submodels) was used to assess soil contamination with phosphorus, nitrogen, heavy metals and pesticides and water erosion vulnerability along the topographic transects for each study site using soil data, including depth, texture, drainage, carbonate content, salinity, sodium saturation, organic matter content and acidity (pH). Additionally, monthly average values of climate variables (mean temperature, maximum and minimum rainfall and number of rainy days) have been used. The results obtained by Raizal and Pantanal models suggest that lower elevation areas from transects show low vulnerability classes in both degradation processes (water erosion and soil contamination), when compared to uplands. The variation of climate conditions and soil factors along the Seville and El-Fayoum transects were responsible for the observed variability in both soil degradation processes (erosion and contamination). Key words: MicroLEIS DSS, soil degradation, soil factors, topography, DEM

  3. Multi-scale characterization of topographic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. G.; Koons, P. O.; Osti, B.; Upton, P.; Tucker, G. E.

    2016-05-01

    We present the every-direction variogram analysis (EVA) method for quantifying orientation and scale dependence of topographic anisotropy to aid in differentiation of the fluvial and tectonic contributions to surface evolution. Using multi-directional variogram statistics to track the spatial persistence of elevation values across a landscape, we calculate anisotropy as a multiscale, direction-sensitive variance in elevation between two points on a surface. Tectonically derived topographic anisotropy is associated with the three-dimensional kinematic field, which contributes (1) differential surface displacement and (2) crustal weakening along fault structures, both of which amplify processes of surface erosion. Based on our analysis, tectonic displacements dominate the topographic field at the orogenic scale, while a combination of the local displacement and strength fields are well represented at the ridge and valley scale. Drainage network patterns tend to reflect the geometry of underlying active or inactive tectonic structures due to the rapid erosion of faults and differential uplift associated with fault motion. Regions that have uniform environmental conditions and have been largely devoid of tectonic strain, such as passive coastal margins, have predominantly isotropic topography with typically dendritic drainage network patterns. Isolated features, such as stratovolcanoes, are nearly isotropic at their peaks but exhibit a concentric pattern of anisotropy along their flanks. The methods we provide can be used to successfully infer the settings of past or present tectonic regimes, and can be particularly useful in predicting the location and orientation of structural features that would otherwise be impossible to elude interpretation in the field. Though we limit the scope of this paper to elevation, EVA can be used to quantify the anisotropy of any spatially variable property.

  4. Using UAV photogrammetry to study topographic change: application to Saskatchewan Glacier, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier Cardinal, G.; Demuth, M. N.; Kinnard, C.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers are an important source of fresh water in the headwaters of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, and ongoing climate warming could reduce their future hydrological contribution. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAVs) are an emergent technology that allow studying glacial processes with an unprecedented level of detail, but their usefulness for deriving accurate topographic data on glaciers has not yet been fully assessed. In this perspective we tested the use of a UAV platform to acquire images at a very high spatial resolution (tracking techniques to the orthomosaics. Further, the dominant scales of topographic spatial variability were examined using a semivariogram analysis of the DEMs. Results show that UAV-based photogrammetry is promising to further our understanding of high-resolution glacier surface processes and to perform repeat, on-demand monitoring of glacier changes, but their application on remote glaciers remains challenging.

  5. Topographic quantitative EEG amplitude in recovered alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, V E; Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Gleason, R P; Pawluczyk, S

    1992-05-01

    Topographic measures of electroencephalographic (EEG) amplitude were used to compare recovered alcoholics (n = 14) with sex- and age-matched control subjects. Delta, alpha, and beta activity did not distinguish the groups, but regional differences in theta distribution did. Recovered alcoholics showed more uniform distributions of theta amplitudes in bilateral anterior and posterior regions compared with controls. Because a minimum of 5 years had elapsed since the recovered alcoholic subjects fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, it is unlikely these EEG theta differences reflect the effects of withdrawal.

  6. A brief history of topographical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standring, Susan

    2016-07-01

    This brief history of topographical anatomy begins with Egyptian medical papyri and the works known collectively as the Greco-Arabian canon, the time line then moves on to the excitement of discovery that characterised the Renaissance, the increasing regulatory and legislative frameworks introduced in the 18th and 19th centuries, and ends with a consideration of the impact of technology that epitomises the period from the late 19th century to the present day. This paper is based on a lecture I gave at the Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society in Cambridge in December 2015, when I was awarded the Anatomical Society Medal.

  7. Magnetic and topographic correlations in Co nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciria, M. [Departamento de Magnetismo de Solidos, Departmento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: ciria@unizar.es; Arnaudas, J.I. [Departamento de Magnetismo de Solidos, Departmento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Zaragoza (Spain); Huttel, Y. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Gomez, H. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Cebollada, A. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Armelles, G. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    We present a study of the magnetic domains structure in Co films grown on AlN composed of particles with nominal thicknesses between 3 and 15 nm. The images taken by using a scanning force microscope show that as the film thickness increases the domains have the magnetization vector pointing out of the plane, and that the magnetization in the particle tends to be in a single domain state with the particle boundaries being the main source for domains boundaries. The variation of the magnetic and topographic correlation functions in terms of the particle thickness suggests that the magnetic state is formed by a correlated super-spin glass structure.

  8. Corneal Topographic Analysis in Patients with Cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    We studied the corneal curvature of 161 eyes in 101 patients, aged from 50 to 80 years (mean: 63 years), with senile cataract using the Topographic Modeling System (IMS) preoperatively. The results revealed that mean surface asymmetry index (SAD was 0. 36 and mean surface regularity index (SRI) 0. 79. Simulated keratometry reading (Sim K) was 44. 46 D, and 43. 56 D. Minimun K reading was 42. 60 D. The same patterns of corneal topography in both eyes were 50% in 60 patients who had binocular examination....

  9. Has growth in electronic cigarette use by smokers been responsible for the decline in use of licensed nicotine products? Findings from repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; McNeill, Ann; Michie, Susan; West, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The rise in electronic cigarette use by smokers may be responsible for the decreased use of licensed nicotine products and/or increased overall use of non-tobacco nicotine-containing products. This paper reports findings from the Smoking Toolkit Study (STS) tracking use of electronic cigarettes and licensed nicotine products to address this issue. Data were obtained from monthly surveys involving 14 502 cigarette smokers in England between March 2011 and November 2014. Smokers were asked about their use of electronic cigarettes and licensed nicotine products. Prevalence of electronic cigarette use increased rapidly from 2.2% (95% CI 1.4% to 3.2%) in quarter 2 of 2011 to 20.8% (95% CI 18.3% to 23.4%) in quarter 3 of 2013, after which there was no change. Prevalence of licensed nicotine product use in smokers remained stable from quarter 2 of 2011 (17.4%, 95% CI 15.3% to 19.8%) to quarter 3 of 2013 (17.9%, 95% CI 15.62% to 20.5%), and thereafter declined steadily to 7.9% (95% CI 6.0% to 10.4%). Prevalence of use of any product was stable to quarter 1 of 2012, after which it increased from 18.5% (95% CI 16.3% to 21.0%) to 33.3% (95% CI 30.4% to 36.3%) in quarter 3 of 2013, and then decreased to 22.7% (95% CI 19.3% to 26.3%). The shapes of trajectories since 2011 suggest that electronic cigarettes are probably not responsible for the decline in use of licensed nicotine products. Electronic cigarettes appear to have increased the total market for use of non-tobacco nicotine-containing products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. 基于WalkSurvey软件的1:2000比例尺地形图数字化缩编技术的实现%Implementation of 1:2 000 Scale Digital Topographic Map Downsizing Technology Based on WalkSurvey Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海江

    2013-01-01

    In order to bet er meet the needs of city planning and construction, using the existing 1:500, 1:1 000 large scale topographic map downsizing into 1:2 000 scale topographic map, is a way of both economical and efficient and easy access to smal scale topographic map. This paper focuses on realizat-ion method of the technology making exist large scale map ge-neralized to 1:2 000 digital topographic map.%为了更好地满足城市规划建设的需要,利用现有的1:500、1:1000大比例尺地形图缩编成1:2000比例尺的地形图是既经济节约又高效方便地获取小比例尺地形图的一种途径,本文就重点叙述了本院将现有大比例图缩编成1:2000数字地形图的技术实现方法。

  11. Population-wide weight loss and regain in relation to diabetes burden and cardiovascular mortality in Cuba 1980-2010: repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Manuel; Bilal, Usama; Orduñez, Pedro; Benet, Mikhail; Morejón, Alain; Caballero, Benjamín; Kennelly, Joan F; Cooper, Richard S

    2013-04-09

    To evaluate the associations between population-wide loss and gain in weight with diabetes prevalence, incidence, and mortality, as well as cardiovascular and cancer mortality trends, in Cuba over a 30 year interval. Repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends. Cuba and the province of Cienfuegos, from 1980 to 2010. Measurements in Cienfuegos included a representative sample of 1657, 1351, 1667, and 1492 adults in 1991, 1995, 2001, and 2010, respectively. National surveys included a representative sample of 14 304, 22 851, and 8031 participants in 1995, 2001, and 2010, respectively. Changes in smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, and body weight were tracked from 1980 to 2010 using national and regional surveys. Data for diabetes prevalence and incidence were obtained from national population based registries. Mortality trends were modelled using national vital statistics. Rapid declines in diabetes and heart disease accompanied an average population-wide loss of 5.5 kg in weight, driven by an economic crisis in the mid-1990s. A rebound in population weight followed in 1995 (33.5% prevalence of overweight and obesity) and exceeded pre-crisis levels by 2010 (52.9% prevalence). The population-wide increase in weight was immediately followed by a 116% increase in diabetes prevalence and 140% increase in diabetes incidence. Six years into the weight rebound phase, diabetes mortality increased by 49% (from 9.3 deaths per 10 000 people in 2002 to 13.9 deaths per 10 000 people in 2010). A deceleration in the rate of decline in mortality from coronary heart disease was also observed. In relation to the Cuban experience in 1980-2010, there is an association at the population level between weight reduction and death from diabetes and cardiovascular disease; the opposite effect on the diabetes and cardiovascular burden was seen on population-wide weight gain.

  12. Vortex ring breakdown induced by topographic forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiser, J; Kiger, K T, E-mail: kkiger@umd.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20910 (United States)

    2011-12-22

    Detailed measurements of the vortex breakdown within a strongly forced impinging jet are presented, with the goal of studying the effects of a small topographic disturbance on the breakdown and turbulence structure. This work is related to an ongoing effort to understand the dynamics of sediment suspension within a landing rotorcraft where a mobile boundary is subject to rapid erosion and deposition. The current work compares the results of a uniform surface to that of a small radial fence placed upstream of the vortex impingement location. The result is a dramatic increase in the coherence of the three-dimensional looping exhibited by the secondary vortex, leading to a more organized and strongly perturbed mean flow. Specifically, a triple decomposition of the velocity fluctuations indicates a very intense periodic stress in the vicinity of the impingement site, followed by a significant decay. Conversely, the random component of the fluctuating stresses gradually increases to modest levels as the coherent contributions decrease, eventually becoming greater than the coherent stress. The fence produces a bifurcation in the flow through the perturbation of the secondary vortex, which in turn creates a high-and low-speed streak on either side of the fence. The subsequent dynamics leads to increased fluctuating stress in the high-speed region, and a dramatically lower stress in the low-speed region, favoring preferential erosion on either side of the topographic disturbance.

  13. Corneal Topographic Changes After Eyelid Ptosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Gustavo; Battendieri, Remo; Riso, Monica; Traina, Salvatore; Poscia, Andrea; DʼAmico, Giovanni; Caporossi, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the corneal topography and the topographic changes after ptosis surgery on patients affected by congenital and acquired blepharoptosis. Twenty eyes of 17 patients affected by acquired and congenital ptosis underwent surgical correction through anterior levator complex tightening. Computerized tomography (Syrius Sistem; CSO) was used to analyze any change in corneal astigmatism (CYL), simulated keratometry, anterior corneal symmetry index front, apical keratometry front, and central corneal thickness. Visual acuity, margin reflex distance, and levator function were also measured. After surgical ptosis repair, corneal topography demonstrated a reduction in average keratometry of 0.15 ± 0.47 diopters (D) and in corneal astigmatism of 0.26 ± 1.12 D. Significant differences were found in apical keratometry front (-1.84 ± 1.76 D) and in best-corrected visual acuity (-0.18 ± 0.06 logMAR) in the postoperative examinations. Central corneal thickness did not show significant differences between preoperative and postoperative examinations. Postoperative topographic maps showed a reduction of symmetry index front (0.10 ± 0.64 D). Eyelid ptosis modifies anterior corneal surface inducing refractive errors and modifying corneal astigmatism in patients, thus affecting the quality of vision. The surgical correction of blepharoptosis induces anterior corneal surface modification, restoring corneal symmetry and regular corneal astigmatism. Postoperative corneal topography showed normal corneal contours.

  14. Delineation, characterization, and classification of topographic eminences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gaurav

    Topographic eminences are defined as upwardly rising, convex shaped topographic landforms that are noticeably distinct in their immediate surroundings. As opposed to everyday objects, the properties of a topographic eminence are dependent not only on how it is conceptualized, but is also intrinsically related to its spatial extent and its relative location in the landscape. In this thesis, a system for automated detection, delineation and characterization of topographic eminences based on an analysis of digital elevation models is proposed. Research has shown that conceptualization of eminences (and other landforms) is linked to the cultural and linguistic backgrounds of people. However, the perception of stimuli from our physical environment is not subject to cultural or linguistic bias. Hence, perceptually salient morphological and spatial properties of the natural landscape can form the basis for generically applicable detection and delineation of topographic eminences. Six principles of cognitive eminence modeling are introduced to develop the philosophical foundation of this research regarding eminence delineation and characterization. The first step in delineating eminences is to automatically detect their presence within digital elevation models. This is achieved by the use of quantitative geomorphometric parameters (e.g., elevation, slope and curvature) and qualitative geomorphometric features (e.g., peaks, passes, pits, ridgelines, and valley lines). The process of eminence delineation follows that of eminence detection. It is posited that eminences may be perceived either as monolithic terrain objects, or as composites of morphological parts (e.g., top, bottom, slope). Individual eminences may also simultaneously be conceived as comprising larger, higher order eminence complexes (e.g., mountain ranges). Multiple algorithms are presented for the delineation of simple and complex eminences, and the morphological parts of eminences. The proposed eminence

  15. Generating Topographic Map Data from Classification Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Höhle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of classification results as topographic map data requires cartographic enhancement and checking of the geometric accuracy. Urban areas are of special interest. The conversion of the classification result into topographic map data of high thematic and geometric quality is subject of this contribution. After reviewing the existing literature on this topic, a methodology is presented. The extraction of point clouds belonging to line segments is solved by the Hough transform. The mathematics for deriving polygons of orthogonal, parallel and general line segments by least squares adjustment is presented. A unique solution for polylines, where the Hough parameters are optimized, is also given. By means of two data sets land cover maps of six classes were produced and then enhanced by the proposed method. The classification used the decision tree method applying a variety of attributes including object heights derived from imagery. The cartographic enhancement is carried out with two different levels of quality. The user’s accuracies for the classes “impervious surface” and “building” were above 85% in the “Level 1” map of Example 1. The geometric accuracy of building corners at the “Level 2” maps is assessed by means of reference data derived from ortho-images. The obtained root mean square errors (RMSE of the generated coordinates (x, y were RMSEx = 1.2 m and RMSEy = 0.7 m (Example 1 and RMSEx = 0.8 m and RMSEy = 1.0 m (Example 2 using 31 and 62 check points, respectively. All processing for Level 1 (raster data could be carried out with a high degree of automation. Level 2 maps (vector data were compiled for the classes “building” and “road and parking lot”. For urban areas with numerous classes and of large size, universal algorithms are necessary to produce vector data fully automatically. The recent progress in sensors and machine learning methods will support the generation of topographic map data of high

  16. Topographical scattering of waves: a spectral approach

    CERN Document Server

    Magne, R; Rey, V; Herbers, T H C; Magne, Rudy; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Rey, Vincent; Herbers, Thomas H. C.

    2005-01-01

    The topographical scattering of gravity waves is investigated using a spectral energy balance equation that accounts for first order wave-bottom Bragg scattering. This model represents the bottom topography and surface waves with spectra, and evaluates a Bragg scattering source term that is theoretically valid for small bottom and surface slopes and slowly varying spectral properties. The robustness of the model is tested for a variety of topographies uniform along one horizontal dimension including nearly sinusoidal, linear ramp and step profiles. Results are compared with reflections computed using an accurate method that applies integral matching along vertical boundaries of a series of steps. For small bottom amplitudes, the source term representation yields accurate reflection estimates even for a localized scatterer. This result is proved for small bottom amplitudes $h$ relative to the mean water depth $H$. Wave reflection by small amplitude bottom topography thus depends primarily on the bottom elevati...

  17. The topographic signature of anthropogenic geomorphic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, P.; Sofia, G.

    2014-12-01

    Within an abiotic-dominated context, geomorphologic patterns and dynamics are single expressions of trade-offs between the physical resistance forces, and the mechanical and chemical forces related to climate and erosion. Recently, however, it has become essential for the geomorphological community to take into account also biota as a fundamental geomorphologic agent acting from local to regional scales. However, while there is a recent flourishing literature about the impacts of vegetation on geomorphic processes, the study of anthropogenic pressure on geomorphology is still at its early stages. Humans are indeed among the most prominent geomorphic agents, redistributing land surface, and causing drastic changes to the geomorphic organization of the landscape (e.g. intensive agriculture, urbanization), with direct consequences on land degradation and watershed response. The reconstruction or identification of artificial or anthropogenic topographies, therefore, provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to the landscape systems in the context of the Anthropocene epoch. High-resolution topographic data derived from the recent remote sensing technologies (e.g. lidar, SAR, SfM), offer now new opportunities to recognize better understand geomorphic processes from topographic signatures, especially in engineered landscapes where the direct anthropic alteration of processes is significant. It is possible indeed to better recognize human-induced geomorphic and anthropogenic features (e.g. road networks, agricultural terraces), and the connected erosion. The study presented here may allow improved understanding and targeted mitigation of the processes driving geomorphic changes during urban development and help guide future research directions for development-based watershed studies. Human society is deeply affecting the environment with consequences on the landscape. It is therefore fundamental to establish greater management control over the Earth

  18. Why Gas Hydrate Occurrenced Over Topographic Highs in Shenhu Area Northern South China Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Methane gas hydrate has been drilled by China Geological Survey in shenhu area northern south china sea in 2007 .Shenhu area is located in the middle-lower continental slope and 17 submarine canyons are incised into the shelf,gas hydrtae was observed in boreholes over topographic highs,but origin of the hydrate is controversial.Accumulation of gas hydrate is depending on temperature-pressure field and supply quantities of methane and some other factors,in the same depth of the shallow sediments there is the same press,so temperature field and supply quantities of methane become the most important factors.Lachenbruch(1968) calculated the topographic disturbance to geothermal gradients,in shenhu area consistent local variations were observed, notably low heat flow values over prominent topographic highs and high heat flow values over the flanks of the topographic highs. At some localities over a horizontal distance of 2.5 km, heat flow increased by as much as 50%, from typical values of 65 to 100 mW/m2 .Some vertical fractures were observed beneath topographic highs in previous studies.Based on the profile across borehole SH7,we designed four experiments:A,uniform distribution of heat flux with no vertical fractures;B,Uniform distribution of heat flux with vertical fractures beneath geographic highs;C,uneven distribution of heat flux with no vertical fractures;D,uneven distribution of heat flux with vertical fractures beneath geographic highs.According to previous studies,we restored Palaeobathymetry,abundance of organic matters, sandstone-madstone ratio ,porosity and permeability of each,and parameters of vertical fractures.The result of experiment D shows the similar distribution characteristic with the drilling result,so We believe that low heat flux and Vertical fractures are the most important factors . This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China(grant no. 41406080).

  19. Short-term synaptic depression is topographically distributed in the cochlear nucleus of the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline, Stefan N; Burger, R Michael

    2014-01-22

    In the auditory system, sounds are processed in parallel frequency-tuned circuits, beginning in the cochlea. Activity of auditory nerve fibers reflects this frequency-specific topographic pattern, known as tonotopy, and imparts frequency tuning onto their postsynaptic target neurons in the cochlear nucleus. In birds, cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) neurons encode the temporal properties of acoustic stimuli by "locking" discharges to a particular phase of the input signal. Physiological specializations exist in gradients corresponding to the tonotopic axis in NM that reflect the characteristic frequency (CF) of their auditory nerve fiber inputs. One feature of NM neurons that has not been investigated across the tonotopic axis is short-term synaptic plasticity. NM offers a rather homogeneous population of neurons with a distinct topographical distribution of synaptic properties that is ideal for the investigation of specialized synaptic plasticity. Here we demonstrate for the first time that short-term synaptic depression (STD) is expressed topographically, where unitary high CF synapses are more robust with repeated stimulation. Correspondingly, high CF synapses drive spiking more reliably than their low CF counterparts. We show that postsynaptic AMPA receptor desensitization does not contribute to the observed difference in STD. Further, rate of recovery from depression, a presynaptic property, does not differ tonotopically. Rather, we show that another presynaptic feature, readily releasable pool (RRP) size, is tonotopically distributed and inversely correlated with vesicle release probability. Mathematical model results demonstrate that these properties of vesicle dynamics are sufficient to explain the observed tonotopic distribution of STD.

  20. Topographic Phase Recovery from Stacked ERS Interferometry and a Low-Resolution Digital Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, David T.; Sichoix, Lydie; Frey, Herbert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid approach to topographic recovery from ERS interferometry is developed and assessed. Tropospheric/ionospheric artifacts, imprecise orbital information, and layover are key issues in recovering topography and surface deformation from repeat-pass interferometry. Previously, we developed a phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms to reduce these errors and also to reduce the short-wavelength phase noise (see Sandwell arid Price [1998] and Appendix A). Here the method is extended to use a low-resolution digital elevation model to constrain long-wavelength phase errors and an iteration scheme to minimize errors in the computation of phase gradient. We demonstrate the topographic phase recovery on 16-m postings using 25 ERS synthetic aperture radar images from an area of southern California containing 2700 m of relief. On the basis of a comparison with 81 GPS monuments, the ERS derived topography has a typical absolute accuracy of better than 10 m except in areas of layover. The resulting topographic phase enables accurate two-pass, real-time interferometry even in mountainous areas where traditional phase unwrapping schemes fail. As an example, we form a topography-free (127-m perpendicular baseline) interferogram spanning 7.5 years; fringes from two major earthquakes and a seismic slip on the San Andreas Fault are clearly isolated.

  1. Study on High Accuracy Topographic Mapping via UAV-based Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yun-Yao; Lee, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Shang-En

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) provides a promising tool for the acquisition of such multi-temporal aerial stereo photos and high-resolution digital surface models. Recently, the flight of UAVs operates with high degrees of autonomy by the global position system and onboard digit camera and computer. The UAV-based mapping can be obtained faster and cheaper, but its accuracy is anxious. This paper aims to identify the integration ability of high accuracy topographic map via the image of quad-rotors UAV and ground control points (GCPs). The living survey data is collected in the Errn river basins area in Tainan, Taiwan. The high accuracy UAV-based topographic in the study area is calibrated by the local coordinate of GCPs using the total station with the accuracy less than 1/2000. The comparison results show the accuracy of UAV-based topographic is accepted by overlapping. The results can be a reference for the practice works of mapping survey in earth.

  2. Topographic Influence on Near-Surface Seismic Velocity in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Moon, S.; Meng, L.; Davis, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Near-surface seismic velocity is commonly used to determine subsurface rock structure, properties, and ground-motion amplification. The spatial distribution of Vs30 (shear-wave seismic velocity in the top 30 m of Earth's crust) has been inferred based on the correlations of measured Vs30 with rock types and topographic slopes. Inference of Vs30 based on topographic slopes relies on the assumption that mechanically strong rocks tend to have steep slopes. The topographic slopes can thus be used to infer bedrock strength and seismic velocity. However, due to limited accessibility and logistical difficulties, there are few Vs30 measurements in sites of crystalline rocks that have measurable topographic variations. Thus, the variability of Vs30 with topographic slope for crystalline rocks has not been addressed systematically. In order to examine the local variabilities in near-surface seismic velocity in southern California, we measured the spatial distributions of near-surface seismic velocity at two sites: one in the San Gabriel Mountains (SGM) and one in the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM). Both sites are composed of predominantly crystalline rocks with topographic slopes that range from 0.2 to 0.5. We conducted seismic refraction surveys using sledgehammer-induced impacts on a steel plate along seismic lines that were oriented roughly N-S, 240 m in length with a spacing of 5 m, and with topographic variation including both a local hilltop and valley. Using first P-wave arrivals, we constructed a P-wave seismic tomography down to 50 m. Our results show that P-wave seismic velocity in the SGM site varies significantly within hillslopes and does not linearly correlate with slope, while P-wave seismic velocity in the SBM site shows little variation in the hillslope. In the SGM site, the Vs30 beneath the valley is 25% faster than the Vs30 beneath the hillslope. These results suggest that the local variability of seismic velocity depends on differences in sediment

  3. An Interdisciplinary Theme: Topographic Maps and Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.; Aulgur, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This is an interdisciplinary lesson designed for middle school students studying landforms and geological processes. Students create a two-dimensional topographic map from a three-dimensional landform that they create using clay. Students then use other groups' topographic maps to re-create landforms. Following this, students explore some basic…

  4. An Interdisciplinary Theme: Topographic Maps and Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.; Aulgur, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This is an interdisciplinary lesson designed for middle school students studying landforms and geological processes. Students create a two-dimensional topographic map from a three-dimensional landform that they create using clay. Students then use other groups' topographic maps to re-create landforms. Following this, students explore some basic…

  5. THE DESIGN AND PRODUCT OF NATIONAL 1:1000000 CARTOGRAPHIC DATA OF TOPOGRAPHIC MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available National administration of surveying, mapping and geoinformation started to launch the project of national fundamental geographic information database dynamic update in 2012. Among them, the 1:50000 database was updated once a year, furthermore the 1:250000 database was downsized and linkage-updated on the basis. In 2014, using the latest achievements of 1:250000 database, comprehensively update the 1:1000000 digital line graph database. At the same time, generate cartographic data of topographic map and digital elevation model data. This article mainly introduce national 1:1000000 cartographic data of topographic map, include feature content, database structure, Database-driven Mapping technology, workflow and so on.

  6. Identifying potential habitat for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adam; Wolcott, Daniel M.; Chow, T. Edwin

    2012-01-01

    The Aleutian shield fern Polystichum aleuticum is endemic to the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska and is listed as endangered pursuant to the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Despite numerous efforts to discover new populations of this species, only four known populations are documented to date, and information is needed to prioritize locations for future surveys. Therefore, we incorporated topographical habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, aspect, distance from coastline, and anthropogenic footprint) found at known Aleutian shield fern locations into a Geographical Information System (GIS) model to create a habitat suitability map for the entirety of the Andreaonof Islands. A total of 18 islands contained 489.26 km2 of highly suitable and moderately suitable habitat when weighting each factor equally. This study reports a habitat suitability map for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics, which can be used to assist current and future recovery efforts for the species.

  7. Updating National Topographic Data Base Using Change Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan, E.; Felus, Y. A.; Tal, Y.; Zilberstien, O.; Elihai, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The traditional method for updating a topographic database on a national scale is a complex process that requires human resources, time and the development of specialized procedures. In many National Mapping and Cadaster Agencies (NMCA), the updating cycle takes a few years. Today, the reality is dynamic and the changes occur every day, therefore, the users expect that the existing database will portray the current reality. Global mapping projects which are based on community volunteers, such as OSM, update their database every day based on crowdsourcing. In order to fulfil user's requirements for rapid updating, a new methodology that maps major interest areas while preserving associated decoding information, should be developed. Until recently, automated processes did not yield satisfactory results, and a typically process included comparing images from different periods. The success rates in identifying the objects were low, and most were accompanied by a high percentage of false alarms. As a result, the automatic process required significant editorial work that made it uneconomical. In the recent years, the development of technologies in mapping, advancement in image processing algorithms and computer vision, together with the development of digital aerial cameras with NIR band and Very High Resolution satellites, allow the implementation of a cost effective automated process. The automatic process is based on high-resolution Digital Surface Model analysis, Multi Spectral (MS) classification, MS segmentation, object analysis and shape forming algorithms. This article reviews the results of a novel change detection methodology as a first step for updating NTDB in the Survey of Israel.

  8. Repeated Surveys and Historical Nautical Charts Support Elastic Rebound Model on Megathrust at Santa MARÍA Island, Chile, (37°S) Through One and One-Half Seismic Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, R. L.; Melnick, D.; Cisternas, M.; Ely, L. L.; Moreno, M.

    2010-12-01

    Repeated bathymetric surveys, historical nautical charts, geologic observations, interviews with local residents, and modern GPS measurements all support a pattern of coseismic uplift, followed by post-seismic and inter-seismic subsidence, at Santa María Island off the coast of south-central Chile. The island is located approximately 75 km landward of the Chile trench and about 12 km above the megathrust fault. Six weeks after the February 20, 1835 Concepcion earthquake (~M 8.5), Captain Robert FitzRoy and the HMS Beagle visited the island and reported 2.4-3 m of uplift based primarily on observations of elevated, newly dead, intratidal and subtidal shellfish attached to rocks. The February 27, 2010 Maule earthquake (M 8.8) earthquake produced similar effects. Several lines of evidence suggest significant subsidence between 1835 and 2010. First, the extensive wave-cut platform at the northern end of island that FitzRoy vividly describes as being exposed and covered with dead shellfish in 1835, lay at the lower level of the island’s 2-m tidal range in January 2010. The nautical chart prepared by officers of the Beagle suggests that the platform was above high tide in 1835. An elderly resident reports that in the first half of the twentieth century part of the platform was above high tide. While some lowering of the bedrock platform could be explained by erosion, the amount of required erosion would be very rapid and extensive. GPS measurements for the interval 2004-2008 indicate that the island subsided at a rate of 10 +/- 1 mm/a as well as moving landward at a rate of 42 mm/a. On January 13 and 15, 2010, we carried out a simple echo-sounder survey in the bay off the southeastern coast of Santa María Island. The same bay, Rada Santa Maria, was surveyed by the Beagle in 1835 using a lead line and pole. The bay has a smooth and very gently sloping bottom, an average depth of about 8 m, and dimensions of about 3 x 5 km. Comparison of our measured depths with those

  9. IMPACT OF DIFFERENT TOPOGRAPHIC CORRECTIONS ON PREDICTION ACCURACY OF FOLIAGE PROJECTIVE COVER (FPC IN A TOPOGRAPHICALLY COMPLEX TERRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ediriweera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative retrieval of land surface biological parameters (e.g. foliage projective cover [FPC] and Leaf Area Index is crucial for forest management, ecosystem modelling, and global change monitoring applications. Currently, remote sensing is a widely adopted method for rapid estimation of surface biological parameters in a landscape scale. Topographic correction is a necessary pre-processing step in the remote sensing application for topographically complex terrain. Selection of a suitable topographic correction method on remotely sensed spectral information is still an unresolved problem. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of topographic corrections on the prediction of FPC in hilly terrain using an established regression model. Five established topographic corrections [C, Minnaert, SCS, SCS+C and processing scheme for standardised surface reflectance (PSSSR] were evaluated on Landsat TM5 acquired under low and high sun angles in closed canopied subtropical rainforest and eucalyptus dominated open canopied forest, north-eastern Australia. The effectiveness of methods at normalizing topographic influence, preserving biophysical spectral information, and internal data variability were assessed by statistical analysis and by comparing field collected FPC data. The results of statistical analyses show that SCS+C and PSSSR perform significantly better than other corrections, which were on less overcorrected areas of faintly illuminated slopes. However, the best relationship between FPC and Landsat spectral responses was obtained with the PSSSR by producing the least residual error. The SCS correction method was poor for correction of topographic effect in predicting FPC in topographically complex terrain.

  10. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  11. Integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löberg, Johanna; Mattisson, Ingela; Ahlberg, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce the need for animal studies in dental implant applications, a new model has been developed which combines well-known surface characterization methods with theoretical biomechanical calculations. The model has been named integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC), and gives a comprehensive description of the surface topography and the ability of the surface to induce retention strength with bone. IBTSC comprises determination of 3D-surface roughness parameters by using 3D-scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and calculation of the ability of different surface topographies to induce retention strength in bone by using the local model. Inherent in this integrated approach is the use of a length scale analysis, which makes it possible to separate different size levels of surface features. The IBTSC concept is tested on surfaces with different level of hierarchy, induced by mechanical as well as chemical treatment. Sequential treatment with oxalic and hydrofluoric acid results in precipitated nano-sized features that increase the surface roughness and the surface slope on the sub-micro and nano levels. This surface shows the highest calculated shear strength using the local model. The validity, robustness and applicability of the IBTSC concept are demonstrated and discussed.

  12. A gimbal platform stabilization for topographic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele, Mangiameli, E-mail: michele.mangiameli@dica.unict.it; Giuseppe, Mussumeci [Dept. of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    The aim of this work is the stabilization of a Gimbal platform for optical sensors acquisitions in topographic applications using mobile vehicles. The stabilization of the line of sight (LOS) consists in tracking the command velocity in presence of nonlinear noise due to the external environment. The hardware architecture is characterized by an Ardupilot platform that allows the control of both the mobile device and the Gimbal. Here we developed a new approach to stabilize the Gimbal platform, which is based on neural network. For the control system, we considered a plant that represents the transfer function of the servo system control model for an inertial stabilized Gimbal platform. The transductor used in the feed-back line control is characterized by the Rate Gyro transfer function installed onboard of Ardupilot. For the simulation and investigation of the system performance, we used the Simulink tool of Matlab. Results show that the hardware/software approach is efficient, reliable and cheap for direct photogrammetry, as well as for general purpose applications using mobile vehicles.

  13. Corneal topographic changes following retinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey RM

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the effect of retinal/ vitreoretinal surgeries on corneal elevations. Methods Patients who underwent retinal/ vitreoretinal surgeries were divided into 3 groups. Scleral buckling was performed in 11 eyes (Group 1. In 8 (25% eyes, vitreoretinal surgery was performed along with scleral buckling (Group 2. In 12 eyes, pars plana vitrectomy was performed for vitreous hemorrhage (Group 3. An encircling element was used in all the eyes. The parameters evaluated were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, change in axial length, and corneal topographic changes on Orbscan topography system II, preoperative and at 12 weeks following surgery. Results There was a statistically significant increase in anterior corneal elevation in all the three groups after surgery (p = 0.003, p = 0.008 & p = 0.003 respectively. The increase in posterior corneal elevation was highly significant in all the three groups after surgery (p = 0.0000, p = 0.0001 & p = 0.0001 respectively. The increase in the posterior corneal elevation was more than the increase in the anterior elevation and was significant statistically in all the three groups (group I: p = 0.02; group II: p = 0.01; group III: p = 0.008. Conclusions Retinal/ vitreoretinal surgeries cause a significant increase in the corneal elevations and have a greater effect on the posterior corneal surface.

  14. Integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löberg, Johanna, E-mail: Johanna.Loberg@dentsply.com [Dentsply Implants, Box 14, SE-431 21 Mölndal (Sweden); Mattisson, Ingela [Dentsply Implants, Box 14, SE-431 21 Mölndal (Sweden); Ahlberg, Elisabet [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-01-30

    In an attempt to reduce the need for animal studies in dental implant applications, a new model has been developed which combines well-known surface characterization methods with theoretical biomechanical calculations. The model has been named integrated biomechanical and topographical surface characterization (IBTSC), and gives a comprehensive description of the surface topography and the ability of the surface to induce retention strength with bone. IBTSC comprises determination of 3D-surface roughness parameters by using 3D-scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and calculation of the ability of different surface topographies to induce retention strength in bone by using the local model. Inherent in this integrated approach is the use of a length scale analysis, which makes it possible to separate different size levels of surface features. The IBTSC concept is tested on surfaces with different level of hierarchy, induced by mechanical as well as chemical treatment. Sequential treatment with oxalic and hydrofluoric acid results in precipitated nano-sized features that increase the surface roughness and the surface slope on the sub-micro and nano levels. This surface shows the highest calculated shear strength using the local model. The validity, robustness and applicability of the IBTSC concept are demonstrated and discussed.

  15. Development and evaluation of a specialized task taxonomy for spatial planning - A map literacy experiment with topographic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, Victoria; Coetzee, Serena; Çöltekin, Arzu

    2017-05-01

    Topographic maps are among the most commonly used map types, however, their complex and information-rich designs depicting natural, human-made and cultural features make them difficult to read. Regardless of their complexity, spatial planners make extensive use of topographic maps in their work. On the other hand, various studies suggest that map literacy among the development planning professionals in South Africa is not very high. The widespread use of topographic maps combined with the low levels of map literacy presents challenges for effective development planning. In this paper we address some of these challenges by developing a specialized task taxonomy based on systematically assessed map literacy levels; and conducting an empirical experiment with topographic maps to evaluate our task taxonomy. In such empirical studies if non-realistic tasks are used, the results of map literacy tests may be skewed. Furthermore, experience and familiarity with the studied map type play a role in map literacy. There is thus a need to develop map literacy tests aimed at planners specifically. We developed a taxonomy of realistic map reading tasks typically executed during the planning process. The taxonomy defines six levels tasks of increasing difficulty and complexity, ranging from recognising symbols to extracting knowledge. We hypothesized that competence in the first four levels indicates functional map literacy. In this paper, we present results from an empirical experiment with 49 map literate participants solving a subset of tasks from the first four levels of the taxonomy with a topographic map. Our findings suggest that the proposed taxonomy is a good reference for evaluating topographic map literacy. Participants solved the tasks on all four levels as expected and we therefore conclude that the experiment based on the first four levels of the taxonomy successfully determined the functional map literacy of the participants. We plan to continue the study for the

  16. Topographic reference points in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set is a compilation of reference points representing surface-water features, ground-water levels, and topographic settings in California that...

  17. Modoc National Wildlife Refuge pond bathymetry: Comparing bathymetric models generated from topographic data collected by recreational sonar fish finder and a Real-Time Kinematic Global Positioning System sensors in support of the USFWS Water Resources Inventory and Assessment Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study compared bathymetric models generated from topographic data collected with: 1) a recreational Lowrance HDS Gen 2 sonar fish finder, and 2) a survey grade...

  18. Topographic reference points in California for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set is a compilation of reference points representing surface-water features, ground-water levels, and topographic settings in California that were...

  19. Topographic reference points in Nevada for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set is a compilation of reference points representing surface-water features, ground-water levels, and topographic settings in Nevada that were...

  20. 2001 Hydrologic Survey of Lake Estes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Lake Estes in August of 2001 to develop a topographic map and compute a present storage-elevation relationship...

  1. The chang’E-1 topographic atlas of the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chunlai; Mu, Lingli; Ren, Xin; Zuo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This atlas is based on the lunar global Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of Chang'E-1 (CE-1), and presents CCD stereo image data with digital photogrammetry. The spatial resolution of the DEM in this atlas is 500m, with horizontal accuracy of 192m and vertical accuracy of 120m. Color-shaded relief maps with contour lines are used to show the lunar topographical characteristics. The topographical data gathered by CE-1 can provide fundamental information for the study of lunar topographical, morphological and geological structures, as well as for lunar evolution research.

  2. Medial temporal lobe and topographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2017-08-08

    There has been interest in the idea that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures might be especially important for spatial processing and spatial memory. We tested the proposal that the MTL has a specific role in topographical memory as assessed in tasks of scene memory where the viewpoint shifts from study to test. Building on materials used previously for such studies, we administered three different tasks in a total of nine conditions. Participants studied a scene depicting four hills of different shapes and sizes and made a choice among four test images. In the Rotation task, the correct choice depicted the study scene from a shifted perspective. MTL patients succeeded when the study and test images were presented together but failed the moment the study scene was removed (even at a 0-s delay). In the No-Rotation task, the correct choice was a duplicate of the study scene. Patients were impaired to the same extent in the No-Rotation and Rotation tasks after matching for difficulty. Thus, an inability to accommodate changes in viewpoint does not account for patient impairment. In the Nonspatial-Perceptual task, the correct choice depicted the same overall coloring as the study scene. Patients were intact at a 2-s delay but failed at longer, distraction-filled delays. The different results for the spatial and nonspatial tasks are discussed in terms of differences in demand on working memory. We suggest that the difficulty of the spatial tasks rests on the neocortex and on the limitations of working memory, not on the MTL.

  3. US Forest Service FSTopo topographic quadrangle - vector data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The FSTopo cartographic database supports the creation of 1:24,000-scale, 7.5-minute topographic PDF maps for the conterminous United States and Puerto Rico, and 15...

  4. 2006 URS Corporation Bare Earth Topographic Lidar: Shawsheen River, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — URS Corporation contracted EarthData International to acquire topographic elevation data for 82 square miles in Essex and Middlesex Counties, Massachusetts during...

  5. 2006 URS Corporation Bare Earth Topographic Lidar: Shawsheen River, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — URS Corporation contracted EarthData International to aquire topographic elevation data for 82 square miles in Essex and Middlesex Counties, Massachusetts during...

  6. Topographic features over the continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Machado, T.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    water depth and the continental shelfedge several interesting topographic features such as Terraces, Karstic structures associated with pinnacles and troughs and smooth dome shaped reef structures are recorded. The nature of these features...

  7. 2012 USACE Post Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Coastal Connecticut

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data has been acquired and developed by the U.S. Corps of Engineers ST. Louis District to collect and deliver topographic elevation point data derived from...

  8. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  9. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  10. Black Twin Colors on Topographics Maps in Digital Print

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Matas; Vilko Žiljak

    2014-01-01

    Spot dyes join the double feature of the INFRAREDESIGN® theory. A large number of planned colors in graphics of topographic maps, are simulated in the press with only four process colorants. Achieved are seperated infromation for the visible and infrared spectrum. This introduces the protection of printed matter, protection of property, reduces the cost of spot printing of large numbers of layers. For the digital print technology simulation of the merge of "topographical colors" is extended t...

  11. Statistical scaling properties of planetary topographic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landais, François; Schmidt, Frederic; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2016-10-01

    The massive acquisition of altimetric data in the solar system has motivated numerous analysis of the topography of planets, in particular the surface roughness. Many statistical indicators have been proposed and widely explored in order to study the surface of plantets. Useful informations have been obtained by the use of those indicators but they often have the disadvantage of been defined at a given scale. By construction, they do not directly take into account the well-established scale symmetry that generally occurs in the case of natural surfaces. Indeed, topography can not be interpreted as a stationary field, meaning that statistical parameters like the mean or the standard deviation exhibit a dependence toward scales. This subject has been widely studied in the past, parallel to the development of the notion of fractals. It is now well established that topography is often efficiently modelled by fractal simulations. More interestingly, the fractal theory provides a mathematical formalism to describe the scale dependence of statistical parameters toward scales. It turns out that simple power-law relations efficiently approach the variability of planetary surfaces.However, The observed intermittency (spatial dependance of the scaling laws) apparently rejects the idea of a global description of any topographic field at the planetary scale. Still, modern developments in the fractal theory might be able to give full account to the observed variability and intermittency. It is possible to extent the fractal interpretation of topography to a multifractal statistical object requiring an infinite number of fractal dimensions (one for each statistical moment order). In the present study, we analyse the global scaling laws of topography for different body in the solar system in order to test the multifractal formalism. We then compare the fractal and multifractal parameters form a body to the other. We demonstrate that a change of processes governing the global

  12. Estimating of the USLE topographic factor using three algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Panachuki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have proposed the mathematical modeling of the topographic factor (slope length and slope steepness of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE in different conditions of relief. This paper presents an analysis of the performance of three equations in the production of the topographic factor as well as the influence of slope steepness in its estimation. Topographic data processed in a geographic information system were used to derive the digital elevation model that was applied to calculate the topographic factor using the software USLE-2D. Differences between the results when using distinct algorithms were found and areas with larger slope steepness resulted in greater differences. The slope corresponded to 75.1%, 83.8% and 82.8% of the topographic factor in the studied equations. Therefore, the slope has more influence than the length of the ramp in the calculation of the topographic factor. In addition, the choice of the equation to be applied to obtain such factor is dependent upon the local relief.

  13. A topographic parameter inversion method based on laser altimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG ChunMing; ZHANG ShaoDong; CHEN Xi

    2012-01-01

    A topographic parameter inversion method based on laser altimetry is developed in this paper,which can be used to deduce the surface vertical profile and retrieve the topographic parameters within the laser footprints by analyzing and simulating return waveforms.This method comprises three steps.The first step is to build the numerical models for the whole measuring procedure of laser altimetry,construct digital elevation models for surfaces with different topographic parameters,and calculate return waveforms.The second step is to analyze the simulated return waveforms to obtain their characteristics parameters,summarize the effects of the topographic parameter variations on the characteristic parameters of simulated return waveforms,and analyze the observed return waveforms of laser altimeters to acquire their characteristic parameters at the same time.The last step is to match the characteristic parameters of the simulated and observed return waveforms,and deduce the topographic parameters within the laser footprint.This method can be used to retrieve the topographic parameters within the laser footprint from the observed return waveforms of spaceborne laser altimeters and to get knowledge about the surface altitude distribution within the laser footprint other than only getting the height of the surface encountered firstly by the laser beam,which extends laser altimeters' function and makes them more like radars.

  14. Civil Engineering and Building Service Topographic Permanent Landmarks Network. Spatial Coordinate Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepadatu Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a modern concept of adaptation conditions for achieving objectives that respond simultaneously to at least three major requirements: economic, social and environmental. Achieving sustainable development cannot be accomplished without a change of mentality of people and without communities able to use resources rationally and efficiently. For an efficient application programs surveying topography discipline the students have imagined and created a network of local topographic permanent terminals required for reporting the rectangular coordinates of applications. In order to obtain more accurate values of these coordinates we have made several types of measurements that will be presented in detail in this work.

  15. Topographic change detection at select archeological sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Minasian, Diane L.; Kayen, Robert; Dealy, Timothy P.; Bedford, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Human occupation in Grand Canyon, Arizona, dates from at least 11,000 years before present to the modern era. For most of this period, the only evidence of human occupation in this iconic landscape is provided by archeological sites. Because of the dynamic nature of this environment, many archeological sites are subject to relatively rapid topographic change. Quantifying the extent, magnitude, and cause of such change is important for monitoring and managing these archeological sites. Such quantification is necessary to help inform the continuing debate on whether and how controlled releases from Glen Canyon Dam, located immediately upstream of Grand Canyon National Park, are affecting site erosion rates, artifact transport, and archeological resource preservation along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Although long-term topographic change resulting from a variety of natural processes is inherent in the Grand Canyon region, continued erosion of archeological sites threatens both the archeological resources and our future ability to study evidence of past cultural habitation. Thus, this subject is of considerable interest to National Park Service managers and other stakeholders in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. Understanding the causes and effects of archeological site erosion requires a knowledge of several factors, including the location, timing, and magnitude of the changes occurring in relation to archeological resources, the rates of change, and the relative contribution of potential causes. These potential causes include sediment depletion associated with managed flows from Glen Canyon Dam, site-specific weather and overland flow patterns, visitor impacts, and long-term regional climate change. To obtain this information, highly accurate, spatially specific data are needed from sites undergoing change. Using terrestrial lidar techniques, and building upon three previous surveys of archeological sites performed in 2006 and 2007, we

  16. Precision and agreement of corneal power measurements obtained using a new corneal topographer OphthaTOP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhai Huang

    Full Text Available To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of anterior corneal power measurements obtained with a new corneal topographer OphthaTOP (Hummel AG, Germany and agreement with measurements by a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam HR, Oculus, Germany and an automated keratometer (IOLMaster, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany.The right eyes of 79 healthy subjects were prospectively measured three times with all three devices. Another examiner performed three additional scans with the OphthaTOP in the same session. Within one week, the first examiner repeated the measurements using the OphthaTOP. The flat simulated keratometry (Kf, steep K (Ks, mean K (Km, J0, and J45 were noted. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were assessed by within-subject standard deviation (Sw, repeatability (2.77 Sw, coefficient of variation (CoV, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Agreement between devices was assessed using 95% limits of agreement (LoA.Intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of all measured parameters showed a 2.77 Sw of 0.29 diopter or less, a CoV of less than 0.24%, and an ICC of more than 0.906. Statistically significant differences (P<0.001 were found between the parameters analyzed by the three devices, except J0 and J45. The mean differences between OphthaTOP and the other two devices were small, and the 95% LoA was narrow for all results.The OphthaTOP showed excellent intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of corneal power measurements. Good agreements with the other two devices in these parameters were found in healthy eyes.

  17. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  18. A Color Topographic Map Based on the Dichromatic Reflectance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Zavidovique

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Topographic maps are an interesting alternative to edge-based techniques common in computer vision applications. Indeed, unlike edges, level lines are closed and less sensitive to external parameters. They provide a compact geometrical representation of images and they are, to some extent, robust to contrast changes. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel and vectorial representation of color topographic maps. In contrast with existing color topographic maps, it does not require any color conversion. For this purpose, our technique refers to the dichromatic reflectance model, which explains the distribution of colors as the mixture of two reflectance components, related either to the body or to the specular reflection. Thus, instead of defining the topographic map along the sole luminance direction in the RGB space, we propose to design color lines along each dominant color vector, from the body reflection. Experimental results show that this approach provides a better tradeoff between the compactness and the quality of a topographic map.

  19. A Color Topographic Map Based on the Dichromatic Reflectance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouiffès Michèle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Topographic maps are an interesting alternative to edge-based techniques common in computer vision applications. Indeed, unlike edges, level lines are closed and less sensitive to external parameters. They provide a compact geometrical representation of images and they are, to some extent, robust to contrast changes. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel and vectorial representation of color topographic maps. In contrast with existing color topographic maps, it does not require any color conversion. For this purpose, our technique refers to the dichromatic reflectance model, which explains the distribution of colors as the mixture of two reflectance components, related either to the body or to the specular reflection. Thus, instead of defining the topographic map along the sole luminance direction in the RGB space, we propose to design color lines along each dominant color vector, from the body reflection. Experimental results show that this approach provides a better tradeoff between the compactness and the quality of a topographic map.

  20. Getting lost: Topographic skills in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrow, Jeffrey C; Corrow, Sherryse L; Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal (AT) lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or AT lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia.

  1. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  2. Using High Resolution Balloon Photography to Provide Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K.; Bauer, T.

    2009-12-01

    For site-scale projects, the Bureau of Reclamation has used low altitude balloon photogrammetry to obtain high-resolution photographs and detailed topographic information. These data are collected in a fraction of the time and effort it would take to obtain a similar level of detail using traditional methods. This is accomplished at a significantly reduced cost compared to flying LiDAR or aerial photography, which can be prohibitively expensive for small or medium scale projects. Low altitude balloon photogrammetry is a process where overlapping photographs and ground survey control points are input into a photogrammetry software program (AdamTechnology 3DM Analyst Mine Mapping Suite) to produce orthophotographs and digital terrain model (DTM) elevation points. To acquire the photos a digital camera is attached to an 8-foot diameter helium balloon. The balloon is tethered and flown above the location of interest. The camera is controlled remotely while a live image is transmitted to a receiver on the ground. Ground survey control is established by using GPS equipment to survey ground targets placed within the area to be photographed. There are limitations to the process. Data collection is very weather dependent; too much wind causes the balloon to be unstable. Site conditions also determine the feasibility: power lines, trees, and steep embankments can cause difficulties maneuvering the balloon. Although some of the photographs show the underwater portion of the channel; there is little agreement between GPS points and the processed DTM elevations in the channel. The balloon has been used to survey large woody debris (LWD) structures and channel morphology in the Middle Fork John Day River (central Oregon) and monitoring debris after the removal of Chiloquin Dam (Sprague River, southern Oregon). Seventeen LWD structures were installed on the Middle Fork John Day River near John Day, OR in 2007 and 2008 to provide aquatic habitat. Balloon photos were obtained in

  3. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  4. Topographic representation of the human body in the occipitotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Makin, Tamar R; Zohary, Ehud

    2010-11-04

    Large-scale topographic representations of the body have long been established in the somatosensory and motor cortices. Using functional imaging, we identified a topographically organized body part map within the occipitotemporal cortex (OTC), with distinct clusters of voxels showing clear preference for different visually presented body parts. This representation was consistent both across hemispheres and participants. Using converging methods, the preference for specific body parts was demonstrated to be robust and did not merely reflect shape differences between the categories. Finally, execution of (unseen) movements with different body parts resulted in a limited topographic representation of the limbs and trunk, which partially overlapped with the visual body part map. This motor-driven activation in the OTC could not be explained solely by visual or motor imagery of the body parts. This suggests that visual and motor-related information converge within the OTC in a body part specific manner. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  6. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  7. Topographic features around Zhongshan Station, southeast of Prydz Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Shouzhen; XUE Zuo; CHI Wanqing

    2008-01-01

    Considering the complex topographic features of the southeast of Prydz Bay where China's Zhongshan Station is located, three types of geomorphologic units can be identified, i.e., submarine slopes, canyons, and terrains. The major topographic features in the study area are the submarine canyon and trough system outside the calving ice front of Dalk Glacier. A 3.8 km × 80 m fissure is found on the submarine terrain at Zhongshan Anchorage, which, once triggered by geological hazards such as earthquakes and ice falls, would be a threat to the usage and maintenance of the anchorage.

  8. Fine resolution topographic mapping of the Jovian moons: a Ka-band high resolution topographic mapping interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Soren N.; Carsey, Frank D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.

    2003-01-01

    The topographic data set obtained by MOLA has provided an unprecedented level of information about Mars' geologic features. The proposed flight of JIMO provides an opportunity to accomplish a similar mapping of and comparable scientific discovery for the Jovian moons through us of an interferometric imaging radar analogous to the Shuttle radar that recently generated a new topographic map of Earth. A Ka-band single pass across-track synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometer can provide very high resolution surface elevation maps. The concept would use two antennas mounted at the ends of a deployable boom (similar to the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapper) extended orthogonal to the direction of flight. Assuming an orbit altitude of approximately 100 km and a ground velocity of approximately 1.5 km/sec, horizontal resolutions at the 10 meter level and vertical resolutions at the sub-meter level are possible.

  9. Developing Tools for Computation of Basin Topographic Parameters in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökgöz, T.; Yayla, Y.; Yaman, M. B.; Güvenç, H.; Kaya, S.

    2016-10-01

    Although water use has been increasing day by day depending on fast population increase, urbanization and industrialization in the world, potential of usable water resources remains stable. On the other side, expansion of agricultural activities, industrialization, urbanization, global warming and climate change create a big pressure on current water resources. Therefore, management of water resources is one of the most significant problems of today that is required to be solved and `'Integrated Basin Management'' has gained importance in the world in terms of decreasing environmental problems by more efficiently using current water resources. In order to achieve integrated basin management, it is needed to determine basin boundaries with sufficient accuracy and precision and encode them systematically. In various analyses to be done on the basis of basin, topographic parameters are also needed such as shape factor, bifurcation ratio, drainage frequency, drainage density, length of the main flow path, harmonic slope, average slope, time of concentration, hypsometric curve and maximum elevation difference. Nowadays, basin boundaries are obtained with digital elevation models in geographical information systems. However, tools developed for topographic parameters are not available. In this study, programs were written in Python programming language for afore-mentioned topographic parameters and each turned into a geographical information system tool. Therefore, a significant contribution has been made to the subject by completing the deficiency in the geographical information system devoted to the topographic parameters that are needed in almost every analyses concerning to the hydrology.

  10. Topographical mineralogy of the Bamble sector, south Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Zwaan, J.C.; Touret, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Bamble sector of southern Norway is a classic high grade metamorphic gneiss region, which provided specimens to many mineralogical collections all over the world. The topographical mineralogy of this area is described and reviewed. All minerals known to occur in the area are listed according to

  11. Effects of Topographic Slopes on Hydrological Proecsses and Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on previous research results on river re-distribution models, a modification on the effects of topographic slopes for a runoff parameterization was proposed and implemented to the NCAR's land sur face model (LSM). This modification has two aspects: firstly, the topographic slopes cause outflows from higher topography and inflows into the lower topography points; secondly, topographic slopes also cause decrease of infiltration at higher topography and increases of infiltration at lower topography. Then changes in infiltration result in changes in soil moisture, surface fluxes and then in surface temperature, and eventual ly in the upper atmosphere and the climate. This mechanism is very clearly demonstrated in the point bud gets analysis at the Andes Mountains vicinities. Analysis from a regional scale perspective in the Mackenzie GEWEX Study (MAGS) area, the focus of the ongoing Canadian GEWEX program, shows that the modi fied runoff parameterization does bring significant changes in the regional surface climate. More important ly, detailed analysis from a global perspective shows many encouraging improvements introduced by the modified LSM over the original model in simulating basic atmospheric climate properties such as thermodynamic features (temperature and humidity). All of these improvements in the atmospheric climate simulation illustrate that the inclusion of topographic effects in the LSM can force the AGCM to produce a more realistic model climate.

  12. A network of topographic numerosity maps in human association cortex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, Ben M.; Dumoulin, Serge O.

    2017-01-01

    Sensory and motor cortices each contain multiple topographic maps with the structure of sensory organs (such as the retina or cochlea) mapped onto the cortical surface. These sensory maps are hierarchically organized. For example, visual field maps contain neurons that represent increasingly large

  13. Rehabilitation in a complex case of topographical disorientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, Lies; van de Wege, Anja; Haaxma, Rob; Snoek, Jos W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the rehabilitation process of a patient with severe topographical disorientation. The study demonstrates the sustained effects of a tailor-made, meticulous rehabilitation programme based on the gradual development of compensatory strategies. The patient (RB) had a memory impairm

  14. Topographical and Functional Properties of Precursors to Severe Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    A literature search identified 17 articles reporting data on 34 subjects who engaged in precursors to severe problem behavior, which we examined to identify topographical and functional characteristics. Unintelligible vocalization was the most common precursor to aggression (27%) and property destruction (29%), whereas self- or nondirected…

  15. Idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia: two topographic facial pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María L; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gili, Pablo; Caminero, Ana B; Cebrián, José L

    2010-09-01

    To describe 2 topographic facial pain conditions with the pain clearly localized in the eye (idiopathic ophthalmodynia) or in the nose (idiopathic rhinalgia), and to propose their distinction from persistent idiopathic facial pain. Persistent idiopathic facial pain, burning mouth syndrome, atypical odontalgia, and facial arthromyalgia are idiopathic facial pain syndromes that have been separated according to topographical criteria. Still, some other facial pain syndromes might have been veiled under the broad term of persistent idiopathic facial pain. Through a 10-year period we have studied all patients referred to our neurological clinic because of facial pain of unknown etiology that might deviate from all well-characterized facial pain syndromes. In a group of patients we have identified 2 consistent clinical pictures with pain precisely located either in the eye (n=11) or in the nose (n=7). Clinical features resembled those of other localized idiopathic facial syndromes, the key differences relying on the topographic distribution of the pain. Both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location, and may deserve a nosologic status just as other focal pain syndromes of the face. Whether all such focal syndromes are topographic variants of persistent idiopathic facial pain or independent disorders remains a controversial issue.

  16. A network of topographic numerosity maps in human association cortex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, Ben M.; Dumoulin, Serge O.

    2017-01-01

    Sensory and motor cortices each contain multiple topographic maps with the structure of sensory organs (such as the retina or cochlea) mapped onto the cortical surface. These sensory maps are hierarchically organized. For example, visual field maps contain neurons that represent increasingly large p

  17. Rehabilitation in a complex case of topographical disorientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, Lies; van de Wege, Anja; Haaxma, Rob; Snoek, Jos W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the rehabilitation process of a patient with severe topographical disorientation. The study demonstrates the sustained effects of a tailor-made, meticulous rehabilitation programme based on the gradual development of compensatory strategies. The patient (RB) had a memory

  18. Quality of topographical micro replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bariani, Paolo;

    2003-01-01

    surface with Sq = 4.6 ƒÝm manufactured by EDM and a commercial polypropylene grade. 3D surface characterisation was carried out with a laser focus detection profiler. The investigation reveals that replication quality indices as measured with several established 3D topographical parameters...

  19. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  20. Aerodynamic roughness of glacial ice surfaces derived from high-resolution topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark W.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Dixon, Timothy; Bingham, Robert G.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Rippin, David M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents new methods of estimating the aerodynamic roughness (z0) of glacier ice directly from three-dimensional point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs), examines temporal variability of z0, and presents the first fully distributed map of z0 estimates across the ablation zone of an Arctic glacier. The aerodynamic roughness of glacier ice surfaces is an important component of energy balance models and meltwater runoff estimates through its influence on turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat. In a warming climate these fluxes are predicted to become more significant in contributing to overall melt volumes. Ice z0 is commonly estimated from measurements of ice surface microtopography, typically from topographic profiles taken perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Recent advances in surveying permit rapid acquisition of high-resolution topographic data allowing revision of assumptions underlying conventional z0 measurement. Using Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry with Multi-View Stereo (MVS) to survey ice surfaces with millimeter-scale accuracy, z0 variation over 3 orders of magnitude was observed. Different surface types demonstrated different temporal trajectories in z0 through 3 days of intense melt. A glacier-scale 2 m resolution DEM was obtained through terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and subgrid roughness was significantly related to plot-scale z0. Thus, we show for the first time that glacier-scale TLS or SfM-MVS surveys can characterize z0 variability over a glacier surface potentially leading to distributed representations of z0 in surface energy balance models.

  1. Topographic mapping data semantics through data conversion and enhancement: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia; Carter, Jonathan; Usery, E. Lynn; Shoberg, Thomas; Edited by Ashish, Naveen; Sheth, Amit P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research on the semantics of topographic data for triples and ontologies to blend the capabilities of the Semantic Web and The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey. Automated conversion of relational topographic data of several geographic sample areas to the triple data model standard resulted in relatively poor semantic associations. Further research employed vocabularies of feature type and spatial relation terms. A user interface was designed to model the capture of non-standard terms relevant to public users and to map those terms to existing data models of The National Map through the use of ontology. Server access for the study area triple stores was made publicly available, illustrating how the development of linked data may transform institutional policies to open government data resources to the public. This paper presents these data conversion and research techniques that were tested as open linked data concepts leveraged through a user-centered interface and open USGS server access to the public.

  2. Creating a three level building classification using topographic and address-based data for Manchester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M.; Chen, D.

    2014-11-01

    Buildings, the basic unit of an urban landscape, host most of its socio-economic activities and play an important role in the creation of urban land-use patterns. The spatial arrangement of different building types creates varied urban land-use clusters which can provide an insight to understand the relationships between social, economic, and living spaces. The classification of such urban clusters can help in policy-making and resource management. In many countries including the UK no national-level cadastral database containing information on individual building types exists in public domain. In this paper, we present a framework for inferring functional types of buildings based on the analysis of their form (e.g. geometrical properties, such as area and perimeter, layout) and spatial relationship from large topographic and address-based GIS database. Machine learning algorithms along with exploratory spatial analysis techniques are used to create the classification rules. The classification is extended to two further levels based on the functions (use) of buildings derived from address-based data. The developed methodology was applied to the Manchester metropolitan area using the Ordnance Survey's MasterMap®, a large-scale topographic and address-based data available for the UK.

  3. Medical Students' Assessment of Eduard Pernkopf's Atlas: Topographical Anatomy of Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Demetrius M; Peitzman, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    To date, there has been no study examining the perceptions of first-year medical students regarding Eduard Pernkopf's atlas, particularly during their study of gross anatomy and prior to coursework in medical ethics. We present a discussion of Pernkopf's Atlas: Topographical Anatomy of Man from the perspective of U.S. medical students, and sought to determine whether medical students view Pernkopf's Topographical Anatomy of Man as a resource of greater accuracy, detail, and potential educational utility as compared to Netter's Atlas of Human Anatomy. The entire first-year class at Drexel University College of Medicine (265 students) was surveyed at approximately the midpoint of their gross anatomy course and 192 responses were collected (72% response rate). Of these, 176 (95%) were unaware of the existence of Pernkopf's atlas. Another 71% of students found the Pernkopf atlas more likely complete and accurate, whereas 76% thought the Netter atlas more useful for learning (pmedical school bioethics course. The relationship between level of self-reported knowledge and whether or not students would advocate removal of the atlas was statistically significant (p=.013). Discussing ethical violations in medical history, especially the Pernkopf atlas, must attain a secure place in medical school curricula, and more specifically, within a bioethics course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Interpretation of detailed ground magnetic data, resistivity and topographic data from Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB (Sweden)); Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report presents the interpretations of data from detailed ground magnetic and resistivity surveys, and also elevation data, from the island of Aespoe. The ground magnetic and geoelectric data were collected in 1988 as part of the pre-investigations that were carried out before the construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). The major aim of this work is to identify lineaments in the geophysical and topographic data. The lineaments that have been identified in the different data sets have been coordinated and subsequently linked together. The interpretation products of this work, in particular the linked lineaments, are important data sets and a prerequisite for the deterministic modelling of deformation zones at Aespoe. The magnetic and resistivity data processed and interpreted within the scope of this work show high quality; there are few outliers, physically reliable amplitude ranges, smooth and natural anomalies. The topographic grid is partly affected by noise or erroneous data that, for example, appears as distinct straight north-south trending lines in the maps. However, the artifacts have not had a significant effect on the interpretation of the elevation data. A total of 103 magnetic, 55 resistivity (geoelectric) and 85 topographic lineaments were identified. The coordination and linking procedure resulted in 37 final lineaments. The results of the lineament identifications based on the three data sets show a great deal of consensus; in location as well as in orientation of the lineaments. A large part of the lineaments have northeast/southwest orientations and are located in a low magnetic belt trending northeast-southwest across the central part of the Aespoe island. The c. 200-250 m wide low magnetic belt is interpreted to reflect the existence of a low-grade ductile shear zone. This belt is generally known as the Aespoe shear zone. The shear zone interpretation is also supported by the partly decreased resistivity, which indicates

  5. ANALYSIS OF RADAR AND OPTICAL SPACE BORNE DATA FOR LARGE SCALE TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Normally, in order to provide high resolution 3 Dimension (3D geospatial data, large scale topographical mapping needs input from conventional airborne campaigns which are in Indonesia bureaucratically complicated especially during legal administration procedures i.e. security clearance from military/defense ministry. This often causes additional time delays besides technical constraints such as weather and limited aircraft availability for airborne campaigns. Of course the geospatial data quality is an important issue for many applications. The increasing demand of geospatial data nowadays consequently requires high resolution datasets as well as a sufficient level of accuracy. Therefore an integration of different technologies is required in many cases to gain the expected result especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. Another important issue in this context is the fast delivery of relevant data which is expressed by the term “Rapid Mapping”. In this paper we present first results of an on-going research to integrate different data sources like space borne radar and optical platforms. Initially the orthorectification of Very High Resolution Satellite (VHRS imagery i.e. SPOT-6 has been done as a continuous process to the DEM generation using TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data. The role of Ground Control Points (GCPs from GNSS surveys is mandatory in order to fulfil geometrical accuracy. In addition, this research aims on providing suitable processing algorithm of space borne data for large scale topographical mapping as described in section 3.2. Recently, radar space borne data has been used for the medium scale topographical mapping e.g. for 1:50.000 map scale in Indonesian territories. The goal of this on-going research is to increase the accuracy of remote sensing data by different activities, e.g. the integration of different data sources (optical and radar or the usage of the GCPs in both, the optical and the

  6. The Characteristic and Changes of the Event-Related Potentials (ERP) and Brain Topographic Maps before and after Treatment with rTMS in Subjective Tinnitus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Zheng, Yiqing; Zhang, Xueyuan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. Methods and Participants The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. Results Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating sounds)in control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN)component at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. Conclusions The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect. PMID:23951019

  7. The characteristic and changes of the event-related potentials (ERP and brain topographic maps before and after treatment with rTMS in subjective tinnitus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS treatment. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. RESULTS: Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating soundsin control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN and late discriminative negativity (LDNcomponent at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. CONCLUSIONS: The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect.

  8. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  9. 2013 NOAA Topographic Lidar: U.S. Virgin Islands (St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Virgin Islands Topographic LiDAR project collected topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and ranging...

  10. Long-term development of the Czech landscape studied on the basis of old topographic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokanová, H.; Havlíček, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper deals with long-term land use changes in the Czech Republic with the help of old topographic maps. Departments of Landscape Ecology and GIS Applications from the Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, v.v.i. study these changes mainly in the research project MSM 6293359101 Research into sources and indicators of biodiversity in cultural landscape in the context of its fragmentation dynamics, the subpart Quantitative analysis of the dynamics of the Czech landscape development. In this paper, the authors concentrate mainly on map sources, which were acquired for the purpose of the project and also introduce partial results. Maps, which are the sources for the analyses, are following: maps from 2nd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:28 800 (created for the territory of the Czech Republic in the period 1836-1852), maps from 3rd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:25 000 (created for the Czech Republic in the period 1876-1880), Czechoslovak military topographic maps in the scale 1:25 000 from 1950s and 1990s, and Czech topographic base maps in the scale 1:10 000 from 2002-2006. It is necessary to complete maps of the 2nd and 3rd Austrian military survey thanks to their incompleteness, mainly along state borders. Also maps from 1nd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:28 800 (created for the Czech Republic in the period 1764-1783) are available; however, their usage for the accurate analyses in the GIS environment is restricted by their poor cartographic accuracy. Apart of the above mentioned maps, there has been progress in collecting maps from the interwar and war period (revised maps of the 3rd Austrian military survey maps, maps of the provisional military survey from 1923-1933, maps of definitive military survey from 1934-1938 and maps from survey of Moravian part of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, so called Messtischblätter from 1939-1945). Maps from five periods are manually vectorised in the GIS

  11. Extracting ridges of topographic surfaces using scanline algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmoon Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ridge/valley-like structures of a topographic surface have been extensively studied in image processing to obtain useful skeleton-like shape descriptors. In this paper, we propose a novel method that rapidly constructs the graph representation of the skeletons of the curvilinear objects such as vascular networks and fingerprints. The method first constructs the topographic surface of a given image in such a way that the ridges of the surface reflect the medial axis of the objects in the image. The ridge points are then identified using two orthogonal scanlines and connected by tracing the maximum gradient paths on the surface. We present the very promising results of the method applied to various binary and grayscale images to demonstrate its correctness and robustness.

  12. TOPOGRAPHIC CORRECTION OF ETM IMAGES BASED ON SMOOTHED TERRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Kang; Zhao Yongchao; Geng Xiurui; Tang Hairong

    2012-01-01

    A new empirical topographic correction method is proposed in this paper.The main idea of the new method is smoothing the slope angle of terrain in the first place and then performing the cosine correction based on the smoothed terrain.A comparison is conducted among the new method and several other common methods using Landsat-7 ETM+ data.Visual analysis and statistical analysis are adopted to assess the performance of these methods from two aspects:overcorrection,homogeneity within a land cover class.Comparison results indicate that the new method is superior to the cosine correction,Gamma correction,Sun-Canopy-Sensor correction,and Minnaert correction.Compared with common methods,the proposed one can eliminate overcorrection better and is an effective topographic correction method.

  13. Topographic evolution of a continental indenter: The eastern Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Prasicek, Günther; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The topographic evolution of the eastern Southern Alps (ESA) is controlled by the Late Oligocene - Early Miocene indentation of the Adriatic microplate into an overthickened orogenic wedge emplaced on top of the European plate. Rivers follow topographic gradients that evolve during continental collision and in turn incise into bedrock counteracting the formation of topography. In principle, erosional surface processes tend to establish a topographic steady state so that an interpretation of topographic metrics in terms of the latest tectonic history should be straightforward. However, a series of complications impede deciphering the topographic record of the ESA. The Pleistocene glaciations locally excavated alpine valleys and perturbed fluvial drainages. The Late Miocene desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea and the uplift of the northern Molasse Basin led to significant base level changes in the far field of the ESA and the Eastern Alps (EA), respectively. Among this multitude of mechanisms, the processes that dominate the current topographic evolution of the ESA and the ESA-EA drainage divide have not been identified and a number of questions regarding the interaction of crustal deformation, erosion and climate in shaping the present-day topography remain. We demonstrate the expected topographic effects of each mechanism in a 1-dimensional model and compare them with observed channel metrics. Modern uplift rates are largely consistent with long-term exhumation in the ESA and with variations in the normalized steepness index (ksn) indicating a stable uplift and erosion pattern since Miocene times. We find that ksn increases with uplift rate and declines from the indenter tip in the northwest to the foreland basin in the southeast. The number and magnitude of knickpoints and the distortion in longitudinal channel profiles similarly decrease towards the east. Most knickpoints probably evolved during Pleistocene glaciation cycles, but may represent the incrementally

  14. Black Twin Colors on Topographics Maps in Digital Print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Matas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spot dyes join the double feature of the INFRAREDESIGN® theory. A large number of planned colors in graphics of topographic maps, are simulated in the press with only four process colorants. Achieved are seperated infromation for the visible and infrared spectrum. This introduces the protection of printed matter, protection of property, reduces the cost of spot printing of large numbers of layers. For the digital print technology simulation of the merge of "topographical colors" is extended to achieve Infrared graphics. The black color tone, a typical color in cartography, is associated with two dyes with different compositions and different properties in the infrared spectrum. Black twins are programmed for the digital printing form for the printing with CMYK process components, and according to the IRD® procedure.

  15. SIR-B cartography and stereo topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrick, M.; Leberi, F.; Raggam, J.; Domik, G.; Welch, R.; Carr, H.; Hammak, J.; Kaupp, V.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    The SIR-B mapping experiment which will evaluate the utility of SAR images taken singularly, in pairs, and in combination with other data sets for cartographic, topographic, and thematic mapping, and determine the optimum configuration of a SAR system for future mapping mission is outlined. SIR-B is the first orbital imaging radar mission which will incorporate maintenance of geometric image fidelity along with careful calibration and documentation of internal timing and frequency parameters. This along and and the multiple incidence angle images of the same target which are necessary for stereoscopy and topographic mapping, make it the ideal opportunity for cartographic experimentation. It is emphasized that comprises a significant part of the overall experiment objectives.

  16. Topographic Feature Extraction for Bengali and Hindi Character Images

    CERN Document Server

    Bag, Soumen; 10.5121/sipij.2011.2215

    2011-01-01

    Feature selection and extraction plays an important role in different classification based problems such as face recognition, signature verification, optical character recognition (OCR) etc. The performance of OCR highly depends on the proper selection and extraction of feature set. In this paper, we present novel features based on the topography of a character as visible from different viewing directions on a 2D plane. By topography of a character we mean the structural features of the strokes and their spatial relations. In this work we develop topographic features of strokes visible with respect to views from different directions (e.g. North, South, East, and West). We consider three types of topographic features: closed region, convexity of strokes, and straight line strokes. These features are represented as a shape-based graph which acts as an invariant feature set for discriminating very similar type characters efficiently. We have tested the proposed method on printed and handwritten Bengali and Hindi...

  17. 2011 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Topographic LiDAR: Massachusetts and New Hampshire

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain classified topographic and bathymetric lidar data as unclassified valid topographic data (1), valid topographic data classified as ground (2),...

  18. 2011 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Topographic LiDAR: Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain classified topographic and bathymetric lidar data as unclassified valid topographic data (1), valid topographic data classified as ground (2),...

  19. Conformal nanopatterning of extracellular matrix proteins onto topographically complex surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Jallerat, Quentin; Szymanski, John M; Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-02-01

    Our Patterning on Topography (PoT) printing technique enables fibronectin, laminin and other proteins to be applied to biomaterial surfaces in complex geometries that are inaccessible using traditional soft lithography techniques. Engineering combinatorial surfaces that integrate topographical and biochemical micropatterns enhances control of the biotic-abiotic interface. Here, we used this method to understand cardiomyocyte response to competing physical and chemical cues in the microenvironment.

  20. Evaluation of the EGNOS service for topographic profiling in field geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromuszczyńska, Olga; Mège, Daniel; Castaldo, Luigi; Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Makowska, Magdalena; Dębniak, Krzysztof; Jelínek, Róbert

    2016-09-01

    Consumer grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are commonly used as a tool for data collection in many fields, including geosciences. One of the methods for improving the GPS signal is provided by the Wide Area Differential GPS (WADGPS), which uses geostationary satellites to correct errors affecting the signal in real time. This study presents results of three experiments aiming at determining whether the precision of field measurements made by such a receiver (Garmin GPSMAP 62s) operating in either the non-differential and the WADGPS differential mode is suitable for characterizing geomorphological objects or landforms. It assumes in a typical field work situation, when time cannot be devoted in the field to long periods of stationary GPS measurements and the precision of topographic profile is at least as important as, if not more than, positioning of individual points. The results show that with maintaining some rules, the expected precision may meet the nominal precision. The repeatability (coherence) of topographic profiles conducted at low speed (0.5 m s- 1) in mountain terrain is good, and vertical precision is improved in the WADGPS mode. Horizontal precision is equivalent in both modes. The GPS receiver should be operating at least 30 min prior to measuring and should not be turned off between measurements that the user like to compare. If the GPS receiver needs to be reset between profiles to be compared, the measurement precision is higher in the non-differential GPS mode. Following these rules may result in improvement of measurement quality by 20% to 80%.

  1. Topographical cues regulate the crosstalk between MSCs and macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallés, Gema; Bensiamar, Fátima; Crespo, Lara; Arruebo, Manuel; Vilaboa, Nuria; Saldaña, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of scaffolds may elicit a host foreign body response triggered by monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. Growing evidence suggests that topographical cues of scaffolds play an important role in MSC functionality. In this work, we examined whether surface topographical features can regulate paracrine interactions that MSCs establish with macrophages. Three-dimensional (3D) topography sensing drives MSCs into a spatial arrangement that stimulates the production of the anti-inflammatory proteins PGE2 and TSG-6. Compared to two-dimensional (2D) settings, 3D arrangement of MSCs co-cultured with macrophages leads to an important decrease in the secretion of soluble factors related with inflammation and chemotaxis including IL-6 and MCP-1. Attenuation of MCP-1 secretion in 3D co-cultures correlates with a decrease in the accumulation of its mRNA levels in MSCs and macrophages. Using neutralizing antibodies, we identified that the interplay between PGE2, IL-6, TSG-6 and MCP-1 in the co-cultures is strongly influenced by the micro-architecture that supports MSCs. Local inflammatory milieu provided by 3D-arranged MSCs in co-cultures induces a decrease in monocyte migration as compared to monolayer cells. This effect is partially mediated by reduced levels of IL-6 and MCP-1, proteins that up-regulate each other's secretion. Our findings highlight the importance of topographical cues in the soluble factor-guided communication between MSCs and macrophages. PMID:25453943

  2. EVALUATION OF TOPOGRAPHIC INDICES FOR EPHEMERAL-GULLY EROSION ASSESSMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. CASAL(I); L. M. De SANTISTEBAN; J. J. L(O)PEZ; J. V. GIRALDEZ; J. POESEN; J. NACHTERGAELE; M. GO(N)I; J. LOIZU; M. A. CAMPO

    2005-01-01

    Soil erosion by concentrated flows in agricultural areas is an important process affecting soil losses and landscape degradation. The main factors controlling concentrated flow erosion include the erodibility of materials, soil use and management, climate, and watershed topography. In this paper,two topographic indices, closely related with mathematical expressions suggested by different authors, are used to characterize the influence of watershed topography on gully erosion. The AS1 index is defined as the product of the watershed area and the partial area-weighted average slope.The AS2 index is the product of the watershed area and the length-weighted average swale slope.Using different ephemeral gully erosion databases, a high correlation was found between the topographic indices and the volume of eroded soil. The accuracy of different methods for field measurement of ephemeral gullies was evaluated to ensure that the relation between erosion and topographic indices is not affected by assessment errors. The resulting relation are useful to assess soil losses from gully erosion, to identify the most susceptible watersheds within large areas, and to compare the susceptibility to gully erosion among different catchments. This information also can be important to study the response of natural drainage network systems to different rainfall inputs.

  3. Chemical and topographical analyses of dentine surfaces after Carisolv treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Anna; Liedberg, Bo; Möller, Kenneth; Lyvén, Benny; Sellén, Annika; Wennerberg, Ann

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the surface chemistry of cavities after chemomechanical caries excavation, and also to measure the surface topography after caries removal with Carisolv or burs, followed by acid etching. Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the relative amounts of organic material and minerals of sound enamel, dentine, and cavities, after caries excavation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were used for detection of Carisolv substances (i.e. mainly sodium hypochlorite, amino acids, and the gelling agent carboxymethyl cellulose). In total, 19 carious and 11 sound extracted teeth were used for the chemical analyses. Topographic examination of 30 carious extracted teeth was performed with a contact profilometer. The relative amounts of organic material and minerals did not significantly differ between sound dentine and the cavities after caries removal with burs or Carisolv. The FTIR analyses indicated extremely small amounts of Carisolv substances at the cavity surface, but the LA-ICP-MS analyses did not confirm those findings. Furthermore, the topographical parameters did not significantly differ between etched cavities after caries removal using burs or Carisolv. The chemical and topographical analyses in the present study imply that any differences between the cavities after caries excavation with burs or with Carisolv are insignificant.

  4. Topographic ERP analyses: a step-by-step tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Micah M; Brunet, Denis; Michel, Christoph M

    2008-06-01

    In this tutorial review, we detail both the rationale for as well as the implementation of a set of analyses of surface-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) that uses the reference-free spatial (i.e. topographic) information available from high-density electrode montages to render statistical information concerning modulations in response strength, latency, and topography both between and within experimental conditions. In these and other ways these topographic analysis methods allow the experimenter to glean additional information and neurophysiologic interpretability beyond what is available from canonical waveform analyses. In this tutorial we present the example of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in response to stimulation of each hand to illustrate these points. For each step of these analyses, we provide the reader with both a conceptual and mathematical description of how the analysis is carried out, what it yields, and how to interpret its statistical outcome. We show that these topographic analysis methods are intuitive and easy-to-use approaches that can remove much of the guesswork often confronting ERP researchers and also assist in identifying the information contained within high-density ERP datasets.

  5. Publication of topographic atlas and control network of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Billideau, Jennifer S.; Spare, Beth A.

    1991-06-01

    To aid planetary studies and the planning of future Mars missions, the Topographic Atlas and Control Network for Mars will be submitted by the end of fiscal year 1992 for publication as a NASA Special Publication. It will consist of reduced versions of 108 1:2 million-scale photomosaics that show contour lines from topographic maps at the same scale, as well as precisely located control points. The control points are from the planetwide network, which is not only instrumental in the compilation of maps at various scales, but is also widely used in other research such as studies of Mars' gravity and atmosphere. An example, a combination of MC 8-NW and -SW, of the photomosaics to be included in the atlas is presented. Contour lines in the figure are at 1-km intervals. The final adjusted ground coordinates and elevations of the 77 control points shown are given in table form. The last column in the table lists the topographic datum (zero elevation) that can be used to compute the solid radius of the control point from the center of mass of Mars. The atlas will also include information such as the adjusted C-matrices of each image, descriptions of the methods used, and their accuracy, and guidelines for users.

  6. Information extraction from topographic map using colour and shape analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nikam Gitanjali Ganpatrao; Jayanta Kumar Ghosh

    2014-10-01

    The work presented in this paper is related to symbols and toponym understanding with application to scanned Indian topographic maps. The proposed algorithm deals with colour layer separation of enhanced topographic map using kmeans colour segmentation followed by outline detection and chaining, respectively. Outline detection is performed through linear filtering using canny edge detector. Outline is then encoded in a Freeman way, the x-y offsets have been used to obtain a complex representation of outlines. Final matching of shapes is done by computing Fourier descriptors from the chain-codes; comparison of descriptors having same colour index is embedded in a normalized scalar product of descriptors. As this matching process is not rotation invariant (starting point selection), an interrelation function has been proposed to make the method shifting invariant. The recognition rates of symbols, letters and numbers are 84.68, 91.73 and 92.19%, respectively. The core contribution is dedicated to a shape analysis method based on contouring and Fourier descriptors. To improve recognition rate, obtaining most optimal segmentation solution for complex topographic map will be the future scope of work.

  7. Using geo-topographic materials for environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the requirements for the protection and development of environment, the usage of spatial data represents a specific need for different kinds of geographical and cartographical information. Theoretical and practical understanding of these requirements, with existing experiences and the use of appropriate standards, help in the process of solving particular ecological problems. In this paper, the analysis (theoretical understanding of the problem and the comparison of models will try to point out the importance, requirements and possibilities of using existing data from different geo-topographical materials such as charts at different scales in analog as well as digital forms. Sources of information about an area: Cartographic-analytic collecting of spatial information for environmental purposes is carried out mainly from the following sources: satellite images, geographic information systems / Environmental Information Systems (GIS / EIS, Geo-topographic materials in analogue and digital (especially maps forms and physical measurements of ambient environment. Types of maps which can be used for environmental protection: Base maps are widely used mostly for military purposes. Being highly detailed, these maps can be largely used for the purposes of environmental protection, especially topographic maps of a scale of 1:25 000 to 1:200 000 and 1:250 000. Thematic maps primarily give information on specific locations and specific content. For the purposes of environmental protection and improvement, thematic maps with specific topics are constructed most frequently. Combined maps are specific and they are a combination of base and thematic maps. These are, for example, political, travel, touristic, hydrological, and synoptic maps. Synthetic maps show the results and analysis of data collected. They cannot display all the characteristics or information related to the environment, especially data about complex ecosystems. Conclusion

  8. The evolution of active Lavina di Roncovetro landslides by multi-temporal high-resolution topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isola, Ilaria; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Favalli, Massimiliano; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Mucchi, Lorenzo; Intrieri, Emanuele; Pizziolo, Marco; Bertolini, Giovanni; Trippi, Federico; Casagli, Nicola; Schina, Rosa; Carnevale, Ennio

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution topographic data has been collected over the Lavina di Roncovetro active landslide (Reggio Emilia, Italy) for about 3 years by using various methods and technologies. Tha Lavina di Roncovetro landslide can be considered as a fluid-viscous mudflow, which can reach a down flow maximum rate of 10 m/day. The landslide started between the middle and the end of the XIX century and since then it has had a rapid evolution mainly characterized by the rapid retrogression of the crown to the extent that now reaches the top of Mount Staffola. In the frame of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12ENV/IT/001033) the Lavina di Roncovetro landslide has been periodically tracked using technologies that span from the LiDAR, both terrestrial and aerial, to the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry method based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and aerial survey. These data are used to create six high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DEMs), which imaged the landslide surface on March 2014, October 2014, June 2015, July 2015, January 2016 and December 2016. Multi-temporal high-resolution topographic data have been used for qualitative and quantitative morphometric analysis and topographic change detection of the landslide with the aim to estimate and map the volume of removed and/or accumulated material, the average rates of vertical and horizontal displacement and the deformation structures affecting the landslide over the investigated period.

  9. Correcting for GPS Multipath Error in LIDAR Surveys Using Crossover Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, A. A.; Bills, B. G.; Fricker, H. A.; Minster, J. B.

    2003-12-01

    The quality of the range measurement from an airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) survey is largely dependent on the accuracy of the GPS trajectory for the aircraft. GPS elevation error - which today is largely due to multipath effects at the aircraft and the GPS base station - contributes a major portion of the LIDAR vertical error budget. The usual practice of quoting an RMS value for the GPS component of the error budget implies that GPS noise is Gaussian, yet the true nature of the noise signal is time-varying with significant power at long periods. GPS noise with a 3-cm RMS can easily have more than 10 cm of total variability on a time scale of tens of minutes to several hours. We show examples from an airborne LIDAR survey over the open-pit Hector Mine where repeated flyovers of an area used for ground truth revealed large elevation biases between passes that could not be resolved by adjusting the (non-GPS) parameters of the LIDAR system. As part of the post-processing of a large kinematic GPS survey of the salar de Uyuni, Bolivia, we have developed an algorithm to correct time-varying GPS error using elevation mismatches at crossovers between vehicle paths. The survey was originally designed to incorporate a large number of crossovers for the purpose of determining survey repeatability, and we were later able to exploit the crossover difference observations to solve for a model of the actual error signal generating those differences. We give results from tests with synthetic noise and topography data indicating that this method removes more than two-thirds of the added noise from the topographic signal, and we show the excellent results obtained for the salar de Uyuni survey data. We believe that airborne LIDAR surveys incorporating crossovers at regular intervals can also benefit from the application of this algorithm.

  10. Topographic Analyses of the Vestalia Terra plateau, Vesta (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, D.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Williams, D. A.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    The identification of Vestalia Terra, a topographically high region of Vesta bound by steep scarps, is itself a direct result of topographic analysis of the asteroid. However, additional analysis of the topography of the plateau has yielded important scientific discoveries. While most equatorial regions on Vesta display numerous wide and flat-floored troughs, Vestalia Terra does not. There are, however, three long pit crater chains on top of the plateau that are roughly aligned with the equatorial flat-floor troughs. Pit crater chains are a type of feature that have been observed on several planetary bodies and have been described as lines of circular to elliptical depressions which lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows. Individual pits most commonly have a conical shape, sometimes with a flat floor, but in some cases they are elliptical in shape, with the long axis parallel to the chain orientation. Pit craters can in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, but the pits are often bordered by a graben (a down-dropped block bounded by normal faults) even before this coalesence. While pits are generally agreed to have formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity, the exact formation mechanisms hypothesized can vary from planet to planet. However, several researchers have suggested that pit crater chains on small bodies such as Phobos, Eros, Lutetia and Enceladus are formed by the drainage of a loose cover material into subsurface voids formed by dilation of a subsurface normal fault, a method described in extensive detail for pit crater chains on Mars. This formation hypothesis is strengthened by the strong correlation between pit crater chains and fault-bounded graben that has been observed and by the fact that pit chains are often in alignment with a regional fault and fracture system. There are two fundamental controls on the maximum size a pit can attain: the thickness of the overlying regolith and the amount of subsurface accommodation space. The

  11. DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT: DATA QUALIFICATION REPORT FOR 1991 1:1200 TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS FOR USE ON THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.F. Knop; T.A. Grant; R.W. Bonisolli

    2005-06-25

    This Data Qualification Report (DQR) is prepared in accordance with the provisions of AP-SIII.2Q, Rev. 0, ICN 3, Qualification of Unqualified Data and the Documentation of Rationale for Accepted Data and Data Qualification Plan for 1991 Topographic Maps 1:1200 Scale for use on the Yucca Mountain Project, DQP-WHS-CI-000001, Rev. 00 (BSC 2002a). This DQR presents an evaluation of a set of 90 topographic sheets at 1:1200 scale (and an associated electronic file) that covers an approximate 18 square mile area surrounding the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository surface facilities location in Midway Valley, Nevada. These maps, that require qualification, are now being used to determine the physical characteristics of watershed sub-areas, interconnecting channels, and drainage channel cross-sections for hydrologic engineering studies of the north portal pad and vicinity. The result of this effort is to qualify one data tracking number (DTN) containing the electronic version of the mapping data. This DTN is: M09906COV98462.000. Coverage: TOP02FTS. The underlying quality assurance (QA) issue associated with these topographic maps is that the maps were originally designated as not for use in the design of items important to safety, waste isolation, and/or of programmatic importance. The maps were therefore generated outside the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) QA program. Based on a comparison with corroborating information, this report concludes that the topographic maps are qualified. The comparison found that the mapping was reasonably accurate when compared with other mapping and survey data within the coverage area of the maps. Relative map accuracy was found to be very good and suitable for the hydrologic engineering studies being considered. Absolute accuracy is good but could not be demonstrated to comply with national map accuracy standards. Point locations that require high absolute accuracy should be

  12. Modeling the Seasonal Ice Zone from the Air: use of repeat aerial hydrographic surveys to constrain a regional ice-ocean model in an area of rapidly evolving ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, S.; Morison, J.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Seasonal Ice Zone of the Beaufort Sea is the area of ocean north of Alaska over which sea ice melts and reforms annually. It contains the more narrow, near-edge marginal ice zone (MIZ). Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys (SIZRS) measure hydrography along two meridional sections using Air eXpendable CTDs (AXCTDs) and Air eXpendable Current Profilers (AXCPs). These surveys take place aboard U.S. Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness flights of opportunity during each melt season (June-October) starting in 2012. The Marginal Ice Zone Modeling and Assimilation System (MIZMAS) is a high-resolution regional ice-ocean model with daily, three-dimensional output encompassing the SIZRS survey area. Direct comparison of the SIZRS data with MIZMAS output as well as with several regional climatologies can constrain the ice-ocean model and help to explain recent changes in subsurface heat content and salinity. For example, observed freshening relative to climatology has been used as a reference to which MIZMAS surface salinity values can be relaxed. MIZMAS may in turn shed light on the physical mechanisms driving the observed freshening. In addition, use of MIZMAS surface fluxes to drive a one-dimensional mixed layer model gives results close to observations when the model is initialized with SIZRS profiles. Because SIZRS observations range in time from the onset of melt to the onset of Fall freeze-up, the comparison of the one-dimensional model with MIZMAS illustrates the relative roles of local and regional processes in forming near-surface temperature maxima and salinity minima. The SIZRS observations and one-dimensional model are used to constrain MIZMAS estimations of stored subsurface heat while establishing the physical drivers of these temperature and salinity changes.

  13. A review of topographic controls on moraine distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Iestyn D.; Lovell, Harold

    2014-12-01

    Ice-marginal moraines are often used to reconstruct the dimensions of former ice masses, which are then used as proxies for palaeoclimate. This approach relies on the assumption that the distribution of moraines in the modern landscape is an accurate reflection of former ice margin positions during climatically controlled periods of ice margin stability. However, the validity of this assumption is open to question, as a number of additional, nonclimatic factors are known to influence moraine distribution. This review considers the role played by topography in this process, with specific focus on moraine formation, preservation, and ease of identification (topoclimatic controls are not considered). Published literature indicates that the importance of topography in regulating moraine distribution varies spatially, temporally, and as a function of the ice mass type responsible for moraine deposition. In particular, in the case of ice sheets and ice caps (> 1000 km2), one potentially important topographic control on where in a landscape moraines are deposited is erosional feedback, whereby subglacial erosion causes ice masses to become less extensive over successive glacial cycles. For the marine-terminating outlets of such ice masses, fjord geometry also exerts a strong control on where moraines are deposited, promoting their deposition in proximity to valley narrowings, bends, bifurcations, where basins are shallow, and/or in the vicinity of topographic bumps. Moraines formed at the margins of ice sheets and ice caps are likely to be large and readily identifiable in the modern landscape. In the case of icefields and valley glaciers (10-1000 km2), erosional feedback may well play some role in regulating where moraines are deposited, but other factors, including variations in accumulation area topography and the propensity for moraines to form at topographic pinning points, are also likely to be important. This is particularly relevant where land-terminating glaciers

  14. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  15. Human topographic signatures and derived geomorphic processes across landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Sofia, Giulia

    2016-02-01

    The Earth's surface morphology, in an abiotic context, is a consequence of major forcings such as tectonic uplift, erosion, sediment transport, and climate. Recently, however, it has become essential for the geomorphological community to also take into account biota as a geomorphological agent that has a role in shaping the landscape, even if at a different scale and magnitude from that of geology. Although the modern literature is flourishing on the impacts of vegetation on geomorphic processes, the study of anthropogenic pressures on geomorphology is still in its early stages. Topography emerges as a result of natural driving forces, but some human activities (such as mining, agricultural practices and the construction of road networks) directly or indirectly move large quantities of soil, which leave clear topographic signatures embedded on the Earth's morphology. These signatures can cause drastic changes to the geomorphological organization of the landscape, with direct consequences on Earth surface processes. This review provides an overview of the recent literature on the role of humans as a geological agent in shaping the morphology of the landscape. We explore different contexts that are significantly characterized by anthropogenic topographic signatures: landscapes affected by mining activities, road networks and agricultural practices. We underline the main characteristics of those landscapes and the implications of human impacts on Earth surface processes. The final section considers future challenges wherein we explore recent novelties and trials in the concept of anthropogenic geomorphology. Herein, we focus on the role of high-resolution topographic and remote-sensing technologies. The reconstruction or identification of artificial or anthropogenic topographies provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to landscape systems. This study may allow an improved understanding and targeted mitigation of the processes driving geomorphic

  16. Asphericity analysis using corneal wavefront and topographic meridional fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; de Ortueta, Diego

    2010-03-01

    The calculation of corneal asphericity as a 3-D fit renders more accurate results when it is based on the corneal wavefront aberrations rather than on the corneal topography of the principal meridians. A more accurate prediction could be obtained for hyperopic treatments compared to myopic treatments. We evaluate a method to calculate corneal asphericity and asphericity changes after refractive surgery. Sixty eyes of 15 consecutive myopic patients and 15 consecutive hyperopic patients (n=30 each) are retrospectively evaluated. Preoperative and 3-month-postoperative topographic and corneal wavefront analyses are performed using corneal topography. Ablations are performed using a laser with an aberration-free profile. Topographic changes in asphericity and corneal aberrations are evaluated for a 6-mm corneal diameter. The induction of corneal spherical aberrations and asphericity changes correlates with the achieved defocus correction. Preoperatively as well as postoperatively, asphericity calculated from the topography meridians correlates with asphericity calculated from the corneal wavefront in myopic and hyperopic treatments. A stronger correlation between postoperative asphericity and the ideally expected/predicted asphericity is obtained based on aberration-free assumptions calculated from corneal wavefront values rather than from the meridians. In hyperopic treatments, a better correlation can be obtained compared to the correlation in myopic treatments. Corneal asphericity calculated from corneal wavefront aberrations represents a 3-D fit of the corneal surface; asphericity calculated from the main topographic meridians represents a 2-D fit of the principal corneal meridians. Postoperative corneal asphericity can be calculated from corneal wavefront aberrations with higher fidelity than from corneal topography of the principal meridians. Hyperopic treatments show a greater accuracy than myopic treatments.

  17. Uncertainty in Historical Land-Use Reconstructions with Topographic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaim Dominik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the outcomes of the uncertainty investigation of a long-term forest cover change analysis in the Polish Carpathians (nearly 20,000 km2 and Swiss Alps (nearly 10,000 km2 based on topographic maps. Following Leyk et al. (2005 all possible uncertainties are grouped into three domains - production-oriented, transformation- oriented and application-oriented. We show typical examples for each uncertainty domain, encountered during the forest cover change analysis and discuss consequences for change detection. Finally, a proposal for reliability assessment is presented.

  18. Topographical Anisotropy and Wetting of Ground Stainless Steel Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Bellmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic and physico-chemical methods were used for a comprehensive surface characterization of different mechanically modified stainless steel surfaces. The surfaces were analyzed using high-resolution confocal microscopy, resulting in detailed information about the topographic properties. In addition, static water contact angle measurements were carried out to characterize the surface heterogeneity of the samples. The effect of morphological anisotropy on water contact angle anisotropy was investigated. The correlation between topography and wetting was studied by means of a model of wetting proposed in the present work, that allows quantifying the air volume of the interface water drop-stainless steel surface.

  19. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by manufactured DNA nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Youngkwon; Shin, Jihoon; Seo, Soonbeom; Park, Sung Ha; Ahn, Joung Real

    2015-03-01

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  20. Quantitative Topographical Characterization of Thermally Sprayed Coatings by Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaller, P.; Züst, R.; Michler, J.

    2009-03-01

    Topography measurements and roughness calculations for different rough surfaces (Rugotest surface comparator and thermally sprayed coatings) are presented. The surfaces are measured with a novel quantitative topography measurement technique based on optical stereomicroscopy and a comparison is made with established scanning stylus and optical profilometers. The results show that for most cases the different methods yield similar results. Stereomicroscopy is therefore a valuable method for topographical investigations in both quality control and research. On the other hand, the method based on optical microscopy demands a careful optimization of the experimental settings like the magnification and the illumination to achieve satisfactory results.

  1. Lessons Learned from the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Matt; Patel, Deepak; Bradshaw, Heather; Robinson, Frank; Neuberger, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The ICESat-2 Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) instrument is an upcoming Earth Science mission focusing on the effects of climate change. The flight instrument passed all environmental testing at GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) and is now ready to be shipped to the spacecraft vendor for integration and testing. This presentation walks through the lessons learned from design, hardware, analysis and testing perspective. ATLAS lessons learned include general thermal design, analysis, hardware, and testing issues as well as lessons specific to laser systems, two-phase thermal control, and optical assemblies with precision alignment requirements.

  2. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  3. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  4. Topographic control of snowpack distribution in a small catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees: intra- and inter-annual persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Revuelto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the relations between terrain characteristics and snow depth distribution in a small alpine catchment located in the central Spanish Pyrenees. Twelve field campaigns were conducted during 2012 and 2013, which were years characterized by very different climatic conditions. Snow depth was measured using a long range terrestrial laser scanner and analyses were performed at a spatial resolution of 5 m. Pearson's r correlation, multiple linear regressions and binary regression trees were used to analyze the influence of topography on the snow depth distribution. The analyses were used to identify the topographic variables that better explain the snow distribution in this catchment, and to assess whether their contributions were variable over intra- and inter-annual time scales. The topographic position index, which has rarely been used in these types of studies, most accurately explained the distribution of snow accumulation. Other variables affecting the snow depth distribution included the maximum upwind slope, elevation, and northing (or potential incoming solar radiation. The models developed to predict snow distribution in the basin for each of the 12 survey days were similar in terms of the most explanatory variables. However, the variance explained by the overall model and by each topographic variable, especially those making a lesser contribution, differed markedly between a year in which snow was abundant (2013 and a~year when snow was scarce (2012, and also differed between surveys in which snow accumulation or melting conditions dominated in the preceding days. The total variance explained by the models clearly decreased for those days on which the snow pack was thinner and more patchily distributed. Despite the differences in climatic conditions in the 2012 and 2013 snow seasons, some similarities in snow accumulation patterns were observed.

  5. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Barrett; Haddad, D.E.; Rockwell, T.K.; Arrowsmith, R.; Madugo, C.; Zielke, O.; Scharer, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter-scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator’s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  6. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data

    KAUST Repository

    Salisbury, J. Barrett

    2015-10-24

    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter- scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator\\'s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  7. True polar wander of Enceladus from topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Soderlund, Krista M.; Thomas, Peter C.; Helfenstein, Paul; Hedman, Matthew M.; Burns, Joseph A.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2017-10-01

    Many objects in the solar system are suspected to have experienced reorientation of their spin axes. As their rotation rates are slow and their shapes are nearly spherical, the formation of mass anomalies, by either endogenic or exogenic processes, can change objects' moments of inertia. Therefore, the objects reorient to align their largest moment of inertia with their spin axis. Such a phenomenon is called True Polar Wander (TPW). Here we report the discovery of a global series of topographic lows on Saturn's satellite Enceladus that we interpret to show that this synchronously locked moon has undergone TPW by ∼55° about the tidal axis. We use improved topographic data from the spherical harmonic expansion of Cassini limb and stereogrammetric measurements to characterize regional topography over the surface of Enceladus. We identify a group of nearly antipodal basins orthogonal to a basin chain tracing a non-equatorial circumglobal belt across Enceladus' surface. We argue that the belt and the antipodal regions are fossil remnants of earlier equator and poles, respectively. We argue that these lows arise from isostasic compensation and that their pattern reflects spatial variations in internal dynamics of the ice shell. Our hypothesis is consistent with a variety of geological features visible in Cassini images.

  8. A Visual Framework for Digital Reconstruction of Topographic Maps

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem

    2014-09-30

    We present a framework for reconstructing Digital Elevation Maps (DEM) from scanned topographic maps. We first rectify the images to ensure that maps fit together without distortion. To segment iso-contours, we have developed a novel semi-automated method based on mean-shifts that requires only minimal user interaction. Contour labels are automatically read using an OCR module. To reconstruct the output DEM from scattered data, we generalize natural neighbor interpolation to handle the transfinite case (contours and points). To this end, we use parallel vector propagation to compute a discrete Voronoi diagram of the constraints, and a modified floodfill to compute virtual Voronoi tiles. Our framework is able to handle tens of thousands of contours and points and can generate DEMs comprising more than 100 million samples. We provide quantitative comparison to commercial software and show the benefits of our approach. We furthermore show the robustness of our method on a massive set of old maps predating satellite acquisition. Compared to other methods, our framework is able to accurately and efficiently generate a final DEM despite inconsistencies, sparse or missing contours even for highly complex and cluttered maps. Therefore, this method has broad applicability for digitization and reconstruction of the world\\'s old topographic maps that are often the only record of past landscapess and cultural heritage before their destruction under modern development.

  9. MEDIUM-FORMAT CAMERAS AND THEIR USE IN TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Höhle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on practical experiences with large-format aerial cameras the impact of new medium-format digital cameras on topographic mapping tasks is discussed. Two new medium-format cameras are investigated with respect to elevation accuracy, area coverage and image quality. The produced graphs and tables show the potential of these cameras for general mapping tasks. Special attention is given to the image quality of the selected cameras. Applications for the medium-format cameras are discussed. The necessary tools for selected applications are described. The impact of sensors for georeferencing, multi-spectral images, and new matching algo-rithms is also dealt with. Practical investigations are carried out for the production of digital elevation models. A comparison with large-format frame cameras is carried out. It is concluded that the medium-format cameras have a potential for mapping of smaller areas and will be used in future in true orthoimage production, corridor mapping, and updating of maps. Their small dimensions and low weight allow installation in small airplanes, helicopters, and high-end UAVs. The two investigated medium-format cameras are low-cost alternatives for standard mapping tasks and special applications. The detection of changes in topographic databases and DTMs can be carried out by means of those medium-format cameras which can image the same area in four bands of the visible and invisible spectrum of light. Medium-format cameras will play an important role in future mapping tasks.

  10. Topographic Effect on the Energetics of Geostrophic Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Juan; WU Rongsheng; YI Aimin

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the impact of topography on the geostrophic adjustment process is discussed with a simple two-layer shallow water model, in which the lower-layer fluid is initially stationary while the upper-layer is perturbed by the impulsive injection of momentum. During the geostrophic adjustment process of this ideal model, the initial kinetic energy is released and a fraction of it is converted into potential energy of the final geostrophically adjusted state. Thus, after the geostrophic adjustment, the kinetic energy of the system is reduced while the potential energy is enhanced. As the topographic effect is considered, it is found that the decrease of the kinetic energy (△KE) and the increase of the potential energy (△PE) of the system are weakened as compared to the case that the lower boundary is flat. Furthermore, the topographic effect on △PE is less pronounced than that on △KE, which implicates that the topography tends to inhibit the energy dispersion of the inertio-gravity wave. The numerical simulation of the geostrophic adjustment process shows that, due to the impact of topography, the convergence and divergence in the low layer are reduced and the undulation of the interface between the lower-layer and upper-layer is weakened. This means that the amplitude of the inertio-gravity wave is decreased, and thus, the energy radiated by the inertio-gravity wave is lessened.

  11. Topographic Mapping of Pluto and Charon Using New Horizons Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, P. M.; Beyer, R. A.; Moore, J. M.; Spencer, J. R.; McKinnon, W. B.; Howard, A. D.; White, O. M.; Umurhan, O. M.; Singer, K.; Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A.; Ennico Smith, K.; Olkin, C.; Horizons Geology, New; Geophysics Imaging Team

    2016-06-01

    New Horizons 2015 flyby of the Pluto system has resulted in high-resolution topographic maps of Pluto and Charon, the most distant objects so mapped. DEM's over ~30% of each object were produced at 100-300 m vertical and 300-800 m spatial resolutions, in hemispheric maps and high-resolution linear mosaics. Both objects reveal more relief than was observed at Triton. The dominant 800-km wide informally named Sputnik Planum bright ice deposit on Pluto lies in a broad depression 3 km deep, flanked by dispersed mountains 3-5 km high. Impact craters reveal a wide variety of preservation states from pristine to eroded, and long fractures are several km deep with throw of 0-2 km. Topography of this magnitude suggests the icy shell of Pluto is relatively cold and rigid. Charon has global relief of at least 10 km, including ridges of 2-3 km and troughs of 3-5 km of relief. Impact craters are up to 6 km deep. Vulcan Planum consists of rolling plains and forms a topographic moat along its edge, suggesting viscous flow.

  12. TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR BENGALI AND HINDI CHARACTER IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Bag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection and extraction plays an important role in different classification based problems such as face recognition, signature verification, optical character recognition (OCR etc. The performance of OCR highly depends on the proper selection and extraction of feature set. In this paper, we present novel features based on the topography of a character as visible from different viewing directions on a 2D plane. By topography of a character we mean the structural features of the strokes and their spatial relations. In this work we develop topographic features of strokes visible with respect to views from different directions (e.g. North, South, East, and West. We consider three types of topographic features: closed region, convexity of strokes, and straight line strokes. These features are represented as a shapebased graph which acts as an invariant feature set for discriminating very similar type characters efficiently. We have tested the proposed method on printed and handwritten Bengali and Hindi character images. Initial results demonstrate the efficacy of our approach.

  13. Topographic Feature Extraction for Bengali and Hindi Character Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Bag

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection and extraction plays an important role in different classification based problems such as face recognition, signature verification, optical character recognition (OCR etc. The performance of OCR highly depends on the proper selection and extraction of feature set. In this paper, we present novel features based on the topography of a character as visible from different viewing directions on a 2D plane. By topography of a character we mean the structural features of the strokes and their spatial relations. In this work we develop topographic features of strokes visible with respect to views from different directions (e.g. North, South, East, and West. We consider three types of topographic features: closed region, convexity of strokes, and straight line strokes. These features are represented as a shapebased graph which acts as an invariant feature set for discriminating very similar type characters efficiently. We have tested the proposed method on printed and handwritten Bengali and Hindi character images. Initial results demonstrate the efficacy of our approach.

  14. Contextualising the topographic signature of historic mining, a scaling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Liam

    2017-04-01

    Mining is globally one of the most significant means by which humans alter landscapes; we do so through erosion (mining), transport, and deposition of extracted sediments (waste). The iconic Dartmoor mountain landscape of SW England ( 700km2) has experienced over 1000 years of shallow (Cu & Sn) mining that has left a pervasive imprint on the landscape. The availability of high resolution digital elevation models (signature of mining. Conceptually I ask the question: how much (digital elevation model) smoothing is required to remove the human imprint from this landscape ? While we may have entered the Anthropocene other gravity driven process have imparted distinct scale-dependant signatures. How might the human signature differ from these processes and how pervasive is it at the landscape scale? Spatial scaling analysis (curvature & semi-variance) was used to quantify the topographic signature of historic mining and to determine how it differs to a) natural landforms such as bedrock tors; and b) the morphology of biological activity (e.g. peat formation). Other forms of historic activity such as peat cutting and quarrying were also investigated. The existence of 400 years of mine activity archives also makes it possible to distinguish between the imprint of differing forms of mine technology and their spatio-temporal signature. Interestingly the higher technology 19th C mines have left a much smaller topographic legacy than Medieval miners; though the former had a much greater impact in terms of heavy metal contamination.

  15. Topographic Controls on Landslide and Debris-Flow Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S. W.; Pettitt, S.

    2014-12-01

    Regardless of whether a granular flow initiates from failure and liquefaction of a shallow landslide or from overland flow that entrains sediment to form a debris flow, the resulting flow poses hazards to downslope communities. Understanding controls on granular-flow mobility is critical for accurate hazard prediction. The topographic form of granular-flow paths can vary significantly across different steeplands and is one of the few flow-path properties that can be readily altered by engineered control structures such as closed-type check dams. We use grain-scale numerical modeling (discrete element method simulations) of free-surface, gravity-driven granular flows to investigate how different topographic profiles with the same mean slope and total relief can produce notable differences in flow mobility due to strong nonlinearities inherent to granular-flow dynamics. We describe how varying the profile shape from planar, to convex up, to concave up, as well how varying the number, size, and location of check dams along a flow path, changes flow velocity, thickness, discharge, energy dissipation, impact force and runout distance. Our preliminary results highlight an important path dependence for this nonlinear system, show that caution should be used when predicting flow dynamics from path-averaged properties, and provide some mechanics-based guidance for engineering control structures.

  16. Topographic organization of the cerebral cortex and brain cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Simon B; Constable, R Todd; Yeo, B T Thomas

    2017-02-20

    One of the most specific but also challenging properties of the brain is its topographic organization into distinct modules or cortical areas. In this paper, we first review the concept of topographic organization and its historical development. Next, we provide a critical discussion of the current definition of what constitutes a cortical area, why the concept has been so central to the field of neuroimaging and the challenges that arise from this view. A key aspect in this discussion is the issue of spatial scale and hierarchy in the brain. Focusing on in-vivo brain parcellation as a rapidly expanding field of research, we highlight potential limitations of the classical concept of cortical areas in the context of multi-modal parcellation and propose a revised interpretation of cortical areas building on the concept of neurobiological atoms that may be aggregated into larger units within and across modalities. We conclude by presenting an outlook on the implication of this revised concept for future mapping studies and raise some open questions in the context of brain parcellation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactions of neurons with topographic nano cues affect branching morphology mimicking neuron-neuron interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, Koby; Kollmar, Davida; Chejanovsky, Nathan; Sharoni, Amos; Shefi, Orit

    2012-08-01

    We study the effect of topographic nano-cues on neuronal growth-morphology using invertebrate neurons in culture. We use photolithography to fabricate substrates with repeatable line-pattern ridges of nano-scale heights of 10-150 nm. We plate leech neurons atop the patterned-substrates and compare their growth pattern to neurons plated atop non-patterned substrates. The model system allows us the analysis of single neurite-single ridge interactions. The use of high resolution electron microscopy reveals small filopodia processes that attach to the line-pattern ridges. These fine processes, that cannot be detected in light microscopy, add anchoring sites onto the side of the ridges, thus additional physical support. These interactions of the neuronal process dominantly affect the neuronal growth direction. We analyze the response of the entire neuronal branching tree to the patterned substrates and find significant effect on the growth patterns compared to non-patterned substrates. Moreover, interactions with the nano-cues trigger a growth strategy similarly to interactions with other neuronal cells, as reflected in their morphometric parameters. The number of branches and the number of neurites originating from the soma decrease following the interaction demonstrating a tendency to a more simplified neuronal branching tree. The effect of the nano-cues on the neuronal function deserves further investigation and will strengthen our understanding of the interplay between function and form.

  18. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  19. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  20. Unravelling spatio-temporal evapotranspiration patterns in topographically complex landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzen, Daniel; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Lane, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation co-evolves with soils and topography under a given long-term climatic forcing. Previous studies demonstrated a strong eco-hydrologic feedback between topography, vegetation and energy and water fluxes. Slope orientation (aspect and gradient) alter the magnitude of incoming solar radiation resulting in larger evaporative losses and less water availability on equator-facing slopes. Furthermore, non-local water inputs from upslope areas potentially contribute to available water at downslope positions. The combined effect of slope orientation and drainage position creates complex spatial patterns in biological productivity and pedogenesis, which in turn alter the local hydrology. In complex upland landscapes, topographic alteration of incoming radiation can cause substantial aridity index (ratio of potential evapotranspiration to precipitation) variations over small spatial extents. Most of the upland forests in south-east Australia are located in an aridity index (AI) range of 1-2, around the energy limited to water limited boundary, where forested systems are expected to be most sensitive to AI changes. In this research we aim to improve the fundamental understanding of spatio-temporal evolution of evapotranspiration (ET) patterns in complex terrain, accounting for local topographic effects on system properties (e.g. soil depth, sapwood area, leaf area) and variation in energy and water exchange processes due to slope orientation and drainage position. Six measurement plots were set-up in a mixed species eucalypt forest on a polar and equatorial-facing hillslope (AI ˜1.3 vs. 1.8) at varying drainage position (ridge, mid-slope, gully), while minimizing variations in other factors, e.g. geology and weather patterns. Sap flow, soil water content, incoming solar radiation and throughfall were continuously monitored at field sites spanning a wide range of soil depth (0.5 - >3m), maximum tree heights (17 - 51m) and LAI (1.2 - 4.6). Site-specific response curves

  1. NOAA's Shoreline Survey Maps - Raster NOAA-NOS Shoreline Survey Manuscripts that define the shoreline and alongshore natural and man-made features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOS coastal survey maps (often called t-sheet or tp-sheet maps) are special use planimetric or topographic maps that precisely define the shoreline and alongshore...

  2. Assessment of transfer patterns and origins of in-channel wood in large rivers using repeated field surveys and wood characterisation (the Isère River upstream of Pontcharra, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piégay, Hervé; Moulin, Bertrand; Hupp, Cliff R.

    2017-02-01

    When and whence does wood enter large mountain alluvial rivers? How stable through time are characteristics and quantities of wood deposited in a reach? These simple questions related to the complex practice of wood budgeting are explored on the Isère River in France. We hypothesise that (i) the wood originates from the riparian zone all along the alluvial reach and that (ii) the characters and quantity of wood in the reach can vary through time according to flood occurrence and provenance. In order to validate these hypotheses, two complementary approaches were performed: (i) wood pieces were surveyed along 190 km river length and taxonomy, in-channel wood macromorphology, and dendrochemistry were used to infer wood origin (local vs. upstream, respective subbasin contributions) and transport conditions; (ii) wood movement was monitored using both tracking techniques in specific sampling plots and with an experiment orchestrated using wood placement coupled with a significant artificial flood. Surveys were done over a period of 3 years so as to include two distinct sampling events to explore wood deposition and mobilisation within a channel network under different flood conditions. One of the subbasins, the Arly River, underwent a 1-in-30-year flood in 2004, allowing us to assess its effect on in-channel wood quantity and characteristics. Results confirm that wood is primarily introduced by erosion from river banks but they are not always as close as expected from the sites of deposition. Temporal variability of wood introduced, deposited, and transferred downstream is also significant in terms of abundance and origin as shown by dendrochemical and macromorphological signatures. The types of wood observed along the channel length changes through time. Large flood signature can be detected from wood characteristics and uplands make a slight contribution. But in average, wood characteristics do not change much (no significant difference between years and tributaries

  3. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  4. The Status of Topographic Mapping in the World a Unggim-Isprs Project 2012-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecny, G.; Breitkopf, U.; Radtke, A.

    2016-06-01

    In December 2011, UNGGIM initiated a cooperative project with ISPRS to resume the former UN Secretariat studies on the status of topographic mapping in the world, conducted between 1968 and 1986. After the design of a questionnaire with 27 questions, the UNGGIM Secretariat sent the questionnaires to the UN member states. 115 replies were received from the 193 member states and regions thereof. Regarding the global data coverage and age, the UN questionnaire survey was supplemented by data from the Eastview database. For each of the 27 questions, an interactive viewer was programmed permitting the analysis of the results. The authoritative data coverage at the various scale ranges has greatly increased between 1986 and 2012. Now, a 30 % 1 : 25 000 map data coverage and a 75 % 1 : 50 000 map data coverage has been completed. Nevertheless, there is still an updating problem, as data for some countries is 10 to 30 years old. Private Industry, with Google, Microsoft and Navigation system providers, have undertaken huge efforts to supplement authoritative mapping. For critical areas on the globe, MGCP committed to military mapping at 1 : 50 000. ISPRS has decided to make such surveys a sustainable issue by establishing a working group.

  5. THE STATUS OF TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING IN THE WORLD A UNGGIM–ISPRS PROJECT 2012–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Konecny

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In December 2011, UNGGIM initiated a cooperative project with ISPRS to resume the former UN Secretariat studies on the status of topographic mapping in the world, conducted between 1968 and 1986. After the design of a questionnaire with 27 questions, the UNGGIM Secretariat sent the questionnaires to the UN member states. 115 replies were received from the 193 member states and regions thereof. Regarding the global data coverage and age, the UN questionnaire survey was supplemented by data from the Eastview database. For each of the 27 questions, an interactive viewer was programmed permitting the analysis of the results. The authoritative data coverage at the various scale ranges has greatly increased between 1986 and 2012. Now, a 30 % 1 : 25 000 map data coverage and a 75 % 1 : 50 000 map data coverage has been completed. Nevertheless, there is still an updating problem, as data for some countries is 10 to 30 years old. Private Industry, with Google, Microsoft and Navigation system providers, have undertaken huge efforts to supplement authoritative mapping. For critical areas on the globe, MGCP committed to military mapping at 1 : 50 000. ISPRS has decided to make such surveys a sustainable issue by establishing a working group.

  6. PILER-CR: Fast and accurate identification of CRISPR repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing of prokaryotic genomes has recently revealed the presence of CRISPR elements: short, highly conserved repeats separated by unique sequences of similar length. The distinctive sequence signature of CRISPR repeats can be found using general-purpose repeat- or pattern-finding software tools. However, the output of such tools is not always ideal for studying these repeats, and significant effort is sometimes needed to build additional tools and perform manual analysis of the output. Results We present PILER-CR, a program specifically designed for the identification and analysis of CRISPR repeats. The program executes rapidly, completing a 5 Mb genome in around 5 seconds on a current desktop computer. We validate the algorithm by manual curation and by comparison with published surveys of these repeats, finding that PILER-CR has both high sensitivity and high specificity. We also present a catalogue of putative CRISPR repeats identified in a comprehensive analysis of 346 prokaryotic genomes. Conclusion PILER-CR is a useful tool for rapid identification and classification of CRISPR repeats. The software is donated to the public domain. Source code and a Linux binary are freely available at http://www.drive5.com/pilercr.

  7. Topographic processing in developmental prosopagnosia: Preserved perception but impaired memory of scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia. To address this formally, we tested two aspects of topographic processing ? that is, perception and memory of mountain landscapes shown from different viewpoints. Participants...... deficit in visual processing or visual short-term memory. Interestingly, a classical dissociation could be demonstrated between impaired face memory and preserved topographic memory in two developmental prosopagnosics. We conclude that impairments in topographic memory tend to co-occur with developmental...

  8. Evaluation of topographic index in relation to terrain roughness and DEM grid spacing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samadrita Mukherjee; Sandip Mukherjee; R D Garg; A Bhardwaj; P L N Raju

    2013-06-01

    Topographic index is an important attribute of digital elevation model (DEM) which indicates soil saturation. It is used for estimation of run-off, soil moisture, depth of ground water and hydrological simulation. Topographic index is derived from DEMs; hence the accuracy of DEM influences its computation. Commonly the raster based grid DEM is widely used to simulate hydrological model parameter, and accuracy varies with respect to DEM grid size and morphological characteristics of terrain. In this study topographic index is evaluated in terms of DEM grid size and terrain roughness. The study was carried out on four small watersheds, having different roughness characteristics, located over the Himalayan terrain. Topographic index surface is derived for each watershed from different grid spacing DEM (10–150 m), analysed and validated. It is found that DEM grid spacing affects the topographic index. The surface representation is smooth in the coarse grid spacing and the pattern of topographic index changes with grid spacing. The spatial autocorrelation of topographic index surface reduces when calculated from larger spacing DEM. The mean of the topographic index surface increases and standard deviation decreases with the increase of grid spacing and the effect is more pronounced in the rough terrain. Accuracy of the topographic index is also evaluated with respect to grid spacing and terrain roughness by comparing the topographic index surface with respect to reference data (10 m grid spacing topographic index surface). The RMSE and mean error of topographic index surface increases in larger grid spacing and the effect is more in rugged terrain.

  9. Seismic topographic scattering in the context of GW detector site selection

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Michael; Harms, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a calculation of seismic scattering from irregular surface topography in the Born approximation. Based on US-wide topographic data, we investigate topographic scattering at specific sites to demonstrate its impact on Newtonian-noise estimation and subtraction for future gravitational-wave detectors. We find that topographic scattering at a comparatively flat site in Oregon would not pose any problems, whereas scattering at a second site in Montana leads to significan...

  10. Dynamics of Small-Scale Topographic Heterogeneity in European Sandy Salt Marshes

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Elschot; Bakker, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity can boost biodiversity, as well as increase the resilience of an ecosystem to changing environmental conditions; therefore, it is important to understand how topographic heterogeneity in ecosystems is formed. Sandy tidal marshes have a repetitive pattern of higher elevated hummocks surrounded by lower elevated depressions, representing topographic heterogeneity at the scale of a few square meters. The aims of this study were to determine when this topographic heterogeneity forms...

  11. True Polar Wander of Enceladus From Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Soderlund, Krista M.; Thomas, Peter C.; Helfenstein, Paul; Hedman, Matthew M.; Burns, Joseph A.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2016-10-01

    Besides the relative motion of lithospheric plates, the Earth as a whole moves with respect to its rotation pole, as shown by paleomagnetic, astrometric and geodetic measurements [1]. Such so-called true polar wander (TPW) occurs because our planet's moments of inertia change temporally owing to internal thermal convection and to the redistribution of surficial mass during ice ages. Thus, to conserve angular momentum while losing rotational energy, Earth's axis of maximum moment of inertia aligns with its spin axis. Theoreticians suspect similar reorientations of other celestial bodies but supporting evidence is fragmentary, at best [2]. Here we report the discovery of a global series of topographic lows on Saturn's satellite Enceladus indicating that this synchronously locked moon has undergone reorientation by ~55°. We use improved topographic data from spherical harmonic expansion of Cassini limb [3,4,5] and stereogrammetric [5,6,7] measurements to characterize regional topography over the surface of Enceladus. We identify a group of nearly antipodal basins orthogonal to a topographic basin chain tracing a non-equatorial circumglobal belt across Enceladus' surface. We argue that the belt and the antipodal regions are fossil remnants of old equator and poles, respectively. These lows are argued to arise from isostasic compensation [7,8] with their pattern reflecting variations in internal dynamics of the ice shell. Our hypothesis is consistent with many geological features visible in Cassini images [9].References:[1] Mitrovica, J.X. & Wahr, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 39, 577-616 (2011).[2] Matsuyama, I. et al. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 42, 605-634 (2014).[3] Thomas, P.C. et al. Icarus, 190, 573-584 (2007).[4] Thomas, P.C. Icarus, 208, 395-401 (2010).[5] Thomas, P.C. et al. Icarus, 264, 37-47 (2016).[6] Edwards, K. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 53, 1219-1222 (1987).[7] Schenk, P.M. & McKinnon, W. B

  12. The modulation of canine mesenchymal stem cells by nano-topographic cues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Joshua A.; Ly, Irene [Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States); Borjesson, Dori L. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States); Nealey, Paul F. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Russell, Paul [Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States); Murphy, Christopher J., E-mail: cjmurphy@ucdavis.edu [Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising cellular therapeutic for the treatment of a variety of disorders. On transplantation, MSCs interact with diverse extracellular matrices (ECMs) that vary dramatically in topographic feature type, size and surface order. In order to investigate the impact of these topographic cues, surfaces were fabricated with either isotropically ordered holes or anisotropically ordered ridges and grooves. To simulate the biologically relevant nano through micron size scale, a series of topographically patterned substrates possessing features of differing pitch (pitch=feature width+groove width) were created. Results document that the surface order and size of substratum topographic features dramatically modulate fundamental MSC behaviors. Topographically patterned (ridge+groove) surfaces were found to significantly impact MSC alignment, elongation, and aspect ratio. Novel findings also demonstrate that submicron surfaces patterned with holes resulted in increased MSC alignment to adjacent cells as well as increased migration rates. Overall, this study demonstrates that the presentation of substratum topographic cues dramatically influence MSC behaviors in a size and shape dependent manner. The response of MSCs to substratum topographic cues was similar to other cell types that have been studied previously with regards to cell shape on ridge and groove surfaces but differed with respect to proliferation and migration. This is the first study to compare the impact of anisotropically ordered ridge and groove topographic cues to isotropically order holed topographic cues on fundamental MSC behaviors across a range of biologically relevant size scales.

  13. Basal-topographic control of stationary ponds on a continuously moving landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, J.A.; McKenna, J.P.; Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Slumgullion landslide in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado has been moving for at least the last few hundred years and has multiple ponds on its surface. We have studied eight ponds during 30 trips to the landslide between July 1998 and July 2007. During each trip, we have made observations on the variability in pond locations and water levels, taken ground-based photographs to document pond water with respect to moving landslide material and vegetation, conducted Global Positioning System surveys of the elevations of water levels and mapped pond sediments on the landslide surface. Additionally, we have used stereo aerial photographs taken in October 1939, October 1940 and July 2000 to measure topographic profiles of the eight pond locations, as well as a longitudinal profile along the approximate centerline of the landslide, to examine topographic changes over a 60- to 61-year period of time. Results from field observations, analyses of photographs, mapping and measurements indicate that all pond locations have remained spatially stationary for 60-300 years while landslide material moves through these locations. Water levels during the observation period were sensitive to changes in the local, spring-fed, stream network, and to periodic filling of pond locations by sediment from floods, hyperconcentrated flows, mud flows and debris flows. For pond locations to remain stationary, the locations must mimic depressions along the basal surface of the landslide. The existence of such depressions indicates that the topography of the basal landslide surface is irregular. These results suggest that, for translational landslides that have moved distances larger than the dimensions of the largest basal topographic irregularities (about 200 m at Slumgullion), landslide surface morphology can be used as a guide to the morphology of the basal slip surface. Because basal slip surface morphology can affect landslide stability, kinematic models and stability

  14. Trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors: repeated cross-sectional surveys from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1984–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernstsen Linda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an overall decrease in incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD, but the reduction in IHD risk factors has been greater among those with higher social position. Increased social inequalities in IHD mortality in Scandinavian countries is often referred to as the Scandinavian “public health puzzle”. The objective of this study was to examine trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension and high total cholesterol over the last three decades among Norwegian middle-aged women and men. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional data from The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT: HUNT 1 (1984–1986, HUNT 2 (1995–1997 and HUNT 3 (2006–2008, women and men 40–59 years old. Educational inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII and The Relative Index of Inequality (RII. Results Smoking prevalence increased for all education groups among women and decreased in men. Relative and absolute educational inequalities in smoking widened in both genders, with significantly higher absolute inequalities among women than men in the two last surveys. Diabetes prevalence increased in all groups. Relative inequalities in diabetes were stable, while absolute inequalities increased both among women (p = 0.05 and among men (p = 0.01. Hypertension prevalence decreased in all groups. Relative inequalities in hypertension widened over time in both genders. However, absolute inequalities in hypertension decreased among women (p = 0.05 and were stable among men (p = 0.33. For high total cholesterol relative and absolute inequalities remained stable in both genders. Conclusion Widening absolute educational inequalities in smoking and diabetes over the last three decades gives rise to concern. The mechanisms behind these results are less clear, and future studies are needed to assess if educational

  15. Generalized Finite Sequence of Fuzzy Topographic Topological Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Fuzzy Topographic Topological Mapping (FTTM was developed to solve the neuromagnetic inverse problem. FTTM consisted of four topological spaces and connected by three homeomorphisms. FTTM 1 and FTTM 2 were developed to present 3-D view of an unbounded single current source and bounded multicurrent sources, respectively. FTTM 1 and FTTM 2 were homeomorphic and this homeomorphism will generate another 14 FTTM. We conjectured if there exist n elements of FTTM, then the numbers of new elements are n4-n. Approach: In this study, the conjecture was proven by viewing FTTMs as sequence and using its geometrical features. Results: In the process, several definitions were developed, geometrical and algebraic properties of FTTM were discovered. Conclusion: The conjecture was proven and some features of the sequence appear in Pascal Triangle.

  16. Topographic laser ranging and scanning principles and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Jie

    2008-01-01

    A systematic, in-depth introduction to theories and principles of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology is long overdue, as it is the most important geospatial data acquisition technology to be introduced in recent years. An advanced discussion, this text fills the void.Professionals in fields ranging from geology, geography and geoinformatics to physics, transportation, and law enforcement will benefit from this comprehensive discussion of topographic LiDAR principles, systems, data acquisition, and data processing techniques. The book covers ranging and scanning fundamentals, and broad, contemporary analysis of airborne LiDAR systems, as well as those situated on land and in space. The authors present data collection at the signal level in terms of waveforms and their properties; at the system level with regard to calibration and georeferencing; and at the data level to discuss error budget, quality control, and data organization. They devote the bulk of the book to LiDAR data processing and inform...

  17. Topographic data generated from Radarsat Images Over West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Hanafiah Ismullah

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a tropical country which has dominant cloud coverage, and some of the area has cloud cover almost all year long. Mapping by optical sensors, especially with Photogrammetric method shows a very good result, but the main constraint is cloud cover conditions, and this was the weakness point of this method.This study describe the technique for deriving Topographic data from Radarsat Synthetic Aperture Radar stereo image pair and apply it to an image pair over West Kalimantan, Indonesia. This paper contains also brief discussion of the use of stereo SAR to derive Digital Elevation Model, the site condition and the source of validation data. The result shows that Radarsat data recommended only for 1 : 100.000 or smaller.

  18. Topographic control of sorted circle morphology on Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Joana; Hauber, Ernst; Reiss, Dennis; Hiesinger, Harald; Johnsson, Andreas; van Gasselt, Stephan; Balme, Matt; Head, Jim; de Verra, Jean-Pierre; Steinbrügge, Gregor; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Patterned ground is a typical phenomenon in polar, subpolar and alpine regions [1]. As it is commonly (but not necessarily!) related to freeze-thaw cycles, its presence on Mars could possibly point to locations and periods where and when liquid water existed in the recent past [2]. Sorted circles are a class of patterned ground that was tentatively identified in Elysium Planitia (Mars) [3], but this interpretation has been challenged on the basis of physical considerations [4]. Without direct access to potential patterned ground on Mars, the analysis of terrestrial analogues can inform the interpretation of Martian landforms. Svalbard (Norway) offers a wide variety of permafrost features that are morphologically analogous to Martian cold-climate landforms [5]. It hosts some of the best examples of sorted circles on Earth, which are located on the westernmost tip of Brøgger peninsula, on a broad strand flat that is characterized by a series of postglacial beach ridges [6]. Here we report on our analysis of sorted circle morphology (especially their plan-view shape, i.e. their "roundness" or ellipticity) and its correlation with local topography (slopes, curvature). Sorted circle morphology was determined from HRSC-AX images (for details on the flight campaign and image properties see ref [5]) and through field work. Topographic information comes from a 50 cm gridded DEM derived from HRSC-AX stereo images. We measured sorted circle morphology (ellipticity, azimuth of major axis) along a WNW-ESE traverse that runs from the inland towards the sea and is oriented perpendicular to the local beach ridge trend. Selected areas with homogeneous sorted circle appearance were visually mapped, and compared to the average slope, aspect, and the calculated topographic wetness index (TWI). Furthermore the whole traverse was classified into four different morphologies of the sorted patterned ground (sorted circles, sorted "ellipses", sorted nets and areas without patterned ground

  19. Topographic Effects on Ambient Dose Equivalent Rates from Radiocesium Fallout

    CERN Document Server

    Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    Land topography can affect air radiation dose rates by locating radiation sources closer to, or further, from detector locations when compared to perfectly flat terrain. Hills and slopes can also shield against the propagation of gamma rays. To understand the possible magnitude of topographic effects on air dose rates, this study presents calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates at a range of heights above the ground for varying land topographies. The geometries considered were angled ground at the intersection of two planar surfaces, which is a model for slopes neighboring flat land, and a simple conical geometry, representing settings from hilltops to valley bottoms. In each case the radiation source was radioactive cesium fallout, and the slope angle was varied systematically to determine the effect of topography on the air dose rate. Under the assumption of homogeneous fallout across the land surface, and for these geometries and detector locations, the dose rates at high altitudes are more strongly...

  20. Topographic generation of submesoscale centrifugal instability and energy dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Jonathan; Molemaker, M Jeroen; McWilliams, James C

    2016-09-29

    Most of the ocean kinetic energy is contained in the large scale currents and the vigorous geostrophic eddy field, at horizontal scales of order 100 km. To achieve equilibrium the geostrophic currents must viscously dissipate their kinetic energy at much smaller scale. However, geostrophic turbulence is characterized by an inverse cascade of energy towards larger scale, and the pathways of energy toward dissipation are still in question. Here, we present a mechanism, in the context of the Gulf Stream, where energy is transferred from the geostrophic flow to submesoscale wakes through anticyclonic vertical vorticity generation in the bottom boundary layer. The submesoscale turbulence leads to elevated local dissipation and mixing outside the oceanic boundary layers. This process is generic for boundary slope currents that flow in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation. Topographic generation of submesoscale flows potentially provides a new and significant route to energy dissipation for geostrophic flows.

  1. Topographic generation of submesoscale centrifugal instability and energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Jonathan; Molemaker, M. Jeroen; McWilliams, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the ocean kinetic energy is contained in the large scale currents and the vigorous geostrophic eddy field, at horizontal scales of order 100 km. To achieve equilibrium the geostrophic currents must viscously dissipate their kinetic energy at much smaller scale. However, geostrophic turbulence is characterized by an inverse cascade of energy towards larger scale, and the pathways of energy toward dissipation are still in question. Here, we present a mechanism, in the context of the Gulf Stream, where energy is transferred from the geostrophic flow to submesoscale wakes through anticyclonic vertical vorticity generation in the bottom boundary layer. The submesoscale turbulence leads to elevated local dissipation and mixing outside the oceanic boundary layers. This process is generic for boundary slope currents that flow in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation. Topographic generation of submesoscale flows potentially provides a new and significant route to energy dissipation for geostrophic flows. PMID:27681822

  2. Protocadherin 17 regulates presynaptic assembly in topographic corticobasal Ganglia circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshina, Naosuke; Tanimura, Asami; Yamasaki, Miwako; Inoue, Takeshi; Fukabori, Ryoji; Kuroda, Teiko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Tezuka, Tohru; Sagara, Hiroshi; Hirano, Shinji; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Takada, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kano, Masanobu; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2013-06-05

    Highly topographic organization of neural circuits exists for the regulation of various brain functions in corticobasal ganglia circuits. Although neural circuit-specific refinement during synapse development is essential for the execution of particular neural functions, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for synapse refinement are largely unknown. Here, we show that protocadherin 17 (PCDH17), one of the nonclustered δ2-protocadherin family members, is enriched along corticobasal ganglia synapses in a zone-specific manner during synaptogenesis and regulates presynaptic assembly in these synapses. PCDH17 deficiency in mice causes facilitated presynaptic vesicle accumulation and enhanced synaptic transmission efficacy in corticobasal ganglia circuits. Furthermore, PCDH17(-/-) mice exhibit antidepressant-like phenotypes that are known to be regulated by corticobasal ganglia circuits. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for PCDH17 in the synaptic development of specific corticobasal ganglia circuits and suggest the involvement of PCDH17 in such circuits in depressive behaviors.

  3. Topographic hub maps of the human structural neocortical network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil H J Nijhuis

    Full Text Available Hubs within the neocortical structural network determined by graph theoretical analysis play a crucial role in brain function. We mapped neocortical hubs topographically, using a sample population of 63 young adults. Subjects were imaged with high resolution structural and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Multiple network configurations were then constructed per subject, using random parcellations to define the nodes and using fibre tractography to determine the connectivity between the nodes. The networks were analysed with graph theoretical measures. Our results give reference maps of hub distribution measured with betweenness centrality and node degree. The loci of the hubs correspond with key areas from known overlapping cognitive networks. Several hubs were asymmetrically organized across hemispheres. Furthermore, females have hubs with higher betweenness centrality and males have hubs with higher node degree. Female networks have higher small-world indices.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL AND TOPOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES ON ATMOSPHERIC INTERNAL SHIP WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Zeng-liang; PAN Xiao-bin; ZHANG Ming

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical model was used to investigate the influences of environmental and topographic parameters on the atmospheric three-layer internal ship waves. The results show that both the wavelength and the wedge angle decrease with an increase in the Scorer parameter, and the rate of changes in the wavelength and wedge angle are also alike. The results also show that the wedge angle decreases with an increase in the width of mountain, but the wavelength varies little with it. It is suggested that the wedge angle is determined by the ratio of the wavelength to the scale of the mountain. Besides, numerical sensitivity experiments were performed to test the former numerical experiments. The simulated results are consistent with the analytical results.

  5. A new approximation for the dynamics of topographic Rossby waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Ashkenazy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A new theory of non-harmonic topographic Rossby waves over a slowly varying bottom depth of arbitrary, 1-D, profile is developed based on the linearised shallow water equations on the f-plane. The theory yields explicit approximate expressions for the phase speed and non-harmonic cross-slope structure of waves. Analytical expressions are derived in both Cartesian and Polar coordinates by letting the frequency vary in the cross-shelf direction and are verified by comparing them with the numerical results obtained by running an ocean general circulation model (the MITgcm. The proposed approximation may be suitable for studying open ocean and coastal shelf wave dynamics.

  6. Topographic fingerprints of hillslope erosion in the North American Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Nicole; Kirby, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The increasing availability of high resolution topographic datasets has engendered increasingly sophisticated analyses of earth surface processes. However, these analyses require equally sophisticated measurements of fluxes occurring at the Earth's surface to calibrate measurements made from high resolution digital topography. Here, we use a combination of meteoric and in situ 10Be to directly measure downslope fluxes and erosion rates of regolith in forested watersheds developed within the Valley and Ridge physiographic province of the eastern United States. We pair these data with analysis of ridgetop curvature values, derived from high resolution, LiDAR digital elevation models. Under the conditions of steady state, where regolith thickness is constant, and weathering and erosion are in balance, rates of regolith production and erosion are directly proportional to the hillslope curvature. Meteoric 10Be concentrations measured in regolith at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHO) were used to measure downslope flux rates which increase from ~ 5 cm2/y near the ridgetops to ~ 30 cm2/y near the toe slopes. Regolith flux rates near the ridgetops correspond well with previously determined rates of regolith production, suggesting that regolith production and transport are in balance. Near the ridgetops at SSHO, fluxes of regolith are linearly correlated with topographic gradient; however, lower on the hillslopes, regolith flux is linearly correlated to the product of regolith depth and local gradient. Following the simple linear relation between flux and slope, the transport efficiency value near the SSHO ridgetops (K) is ~ 28 cm2/y. On ridgetops at SSHO, where slope and accumulation area are both small (

  7. A Map of Kilometer-Scale Topographic Roughness of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsky, M. A.; Head, J. W., III; Kokhanov, A. A.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Kozlova, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new map of the multiscale topographic roughness of the northern circumpolar area of Mercury. The map utilizes high internal vertical precision surface ranging by the laser altimeter MLA onboard MESSENGER mission to Mercury. This map is analogous to global roughness maps that had been created by M.A.K. with collaborators for Mars (MOLA data) and the Moon (LOLA data). As measures of roughness, we used the interquartile range of along-track profile curvature at three baselines: 0.7 km, 2.8 km, and 11 km. Unlike in the cases of LOLA data for the Moon, and MOLA data for Mars, the MLA data allow high-quality roughness mapping only for a small part of the surface of the planet: the map covers 65N - 84N latitude zone, where the density of MLA data is the highest. The map captures the regional variations of the typical background topographic texture of the surface. The map shows the clear dichotomy between smooth northern plains and rougher cratered terrains. The lowered contrast of this dichotomy at the shortest (0.7 km) baseline indicates that regolith on Mercury is thicker and/or gardening processes are more intensive in comparison to the Moon, approximately by a factor of three. The map reveals sharp roughness contrasts within northern plains of Mercury that we interpret as geologic boundaries of volcanic plains of different age. In particular, the map suggests a younger volcanic plains unit inside Goethe basin and inside another unnamed stealth basin. -- Acknowledgement: Work on data processing was carried out at MIIGAiK by MAK, AAK, NAK and supported by Russian Science Foundation project 14-22-00197.

  8. Flood detention area modelling based on nationwide topographic data: ALS-DTMs vs. conventional DTMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesakoski, Jenni-Mari; Alho, Petteri; Hyyppä, Juha; Holopainen, Markus; Flener, Claude; Hyyppä, Hannu

    2014-05-01

    Topographic depressions have an important role in hydrology. These effects on hydrological processes are caused by changes in the water balance and runoff response of a watershed. Nevertheless, research has focused in detail neither on the effects of acquisition and processing methods nor on the effects of resolution of nationwide grid digital terrain models (DTMs) on topographic depressions. Recently, many countries have conducted nationwide ALS (Airborne laser scanning) surveys for DTM purposes. Thus, detailed comparison between nationwide ALS-DTMs with different grid sizes and DTMs that represent more conventional acquisition methods, such as photogrammetric methods, is needed for different study fields. In here, the objective is to delineate the difference of depression variables between nationwide DTMs with different acquisition methods, processing methods and grid sizes. Our depression detection is based on nationwide 25x25 m and 10x10 m DTMs and 2x2 m ALS-DTM produced by NLS of Finland. ALS-DTM2 was resampled to 10x10 and 25x25 m DTMs. Thus, it was possible to compare DTMs that represent the same grid size but different acquisition and processing methods. The variables considered are the mean depth of the depression, the number of its pixels, and its area and volume. Shallow and single-pixel depressions and the impact of mean filtering on ALS-DTM were also examined. Quantitative methods and error models were applied. According to our study, the depression variables were dependent on the scale, area and acquisition method. When the depths of depression pixels were compared with the most accurate DTM based on accurate VRNS-GNSS (Virtual Reference Stations, Global Navigation Satellite Systems) field survey data, the maximum errors created the largest differences between DTMs and hence represented the amount of the depth error. The mean filtering of ALS-DTM2 focuses on the small and shallow depressions, and is thus suitable for using in flood risk management

  9. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  10. From the air to digital landscapes: generating reach-scale topographic models from aerial photography in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericat, Damià; Narciso, Efrén; Béjar, Maria; Tena, Álvaro; Brasington, James; Gibbins, Chris; Batalla, Ramon J.

    2014-05-01

    Digital Terrain Models are fundamental to characterise landscapes, to support numerical modelling and to monitor topographic changes. Recent advances in topography, remote sensing and geomatics are providing new opportunities to obtain high density/quality and rapid topographic data. In this paper we present an integrated methodology to rapidly obtain reach scale topographic models of fluvial systems. This methodology has been tested and is being applied to develop event-scale terrain models of a 11-km river reach in the highly dynamic Upper Cinca (NE Iberian Peninsula). This research is conducted in the background of the project MorphSed. The methodology integrates (a) the acquisition of dense point clouds of the exposed floodplain (aerial photography and digital photogrammetry); (b) the registration of all observations to the same coordinate system (using RTK-GPS surveyed GCPs); (c) the acquisition of bathymetric data (using aDcp measurements integrated with RTK-GPS); (d) the intelligent decimation of survey observations (using the open source TopCat toolkit) and, finally, (e) data fusion (elaborating Digital Elevation Models). In this paper special emphasis is given to the acquisition and registration of point clouds. 3D point clouds are obtained from aerial photography and by means of automated digital photogrammetry. Aerial photographs are taken at 275 meters above the ground by means of a SLR digital camera manually operated from an autogyro. Four flight paths are defined in order to cover the 11 km long and 500 meters wide river reach. A total of 45 minutes are required to fly along these paths. Camera has been previously calibrated with the objective to ensure image resolution at around 5 cm. A total of 220 GCPs are deployed and RTK-GPS surveyed before the flight is conducted. Two people and one full workday are necessary to deploy and survey the full set of GCPs. Field data acquisition may be finalised in less than 2 days. Structure-from-Motion is

  11. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  12. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  13. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic Lidar: Channel Islands, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for 197 square miles covering five islands off the coast of Los Angeles, California. These islands are part of the Channel Islands...

  14. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Mobile Bay, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract: G10PC00026 Task Order Number: G10PD00578 LiDAR was collected at a nominal pulse spacing of 2.0 meters for a 700 square mile area to the east of...

  15. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: San Francisco Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary purpose of this project was to develop a consistent and accurate surface elevation dataset derived from high-accuracy Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  16. 30 CFR Appendix to Part 253 - List of U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Homosassa; Horseshoe Beach; Indian Pass; Jackson River; Jena; Keaton Beach; Laguna Beach; Lake Ingraham East...; Chandeleur Light; Chef Mentur; Cheniere Au Tigre; Cocodrie; Coquille Point; Cow Island; Creole; Cypremort...

  17. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Mobile Bay, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract: G10PC00026 Task Order Number: G10PD00578 LiDAR was collected at a nominal pulse spacing of 2.0 meters for a 700 square mile area to the east of Mobile...

  18. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 1 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Vermillion, Iberia, St. Mary, Terrebonne, and Lafourche...

  19. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 2 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Tammany Parishes,...

  20. 2009 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Androscoggin County, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract Number: G10PC00026 USGS Task Order: G10PD01737 LiDAR was collected at a 1.0 points per square meter (1.0m GSD) for the county of Androscoggin, Maine...

  1. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic Lidar: Channel Islands, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for 197 square miles covering five islands off the coast of Los Angeles, California. These islands are part of the Channel Islands...

  2. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: San Francisco Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary purpose of this project was to develop a consistent and accurate surface elevation dataset derived from high-accuracy Light Detection and Ranging...

  3. Digital topographic data based on lidar survey of Mount Shasta Volcano, California, July-September 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    The most voluminous of the Cascade volcanoes, northern California’s Mount Shasta, is a massive compound stratovolcano composed of at least four main edifices constructed over a period of at least 590,000 years. An ancestral Shasta volcano was destroyed by Earth’s largest known Quaternary subaerial debris avalanche, which filled Shasta Valley, northwest of the volcano. The Hotlum cone, forming the present summit, the Shastina lava dome complex, and the Black Butte lava dome on the southwest flank, were constructed during the early Holocene.

  4. Equipment for Topographical Preparation and Analysis of Various Semiconductor Infrared Detector Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Equipment for Topographical Preparation and Analysis of Various Semiconductor Infrared...Final Report: Equipment for Topographical Preparation and Analysis of Various Semiconductor Infrared Detector Samples Report Title A used calibrated...camera will reinitialize and the video settings have to be reset. 6 Figure 4. This will open the both video overlay and the Dektak

  5. Use of topographic variability for assessing plant diversity in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, G.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Edwards, P.J.; Szerencsits, E.; Wagner, H.H.; Herzog, F.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between plant diversity and topographic variability in agricultural landscapes was investigated, with the aim of determining whether sampling landscape units of 1 km(2) (LUs) across a gradient of topographic variability is more efficient than a random design for assessing the range

  6. Pattern Registration Between Spherical Block-Copolymer Domains and Topographical Templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, J.Y.; Zhang, F.; Smith, H.I.; Vancso, Gyula J.; Ross, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Pattern registration is achieved in thin films of self-assembling block copolymers by using a topographical template to guide the positions of the polymer domains. The placement accuracy of the polymer domains is related to the edge roughness of the topographical template, and the ultimate placement

  7. Seepage and slope stability modelling of rainfall-induced slope failures in topographic hollows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Prasad Acharya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on topographic hollows, their flow direction and flow accumulation characteristics, and highlights discharge of hillslope seepage so as to understand porewater pressure development phenomena in relation with slope failure in topographic hollows. For this purpose, a small catchment in Niihama city of Shikoku Island in western Japan, with a record of seven slope failures triggered by typhoon-caused heavy rainfall on 19–20 October 2004, was selected. After extensive fieldwork and computation of hydro-mechanical parameters in unsaturated and saturated conditions through a series of laboratory experiments, seepage and slope stability modellings of these slope failures were done in GeoStudio environment using the precipitation data of 19–20 October 2004. The results of seepage modelling showed that the porewater pressure was rapid transient in silty sand, and the maximum porewater pressure measured in an area close to the base of topographic hollows was found to be higher with bigger topographic hollows. Furthermore, a threshold relationship between the topographic hollow area and maximum porewater pressure in this study indicates that a topographic hollow of 1000 sq. m area can develop maximum porewater pressure of 1.253 kPa. However, the porewater pressures required to initiate slope instability in the upper part of the topographic hollows is relatively smaller than those in the lower part of the topographic hollows.

  8. The topographic grain concept in DEM-based geomorphometric mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsa, Edina

    2016-04-01

    A common drawback of geomorphological analyses based on digital elevation datasets is the definition of search window size for the derivation of morphometric variables. The fixed-size neighbourhood determines the scale of the analysis and mapping, which can lead to the generalization of smaller surface details or the elimination of larger landform elements. The methods of DEM-based geomorphometric mapping are constantly developing into the direction of multi-scale landform delineation, but the optimal threshold for search window size is still a limiting factor. A possible way to determine the suitable value for the parameter is to consider the topographic grain principle (Wood, W. F. - Snell, J. B. 1960, Pike, R. J. et al. 1989). The calculation is implemented as a bash shell script for GRASS GIS to determine the optimal threshold for the r.geomorphon module. The approach relies on the potential of the topographic grain to detect the characteristic local ridgeline-to-channel spacing. By calculating the relative relief values with nested neighbourhood matrices it is possible to define a break-point where the increase rate of local relief encountered by the sample is significantly reducing. The geomorphons approach (Jasiewicz, J. - Stepinski, T. F. 2013) is a cell-based DEM classification method for the identification of landform elements at a broad range of scales by using line-of-sight technique. The landforms larger than the maximum lookup distance are broken down to smaller elements therefore the threshold needs to be set for a relatively large value. On the contrary, the computational requirements and the size of the study sites determine the upper limit for the value. Therefore the aim was to create a tool that would help to determine the optimal parameter for r.geomorphon tool. As a result it would be possible to produce more objective and consistent maps with achieving the full efficiency of this mapping technique. For the thorough analysis on the

  9. The Moon's largest craters and basins images and topographic maps from LRO, GRAIL, and Kaguya

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    This most recent book from lunar expert Charles J. Byrne combines the latest comprehensive imagery, topography and gravity data from all three recent Moon missions, Kaguya, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and GRAIL. These major polar-orbit surveys are presented here in compact form for the convenience of amateur and practical astronomers concerned with the Moon. Chosen from the Near and Far Side's large craters and basins over 200 km in diameter, each of the 71 highlighted features is depicted with a two-page presentation of the data that includes false color topographic maps next to the mission images. Additionally, the features are presented in the estimated chronological sequence of their creation, based on a consideration of stratigraphy (overlapping layers from neighboring features) and the relative degradation of surface features.  Using this sequence as a way to convey the relative ages of lunar features, the author presents various theories concerning the Moon’s impact and thermal history ...

  10. Development of New Accurate, High Resolution DEMs and Merged Topographic-Bathymetric Grids for Inundation Mapping in Seward Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, D.; Suleimani, E.; Hansen, R.

    2004-05-01

    The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys continue to participate in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program by evaluating and mapping potential inundation of selected coastal communities in Alaska. Seward, the next Alaskan community to be mapped, has excellent bathymetric data but very poor topographic data available. Since one of the most significant sources of errors in tsunami inundation mapping is inaccuracy of topographic and bathymetric data, the Alaska Tsunami Modeling Team cooperated with the local USGS glaciology office to perform photogrammetry in the Seward area to produce a new DEM. Using ten air photos and the APEX photogrammetry and analysis software, along with several precisely located GPS points, we developed a new georeferenced and highly accurate DEM with a 5-meter grid spacing. A variety of techniques were used to remove the effects of buildings and trees to yield a bald earth model. Finally, we resampled the new DEM to match the finest resolution model grid, and combined it with all other data, using the most recent and accurate data in each region. The new dataset has contours that deviate by more than 100 meters in some places from the contours in the previous dataset, showing significant improvement in accuracy for the purpose of tsunami modeling.

  11. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  12. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  13. Lidar DEM error analyses and topographic depression identification in a hummocky landscape in the prairie region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; MacMillan, R. A.; Lobb, David A.; McConkey, Brian G.; Moulin, Alan; Fraser, Walter R.

    2011-06-01

    Topographic depressions are abundant in topographically complex landscapes. A common practice with earlier, low resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) was to remove all depressions to ensure that water flowed continuously to the edge of the DEM domain. The assumption was that most depressions were created due to errors in the DEMs. This practice is no longer justified with the increasing availability of high accuracy DEMs. However, very few studies have addressed how DEM processing options such as smoothing and coarsening and setting area and depth thresholds can affect depression identification. In this study, a site located in the Prairie Region of Canada was examined. The site is a hummocky glaciated landscape with many in-field wetlands. Lidar topographic data were collected and were used to generate a 1 m by 1 m square-grid DEM. Detailed error analyses of the lidar DEM were conducted. A set of DEMs were generated after different degrees of smoothing and coarsening. FlowMapR, an established terrain analysis tool, was used to identify depressions in each DEM with various user-defined area and depth thresholds. The results were validated against a field wetland survey. We determined that the problems associated with depression identification using a lidar DEM are two-fold. On one hand, artefactual depressions created due to DEM errors need to be eliminated, for which the raw lidar DEM need to be smoothed. On the other hand, it is also desirable to remove those topographic depressions that do not function as closed basins at the spatial or temporal scale of the processes of interest. Setting area and depth thresholds appeared to be the preferred choice for this. We suggested using the un-autocorrelated lidar DEM error as the criterion for DEM smoothing and considering depression connections in the selection of area and depth thresholds. Using lidar data on a hummocky landscape with loamy soils in the Prairie Region of Canada, 10 to 20 times smoothing

  14. CryoSat-2-only gravity model of the Mediterranean: topographic effects and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulaitijiang, Adili; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Carrion, Daniela; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Knudsen, Per

    2017-04-01

    The long repeat cycle of the Cryostat-2 provides dense cross track coverage. Combined with the better along track resolution and precision, the 6 years of CryoSat-2 data can be potentially used to extract the high frequency components of the Earth gravity field beyond the Global Geopotential Models (GGMs) which corresponds to a resolution of 9.2 Km at the degree 2160. The high resolution bathymetry models, e.g., SRTM30, correspond to the spatial resolution of around 1 Km. High resolution bathymetry data is used to account for the strong correlation in the short wavelength (1 10 km) gravity features with topography and bathymetry. In this work, with remove-restore technique and Residual Terrain Model (RTM) reduction (using SRTM30), the topographic contribution to the geoid undulation will be examined in several patches (2°×3°) in the Mediterranean. The covariance function of the residual height anomalies with and without the RTM reduction will be estimated and a proper covariance fitting algorithm will introduced when the assumption of isotropy and homogeneity is fulfilled. Then the Least Square Collocation (LSC) algorithm is used to derive the residual gravity anomalies over the ship tracks from the CryoSat-2-only height anomalies. The "full wavelength" true gravity measurement along the ship tracks then will be used to evaluate the final results and performance of the LSC solutions. Alternatively, the FFT method will also be tested, provided that the height anomalies are gridded. The CryoSat-2 altimetry data is retracker and operation mode dependent. Since different retrackers and operation modes (e.g., LRM or SAR) could produce altimetry products with different precision and accuracy, different altimetry datasets, e.g., from RADS and GPOD, will be tested and compared.

  15. Uniform color processing of scanned topographic maps based on SSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhongliang; Tong, Chunya; Liu, Lu; Huang, Yan

    2009-10-01

    Nowadays, large amount of paper-based topographic maps are still existed in many government department. The scanned maps of them are very useful for research on city history migration, city planning and so on. However, the brightness of these maps is not uniform, and creases are existed, so uniform color process is always needed. If the classical Retinex algorithm is used, the map would have a low brightness and contrast ratio. Therefore, a normal intercepting SSR algorithm of linear extending is presented in this paper. This algorithm first uses the classical SSR algorithm to process the data, and then the average value of image and variance are introduced to do normal intercepting linear extending on the map. Experiment results show that, the improved SSR can not only efficiently eliminate creases and uniform the map brightness, but also increase the global brightness and contrast ratio. Moreover, this algorithm can also be used in the pretreatment of grid image registration, thus to enhance the precision, velocity and accuracy of registration.

  16. Posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertions: topographic anatomy and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Gali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide anatomical and morphometric basis of the posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertions in order to assist the creation of anatomical tibial tunnels, in the ligament surgical reconstruction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The topographic anatomy and morphometry of the posterior cruciate ligament's anterolateral and posteromedial bundles' tibial insertions were analyzed in 24 anatomical knee pieces. The pieces were photographed by a digital camera and the images obtained were studied by the software ImageJ, where the bundles' insertion areas were measured in square millimeters, and the length of structures and the distances between significant points were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: In 54.2% of the knees the insertion' shape was concave; in most pieces (41.6% the form of insertion was oval. The average posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertion total area was 88.33 ± 21.66 mm2; the average anterolateral bundle's tibial insertion area was 46.79 ± 14.10 mm2 and it was 41.54 ± 9.75 mm2 for the posteromedial bundle. CONCLUSIONS: The anterolateral bundle has a tibial insertion area larger than the posteromedial bundle; the insertion areas of those bundles in our study, were smaller than the ones found in the literature. The variations in the posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertion area suggest that there should be an indication for anatomical reconstructions of this ligament using single or double tibial tunnels according to individual characteristics.

  17. Dentin Topographic Features following Chemomechanical Caries Removal in Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, R M; Elkateb, M A; Ahmed, A M; Kawana, K Y; El Meligy, O A

    Study the topographic features of dentin after caries removal with a chemomechanical agent (Papacarie) compared with the conventional drilling method. The sample included 7 exfoliated and extracted primary teeth with carious dentin lesions, not reaching the pulp. Each tooth was sectioned longitudinally through the center of the carious lesions into two halves. The teeth were then divided into two groups according to the method of caries removal. Following caries removal, dentin topography and the cut section were examined using the scanning electron microscope. Papacarie produced an irregular, porous, rough and globular dentin appearance. The dentin surfaces were generally free of smear layer, visible bacteria and the dentinal tubules were opened. The dentin cut surfaces showed patent dentinal tubules with open orifices. The drilling method created a smooth and amorphous surface with a continuous smear layer occluding the dentinal tubules. Numerous bacteria were also observed. The cut dentin surfaces showed patent dentinal tubules with their orifices plugged with smear layer. Papacarie produced a rough and porous surface with partial or complete removal of the smear layer and opened dentinal tubules, while the drill produced a smooth surface with uniform smear layer occluding the dentinal tubules.

  18. Investigation of topographical effects on rupture dynamics and ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Chen, X.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Using the curved grid finite-difference method (CG-FDM), we model spontaneous dynamic rupture on vertical strike-slip faults with irregular free surfaces to investigate the effect of topography on near-source ground motion. Four groups of simulations, in which the epicentral distances from the topographical perturbations of the nucleation patch were varied, are modeled in this work. The simulated results show that the presence of irregular topography along the fault trace may increase the ground motion. Whether the irregular topography exhibits higher ground motion overall depends on the irregular topography's ability to prevent the sub-Rayleigh-to-supershear transition. When irregular topography prevents this transition, sub-Rayleigh rupture produces stronger ground motions than those of the sub-Rayleigh-to-supershear transition, although the moment magnitudes does not differ substantially between the two cases. To thoroughly understand the effects of irregular topography on near-source ground motion, we also model spontaneous dynamic rupture on a planar fault in full-space and half-space with varying initial shear stresses, and the corresponding modeling results indicate that the effect of initial shear stress on near-source ground motion is strong. These results may have implications for ground-motion prediction in future earthquakes involving geometrically complex faults.

  19. Identification and topographical characterisation of microbial nanowires in Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sure, Sandeep; Torriero, Angel A J; Gaur, Aditya; Li, Lu Hua; Chen, Ying; Tripathi, Chandrakant; Adholeya, Alok; Ackland, M Leigh; Kochar, Mandira

    2016-03-01

    Extracellular pili-like structures (PLS) produced by cyanobacteria have been poorly explored. We have done detailed topographical and electrical characterisation of PLS in Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73120 using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). TEM analysis showed that N. punctiforme produces two separate types of PLS differing in their length and diameter. The first type of PLS are 6-7.5 nm in diameter and 0.5-2 µm in length (short/thin PLS) while the second type of PLS are ~20-40 nm in diameter and more than 10 µm long (long/thick PLS). This is the first study to report long/thick PLS in N. punctiforme. Electrical characterisation of these two different PLS by CAFM showed that both are electrically conductive and can act as microbial nanowires. This is the first report to show two distinct PLS and also identifies microbial nanowires in N. punctiforme. This study paves the way for more detailed investigation of N. punctiforme nanowires and their potential role in cell physiology and symbiosis with plants.

  20. Psychotropic drug profiles: comparisons by topographic maps of absolute power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, R; Herrmann, W M

    1987-01-01

    In a double-blind fourfold crossover design, 11 subjects were randomly assigned to placebo, 10 mg diazepam, 75 mg amitriptyline, and 75 mg chlorpromazine. During a simple vigilance task, 12 midline and left hemisphere leads were recorded before and 3 h after drug administration. The EEG was quantified by spectrum analysis, the topographic structure displayed by brain mapping techniques, and the results compared with earlier studies which used the same design and drugs. Diazepam showed the expected increase in beta; however, fast beta was increased as much as slow beta. Amitriptyline showed an increase of slow wave power and a reduction of alpha. In contrast to earlier studies, a decrease of fast beta was found. In addition, the spatial pattern of alpha changed from an occipital to a parietal maximum. Chlorpromazine showed an increase in the theta band. In occipital regions, there was a small decrease of fast beta; however, centrally there was an increase of both slow and fast beta. These results were confirmed by a multivariate analysis of variance.

  1. Visualization and modelling of STLmax topographic brain activity maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammone, Nadia; Principe, José C; Morabito, Francesco C; Shiau, Deng S; Sackellares, J Chris

    2010-06-15

    This paper evaluates the descriptive power of brain topography based on a dynamical parameter, the Short-Term Maximum Lyapunov Exponent (STLmax), estimated from EEG, for finding out a relationship of STLmax spatial distribution with the onset zone and with the mechanisms leading to epileptic seizures. Our preliminary work showed that visual assessment of STLmax topography exhibited a link with the location of seizure onset zone. The objective of the present work is to model the spatial distribution of STLmax in order to automatically extract these features from the maps. One-hour preictal segments from four long-term continuous EEG recordings (two scalp and two intracranial) were processed and the corresponding STLmax profiles were estimated. The spatial STLmax maps were modelled by a combination of two Gaussians functions. The parameters of the fitted model allow automatic extraction of quantitative information about the spatial distribution of STLmax: the EEG signal recorded from the brain region where seizures originate exhibited low-STLmax levels, long before the seizure onset, in 3 out of 4 patients (1 out of 2 of scalp patients and 2 out of 2 in intracranial patients). Topographic maps extracted directly from the EEG power did not provide useful information about the location, therefore we conclude that the analysis so far carried out suggests the possibility of using a model of STLmax topography as a tool for monitoring the evolution of epileptic brain dynamics. In the future, a more elaborate approach will be investigated in order to improve the specificity of the method.

  2. Liquid-film coating on topographically patterned rotating cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihua; Carvalho, Marcio S.; Kumar, Satish

    2017-02-01

    The coating of discrete objects having surface topography is an important step in the manufacturing of a broad variety of products. To develop a fundamental understanding of this problem, we study liquid-film flow on rotating cylinders patterned with sinusoidal topographical features. The Stokes equations, augmented with a term accounting for centrifugal forces, are solved in a rotating reference frame using the Galerkin finite-element method (GFEM). A nonlinear evolution equation for the film thickness based on lubrication theory is also solved numerically and its predictions are compared to those from the GFEM calculations. When gravitational effects are negligible and the rotation rate is sufficiently low, liquid accumulates over the pattern troughs before merging to form multiple larger drops (located over troughs) whose number at steady state depends on the topography wavelength and rotation rate. When the rotation rate is sufficiently high, similar merging events occur, but liquid accumulates over the pattern crests at steady state. When gravitational forces become significant, it is possible to obtain a coating that closely conforms to the surface topography. The GFEM calculations are in agreement with predictions from the lubrication model provided the free-surface curvatures are sufficiently small. For sufficiently large pattern amplitude and film thickness, the GFEM calculations show that recirculation regions inside the troughs can appear and vanish as the cylinder rotates due to the variation of gravitational forces around the cylinder surface. This phenomenon, along with flow reversal over the crests, may strongly influence mixing, mass transport, and heat transport.

  3. Topographic patterns of vascular disease: HOX proteins as determining factors?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard; P; Visconti; Alexander; Awgulewitsch

    2015-01-01

    Steadily increasing evidence supports the idea that genetic diversities in the vascular bed are, in addition to hemodynamic influences, a major contributing factor in determining region-specific cardiovascular disease susceptibility. Members of the phylogenetically highly conserved Hox gene family of developmental regulators have to be viewed as prime candidates for determining these regional genetic differences in the vasculature. During embryonic patterning, the regionally distinct and precisely choreographed expression patterns of HOX transcription factors are essential for the correct specification of positional identities. Apparently, these topographic patterns are to some degree retained in certain adult tissues, including the circulatory system. While an understanding of the functional significance of these localized Hox activities in adult blood vessels is only beginning to emerge, an argument can be made for a role of Hox genes in the maintenance of vessel wall homeostasis and functional integrity on the one hand, and in regulating the development and progression of regionally restricted vascular pathologies, on the other. Initial functional studies in animal models, as well as data from clinical studies provide some level of support for this view. The data suggest that putative genetic regulatory networks of Hox-dependent cardiovascular disease processes include genes of diverse functional categories(extracellular matrix remodeling, transmembrane signaling, cell cycle control, inflammatory response, transcriptional control, etc.), as potential targets in both vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, as well as cell populations residing in the adventitia.

  4. On the role of topographic amplification in seismic slope instabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fardin Jafarzadeh; Mohammad Mahdi Shahrabi; Hadi Farahi Jahromi

    2015-01-01

    Surface wave generation due to body wave propagation near ground surface has been discussed in the literature. This phenomenon, typically occurring in topographic changing areas, along with its interaction with body waves (SV), decreases precision of formulas for evaluation of slope displacement. This sig-nificant fact caused the researchers not only to investigate the combined surface and SV waves motion pattern, but also to consider its effect on structures built on the slopes. In order to reveal the phe-nomenon, several finite element numerical studies have been performed by ABAQUS programme. Be-sides, two physical model slopes simulating the landslide occurrence have been constructed and tested by shaking table device. The results of induced and calculated accelerations obtained by two approaches have been compared and Rayleigh wave generation has been proved. Furthermore, the slope displace-ments have been calculated by various empirical methods and the results were compared with nu-merical ones. The results proved that in order to increase the precision of empirical formulas for displacement prediction, surface wave effect should be taken into account. Finally, a concept of“effective depth of surficial amplification”is introduced and its effect on dynamic slope stability is analysed.

  5. Topographic, edaphic, and vegetative controls on plant-available water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Salli F.; Bradford, John B.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Kolka, Randall K.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; DeSutter, Thomas S.

    2017-01-01

    Soil moisture varies within landscapes in response to vegetative, physiographic, and climatic drivers, which makes quantifying soil moisture over time and space difficult. Nevertheless, understanding soil moisture dynamics for different ecosystems is critical, as the amount of water in a soil determines a myriad ecosystem services and processes such as net primary productivity, runoff, microbial decomposition, and soil fertility. We investigated the patterns and variability in in situ soil moisture measurements converted to plant-available water across time and space under different vegetative cover types and topographic positions at the Marcell Experimental Forest (Minnesota, USA). From 0 – 228.6 cm soil depth, plant-available water was significantly higher under the hardwoods (12%), followed by the aspen (8%) and red pine (5%) cover types. Across the same soil depth, toeslopes were wetter (mean plant-available water = 10%) than ridges and backslopes (mean plant-available water was 8%), although these differences were not statistically significant (p plant-available water and that topography was not significantly related to plant-available water within this low-relief landscape. Additionally, during the three-year monitoring period, red pine and quaking aspen sites experienced plant-available water levels that may be considered limiting to plant growth and function. Given that increasing temperatures and more erratic precipitation patterns associated with climate change may result in decreased soil moisture in this region, these species may be sensitive and vulnerable to future shifts in climate.

  6. Evaluating topographic wetness indices across central New York agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, B. P.; Fleming, M.; Schneider, R. L.; Richards, B. K.; Archibald, J.; Qiu, Z.; Walter, M. T.

    2014-08-01

    Accurately predicting soil moisture patterns in the landscape is a persistent challenge. In humid regions, topographic wetness indices (TWIs) are widely used to approximate relative soil moisture patterns. However, there are many ways to calculate TWIs and very few field studies have evaluated the different approaches - especially in the US. We calculated TWIs using over 400 unique formulations that considered different digital elevation model (DEM) resolutions (cell size), vertical precision of DEM, flow direction and slope algorithms, smoothing via low-pass filtering, and the inclusion of relevant soil properties. We correlated each TWI with observed patterns of soil moisture at five agricultural fields in central NY, USA, with each field visited five to eight times between August and November 2012. Using a mixed effects modeling approach, we were able to identify optimal TWI formulations applicable to moderate relief agricultural settings that may provide guidance for practitioners and future studies. Overall, TWIs were moderately well correlated with observed soil moisture patterns; in the best case the relationship between TWI and soil moisture had an average R2 and Spearman correlation value of 0.61 and 0.78, respectively. In all cases, fine-scale (3 m) lidar-derived DEMs worked better than USGS 10 m DEMs and, in general, including soil properties improved correlations.

  7. Inspection of Disruptive Behaviours at Jet Using Generative Topographic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratta, G. A.; Vega, J. A.; Murari, A.; Vagliasindi, G.

    Tokamaks are the most promising configuration of magnetic confinement fusion devices. However, a physical phenomenon that leads the plasma out to its operational bounds, called disruption, remains unavoidable. Disruptions cause the abrupt termination of the discharge and in addition to affecting the execution of the research program, they can constitute a risk for the structural integrity of the machine. In this article two important aspects that can facilitate the better understanding of the phenomenon are presented. First, the selection of the physical parameters and their main characteristics related to disruptions are reviewed. Second, the application of Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM) to visualize and compare disruptive and non disruptive experiments at different times is shown. The resulting maps are aimed to evidence the evolution of the phenomenon, since it is unrecognizable till it can be distinguished. The identification of the instant when precursors of disruptions can be noticed is highly relevant in nuclear fusion since it determines the time margin the control systems have to apply mitigation or avoidance actions.

  8. Predictive cartography of metal binders using generative topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Igor I.; Solov'ev, Vitaly P.; Bagatur'yants, Alexander A.; Varnek, Alexandre

    2017-08-01

    Generative topographic mapping (GTM) approach is used to visualize the chemical space of organic molecules (L) with respect to binding a wide range of 41 different metal cations (M) and also to build predictive models for stability constants (log K) of 1:1 (M:L) complexes using "density maps," "activity landscapes," and "selectivity landscapes" techniques. A two-dimensional map describing the entire set of 2962 metal binders reveals the selectivity and promiscuity zones with respect to individual metals or groups of metals with similar chemical properties (lanthanides, transition metals, etc). The GTM-based global (for entire set) and local (for selected subsets) models demonstrate a good predictive performance in the cross-validation procedure. It is also shown that the data likelihood could be used as a definition of the applicability domain of GTM-based models. Thus, the GTM approach represents an efficient tool for the predictive cartography of metal binders, which can both visualize their chemical space and predict the affinity profile of metals for new ligands.

  9. Topographic monitoring of a middle estuary mudflat, Humber estuary, UK--anthropogenic impacts and natural variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Suzanne J; Allen, James H

    2007-01-01

    Annual topographic surveys were carried out at the Saltend mudflat (Humber estuary, UK) between 1998 and 2006. These surveys formed part of an ongoing monitoring programme to examine the potential effects on the mudflat topography of the construction and operation of a waste water treatment works (WwTW) development by Yorkshire Water. Of particular concern was the potential disruption to the sedimentological regime within the special protection area (SPA) and candidate special area of conservation (cSAC) which could affect the invertebrate communities and ornithological functioning of the site. In addition to the development of the WwTW located to the extreme north-west of the site, a port extension removing 10ha of the Saltend intertidal mudflat (outside the SPA but immediately south east of the WwTW) also occurred between 1999 and 2006. Minimal change was noted across the site following the construction and operation of the WwTW between 1998 and 2000. However, the construction of the bund in closer proximity to the SPA and cSAC masked any potential impact the WwTW could have had across the site after 2000. Profiles and contour mapping indicate that significant mudflat accretion occurred in the immediate area of the bund, with a general increase recorded across the western section of the site since 2000. In contrast the alternations to channel planform and subsequent rapid accretion of the mudflat to the east of the jetty, being a significant distance from the developments, are attributed to natural cyclical changes.

  10. Estimativas da qualidade de linhas poligonais topográficas Quality estimations of topographical traverses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Stringhini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever um procedimento que contribui com estimativas de qualidade de levantamento topográficos mediante a pré-análise e estimativas obtidas a partir de análise pós-ajustamento. As estimativas são dadas pelo teste qui-quadrado da forma quadrática do erro de fechamento, pelo teste qui-quadrado da forma quadrática dos resíduos obtidos no ajustamento pelo método dos mínimos quadrados, pelo teste data snooping de Baarda, pela elipse dos erros, pela elipse de confiança, pelo círculo do erro de posição e pelo círculo do erro médio. Estes conceitos são examinados por meio de valores numéricos no caso de uma linha poligonal simples implantada no campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e medida com um taquímetro eletrônico.The objective through this article is to describe a procedure that contributes with quality survey estimations by means pre-analysis survey and estimations by means post-adjustment. The estimations are given by the chi-square test of the quadratic form of misclosures, the chi-square of the quadratic form of residuals from the least-squares adjustment method, the Baarda's data snooping test, the standard ellipse, the confidence ellipse, position error circle and mean error circle. These concepts are examined through the numerical values provided in the case of a simple topographical traverse which was implanted at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Campus with electronic tachymeter.

  11. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-E-Pur-Chaman (422) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  12. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3670, Jam-Kashem (223) and Zebak (224) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  13. The effects of digital elevation model resolution on the calculation and predictions of topographic wetness indices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drover, Damion, Ryan

    2011-12-01

    One of the largest exports in the Southeast U.S. is forest products. Interest in biofuels using forest biomass has increased recently, leading to more research into better forest management BMPs. The USDA Forest Service, along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Georgia and Oregon State University are researching the impacts of intensive forest management for biofuels on water quality and quantity at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Surface runoff of saturated areas, transporting excess nutrients and contaminants, is a potential water quality issue under investigation. Detailed maps of variable source areas and soil characteristics would therefore be helpful prior to treatment. The availability of remotely sensed and computed digital elevation models (DEMs) and spatial analysis tools make it easy to calculate terrain attributes. These terrain attributes can be used in models to predict saturated areas or other attributes in the landscape. With laser altimetry, an area can be flown to produce very high resolution data, and the resulting data can be resampled into any resolution of DEM desired. Additionally, there exist many maps that are in various resolutions of DEM, such as those acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. Problems arise when using maps derived from different resolution DEMs. For example, saturated areas can be under or overestimated depending on the resolution used. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEM resolution on the calculation of topographic wetness indices used to predict variable source areas of saturation, and to find the best resolutions to produce prediction maps of soil attributes like nitrogen, carbon, bulk density and soil texture for low-relief, humid-temperate forested hillslopes. Topographic wetness indices were calculated based on the derived terrain attributes, slope and specific catchment area, from five different DEM resolutions. The DEMs were resampled from LiDAR, which is a

  14. USGS 2017 AKasprak Geomorphic Process Topographic Form—Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were used for the development and validation of the automated workflow for mechanistic segregation of geomorphic transport mechanisms presented in the...

  15. Tampa Bay Topographic/Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In this joint demonstration project for the Tampa Bay region, NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have merged NOAA bathymetric...

  16. Application of GNSS-RTK derived topographical maps for rapid environmental monitoring: a case study of Jack Finnery Lake (Perth, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloderer, Glen; Bingham, Matthew; Awange, Joseph L; Fleming, Kevin M

    2011-09-01

    In environmental monitoring, environmental impact assessments and environmental audits, topographical maps play an essential role in providing a means by which the locations of sampling sites may be selected, in assisting with the interpretation of physical features, and in indicating the impact or potential impact on an area due to changes in the system being monitored (e.g., spatially changing features such as wetlands). Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are hereby presented as a rapid method for monitoring spatial changes to support environmental monitoring decisions and policies. To validate the GNSS-based method, a comparison is made of results from a small-scale topographic survey using radio-based real-time kinematic GNSS (GNSS-RTK) and total station survey methods at Jack Finnery Lake, Perth, Australia. The accuracies achieved by the total station in this study were 2 cm horizontally and 6 cm vertically, while the GNSS-RTK also achieved an accuracy of 2 cm horizontally, but only 28 cm vertically. While the GNSS-RTK measurements were less accurate in the height component compared to those from the total station method, it is still capable of achieving accuracies sufficient for a topographic map at a scale of 1:1,750 that could support environmental monitoring tasks such as identifying spatial changes in small water bodies or wetlands. The time taken to perform the survey using GNSS-RTK, however, was much shorter compared to the total station method, thereby making it quite suitable for monitoring spatial changes within an environmental context, e.g., dynamic mining activities that require rapid surveys and the updating of the monitored data at regular intervals.

  17. Relationship between income and repeat criminal victimization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Justus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of income on repeat criminal victimization in Brazil using data from the 2009 National Household Sample Survey and its special supplement on victimization and access to justice. Two count-data models were estimated for four types of crime: theft, robbery, attempted theft/robbery, and physical assault. A positive nonlinear effect of income on repeat victimization for the three types of property crimes and a negative nonlinear effect of income on physical assault were observed.

  18. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  19. The Relationship between Vestibular Function and Topographical Memory in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Henry Previc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research during the past two decades has demonstrated an important role of the vestibular system in topographical orientation and memory and the network of neural structures associated with them. Almost all of the supporting data have come from animal or human clinical studies, however. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the link between vestibular function and topographical memory in normal elderly humans. Twenty-five participants aged 70 to 85 years who scored from mildly impaired to normal on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment received three topographical memory tests: the Camden Topographical Recognition Memory Test (CTMRT, a computerized topographical mental rotation test (TMRT, and a virtual pond maze (VPM. They also received six vestibular or oculomotor tests: optokinetic nystagmus (OKN, visual pursuit (VP, actively generated vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, the sensory orientation test (SOT for posture, and two measures of rotational memory (error in degrees, or RMº, and correct directional recognition, or RM→. The only significant bivariate correlations were among the three vestibular measures primarily assessing horizontal canal function (VOR, RMº, and RM→. A multiple regression analysis showed significant relationships between vestibular and demographic predictors and both the TMRT (R=.78 and VPM (R=.66 measures. The significant relationship between the vestibular and topographical memory measures supports the theory that vestibular loss may contribute to topographical memory impairment in the elderly.

  20. Topographic Indices and Yield Variability in a Rolling Landscape of Western Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Bao-Liang; BING Cheng-Si; F.WALLEY; T.YATES

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between topographic indices and crop yield variability is important for soil management and crop production in rolling landscape.Two agricultural fields at Alvena and Hepburn,Saskatchewan,Canada were selected to examine how topographic indices were related to wheat yield under two topographic and weather conditions in the Canadian prairies.The landscapes of the two sites are classified as hummocky and the dominant soil type is an Aridic Ustoll.The relationships among yield,topography,soil,and weather were analyzed using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)grain yield from Alvena in 2001 (dry year) and 2004 (wet year) and from Hepburn in 1998 (dry year).Topographic/soil indices included relative elevation,wetness index,upslope length,curvature,soil organic matter,and soil moisture storage before seeding.The results indicated that,in the dry years,the correlation coefficients between upslope length and grain yield were 0.79 for the typical rolling landscape (Alvena) in 2001 and 0.73 for shallow gentle rolling landscape (Hepburn) in 1998.In the wet year (2004),the relationships between yield and topographic/soil attributes were not as strong as in dry years.Therefore,upslope length was the best yield indicator for the two landscapes in dry years,whereas no topographic indices were highly correlated to crop yield in wet years.Those topographic indices seemed useful in identifying the yield variability and delineating the proper management zone.

  1. 2011 USACE/JALBTCX Great Lakes Topographic/Bathymetric Lidar: Michigan (Lake Superior) and New York (Lakes Erie and Ontario) Coastlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain classified topographic and bathymetric lidar data as unclassified valid topographic data (1), valid topographic data classified as ground (2),...

  2. Comparison of Satellite Surveying to Traditional Surveying Methods for the Resources Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, B. P.; Osborne, V. J.; Kruger, M. L.

    Modern ground-based survey methods involve detailed survey, which provides three-space co-ordinates for surveyed points, to a high level of accuracy. The instruments are operated by surveyors, who process the raw results to create survey location maps for the subject of the survey. Such surveys are conducted for a location or region and referenced to the earth global co- ordinate system with global positioning system (GPS) positioning. Due to this referencing the survey is only as accurate as the GPS reference system. Satellite survey remote sensing utilise satellite imagery which have been processed using commercial geographic information system software. Three-space co-ordinate maps are generated, with an accuracy determined by the datum position accuracy and optical resolution of the satellite platform.This paper presents a case study, which compares topographic surveying undertaken by traditional survey methods with satellite surveying, for the same location. The purpose of this study is to assess the viability of satellite remote sensing for surveying in the resources industry. The case study involves a topographic survey of a dune field for a prospective mining project area in Pakistan. This site has been surveyed using modern surveying techniques and the results are compared to a satellite survey performed on the same area.Analysis of the results from traditional survey and from the satellite survey involved a comparison of the derived spatial co- ordinates from each method. In addition, comparisons have been made of costs and turnaround time for both methods.The results of this application of remote sensing is of particular interest for survey in areas with remote and extreme environments, weather extremes, political unrest, poor travel links, which are commonly associated with mining projects. Such areas frequently suffer language barriers, poor onsite technical support and resources.

  3. Uas Topographic Mapping with Velodyne LiDAR Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkow, G.; Toth, C.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology is nowadays willingly used in small area topographic mapping due to low costs and good quality of derived products. Since cameras typically used with UAS have some limitations, e.g. cannot penetrate the vegetation, LiDAR sensors are increasingly getting attention in UAS mapping. Sensor developments reached the point when their costs and size suit the UAS platform, though, LiDAR UAS is still an emerging technology. One issue related to using LiDAR sensors on UAS is the limited performance of the navigation sensors used on UAS platforms. Therefore, various hardware and software solutions are investigated to increase the quality of UAS LiDAR point clouds. This work analyses several aspects of the UAS LiDAR point cloud generation performance based on UAS flights conducted with the Velodyne laser scanner and cameras. The attention was primarily paid to the trajectory reconstruction performance that is essential for accurate point cloud georeferencing. Since the navigation sensors, especially Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), may not be of sufficient performance, the estimated camera poses could allow to increase the robustness of the estimated trajectory, and subsequently, the accuracy of the point cloud. The accuracy of the final UAS LiDAR point cloud was evaluated on the basis of the generated DSM, including comparison with point clouds obtained from dense image matching. The results showed the need for more investigation on MEMS IMU sensors used for UAS trajectory reconstruction. The accuracy of the UAS LiDAR point cloud, though lower than for point cloud obtained from images, may be still sufficient for certain mapping applications where the optical imagery is not useful.

  4. Factors Associated with Clinical and Topographical Features of Laryngeal Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, João Gustavo Corrêa; Reis, Clarissa Souza Mota; da Costa, Daniel César Silva; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Rolla, Valéria Cavalcanti; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Laryngeal tuberculosis (LTB) is the most frequent granulomatous disease of the larynx and represents less than 2% of extrapulmonary TB cases. There are no pathognomonic clinical and endoscopic features of this disease and studies on LTB that can assist in its diagnostic characterization are lacking. Objective To identify factors associated with clinical and topographical features of LTB. Method a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from the medical records of 36 patients with confirmed LTB diagnosis. Results Dysphonia and cough were the main symptoms presented by patients and the true vocal folds the most frequently affected site. The average of the duration of the disease evolution was significantly higher in patients with dysphonia than in patients without this symptom. We observed association between dysphonia and true vocal fold lesions and between odynophagia and lesions in the epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds. Odynophagia was more frequent in individuals with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites. Weight loss equal or above 10% of the body weight was more frequent in patients with odynophagia as first symptom and in patients with ulcerated lesion. Dyspnea on exertion was more frequent in individuals with more extensive laryngeal lesions. The percentage of smokers with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites was greater than that found in non-smokers. Laryngeal tissue fragment bacilloscopy and culture examinations were less positive than sputum ones. Conclusions Smoking appears to be associated with the development of more extensive LTB lesions, and LTB with dyspnea on exertion and odynophagia with consequent impairment of nutritional status. We emphasize the need for histopathologic confirmation, once positive sputum bacteriological examinations seem not to necessarily reflect laryngeal involvement. PMID:27077734

  5. Tactile Robotic Topographical Mapping Without Force or Contact Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kevin; Melko, Joseph; Krajewski, Joel; Cady, Ian

    2008-01-01

    A method of topographical mapping of a local solid surface within the range of motion of a robot arm is based on detection of contact between the surface and the end effector (the fixture or tool at the tip of the robot arm). The method was conceived to enable mapping of local terrain by an exploratory robot on a remote planet, without need to incorporate delicate contact switches, force sensors, a vision system, or other additional, costly hardware. The method could also be used on Earth for determining the size and shape of an unknown surface in the vicinity of a robot, perhaps in an unanticipated situation in which other means of mapping (e.g., stereoscopic imaging or laser scanning with triangulation) are not available. The method uses control software modified to utilize the inherent capability of the robotic control system to measure the joint positions, the rates of change of the joint positions, and the electrical current demanded by the robotic arm joint actuators. The system utilizes these coordinate data and the known robot-arm kinematics to compute the position and velocity of the end effector, move the end effector along a specified trajectory, place the end effector at a specified location, and measure the electrical currents in the joint actuators. Since the joint actuator current is approximately proportional to the actuator forces and torques, a sudden rise in joint current, combined with a slowing of the joint, is a possible indication of actuator stall and surface contact. Hence, even though the robotic arm is not equipped with contact sensors, it is possible to sense contact (albeit with reduced sensitivity) as the end effector becomes stalled against a surface that one seeks to measure.

  6. Topographical evaluation of the mandibular canal through panoramic radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Macedo Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mandibular canal is located inside the body of the mandible and may have anatomical variations. The topographic knowledge of the mandibular canal by the Dental surgeons is fundamental to achieving success in surgical planning, anesthetics and clinical interventions involving the jaw. To study the anatomy of the mandibular canal through panoramic radiographs. A retrospective descriptive study, developed after review and approval by the Ethics and Research Committee with the number of opinion 431095. Were analyzed 252 panoramic radiographs of patients of male and female attended in dental clinics UNINOVAFAPI University Center, Teresina-Pi, Brazil. The radiographs were analyzed with the aid of a light box and each antimere the jaw was observed separately. The classification of Nortjé and Langlais for description of the topography of the mandibular canal were used. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 18.0. There was a prevalence of 38.89% in both antimeres, of mandibular channel the Type II. The type IV was present in 25.4% in the right hemi-arch and 26.6% on the left. Mandibular canal with unilateral bifurcation was observed in 0.77% of the sample and molar straight channel has not been identified. We observed anatomical variations as for the number and path, of the mandibular canal with the highest prevalence of Types II and IV, and the absence of bifurcations. Most was mandibular channels showed no bifurcation. The panoramic radiograph showed up an aid important to identify the mandibular canal and its variations.

  7. Topographic and Stochastic Influences on Pahoehoe Lava Lobe Emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher W.; Glaze, Lori S.; James, Mike R.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of pahoehoe emplacement is necessary for developing accurate models of flow field development, assessing hazards, and interpreting the significance of lava morphology on Earth and other planetary surfaces. Active pahoehoe lobes on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, were examined on 21-26 February 2006 using oblique time-series stereo-photogrammetry and differential global positioning system (DGPS) measurements. During this time, the local discharge rate for peripheral lava lobes was generally constant at 0.0061 +/- 0.0019 m3/s, but the areal coverage rate of the lobes exhibited a periodic increase every 4.13 +/- 0.64 minutes. This periodicity is attributed to the time required for the pressure within the liquid lava core to exceed the cooling induced strength of its margins. The pahoehoe flow advanced through a series of down slope and cross-slope breakouts, which began as approximately 0.2 m-thick units (i.e., toes) that coalesced and inflated to become approximately meter-thick lobes. The lobes were thickest above the lowest points of the initial topography and above shallow to reverse facing slopes, defined relative to the local flow direction. The flow path was typically controlled by high-standing topography, with the zone directly adjacent to the final lobe margin having an average relief that was a few centimeters higher than the lava inundated region. This suggests that toe-scale topography can, at least temporarily, exert strong controls on pahoehoe flow paths by impeding the lateral spreading of the lobe. Observed cycles of enhanced areal spreading and inflated lobe morphology are also explored using a model that considers the statistical likelihood of sequential breakouts from active flow margins and the effects of topographic barriers.

  8. Topographic Signatures of Geomorphic Processes at Desert Piedmonts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.

    2004-12-01

    Geomorphic processes operating on desert piedmonts leave their mark in the topography of the piedmonts, measured at a range of scales. For example, at the km to 10's of m scale, slope, curvature, and dissection give clues to the relative importance of erosional, aggradational, and transport processes. When a desert piedmont is dominated by erosional and transport processes, a pediment is formed. Conversely, when aggradational processes dominate, alluvial fans are formed. The relative rates of uplift vs. aggradation determine the slope of the fan and whether the fan is dissected. Changes in uplift rate or climatic conditions can lead to isolation of the currently forming fan surface through entrenchment and construction of another fan either further from the mountain front (decreased uplift or increased runoff) or closer to the mountain front (increased uplift or decreased runoff). Fitting 3-dimensional surfaces to alluvial fan units allows parameters for the apex position, slope, and radial curvature to be compared with unit age. The topographic signature of individual fan units will help in regional correlation of fan surfaces and may assist in separating the effects of climate and uplift. At scales of m to cm, processes such as salt weathering, aeolian deposition, and desert pavement formation dominate. The lithologies that make up the piedmont determine their susceptibility to processes of disintegration due to salts (e.g. coarse-grained rocks) or dissolution (e.g. limestones). The composition of the source areas also helps determine the relative importance of debris and mud flows. Resistant lithologies tend to form desert pavement surfaces with time, caused by infiltration of aeolian dust below a monolayer of resistant pebbles to cobbles. This leads to local relief of a few cm, while surfaces composed of easily weathered lithologies have much lower relief at that scale. Work performed under contract to NASA.

  9. Topographic instability of flow in a rotating fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Patarashvili

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Here are presented the results of experimental and theoretical studies on a stability of zonal geostrophic flows in the rotating layer of the shallow water. In the experiments, a special apparatus by Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory Georgian Academy of Science was used. This apparatus represents a paraboloid of rotation, which can be set in a regulable rotation around the vertical axis. Maximal diameter of the paraboloid is 1.2 m, radius of curvature in the pole is 0.698 m. In the paraboloid, water spreads on walls as a layer uniform on height under the period of rotation 1.677 s. Against a background of the rotating fluid, the zonal flows are formed by the source-sink system. It consists of two concentric circular perforations on the paraboloid bottom (width is 0.3 cm, radiuses are 8.4 and 57.3 cm, respectively; water can be pumped through them with various velocities and in all directions. It has been established that under constant vertical depth of the rotating fluid the zonal flows are stable. There are given the measurements of the radial profiles for the water level and velocity in the stationary regime. It has been found that zonal flows may lose stability under the presence of the radial gradient of full depth formed by a change of angular velocity of paraboloid rotation. An instability origin results in the loss of flow axial symmetry and in the appearance of self-excited oscillations in the zonal flow. At the given angular velocity of rotation, instability is observed only in the definite range of intensities of the source-sink system. The theoretical estimations are performed in the framework of the equations of the shallow water theory, including the terms describing the bottom friction. It has been shown that the instability of zonal flows found experimentally has a topographical nature and is related with non-monotone dependence of the potential vorticity on radius.

  10. Topographic characteristics of keratoconus among a sample of Jordanian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Abu Ameerh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To identify topographic characteristics of keratoconus in a Jordanian sample.METHODS:This study characterized 210 corneas affected with keratoconus presenting to Jordan University Hospital. Patients were diagnosed based on clinical examinations and Pentacam imaging. Eyes of males (n=101 were of a similar proportion to females (n=109. All of the 111 patients were affected bilaterally. Ages ranged between 13 and 44y with a mean age of 25.2y.RESULTS:Results revealed significant differences between males and females at the level of the flat curvature power, basement membrane thickness and size of the anterior chamber. Eyes were arranged in three groups based on severity levels:mild, moderate and severe determined by the mean curvature power (Km. Results show that the flat (K1 and steep (K2 curvature powers, corneal asphericity coefficient (QV, thinnest point, pachy apex and basement membrane thickness are significantly different among the three groups, but not the corneal and anterior chamber volumes. Morphological analyses, based on sagittal maps, show no differences in keratometric values between eyes with different sagittal patterns except for the vertical location of the pachy apex relative to the pupil center and the thinnest point. Eyes with the island front elevation map are significantly more affected than eyes with the U shape and the ridge pattern.CONCLUSION:All keratometric values measured except for corneal and anterior chamber volumes vary significantly with disease severity. The vertical pachy apex location correlates well with severity levels while the horizontal location seems to have no effect. Our study also indicates that front elevation maps may be a better predictor of the severity of keratoconus than sagittal maps.

  11. Topographical estimation of visual population receptive fields by FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkyun; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Keliris, Georgios A; Smirnakis, Stelios M

    2015-02-03

    Visual cortex is retinotopically organized so that neighboring populations of cells map to neighboring parts of the visual field. Functional magnetic resonance imaging allows us to estimate voxel-based population receptive fields (pRF), i.e., the part of the visual field that activates the cells within each voxel. Prior, direct, pRF estimation methods(1) suffer from certain limitations: 1) the pRF model is chosen a-priori and may not fully capture the actual pRF shape, and 2) pRF centers are prone to mislocalization near the border of the stimulus space. Here a new topographical pRF estimation method(2) is proposed that largely circumvents these limitations. A linear model is used to predict the Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal by convolving the linear response of the pRF to the visual stimulus with the canonical hemodynamic response function. PRF topography is represented as a weight vector whose components represent the strength of the aggregate response of voxel neurons to stimuli presented at different visual field locations. The resulting linear equations can be solved for the pRF weight vector using ridge regression(3), yielding the pRF topography. A pRF model that is matched to the estimated topography can then be chosen post-hoc, thereby improving the estimates of pRF parameters such as pRF-center location, pRF orientation, size, etc. Having the pRF topography available also allows the visual verification of pRF parameter estimates allowing the extraction of various pRF properties without having to make a-priori assumptions about the pRF structure. This approach promises to be particularly useful for investigating the pRF organization of patients with disorders of the visual system.

  12. Topographic mapping of biological specimens: flexure and curvature characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, William S.; Baron, Sandra F.

    2004-07-01

    Shape quantification of tissue and biomaterials can be central to many studies and applications in bioengineering and biomechanics. Often, shape is mapped with photogrammetry or projected light techniques that provide XYZ point cloud data, and shape is quantified using derived flexure and curvature calculations based on the point cloud data. Accordingly, the accuracy of the calculated curvature depends on the properties of the point cloud data set. In this study, we present a curvature variability prediction (CVP) software model that predicts the distribution, i.e., the standard deviation, of curvature measurements associated with surface topography point cloud data properties. The CVP model point cloud data input variables include XYZ noise, sampling density, and map extent. The CVP model outputs the curvature variability statistic in order to assess performance in the curvature domain. Representative point cloud data properties are obtained from an automated biological specimen video topographer, the BioSpecVT (ver. 1.02) (Vision Metrics, Inc.,). The BioSpecVT uses a calibrated, structured light pattern to support automated computer vision feature extraction software for precisely converting video images of biological specimens, within seconds, into three dimensional point cloud data. In representative sample point cloud data obtained with the BioSpecVT, sampling density is about 11 pts/mm2 for an XYZ mapping volume encompassing about 16 mm x 13.5 mm x 18.5 mm, average XY per point variability is about +/-2 μm, and Z axis variability is about +/-40 μm (50% level) with a Gaussian distribution. A theoretical study with the CVP model shows that for derived point cloud data properties, curvature mapping accuracy increases, i.e. measurement variability decreases, when curvature increases from about 30 m-1 to 137 m-1. This computed result is consistent with the Z axis noise becoming less significant as the measured depth increases across an approximately fixed XY

  13. Temporal analysis of the topographic ERG: chromatic versus achromatic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klistorner, A; Crewther, D P; Crewther, S G

    1998-04-01

    The topographic electroretinogram evoked by multi-focal exchange of black and white or red and green stimuli was analysed into linear and non-linear Wiener kernels. The first-order (temporally linear) response showed a biphasic waveform which inverted as the luminance ratio of the exchanged colours passed through unity (established both psychophysically and photometrically). A short latency non-linearity which was dependant on luminance contrast was observed in both chromatic and achromatic ERG. However, in the chromatic second-order response, a long-latency non-linearity, foveally prominent, with a distinct skew in power towards the nasal retina, appeared around the isoluminant point, between the points of silent substitution for the L and M-cone types. Modelling of the second-order responses showed that over a wide range of luminance ratios, the chromatic ERG is well described by a linear combination of the achromatic (contrast-dependent) component and the response at isoluminance. The difference in second-order response between coloured and black and white stimulation, at the same luminance contrast, showed that the long-latency non-linearity is recorded when the red and green cone types are operating out of phase and peaks in amplitude at a green/red luminance ratio of 0.8. This interpretation was confirmed by the lack of the long-latency non-linearity in colour-anomalous subjects (whether deficient in the L or the M-cone type). A marked similarity exists between the properties of the long-latency non-linearity and the frequency-doubled response generated in the ganglion cells of the magnocellular pathway.

  14. Topographic characteristics of keratoconus among a sample of Jordanian patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed; Ali; Abu; Ameerh; Nathalie; Bussières; Ghada; Ismail; Hamad; Muawyah; Dawoud; Al; Bdour

    2014-01-01

    · AIM: To identify topographic characteristics of keratoconus in a Jordanian sample.· METHODS: This study characterized 210 corneas affected with keratoconus presenting to Jordan University Hospital. Patients were diagnosed based on clinical examinations and Pentacam imaging. Eyes of males(n =101) were of a similar proportion to females(n =109). All of the 111 patients were affected bilaterally.Ages ranged between 13 and 44 y with a mean age of25.2y.· RESULTS: Results revealed significant differences between males and females at the level of the flat curvature power, basement membrane thickness and size of the anterior chamber. Eyes were arranged in three groups based on severity levels: mild, moderate and severe determined by the mean curvature power(Km).Results show that the flat(K1) and steep(K2) curvature powers, corneal asphericity coefficient(QV), thinnest point, pachy apex and basement membrane thickness are significantly different among the three groups, but not the corneal and anterior chamber volumes.Morphological analyses, based on sagittal maps, show no differences in keratometric values between eyes with different sagittal patterns except for the vertical location of the pachy apex relative to the pupil center and the thinnest point. Eyes with the island front elevation map are significantly more affected than eyes with the U shape and the ridge pattern.· CONCLUSION: All keratometric values measured except for corneal and anterior chamber volumes vary significantly with disease severity. The vertical pachy apex location correlates well with severity levels while the horizontal location seems to have no effect. Ourstudy also indicates that front elevation maps may be a better predictor of the severity of keratoconus than sagittal maps.

  15. The Influence of Topographic Obstacles on Basaltic Lava Flow Morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Meerscheidt, H. C.; Brand, B. D.; deWet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hamilton, C. W.; Samuels, R.

    2014-12-01

    Smooth pāhoehoe and jagged ´áā represent two end-members of a textural spectrum that reflects the emplacement characteristics of basaltic lava flows. However, many additional textures (e.g., rubbly and slabby pāhoehoe) reflect a range of different process due to lava flow dynamics or interaction with topography. Unfortunately the influence of topography on the distribution of textures in basaltic lava flows is not well-understood. The 18 ± 1.0 ka Twin Craters lava flow in the Zuni-Bandera field (New Mexico, USA) provides an excellent site to study the morphological changes of a lava flow that encountered topographic obstacles. The flow field is 0.2-3.8 km wide with a prominent central tube system that intersects and wraps around a 1000 m long ridge, oriented perpendicular to flow. Upstream of the ridge, the flow has low-relief inflation features extending out and around the ridge. This area includes mildly to heavily disrupted pāhoehoe with interdispersed agglutinated masses, irregularly shaped rubble and lava balls. Breakouts of ´áā and collapse features are also common. These observations suggest crustal disruption due to flow-thickening upstream from the ridge and the movement of lava out and around the obstacle. While the ridge influenced the path of the tube, which wraps around the southern end of the ridge, the series of collapse features and breakouts of ´áā along the tube system are more likely a result of changes in flux throughout the tube system because these features are found both upstream and downstream of the obstacle. This work demonstrates that topography can significantly influence the formation history and surface disruption of a flow field, and in some cases the influence of topography can be separated from the influences of changes in flux along a tube system.

  16. Topographical Mapping System. Tanks Focus Area. OST Reference # 130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Radioactive waste storage tanks in use at many of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites are beyond the intended design life. The waste in these tanks must be remediated and the tanks closed. Before these activities are performed, the physical condition of tank interiors must be determined along with detailed information regarding any obstructions and potential problems that may be encountered during installation of retrieval systems. This task is difficult because the tanks are underground and have limited access. The only way to see the physical contents of the tank is to install tools through the tank’s openings, or risers. The Topographical Mapping System (TMS), a three-dimensional (3-D) mapping system that can safely operate in hazardous and radiological environments, has been developed to meet this need. This system provides an accurate 3-D view of the tank interior and gathers data on volume and contents inside storage tanks. How It Works: TMS is self-contained and reconfigurable system capable of providing rapid, variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention. TMS uses structured light to create maps of waste topography and tank structures, determine surface features and deviations, model the tank environment, and determine residual tank waste volume. The system gathers and analyzes data to generate 3-D maps. The data can be used on a stand-alone basis or integrated with other modeling software to generate “world models” of tanks or other work environments. Figure 1 is a time-lapse photograph of the contour lines that result when the laser planes intersect with the mapped surface. The simulated waste surface in the photograph contains sand, simulated saltcake (white rock), and two black vertical pipes.

  17. Topographic Expression of Deep Crustal and Mantle Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, K. X.; Ouimet, W. B.; Baldwin, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    The topography of mountain ranges records much information about the history of tectonic events and climatic conditions. Although this record is not easily read, as there are many imperfectly understood factors that influence landscape morphology, there is much encouraging evidence that the river steepness index (a cousin of the Hack gradient index) exhibits a robust correlation with rock uplift rate. Published, and soon to be published, examples span a wide range of field conditions from sites around the globe (e.g., Western US, Bolivia, Nepal, China, Taiwan). Differences in substrate rock properties can have a pronounced influence on channel steepness for a given rock uplift rate, however, and analyses are best limited to regional studies where climatic conditions and lithology are largely uniform. In such settings, careful analysis of river profiles and the relief structure of the landscape can reveal important information about the history of rock uplift, recording temporal changes in uplift/river incision rates. This potential adds considerably to the value of topographic analyses, especially where uplift is driven by deep crustal or mantle processes and not clearly expressed in upper crustal structures and geodetic shortening data. However, this potential comes at the price of complicating the interpretation of the relationship between topography and the modern snapshot of deep crustal/mantle conditions provided by geophysical imaging techniques. Over what timescales does topography retain a record of past events in earth's interior? Important questions remain unanswered about the age of topography in many landscapes where deep crustal or mantle dynamics have been invoked. We discuss the factors that control landscape response time, both to an increase in rock uplift rate and to the cessation of tectonic activity, and present constraints on the antiquity of topography in several field settings.

  18. UAS TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING WITH VELODYNE LiDAR SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jozkow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial System (UAS technology is nowadays willingly used in small area topographic mapping due to low costs and good quality of derived products. Since cameras typically used with UAS have some limitations, e.g. cannot penetrate the vegetation, LiDAR sensors are increasingly getting attention in UAS mapping. Sensor developments reached the point when their costs and size suit the UAS platform, though, LiDAR UAS is still an emerging technology. One issue related to using LiDAR sensors on UAS is the limited performance of the navigation sensors used on UAS platforms. Therefore, various hardware and software solutions are investigated to increase the quality of UAS LiDAR point clouds. This work analyses several aspects of the UAS LiDAR point cloud generation performance based on UAS flights conducted with the Velodyne laser scanner and cameras. The attention was primarily paid to the trajectory reconstruction performance that is essential for accurate point cloud georeferencing. Since the navigation sensors, especially Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs, may not be of sufficient performance, the estimated camera poses could allow to increase the robustness of the estimated trajectory, and subsequently, the accuracy of the point cloud. The accuracy of the final UAS LiDAR point cloud was evaluated on the basis of the generated DSM, including comparison with point clouds obtained from dense image matching. The results showed the need for more investigation on MEMS IMU sensors used for UAS trajectory reconstruction. The accuracy of the UAS LiDAR point cloud, though lower than for point cloud obtained from images, may be still sufficient for certain mapping applications where the optical imagery is not useful.

  19. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  20. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  1. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  2. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  3. 2010 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Topographic Lidar: Coastal Massachusetts and Rhode Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. Topographic Digital Raster Graphics, USGS DRG's; reprojected to state plane, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Topographic Digital Raster Graphics dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'USGS DRG's; reprojected...

  5. State Base Map for GIS – New Digital Topographic Map of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Srbinoski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI built in accordance with INSPIRE directive is to standardize spatial data infrastructure on national level. In that direction, topographic maps are a basic platform for acquiring spatial data within geoinformation systems and one of the most important  segments of NSDI. This paper presents methodology of establishing the new digital topographic map of the Republic of Macedonia titled “State Base Map for GIS in Macedonia”. This paper analyzes geometrical accuracy of new digital topographic maps. Production of the new digital topographic map has been the most important cartographic project in the Republic of Macedonia since it became independent.

  6. 2012 USACE Post Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Rhode Island and Massachusetts Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) represents 354.272 square miles of coastline for Rhode Island...

  7. 2012 Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GADNR) Topographic LiDAR: Pickens, Rockdale and Troup Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Contract: EA133C11CQ0009 NOAA Task Order Number: T0013 The PSFY12 GADNR Elevation Data Task Order involves: collecting and delivering topographic elevation...

  8. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lower Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint, on behalf of multiple agencies, collected topographic lidar of the Lower Columbia River area. Field data collection took place between the dates of...

  9. Topographic Data Development for Miami County 1m LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. Seismic topographic scattering in the context of GW detector site selection

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a calculation of seismic scattering from irregular surface topography in the Born approximation. Based on US-wide topographic data, we investigate topographic scattering at specific sites to demonstrate its impact on Newtonian-noise estimation and subtraction for future gravitational-wave detectors. We find that topographic scattering at a comparatively flat site in Oregon would not pose any problems, whereas scattering at a second site in Montana leads to significant broadening of wave amplitudes in wavenumber space that would make Newtonian-noise subtraction very challenging. Therefore, it is shown that topographic scattering should be included as criterion in the site-selection process of future low-frequency gravitational-wave detectors.

  11. Topographic microclimates drive microhabitat associations at the range margin of a butterfly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, Callum R.; Bennie, Jonathan; Hodgson, Jenny A.; Thomas, Chris D.; Wilson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The habitat associations of individuals underpin the dynamics of species distributions. Broad-scale gradients in climate can alter habitat associations across species’ geographic ranges, but topographic heterogeneity creates local microclimates which could generate variation in habitat use at finer

  12. 2012 USACE Post-Hurricane Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Coastal Connecticut

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These topographic elevation data have been acquired and developed by the U.S. Corps of Engineers St. Louis District for a 116 sq. mile project area encompassing the...

  13. Andean Mountain Building: An Integrated Topographic, GPS, Seismological and Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mian; Stein, Seth

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to better understand the geodynamics controlling the mountain building and topographic evolution in the central Andes using an integrated approach that combines GPS, seismological, and numerical studies.

  14. 2013 Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GADNR) Topographic Lidar: Barrow, Clarke, Madison and Oglethorpe Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Contract: EA133C11CQ0009NOAA Task Order Number: T0013The PSFY13 GA DNR Elevation Data Task Order involves collecting and delivering topographic elevation point...

  15. 2012 USACE Post Hurricane Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Rhode Island and Massachusetts Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) represents 354.272 square miles of coastline for Rhode Island...

  16. 2012 Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GADNR) Topographic LiDAR: Pickens, Rockdale and Troup Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Contract: EA133C11CQ0009 NOAA Task Order Number: T0013 The PSFY12 GADNR Elevation Data Task Order involves: collecting and delivering topographic elevation...

  17. 2013 Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GADNR) Topographic Lidar: Barrow, Clarke, Madison and Oglethorpe Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Contract: EA133C11CQ0009 NOAA Task Order Number: T0013 The PS FY13 GA DNR Elevation Data Task Order involves collecting and delivering topographic elevation...

  18. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1995-11-01

    SOLARFLUX is a geographical information system (GIS) based computer program (running under ARC/INFO and GRID) that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. A convenient user interface allows specification of program parameters including latitude, time interval for simulation, file name of a topographic surface, atmospheric conditions (transmittivity), and file names for output. The user specifies a topographic surface as an array of elevation values (GRID). SOLARFLUX generates five basic types of output: 1) total direct radiation, 2) duration of direct sunlight, 3) total diffuse radiation, 4) skyview factor, and 5) hemispherical viewsheds of sky obstruction for specified surface locations. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modeling insolation on complex surfaces, our theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modeling.

  19. Researches on Cartographic Database-Based Interactive Three-Dimensional Topographic Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wenping; Xi Daping

    2003-01-01

    With the development of computer graphics, the three-dimensional (3D) visualization brings new technological revolution to the traditional cartography. Therefore, the topographic 3D-map emerges to adapt to this technological revolution, and the applications of topographic 3D-map are spread rapidly to other relevant fields due to its incomparable advantage. The researches on digital map and the construction of map database offer strong technical support and abundant data source for this new technology, so the research and development of topographic 3D-map will receive greater concern. The basic data of the topographic 3D-map are rooted mainly in digital map and its basic model is derived from digital elevation model (DEM) and 3D-models of other DEM-based geographic features. In view of the potential enormous data and the complexity of geographic features, the dynamic representation of geographic information becomes the focus of the research of topographic 3D-map and also the prerequisite condition of 3D query and analysis. In addition to the equipment of hardware that are restraining, to a certain extent, the 3D representation, the data organization structure of geographic information will be the core problem of research on 3D-map. Level of detail (LOD), space partitioning, dynamic object loading (DOL) and object culling are core technologies of the dynamic 3D representation. The objectselection, attribute-query and model-editing are important functions and interaction tools for users with 3D-maps provided by topographic 3D-map system, all of which are based on the data structure of the 3Dmodel. This paper discusses the basic theories, concepts and cardinal principles of topographic 3D-map,expounds the basic way to organize the scene hierarchy of topographic 3D-map based on the node mechanism and studies the dynamic representation technologies of topographic 3D-map based on LOD, space partitioning, DOL and object culling. Moreover, such interactive operation

  20. UPDATING NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC DATA BASE USING CHANGE DETECTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Keinan

    2016-06-01

    The automatic process is based on high-resolution Digital Surface Model analysis, Multi Spectral (MS classification, MS segmentation, object analysis and shape forming algorithms. This article reviews the results of a novel change detection methodology as a first step for updating NTDB in the Survey of Israel.

  1. 2011 USGS Topographic LiDAR: Suwannee River Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Task Order No. G10PD00236 USGS Contract No. G10PC00093 The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Suwannee River Expansion in...

  2. The coupling instability of Rossby and topographic Rossby waves in the equatorial area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO Jiping; LIU Lin; YU Weidong

    2005-01-01

    In case of considering the fact that the tropical ocean thermocline or the lower atmosphere height field has the meridional variation, the topographic Rossby wave will be excited. Also the background geostrophic current emerges. Under such conditions, the topographic Rossby wave can interact with the classical Rossby wave at some parameter band and thus brings a new kind of instability, which may be of potential application in understanding some phenomena of the ENSO cycle.

  3. Topographic Constraints on the Origin of the Equatorial Ridge on Iapetus

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Erika Lopez; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Schenk, Paul M.; Hammond, Noah P.; Barr, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Saturn's moon Iapetus has an equatorial ridge system, which may be as high as 20 km, that may have formed by endogenic forces, such as tectonic and convective forces, or exogenic processes such as debris infall. We use high-resolution topographic data to conduct a topographic analysis of the ridge, which suggests a predominantly triangular morphology, with some ridge face slopes reaching 40 degrees, allowing for an exogenic formation mechanism.

  4. Control of the soliton self-frequency shift dynamics using topographic optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendahmane, A; Vanvincq, O; Mussot, A; Kudlinski, A

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate that the dynamics of the soliton self-frequency shift can be accurately controlled by using tapered optical fibers with optimized longitudinal profile shape (that we term topographic fibers). The tapering profiles tailored for a targeted soliton spectral trajectory through dispersion and nonlinearity management are determined by an inverse algorithm. This control is demonstrated experimentally with topographic photonic crystal fibers fabricated directly on a drawing tower.

  5. Pattern identification or 3D visualization? How best to learn topographic map comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atit, Kinnari

    Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) experts employ many representations that novices find hard to use because they require a critical STEM skill, interpreting two-dimensional (2D) diagrams that represent three-dimensional (3D) information. The current research focuses on learning to interpret topographic maps. Understanding topographic maps requires knowledge of how to interpret the conventions of contour lines, and skill in visualizing that information in 3D (e.g. shape of the terrain). Novices find both tasks difficult. The present study compared two interventions designed to facilitate understanding for topographic maps to minimal text-only instruction. The 3D Visualization group received instruction using 3D gestures and models to help visualize three topographic forms. The Pattern Identification group received instruction using pointing and tracing gestures to help identify the contour patterns associated with the three topographic forms. The Text-based Instruction group received only written instruction explaining topographic maps. All participants then completed a measure of topographic map use. The Pattern Identification group performed better on the map use measure than participants in the Text-based Instruction group, but no significant difference was found between the 3D Visualization group and the other two groups. These results suggest that learning to identify meaningful contour patterns is an effective strategy for learning how to comprehend topographic maps. Future research should address if learning strategies for how to interpret the information represented on a diagram (e.g. identify patterns in the contour lines), before trying to visualize the information in 3D (e.g. visualize the 3D structure of the terrain), also facilitates students' comprehension of other similar types of diagrams.

  6. Topographical Evaluation of the Decentration of Orthokeratology Lenses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yang; Xingwu Zhong; Xiangming Gong; Junwen Zeng

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the amount of lens decentration and various factors affecting decentration after orthokeratology lens wear and to observe the effect of decentration on the visual functions.Methods: Two kinds of orthokeratology lenses were fitted to 270 eyes of 135 patients [initial mean refractive error: (-3.98±1.51)D]. Humphery Instruments ATLAS 990 was used for the computer-assisted analysis of corneal topographical maps. The examination of corneal topography was performed on patients before and after 6 months of wearing orthokeratology lenses. The amount of decentration of orthokeratology lenses was measured by finding the distance between center of optic zone and the pupil center. The factors influencing the amount of decentration were analyzed, including the initial refraction error, astigmatism, keratometry values, corneal eccentricity, and the diameter of lens.Visual symptoms including monocular diplopia, glare around lights were recorded to evaluate the effects of decentration on visual functions.Results: The mean amount of decentration was (0.49±0.34) mm after one night's wear.The mean amount of decentration after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months was (0.57±0.41) mm, (0.55±0.48) mm and (0.59±0.39) mm, respectively. After one month, the amount of decentration was less than 0.50 mm in 51.1% eyes, 0.50~1.0 mm in 35.6% eyes and more than 1.00 mm in 13.3% eyes. The direction of decentration of more than 0.50 mm was mainly in the temporal quadrant (48.5%). Patients with greater initial astigmatism and smaller lenses showed greater decentration (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in decentration between the two groups with different corneal eccentricities and keratometry values (P>0.05). The amount of decentration was greater in patients who complained of monocular diplopia and glare.Conclusions: The amount of decentration of orthokeratology depends on the initial refractive error, astigmatism and the design of orthokeratology

  7. Evaluating time dynamics of topographic threshold relations for gully initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayas, Antonio; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Poesen, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Gully erosion is one of the most important soil degradation processes at global scale. However, modelling of gully erosion is still difficult. Despite advances in the modelling of gully headcut rates and incision rates, it remains difficult to predict the location of gully initiation points and trajectories. In different studies it has been demonstrated that a good method of predicting gully initiation is by using a slope (S) - area (A) threshold. Such an S-A relation is a simple way of estimating the critical discharges needed to generate a critical shear stress that can incise a particular soil and initiate a gully. As such, the simple S-A threshold will vary if the rainfall-runoff behaviour of the soil changes or if the soil's erodibility changes. Over the past decades, important agronomic changes have produced significant changes in the soil use and soil management in SW Spain. It is the objective of this research to evaluate how S-A relations for gully initiation have changed over time and for two different land uses, cereal and olive. Data was collected for a gully network in the Cordoba Province, SW Spain. From photo-interpretation of historical air photos between 1956 and 2013, the gully network and initiation points were derived. In total 10 different time steps are available (1956; 1977; 1984; 1998; 2001; 2004; 2006; 2008; 2010; 2013). Topographical thresholds were extracted by combining the digitized gully network with the DEM. Due to small differences in the alignment of ortophotos and DEM, an optimization technique was developed in GIS to extract the correct S-A value for each point. With the S-A values for each year, their dynamics was evaluated as a function of land use (olive or cereal) and in function of the following variables in each of the periods considered: • soil management • soil cover by weeds, where weed growth was modeled from the daily soil water balance • rainfall intensity • root cohesion, , where root growth was modeled from

  8. The axial topographic high at intermediate and fast spreading ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbotte, Suzanne M.; MacDonald, Ken C.

    1994-12-01

    An axial topographic high is commonly observed at both fast spreading ridges and some segments of intermediate spreading ridges. At fast rates the axial high is primarily created by the buoyancy of hot rock and magma beneath the rise. As newly formed crust is transported off axis, little vestige of an axial high is observed on the ridge flanks. In contrast, at intermediate rates, a significant component of the positive topography may be a volcanic construction, preserved on the ridge flanks as abyssal hills, which are slit axial volcanoes. We suggest this difference in the nature of the axial high reflects a lithosphere strong enough to support construction of a volcanic crestal ridge at intermediate spreading rates, but only rarely at fast rates. Relict overlap ridges, found within the discordant zones left by overlapping spreading centers, is one class of ridge-flank topography which appears to have a significant volcanic constructional component even at fast spreading ridges. Unlike topography away from these discontinuities, the relief and shape of overlapping spreading centers is preserved as relict ridge tips are rafted onto the ridge flanks. Reduced magma supply at these discontinuities may give rise to an axial lithosphere strong enough to support volcanic construction of overlap ridges. Low axial lithospheric strength may also account for the lack of normal faults within the innermost 1-2 km of fast, and some intermediate, spreading ridges. With a thin/weak brittle layer at the ridge crest, tensile failure will predominate and few normal faults will form. Depths to the axial magma chamber reflector observed in multi-channel seismic data limit the thickness of the brittel layer on axis to less than 1-2 km for much of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). This depth is comparable to depths over which tensile failure within the oceanic crust will predominate, estimated from the Griffith criteria for fracture initiation (approx. 0.5-1.5 km). As the brittle layer

  9. Topographic evolution of Yosemite Valley from Low Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy-Lang, A.; Shuster, D. L.; Cuffey, K. M.; Fox, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this contribution, we interrogate the timing of km-scale topography development in the region around Yosemite Valley, California. Our goal is to determine when this spectacular glacial valley was carved, and how this might help address controversy surrounding the topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada. At the scale of the range, two rival hypotheses are each supported by different datasets. Low-temperature thermochronology supports the idea that the range has been high-standing since the Cretaceous, whereas geomorphic evidence suggests that much of the elevation of the Sierra Nevada was attained during the Pliocene. Recent work by McPhillips and Brandon (2012) suggests instead that both ideas are valid, with the range losing much elevation during the Cenozoic, but regaining it during Miocene surface uplift.At the local scale, the classic study of Matthes (1930) determined that most of Yosemite Valley was excavated by the Sherwin-age glaciation that ended ~1 Ma. The consensus view is in agreement, although some argue that nearby comparable valleys comparable were carved long ago (e.g., House et al., 1998). If the Quaternary and younger glaciations were responsible for the bulk of the valley's >1 km depth, we might expect apatite (U-Th)/He ages at the valley floor to be Portal yields an age of ~74 Ma. Valley rim samples yield ages of ca. 60 Ma. To further constrain the timing of valley carving, we have conducted apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry from samples along both the valley floor and rim. By restricting the permissible thermal histories at these locations, these data constrain patterns of valley topography development through time. We also supplement these data with zircon 4He/3He thermochronometry, which is a newly developed method that provides information on continuous cooling paths through ~120-220 °C. We will present both the apatite and zircon 4He/3He data and, in conjunction with thermo-kinematic modeling, discuss the ability and limitations of

  10. Accuracy assessment of topographic mapping using UAV image integrated with satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, S. M.; Ahmad, Baharin; Ahmad, Anuar

    2014-02-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle or UAV is extensively applied in various fields such as military applications, archaeology, agriculture and scientific research. This study focuses on topographic mapping and map updating. UAV is one of the alternative ways to ease the process of acquiring data with lower operating costs, low manufacturing and operational costs, plus it is easy to operate. Furthermore, UAV images will be integrated with QuickBird images that are used as base maps. The objective of this study is to make accuracy assessment and comparison between topographic mapping using UAV images integrated with aerial photograph and satellite image. The main purpose of using UAV image is as a replacement for cloud covered area which normally exists in aerial photograph and satellite image, and for updating topographic map. Meanwhile, spatial resolution, pixel size, scale, geometric accuracy and correction, image quality and information contents are important requirements needed for the generation of topographic map using these kinds of data. In this study, ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were established using real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) technique. There are two types of analysis that are carried out in this study which are quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment is carried out by calculating root mean square error (RMSE). The outputs of this study include topographic map and orthophoto. From this study, the accuracy of UAV image is ± 0.460 m. As conclusion, UAV image has the potential to be used for updating of topographic maps.

  11. The contribution of the diffuse light component to the topographic effect on remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, C.; Holben, B.

    1980-01-01

    The topographic effect is measured by the difference between the global radiance from inclined surfaces as a function of their orientation relative to the sensor position and light source. The short wave radiant energy incident on a surface is composed of direct sunlight, scattered skylight, and light reflected from surrounding terrain. The latter two components are commonly known as the diffuse component. The contribution of the diffuse light component to the topographic effect was examined and the significance of this diffuse component with respect to two direct radiance models was assessed. Diffuse and global spectral radiances were measured for a series of slopes and aspects of a uniform and surface in the red and photographic infrared parts of the spectrum, using a nadir pointing two channel handheld radiometer. The diffuse light was found to produce a topographic effect which varied from the topographic effect for direct light. The topographic effect caused by diffuse light was found to increase slightly with solar elevation and wavelength for the channels examined. The correlations between data derived from two simple direct radiance simulation models and the field data were not significantly affected when the diffuse component was removed from the radiances. Radiances from a 60 percent reflective surface, assuming no atmospheric path radiance, the diffuse light topographic effect contributed a maximum range of 3 pixel values in simulated LANDSAT data from all aspects with slopes up to 30 degrees.

  12. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  13. Dynamics of the Bingham Canyon rock avalanches (Utah, USA) resolved from topographic, seismic, and infrasound data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Pankow, Kristine L.; Ford, Sean R.; Koper, Keith D.; Hale, J. Mark; Aaron, Jordan; Larsen, Chris F.

    2017-03-01

    The 2013 Bingham Canyon Mine rock avalanches represent one of the largest cumulative landslide events in recorded U.S. history and provide a unique opportunity to test remote analysis techniques for landslide characterization. Here we combine aerial photogrammetry surveying, topographic reconstruction, numerical runout modeling, and analysis of broadband seismic and infrasound data to extract salient details of the dynamics and evolution of the multiphase landslide event. Our results reveal a cumulative intact rock source volume of 52 Mm3, which mobilized in two main rock avalanche phases separated by 1.5 h. We estimate that the first rock avalanche had 1.5-2 times greater volume than the second. Each failure initiated by sliding along a gently dipping (21°), highly persistent basal fault before transitioning to a rock avalanche and spilling into the inner pit. The trajectory and duration of the two rock avalanches were reconstructed using runout modeling and independent force history inversion of intermediate-period (10-50 s) seismic data. Intermediate- and shorter-period (1-50 s) seismic data were sensitive to intervals of mass redirection and constrained finer details of the individual slide dynamics. Back projecting short-period (0.2-1 s) seismic energy, we located the two rock avalanches within 2 and 4 km of the mine. Further analysis of infrasound and seismic data revealed that the cumulative event included an additional 11 smaller landslides (volumes 104-105 m3) and that a trailing signal following the second rock avalanche may result from an air-coupled Rayleigh wave. Our results demonstrate new and refined techniques for detailed remote characterization of the dynamics and evolution of large landslides.

  14. Current and future use of TOPSAR digital topographic data for volcanological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Garbeil, Harold

    1993-01-01

    In several investigations of volcanoes, high quality digital elevation models (DEM's) are required to study either the geometry of the volcano or to investigate temporal changes in relief due to eruptions. Examples include the analysis of volume changes of a volcanic dome, the prediction of flow paths for pyroclastic flows, and the quantitative investigation of the geometry of valleys carved by volcanic mudflows. Additionally, to provide input data for models of lava flow emplacement, accurate measurements are needed of the thickness of lava flows as a function of distance from the vent and local slope. Visualization of volcano morphology is also aided by the ability to view a DEM from oblique perspectives. Until recently, the generation of these DEM's has required either high resolution stereo air photographs or extensive field surveying using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and other field techniques. Through the use of data collected by the NASA/JPL TOPSAR system, it is now possible to remotely measure the topography of volcanoes using airborne radar interferometry. TOPSAR data can be collected day or night under any weather conditions, thereby avoiding the problems associated with the derivation of DEM's from air photographs that may often contain clouds. Here we describe some of our initial work on volcanoes using TOPSAR data for Mt. Hekla (Iceland) and Vesuvius (Italy). We also outline various TOPSAR topographic studies of volcanoes in the Galapagos and Hawaii that will be conducted in the near future, describe how TOPSAR complements the volcanology investigations to be conducted with orbital radars (SIR-C/X-SAR, JERS-1 and ERS-1), and place these studies into the broader context of NASA's Global Change Program.

  15. Estimation of shoreline position and change using airborne topographic lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdon, H.F.; Sallenger, A.H.; List, J.H.; Holman, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    A method has been developed for estimating shoreline position from airborne scanning laser data. This technique allows rapid estimation of objective, GPS-based shoreline positions over hundreds of kilometers of coast, essential for the assessment of large-scale coastal behavior. Shoreline position, defined as the cross-shore position of a vertical shoreline datum, is found by fitting a function to cross-shore profiles of laser altimetry data located in a vertical range around the datum and then evaluating the function at the specified datum. Error bars on horizontal position are directly calculated as the 95% confidence interval on the mean value based on the Student's t distribution of the errors of the regression. The technique was tested using lidar data collected with NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) in September 1997 on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Estimated lidar-based shoreline position was compared to shoreline position as measured by a ground-based GPS vehicle survey system. The two methods agreed closely with a root mean square difference of 2.9 m. The mean 95% confidence interval for shoreline position was ?? 1.4 m. The technique has been applied to a study of shoreline change on Assateague Island, Maryland/Virginia, where three ATM data sets were used to assess the statistics of large-scale shoreline change caused by a major 'northeaster' winter storm. The accuracy of both the lidar system and the technique described provides measures of shoreline position and change that are ideal for studying storm-scale variability over large spatial scales.

  16. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  18. The effect of atmospheric and topographic correction methods on land cover classification accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanonckelen, Steven; Lhermitte, Stefaan; Van Rompaey, Anton

    2013-10-01

    Mapping of vegetation in mountain areas based on remote sensing is obstructed by atmospheric and topographic distortions. A variety of atmospheric and topographic correction methods has been proposed to minimize atmospheric and topographic effects and should in principle lead to a better land cover classification. Only a limited number of atmospheric and topographic combinations has been tested and the effect on class accuracy and on different illumination conditions is not yet researched extensively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of coupled correction methods on land cover classification accuracy. Therefore, all combinations of three atmospheric (no atmospheric correction, dark object subtraction and correction based on transmittance functions) and five topographic corrections (no topographic correction, band ratioing, cosine correction, pixel-based Minnaert and pixel-based C-correction) were applied on two acquisitions (2009 and 2010) of a Landsat image in the Romanian Carpathian mountains. The accuracies of the fifteen resulting land cover maps were evaluated statistically based on two validation sets: a random validation set and a validation subset containing pixels present in the difference area between the uncorrected classification and one of the fourteen corrected classifications. New insights into the differences in classification accuracy were obtained. First, results showed that all corrected images resulted in higher overall classification accuracies than the uncorrected images. The highest accuracy for the full validation set was achieved after combination of an atmospheric correction based on transmittance functions and a pixel-based Minnaert topographic correction. Secondly, class accuracies of especially the coniferous and mixed forest classes were enhanced after correction. There was only a minor improvement for the other land cover classes (broadleaved forest, bare soil, grass and water). This was explained by the position

  19. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  20. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  2. Application of PALSAR-2 remote sensing data for structural geology and topographic mapping in Kelantan river basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2016-06-01

    Natural hazards of geological origin are one of major problem during heavy monsoons rainfall in Kelantan state, peninsular Malaysia. Several landslides occur in this region are obviously connected to geological and topographical features, every year. Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are particularly applicable for detection of geological structural and topographical features in tropical conditions. In this study, Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-2), remote sensing data were used to identify high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslide in the Kelantan river basin. Adaptive Local Sigma filter was selected and applied to accomplish speckle reduction and preserving both edges and features in PALSAR-2 fine mode observation images. Different polarization images were integrated to enhance geological structures. Additionally, directional filters were applied to the PALSAR-2 Local Sigma resultant image for edge enhancement and detailed identification of linear features. Several faults, drainage patterns and lithological contact layers were identified at regional scale. In order to assess the results, fieldwork and GPS survey were conducted in the landslide affected zones in the Kelantan river basin. Results demonstrate the most of the landslides were associated with N-S, NNW-SSE and NE-SW trending faults, angulate drainage pattern and metamorphic and Quaternary units. Consequently, geologic structural map were produced for Kelantan river basin using recent PALSAR-2 data, which could be broadly applicable for landslide hazard assessment and delineation of high potential risk and susceptible areas. Landslide mitigation programmes could be conducted in the landslide recurrence regions for reducing catastrophes leading to economic losses and death.

  3. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  4. Responses of Tree Growths to Tree Size, Competition, and Topographic Conditions in Sierra Nevada Forests Using Bi-temporal Airborne LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Su, Y.; Tao, S.; Guo, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Trees in the Sierra Nevada (SN) forests are experiencing rapid changes due to human disturbances and climatic changes. An improved monitoring of tree growth and understanding of how tree growth responses to different impact factors, such as tree competition, forest density, topographic and hydrologic conditions, are urgently needed in tree growth modeling. Traditional tree growth modeling mainly relied on field survey, which was highly time-consuming and labor-intensive. Airborne Light detection and ranging System (ALS) is increasingly used in forest survey, due to its high efficiency and accuracy in three-dimensional tree structure delineation and terrain characterization. This study successfully detected individual tree growth in height (∆H), crown area (∆A), and crown volume (∆V) over a five-year period (2007-2012) using bi-temporal ALS data in two conifer forest areas in SN. We further analyzed their responses to original tree size, competition indices, forest structure indices, and topographic environmental parameters at individual tree and forest stand scales. Our results indicated ∆H was strongly sensitive to topographic wetness index; whereas ∆A and ∆V were highly responsive to forest density and original tree sizes. These ALS based findings in ∆H were consistent with field measurements. Our study demonstrated the promising potential of using bi-temporal ALS data in forest growth measurements and analysis. A more comprehensive study over a longer temporal period and a wider range of forest stands would give better insights into tree growth in the SN, and provide useful guides for forest growth monitoring, modeling, and management.

  5. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  6. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  7. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  8. Quantifying Snow Volume Uncertainty from Repeat Terrestrial Laser Scanning Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, P. J.; Hartzell, P. J.; Finnegan, D. C.; Glennie, C. L.; Deems, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) systems are capable of providing rapid, high density, 3D topographic measurements of snow surfaces from increasing standoff distances. By differencing snow surface with snow free measurements within a common scene, snow depths and volumes can be estimated. These data can support operational water management decision-making when combined with measured or modeled snow densities to estimate basin water content, evaluate in-situ data, or drive operational hydrologic models. In addition, change maps from differential TLS scans can also be used to support avalanche control operations to quantify loading patterns for both pre-control planning and post-control assessment. However, while methods for computing volume from TLS point cloud data are well documented, a rigorous quantification of the volumetric uncertainty has yet to be presented. Using repeat TLS data collected at the Arapahoe Basin Ski Area in Summit County, Colorado, we demonstrate the propagation of TLS point measurement and cloud registration uncertainties into 3D covariance matrices at the point level. The point covariances are then propagated through a volume computation to arrive at a single volume uncertainty value. Results from two volume computation methods are compared and the influence of data voids produced by occlusions examined.

  9. Evaluating Topographic Effects on Ground Deformation: Insights from Finite Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchin, Erika; Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Joan

    2015-07-01

    Ground deformation has been demonstrated to be one of the most common signals of volcanic unrest. Although volcanoes are commonly associated with significant topographic relief, most analytical models assume the Earth's surface as flat. However, it has been confirmed that this approximation can lead to important misinterpretations of the recorded surface deformation data. Here we perform a systematic and quantitative analysis of how topography may influence ground deformation signals generated by a spherical pressure source embedded in an elastic homogeneous media and how these variations correlate with the different topographic parameters characterizing the terrain form (e.g., slope, aspect, curvature). For this, we bring together the results presented in previous published papers and complement them with new axisymmetric and 3D finite element (FE) model results. First, we study, in a parametric way, the influence of a volcanic edifice centered above the pressure source axis. Second, we carry out new 3D FE models simulating the real topography of three different volcanic areas representative of topographic scenarios common in volcanic regions: Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea) and the volcanic islands of Tenerife and El Hierro (Canary Islands). The calculated differences are then correlated with a series of topographic parameters. The final aim is to investigate the artifacts that might arise from the use of half-space models at volcanic areas due to diverse topographic features (e.g., collapse caldera structures, prominent central edifices, large landslide scars).

  10. Localized damage caused by topographic amplification during the 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Altidor, J.R.; Anglade, D.; Given, D.; Janvier, M.G.; Maharrey, J.Z.; Meremonte, M.; Mildor, B.S.-L.; Prepetit, C.; Yong, A.

    2010-01-01

    Local geological conditions, including both near-surface sedimentary layers and topographic features, are known to significantly influence ground motions caused by earthquakes. Microzonation maps use local geological conditions to characterize seismic hazard, but commonly incorporate the effect of only sedimentary layers. Microzonation does not take into account local topography, because significant topographic amplification is assumed to be rare. Here we show that, although the extent of structural damage in the 2010 Haiti earthquake was primarily due to poor construction, topographic amplification contributed significantly to damage in the district of Petionville, south of central Port-au-Prince. A large number of substantial, relatively well-built structures situated along a foothill ridge in this district sustained serious damage or collapse. Using recordings of aftershocks, we calculate the ground motion response at two seismic stations along the topographic ridge and at two stations in the adjacent valley. Ground motions on the ridge are amplified relative to both sites in the valley and a hard-rock reference site, and thus cannot be explained by sediment-induced amplification. Instead, the amplitude and predominant frequencies of ground motion indicate the amplification of seismic waves by a narrow, steep ridge. We suggest that microzonation maps can potentially be significantly improved by incorporation of topographic effects. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  11. Topographical effects of climate dataset and their impacts on the estimation of regional net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. Qing; Feng, Feng X.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we first built and compared two different climate datasets for Wuling mountainous area in 2010, one of which considered topographical effects during the ANUSPLIN interpolation was referred as terrain-based climate dataset, while the other one did not was called ordinary climate dataset. Then, we quantified the topographical effects of climatic inputs on NPP estimation by inputting two different climate datasets to the same ecosystem model, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), to evaluate the importance of considering relief when estimating NPP. Finally, we found the primary contributing variables to the topographical effects through a series of experiments given an overall accuracy of the model output for NPP. The results showed that: (1) The terrain-based climate dataset presented more reliable topographic information and had closer agreements with the station dataset than the ordinary climate dataset at successive time series of 365 days in terms of the daily mean values. (2) On average, ordinary climate dataset underestimated NPP by 12.5% compared with terrain-based climate dataset over the whole study area. (3) The primary climate variables contributing to the topographical effects of climatic inputs for Wuling mountainous area were temperatures, which suggest that it is necessary to correct temperature differences for estimating NPP accurately in such a complex terrain.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION FEEDBACK SYSTEM FOR THE DUTCH TOPOGRAPHICAL KEY REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grus

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Topographical Key Register has become an open data the amount of users increased enormously. The highest grow was in the private users group. The increasing number of users and their growing demand for high actuality of the topographic data sets motivates the Dutch Kadaster to innovate and improve the Topographical Key Register (BRT. One of the initiatives was to provide a voluntary geographical information project aiming at providing a user-friendly feedback system adjusted to all kinds of user groups. The feedback system is a compulsory element of the Topographical Key Register in the Netherlands. The Dutch Kadaster is obliged to deliver a feedback system and the key-users are obliged to use it. The aim of the feedback system is to improve the quality and stimulate the usage of the data. The results of the pilot shows that the user-friendly and open to everyone feedback system contributes enormously to improve the quality of the topographic dataset.

  13. Multiresolution analysis of characteristic length scales with high-resolution topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangireddy, Harish; Stark, Colin P.; Passalacqua, Paola

    2017-07-01

    Characteristic length scales (CLS) define landscape structure and delimit geomorphic processes. Here we use multiresolution analysis (MRA) to estimate such scales from high-resolution topographic data. MRA employs progressive terrain defocusing, via convolution of the terrain data with Gaussian kernels of increasing standard deviation, and calculation at each smoothing resolution of (i) the probability distributions of curvature and topographic index (defined as the ratio of slope to area in log scale) and (ii) characteristic spatial patterns of divergent and convergent topography identified by analyzing the curvature of the terrain. The MRA is first explored using synthetic 1-D and 2-D signals whose CLS are known. It is then validated against a set of MARSSIM (a landscape evolution model) steady state landscapes whose CLS were tuned by varying hillslope diffusivity and simulated noise amplitude. The known CLS match the scales at which the distributions of topographic index and curvature show scaling breaks, indicating that the MRA can identify CLS in landscapes based on the scaling behavior of topographic attributes. Finally, the MRA is deployed to measure the CLS of five natural landscapes using meter resolution digital terrain model data. CLS are inferred from the scaling breaks of the topographic index and curvature distributions and equated with (i) small-scale roughness features and (ii) the hillslope length scale.

  14. Comparison of Corneal Topographical and Biomechanical Properties in Cases with Atopic Dermatitis and Healthy Subjects

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    Yusuf Yıldırım

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To compare the topographic, biomechanical, and thickness properties of corneas of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD and of healthy individuals. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this prospective, cross-sectional, and comparative study, 28 healthy individuals (control group and 28 patients with AD (study group were enrolled. Corneal topographical measurements using Scheimpflug camera with a Placido disc topographer (Sirius, corneal biomechanical properties using Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA, and central corneal thickness (CCT using ultrasonic pachymeter were obtained for each participant. Re sults: Topographic parameters were not significantly different between both groups (p>0.05. Corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF were found same in both groups. CCT measured with ultrasonic pachymeter was significantly lower in patients with AD compared to health controls (p<0.05. Dis cus si on: No significant difference was found between patients with AD and age-matched healthy individuals regarding the corneal topographic findings and corneal biomechanical parameters. CCT was found to be lower in cases with AD than in healthy controls. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 140-4

  15. Landslides Identification Using Airborne Laser Scanning Data Derived Topographic Terrain Attributes and Support Vector Machine Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłuszek, Kamila; Borkowski, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Since the availability of high-resolution Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data, substantial progress in geomorphological research, especially in landslide analysis, has been carried out. First and second order derivatives of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) have become a popular and powerful tool in landslide inventory mapping. Nevertheless, an automatic landslide mapping based on sophisticated classifiers including Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network or Random Forests is often computationally time consuming. The objective of this research is to deeply explore topographic information provided by ALS data and overcome computational time limitation. For this reason, an extended set of topographic features and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to reduce redundant information. The proposed novel approach was tested on a susceptible area affected by more than 50 landslides located on Rożnów Lake in Carpathian Mountains, Poland. The initial seven PCA components with 90% of the total variability in the original topographic attributes were used for SVM classification. Comparing results with landslide inventory map, the average user's accuracy (UA), producer's accuracy (PA), and overall accuracy (OA) were calculated for two models according to the classification results. Thereby, for the PCA-feature-reduced model UA, PA, and OA were found to be 72%, 76%, and 72%, respectively. Similarly, UA, PA, and OA in the non-reduced original topographic model, was 74%, 77% and 74%, respectively. Using the initial seven PCA components instead of the twenty original topographic attributes does not significantly change identification accuracy but reduce computational time.

  16. Topographic influences on vegetation mosaics and tree diversity in the Chihuahuan Desert Borderlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Helen M; Camp, Ann E

    2010-04-01

    The abundance and distribution of species reflect how the niche requirements of species and the dynamics of populations interact with spatial and temporal variation in the environment. This study investigated the influence of geographical variation in environmental site conditions on tree dominance and diversity patterns in three topographically dissected mountain ranges in west Texas, USA, and northern Mexico. We measured tree abundance and basal area using a systematic sampling design across the forested areas of three mountain ranges and related these data to a suite of environmental parameters derived from field and digital elevation model data. We employed cluster analysis, classification and regression trees (CART), and rarefaction to identify (1) the dominant forest cover types across the three study sites and (2) environmental influences on tree distribution and diversity patterns. Elevation, topographic position, and incident solar radiation were the major influences on tree dominance and diversity. Mesic valley bottoms hosted high-diversity vegetation types, while hotter and drier mid-slopes and ridgetops supported lower tree diversity. Valley bottoms and other topographic positions shared few species, indicating high species turnover at the landscape scale. Mountain ranges with high topographic complexity also had higher species richness, suggesting that geographical variability in environmental conditions was a major influence on tree diversity. This study stressed the importance of landscape- and regional-scale topographic variability as a key factor controlling vegetation pattern and diversity in southwestern North America.

  17. Sandmeier model based topographic correction to lunar spectral profiler (SP) data from KAGUYA satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Bo; Wang, Jing-Ran; Guo, Peng-Ju; Wang, Ming-Chang

    2014-09-01

    The Moon may be considered as the frontier base for the deep space exploration. The spectral analysis is one of the key techniques to determine the lunar surface rock and mineral compositions. But the lunar topographic relief is more remarkable than that of the Earth. It is necessary to conduct the topographic correction for lunar spectral data before they are used to retrieve the compositions. In the present paper, a lunar Sandmeier model was proposed by considering the radiance effect from the macro and ambient topographic relief. And the reflectance correction model was also reduced based on the Sandmeier model. The Spectral Profile (SP) data from KAGUYA satellite in the Sinus Iridum quadrangle was taken as an example. And the digital elevation data from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter are used to calculate the slope, aspect, incidence and emergence angles, and terrain-viewing factor for the topographic correction Thus, the lunar surface reflectance from the SP data was corrected by the proposed model after the direct component of irradiance on a horizontal surface was derived. As a result, the high spectral reflectance facing the sun is decreased and low spectral reflectance back to the sun is compensated. The statistical histogram of reflectance-corrected pixel numbers presents Gaussian distribution Therefore, the model is robust to correct lunar topographic effect and estimate lunar surface reflectance.

  18. Enhancement of osteogenesis on micro/nano-topographical carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone–nanohydroxyapatite biocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Anxiu [College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Liu, Xiaochen [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gao, Xiang; Deng, Feng [College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Deng, Yi, E-mail: 18210357357@163.com [College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Wei, Shicheng, E-mail: weishicheng99@163.com [College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China)

    2015-03-01

    As an FDA-approved implantable material, carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFRPEEK) possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human cortical bone and is a prime candidate to replace conventional metallic implants. The bioinertness and inferior osteogenic properties of CFRPEEK, however, limit its clinical application as orthopedic/dental implants. The present work aimed at developing a novel carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone–nanohydroxyapatite (PEEK/CF/n-HA) ternary biocomposite with micro/nano-topographical surface for the enhancement of the osteogenesis as a potential bioactive material for bone grafting and bone tissue-engineering applications. The combined modification of oxygen plasma and sand-blasting could improve the hydrophily and generate micro/nano-topographical structures on the surface of the CFRPEEK-based ternary biocomposite. The results clearly showcased that the micro-/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF ternary biocomposite demonstrated the outstanding ability to promote the proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cells in vitro as well as to boost the osseointegration between implant and bone in vivo, thereby boding well application to bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A novel micro/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF ternary biocomposite was developed. • The modified PEEK biocomposite promotes proliferation and differentiation of cells. • In vivo osseointegration of the micro/nano-topographical PEEK/n-HA/CF was enhanced.

  19. An association between human hippocampal volume and topographical memory in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eHartley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between human hippocampal structure and topographical memory was investigated in healthy adults (N=30. Structural MR images were acquired, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to estimate local gray matter volume throughout the brain. A complementary automated mesh-based segmentation approach was used to independently isolate and measure specified structures including the hippocampus. Topographical memory was assessed using a version of the Four Mountains Task, a short test designed to target hippocampal spatial function. Each item requires subjects to briefly study a landscape scene before recognizing the depicted place from a novel viewpoint and under altered non-spatial conditions when presented amongst similar alternative scenes. Positive correlations between topographical memory performance and hippocampal volume were observed in both VBM and segmentation-based analyses. Score on the topographical memory task was also correlated with the volume of some subcortical structures, extra-hippocampal gray matter and total brain volume, with the most robust and extensive covariation seen in circumscribed neocortical regions in the insula and anterior temporal lobes. Taken together with earlier findings, the results suggest that global variations in brain morphology affect the volume of the hippocampus and its specific contribution to topographical memory. We speculate that behavioral variation might arise directly through the impact of resource constraints on spatial representations in the hippocampal formation and its inputs, and perhaps indirectly through an increased reliance on non-allocentric strategies.

  20. A Wavelet-Based Assessment of Topographic-Isostatic Reductions for GOCE Gravity Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grombein, Thomas; Luo, Xiaoguang; Seitz, Kurt; Heck, Bernhard

    2014-07-01

    Gravity gradient measurements from ESA's satellite mission Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) contain significant high- and mid-frequency signal components, which are primarily caused by the attraction of the Earth's topographic and isostatic masses. In order to mitigate the resulting numerical instability of a harmonic downward continuation, the observed gradients can be smoothed with respect to topographic-isostatic effects using a remove-compute-restore technique. For this reason, topographic-isostatic reductions are calculated by forward modeling that employs the advanced Rock-Water-Ice methodology. The basis of this approach is a three-layer decomposition of the topography with variable density values and a modified Airy-Heiskanen isostatic concept incorporating a depth model of the Mohorovičić discontinuity. Moreover, tesseroid bodies are utilized for mass discretization and arranged on an ellipsoidal reference surface. To evaluate the degree of smoothing via topographic-isostatic reduction of GOCE gravity gradients, a wavelet-based assessment is presented in this paper and compared with statistical inferences in the space domain. Using the Morlet wavelet, continuous wavelet transforms are applied to measured GOCE gravity gradients before and after reducing topographic-isostatic signals. By analyzing a representative data set in the Himalayan region, an employment of the reductions leads to significantly smoothed gradients. In addition, smoothing effects that are invisible in the space domain can be detected in wavelet scalograms, making a wavelet-based spectral analysis a powerful tool.