WorldWideScience

Sample records for repeat mission erm

  1. Crossover difference data records (XDR) from GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) data from 01 April 1985 to 07 November 1987 (NCEI Accession 9100053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Crossover difference data records (XDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period April 1, 1985 to November 7, 1987....

  2. Crossover difference data records (XDR) from GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) data from 01 January 1985 to 31 December 1989 (NODC Accession 9000068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Crossover difference data records (XDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of January 01, 1985 to December 31,...

  3. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 12 July 1988 to 15 August 1988 (NODC Accession 8800257)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of July 12, 1988 to August 15, 1988....

  4. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 27 April 1987 to 30 May 1987 (NODC Accession 8700243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of April 27, 1987 to May 30, 1987....

  5. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 02 November 1986 to 12 December 1986 (NODC Accession 8700069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of November 02, 1986 to December 12,...

  6. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 18 September 1988 to 21 October 1988 (NODC Accession 8800328)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of September 18, 1988 to October 21,...

  7. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 24 January 1988 to 26 February 1988 (NODC Accession 8800083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of January 24, 1988 to February 26,...

  8. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 12 December 1986 to 15 January 1987 (NODC Accession 8700123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of December 12, 1986 to January 15,...

  9. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 08 November 1986 to 30 December 1989 (NODC Accession 9100103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of November 08, 1986 to December 30,...

  10. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 24 March 1987 to 26 April 1987 (NODC Accession 8700209)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of March 24, 1987 to April 26, 1987....

  11. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 08 June 1988 to 11 July 1988 (NODC Accession 8800235)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of June 08, 1988 to July 11, 1988....

  12. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 15 August 1988 to 17 September 1988 (NODC Accession 8800297)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of August 15, 1988 to September 17,...

  13. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 24 August 1989 to 27 September 1989 (NODC Accession 8900276)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of August 24, 1989 to September 27,...

  14. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 01 April 1988 to 04 May 1988 (NODC Accession 8800157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of April 01, 1988 to May 04, 1988....

  15. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 07 March 1989 to 09 April 1989 (NODC Accession 8900145)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of March 07, 1989 to April 09, 1989....

  16. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 07 August 1987 to 09 September 1987 (NODC Accession 8700339)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of August 07, 1987 to September 09,...

  17. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 17 June 1989 to 20 July 1989 (NODC Accession 8900229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of June 17, 1989 to July 20, 1989....

  18. Geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) from 29 December 1988 to 31 January 1989 (NODC Accession 8900058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of geodetic data records (GDRs) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of December 29, 1988 to January 31,...

  19. Geosat Exact Repeat Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) (NODC Accession 0061150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains waveform data records (WDRs) from the US Navy Geodetic Satellite (GEOSAT) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of November 08,...

  20. Sensor Data Records (SDR) from the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission from 8 November 1986 to 31 December 1989 (NODC Accession 0054289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the sensor data records (SDRs) from the Geodetic Satellite (GEOSAT) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of November 8, 1986 to...

  1. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for May, 1985 (NODC Accession 0002365)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  2. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for June, 1985 (NODC Accession 0002551)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  3. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for April, 1986 (NODC Accession 0002561)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  4. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for August, 1986 (NODC Accession 0002565)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  5. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for January, 1986 (NODC Accession 0002558)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  6. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for October, 1985 (NODC Accession 0002555)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  7. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for September, 1985 (NODC Accession 0002554)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  8. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for November, 1985 (NODC Accession 0002556)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  9. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for August, 1985 (NODC Accession 0002553)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — his accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  10. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for July, 1985 (NODC Accession 0002552)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  11. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for April, 1985 (NODC Accession 0002364)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  12. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for February, 1986 (NODC Accession 0002559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  13. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for July, 1986 (NODC Accession 0002564)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  14. Geosat Geodetic Mission Waveform Data Records (WDR) for March, 1985 (NODC Accession 0002363)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains one month of waveform data records (WDRs) from the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission (GM) and(or) Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) for the time period of...

  15. A Second Tylosin Resistance Determinant, Erm B, in Arcanobacterium pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, B. Helen; Trinh, Hien T.; Songer, J. Glenn; Billington, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Arcanobacterium pyogenes, a common inhabitant of the mucosal surfaces of livestock, is also a pathogen associated with a variety of infections. In livestock, A. pyogenes is exposed to antimicrobial agents used for prophylaxis and therapy, notably tylosin, a macrolide used extensively for the prevention of liver abscessation in feedlot cattle in the United States. Many, but not all, tylosin-resistant A. pyogenes isolates carry erm(X), suggesting the presence of other determinants of tylosin resistance. Oligonucleotide primers designed for conserved regions of erm(B), erm(C), and erm(T) were used to amplify a 404-bp fragment from a tylosin-resistant A. pyogenes isolate, OX-7. DNA sequencing revealed that the PCR product was 100% identical to erm(B) genes, and the erm(B) gene region was cloned in Escherichia coli. The A. pyogenes Erm B determinant had the most DNA identity with an Erm B determinant carried by the Clostridium perfringens plasmid pIP402. However, the A. pyogenes determinant lacked direct repeat DR1 and contained a deletion in DR2. Flanking the A. pyogenes erm(B) gene were partial and entire genes similar to those found on the Enterococcus faecalis multiresistance plasmid pRE25. This novel architecture suggests that the erm(B) element may have arisen by recombination of two distinct genetic elements. Ten of 32 tylosin-resistant isolates carried erm(B), as determined by DNA hybridization, and all 10 isolates carried a similar element. Insertion of the element was site specific, as PCR and Southern blotting analysis revealed that the erm(B) element was inserted into orfY, a gene of unknown function. However, in three strains, this insertion resulted in a partial duplication of orfY. PMID:14982756

  16. ERM Learning with Unbounded Sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng WANG; Zheng Chu GUO

    2012-01-01

    The learning approach of empirical risk minimization (ERM) is taken for the regression problem in the least square framework.A standard assumption for the error analysis in the literature is the uniform boundedness of the output sampling process.In this paper we abandon this boundedness assumption and conduct error analysis for the ERM learning algorithm with unbounded sampling processes satisfying an increment condition for the moments of the output.The key novelty of our analysis is a covering number argument for estimating the sample error.

  17. ERM Ideas and Innovations: Digital Repository Management as ERM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, María M.; Lin, Na

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the application of electronic resources management (ERM) to digital repository management at the Health Sciences and Human Services Library at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. The authors discuss electronic resources management techniques, through the application of "Techniques for Electronic Management,"…

  18. ERM immersion vaccination and adjuvants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, J.; Chettri, J. K.; Jaafar, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Two candidate adjuvants were tested with a commercial ERM dip vaccine (AquaVac™ Relera, MSD Animal Health) for rainbow trout in an experimental design compatible with common vaccination practices at farm level, i.e. immersion of fish in vaccine (±adjuvant) for 30 s. The adjuvants were...... the commercial product Montanide™ IMS 1312 VG PR (SEPPIC), and a soluble and ≥98% pure β-glucan from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (Sigma-Aldrich). Hence, five experimental groups in duplicate were established and exposed to vaccine and adjuvants in the following combinations: AquaVac™ Relera (alone); Aqua......Vac™ Relera + Montanide™; AquaVac™ Relera + β-glucan; Montanide™ (alone); and β-glucan (alone). Approximately 450 degree days post-vaccination, the fish were bath-challenged with live Yersinia ruckeri to produce survival curves. Blood, skin and gills were sampled at selected time points during the course...

  19. Negative in vitro selection identifies the rRNA recognition motif for ErmE methyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A K; Douthwaite, S; Vester, B

    1999-01-01

    Erm methyltransferases modify bacterial 23S ribosomal RNA at adenosine 2058 (A2058, Escherichia coli numbering) conferring resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLS) antibiotics. The motif that is recognized by Erm methyltransferases is contained within helix 73 of 23S rRNA a...

  20. Virtual and composite fundamentals in the ERM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knot, KHW; Sturm, JE

    1999-01-01

    A latent-variable approach is applied to identify the appropriate driving process for fundamental exchange rates in the ERM. From the time-series characteristics of so-called "virtual fundamentals" and "composite fundamentals", a significant degree of mean reversion can be asserted. The relative deg

  1. High-accuracy, high-resolution gravity profiles from 2 years of the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, David T.; Mcadoo, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Satellite altimeter data from the first 44 repeat cycles (2 years) of the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (EWRM) were averaged to improve accuracy, resolution and coverage of the marine gravity field. Individual 17-day repeat cycles were first edited and differentiated, resulting in the along-track vertical deflection (i.e., gravity disturbance). To increase the signal-to-noise ratio, 44 of these cycles were then averaged to form a single highly accurate vertical deflection profile. The largest contribution to the vertical deflection error is short-wavelength altimeter noise and longer-wavelength oceanographic variability; the combined noise level is typically 6 microrad. Both types of noise are reduced by averaging many repeat cycles. Over most ocean areas the uncertainty of the average profile is less than 1 microrad which corresponds to 1 mgal of along-track gravity disturbance. However, in areas of seasonal ice coverage, its uncertainty can exceed 5 microrad. To assess the resolution of individual and average Geosat gravity profiles, the cross-spectral analysis technique was applied to repeat profiles. Individual Geosat repeat cycles are coherent (greater than 0.5) for wavelengths greater than about 30 km and become increasingly incoherent at shorter wavelengths.

  2. ERMes: Open Source Simplicity for Your E-Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, William; Chilton, Galadriel

    2009-01-01

    ERMes, the latest version of electronic resource management system (ERM), is a relational database; content in different tables connects to, and works with, content in other tables. ERMes requires Access 2007 (Windows) or Access 2008 (Mac) to operate as the database utilizes functionality not available in previous versions of Microsoft Access. The…

  3. Presence of erm genes among macrolide-resistant Gram-positive bacteria isolated from Danish farm soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Agersø, Yvonne; Sengeløv, Gitte

    2002-01-01

    /27) of these isolates, an erm gene was detected using PCR. Eight isolates were positive for erm(B) and one isolate was positive for erm(C). No isolates contained erm(A), erm(D) or erm(F). The positive isolates were identified to genus level. Two erm(B) positive isolates were identified as Enterococcus spp., and the erm...

  4. NODC Standard Product: US Navy Geosat Enhanced JGM-3 Geophysical Data Records (GDR) from the Geodetic and Exact Repeat Missions (NODC Accession 0053056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a copy of the NODC CD_ROM product titled 'Enhanced JGM-3 Geophysical Data Records (GDRs) from the Geodetic and Exact Repeat Missions' that...

  5. High-precision repeat-groundtrack orbit design and maintenance for Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanchao; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xianghua; Armellin, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    The focus of this paper is the design and station keeping of repeat-groundtrack orbits for Sun-synchronous satellites. A method to compute the semimajor axis of the orbit is presented together with a station-keeping strategy to compensate for the perturbation due to the atmospheric drag. The results show that the nodal period converges gradually with the increase of the order used in the zonal perturbations up to J_{15} . A differential correction algorithm is performed to obtain the nominal semimajor axis of the reference orbit from the inputs of the desired nodal period, eccentricity, inclination and argument of perigee. To keep the satellite in the proximity of the repeat-groundtrack condition, a practical orbit maintenance strategy is proposed in the presence of errors in the orbital measurements and control, as well as in the estimation of the semimajor axis decay rate. The performance of the maintenance strategy is assessed via the Monte Carlo simulation and the validation in a high fidelity model. Numerical simulations substantiate the validity of proposed mean-elements-based orbit maintenance strategy for repeat-groundtrack orbits.

  6. High-precision repeat-groundtrack orbit design and maintenance for Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanchao; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xianghua; Armellin, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The focus of this paper is the design and station keeping of repeat-groundtrack orbits for Sun-synchronous satellites. A method to compute the semimajor axis of the orbit is presented together with a station-keeping strategy to compensate for the perturbation due to the atmospheric drag. The results show that the nodal period converges gradually with the increase of the order used in the zonal perturbations up to J_{15}. A differential correction algorithm is performed to obtain the nominal semimajor axis of the reference orbit from the inputs of the desired nodal period, eccentricity, inclination and argument of perigee. To keep the satellite in the proximity of the repeat-groundtrack condition, a practical orbit maintenance strategy is proposed in the presence of errors in the orbital measurements and control, as well as in the estimation of the semimajor axis decay rate. The performance of the maintenance strategy is assessed via the Monte Carlo simulation and the validation in a high fidelity model. Numerical simulations substantiate the validity of proposed mean-elements-based orbit maintenance strategy for repeat-groundtrack orbits.

  7. ERM booster vaccination of Rainbow trout using diluted bacterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Henriksen, Niels H.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Enteric Red Mouth Disease ERM caused by Yersinia ruckeri infection is associated with morbidity and mortality in salmonid farming but immersion vaccination of fry may confer some protection for a number of months. Revaccination of rainbow trout, even by use of diluted ERM immersion vaccine, can u...

  8. NODC Standard Product: US Navy Geosat altimeter T2 Geophysical Data Records for the Exact Repeat Mission (6 disc set) (NODC Accession 0053521)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a copy of the NODC CD-ROM product titled US Navy Geosat altimeter T2 GDRs for the Exact Repeat Mission for the time period of November 08,...

  9. ERM Scale Development and Validation in Indian IT Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kumar Agariya; Sri Harsha Yayi

    2015-01-01

    The research paper aims at developing a valid ERM (Employee Relationship Management) Scale in context of Indian IT sector. A standard methodology of scale development is used consisting of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The findings clearly depicts that ERM in Indian IT sector is a multi-dimensional construct comprising of five factors namely communication and coordination; knowledge management; organizational policies; organizational environment and perceived trust. Although a...

  10. Radioactivity measurements for the ERMES project at the STELLA facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallese B.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available STELLA (SubTErranean Low Level Assay is the ultra low background facility of the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (L.N.G.S. in Italy. It is mainly devoted to material screening and rare events physics due to its very low radioactive background. Nevertheless, also environmental samples are measured within the collaboration with the ERMES (Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring for Earth Sciences project. After a short description of the facility some on-going applications within the ERMES project will be briefly presented. The usefulness of doing environmental radioactivity measurements in a deep underground laboratory will be shortly discussed.

  11. The conformation of 23S rRNA nucleotide A2058 determines its recognition by the ErmE methyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, B; Hansen, L H; Douthwaite, S

    1995-01-01

    by introducing either an A2057 or a U2611 mutation, greatly reduces the rate of methylation at A2058. Methylation remains impaired after these mutations have been combined to create a new A2057-U2611 Watson-Crick base interaction. The conformation of this region in 23S rRNA was probed with chemical reagents...... of this region to the chemical reagents. The data indicate that a less-exposed conformation at A2058 leads to reduction in methylation by ErmE. Nucleotide G2057 and its interaction with C2611 maintain the conformation at A2058, and are thus important in forming the structural motif that is recognized by the Erm...

  12. FIRE - Flyby of Io with Repeat Encounters: A conceptual design for a New Frontiers mission to Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Terry-Ann; Padovan, Sebastiano; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Shkolyar, Svetlana; Cable, Morgan; Walker, Catherine; Szalay, Jamey; Parker, Charles; Cumbers, John; Gentry, Diana; Harrison, Tanya; Naidu, Shantanu; Trammell, Harold J.; Reimuller, Jason; Budney, Charles J.; Lowes, Leslie L.

    2017-09-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a low complexity, heritage-based flyby mission to Io, Jupiter's innermost Galilean satellite and the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. The design addresses the 2011 Decadal Survey's recommendation for a New Frontiers class mission to Io and is based upon the result of the June 2012 NASA-JPL Planetary Science Summer School. A science payload is proposed to investigate the link between the structure of Io's interior, its volcanic activity, its surface composition, and its tectonics. A study of Io's atmospheric processes and Io's role in the Jovian magnetosphere is also planned. The instrument suite includes a visible/near-IR imager, a magnetic field and plasma suite, a dust analyzer, and a gimbaled high gain antenna to perform radio science. Payload activity and spacecraft operations would be powered by three Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRG). The primary mission includes 10 flybys with close-encounter altitudes as low as 100 km. The mission risks are mitigated by ensuring that relevant components are radiation tolerant and by using redundancy and flight-proven parts in the design. The spacecraft would be launched on an Atlas V rocket with a delta-v of 1.3 km/s. Three gravity assists (Venus, Earth, Earth) would be used to reach the Jupiter system in a 6-year cruise. The resulting concept demonstrates the rich scientific return of a flyby mission to Io.

  13. Ecoremediation (ERM) and Saprobiology - is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirčev, Zorica; Marković, Slobodan; Krstić, Svetislav; Krstić, Kosta; Obreht, Igor

    2010-05-01

    Healthy environment is rapidly becoming very important value in human life and a criterion of the quality of living. To achieve this target, many of us consider the 'returning to nature' and respecting the ancient laws of nature as the possible solution. Accelerated or fast eutrophization is detected destiny in majority of fresh water ecosystems today, mainly due to global climate changes and adverse human impact. However, this process can be tackled by different activities, ecoremedation (ERM) having an especially important place. Ecoremediation is a system of utilizing the natural processes for revival and protection of the environment. ERM methods may reduce and avert the consequences of agricultural pollution, tourism, transport, industry, land fills and (over)population. In its essence, ERM represents the 'returning to nature' approach aiming to preserve or re-establish the natural balance of the ecosystems, but also a human endevour that enables new jobs and by-side activities important for economic and social (sustainable) development of the human society. In this study we propose the model of eutrophication control achieved on four important levels in the functional dynamics of the ecosystems. ERM is placed as key element in prevention, increasing of decomposition processes through different modes of aeration, decreasing of the total capacity of the ecosystem usually via constructed wetlands, planting and removing of the riparian vegetation.

  14. Extended Rasch Modeling: The eRm Package for the Application of IRT Models in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mair

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Item response theory models (IRT are increasingly becoming established in social science research, particularly in the analysis of performance or attitudinal data in psychology, education, medicine, marketing and other fields where testing is relevant. We propose the R package eRm (extended Rasch modeling for computing Rasch models and several extensions. A main characteristic of some IRT models, the Rasch model being the most prominent, concerns the separation of two kinds of parameters, one that describes qualities of the subject under investigation, and the other relates to qualities of the situation under which the response of a subject is observed. Using conditional maximum likelihood (CML estimation both types of parameters may be estimated independently from each other. IRT models are well suited to cope with dichotomous and polytomous responses, where the response categories may be unordered as well as ordered. The incorporation of linear structures allows for modeling the effects of covariates and enables the analysis of repeated categorical measurements. The eRm package fits the following models: the Rasch model, the rating scale model (RSM, and the partial credit model (PCM as well as linear reparameterizations through covariate structures like the linear logistic test model (LLTM, the linear rating scale model (LRSM, and the linear partial credit model (LPCM. We use an unitary, efficient CML approach to estimate the item parameters and their standard errors. Graphical and numeric tools for assessing goodness-of-fit are provided.

  15. e-Learning system ERM for medical radiation physics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Magdalena; Cvetkov, Asen

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Education for Radiation in Medicine (ERM) e-Learning System. The system was developed, tested and piloted in the Inter-University Medical Physics Centre, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. It was based on the results of EU Project TEMPUS S-JEP 09826. The ERM e-Learning System is an integrated on-line system for remote education covering aspects of Medical Radiation Physics education (M.Sc. level). It provides user-friendly interface and optimised functionality with three different access levels: trainee, professor and administrator. The minimum server requirements and the standard client side working environment turn the system into a good, cost effective and easy to support solution for remote education.

  16. Interference of an ERM-vaccine with a VHS-DNA vaccine in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ellen; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Rasmussen, Jesper Skou

    Simultaneous vaccination of fish against several diseases is often desirable in order to minimise cost and handling of the fish. Intramuscular DNA-vaccination of rainbow trout against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) has proved to provide very good protection. However, preliminary...... results showed that intraperitoneal injection of a commercial vaccine against Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM) based on formalin-killed bacteria in oil adjuvant immediately followed by intramuscular injection of an experimental DNA-vaccine against VHSV, decreased the protective effect of the DNA-vaccine...... against challenge with VHSV 11 weeks post vaccination (pv). This experiment was performed with rainbow trout of 30 g injected with 0.5 g VHS-DNA vaccine. The experiment was later repeated with smaller fish (2.5g) and using two different doses of DNA-vaccine, 1 g and 0.05 g. Both doses provided good...

  17. Presence of erm gene classes in Gram-positive bacteria of animal and human origin in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Frimodt-Moller, N.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1999-01-01

    A classification of the different erm gene classes based on published sequences was performed, and specific primers to detect some of these classes designed. The presence of ermA (Tn554), ermB (class IV) and ermC (class VI) was determined by PCR in a total of 113 enterococcal, 77 streptococcal...

  18. Domain V of 23S rRNA contains all the structural elements necessary for recognition by the ErmE methyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, B; Douthwaite, S

    1994-01-01

    The ErmE methyltransferase from the erythromycin-producing actinomycete Saccharopolyspora erythraea dimethylates the N-6 position of adenine 2058 in domain V of 23S rRNA. This modification confers resistance to erythromycin and to other macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotics. We...

  19. A novel Erm monomethyltransferase in antibiotic-resistant isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmolaize, Benoit; Rose, Simon; Warrass, Ralf; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2011-04-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are aetiological agents commonly associated with respiratory tract infections in cattle. Recent isolates of these pathogens have been shown to be resistant to macrolides and other ribosome-targeting antibiotics. Direct analysis of the 23S rRNAs by mass spectrometry revealed that nucleotide A2058 is monomethylated, consistent with a Type I erm phenotype conferring macrolide-lincosamide resistance. The erm resistance determinant was identified by full genome sequencing of isolates. The sequence of this resistance determinant, now termed erm(42), has diverged greatly from all previously characterized erm genes, explaining why it has remained undetected in PCR screening surveys. The sequence of erm(42) is, however, completely conserved in six independent M. haemolytica and P. multocida isolates, suggesting relatively recent gene transfer between these species. Furthermore, the composition of neighbouring chromosomal sequences indicates that erm(42) was acquired from other members of the Pasteurellaceae. Expression of recombinant erm(42) in Escherichia coli demonstrated that the enzyme retains its properties as a monomethyltransferase without any dimethyltransferase activity. Erm(42) is a novel addition to the Erm family: it is phylogenetically distant from the other Erm family members and it is unique in being a bona fide monomethyltransferase that is disseminated between bacterial pathogens.

  20. Redundant control of migration and adhesion by ERM proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeyens, Nicolas; Latrache, Iman; Yerna, Xavier [Laboratory of Cell Physiology, IoNS, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Noppe, Gauthier; Horman, Sandrine [Pôle de Recherche Cardiovasculaire, IREC, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Morel, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.morel@uclouvain.be [Laboratory of Cell Physiology, IoNS, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •The three ERM proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell. •ERM depletion inhibited PDGF-evoked migration redundantly. •ERM depletion increased cell adhesion redundantly. •ERM depletion did not affect PDGF-evoked Ca signal, Rac1 activation, proliferation. •ERM proteins control PDGF-induced migration by regulating adhesion. -- Abstract: Ezrin, radixin, and moesin possess a very similar structure with a C-terminal actin-binding domain and a N-terminal FERM interacting domain. They are known to be involved in cytoskeleton organization in several cell types but their function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ERM proteins in cell migration induced by PDGF, a growth factor involved in pathophysiological processes like angiogenesis or atherosclerosis. We used primary cultured VSMC obtained from rat aorta, which express the three ERM proteins. Simultaneous depletion of the three ERM proteins with specific siRNAs abolished the effects of PDGF on cell architecture and migration and markedly increased cell adhesion and focal adhesion size, while these parameters were only slightly affected by depletion of ezrin, radixin or moesin alone. Rac1 activation, cell proliferation, and Ca{sup 2+} signal in response to PDGF were unaffected by ERM depletion. These results indicate that ERM proteins exert a redundant control on PDGF-induced VSMC migration by regulating focal adhesion turn-over and cell adhesion to substrate.

  1. Essential role of endogenously synthesized tylosin for induction of ermSF in Streptomyces fradiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memili, E; Weisblum, B

    1997-01-01

    We compared ermSF induction in wild-type Streptomyces fradiae NRRL B-2702 and that in GS-14, a tylA mutant which cannot synthesize tylosin. Our findings suggest that (i) endogenously synthesized tylosin plays an obligatory role in ermSF induction and (ii) tylosin, or a biosynthetic intermediate beyond tylactone, has an "autocrine" function that induces ErmSF synthesis, thereby enabling S. fradiae to resist higher levels of tylosin. PMID:9145902

  2. Essential role of endogenously synthesized tylosin for induction of ermSF in Streptomyces fradiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Memili, E; Weisblum, B

    1997-01-01

    We compared ermSF induction in wild-type Streptomyces fradiae NRRL B-2702 and that in GS-14, a tylA mutant which cannot synthesize tylosin. Our findings suggest that (i) endogenously synthesized tylosin plays an obligatory role in ermSF induction and (ii) tylosin, or a biosynthetic intermediate beyond tylactone, has an "autocrine" function that induces ErmSF synthesis, thereby enabling S. fradiae to resist higher levels of tylosin.

  3. Essential role of endogenously synthesized tylosin for induction of ermSF in Streptomyces fradiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Memili, E; Weisblum, B

    1997-01-01

    We compared ermSF induction in wild-type Streptomyces fradiae NRRL B-2702 and that in GS-14, a tylA mutant which cannot synthesize tylosin. Our findings suggest that (i) endogenously synthesized tylosin plays an obligatory role in ermSF induction and (ii) tylosin, or a biosynthetic intermediate beyond tylactone, has an "autocrine" function that induces ErmSF synthesis, thereby enabling S. fradiae to resist higher levels of tylosin.

  4. Why Did Central Banks Intervene in ERM I? The Post-1993 Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Brandner; Harald Grech

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present stylized facts about exchange rate fluctuations and intervention behavior in the Exchange Rate Mechanism I (ERM I), in particular in light of the recent literature on multilateral target zone models. We estimate bilateral exchange rate distributions of the maximum spot rate deviations of six ERM I currencies, explicitly taking the multilateral setting of ERM I into account. In a further analysis, we estimate short-term reaction functions for the central banks of Belg...

  5. Assessment of commutability for candidate certified reference material ERM-BB130 "chloramphenicol in pork".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleny, Reinhard; Emteborg, Håkan; Schimmel, Heinz

    2010-10-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP), an effective antibiotic against many microorganisms, is meanwhile banned in the EU for treatment of food-producing animals due to adverse health effects. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) is currently developing a certified reference material (CRM) for CAP in pork, intended for validation and method performance verifications of analytical methods. The material will be certified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods and has a target CAP level around the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 microg/kg. To prove that the material can be applied as a quality control tool for screening methods, a commutability study was conducted, involving five commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and one biosensor assay (BiaCore kit). Meat homogenates (cryo-milled wet tissue) with CAP concentrations around the MRPL and the candidate CRM (lyophilised powder) were measured by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as well as the six screening methods. Pairwise method comparisons of results obtained for the two sample types showed that the CRM can successfully be applied as quality control (QC) sample to all six screening methods. The study suggests that ERM-BB130 is sufficiently commutable with the investigated assays and that laboratories applying one of the investigated kits therefore benefit from using ERM-BB130 to demonstrate the correctness of their results. However, differences among the assays were observed, either in the abundance of bias between screening and confirmatory LC and GC methods, the repeatability of test results, or goodness of fit between the methods.

  6. Characterization of Enterococcus faecium with macrolide resistance and reduced susceptibility to quinupristin/dalfopristin in a Japanese hospital: detection of extensive diversity in erm(B)-regulator regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Nayuta; Urushibara, Noriko; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Ghosh, Souvik; Suzaki, Keisuke; Watanabe, Naoki; Quiñones, Dianelys; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-08-01

    Cross-resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics is mainly mediated by the erm (erythromycin ribosome methylation) genes that encode 23S rRNA methylases in enterococi, and various mechanisms are involved in the streptogramin B resistance. Prevalence of MLSB resistance and its genetic mechanisms were analyzed for a total of 159 strains of Enterococcus faecium isolated from clinical specimens in a university hospital in Japan from 1997 to 2006. Resistance to erythromycin (EM) and clindamycin was detected in 88.1% and 89.9% of all the strains examined, respectively, and expression of resistance was totally constitutive. Although none of the strain was resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), 28 strains (17.6%) showed intermediate resistance to Q/D (MIC: 2 μg/ml). The erm(B) gene was detected in 139 strains (87.4%), and msrC was found in all the strains examined, whereas no other known MLSB resistance genes were identified. The erm(B) regulator region (RR) containing a coding region of the leader peptide was classified into 13 genetic variations (L1-L3, M, S1-S7, D, and R genotypes) in 56 strains. However, no relatedness was identified between the erm(B) RR genotype and EM resistance, or reduced susceptibility to Q/D, although most of Q/D-intermediate strains were assigned to the L1, L2, and S1 genotypes. Q/D-intermediate strains were classified into five multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types, including four types of clonal complex (CC)-C1, five sequence types (STs), including four STs of CC-17, and several resistance gene/virulence factor profiles. The present study revealed the occurrence of Q/D-intermediate E. faecium, which are composed of heterogeneous strains in Japan, and more genetic diversity in the erm(B) RRs than those reported previously.

  7. Improved ERM vaccination efficacy using combined vaccine administration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt; Desmukh, Sidhartha; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that immersion vaccination (30 sec) using the Aquavac Relera vaccine (containing formalin killed Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 of both biotypes 1 and 2) provides the best protection (when compared to other commercial ERM vaccines on the Danish market) against infection...... following i. p. challenge using Y. ruckeri O1, biotype 2, which at present is the main bacterial pathogen in fingerling trout production in Denmark. Despite a significant protection conferred by this vaccine (immersion) some mortality could be observed following challenge. We have therefore performed...... a study in order to elucidate if different vaccine administration methods (using Aquavac Relera) can improve protection and reduce mortality of exposed trout following challenge with this particular pathogen. Rainbow trout (mean weight 7.8 g) reared at the Bornholm Salmon Hatchery under pathogen free...

  8. Could Enterprise Risk Management (ERM Create, Protect and Enhance Shareholders’ Wealth Among Malaysian Listed Issuers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Kasim Mohd Ariff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to explore the extent to which ERM implementation is capable of enhancing shareholders’ wealth. A sample of 283 companies operating in the Main Market of Bursa Malaysia was selected. This study utilized the definition of ERM as the independent variable and shareholders’ wealth as dependent variable. The overall observation revealed that ERM was significant in explaining the variation in shareholders’ wealth. Objective setting, event identification, risk response, control activities, information and communication, and monitoring substantiated the hypothesized relationship. The research framework of this study, which utilized assumptions from stewardship and agency theory, could serve as guidance for future research on organizational control and governance. The study fills the gap in literature which mostly concentrated on the USA and western countries. The CRO and the board should focus more advising functions at the earlier stage of the ERM implementation and monitoring functions once ERM matured.

  9. Detection of ermB Gene in Erythromycin Resistant Enterococcus%红霉素耐药肠球菌ermB基因检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶; 翟燕红; 赵娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the drug resisrance and ermB gene of erythromycin resistant Enterccoccus. Methods The antimicrobial susceptibility to antibiotics of Enterococcus was determined,and PCR technique was applied to identify ermB gene. Results Among all of the 50 Enterococcus strains,39 isolates were Enterococcus faecalis,11 isolates were Enterococcus faecium ,the resistance rate to erythromycin was 88% , the ermB gene carnage rate in erythromycin resistant Enterococcus was 84. 09 % (37/44). Conclusion Resistance to erythromycin in Enterococcus isolates was generally mediated via ermB gene.%目的 研究北京妇产医院临床感染患者分离的肠球菌对红霉素的耐药情况以及耐药基因ermB的分布特点.方法 测定肠球菌的抗生素敏感性及采用PCR法检测红霉素耐药基因ermB.结果 50株肠球菌中,粪肠球菌39株(78%),屎肠球菌11株(22%);红霉素耐药率为88%(44株/50株).在44株红霉素耐药肠球菌中,ermB基因总的携带率为84.09%(37株/44株).结论 临床标本中分离的红霉素耐药的肠球菌主要耐药基因为ermB基因.

  10. Recombination rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates with both erm(B) and mef(A) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Young; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2010-08-01

    Erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates containing both erm(B) and mef(A) genes have a higher rate of multidrug resistance (MDR). We investigated the relationships between the presence of erythromycin resistance determinants and the recombination rate. We determined the mutation and recombination frequencies of 46 S. pneumoniae isolates, which included 19 with both erm(B) and mef(A), nine with only erm(B), six with only mef(A), and 11 erythromycin-susceptible isolates. Mutation frequency values were estimated as the number of rifampin-resistant colonies as a proportion of total viable count. Genotypes and serotypes of isolates with the hyper-recombination phenotype were determined. Twelve S. pneumoniae isolates were hypermutable and four isolates were determined to have hyper-recombination frequency. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates with both erm(B) and mef(A) genes did not show a high mutation frequency. In contrast, all isolates with a hyper-recombination phenotype contained both erm(B) and mef(A) genes. In addition, the recombination rate of isolates with both erm(B) and mef(A) genes was statistically higher than the rate of other isolates. The dual presence of erm(B) and mef(A) genes in some pneumococcal isolates may be associated with high recombination frequency. This may be one of the reasons for the frequent emergence of MDR in certain pneumococcal isolates.

  11. Regulation of ErbB2 localization and function in breast cancer cells by ERM proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Nagham; Kvalvaag, Audun; Sandvig, Kirsten; Pust, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    The ERM protein family is implicated in processes such as signal transduction, protein trafficking, cell proliferation and migration. Consequently, dysregulation of ERM proteins has been described to correlate with carcinogenesis of different cancer types. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a novel functional interaction between ERM proteins and the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase in breast cancer cells. We show that the ERM proteins ezrin and radixin are associated with ErbB2 receptors at the plasma membrane, and depletion or functional inhibition of ERM proteins destabilizes the interaction of ErbB2 with ErbB3, Hsp90 and Ebp50. Accompanied by the dissociation of this protein complex, binding of ErbB2 to the ubiquitin-ligase c-Cbl is increased, and ErbB2 becomes dephosphorylated, ubiquitinated and internalized. Furthermore, signaling via Akt- and Erk-mediated pathways is impaired upon ERM inhibition. Finally, interference with ERM functionality leads to receptor degradation and reduced cellular levels of ErbB2 and ErbB3 receptors in breast cancer cells. PMID:27029001

  12. The Effect Of Chief Risk Officer (CRO) On Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Practices: Evidence From Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wan Norhayate Wan Daud Daud; Ahmad Shukri Yazid; Hj Mohd Rasid Hussin

    2010-01-01

    ...) in Malaysia and the influence of Chief Risk Officers (CROs) on ERM practices. Included in this particular study is a comprehensive survey on 500 companies from the main board of public listed companies in the Malaysian Bourse...

  13. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  14. PEMETAAN RISIKO DI INDUSTRI PENYAMAKAN KULIT DENGAN PENDEKATAN ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT (ERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Wiryani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study were 1 identify the risks faced by PT XYZ, 2 measure and map the risk of PT XYZ, 3 formulating an effective risk mitigation strategy for PT XYZ. The method of risk management with enterprise risk management approach (ERM was applied. Risk management with ERM can help companies better prepared to cope with uncertainty, increase the added value and competitive advantage. ERM approach to risk mapping is done by referring to the eight components of ERM. The first three components, namely internal environment, objective setting, and event identification, were used to observe PT.  XYZ situation and identify the risks that exist. A review of the business processes in PT XYZ shows that there are various strategic, operating, reporting, and compliance risks identified in the stages of the business process. Results showed 1 the risks found in the PT XYZ stages of business process were related to the field of strategic, operating, reporting, and compliance, 2 the amount of risk experienced by PT XYZ were reflected in the risk map formed on the measurement of risk based on probability and impact, 3 strategies need to be developed for effective risk mitigation for PT XYZ were prioritized addressing the highest risk first then to a lower risk.Keywords: ERM, FGD, risk management, upholstery industry, risk mappingABSTRAKTujuan  penelitian  ini  adalah 1 mengidentifikasi risiko yang dihadapi PT XYZ, 2 mengukur dan memetakan risiko PT XYZ, 3 merumuskan strategi mitigasi risiko yang efektif bagi PT XYZ. Metode pengelolaan risiko dengan pendekatan enterprise risk management (ERM. Pengelolaan risiko dengan ERM dapat membantu perusahaan lebih siap dalam  mengatasi ketidakpastian,  meningkatkan nilai tambah, dan keunggulan bersaing. Pemetaan risiko dengan pendekatan ERM dilakukan dengan berpedoman pada delapan komponen ERM. Tiga komponen pertama yaitu internal environment, objective setting, dan event identification dilakukan untuk

  15. Gem1 and ERMES Do Not Directly Affect Phosphatidylserine Transport from ER to Mitochondria or Mitochondrial Inheritance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tammy T; Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Choi, Jae-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    In yeast, a protein complex termed the ER-Mitochondria Encounter Structure (ERMES) tethers mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum. ERMES proteins are implicated in a variety of cellular functions including phospholipid synthesis, mitochondrial protein import, mitochondrial attachment to actin......, polarized mitochondrial movement into daughter cells during division, and maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The mitochondrial-anchored Gem1 GTPase has been proposed to regulate ERMES functions. Here, we show that ERMES and Gem1 have no direct role in the transport of phosphatidylserine (PS) from...... the ER to mitochondria during the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), as PS to PE conversion is not affected in ERMES or gem1 mutants. In addition, we report that mitochondrial inheritance defects in ERMES mutants are a secondary consequence of mitochondrial morphology defects, arguing against...

  16. Ezrin, Radixin, and Moesin (ERM) proteins function as pleiotropic regulators of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) proteins supply functional linkage between integral membrane proteins and cytoskeleton in mammalian cells to regulate membrane protein dynamisms and cytoskeleton rearrangement. To assess potential role of the ERM proteins in HIV-1 lifecycle, we examined if suppression of ERM function in human cells expressing HIV-1 infection receptors influences HIV-1 envelope (Env)-mediated HIV-1-vector transduction and cell-cell fusion. Expression of an ezrin dominant negati...

  17. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron August Lupton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

  18. Rapid identification of strains belonging to the Mycobacterium abscessus group through erm(41) gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shiomi; Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Tomita, Motohisa; Okada, Masaji; Shimada, Ryoko; Hayashi, Seiji

    2014-07-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense lung infections have different clarithromycin susceptibilities, making proper identification important; however, standard multi-gene sequencing in clinical laboratories is laborious and time consuming. We developed a pyrosequencing-based method for rapid identification of strains belonging to the M. abscessus group by targeting erm(41). We examined 55 isolates from new pulmonary M. abscessus infections and identified 28 M. abscessus, 25 M. massiliense, and 2 Mycobacterium bolletii isolates. Multi-gene sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB, and the 16S-23S ITS region was concordant with the results of erm(41) pyrosequencing; thus, the M. abscessus group can be identified by single-nucleotide polymorphisms in erm(41). The method also enables rapid identification of polymorphic, inducible clarithromycin-resistant sequevars (T28 or C28). Pyrosequencing of erm(41) is a rapid, reliable, high-throughput alternative method for identifying and characterizing M. abscessus species. Further testing of a diverse collection of isolates is necessary to demonstrate the discriminatory power of erm(41) sequencing to differentiating species with this highly divergent group.

  19. Research of ERM Training%探究我国ERM履约培训的开展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付乾坤

    2012-01-01

    The STCW Convention Manila Revision has already effected. ERM training has already started. In initial stage of ERM Training, people are looking for the most suitable method. The text introduces some related research of ERM training. For example, ERM&STCW, related activity of our country, training types and methods, 5 main factors of ERM, etc.%在STCW马尼拉修正案生效后的履约过渡期内,我国正在开展相关履约培训。就我国在履约培训初期如何开展相关的ERM履约培训进行了探讨。具体地从ERM与STCW、我国正采取的相关行动,到ERM在培训中的体现形式与方法和ERM的五要素进行了阐述,并重点对培训实操环节的模式进行了论述。

  20. A Locally Created ERM: How and Why We Did It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, William; Chilton, Galadriel

    2008-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse's Murphy Library provides access to approximately 200 subscription databases. As with many academic libraries, methods and tools for managing these resources were sorely needed. However, the budget has been cut repeatedly over the past few years--thus the possibility of purchasing a commercial electronic…

  1. The Corynebacterium xerosis composite transposon Tn5432 consists of two identical insertion sequences, designated IS1249, flanking the erythromycin resistance gene ermCX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauch, A; Kassing, F; Kalinowski, J; Pühler, A

    1995-09-01

    Analysis of the 50-kb R-plasmid pTP10 from the clinical isolate Corynebacterium xerosis M82B revealed that the erythromycin resistance gene, ermCX, is located on a 4524-bp composite transposable element, Tn5432. The ends of Tn5432 are identical, direct repeats of an insertion sequence, designated IS1249, encoding a putative transposase of the IS256 family. IS1249 consists of 1385 bp with 45/42 imperfect terminal inverted repeats. The nucleotide sequence of the 1754-bp Tn5432 central region is 99% identical to the previously sequenced erythromycin resistance region of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae plasmid pNG2. It encodes the erythromycin resistance gene, ermCX, and an ORF homologous to the amino-terminal end of the transposase of IS31831 from Corynebacterium glutamicum. Transposons with regions flanking the insertion sites were recovered from the C. glutamicum chromosome by a plasmid rescue technique. Insertion of Tn5432 created 8-bp target site duplications. A Tn5432-induced isoleucine/valine-auxotrophic mutant was found to carry the transposon in the 5' region of the ilvBNC cluster; in pTP10 the transposon is inserted in a region similar to replication and partitioning functions of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1 and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTAR.

  2. Minimal Substrate Features for Erm Methyltransferases Defined by Using a Combinatorial Oligonucleotide Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lykke H; Lobedanz, Sune; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    , the main role played by the bottom strand appears to be in maintaining the conformation of the top strand. The addition of multiple LNA residues to the top strand impeded methylation; this indicates that the RNA substrate requires a certain amount of flexibility for accommodation into the active site...... of Erm. The combinatorial approach for identifying small but functional RNA substrates is a step towards making RNA-Erm complexes suitable for cocrystal determination, and for designing molecules that might block the substrate-recognition site of the enzyme.......Erm methyltransferases are prevalent in pathogenic bacteria and confer resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotics by specifically methylating the 23S ribosomal RNA at nucleotide A2058. We have identified motifs within the rRNA substrate that are required for methylation...

  3. Tylosin Resistance in Arcanobacterium pyogenes Is Encoded by an Erm X Determinant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, B. Helen; Field, Adam C.; Trinh, Hien T.; Songer, J. Glenn; Billington, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    Arcanobacterium pyogenes, a commensal on the mucous membranes of many economically important animal species, is also a pathogen, causing abscesses of the skin, joints, and visceral organs as well as mastitis and abortion. In food animals, A. pyogenes is exposed to antimicrobial agents used for growth promotion, prophylaxis, and therapy, notably tylosin, a macrolide antibiotic used extensively for the prevention of liver abscessation in feedlot cattle in the United States. Of 48 A. pyogenes isolates, 11 (22.9%) exhibited inducible or constitutive resistance to tylosin (MIC of ≥128 μg/ml). These isolates also exhibited resistance to other macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics, suggesting a macrolide-lincosamide resistance phenotype. Of the 11 resistant isolates, genomic DNA from nine hybridized to an erm(X)-specific probe. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the A. pyogenes erm(X) gene indicated that it was >95% similar to erm(X) genes from Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium spp. Eight of the erm(X)-containing A. pyogenes isolates exhibited inducible tylosin resistance, which was consistent with the presence of a putative leader peptide upstream of the erm(X) open reading frame. For at least one A. pyogenes isolate, 98-4277-2, erm(X) was present on a plasmid, pAP2, and was associated with the insertion sequence IS6100. pAP2 also carried genes encoding the repressor-regulated tetracycline efflux system determinant Tet 33. The repA gene from pAP2 was nonfunctional in Escherichia coli and at least one A. pyogenes isolate, suggesting that there may be host-encoded factors required for replication of this plasmid. PMID:14576111

  4. Novel transferable erm(46) determinant responsible for emerging macrolide resistance in Rhodococcus equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Elisa; Giguère, Steeve; Berghaus, Londa J; Hondalus, Mary K; Willingham-Lane, Jennifer M; MacArthur, Iain; Cohen, Noah D; Roberts, Marilyn C; Vazquez-Boland, Jose A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the molecular mechanism of macrolide resistance in the actinomycete Rhodococcus equi, a major equine pathogen and zoonotic agent causing opportunistic infections in people. Macrolide-resistant (n = 62) and macrolide-susceptible (n = 62) clinical isolates of R. equi from foals in the USA were studied. WGS of 18 macrolide-resistant and 6 macrolide-susceptible R. equi was performed. Representative sequences of all known macrolide resistance genes identified to date were used to search the genome assemblies for putative homologues. PCR was used to screen for the presence of the identified resistance determinant in the rest of the isolates. Mating experiments were performed to verify mobility of the gene. A novel erm gene, erm(46), was identified in all sequenced resistant isolates, but not in susceptible isolates. There was complete association between macrolide resistance and the presence of erm(46) as detected by PCR screening of all 124 clinical isolates of R. equi. Expression of erm(46) in a macrolide-susceptible strain of R. equi induced high-level resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins B, but not to other classes of antimicrobial agents. Transfer of erm(46) to macrolide-susceptible R. equi was confirmed. The transfer frequency ranged from 3 × 10(-3) to 1 × 10(-2). This is the first molecular characterization of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins B in R. equi. Resistance was due to the presence of a novel erm(46) gene mobilizable likely by conjugation, which has spread among equine isolates of R. equi in the USA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. CML based estimation of extended Rasch models with the eRm package in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICK MAIR

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an open source tool for computing extended Rasch models. It is realized in R (R Development Core Team, 2006 and available as package eRm. In addition to ordinary Rasch models extended models such as linear logistic test models, (linear rating scale models and (linear partial credit models can be estimated. A striking feature of this package is the implementation of conditional maximum likelihood estimation techniques which relate directly to Rasch's original concept of specific objectivity. The mathematical and epistemological benefits of this estimation method are discussed. Moreover, the capabilities of the eRm routine with respect to structural item response designs are demonstrated.

  6. Characterization of a novel type of MLSB resistance plasmid from Staphylococcus saprophyticus carrying a constitutively expressed erm(C) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Tomasz; Lüthje, Petra; Schwarz, Stefan

    2006-06-15

    An erm(C)-carrying plasmid of unusual size and restriction map, designated pSES22, was identified in a Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain and sequenced completely. Constitutive expression of the erm(C) gene from pSES22 is based on a novel 22-bp tandem duplication in the erm(C) translational attenuator. Comparative analysis of the deduced Erm(C) amino acid sequence revealed that Erm(C) from pSES22 - together with an Erm(C) methylase from S. hyicus - represented a separate branch in the homology tree of Erm(C) methylases. Structural comparisons showed that plasmid pSES22 differed distinctly from all other completely sequenced erm(C)-carrying resistance plasmids. However, pSES22 was similar to several members of a diverse group of small plasmids, all of which carried closely related plasmid backbones consisting of the genes repU and pre/mob, but differed in their resistance genes.

  7. Uudised : Indi-sahinad. Anne Erm ja Eero Raun on heliloojad. Imelaste lemmik on heavy metal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika laulja Kimya Dawson 7. juulil Kilingi-Nõmmel minifestivalil "Schilling". Pianist Martti Raide esitab festivali Eesti muusika päevad 2007 suurkontserdil 16. aprillil Eero Rauna klaveripala "Tritonata", üllatusheliloojaks on ka "Jazzkaare" produtsent Anne Erm. Inglismaal Noorte Talentide Rahvuslikus Akadeemias tehtud uuringust

  8. Selecting and Implementing an ERMS at Wayne State University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    The successful development and implementation of an electronic resources management (ERM) system depends on an undertaking that includes many key factors. Some of these key factors include determining user groups and their needs, evaluating implementation and technical issues, testing the system, exploring how the system will be used, setting…

  9. Uudised : Indi-sahinad. Anne Erm ja Eero Raun on heliloojad. Imelaste lemmik on heavy metal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika laulja Kimya Dawson 7. juulil Kilingi-Nõmmel minifestivalil "Schilling". Pianist Martti Raide esitab festivali Eesti muusika päevad 2007 suurkontserdil 16. aprillil Eero Rauna klaveripala "Tritonata", üllatusheliloojaks on ka "Jazzkaare" produtsent Anne Erm. Inglismaal Noorte Talentide Rahvuslikus Akadeemias tehtud uuringust

  10. Validation of an instrument to measure older adults' expectations regarding movement (ERM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Dahodwala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many individuals with Parkinson's disease are not diagnosed and treated. Attitudes about aging and related help-seeking may affect the timely diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Our objectives were to develop measures of older adults' expectations regarding movement with aging, specifically related to parkinsonism, and their beliefs about seeking healthcare for the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism. METHODS: We established content and face validity from interviews with experts, review of the literature, and pre-testing with key informants. Two 9-item instruments resulted: Expectations Regarding Movement (ERM and Healthcare Seeking Beliefs for parkinsonism (HSB. These instruments were administered to 210 older adults at senior centers to investigate internal consistency and construct validity. RESULTS: 192 (91% of the older adults completed more than 90% of the survey. The mean age was 76; 17 (9% reported parkinsonism. Both scales demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.90. Factor analysis supported construct validity of the ERM and HSB scores. Older age, lower education, worse self-reported health and African American race each were associated with lower ERM scores, but not HSB scores. CONCLUSION: The ERM, a brief measure of expectations regarding movement with aging, shows reliability and validity. This scale may be useful in identifying older adults at increased risk for under-identification of Parkinson's disease. Further work is needed to measure healthcare seeking for parkinsonism.

  11. Findability Enabled: The Rise of the Knowledgebase Puts the ERMS on a New Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownes, Dodie

    2006-01-01

    As public and academic librarians rely more heavily on electronic resources to satisfy patrons' information needs, seamless searching across print and electronic holdings gets more and more essential. Enter the integrated library system (ILS)-independent electronic resource management system (ERMS), which promises to integrate, search, and expose…

  12. Indication of transposition of a mobile DNA element containing the vat(D) and erm(B) genes in Enterococcus faecium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Flannagan, S.E.; Clewell, D.B.;

    2001-01-01

    The vat(D) and erm(B) genes encoding streptogramin resistance in Enterococcus faecium transferred together, and a direct physical link between erm(B) and vat(D) was detected. Both the vat(D) and erm(B) probes hybridized to fragments of different sizes in the donor and transconjugants, which...

  13. IMMERSION AND BATH VACCINATION AGAINST ENTERIC REDMOUTH DISEASE (ERM) PROVIDES INSUFFICIENT PROTECTION AGAINST BATH CHALLENGE WITH YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Neumann, Lukas

    Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 2 (Y.r. bt2) has recently caused several outbreaks of Enteric Redmouth disease (ERM) in ERM-vaccinated farmed rainbow trout in Denmark, Finland, Spain, the UK and the USA. Recently, we have isolated a very virulent Y.r. bt2 strain from an ERM outbreak in a Danish rainbow...

  14. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Otani, Maki

    2014-01-01

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce...... immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth...... disease (ERM). Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health) or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were...

  15. Conserved SMP domains of the ERMES complex bind phospholipids and mediate tether assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AhYoung, Andrew P; Jiang, Jiansen; Zhang, Jiang; Khoi Dang, Xuan; Loo, Joseph A; Zhou, Z Hong; Egea, Pascal F

    2015-06-23

    Membrane contact sites (MCS) between organelles are proposed as nexuses for the exchange of lipids, small molecules, and other signals crucial to cellular function and homeostasis. Various protein complexes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial encounter structure (ERMES), function as dynamic molecular tethers between organelles. Here, we report the reconstitution and characterization of subcomplexes formed by the cytoplasm-exposed synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial lipid-binding protein (SMP) domains present in three of the five ERMES subunits--the soluble protein Mdm12, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident membrane protein Mmm1, and the mitochondrial membrane protein Mdm34. SMP domains are conserved lipid-binding domains found exclusively in proteins at MCS. We show that the SMP domains of Mdm12 and Mmm1 associate into a tight heterotetramer with equimolecular stoichiometry. Our 17-Å-resolution EM structure of the complex reveals an elongated crescent-shaped particle in which two Mdm12 subunits occupy symmetric but distal positions at the opposite ends of a central ER-anchored Mmm1 homodimer. Rigid body fitting of homology models of these SMP domains in the density maps reveals a distinctive extended tubular structure likely traversed by a hydrophobic tunnel. Furthermore, these two SMP domains bind phospholipids and display a strong preference for phosphatidylcholines, a class of phospholipids whose exchange between the ER and mitochondria is essential. Last, we show that the three SMP-containing ERMES subunits form a ternary complex in which Mdm12 bridges Mmm1 to Mdm34. Our findings highlight roles for SMP domains in ERMES assembly and phospholipid binding and suggest a structure-based mechanism for the facilitated transport of phospholipids between organelles.

  16. The Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrion Tether ERMES Orchestrates Fungal Immune Evasion, Illuminating Inflammasome Responses to Hyphal Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Tucey, Timothy M.; Jiyoti Verma-Gaur; Julie Nguyen; Hewitt, Victoria L.; Lo, Tricia L.; Miguel Shingu-Vazquez; Robertson, Avril A. B.; Hill, James R.; Pettolino, Filomena A.; Travis Beddoe; Cooper, Matthew A.; Thomas Naderer; Ana Traven; Mitchell, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans escapes macrophages by triggering NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent host cell death (pyroptosis). Pyroptosis is inflammatory and must be tightly regulated by host and microbe, but the mechanism is incompletely defined. We characterized the C. albicans endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrion tether ERMES and show that the ERMES mmm1 mutant is severely crippled in killing macrophages despite hyphal formation and normal phagocytosis and survival. To und...

  17. Ezrin, Radixin, and Moesin (ERM) proteins function as pleiotropic regulators of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yoshinao; Yoshii, Hiroaki; Kamiyama, Haruka; Tominaga, Chika; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Sato, Hironori; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2008-05-25

    Ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) proteins supply functional linkage between integral membrane proteins and cytoskeleton in mammalian cells to regulate membrane protein dynamisms and cytoskeleton rearrangement. To assess potential role of the ERM proteins in HIV-1 lifecycle, we examined if suppression of ERM function in human cells expressing HIV-1 infection receptors influences HIV-1 envelope (Env)-mediated HIV-1-vector transduction and cell-cell fusion. Expression of an ezrin dominant negative mutant or knockdown of ezrin, radixin, or moesin with siRNA uniformly decreased transduction titers of HIV-1 vectors having X4-tropic Env. In contrast, transduction titers of R5-tropic Env HIV-1 vectors were decreased only by radixin knockdown: ezrin knockdown had no detectable effects and moesin knockdown rather increased transduction titer. Each of the ERM suppressions had no detectable effects on cell surface expression of CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 or VSV-Env-mediated HIV-1 vector transductions. Finally, the individual knockdown of ERM mRNAs uniformly decreased efficiency of cell-cell fusion mediated by X4- or R5-tropic Env and HIV-1 infection receptors. These results suggest that (i) the ERM proteins function as positive regulators of infection by X4-tropic HIV-1, (ii) moesin additionally functions as a negative regulator of R5-tropic HIV-1 virus infection at the early step(s) after the membrane fusion, and (iii) receptor protein dynamisms are regulated differently in R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1 infections.

  18. Control de inventarios aplicado a empresas comerciales basado en el Coso Erm

    OpenAIRE

    Alvear Zamora, Gladys Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como objetivo realizar el control de inventarios de tres empresas comerciales de tipo familiar basado en el COSO ERM, esta es una herramienta que nos ayudará a detectar riesgos de fraude, robo y pedidos excesivos de productos. A su vez, se analizará la eficiencia del manejo del control de inventarios, por medio de los métodos o procedimientos para la toma de los mismos, sus saldos de inventarios (valores máximos y mínimos), porcentajes de ventas, ratios financieros qu...

  19. A Novel erm(44) Gene Variant from a Human Staphylococcus saprophyticus Isolate Confers Resistance to Macrolides and Lincosamides but Not Streptogramins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Christian; Hu, Yanmin; Coates, Anthony; Perreten, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    A novel erm(44) gene variant, erm(44)v, has been identified by whole-genome sequencing in a Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolate from the skin of a healthy person. It has the particularity to confer resistance to macrolides and lincosamides but not to streptogramin B when expressed in S. aureus The erm(44)v gene resides on a 19,400-bp genomic island which contains phage-associated proteins and is integrated into the chromosome of S. saprophyticus.

  20. Noise-induced cochlear F-actin depolymerization is mediated via ROCK2/p-ERM signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu; Wang, Xianren; Chen, Jun; Sha, Su-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Our previous work has suggested that traumatic noise activates Rho-GTPase pathways in cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs), resulting in cell death and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). In this study, we investigated Rho effectors, Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs), and the targets of ROCKs, the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins, in the regulation of the cochlear actin cytoskeleton using adult CBA/J mice under conditions of noise-induced temporary threshold shift (TTS) and permanent threshold shift (PTS) hearing loss, which result in changes to the F/G-actin ratio. The levels of cochlear ROCK2 and p-ERM decreased 1 h after either TTS- or PTS-noise exposure. In contrast, ROCK2 and p-ERM in OHCs decreased only after PTS-, not after TTS-noise exposure. Treatment with lysophosphatidic acid, an activator of the Rho pathway, resulted in significant reversal of the F/G-actin ratio changes caused by noise exposure and attenuated OHC death and NIHL. Conversely, the down-regulation of ROCK2 by pretreatment with ROCK2 siRNA reduced the expression of ROCK2 and p-ERM in OHCs, exacerbated TTS to PTS, and worsened OHC loss. Additionally, pretreatment with siRNA against radixin, an ERM protein, aggravated TTS to PTS. Our results indicate that a ROCK2-mediated ERM-phosphorylation signaling cascade modulates noise-induced hair cell loss and NIHL by targeting the cytoskeleton. We propose the following cascade following noise trauma leading to alteration of the F-actin arrangement in the outer hair cell cytoskeleton: Noise exposure reduces the levels of GTP-RhoA and subsequently diminishes levels of RhoA effector ROCK2 (Rho-associated kinase 2). Phosphorylation of ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) by ROCK2 normally allows ERM to cross-link actin filaments with the plasma membrane. Noise-decreased levels of ROCK results in reduction of phosphorylation of ERM that leads to depolymerization of actin filaments. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an agonist of RhoA, binds to the G-protein-coupled receptor

  1. TcdC does not significantly repress toxin expression in Clostridium difficile 630ΔErm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Bakker

    Full Text Available In the past decade, Clostridium difficile has emerged as an important gut pathogen. Symptoms of C. difficile infection range from mild diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis, sometimes resulting in colectomy or death. The main virulence factors of C. difficile are toxin A and toxin B. Besides the genes encoding these toxins (tcdA and tcdB, the pathogenicity locus (PaLoc also contains genes encoding a sigma factor (tcdR and a putative anti-sigma factor (tcdC. The important role of TcdR as a sigma factor for toxin expression is undisputed, whereas the role of TcdC as an anti-sigma factor, inhibiting toxin expression, is currently the subject of debate. To clarify the role of TcdC in toxin expression, we generated an isogenic ClosTron-based mutant of tcdC in Clostridium difficile strain 630Δ Erm (CT::tcdC and determined the transcription levels of the PaLoc genes and the expression levels of the toxins in the wild type strain and the tcdC mutant strain. We found only minor differences in transcription levels of the PaLoc genes between the wild type and CT::tcdC strains and total toxin levels did not significantly differ either. These results suggest that in C. difficile 630Δerm TcdC is not a major regulator of toxin expression under the conditions tested.

  2. Generalization bounds of ERM-based learning processes for continuous-time Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Tao, Dacheng

    2012-12-01

    Many existing results on statistical learning theory are based on the assumption that samples are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.). However, the assumption of i.i.d. samples is not suitable for practical application to problems in which samples are time dependent. In this paper, we are mainly concerned with the empirical risk minimization (ERM) based learning process for time-dependent samples drawn from a continuous-time Markov chain. This learning process covers many kinds of practical applications, e.g., the prediction for a time series and the estimation of channel state information. Thus, it is significant to study its theoretical properties including the generalization bound, the asymptotic convergence, and the rate of convergence. It is noteworthy that, since samples are time dependent in this learning process, the concerns of this paper cannot (at least straightforwardly) be addressed by existing methods developed under the sample i.i.d. assumption. We first develop a deviation inequality for a sequence of time-dependent samples drawn from a continuous-time Markov chain and present a symmetrization inequality for such a sequence. By using the resultant deviation inequality and symmetrization inequality, we then obtain the generalization bounds of the ERM-based learning process for time-dependent samples drawn from a continuous-time Markov chain. Finally, based on the resultant generalization bounds, we analyze the asymptotic convergence and the rate of convergence of the learning process.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2 WATERBORNE CHALLENGE MODEL FOR FUTURE ERM VACCINE TESTING IN RAINBOW TROUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Aalbæk, Bent; Otani, Maki;

    from ERM outbreaks in Danish rainbow trout farms during 2011. Some of the isolates were obtained from vaccinated stocks, which subsequently developed ERM disease outbreaks. The Y.r. O1 isolates have been characterized and biotyped according to mobility and hydrolysis of Tween-80, and almost all......1 bt 2 has made it possible to develop a standardized bath challenge model which is needed in order to test and develop new experimental vaccines which are expected to induce immunity against Y.r. O1 bt 2.......Yersinia ruckeri (Y.r.) O1 biotype (bt) 2 causes outbreaks of Enteric Redmouth disease (ERM) in vaccinated, farmed rainbow trout around the world. Y.r. O1 bt 1 has been known since first described from the Hagerman Valley in Idaho in the 1950’s and outbreaks have now been controlled by vaccination...

  4. Telithromycin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is conferred by a deletion in the leader sequence of erm(B) that increases rRNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolter, Nicole; Smith, Anthony M; Farrell, David J

    2008-01-01

    A telithromycin-resistant clinical isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain P1501016) has been found to contain a version of erm(B) that is altered by a 136-bp deletion in the leader sequence. By allele replacement mutagenesis, a second strain of S. pneumoniae (PC13) with a wild-type erm(B) gene...

  5. Transport and persistence of tylosin-resistant enterococci, erm genes, and tylosin in soil and drainage water from fields receiving swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land application of manure from tylosin-treated swine introduces tylosin-resistant enterococci, erm genes, which confer resistance to tylosin, and tylosin. This study documents the occurrence and transport of tylosin-resistant enterococci, erm genes, and tylosin in tile-drained chisel plow and no-ti...

  6. IRT models with relaxed assumptions in eRm: A manual-like instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REINHOLD HATZINGER

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear logistic models with relaxed assumptions (LLRA as introduced by Fischer (1974 are a flexible tool for the measurement of change for dichotomous or polytomous responses. As opposed to the Rasch model, assumptions on dimensionality of items, their mutual dependencies and the distribution of the latent trait in the population of subjects are relaxed. Conditional maximum likelihood estimation allows for inference about treatment, covariate or trend effect parameters without taking the subjects' latent trait values into account. In this paper we will show how LLRAs based on the LLTM, LRSM and LPCM can be used to answer various questions about the measurement of change and how they can be fitted in R using the eRm package. A number of small didactic examples is provided that can easily be used as templates for real data sets. All datafiles used in this paper are available from http://eRm.R-Forge.R-project.org/

  7. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Rømer Villumsen

    Full Text Available The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM. Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were included, one group receiving the experimental oral vaccine in a 50 times higher dose, and the other group receiving a single dose administered anally in order to bypass the stomach. Each group was bath challenged with 6.3 × 10(8 CFU/ml Y. ruckeri, six months post the primary vaccination. The challenge induced significant mortality in all the infected groups except for the groups vaccinated anally with a single dose or orally with the high dose of bacterin. Both of these groups had 100% survival. These results show that a low dose of Y. ruckeri bacterin induces full protection when the bacterin is administered anally. Oral vaccination also induces full protection, however, at a dose 50 times higher than if the fish were to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the orally fed antigen is digested in the stomach before it reaches the second segment of the intestine where it can be taken up as immunogenic antigens and presented to lymphocytes.

  8. Oral and anal vaccination confers full protection against enteric redmouth disease (ERM) in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Ohtani, Maki; Strøm, Helene Kragelund; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM). Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health) or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were included, one group receiving the experimental oral vaccine in a 50 times higher dose, and the other group receiving a single dose administered anally in order to bypass the stomach. Each group was bath challenged with 6.3 × 10(8) CFU/ml Y. ruckeri, six months post the primary vaccination. The challenge induced significant mortality in all the infected groups except for the groups vaccinated anally with a single dose or orally with the high dose of bacterin. Both of these groups had 100% survival. These results show that a low dose of Y. ruckeri bacterin induces full protection when the bacterin is administered anally. Oral vaccination also induces full protection, however, at a dose 50 times higher than if the fish were to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the orally fed antigen is digested in the stomach before it reaches the second segment of the intestine where it can be taken up as immunogenic antigens and presented to lymphocytes.

  9. Resistance determinant erm(X) is borne by transposon Tn5432 in Bifidobacterium thermophilum and Bifidobacterium animals subsp. lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Mayrhofer, S.; Domig, K.J.; Aarts, H.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The erm(X) gene from erythromycin- and clindamycin-resistant Bifidobacterium strains was characterised by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis, including flanking regions. Results suggest that the resistance determinant was part of transposon Tn5432 that has been described in several oppo

  10. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    potential future space-based mission through large-scale, ground-based testing. Full-scale deployment testing of two petal segments combined with...capture data for incorporation into larger analysis models. Stability testing of two full-scale composite strongback segments , including in a relevant...errors. The NuSTAR project opted for a metrology and adjustment system, which had many advantages for the project and few disadvantages . Because a

  11. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  12. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  13. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  14. Vaccine Induced Specific Protection Against Enteric Red Mouth Disease (ERM) Caused by Yersinia Ruckeri Serotype 1 Biotype 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Sidharta; Raida, Martin K.; Dalsgaard, Inger;

    2011-01-01

    In European fish farms there is evidence of enteric red mouth disease (ERM) outbreaks in previously vaccinated farmed fish. It has been suggested that the occurrence of a Yersinia ruckeri variant (biotype 2) may explain this situation. Recent development of commercial vaccines has included both......) developed against ERM was investigated following intraperitoneal (IP) challenge with Yersinia ruckeri serotype1 biotype 2. Fish were immersion vaccinated for 30 s and challenged 2, 4 and 6 months post vaccination. The onset and severity of various pathological lesions along with their disappearance during...... biotype 1 and 2. In this study, the specificity of immune protection extended by three commercial vaccines viz; AQUAVAC ERM® Intervet Schering Plough (based on biotype 1 only), ERMOGEN VET® Novartis (based on biotype 1 only) and AQUAVAC RELERA® Intervet Schering Plough (based on both biotype 1and 2...

  15. Saikne starp ķermeņa valodas un valodas lietojumu biznesa prezentācijās

    OpenAIRE

    Nediļko, Jekaterina

    2011-01-01

    Šis bakalaura darbs pēta saikni starp ķermeņa valodu un valodu biznesa prezentācijās. Ķermeņa valoda un runa tiek analizētas ņemot vērā runātāja prezentācijas prasmes un klausītāju novērtējumu. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt kā ķermeņa valoda ietekmē valodas lietojumu biznesa prezentācijās. Darba autore ir veikusi kritisku pārskatu par pieejamajiem teorētiskiem avotiem, kas apraksta biznesa komunikāciju un ir secinājusi, ka salīdzinoši nedaudzi zinātnieki ir izpētījuši verbālās un neverbālās komunik...

  16. Scarce detection of mobile erm genes associated with tetQ in Bacteroides and Parabacteroides from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; Rodríguez, César

    2013-06-01

    The frequency of finding of clindamycin-resistant anaerobic bacteria in clinical samples has doubled from 2008 to 2010 in Costa Rica. To determine whether this increase is due to dissemination of erm genes aided by tetQ elements, we analyzed 100 isolates of Bacteroides or Parabacteroides from a regional hospital, a national hospital, and the community. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were recorded with a broth micro-dilution method and erm genes were detected by PCR and Southern blotting. In addition, plasmid isolation and mating experiments were performed to clarify the location and mobility of the detected erm genes. Resistance to clindamycin was by far more frequent in the regional hospital (72%) than in the national hospital (29%) and the community (26%). Resistance to tetracycline was even more common, with the community (85%) outweighing the hospitals (71-72%). While MIC of clindamycin were higher in the hospitals than in the community (P Bacteroides and Parabacteroides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methylation of 23S rRNA caused by tlrA (ermSF), a tylosin resistance determinant from Streptomyces fradiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalacain, M; Cundliffe, E

    1989-01-01

    Ribosomes from Streptomyces griseofuscus expressing tlrA, a resistance gene isolated from the tylosin producer Streptomyces fradiae, are resistant to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics in vitro. The tlrA product was found to be a methylase that introduces two methyl groups into a single base within 23S rRNA, generating N6,N6-dimethyladenine at position 2058. This activity is therefore similar to the ermE resistance mechanism in Saccharopolyspora erythraea (formerly Streptomyces erythraeus). Images PMID:2753855

  18. Advanced order management in ERM systems: the tic-tac-toe algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badell, Mariana; Fernandez, Elena; Puigjaner, Luis

    2000-10-01

    The concept behind improved enterprise resource planning systems (ERP) systems is the overall integration of the whole enterprise functionality into the management systems through financial links. Converting current software into real management decision tools requires crucial changes in the current approach to ERP systems. This evolution must be able to incorporate the technological achievements both properly and in time. The exploitation phase of plants needs an open web-based environment for collaborative business-engineering with on-line schedulers. Today's short lifecycles of products and processes require sharp and finely tuned management actions that must be guided by scheduling tools. Additionally, such actions must be able to keep track of money movements related to supply chain events. Thus, the necessary outputs require financial-production integration at the scheduling level as proposed in the new approach of enterprise management systems (ERM). Within this framework, the economical analysis of the due date policy and its optimization become essential to manage dynamically realistic and optimal delivery dates with price-time trade-off during the marketing activities. In this work we propose a scheduling tool with web-based interface conducted by autonomous agents when precise economic information relative to plant and business actions and their effects are provided. It aims to attain a better arrangement of the marketing and production events in order to face the bid/bargain process during e-commerce. Additionally, management systems require real time execution and an efficient transaction-oriented approach capable to dynamically adopt realistic and optimal actions to support marketing management. To this end the TicTacToe algorithm provides sequence optimization with acceptable tolerances in realistic time.

  19. Contribution of LPP/ERM-KMS to the modern developments of ICRH antenna systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiaen, A., E-mail: a.messiaen@fz-juelich.de; Ongena, J.; Dumortier, P.; Durodié, F.; Louche, F.; Ragona, R.; Vervier, M.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Overview of ICRF antenna coupling physics, showing from first principles how to develop a state of the art ICRF system for ITER and DEMO. • Physics of conceptual solutions for the compact ITER antenna array, intended to radiate ∼10 MW/m2. • Implementing novel ideas into the matching-decoupling network of the ITER antenna array to avoid cross-coupling and to control the RF current distribution in the array. • Experimental tests of the theoretical predictions using scaled mock-ups of the ICRF antenna, including a dielectric dummy load to mimick the plasma. • Demonstrating an operational feedback control of the matching-decoupling network for the ITER antenna array, with 23 simultaneously active actuators. - Abstract: The paper gives an overview of the coupling physics of an ICRF antenna array to the plasma and of the original conceptual solutions proposed by the LPP/ERM-KMS group for the compact ITER antenna array and its matching to the RF power sources. The main contributions are (i) the use of an array of short straps grouped in triplets, (ii) the triplet feed by a four port junction and the use of a service stub to enlarge its frequency response, (iii) the multistep prematching to decrease the VSWR and minimise the voltage in the feeding transmission lines, (iv) the use of a decoupler network to neutralize the mutual coupling effects between different RF power sources and to simultaneously control the current distribution of the antenna array, (v) the various options to connect the decouplers and 3 dB hybrids for different array phasing cases in order to maintain the correct functioning of the decouplers together with load resiliency to fast variations of the plasma density in the edge (caused by e.g. pellet injection or Edge Localized Modes), (vi) the solution of the grounding problem of the ITER antenna plug-in, (vii) the test on mock-ups in front of a dielectric dummy load of the performance of the different solutions and particularly

  20. Crystal structure of Mdm12 and combinatorial reconstitution of Mdm12/Mmm1 ERMES complexes for structural studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AhYoung, Andrew P.; Lu, Brian; Cascio, Duilio; Egea, Pascal F.

    2017-06-01

    Membrane contact sites between organelles serve as molecular hubs for the exchange of metabolites and signals. In yeast, the Endoplasmic Reticulum – Mitochondrion Encounter Structure (ERMES) tethers these two organelles likely to facilitate the non-vesicular exchange of essential phospholipids. Present in Fungi and Amoebas but not in Metazoans, ERMES is composed of five distinct subunits; among those, Mdm12, Mmm1 and Mdm34 each contain an SMP domain functioning as a lipid transfer module. We previously showed that the SMP domains of Mdm12 and Mmm1 form a hetero-tetramer. Here we describe our strategy to diversify the number of Mdm12/Mmm1 complexes suited for structural studies. We use sequence analysis of orthologues combined to protein engineering of disordered regions to guide the design of protein constructs and expand the repertoire of Mdm12/Mmm1 complexes more likely to crystallize. Using this combinatorial approach we report crystals of Mdm12/Mmm1 ERMES complexes currently diffracting to 4.5 Å resolution and a new structure of Mdm12 solved at 4.1 Å resolution. Our structure reveals a monomeric form of Mdm12 with a conformationally dynamic N-terminal β-strand; it differs from a previously reported homodimeric structure where the N-terminal β strands where swapped to promote dimerization. Based on our electron microscopy data, we propose a refined pseudo-atomic model of the Mdm12/Mmm1 complex that agrees with our crystallographic and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) solution data.

  1. A combined cryo-EM and molecular dynamics approach reveals the mechanism of ErmBL-mediated translation arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenz, Stefan; Bock, Lars V.; Graf, Michael; Innis, C. Axel; Beckmann, Roland; Grubmüller, Helmut; Vaiana, Andrea C.; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2016-07-01

    Nascent polypeptides can induce ribosome stalling, regulating downstream genes. Stalling of ErmBL peptide translation in the presence of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin leads to resistance in Streptococcus sanguis. To reveal this stalling mechanism we obtained 3.6-Å-resolution cryo-EM structures of ErmBL-stalled ribosomes with erythromycin. The nascent peptide adopts an unusual conformation with the C-terminal Asp10 side chain in a previously unseen rotated position. Together with molecular dynamics simulations, the structures indicate that peptide-bond formation is inhibited by displacement of the peptidyl-tRNA A76 ribose from its canonical position, and by non-productive interactions of the A-tRNA Lys11 side chain with the A-site crevice. These two effects combine to perturb peptide-bond formation by increasing the distance between the attacking Lys11 amine and the Asp10 carbonyl carbon. The interplay between drug, peptide and ribosome uncovered here also provides insight into the fundamental mechanism of peptide-bond formation.

  2. Operation of the CESR-TA vertical beam size monitor at $E_{\\rm b}$=4 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, J P; Edwards, E; Flanagan, J W; Fontes, E; Heltsley, B K; Lyndaker, A; Peterson, D P; Rider, N T; Rubin, D L; Seeley, R; Shanks, J

    2015-01-01

    We describe operation of the CESR-TA vertical beam size monitor (xBSM) with $e^\\pm$ beams with $E_{\\rm b}$=4 GeV. The xBSM measures vertical beam size by imaging synchrotron radiation x-rays through an optical element onto a detector array of 32 InGaAs photodiodes with 50 $\\mu$m pitch. The device has previously been successfully used to measure vertical beam sizes of 10-100 $\\mu$m on a bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn basis at $e^\\pm$ beam energies of $\\sim$2 GeV and source magnetic fields below 2.8 kG, for which the detector required calibration for incident x-rays of 1-5 keV. At $E_{\\rm b}=4.0$ GeV and $B$=4.5 kG, however, the incident synchrotron radiation spectrum extends to $\\sim$20 keV, requiring calibration of detector response in that regime. Such a calibration is described and then used to analyze data taken with several different thicknesses of filters in front of the detector. We obtain a relative precision of better than 4% on beam size measurement from 15-100 $\\mu$m over several different ranges of x...

  3. ERM Usage and its Selection and Development%电子资源管理系统ERM的使用状况与选择开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宁

    2012-01-01

    阐述了电子资源管理系统的类型功能及国内外图书馆使用状况,分析了不同电子资源管理系统产品的优劣性,我国图书馆选择使用英文电子资源管理系统以及开发中文电子资源管理系统要注意的问题。%The author introduces types,functionalities and usage of ERM and analyzes its advantages and disadvantages,how to select right English ERM system and develop Chinese ERM are concerned.

  4. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  5. REAL CONVERGENCE IN ROMANIA - A COMPARATIVE APPROACH TO NON-ERM II COUNTRIES FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA SOCOL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to survey the issue of real convergence in Central and Eastern Europe, based our approach on the literature review in the field and intended to develop a comparative approach of the main criteria of real convergence. We comparatively study Romania’s situation face to European Union Member States that did not adhere until now to ERM Exchange Rate Mechanism II and that do not benefit of special opt-outs stipulations - Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Bulgaria. The challenges of the paper consisted in identification and choose of the criteria which properly characterize the real convergence issue of the national economies. This approach is imposed by the widespread concept of real convergence and its different meanings or measurement manners.

  6. A Self-deleting Cre-lox-ermAM Cassette, CHESHIRE, for marker-less gene deletion in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Liming; Biswas, Indranil; Morrison, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Although targeted mutagenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae is readily accomplished with the aid of natural genetic transformation and chimeric donor DNA constructs assembled in vitro, the drug resistance markers often employed for selection of recombinant products can themselves be undesirable by-products of the genetic manipulation. A new cassette carrying the erythromycin-resistance marker ermAM is described that can be used as a temporary marker for selection of desired recombinants. The cassette may subsequently be removed at will by virtue of an embedded fucose-regulated Cre recombinase gene and terminal lox66 and lox71 Cre recognition sites, with retention of 34 bp from the cassette as an inert residual double-mutant lox72 site. PMID:19850089

  7. Los riesgos de las entidades aseguradoras en el marco del Enterprise Risk Management (ERM y el control interno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Hernández Barros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas integrales de gestión del riesgo, en particular el Enterprise Risk Management (ERM, se han convertido en una práctica fundamental de la gestión de empresas para la mitigación y control de los riesgos. La crisis financiera actual ha estimulado a las empresas aseguradoras a dar mayor importancia a la gestión de los riesgos, alentadas además por la nueva regulación europea Solvencia II; por ello el objetivo principal de este trabajo ha sido proponer un marco conceptual de los riesgos a los que se enfrentan las empresas internacionales de seguros desde una perspectiva global, cuya actividad presenta peculiaridades específicas que hacen que el proceso de control interno y gestión de riesgos adquieran una especial relevancia, y que puede ser aplicado a empresas de otros sectores económicos.

  8. Hypotonicity causes actin reorganization and recruitment of the actin-binding ERM protein moesin in membrane protrusions in collecting duct principal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamma, G.; Procino, G.; Svelto, M.; Valenti, G.

    2007-01-01

    Hypotonicity-induced cell swelling is characterized by a modification in cell architecture associated with actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family proteins are important signal transducers during actin reorganization regulated by the monomeric G proteins of the Rho famil

  9. An in vivo EGF receptor localization screen in C. elegans Identifies the Ezrin homolog ERM-1 as a temporal regulator of signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Andrea; Gutierrez, Peter; Bühler, Alessandra; Walser, Michael; Yang, Qiutan; Langouët, Maeva; Kradolfer, David; Fröhli, Erika; Herrmann, Christina J; Hajnal, Alex; Escobar-Restrepo, Juan M

    2014-05-01

    The subcellular localization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in polarized epithelial cells profoundly affects the activity of the intracellular signaling pathways activated after EGF ligand binding. Therefore, changes in EGFR localization and signaling are implicated in various human diseases, including different types of cancer. We have performed the first in vivo EGFR localization screen in an animal model by observing the expression of the EGFR ortholog LET-23 in the vulval epithelium of live C. elegans larvae. After systematically testing all genes known to produce an aberrant vulval phenotype, we have identified 81 genes regulating various aspects of EGFR localization and expression. In particular, we have found that ERM-1, the sole C. elegans Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin homolog, regulates EGFR localization and signaling in the vulval cells. ERM-1 interacts with the EGFR at the basolateral plasma membrane in a complex distinct from the previously identified LIN-2/LIN-7/LIN-10 receptor localization complex. We propose that ERM-1 binds to and sequesters basolateral LET-23 EGFR in an actin-rich inactive membrane compartment to restrict receptor mobility and signaling. In this manner, ERM-1 prevents the immediate activation of the entire pool of LET-23 EGFR and permits the generation of a long-lasting inductive signal. The regulation of receptor localization thus serves to fine-tune the temporal activation of intracellular signaling pathways.

  10. Hypotonicity causes actin reorganization and recruitment of the actin-binding ERM protein moesin in membrane protrusions in collecting duct principal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamma, G.; Procino, G.; Svelto, M.; Valenti, G.

    2007-01-01

    Hypotonicity-induced cell swelling is characterized by a modification in cell architecture associated with actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family proteins are important signal transducers during actin reorganization regulated by the monomeric G proteins of the Rho famil

  11. Kuidas peaks õpetaja karistama ülekäte läinud õpilast? / Aage Õunap, Toomas Palu, Aivar Haller, Maia Erm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Haridusministri hinnangul peaks koolil olema õigus korda rikkuvaid õpilasi trahvida. Oma arvamust selle kohta avaldavad Viljandimaa Lasterikaste Perede Ühenduse juht Aage Õunap, UNICEF Eesti rahvuskomitee esindaja Toomas Palu, Eesti Lastevanemate Liidu juhatuse liige Aivar Haller ja Pärnu Koidula Gümnaasiumi õppealajuhataja Maia Erm

  12. Põhja-Ameerika looderanniku indiaanlaste kultuur : nahkrõivad ja nende valmistamine. Nahast puusapõlle ERM C 19:27ab konserveerimine / Tea Šumanov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Šumanov, Tea

    2011-01-01

    Antakse ülevaade Põhja-Ameerika indiaanlaste kultuurist ja suhestumisest loodusega, kirjeldatakse nende nahakäsitöö ja kaunistamise meetodeid. Etnograafiliste museaalide väärtusest, nende kahjustustest ning konserveerimiseks valitud meetoditest ning ERM-i eksponaadi konserveerimise praktilisest protsessist

  13. Põhja-Ameerika looderanniku indiaanlaste kultuur : nahkrõivad ja nende valmistamine. Nahast puusapõlle ERM C 19:27ab konserveerimine / Tea Šumanov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Šumanov, Tea

    2011-01-01

    Antakse ülevaade Põhja-Ameerika indiaanlaste kultuurist ja suhestumisest loodusega, kirjeldatakse nende nahakäsitöö ja kaunistamise meetodeid. Etnograafiliste museaalide väärtusest, nende kahjustustest ning konserveerimiseks valitud meetoditest ning ERM-i eksponaadi konserveerimise praktilisest protsessist

  14. p38MAPK, Rho/ROCK and PKC pathways are involved in influenza-induced cytoskeletal rearrangement and hyperpermeability in PMVEC via phosphorylating ERM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyue; Wu, Ying; Xuan, Zinan; Zhang, Shujing; Wang, Xudan; Hao, Yu; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shu

    2014-11-04

    Severe influenza infections are featured by acute lung injury, a syndrome of pulmonary microvascular leak. A growing number of evidences have shown that the pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) are critical target of influenza virus, promoting microvascular leak. It is reported that there are multiple mechanisms by which influenza virus could elicit increased pulmonary endothelial permeability, in both direct and indirect manners. Ezrin/radixin/moesin family proteins, the linkers between plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton, have been reported to be involved in cell adhesion, motility and may modulate endothelial permeability. Studies have also shown that ERM is phosphorylated in response to various stimuli via p38MAPK, Rho/ROCK or PKC pathways. However, it is unclear that whether influenza infection could induce ERM phosphorylation and its relocalization. In the present study, we have found that there are cytoskeletal reorganization and permeability increases in the course of influenza virus infection, accompanied by upregulated levels of p-ERM. p-ERM's aggregation along the periphery of PMVEC upon influenza virus infection was detected via confocal microscopy. Furthermore, we sought to determine the role of p38MAPK, Rho/ROCK and PKC pathways in ERM phosphorylation as well as their involvement in influenza virus-induced endothelial malfunction. The activation of p38MAPK, Rho/ROCK and PKC pathways upon influenza virus stimulation were observed, as evidenced by the evaluation of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), phosphorylated MKK (p-MKK) in p38MAPK pathway, ROCK1 in Rho/ROCK pathway and phosphorylated PKC (p-PKC) in PKC pathway. We also showed that virus-induced ERM phosphorylation was reduced by using p38MAPK inhibitor, SB203580 (20 μM), Rho/ROCK inhibitor, Y27632 (20 μM), PKC inhibitor, LY317615 (10 μM). Additionally, influenza virus-induced F-actin reorganization and hyperpermeability were attenuated by pretreatment with SB203580, Y27632 and LY317615

  15. Listeria monocytogenes isolates from food and food environment harbouring tetM and ermB resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubert, L; Mendonça, M; Lopes, G V; de Itapema Cardoso, M R; da Silva, W P

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that has become an important cause of human and animal diseases worldwide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serotypes, virulence potential, antimicrobial resistance profile, and genetic relationships of 50 L. monocytogenes isolates from food and food environment in southern Brazil. In this study, the majority of L. monocytogenes isolates belonged to the serotypes 1/2b (42%) and 4b (26%), which are the main serotypes associated with human listeriosis. In addition, all isolates harboured internalin genes (inlA, inlC, inlJ), indicating a virulence potential. The isolates were sensitive to most of the antimicrobial compounds analysed, and five isolates (10%) were multi-resistant. Two isolates harboured antimicrobial resistance genes (tetM and ermB) and in one of them, the gene was present in the plasmid. Moreover, according to the pulsed field gel electrophoresis assay, two multi-resistant isolates were a single clone isolated from food and the processing plant. The isolates were susceptible to the most frequently used antibiotics for listeriosis treatment. However, the presence of multidrug-resistant isolates and antimicrobial resistance genes including in the plasmid could even be transferred between bacterial species, suggesting a potential health risk to consumers and a potential risk of spreading multi-resistance genes to other bacteria. Listeria monocytogenes is an important agent of foodborne diseases. The results of this study suggest a potential capacity of L. monocytogenes isolates from food and food environment to cause human infections. Antimicrobial multi-resistance profiles were detected in 10%, and two isolates harboured tetM and ermB resistance genes. Moreover, the present research can help to build up a better knowledge about antimicrobial resistance of L. monocytogenes. Additionally, we found one isolate carrying tetM resistance gene in a plasmid, that suggests a possible transmission

  16. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  17. Erythromycin- and copper-resistant Enterococcus hirae from marine sediment and co-transfer of erm(B) and tcrB to human Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquaroli, Sonia; Di Cesare, Andrea; Vignaroli, Carla; Conti, Giulia; Citterio, Barbara; Biavasco, Francesca

    2014-09-01

    An erythromycin-, copper- and cadmium-resistant isolate of Enterococcus hirae from marine sediment was shown to harbor the plasmid pRE25 and to co-transfer erm(B) and tcrB to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2. These data highlight the scope for antibiotic resistance selection by the marine environment through heavy metals and its possible involvement in antibiotic-resistant enterococcal infections.

  18. Analysis of mutations in Neurospora crassa ERMES components reveals specific functions related to β-barrel protein assembly and maintenance of mitochondrial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Jeremy G; Lackey, Sebastian W K; Srayko, Martin A; Norton, Kacie A; Nargang, Frank E

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) tethers the er to mitochondria and contains four structural components: Mmm1, Mdm12, Mdm10, and Mmm2 (Mdm34). The Gem1 protein may play a role in regulating ERMES function. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa strains lacking any of Mmm1, Mdm12, or Mdm10 are known to show a variety of phenotypic defects including altered mitochondrial morphology and defects in the assembly of β-barrel proteins into the mitochondrial outer membrane. Here we examine ERMES complex components in N. crassa and show that Mmm1 is an ER membrane protein containing a Cys residue near its N-terminus that is conserved in the class Sordariomycetes. The residue occurs in the ER-lumen domain of the protein and is involved in the formation of disulphide bonds that give rise to Mmm1 dimers. Dimer formation is required for efficient assembly of Tom40 into the TOM complex. However, no effects are seen on porin assembly or mitochondrial morphology. This demonstrates a specificity of function and suggests a direct role for Mmm1 in Tom40 assembly. Mutation of a highly conserved region in the cytosolic domain of Mmm1 results in moderate defects in Tom40 and porin assembly, as well as a slight morphological phenotype. Previous reports have not examined the role of Mmm2 with respect to mitochondrial protein import and assembly. Here we show that absence of Mmm2 affects assembly of β-barrel proteins and that lack of any ERMES structural component results in defects in Tom22 assembly. Loss of N. crassa Gem1 has no effect on the assembly of these proteins but does affect mitochondrial morphology.

  19. Increasing Range and Lethality of Extended-Range Munitions (ERMS) using Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and the AUV Workbench to Compute a Ballistic Correction (BALCOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    universal character set UDI United Defense Industry UK United Kingdom URL uniform resource locator U.S. United States USMC United States...2002). Another ERGM round was test fired on June 25, 2002, at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico and flew 72 km (39 nm) in less...which are both 5-inch projectiles. Like both the 5-inch ERMs, United Defense Industry ( UDI ) originally envisioned a family of munitions including LRLAP

  20. Atšķirības sieviešu ar augstu un zemu ķermeņa pašvērtējumu spriedumos par sabiedrībā populāru sieviešu ķermeņa izmēriem.

    OpenAIRE

    Kalniņa, Aija

    2009-01-01

    Pētījuma mērķis bija noskaidrot, vai pastāv atšķirības ar savu ķermeni neapmierinātu sieviešu un ar savu ķermeni apmierinātu sieviešu spriedumos par sabiedrībā populāru un medijos bieži redzamu sieviešu ķermeņu izmēriem. Pētījumā piedalījās divas izlases grupas: vienā bija 24 sievietes ar augstu ķermeņa pašvērtējumu, otrā – 25 sievietes ar zemu ķermeņa pašvērtējumu. Sievietes bija vecumā no 18 līdz 25 gadiem, kuru ķermeņa masas indekss (ĶMI) iekļaujas normālos rādītājos, un kurām nav ēšana...

  1. Summary Describing Integration of ERM Methodology into Supervisory Control Framework with Software Package Documentation; Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M4AT-16PN2301052

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Veeramany, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonebrake, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roy, Surajit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-20

    This project involved the development of enhanced risk monitors (ERMs) for active components in Advanced Reactor (AdvRx) designs by integrating real-time information about equipment condition with risk monitors. Health monitoring techniques in combination with predictive estimates of component failure based on condition and risk monitors can serve to indicate the risk posed by continued operation in the presence of detected degradation. This combination of predictive health monitoring based on equipment condition assessment and risk monitors can also enable optimization of maintenance scheduling with respect to the economics of plant operation. This report summarizes PNNL’s multi-year project on the development and evaluation of an ERM concept for active components while highlighting FY2016 accomplishments. Specifically, this report provides a status summary of the integration and demonstration of the prototypic ERM framework with the plant supervisory control algorithms being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and describes additional case studies conducted to assess sensitivity of the technology to different quantities. Supporting documentation on the software package to be provided to ONRL is incorporated in this report.

  2. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  3. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  4. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  5. Missions and Moral Judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Amy Turner

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the history of Spanish-American missions, discussing the view of missions in church history, their role in the Spanish conquest, and the role and ideas of Herbert E. Bolton. Focuses on differences among Spanish borderlands missions, paying particular attention to the Florida missions. (CMK)

  6. ERM Ideas and Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kari

    2012-01-01

    In this column, the author discusses how the management of e-books has introduced, at many libraries and in varying degrees, the challenges of maintaining effective technical services workflows. Four different e-book workflows are identified and explored, and the author takes a closer look at how particular variables for each are affected, such as…

  7. Effect of Repeat Dosing of Engineered Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus on Preclinical Models of Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Waters

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS, a tumor of skeletal muscle origin, is the most common sarcoma of childhood. Despite multidrug chemotherapy regimens, surgical intervention, and radiation treatment, outcomes remain poor, especially in advanced disease, and novel therapies are needed for the treatment of these aggressive malignancies. Genetically engineered oncolytic viruses, such as herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV, are currently being explored as treatments for pediatric tumors. M002, an oncolytic HSV, has both copies of the γ134.5 gene deleted, enabling replication in tumor cells but thwarting infection of normal, postmitotic cells. We hypothesized that M002 would infect human RMS tumor cells and lead to decreased tumor cell survival in vitro and impede tumor growth in vivo. In the current study, we demonstrated that M002 could infect, replicate in, and decrease cell survival in both embryonal (ERMS and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS cells. Additionally, M002 reduced xenograft tumor growth and increased animal survival in both ARMS and ERMS. Most importantly, we showed for the first time that repeated dosing of oncolytic virus coupled with low-dose radiation provided improved tumor response in RMS. These findings provide support for the clinical investigation of oncolytic HSV in pediatric RMS.

  8. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  9. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  10. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  11. Pašcieņas, ķermeņa tēla un akadēmisko sasniegumu saistība pusaudžiem

    OpenAIRE

    Skvorcova, Beāte

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir pašcieņas, ķermeņa tēla un akadēmisko sasniegumu saistība pusaudžiem. Darba mērķis ir pētīt saistības starp pašcieņu, ķermeņa tēlu un akadēmiskajiem sasniegumiem pusaudžiem. Darba teorētiskajā daļā tiek aprakstīts pusaudžu vecumposma raksturojums, pašcieņa Pusaudžiem un ķermeņa tēls pusaudžiem. Atsevišķi tiek aprakstīta pašcieņa un ķermeņa tēls, pašcieņa un akadēmiskie sasniegumi. Praktiskajā daļā tiek pētītas pašcieņas, ķermeņa tēla un akadēmisko sasnie...

  12. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  13. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  14. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  15. The third mission

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José GARCÍA-PEÑALVO

    2016-01-01

    The editorial of this first issue of volume 17, corresponding to 2016, is devoted to the university-business-society relationships that is usually known as Third Mission of the University or the knowledge transfer mission.

  16. Mission of Librarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşit Sarıgül

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of the book titled “Mission of Librarian” authored by Jose Ortega y Gasset and translated into Turkish by M. Turker Acaroğlu. The book, which is published by  İstanbul Branch of Turkish Librarians’ Association, explains mission, professional mission and mission of librarian in the future. The book also includes an interview with M. Turker Acaroğlu.

  17. Phylogeography of Yersinia ruckeri reveals effects of past evolutionary events on the current strain distribution and explains variations in the global transmission of Enteric Redmouth (ERM disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmine eBastardo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic patterns and population genetic structure of Yersinia ruckeri, the pathological agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM in salmonids, were investigated on the basis of concatenated multiloci sequences from isolates of different phenotypes obtained between 1965-2009 from diverse areas and hosts. Sequence analyses revealed genetic differentiation among subpopulations with the largest genetic distance occurring between subpopulations of Europe and Canada and/or South America. Bayesian analysis indicated the presence of three ancestral population clusters. Mismatch distribution displayed signatures characteristic of changes in size due to demographic and spatial expansions in the overall Y. ruckeri population, and also in the geographically separate subpopulations. Furthermore, a weak signal of isolation by distance was determined. A significant positive correlation between genetic and geographical distances was observed. These results revealed that the population of Y. ruckeri has undergone both ancient and recent population changes that were probably induced by biogeography forces in the past and, much more recently, by adaptive processes forced by aquaculture expansion. These findings have important implications for future studies on Y. ruckeri population dynamics, on the potential role of genetic structure to explain variations in ERM transmission, and on the effect of past evolutionary events on current estimations of gene flow.

  18. Addressing Analytical Challenges of the Environmental Monitoring for the Water Framework Directive: ERM-CE100, a New Biota Certified Reference Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosis, Ioannis; Ricci, Marina; Majoros, Laszlo; Lava, Roberto; Emteborg, Håkan; Held, Andrea; Emons, Hendrik

    2017-02-21

    In the context of supporting the EU Member States in the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), a project for the production of a fish reference material (ERM-CE100) certified for its content of the two priority substances hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) was carried out at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. The starting material was naturally contaminated Wels catfish (Silurus glanis), caught in the Ebro River (Spain). A novel approach for the processing of the fish was tested that resulted in a homogeneous and stable reference material in the form of a wet paste. The fresh-like texture of the matrix enhances the comparability of this material toward routinely analyzed environmental biota samples and facilitates its use as a quality assurance tool given that the WFD environmental quality standards (EQS) for biota are expressed as wet weight. Certified values for the mass fractions of HCB and HCBD were assigned with 120 ± 8 and 36 ± 4 μg/kg, respectively. The related interlaboratory comparison involved 13 expert laboratories applying a range of analytical methodologies. It is the first biota CRM ever available for HCBD. ERM-CE100 can be used to assess the performance of analytical methods employed in the mandatory monitoring of water bodies under the WFD, thus, providing a benchmark for establishing comparability among measurement results.

  19. A Comprehensive Analysis of Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Data: II. $E_{\\rm p}$-Evolution Patterns and Implications for the Observed Spectrum-Luminosity Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Rui-Jing; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Lü, Hou-Jun; Lian-Zhong,; Lü,; Lei, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Bing

    2012-01-01

    We present a time-resolved spectral analysis of 51 long and 11 short bright GRBs observed with the {\\em Femri}/GBM, paying special attention to $E_{\\rm p}$ evolution within a same burst. Among 8 single-pulse long GRBs, 5 show hard-to-soft evolution, while 3 show intensity-tracking. The multi-pulse long GRBs have more complicated patterns. Among the GRBs whose time-resolved spectrum is available for the first pulse, almost half (15/32 GRBs) show clear hard-to-soft evolution, and the other half (17/32 GRBs) show clear intensity-tracking. Later pulses typically show the tracking behavior, although a hard-to-soft evolution pattern was identified in the 2nd pulse of 2 GRBs whose pulses are well separated. Statistically, the hard-to-soft evolution pulses tend to be more asymmetric than the intensity-tracking ones, with a steeper rising wing than the falling wing. Short GRBs have $E_{\\rm p}$ tracking intensity exclusively with the 16ms time resolution analysis. We performed a simulation analysis, and suggest that at...

  20. Threads of Mission Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  1. Mission operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  2. Sentinel-3 Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, U.; Berruti, B.; Donlon, C.; Frerick, J.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Stroede, J.; Rebhan, H.

    2009-04-01

    The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will provide global, frequent and near-realtime ocean, ice and land monitoring. Sentinel-3 will be particularly devoted to the provision of observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. It will continue the successful observations of similar predecessor instruments onboard Envisat from 2012 onwards. The Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) is based on the Envisat MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS) instrument. It fulfils ocean-colour and land-cover objectives with a larger swath and additional spectral bands. The Sea and Land Surface Temperature radiometer (SLSTR) is based on Envisat's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). SLSTR has a double-scanning mechanism, yielding a wider swath and a complete overlap with OLCI. This enables the generation of a synergy product with a total of 30 spectral bands, fully co-registered for new and innovative ocean and land products. The topography mission has the primary objective of providing accurate, closely spaced altimetry measurements from a high-inclination orbit with a long repeat cycle. It will complement the Jason ocean altimeter series monitoring mid-scale circulation and sea levels. The altimeter will be operated in two different modes, a classical low resolution mode and a synthetic aperture mode similar to CryoSat for increased along-track resolution and improved performance. Accompanying the altimeter will be a Precise Orbit Determination system and microwave radiometer (MWR) for removing the errors related to the altimeter signals being delayed by water vapour in the atmosphere. The altimeter will track over a variety of surfaces: Open ocean, coastal zones, sea ice and inland waters. The conceptual designs of the major instruments and their basic performance parameters will be introduced together with the expected accuracies of the main

  3. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  4. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  5. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  6. JPL Mission Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years ongoing bibliographies of various JPL missions (AIRS, ASTER, Cassini, GRACE, Earth Science, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity)) have been compiled by the JPL Library. Mission specific bibliographies are compiled by the Library and sent to mission scientists and managers in the form of regular (usually quarterly) updates. Charts showing publications by years are periodically provided to the ASTER, Cassini, and GRACE missions for supporting Senior Review/ongoing funding requests, and upon other occasions as a measure of the impact of the missions. Basically the Web of Science, Compendex, sometimes Inspec, GeoRef and Aerospace databases are searched for the mission name in the title, abstract, and assigned keywords. All get coded for journal publications that are refereed publications.

  7. The STEREO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The STEREO mission uses twin heliospheric orbiters to track solar disturbances from their initiation to 1 AU. This book documents the mission, its objectives, the spacecraft that execute it and the instruments that provide the measurements, both remote sensing and in situ. This mission promises to unlock many of the mysteries of how the Sun produces what has become to be known as space weather.

  8. Pusaudžu meiteņu pašcieņa saistībā ar pubertāti, ķermeņa tēlu un vardarbības pieredzi

    OpenAIRE

    Lapsa, Līga

    2013-01-01

    Šī bakalaura darba mērķis ir noskaidrot saistības starp pašcieņu, pubertāti, Ķermeņa masas indeksu, ķermeņa tēlu un vardarbības pieredzi 11 – 14 gadus vecām Latvijas pusaudžu meitenēm. Pētījuma izlasi veido 60 meitenes. Pētījumā izmantota Rozenberga pašcieņas aptauja, Ķermeņa tēla uztveres aptauja, Bērnības traumu aptauja, kā arī jautājumi par meitenes vecumu, menstruāciju sākšanās vecumu, augumu un svaru. Pētījuma rezultāti rāda, ka pastāv statistiski nozīmīga atšķirība ķermeņa tēla rādītājo...

  9. High Prevalence of the ermB Gene among Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Germany during the Winter of 2000-2001 and In Vitro Activity of Telithromycin

    OpenAIRE

    Kresken, Michael; Henrichfreise, Beate; Bagel, Simone; Brauers, Johannes; Wiedemann, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    Of 595 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from outpatients with respiratory tract infections, collected from 17 microbiology laboratories, 14.1% were resistant to erythromycin. Eighty-three erythromycin-resistant isolates were genetically analyzed, 83.1% of which harbored the ermB gene. Only four isolates (4.8%) harbored the mefA gene. Telithromycin exhibited potent activity against all isolates.

  10. High prevalence of the ermB gene among erythromycin-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Germany during the winter of 2000-2001 and in vitro activity of telithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresken, Michael; Henrichfreise, Beate; Bagel, Simone; Brauers, Johannes; Wiedemann, Bernd

    2004-08-01

    Of 595 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from outpatients with respiratory tract infections, collected from 17 microbiology laboratories, 14.1% were resistant to erythromycin. Eighty-three erythromycin-resistant isolates were genetically analyzed, 83.1% of which harbored the ermB gene. Only four isolates (4.8%) harbored the mefA gene. Telithromycin exhibited potent activity against all isolates.

  11. The Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  12. Mission Medical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  13. The SPICA mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.; Simon, R.; Schaaf, R.; Stutzki, J,

    2016-01-01

    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 yea

  14. KEEL for Mission Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-06

    cognitive technology for application in automotive , industrial automation, medical, military, governmental, enterprise software and electronic gaming...evaluate risks or develop and test new tactics and strategies. This paper separates Mission Planning Software into two domains: 1. Rendering of the...simplest form, Mission Planning is the process of evaluating information in the form of risks (threats) and rewards (opportunities) to most appropriately

  15. Bering Mission Navigation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2003-01-01

    "Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks...

  16. The Pioneer Venus Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  17. Recce mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  18. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cañizares, P.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferrone, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hernández, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H.-B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission, a precursor mission aimed at demonstrating key technologies for future space-based gravitational wave detectors, like LISA. Since much of the flight hardware has already been constructed and tested, we will show that performance measurements and analysis of these flight components lead to an expected performance of the LISA Pathfinder which is a significant improvement over the mission requirements, and which actually reaches the LISA requirements over the entire LISA Pathfinder measurement band.

  19. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  20. Uganda Mission PRS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...

  1. STS-83 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The crew patch for NASA's STS-83 mission depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia launching into space for the first Microgravity Sciences Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission. MSL-1 investigated materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science in the microgravity environment of space, experiments that were conducted in the Spacelab Module in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay. The center circle symbolizes a free liquid under microgravity conditions representing various fluid and materials science experiments. Symbolic of the combustion experiments is the surrounding starburst of a blue flame burning in space. The 3-lobed shape of the outermost starburst ring traces the dot pattern of a transmission Laue photograph typical of biotechnology experiments. The numerical designation for the mission is shown at bottom center. As a forerunner to missions involving International Space Station (ISS), STS-83 represented the hope that scientific results and knowledge gained during the flight will be applied to solving problems on Earth for the benefit and advancement of humankind.

  2. The Prisma Hyperspectra Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, R.; Ananasso, C.; Guarini, R.; Lopinto, E.; Candela, L.; Pisani, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    PRISMA (PRecursore IperSpettrale della Missione Applicativa) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) hyperspectral mission currently scheduled for the lunch in 2018. PRISMA is a single satellite placed on a sun- synchronous Low Earth Orbit (620 km altitude) with an expected operational lifetime of 5 years. The hyperspectral payload consists of a high spectral resolution (VNIR-SWIR) imaging spectrometer, optically integrated with a medium resolution Panchromatic camera. PRISMA will acquire data on areas of 30 km Swath width and with a Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) of 30 m (hyperspectral) and of 5 m Panchromatic (PAN). The PRISMA Ground Segment will be geographically distributed between Fucino station and ASI Matera Space Geodesy Centre and will include the Mission Control Centre, the Satellite Control Centre and the Instrument Data Handling System. The science community supports the overall lifecycle of the mission, being involved in algorithms definition, calibration and validation activities, research and applications development.

  3. Athena Mission Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Rau, Arne

    2015-09-01

    The optimization of the Athena mission, the ESA's large X-ray observatory for 2028, is a key challenge. Critical elements for achieving the scientific performances are obviously the two instruments and the optics. However, additional aspects related to the overall mission performances are crucial as well, including the particle background environment (separate presentation), the calibration, the response time to Target of Opportunity requests, the functionality of the science ground segment, and the available high-quality data analysis tools. In addition, the full performance of the satellite will be modeled by an end-to-end simulator. In this presentation we will give an overview of the various systems and also present the Mock Observing Plan that is used to optimize the mission. The work presented in this contribution is based on a collective effort of the Athena science community and is coordinated by the Athena Mission Performance Working Group.

  4. Doing mission inclusively

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... language, rituals, rules, values, and other religious and cultural settings. ... This article posits that Christians, while being in the world, are not of this world. ..... is at the heart of all Christian missions, a core competence of.

  5. Autonomous Mission Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human spaceflight missions will occur with crews and spacecraft at large distances, with long communication delays, to the Earth. The one-way light-time delay...

  6. Estudo do metabolismo energético muscular em atletas por 31P-ERM Muscular energetic metabolism study in athletes by 31P-MRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gisele dos Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar as reservas energéticas de metabólitos fosforilados no músculo esquelético de atletas mediante 31P-ERM. MÉTODOS: Amostra deste estudo foi formada por 14 atletas de alto nível do Centro de Alto Rendimento Esportivo (CAR, Sant Cugat del Vallés, Espanha. O padrão de metabólitos fosforilados foi medido no músculo vasto medial por 31P-ERM. A suplementação oral foi realizada durante 14 dias, na forma de 20g de monohidrato de creatina. Os atletas foram determinados conforme as suas características físicas (peso, altura, índice de massa corporal (IMC, consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 Max. em dois grupos: placebo (maltodextrina e suplementação com creatina. O protocolo de exercício foi realizado no interior do túnel de ressonância (160 x 52 cm, a 60 ciclos por minuto para ambas as pernas. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram um aumento significativo da fosfocreatina (PCr durante o exercício, após o período de suplementação, denotando uma redução do seu consumo no grupo que recebeu suplementação com creatina; não houve diminuição significativa do pH intracelular e fosfato inorgânico após a suplementação. CONCLUSÃO: O protocolo de exercício realizado pelos fundistas no Centro de Diagnóstico de Pedralbes permitiu detectar mediante 31P-ERM, no grupo que foi suplementado com creatina, uma diminuição do consumo de PCr durante os períodos de exercício.BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to characterize the muscular reservoirs of phosphorilated energetic components of athletes using 31P-MRS. METHODS: The sample was formed by 14 elite athletes from the Center for High Sportive Performance (CAR, Sant Cugat del Vallés, Spain. The pattern of the phosphorilated metabolites was measured from the muscle vastus medialis by 31P-MRS. Oral supplementation of 20 g of Creatine monohydrate was given during 14 days. Two groups of athletes were formed according to their physical characteristics (weight

  7. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  8. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  9. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  10. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  11. Bering Mission Navigation Method

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    "Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks, "Bering" sports several new technological enhancements and advanced instruments under development at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The autonomous on-board orbit determination method is part...

  12. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  13. Robotic Mission Simulation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes a software tool to predict robotic mission performance and support supervision of robotic missions even when environments and...

  14. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  15. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  16. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  17. ERM 593 Applied Project_Guidance for Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System_Final_05-05-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elicio, Andy U. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-05

    My ERM 593 applied project will provide guidance for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Stream Profile reviewer (i.e. RCRA reviewer) in regards to Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System. The Waste Compliance and Tracking system is called WCATS. WCATS is a web-based application that “supports the generation, characterization, processing and shipment of LANL radioactive, hazardous, and industrial waste.” The LANL generator must characterize their waste via electronically by filling out a waste stream profile (WSP) in WCATS. Once this process is completed, the designated waste management coordinator (WMC) will perform a review of the waste stream profile to ensure the generator has completed their waste stream characterization in accordance with applicable state, federal and LANL directives particularly P930-1, “LANL Waste Acceptance Criteria,” and the “Waste Compliance and Tracking System User's Manual, MAN-5004, R2,” as applicable. My guidance/applied project will describe the purpose, scope, acronyms, definitions, responsibilities, assumptions and guidance for the WSP reviewer as it pertains to each panel and subpanel of a waste stream profile.

  18. 国内外电子资源管理系统研究综述%Literature Review of ERMS At Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大庆

    2014-01-01

    文章从国外选取Emerald、Taylor&Francis、EBSCO、Science Direct,从国内选取CNKI、万方、维普(VIP)为检索工具,分别以2000-2013年国外发表的145篇及国内32篇关于电子资源管理系统(ERMS)的研究文献作为数据源,从ERMS产品、ERMS实施与应用、ERMS的选择与评估标准、ERMS功能及满意度调查、ERM标准、ERMS发展历史与未来等方面综述国外电子资源管理系统研究现状.从2007-2008、2008-2010、2011年4月至今三个阶段分析国内电子资源管理系统研究情况.

  19. Resistin, a fat-derived secretory factor, promotes metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells through ERM activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ok; Kim, Nami; Lee, Hye Jeong; Lee, Yong Woo; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hyeon Soo

    2016-01-05

    Resistin, an adipocyte-secreted factor, is known to be elevated in breast cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanism by which resistin acts is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether resistin could stimulate invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Here, we report that resistin stimulated invasion and migration of breast cancer cells as well as phosphorylation of c-Src. Inhibition of c-Src blocked resistin-induced breast cancer cell invasion. Resistin increased intracellular calcium concentration, and chelation of intracellular calcium blocked resistin-mediated activation of Src. Resistin also induced phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Inhibition of c-Src blocked resistin-mediated PP2A phosphorylation. In addition, resistin increased phosphorylation of PKCα. Inhibition of PP2A enhanced resistin-induced PKCα phosphorylation, demonstrating that PP2A activity is critical for PKCα phosphorylation. Resistin also increased phosphorylation of ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM). Additionally, ezrin interacted with PKCα, and resistin promoted co-localization of ezrin and PKCα. Either inhibition of c-Src and PKCα or knock-down of ezrin blocked resistin-induced breast cancer cells invasion. Moreover, resistin increased expression of vimentin, a key molecule for cancer cell invasion. Knock-down of ezrin abrogated resistin-induced vimentin expression. These results suggest that resistin play as a critical regulator of breast cancer metastasis.

  20. KuaFu Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Lidong; TU Chuanyi; Schwenn Rainer; Donovan Eric; Marsch Eckart; WANG Jingsong; ZHANG Yongwei; XIAO Zuo

    2006-01-01

    The KuaFu mission-Space Storms, Aurora and Space Weather Explorer-is an "L1+Polar" triple satellite project composed of three spacecraft: KuaFu-A will be located at L1 and have instruments to observe solar EUV and FUV emissions, and white-light Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), and to measure radio waves, the local plasma and magnetic field,and high-energy particles. KuaFuB1 and KuaFu- B2 will bein polar orbits chosen to facilitate continuous 24 hours a day observation of the north polar Aurora Oval. The KuaFu mission is designed to observe the complete chain of disturbances from the solar atmosphere to geospace, including solar flares, CMEs, interplanetary clouds, shock waves, and their geo-effects, such as magnetospheric sub-storms and magnetic storms, and auroral activities. The mission may start at the next solar maximum (launch in about 2012), and with an initial mission lifetime of two to three years. KuaFu data will be used for the scientific study of space weather phenomena, and will be used for space weather monitoring and forecast purposes. The overall mission design, instrument complement, and incorporation of recent technologies will target new fundamental science, advance our understanding of the physical processes underlying space weather, and raise the standard of end-to-end monitoring of the Sun-Earth system.

  1. High prevalence of erythromycin resistance and macrolide-resistance genes, mefA and ermB, in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from the upper respiratory tracts of children in the Sapporo district, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harimaya, Atsushi; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Sato, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Norikazu; Himi, Tetsuo; Fujii, Nobuhiro

    2007-08-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that the frequency of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) was lower in our district than in districts in other Japanese studies. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of erythromycin resistance. The susceptibility to erythromycin and the distribution of the macrolide-resistance genes, mefA and ermB, were examined in S. pneumoniae isolates from the upper respiratory tracts of children in four cities in the Sapporo district, Hokkaido prefecture, Japan. Of the 156 isolates, 27 (17.3%) were erythromycin-sensitive, 6 (3.9%) were erythromycin-intermediately resistant, and 123 (78.9%) were erythromycin-resistant. Fifty-nine (37.8%) had the mefA gene, 89 (57.1%) had the ermB gene, and 129 (82.7%) had the mefA and/or the ermB gene. The ermB-positive isolates tended to show high resistance to erythromycin. Erythromycin-resistant isolates and the macrolide-resistance genes were often present in infants or younger children. The frequency of erythromycin-resistant isolates in the four cities was very high, ranging from 76.3% to 83. 3%, as high as the national average. Although erythromycin-resistant isolates generally tend to show cross-resistance to penicillin, the frequency of PRSP was very low in this study, as compared with other Japanese studies. Erythromycin resistance was frequently recognized not only in PRSP but also in penicillin-sensitive S. pneumoniae (PSSP) as well. In Japan, erythromycin resistance may have already become widespread, even in local areas where penicillin resistance is not especially prevalent.

  2. The PROBA-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 is the next ESA mission in the PROBA line of small technology demonstration satellites. The main goal of PROBA-3 is in-orbit demonstration of formation flying techniques and technologies. The mission will consist of two spacecraft together forming a giant (150 m long) coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). The bigger spacecraft will host the telescope, and the smaller spacecraft will carry the external occulter of the coronagraph. ASPIICS heralds the next generation of solar coronagraphs that will use formation flying to observe the inner corona in eclipse-like conditions for extended periods of time. The occulter spacecraft will also host the secondary payload, DARA (Davos Absolute RAdiometer), that will measure the total solar irradiance. PROBA-3 is planned to be launched in 2019. The scientific objectives of PROBA-3 will be discussed in the context of other future solar and heliospheric space missions.

  3. The Hinode Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    The Solar-B satellite was launched in 2006 by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), and was renamed Hinode ('sunrise' in Japanese). Hinode carries three instruments: the X-ray telescope (XRT), the EUV imaging spectrometer (EIS), and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). These instruments were developed by ISAS/JAXA in cooperation with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan as domestic partner, and NASA and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK) as international partners. ESA and the Norwegian Space Center have been providing a downlink station. The Hinode (Solar-B) Mission gives a comprehensive description of the Hinode mission and its instruments onboard. This book is most useful for researchers, professionals, and graduate students working in the field of solar physics, astronomy, and space instrumentation. This is the only book that carefully describes the details of the Hinode mission; it is richly illustrated with full-color ima...

  4. Athena Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, D.

    2016-07-01

    Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.

  5. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R. [AeroAstro, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  6. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  7. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  8. STS-65 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Designed by the mission crew members, the STS-65 insignia features the International Microgravity Lab (IML)-2 mission and its Spacelab module which flew aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. IML-2 is reflected in the emblem by two gold stars shooting toward the heavens behind the IML lettering. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted orbiting the logo and reaching off into space, with Spacelab on an international quest for a better understanding of the effects of space flight on materials processing and life sciences.

  9. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome of the univer......A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome...

  10. Magellan: mission summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, R S; Pettengill, G H

    1991-04-12

    The Magellan radar mapping mission is in the process of producing a global, high-resolution image and altimetry data set of Venus. Despite initial communications problems, few data gaps have occurred. Analysis of Magellan data is in the initial stages. The radar system data are of high quality, and the planned performance is being achieved in terms of spatial resolution and geometric and radiometric accuracy. Image performance exceeds expectations, and the image quality and mosaickability are extremely good. Future plans for the mission include obtaining gravity data, filling gaps in the initial map, and conducting special studies with the radar.

  11. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  12. Mission Operations Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.

  13. The Gaia mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by Euro

  14. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  15. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter. The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper

  16. The Lobster Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  17. Mission from Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  18. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissanc

  19. Robust UAV mission planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance

  20. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Evers (Lanah); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); A.I. Barros (Ana); H. Monsuur (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUnmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a re

  1. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissanc

  2. EOS Aura Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, William J.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  3. The Gaia mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by

  4. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  5. Mission from Mars:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  6. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta;

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  7. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  8. The OCO-3 MIssion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldering, A.; Kaki, S.; Crisp, D.; Gunson, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    For the OCO-3 mission, NASA has approved a proposal to install the OCO-2 flight spare instrument on the International Space Station (ISS). The OCO-3 mission on ISS will have a key role in delivering sustained, global, scientifically-based, spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 to monitor natural sources and sinks as part of NASA's proposed OCO-2/OCO-3/ASCENDS mission sequence and NASA's Climate Architecture. The OCO-3 mission will contribute to understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle through enabling flux estimates at smaller spatial scales and through fluorescence measurements that will reduce the uncertainty in terrestrial carbon flux measurements and drive bottom-up land surface models through constraining GPP. The combined nominal missions of both OCO-2 and OCO-3 will likely span a complete El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, a key indicator of ocean variability. In addition, OCO-3 may allow investigation of the high-frequency and wavenumber structures suggested by eddying ocean circulation and ecosystem dynamics models. Finally, significant growth of urban agglomerations is underway and projected to continue in the coming decades. With the city mode sampling of the OCO-3 instrument on ISS we can evaluate different sampling strategies aimed at studying anthropogenic sources and demonstrate elements of a Greenhouse Gas Information system, as well as providing a gap-filler for tracking trends in the fastest-changing anthropogenic signals during the coming decade. In this presentation, we will describe our science objectives, the overall approach of utilization of the ISS for OCO-3, and the unique features of XCO2 measurements from ISS.

  9. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  10. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  11. C. difficile 630Δerm Spo0A regulates sporulation, but does not contribute to toxin production, by direct high-affinity binding to target DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina E Rosenbusch

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a Gram positive, anaerobic bacterium that can form highly resistant endospores. The bacterium is the causative agent of C. difficile infection (CDI, for which the symptoms can range from a mild diarrhea to potentially fatal pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. Endospore formation in Firmicutes, including C. difficile, is governed by the key regulator for sporulation, Spo0A. In Bacillus subtilis, this transcription factor is also directly or indirectly involved in various other cellular processes. Here, we report that C. difficile Spo0A shows a high degree of similarity to the well characterized B. subtilis protein and recognizes a similar binding sequence. We find that the laboratory strain C. difficile 630Δerm contains an 18bp-duplication near the DNA-binding domain compared to its ancestral strain 630. In vitro binding assays using purified C-terminal DNA binding domain of the C. difficile Spo0A protein demonstrate direct binding to DNA upstream of spo0A and sigH, early sporulation genes and several other putative targets. In vitro binding assays suggest that the gene encoding the major clostridial toxin TcdB may be a direct target of Spo0A, but supernatant derived from a spo0A negative strain was no less toxic towards Vero cells than that obtained from a wild type strain, in contrast to previous reports. These results identify for the first time direct (putative targets of the Spo0A protein in C. difficile and make a positive effect of Spo0A on production of the large clostridial toxins unlikely.

  12. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  13. Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.

    1999-01-01

    The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

  14. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  15. The Sentinel-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berruti, B.; Mavrocordatos, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Sentinel-3 Operational Mission is part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative, which was established to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-realtime ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. The first launch is expected in 2013. Currently half way through the development phase of the project, this paper presents the consolidated Sentinel-3 design and expected performances related to the different mission objectives (ocean colour, altimetry, surface temperature, land). The operational concept and key system performances are also addressed, as well as the satellite and instruments design. Finally, the schedule for the remaining development is presented.

  16. The Euclid mission design

    CERN Document Server

    Racca, Giuseppe D; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean Christophe; Alvarez, Jose Lorenzo; Criado, Gonzalo Saavedra; Venancio, Luis Gaspar; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Boenke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jerome; Berthe, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha

    2016-01-01

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the sc...

  17. The THEMIS Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, J. L

    2009-01-01

    The THEMIS mission aims to determine the trigger and large-scale evolution of substorms by employing five identical micro-satellites which line up along the Earth's magnetotail to track the motion of particles, plasma, and waves from one point to another and for the first time, resolve space-time ambiguities in key regions of the magnetosphere on a global scale. The primary goal of THEMIS is to elucidate which magnetotail process is responsible for substorm onset at the region where substorm auroras map: (i) local disruption of the plasma sheet current (current disruption) or (ii) the interaction of the current sheet with the rapid influx of plasma emanating from reconnection. The probes also traverse the radiation belts and the dayside magnetosphere, allowing THEMIS to address additional baseline objectives. This volume describes the mission, the instrumentation, and the data derived from them.

  18. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  19. Deep Blue Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese Navy dispatches ships to the Gulf of Aden on a second escort mission, marking its growing strength in the face of more diverse challenges Elarly in the morning of April 23, crew- imembers from the Chinese Navy’s second escort fleet in the Gulf of Aden Igathered on deck and saluted to the east, paying their respects to the motherland in celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Chinese Navy. This fleet,

  20. Space VLBI Mission: VSOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiro; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Edwards, P. G.

    2001-03-01

    We succeeded in performing space VLBI observations using the VLBI satellite HALCA (VSOP satellite), launched in February, 1997 aboard the first M-V rocket developed by ISAS. The mission is led by ISAS and NAO, with the collaborations from CRL, NASA, NRAO, and other institutes and observatories in Europe, Australia, Canada, South-Africa, and China, We succeeded to make a lot of observations and to get the new features from the active galaxies, the cosmic jets, and other astronomical objects.

  1. A Somalia mission experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-06-28

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  2. A Mars 1984 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  3. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    Technology applications 12 5 VMs allow one host to belong to multiple VLANs 14 6 Asset recommendation system mockup 15 7 Perturbative mapping may...extended list of critical assets based on communications patterns and software dependencies. Once vulnerabilities have been assessed, AMMO produces a...status of not just network machines, but also software tools, network connections, server room conditions, and many other mission parameters. From this

  4. Titan Saturn System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, Kim R.

    2009-01-01

    Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Roadmap. NASA's 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program Themes. Recent revolutionary Cassini-Huygens discoveries have dramatically escalated interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer solar system. This study demonstrates that an exciting Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) that explores two worlds of intense astrobiological interest can be initiated now as a single NASA/ESA collaboration.

  5. The Gaia mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia Collaboration; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-11-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page. http://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia

  6. The Juno Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the origin of Jupiter will be presented.

  7. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  8. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  9. Multi-Mission SDR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless transceivers used for NASA space missions have traditionally been highly custom and mission specific. Programs such as the GRC Space Transceiver Radio...

  10. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  11. Science Parametrics for TPF-Type Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    We propose a science metric for pure-search missions of the scale of the Terrestrial Planet Finder. The metric is the expected number $N$ of discovered earthlike planets as a function of total exposure time $\\Sigma\\tau$. We estimate $N(\\Sigma\\tau)$ for a range of mission parameters: aperture $D=4-16$ m, inner working angle $IWA=0.0196''-0.3135''$, and $\\Sigma\\tau=10-1000$ d. Our technique involves (1) building a prioritized stack of all possible search observations of stars in the input catalog, including revisits, (2) constructing design reference missions by repeatedly selecting the observation with highest merit from the top of the stack, (3) estimating the density of $N$ by convolving the Bernoullian densities of executed observations, and (4) investigating the parametrical variations of $N$, $D$, $IWA$, and $\\Sigma\\tau$. For example, near the center of the range of parameters -- at $D=8$ m, $IWA=0.0784''$, $\\Sigma\\tau=100$ d -- we estimate $N=40$, that $N\\sim\\Sigma\\tau^{0.272}$, and that a factor-two imp...

  12. Microsats for On-Orbit Support Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledebuhr, A G

    2001-03-15

    I appreciate the opportunity to address this conference and describe some of our work and plans for future space missions and capabilities. My presentation will consist of a short overview of our program, some potential missions and enabling technologies, as well as, a description of some of our test vehicles and ongoing docking experiments. The Micro-Satellite Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing technologies for a new generation of a very highly capable autonomous microsats. A microsat is defined here as a vehicle that's less than 100 kilograms in mass. We're looking at a number of different microsat design configurations, between 0.5 to 1 meter in length and less than 40 kg in mass. You'll see several ground-test vehicles that we have been building that are modeled after potential future on-orbit systems. In order to have very aggressive missions, these microsats will require new integrated proximity operation sensors, advanced propulsion, avionics and guidance systems. Then to make this dream a reality a new approach to high fidelity ''hardware-in-the-loop'' ground testing, will be discussed that allows repeated tests with the same vehicle multiple times. This will enable you to ''get it right'' before going into space. I'll also show some examples of our preliminary docking work completed as of today.

  13. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  14. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  15. Exomars Mission Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J.; Juillet, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    ExoMars is the first step of the European Space Agency's Aurora Exploration Programme. Comprising two missions, the first one launched in 2016 and the second one to be launched in 2020, ExoMars is a program developed in a broad ESA and Roscosmos co-operation, with significant contribution from NASA that addresses the scientific question of whether life ever existed on Mars and demonstrate key technologies for entry, descent, landing, drilling and roving on the Martian surface . Thales Alenia Space is the overall prime contractor of the Exomars program leading a large industrial team The Spacecraft Composite (SCC), consisting of a Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and an EDL (Entry Descend and Landing) Demonstrator Module (EDM) named Schiaparelli, has been launched on 14 March 2016 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome by a Proton Launcher. The two modules will separate on 16 October 2016 after a 7 months cruise. The TGO will search for evidence of methane and other atmospheric gases that could be signatures of active biological or geological processes on Mars and will provide communications relay for the 2020 surface assets. The Schiaparelli module will prove the technologies required to safely land a payload on the surface of Mars, with a package of sensors aimed to support the reconstruction of the flown trajectory and the assessment of the performance of the EDL subsystems. For the second Exomars mission a space vehicle composed of a Carrier Module (CM) and a Descent Module (DM), whose Landing Platform (LP) will house a Rover, will begin a 7 months long trip to Mars in August 2020. In 2021 the Descent Module will be separated from the Carrier to carry out the entry into the planet's atmosphere and subsequently make the Landing Platform and the Rover land gently on the surface of Mars. While the LP will continue to measure the environmental parameters of the landing site, the Rover will begin exploration of the surface, which is expected to last 218 Martian days (approx. 230 Earth

  16. Solar sail mission design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leipold, M.

    2000-02-01

    The main subject of this work is the design and detailed orbit transfer analysis of space flight missions with solar sails utilizing solar pressure for primary propulsion. Such a sailcraft requires ultra-light weight, gossamer-like deployable structures and materials in order to effectively utilize the transfer of momentum of solar photons. Different design concepts as well as technological elements for solar sails are considered, and an innovative design of a deployable sail structure including new methods for sail folding and unfolding is presented. The main focus of this report is on trajectory analysis, simulation and optimization of planetocentric as well as heliocentric low-thrust orbit transfers with solar sails. In a parametric analysis, geocentric escape spiral trajectories are simulated and corresponding flight times are determined. In interplanetary space, solar sail missions to all planets in our solar system as well as selected minor bodies are included in the analysis. Comparisons to mission concepts utilizing chemical propulsion as well as ion propulsion are included in order to assess whether solar sailing could possibly enhance or even enable this mission. The emphasis in the interplanetary mission analysis is on novel concepts: a unique method to realize a sun-synchronous Mercury orbiter, fast missions to the outer planets and the outer heliosphere applying a ''solar photonic assist'', rendezvous and sample return missions to asteroids and comets, as well as innovative concepts to reach unique vantage points for solar observation (''Solar Polar Orbiter'' and ''Solar Probe''). Finally, a propellant-less sailcraft attitude control concept using an external torque due to solar pressure is analyzed. Examples for sail navigation and control in circular Earth orbit applying a PD-control algorithm are shown, illustrating the maneuverability of a sailcraft. (orig.) [German] Gegenstand dieser

  17. 75 FR 6178 - Mission Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ...), thermal coal, and palm oil exports for bio fuel, dominate energy exports. Sound fiscal and monetary.... Mission Statement Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission May 23-25, 2010. Mission... to Jakarta, Indonesia May 23-25, 2010 to discuss market development policies and promote U.S. exports...

  18. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  19. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1996-09-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission is a Discovery class mission that will place a small lander and rover on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997. The Pathfinder flight system is a single small lander, packaged within an aeroshell and back cover with a back-pack-style cruise stage. The vehicle will be launched, fly independently to Mars, and enter the atmosphere directly on approach behind the aeroshell. The vehicle is slowed by a parachute and 3 small solid rockets before landing on inflated airbags. Petals of a small tetrahedron shaped lander open up, to right the vehicle. The lander is solar powered with batteries and will operate on the surface for up to a year, downlinking data on a high-gain antenna. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, with 3 imagers and an alpha proton X-ray spectrometer, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The rover (includes a series of technology experiments), the instruments (including a stereo multispectral surface imager on a pop up mast and an atmospheric structure instrument-surface meteorology package) and the telemetry system will allow investigations of: the surface morphology and geology at meter scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products and early environments and conditions on Mars.

  20. Enabling the human mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley, John

    The duplication of earth conditions aboard a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat requires 60 lb/day/person of food, potable and hygiene water, and oxygen. A 1000-day mission to Mars would therefore require 30 tons of such supplies per crew member in the absence of a closed-cycle, or regenerative, life-support system. An account is given of the development status of regenerative life-support systems, as well as of the requisite radiation protection and EVA systems, the health-maintenance and medical care facilities, zero-gravity deconditioning measures, and planetary surface conditions protection.

  1. The CHEOPS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeg, Christopher; benz, willy; fortier, andrea; Ehrenreich, David; beck, Thomas; cessa, Virginie; Alibert, Yann; Heng, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry. It is expected to be launch-ready at the end of 2017.CHEOPS will be the first space observatory dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. It will have access to more than 70% of the sky. This will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based radial velocity surveys and for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The measurement of the radius of a planet from its transit combined with the determination of its mass through radial velocity techniques gives the bulk density of the planet, which provides direct insights into the structure and/or composition of the body. In order to meet the scientific objectives, a number of requirements have been derived that drive the design of CHEOPS. For the detection of Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting G5 dwarf stars with V-band magnitudes in the range 6 ≤ V ≤ 9 mag, a photometric precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time must be reached. This time corresponds to the transit duration of a planet with a revolution period of 50 days. In the case of Neptune-size planets orbiting K-type dwarf with magnitudes as faint as V=12 mag, a photometric precision of 85 ppm in 3 hours of integration time must be reached. To achieve this performance, the CHEOPS mission payload consists of only one instrument, a space telescope of 30 cm clear aperture, which has a single CCD focal plane detector. CHEOPS will be inserted in a low Earth orbit and the total duration of the CHEOPS mission is 3.5 years (goal: 5 years).The presentation will describe the current payload and mission design of CHEOPS, give the development status, and show the expected performances.

  2. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.

    2010-01-01

    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  3. The ARTEMIS mission

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    The ARTEMIS mission was initiated by skillfully moving the two outermost Earth-orbiting THEMIS spacecraft into lunar orbit to conduct unprecedented dual spacecraft observations of the lunar environment. ARTEMIS stands for Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun. Indeed, this volume discusses initial findings related to the Moon’s magnetic and plasma environments and the electrical conductivity of the lunar interior. This work is aimed at researchers and graduate students in both heliophysics and planetary physics. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Vol. 165/1-4, 2011.

  4. NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdridge, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    On 12 February 2001, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker became the first spacecraft to land on a small body, 433 Eros. Prior to that historic event, NEAR was the first-ever orbital mission about an asteroid. The mission presented general challenges associated with other planetary space missions as well as challenges unique to an inaugural mission around a small body. The NEAR team performed this operations feat with processes and tools developed during the 4-year-long cruise to Eros. Adding to the success of this historic mission was the cooperation among the NEAR science, navigation, guidance and control, mission design, and software teams. With clearly defined team roles, overlaps in responsibilities were minimized, as were the associated costs. This article discusses the processes and systems developed at APL that enabled the success of NEAR mission operations.

  5. VIP regulates CFTR membrane expression and function in Calu-3 cells by increasing its interaction with NHERF1 and P-ERM in a VPAC1- and PKCε-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshafie, Walaa; Chappe, Frederic G; Li, Mansong; Anini, Younes; Chappe, Valerie M

    2014-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a topical airway gland secretagogue regulating fluid secretions, primarily by stimulating cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent chloride secretion that contributes to the airways innate defense mechanism. We previously reported that prolonged VIP stimulation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptors (VPAC1) in airway cells enhances CFTR function by increasing its membrane stability. In the present study, we identified the key effectors in the VIP signaling cascade in the human bronchial serous cell line Calu-3. Using immunocytochemistry and in situ proximity ligation assays, we found that VIP stimulation increased CFTR membrane localization by promoting its colocalization and interaction with the scaffolding protein Na(+)/H(+) exchange factor 1 (NHERF1), a PDZ protein known as a positive regulator for CFTR membrane localization. VIP stimulation also increased phosphorylation, by protein kinase Cε of the actin-binding protein complex ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) and its interaction with NHERF1 and CFTR complex. On the other hand, it reduced intracellular CFTR colocalization and interaction with CFTR associated ligand, another PDZ protein known to compete with NHERF1 for CFTR interaction, inducing cytoplasmic retention and lysosomal degradation. Reducing NHERF1 or ERM expression levels by specific siRNAs prevented the VIP effect on CFTR membrane stability. Furthermore, iodide efflux assays confirmed that NHERF1 and P-ERM are necessary for VIP regulation of the stability and sustained activity of membrane CFTR. This study shows the cellular mechanism by which prolonged VIP stimulation of airway epithelial cells regulates CFTR-dependent secretions.

  6. UAVSAR: Airborne L-band Radar for Repeat Pass Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moes, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objectives of the UAVSAR Project were to: a) develop a miniaturized polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for use on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or piloted vehicle. b) develop the associated processing algorithms for repeat-pass differential interferometric measurements using a single antenna. c) conduct measurements of geophysical interest, particularly changes of rapidly deforming surfaces such as volcanoes or earthquakes. Two complete systems were developed. Operational Science Missions began on February 18, 2009 ... concurrent development and testing of the radar system continues.

  7. The SPICA mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.

    2016-05-01

    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 years. The spacecraft will house a 2.5 m telescope actively cooled to 8 K, providing unprecedented sensitivity at mid-far infrared wavelengths. The low background environment and wavelength coverage provided by SPICA will make it possible to conduct detailed spectroscopic surveys of sources in both the local and distant Universe, deep into the most obscured regions. Using these data the evolution of galaxies over a broad and continuous range of cosmic time can be studied, spanning the era of peak star forming activity. SPICA will also provide unique access to, among others, the deep-lying water-ice spectral features and HD lines within planet forming discs. SPICA will conduct an extensive survey of both planet forming discs and evolved planetary systems, with the aim of providing the missing link between planet formation models and the large number of extrasolar planetary systems now being discovered.

  8. Calvin and mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus (Kobus P. Labuschagne

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It has often been stated or implied that John Calvin and the Reformers in general were indifferent to or even against mission. The aim of this study is to point out that this understanding is not a true version of the facts. A thorough examination of the theology and actions of John Calvin, evaluated against the background of his times and world, reveals that he was firmly committed to spreading the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Lord. Also the theological insights of Calvin and the Reformers not only provided the crucial theological basis to support the future massive missionary expansion of Protestant churches, but necessitate for all times Church mission as a sure consequence of their theology. Calvin’s theology can indeed be described as an ‘essentially missionary theology’. In the heart of Calvin’s theological thinking clearly features the doctrine of justifi cation – because medieval man’s concern for salvation needed to be answered.

  9. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  10. EU Universities’ Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Arcimaviciene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years, a highly productive space of metaphor analysis has been established in the discourse studies of media, politics, business, and education. In the theoretical framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis, the restored metaphorical patterns are especially valued for their implied ideological value as realized both conceptually and linguistically. By using the analytical framework of Critical Metaphor Analysis and procedurally employing Pragglejaz Group’s Metaphor Identification Procedure, this study aims at analyzing the implied value of the evoked metaphors in the mission statements of the first 20 European Universities, according to the Webometrics ranking. In this article, it is proposed that Universities’ mission statements are based on the positive evaluation of the COMMERCE metaphor, which does not fully correlate with the ideological framework of sustainability education but is rather oriented toward consumerism in both education and society. Despite this overall trend, there are some traceable features of the conceptualization reflecting the sustainability approach to higher education, as related to freedom of speech, tolerance, and environmental concerns. Nonetheless, these are suppressed by the metaphoric usages evoking traditional dogmas of the conservative ideology grounded in the concepts of the transactional approach to relationship, competitiveness for superiority, the importance of self-interest and strength, and quantifiable quality.

  11. The Gaia mission

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We...

  12. OMV mission simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Keith E.

    1989-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will be remotely piloted during rendezvous, docking, or proximity operations with target spacecraft from a ground control console (GCC). The real-time mission simulator and graphics being used to design a console pilot-machine interface are discussed. A real-time orbital dynamics simulator drives the visual displays. The dynamics simulator includes a J2 oblate earth gravity model and a generalized 1962 rotating atmospheric and drag model. The simulator also provides a variable-length communication delay to represent use of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and NASA Communications (NASCOM). Input parameter files determine the graphics display. This feature allows rapid prototyping since displays can be easily modified from pilot recommendations. A series of pilot reviews are being held to determine an effective pilot-machine interface. Pilots fly missions with nominal to 3-sigma dispersions in translational or rotational axes. Console dimensions, switch type and layout, hand controllers, and graphic interfaces are evaluated by the pilots and the GCC simulator is modified for subsequent runs. Initial results indicate a pilot preference for analog versus digital displays and for two 3-degree-of-freedom hand controllers.

  13. STS-78 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 patch links past with present to tell the story of its mission and science through a design imbued with the strength and vitality of the 2-dimensional art of North America's northwest coast Indians. Central to the design is the space Shuttle whose bold lines and curves evoke the Indian image for the eagle, a native American symbol of power and prestige as well as the national symbol of the United States. The wings of the Shuttle suggest the wings of the eagle whose feathers, indicative of peace and friendship in Indian tradition, are captured by the U forms, a characteristic feature of Northwest coast Indian art. The nose of the Shuttle is the strong downward curve of the eagle's beak, and the Shuttle's forward windows, the eagle's eyes, represented through the tapered S forms again typical of this Indian art form. The basic black and red atoms orbiting the mission number recall the original NASA emblem while beneath, utilizing Indian ovoid forms, the major mission scientific experiment package LMS (Life and Materials Sciences) housed in the Shuttle's cargo bay is depicted in a manner reminiscent of totem-pole art. This image of a bird poised for flight, so common to Indian art, is counterpointed by an equally familiar Tsimshian Indian symbol, a pulsating sun with long hyperbolic rays, the symbol of life. Within each of these rays are now encased crystals, the products of this mission's 3 major, high-temperature materials processing furnaces. And as the sky in Indian lore is a lovely open country, home of the Sun Chief and accessible to travelers through a hole in the western horizon, so too, space is a vast and beckoning landscape for explorers launched beyond the horizon. Beneath the Tsimshian sun, the colors of the earth limb are appropriately enclosed by a red border representing life to the Northwest coast Indians. The Indian colors of red, navy blue, white, and black pervade the STS-78 path. To the right of the Shuttle-eagle, the constellation

  14. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  15. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT): Mission, Vision, and Business Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    The Goal of the GMAT project is to develop new space trajectory optimization and mission design technology by working inclusively with ordinary people, universities businesses and other government organizations; and to share that technology in an open and unhindered way. GMAT's a free and open source software system; free for anyone to use in development of new mission concepts or to improve current missions, freely available in source code form for enhancement or future technology development.

  16. Ensemble: an Architecture for Mission-Operations Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Powell, Mark; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, IHsiang; McCurdy, Michael; Vera, Alonso

    2008-01-01

    Ensemble is the name of an open architecture for, and a methodology for the development of, spacecraft mission operations software. Ensemble is also potentially applicable to the development of non-spacecraft mission-operations- type software. Ensemble capitalizes on the strengths of the open-source Eclipse software and its architecture to address several issues that have arisen repeatedly in the development of mission-operations software: Heretofore, mission-operations application programs have been developed in disparate programming environments and integrated during the final stages of development of missions. The programs have been poorly integrated, and it has been costly to develop, test, and deploy them. Users of each program have been forced to interact with several different graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Also, the strategy typically used in integrating the programs has yielded serial chains of operational software tools of such a nature that during use of a given tool, it has not been possible to gain access to the capabilities afforded by other tools. In contrast, the Ensemble approach offers a low-risk path towards tighter integration of mission-operations software tools.

  17. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  18. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  19. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  20. Phobos Sample Return mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  1. SOHO Mission Science Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Footage shows the SOHO Mission Pre-Launch Science Briefing. The moderator of the conference is Fred Brown, NASA/GSFC Public Affairs, introduces the panel members. Included are Professor Roger Bonnet, Director ESA Science Program, Dr. Wesley Huntress, Jr., NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Dr. Vicente Domingo, ESA SOHO Project Scientist. Also present are several members from the SOHO Team: Dr. Richard Harrison, Art Poland, and Phillip Scherrer. The discussions include understanding the phenomena of the sun, eruption of gas clouds into the atmosphere, the polishing of the mirrors for the SOHO satellite, artificial intelligence in the telescopes, and the launch and operating costs. The panel members are also seen answering questions from various NASA Centers and Paris.

  2. The Planck mission

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, François R

    2014-01-01

    These lecture from the 100th Les Houches summer school on "Post-planck cosmology" of July 2013 discuss some aspects of the Planck mission, whose prime objective was a very accurate measurement of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We announced our findings a few months ago, on March 21$^{st}$, 2013. I describe some of the relevant steps we took to obtain these results, sketching the measurement process, how we processed the data to obtain full sky maps at 9 different frequencies, and how we extracted the CMB temperature anisotropies map and angular power spectrum. I conclude by describing some of the main cosmological implications of the statistical characteristics of the CMB we found. Of course, this is a very much shortened and somewhat biased view of the \\Planck\\ 2013 results, written with the hope that it may lead some of the students to consult the original papers.

  3. The INTEGRAL mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Di Cocco, G.

    2003-01-01

    The ESA observatory INTEGRAL (International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) is dedicated to the fine spectroscopy (2.5 keV FWHM @ 1 MeV) and fine imaging (angular resolution: 12 arcmin FWHM) of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy range 15 keV to 10 MeV with concurrent source monitoring......-angular resolution imaging (15 keV-10 MeV). Two monitors, JEM-X (Lund et al. 2003) in the (3-35) keV X-ray band, and OMC (Mas-Hesse et al. 2003) in optical Johnson V-band complement the payload. The ground segment includes the Mission Operations Centre at ESOC, ESA and NASA ground stations, the Science Operations...

  4. The Messenger Mission to Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, D. L

    2007-01-01

    NASA’s MESSENGER mission, launched on 3 August, 2004 is the seventh mission in the Discovery series. MESSENGER encounters the planet Mercury four times, culminating with an insertion into orbit on 18 March 2011. It carries a comprehensive package of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and space environment experiments to complete the complex investigations of this solar-system end member, which begun with Mariner 10. The articles in this book, written by the experts in each area of the MESSENGER mission, describe the mission, spacecraft, scientific objectives, and payload. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the MESSENGER mission, to those studying the nature of the planet Mercury, and by all those interested in the design and implementation of planetary exploration missions.

  5. Descope of the ALIA mission

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xuefei; Xu, Shengnian; Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Bai, Shan; Bian, Xing; Cao, Zhoujian; Chen, Gerui; Chen, Xian; Ding, Yanwei; Dong, Peng; Gao, Wei; Heinzel, Gerhard; Li, Ming; Li, Shuo; Liu, Fukun; Luo, Ziren; Shao, Mingxue; Spurzem, Rainer; Sun, Baosan; Tang, Wenlin; Wang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Yu, Pin; Yuan, Yefei; Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhou, Zebing

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports on a feasibility study commissioned by the Chinese Academy of Sciences of China to explore various possible mission options to detect gravitational waves in space alternative to that of the eLISA/LISA mission concept. Based on the relative merits assigned to science and technological viability, a few representative mission options descoped from the ALIA mission are considered. A semi-analytic Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to understand the cosmic black hole merger histories starting from intermediate mass black holes at high redshift as well as the possible scientific merits of the mission options considered in probing the light seed black holes and their coevolution with galaxies in early Universe. The study indicates that, by choosing the armlength of the interferometer to be three million kilometers and shifting the sensitivity floor to around one-hundredth Hz, together with a very moderate improvement on the position noise budget, there are certain mission options capable ...

  6. STS-40 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The STS-40 patch makes a contemporary statement focusing on human beings living and working in space. Against a background of the universe, seven silver stars, interspersed about the orbital path of Columbia, represent the seven crew members. The orbiter's flight path forms a double-helix, designed to represent the DNA molecule common to all living creatures. In the words of a crew spokesman, ...(the helix) affirms the ceaseless expansion of human life and American involvement in space while simultaneously emphasizing the medical and biological studies to which this flight is dedicated. Above Columbia, the phrase Spacelab Life Sciences 1 defines both the Shuttle mission and its payload. Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian man, silhouetted against the blue darkness of the heavens, is in the upper center portion of the patch. With one foot on Earth and arms extended to touch Shuttle's orbit, the crew feels, he serves as a powerful embodiment of the extension of human inquiry from the boundaries of Earth to the limitless laboratory of space. Sturdily poised amid the stars, he serves to link scentists on Earth to the scientists in space asserting the harmony of efforts which produce meaningful scientific spaceflight missions. A brilliant red and yellow Earth limb (center) links Earth to space as it radiates from a native American symbol for the sun. At the frontier of space, the traditional symbol for the sun vividly links America's past to America's future, the crew states. Beneath the orbiting Shuttle, darkness of night rests peacefully over the United States. Drawn by artist Sean Collins, the STS 40 Space Shuttle patch was designed by the crewmembers for the flight.

  7. Hayabusa2 Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Tsuda, Yuichi; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Tanaka, Satoshi; Saiki, Takanao; Nakazawa, Satoru

    2017-07-01

    The Hayabusa2 mission journeys to C-type near-Earth asteroid (162173) Ryugu (1999 JU3) to observe and explore the 900 m-sized object, as well as return samples collected from the surface layer. The Haybusa2 spacecraft developed by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) was successfully launched on December 3, 2014 by an H-IIA launch vehicle and performed an Earth swing-by on December 3, 2015 to set it on a course toward its target Ryugu. Hayabusa2 aims at increasing our knowledge of the early history and transfer processes of the solar system through deciphering memories recorded on Ryugu, especially about the origin of water and organic materials transferred to the Earth's region. Hayabusa2 carries four remote-sensing instruments, a telescopic optical camera with seven colors (ONC-T), a laser altimeter (LIDAR), a near-infrared spectrometer covering the 3-μm absorption band (NIRS3), and a thermal infrared imager (TIR). It also has three small rovers of MINERVA-II and a small lander MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout) developed by German Aerospace Center (DLR) in cooperation with French space agency CNES. MASCOT has a wide angle imager (MasCam), a 6-band thermal radiator (MARA), a 3-axis magnetometer (MasMag), and a hyperspectral infrared microscope (MicrOmega). Further, Hayabusa2 has a sampling device (SMP), and impact experiment devices which consist of a small carry-on impactor (SCI) and a deployable camera (DCAM3). The interdisciplinary research using the data from these onboard and lander's instruments and the analyses of returned samples are the key to success of the mission.

  8. Swarming UAVs mission design strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Chi

    2007-04-01

    This paper uses a behavioral hierarchy approach to reduce the mission solution space and make the mission design easier. A UAV behavioral hierarchy is suggested, which is derived from three levels of behaviors: basic, individual and group. The individual UAV behavior is a combination of basic, lower level swarming behaviors with priorities. Mission design can be simplified by picking the right combination of individual swarming behaviors, which will emerge the needed group behaviors. Genetic Algorithm is used in both lower-level basic behavior design and mission design.

  9. Horizontal transfer of tet(M) and erm(B) resistance plasmids from food strains of Lactobacillus plantarum to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 in the gastrointestinal tract of gnotobiotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Louise; Wilcks, Andrea; Hammer, Karin;

    2007-01-01

    Two wild-type strains of Lactobacillus plantarum previously isolated from fermented dry sausages were analysed for their ability to transfer antibiotic resistance plasmids in the gastrointestinal tract. For this purpose, we used gnotobiotic rats as an in vivo model. Rats were initially inoculated...... with the recipient Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 at a concentration of 10(10) CFU mL(-1). After a week, either of the two donors L. plantarum DG 522 (harbouring a tet(M)-containing plasmid of c. 40 kb) or L. plantarum DG 507 [harbouring a tet(M)-containing plasmid of c. 10 kb and an erm(B)-containing plasmid of c. 8......(2) CFU g(-1) faeces towards the end of the experiment. For erm(B)-TCs, the number was significantly higher and increased to c. 10(3) CFU g(-1) faeces. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing in vivo transfer of wild-type antibiotic resistance plasmids from L. plantarum to E. faecalis....

  10. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  11. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  13. Simulation of Mission Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury

    2016-01-01

    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  14. ERIC: Mission, Structure, and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Jane B.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the mission, structure, and resource base of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Highlights include problems in meeting the information needs of a wide variety of educational practitioners as part of the mission; structure, based on organizational decentralization; and resources that are limited by…

  15. Mission Assurance: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    JFQ), Summer 1995. [9] Alberts , C.J. & Dorofee, A.J., “Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP): Assessing Risk in Complex Environments... CAMUS : Automatically Mapping Cyber Assets to Missions and Users,” Proc. of the 2010 Military Communications Conference (MILCOM 2009), 2009. [23

  16. Second generation Mars landed missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, J.; Rivellini, T.; Sabahi, D.; Thurman, S.; Eisen, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the candidate missions being considered for the next generation projects, discusses the new approaches being developed to implement safe and accurate entry, descent and landing to the Martian surface, and describes the rover technology that enables the long distance and duration surface mission.

  17. Mission Dolores and Jim Corbin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Written by history students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, this issue includes two articles relevant to East Texas history. "Mission Dolores and Jim Corbin," (Moss Heaton and others) is a summary of material presented by Professor James Corbin about the early Spanish presence in East Texas. The first attempt at setting up a mission was in 1690…

  18. ESA CHEOPS mission: development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, N.; Asquier, J.; Corral Van Damme, C.; Isaak, K.; Ratti, F.; Safa, F.; Southworth, R.; Broeg, C.; Benz, W.

    2016-07-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Science Programme Committee (SPC) selected CHEOPS (Characterizing Exoplanets Satellite) in October 2012 as the first S-class mission (S1) within the Agency's Scientific Programme, targeting launch readiness by the end of 2017. The CHEOPS mission is devoted to the first-step characterization of known exoplanets orbiting bright stars, to be achieved through the precise measurement of exo-planet radii using the technique of transit photometry. It is implemented as a partnership between ESA and a consortium of Member States led by Switzerland. CHEOPS is considered as a pilot case for implementing "small science missions" in ESA with the following requirements: science driven missions selected through an open Call for missions (bottom-up process); spacecraft development schedule much shorter than for M and L missions, in the range of 4 years; and cost-capped missions to ESA with possibly higher Member States involvement than for M or L missions. The paper describes the CHEOPS development status, focusing on the performed hardware manufacturing and test activities.

  19. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  20. Disruptive Propulsive Technologies for European Space Missions

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Advanced space technologies have been reviewed and analysed in view of heavy interplanetary missions of interest for Europe and European industry capabilities. Among the missions of interest: o Heavy robotic missions to outer planets, o Asteroid deflection missions, o Interplanetary manned mission (at longer term). These missions involve high speed increments, generally beyond the capability of chemical propulsion (except if gravitational swing-by can be used). For missions bey...

  1. UNAIDS: mission and roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The UN has responded to the ongoing AIDS crisis by creating a new Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). UNAIDS is the AIDS program of six UN agencies (UNICEF; the Development Programme; the Population Fund; the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; the World Health Organization, and the World Bank). The mission of UNAIDS is to lead a multisectoral effort to prevent HIV transmission, provide care and support, alleviate the impact of the epidemic, and reduce vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Thus, UNAIDS will operate in the areas of policy development and research, technical support, and advocacy. UNAIDS has had an executive director since January 1995, and a formal review of its strategic plan was scheduled for November 1995. At the country level, country representatives of the various agencies that make up UNAIDS will meet regularly to plan, program, and evaluate their HIV/AIDS activities. UNAIDS staff will be available to aid the country efforts. While UNAIDS will assume most of the global-level activities of its six cosponsor agencies, each agency will integrate HIV/AIDS considerations into their ongoing efforts.

  2. COSMOS 2044 Mission: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Ballard, R. W.; Connol, J. P.; Vasques, M. F.

    1992-01-01

    The COSMOS 2044 spaceflight was the ninth Soviet-International joint mission dedicated to space biomedicine and the seventh in which the United States has participated. The unmanned Vostok vehicle carried 10 rats and two rhesus monkeys on its 14-day voyage. This spaceflight yielded an unprecedented bounty of data on physiological responses to the microgravity environment. The tissues studied and the numbers and types of studies performed by members of the international science community constituted a new record. Many of the results obtained by the approximately 80 American scientists who participated are reported in the series of COSMOS 2044 papers in this issue. Descriptions of the spaceflight and animal procedures are detailed elsewhere. The broad goals of the space biomedical program are threefold. The first is to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the biological responses to the microgravity environment, be they adaptive or pathological. The second goal is to clarify the physiological-biochemical mechanisms mediating the responses to microgravity. The third goal of this program is to use the space environment as a tool to better understand adaptive and disease processes in terrestrial organisms.

  3. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  4. Diseño e implementación del Sistema de Control Interno basado en el Modelo COSO ERM en la Cooperativa de Ahorro y Crédito de la Pequeña Empresa de Pastaza Ltda., Año 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Davila Jacome, Pietra Catalina

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación parte de la necesidad de fortalecer un Sistema caduco de Control Interno que ha venido aplicándose en la CACPE PASTAZA. El resultado final de esta investigación será la implementación de una Guía Operativa de Control Interno Basada en COSO ERM, a través de la cual la Cooperativa logrará ser más eficiente y se enfocará en el logro de sus objetivos. Luego de conocer el marco conceptual del Control Interno Basado en COSO ERM, se ha identificado que la entida...

  5. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth- Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time.

  6. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  8. Multi-mission Satellite Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  9. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  10. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  11. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  12. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  13. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets.

  14. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  15. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  16. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  17. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  18. The Ulysses mission: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, R.G. [Space Science Dept. of ESA, Estec, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    1996-11-01

    On 30 September 1995, Ulysses completed its initial, highly successful, survey of the polar regions of the heliosphere in both southern and northern hemispheres, thereby fulfilling its prime mission. The results obtained to date are leading to a revision of many earlier ideas concerning the solar wind and the heliosphere. Now embarking on the second phase of the mission, Ulysses will continue along its out-of-ecliptic flight path for another complete orbit of the Sun. In contrast to the high-latitude phase of the prime mission, which occurred near solar minimum, the next polar passes (in 2000 and 2001) will take place when the Sun is at its most active.

  19. The Advanced Compton Telescope Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Boggs, S E; Ryan, J; Aprile, E; Gehrels, N; Kippen, M; Leising, M; Oberlack, U; Wunderer, C; Zych, A; Bloser, P; Harris, M; Hoover, A; Klimenk, A; Kocevski, D; McConnell, M; Milne, P; Novikova, E I; Phlips, B; Polsen, M; Sturner, S; Tournear, D; Weidenspointner, G; Wulf, E; Zoglauer, A; Baring, M; Beacom, J; Bildsten, L; Dermer, C; Hartmann, D; Hernanz, M; Smith, D; Starrfield, S; Boggs, Steven E.; Kurfess, James; Ryan, James; Aprile, Elena; Gehrels, Neil; Kippen, Marc; Leising, Mark; Oberlack, Uwe; Wunderer, Cornelia; Zych, Allen; Bloser, Peter; Harris, Michael; Hoover, Andrew; Klimenk, Alexei; Kocevski, Dan; Connell, Mark Mc; Milne, Peter; Novikova, Elena I.; Phlips, Bernard; Polsen, Mark; Sturner, Steven; Tournear, Derek; Weidenspointner, Georg; Wulf, Eric; Zoglauer, Andreas; Baring, Matthew; Beacom, John; Bildsten, Lars; Dermer, Charles; Hartmann, Dieter; Hernanz, Margarita; Smith, David; Starrfield, Sumner

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT), the next major step in gamma-ray astronomy, will probe the fires where chemical elements are formed by enabling high-resolution spectroscopy of nuclear emission from supernova explosions. During the past two years, our collaboration has been undertaking a NASA mission concept study for ACT. This study was designed to (1) transform the key scientific objectives into specific instrument requirements, (2) to identify the most promising technologies to meet those requirements, and (3) to design a viable mission concept for this instrument. We present the results of this study, including scientific goals and expected performance, mission design, and technology recommendations.

  20. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) Mathematical Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Steve

    2007-01-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a space trajectory optimization and mission analysis system developed by NASA and private industry in the spirit of the NASA Mission. GMAT contains new technology and is a testbed for future technology development.

  1. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Steven P. (Compiler)

    2016-01-01

    This is a software tutorial and presentation demonstrating the application of the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to the critical design phase of NASA missions. The demonstration discusses GMAT basics, then presents a detailed example of GMAT application to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. Other examples include OSIRIS-Rex. This talk is a combination of existing presentations; a GMAT basics and overview, and technical presentations from the TESS and OSIRIS-REx projects on their application of GMAT to critical mission design. The GMAT basics slides are taken from the open source training material. The OSIRIS-REx slides are from a previous conference presentation. The TESS slides are a streamlined version of the CDR package provided by the project with SBU and ITAR data removed by the TESS project.

  2. Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Can you ... spp. So, what can we do to prevent antibiotic resistance in healthcare settings? Patients, healthcare providers, healthcare facility ...

  3. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  4. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  5. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  6. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William J

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  7. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  8. Social Tagging of Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Abramyan, Lucy; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Fox, Jason M.; Pyrzak, Guy; Vaughn, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Mars missions will generate a large amount of data in various forms, such as daily plans, images, and scientific information. Often, there is a semantic linkage between images that cannot be captured automatically. Software is needed that will provide a method for creating arbitrary tags for this mission data so that items with a similar tag can be related to each other. The tags should be visible and searchable for all users. A new routine was written to offer a new and more flexible search option over previous applications. This software allows users of the MSLICE program to apply any number of arbitrary tags to a piece of mission data through a MSLICE search interface. The application of tags creates relationships between data that did not previously exist. These tags can be easily removed and changed, and contain enough flexibility to be specifically configured for any mission. This gives users the ability to quickly recall or draw attention to particular pieces of mission data, for example: Give a semantic and meaningful description to mission data; for example, tag all images with a rock in them with the tag "rock." Rapidly recall specific and useful pieces of data; for example, tag a plan as"driving template." Call specific data to a user s attention; for example, tag a plan as "for:User." This software is part of the MSLICE release, which was written in Java. It will run on any current Windows, Macintosh, or Linux system.

  9. Characterization of a plasmid carrying cat, ermB and tetS genes in a foodborne Listeria monocytogenes strain and uptake of the plasmid by cariogenic Streptococcus mutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Shi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    A multi-drug resistant (MDR) Listeria monocytogenes isolate (serotype 1/2c) was recovered from a quick-frozen rice flour product collected from Langfang city in northern China. PCR screening identified the presence of cat, ermB and tetS genes. The plasmid profile of the strain showed the presence...... management of listeriosis....

  10. A review of Spacelab mission management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Spacelab development program is a joint undertaking of the NASA and ESA. The paper addresses the initial concept of Spacelab payload mission management, the lessons learned, and modifications made as a result of the actual implementation of Spacelab Mission 1. The discussion covers mission management responsibilities, program control, science management, payload definition and interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. After 3.5 years the outlined overall mission manager approach has proven to be most successful. The approach does allow the mission manager to maintain the lowest overall mission cost.

  11. Recent Hydrologic Developments in the SWOT Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Mognard, N. M.; Cretaux, J.; Calmant, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Rodriguez, E.

    2012-12-01

    given the lack of channel bathymetric knowledge. (5) The influence of the world's managed reservoirs on the water cycle is difficult to assess given the abundance of dams and the relative lack of water level or storage change information. The downstream impacts, particularly for transboundary rivers, are similarly difficult to determine. The challenges for SWOT to overcome this lack hinge on the temporal sampling dictated by the mission's orbital repeat cycle, on the accuracy of the height measurements, on the surface area, and on topography causing radar layover. (6) While SWOT's orbit is designed to minimize errors from tidal aliasing, orbital sub-cycles can be adjusted to minimize hydrological errors. The impact of theses sub-cycles has been assessed using a hydrodynamic modeling of the last 1000 km reach of the Ob River, a West Siberian river draining a total area of around 3 million km2. Using a local ensemble Kalman smoother to assimilate virtual SWOT observations, similar results have been obtained for either a 1-day or 3-day sub-cycle when decreasing the differences between "true" and modeled water elevations. A key result is the necessity of using the smoother in the assimilation, at least for large rivers like the Ob.

  12. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  13. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  14. Repeat concussions in the national football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J

    2011-01-01

    Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Case control. From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods.

  15. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jeremy E; Wroe, Christopher J; Roberts, Angus; Swallow, Angela; Stables, David; Cantrill, Judith A; Rector, Alan L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good clinical practice in primary care includes periodic review of repeat prescriptions. Markers of prescriptions that may need review have been described, but manually checking all repeat prescriptions against the markers would be impractical. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of computerising the application of repeat prescribing quality checks to electronic patient records in United Kingdom (UK) primary care. DESIGN OF STUDY: Software performance test against benchmark manual...

  16. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  17. Comprehensive planning of data archive in Japanese planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukio; Shinohara, Iku; Hoshino, Hirokazu; Tateno, Naoki; Hareyama, Makoto; Okada, Naoki; Ebisawa, Ken

    Comprehensive planning of data archive in Japanese planetary missions Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) provides HAYABUSA and KAGUYA data as planetary data archives. These data archives, however, were prepared independently. Therefore the inconsistency of data format has occurred, and the knowledge of data archiving activity is not inherited. Recently, the discussion of comprehensive planning of data archive has started to prepare up-coming planetary missions, which indicates the comprehensive plan of data archive is required in several steps. The framework of the comprehensive plan is divided into four items: Preparation, Evaluation, Preservation, and Service. 1. PREPARATION FRAMEWORK Data is classified into several types: raw data, level-0, 1, 2 processing data, ancillary data, and etc. The task of mission data preparation is responsible for instrument teams, but preparations beside mission data and support of data management are essential to make unified conventions and formats over instruments in a mission, and over missions. 2. EVALUATION FRAMEWORK There are two meanings of evaluation: format and quality. The format evaluation is often discussed in the preparation framework. The data quality evaluation which is often called quality assurance (QA) or quality control (QC) must be performed by third party apart from preparation teams. An instrument team has the initiative for the preparation itself, and the third-party group is organized to evaluate the instrument team's activity. 3. PRESERVATION FRAMEWORK The main topic of this framework is document management, archiving structure, and simple access method. The mission produces many documents in the process of the development. Instrument de-velopment is no exception. During long-term development of a mission, many documents are obsoleted and updated repeatedly. A smart system will help instrument team to reduce some troubles of document management and archiving task. JAXA attempts to follow PDS manners

  18. US Search and Rescue Mission Control Center functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A satellite aided Search and Rescue (SAR) Mission concept consisting of a local coverage bent pipe system, and a global coverage system is described. The SAR instrument is to consist of a Canadian repeater and a French processor for which Canada and France, respectively are to evaluate health and trends. Performance evaluations of each system were provided. The United States and Canada will each have a Search and Rescue Mission Control Center (MCC) and their functions were also examined. A summary of the interface requirements necessary to perform each function was included as well as the information requirements between the USMCC and each of its interfaces. Physical requirements such as location, manning etc. of the USMCC were discussed.

  19. The Europa Jupiter System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Clark, K.; Erd, C.; Pappalardo, R.; Greeley, R. R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.; van Houten, T.

    2009-05-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) will be an international mission that will achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The JEO mission has been selected by NASA as the next Flagship mission to the out solar system. JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM will fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision for exploration of the outer solar system. The Decadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission target. EJSM would uniquely address several of the central themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM will investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geological and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the

  20. No Mission, No Money: No Money, No Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durel, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Museum leaders around the country are in the midst of examining and changing their business models in response to new economic realities. Museum educators have an opportunity to play a leading role in this endeavor. To do so educators must understand the relationship between money and mission. For too long there has been a belief that the…

  1. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  2. The ASTRO-H Mission

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 忠幸; Takahashi, Tadayuki; 満田, 和久; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Kelley, Richard; ASTRO-H team

    2010-01-01

    The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) The planned launch date is 2014. ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe by performing high-resolution, highthroughput spectroscopy with moderate spatial resolution over the 0.3 - 600 keV energy range. ASTRO-H is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, f...

  3. The NeXT Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, T.; Kelley, R; Mitsuda, K.; Kunieda, H.; Petre, R.; White, N; Dotani, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hayashida, K.; Ishida, M.; Ishisaki, Y; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; K. Koyama

    2008-01-01

    The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will a...

  4. The WAXS/WFXT Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Chincarini, G L

    1999-01-01

    I present the science goals and give a brief summary of the Wide Angle X-ray survey with a Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WAXS/WFXT) mission proposal (Phase A) which will be submitted to the Italian Space Agency (ASI) following the call for proposal under the Small Satellite program. The text points out the uniqueness of the mission for the study of the evolution of clusters of galaxies and of the Large-Scale Structure at large redshifts and for the study of the Milky Way. I present, furthermore, the successful result of the metrology of the first wide field X-ray optics ever made.

  5. SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization Andrew Nicholas, Ted Finne, Ivan Galysh, Anthony Mai, Jim Yen Naval Research Laboratory, Washington...mission overview, ground truth characterization and unique SSA observation opportunities of the mission. 1. MISSION CONCEPT The Naval Research...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization 5a. CONTRACT

  6. Reward modulation of contextual cueing: Repeated context overshadows repeated target location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Fariba; Contier, Oliver; Preuschhof, Claudia; Pollmann, Stefan

    2017-08-07

    Contextual cueing can be enhanced by reward. However, there is a debate if reward is associated with the repeated target-distractor configurations or with the repeated target locations that occur in both repeated and new displays. Based on neuroimaging evidence, we hypothesized that reward becomes associated with the target location only in new displays, but not in repeated displays, where the repeated target location is overshadowed by the more salient repeated target-distractor configuration. To test this hypothesis, we varied the reward value associated with the same target location in repeated and new displays. The results confirmed the overshadowing hypothesis in that search facilitation in repeated target-distractor configurations was modulated by the variable value associated with the target location. This effect was observed mainly in early learning.

  7. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... suicidal behavior. The results showed that three fourths of the patients attempted suicide more than once (62% nonfatal and 14% fatal outcome). The sex distribution was about the same among the first-evers as among the repeaters. Most repeaters were younger people in their twenties and thirties......, and the first-evers on average were past the age of 40. Somewhat unexpectedly, significantly more repeaters than first-evers had grown up with both their parents. However, the results also showed that significantly more repeaters than first-evers had had an unhappy childhood. This indicates...

  8. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  9. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...

  10. Gravitational-wave Mission Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver; Stebbins, Robin T.

    2014-01-01

    In November 2013, ESA selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as L3, under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. ESA is considering a 20% participation by an international partner, and NASA's Astrophysics Division has indicated an interest in participating. We have studied the design consequences of a NASA contribution, evaluated the science benefits and identified the technology requirements for hardware that could be delivered by NASA. The European community proposed a strawman mission concept, called eLISA, having two measurement arms, derived from the well studied LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) concept. The US community is promoting a mission concept known as SGO Mid (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory Mid-sized), a three arm LISA-like concept. If NASA were to partner with ESA, the eLISA concept could be transformed to SGO Mid by the addition of a third arm, augmenting science, reducing risk and reducing non-recurring engineering costs. The characteristics of the mission concepts and the relative science performance of eLISA, SGO Mid and LISA are described. Note that all results are based on models, methods and assumptions used in NASA studies

  11. New Horizons Mission to Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Luis G.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the trajectory that will take the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. Included are photographs of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, the assembled vehicle as it is being moved to the launch pad and the launch. Also shown are diagrams of the assembled parts with identifying part names.

  12. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  13. LISA Pathfinder: mission and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Boatella, C.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Ciani, G.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Fertin, D.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jeannin, O.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Perreca, A.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Rais, B.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Zweifel, P.

    2011-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. The technologies required for LISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical LISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the LISA constellation by shrinking the 5 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the LISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in 2013 on-board a dedicated small launch vehicle (VEGA). After a series of apogee raising manoeuvres using an expendable propulsion module, LISA Pathfinder will enter a transfer orbit towards the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L1). After separation from the propulsion module, the LPF spacecraft will be stabilized using the micro-Newton thrusters, entering a 500 000 km by 800 000 km Lissajous orbit around L1. Science results will be available approximately 2 months after launch.

  14. The Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Prockter, Louise; Senske, David; Paczkowski, Brian; Cooke, Brian; Vance, Steve; Wes Patterson, G.; Craft, Kate

    2014-05-01

    A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell), Topographical Imager (for stereo imaging of the surface), ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer (for surface composition), Neutral Mass Spectrometer (for atmospheric composition), Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes (for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean), and Gravity Science (to confirm an ocean).The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander

  15. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  16. IntroductionThe Cluster mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fehringer

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission, ESA’s first cornerstone project, together with the SOHO mission, dating back to the first proposals in 1982, was finally launched in the summer of 2000. On 16 July and 9 August, respectively, two Russian Soyuz rockets blasted off from the Russian cosmodrome in Baikonour to deliver two Cluster spacecraft, each into their proper orbit. By the end of August 2000, the four Cluster satellites had reached their final tetrahedral constellation. The commissioning of 44 instruments, both individually and as an ensemble of complementary tools, was completed five months later to ensure the optimal use of their combined observational potential. On 1 February 2001, the mission was declared operational. The main goal of the Cluster mission is to study the small-scale plasma structures in three dimensions in key plasma regions, such as the solar wind, bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail and the auroral zones. With its unique capabilities of three-dimensional spatial resolution, Cluster plays a major role in the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP, where Cluster and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO are the European contributions. Cluster’s payload consists of state-of-the-art plasma instrumentation to measure electric and magnetic fields from the quasi-static up to high frequencies, and electron and ion distribution functions from energies of nearly 0 eV to a few MeV. The science operations are coordinated by the Joint Science Operations Centre (JSOC, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK, and implemented by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC, in Darmstadt, Germany. A network of eight national data centres has been set up for raw data processing, for the production of physical parameters, and their distribution to end users all over the world. The latest information on the Cluster mission can be found at http://sci.esa.int/cluster/.

  17. MIOSAT Mission Scenario and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.

    2008-08-01

    MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is definition, highlighting trade-offs for mission implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission is currently in phase B and the launch is planned for 2011.

  18. Resilient Voting Mechanisms for Mission Survivability in Cyberspace: Combining Replication and Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Kamhoua

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While information systems became ever more complex and the interdependence of these systems increased, mission-critical services should be survivable even in the presence of cyber attacks or internal failures. Node replication can be used to protect a mission-critical system against faults that may occur naturally or be caused by malicious attackers. The overall reliability increases by the number of replicas. However, when the replicas are a perfect copy of each other, a successful attack or failure in any node can be instantaneously repeated in all the other nodes. Eventually, the service of those nodes will discontinue, which may affect the system’s mission. Therefore, it becomes evident that there must be more survivable approach with diversity among the replicas in mission-critical systems. In particular, thisresearch investigates the best binary voting mechanism among replicas. Furthermore, with experimental results, we compare the simple majority mechanism with hierarchical decision process and discuss theirtrade-offs.

  19. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  20. Multiple Space Debris Collecting Mission -- Optimal Mission Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Cerf, Max

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of planning successive Space Debris Collecting missions so that they can be achieved at minimal cost by a generic vehicle. The problem mixes combinatorial optimization to select and order the debris among a list of candidates, and continuous optimization to fix the rendezvous dates and to define the minimum fuel orbital maneuvers. The solution method proposed consists in three stages. Firstly the orbital transfer problem is simplified by considering a generic transfer strategy suited either to a high thrust or a low thrust vehicle. A response surface modelling is built by solving the reduced problem for all pairs of debris and for discretized dates, and storing the results in cost matrices. Secondly a simulated annealing algorithm is applied to find the optimal mission planning. The cost function is assessed by interpolation on the response surface based on the cost matrices. This allows the convergence of the simulated algorithm in a limited computation time, yielding an opti...

  1. Mission Operations Control Room Activities during STS-2 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) activities during STS-2 mission. Overall view of the MOCR in the Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center. At far right is Eugene F. Kranz, Deputy Director of Flight Operations. At the flight director console in front of Kranz's FOD console are Flight Directors M.P. Frank, Neil B. Hutchinson and Donald R. Puddy as well as others (39506); Wide-angle view of flight controllers in the MOCR. Clifford E. Charlesworth, JSC Deputy Director, huddles with several flight directors for STS-2 at the flight director console. Kranz, is at far right of frame (39507); Dr. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., JSC Director, center, celebrates successful flight and landing of STS-2 with a cigar in the MOCR. He is flanked by Dr. Maxime A Faget, left, Director of Engineering and Development, and Thomas L. Moser, of the Structures and Mechanics Division (39508); Flight Director Donald R. Puddy, near right, holds replica of the STS-2 insignia. Insignias on the opposite wall

  2. Trajectory Design Considerations for Exploration Mission 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Timothy F.; Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Batcha, Amelia L.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will be the first mission to send an uncrewed Orion vehicle to cislunar space in 2018, targeted to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO). Analysis of EM-1 DRO mission opportunities in 2018 help characterize mission parameters that are of interest to other subsystems (e.g., power, thermal, communications, flight operations, etc). Subsystems request mission design trades which include: landing lighting, addition of an Orion main engine checkout burn, and use of auxiliary thruster only cases. This paper examines the evolving trade studies that incorporate subsystem feedback and demonstrate the feasibility of these constrained mission trajectory designs and contingencies.

  3. Emirates Mars Mission (EMM) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Omran; Amiri, Sarah; AlMheiri, Suhail; Alrais, Adnan; Wali, Mohammad; AlShamsi, Zakareyya; AlQasim, Ibrahim; AlHarmoodi, Khuloud; AlTeneiji, Nour; Almatroushi, Hessa; AlShamsi, Maryam; AlAwadhi, Mohsen; McGrath, Michael; Withnell, Pete; Ferrington, Nicolas; Reed, Heather; Landin, Brett; Ryan, Sean; Pramann, Brian

    2017-04-01

    United Arab Emirates (UAE) has entered the space exploration race with the announcement of Emirates Mars Mission (EMM), the first Arab Islamic mission to another planet, in 2014. Through this mission, UAE is to send an unmanned probe, called Hope probe, to be launched in summer 2020 and reach Mars by 2021 to coincide with UAE's 50th anniversary. Through a sequence of subsequent maneuvers, the spacecraft will enter a large science orbit that has a periapsis altitude of 20,000 km, an apoapsis altitude of 43,000 km, and an inclination of 25 degrees. The mission is designed to (1) characterize the state of the Martian lower atmosphere on global scales and its geographic, diurnal and seasonal variability, (2) correlate rates of thermal and photochemical atmospheric escape with conditions in the collisional Martian atmosphere, and (3) characterize the spatial structure and variability of key constituents in the Martian exosphere. These objectives will be met by four investigations with diurnal variability on sub-seasonal timescales which are (1) determining the three-dimensional thermal state of the lower atmosphere, (2) determining the geographic and diurnal distribution of key constituents in the lower atmosphere, (3) determining the abundance and spatial variability of key neutral species in the thermosphere, and (4) determining the three-dimensional structure and variability of key species in the exosphere. EMM will collect these information about the Mars atmospheric circulation and connections through a combination of three distinct instruments that image Mars in the visible, thermal infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths and they are the Emirates eXploration Imager (EXI), the Emirates Mars InfraRed Spectrometer (EMIRS), and the EMM Mars Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EMUS). EMM has passed its Mission Concept Review (MCR), System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), and Preliminary Design Review (PDR) phases. The mission is led by Emiratis from Mohammed

  4. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  5. Star repeaters for fiber optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L

    1977-02-01

    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.

  6. Mission Success for Combustion Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Karen J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes how mission success for combustion experiments has been obtained in previous spaceflight experiments and how it will be obtained for future International Space Station (ISS) experiments. The fluids and combustion facility is a payload planned for the ISS. It is composed of two racks: the fluids Integrated rack and the Combustion INtegrated Rack (CIR). Requirements for the CIR were obtained from a set of combustion basis experiments that served as surrogates for later experiments. The process for experiments that fly on the ISS includes proposal selection, requirements and success criteria definition, science and engineering reviews, mission operations, and postflight operations. By following this process, the microgravity combustion science program has attained success in 41 out of 42 experiments.

  7. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  8. The Solar Spectroscopy Explorer Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Bookbinder, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Spectroscopy Explorer (SSE) concept is conceived as a scalable mission, with two to four instruments and a strong focus on coronal spectroscopy. In its core configuration it is a small strategic mission ($250-500M) built around a microcalorimeter (an imaging X-ray spectrometer) and a high spatial resolution (0.2 arcsec) EUV imager. SSE puts a strong focus on the plasma spectroscopy, balanced with high resolution imaging - providing for break-through imaging science as well as providing the necessary context for the spectroscopy suite. Even in its smallest configuration SSE provides observatory class science, with significant science contributions ranging from basic plasma and radiative processes to the onset of space weather events. The basic configuration can carry an expanded instrument suite with the addition of a hard X-ray imaging spectrometer and/or a high spectral resolution EUV instrument - significantly expanding the science capabilities. In this configuration, it will fall at the small end...

  9. The GAMMA-400 Space Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Cumani, P; Bonvicini, V; Topchiev, N P; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, S; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Leonov, A A; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Menshenin, A L; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Popov, A V; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Suchkov, S I; Tavani, M; Taraskin, A A; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G

    2015-01-01

    GAMMA-400 is a new space mission which will be installed on board the Russian space platform Navigator. It is scheduled to be launched at the beginning of the next decade. GAMMA-400 is designed to study simultaneously gamma rays (up to 3 TeV) and cosmic rays (electrons and positrons from 1 GeV to 20 TeV, nuclei up to 10$^{15}$-10$^{16}$ eV). Being a dual-purpose mission, GAMMA-400 will be able to address some of the most impelling science topics, such as search for signatures of dark matter, cosmic-rays origin and propagation, and the nature of transients. GAMMA-400 will try to solve the unanswered questions on these topics by high-precision measurements of the Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources, Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission and the spectra of cosmic-ray electrons + positrons and nuclei, thanks to excellent energy and angular resolutions.

  10. Mission design for LISA Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Landgraf, M; Kemble, S

    2004-01-01

    Here we describe the mission design for SMART-2/LISA Pathfinder. The best trade-off between the requirements of a low-disturbance environment and communications distance is found to be a free-insertion Lissajous orbit around the first co-linear Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth system L1, 1.5x 10^6 km from Earth. In order to transfer SMART-2/LISA Pathfinder from a low Earth orbit, where it will be placed by a small launcher, the spacecraft carries out a number of apogee-raise manoeuvres, which ultimatively place it to a parabolic escape trajectory towards L1. The challenges of the design of a small mission are met, fulfilling the very demanding technology demonstration requirements without creating excessive requirements on the launch system or the ground segment.

  11. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  12. ESA's SMART-1 Mission: Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, G.; Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Project Team

    SMART-1 is the first of Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology as part of ESA science programme ``Cosmic Vision''. Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been launched on 27 sept. 2003, as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. SMART-1 orbit pericenter is now outside the inner radiation belt. The current status of SMART-1 will be given at the symposium. After a 15 month cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit.

  13. Skylab mission report, third visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the operational and engineering aspects of the third Skylab visit, including information on the performance of the command and service module and the experiment hardware, the crew's evaluation of the visit, and other visit-related areas of interest such as biomedical observations. The specific areas discussed are contained in the following: (1) solar physics and astrophysics investigations; (2) Comet Kohoutek experiments; (3) medical experiments; (4) earth observations, including data for the multispectral photographic facility, the earth terrain camera, and the microwave radiometer/scattermometer and altimeter; (5) engineering and technology experiments; (6) food and medical operational equipment; (7) hardware and experiment anomalies; and (8) mission support, mission objectives, flight planning, and launch phase summary. Conclusions discussed as a result of the third visit to Skylab involve the advancement of the sciences, practical applications, the durability of man and systems in space, and spaceflight effectiveness and economy.

  14. New ESA Earth Explorer Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herland, E.

    2006-12-01

    The European Space Agency has recently selected a set of six mission candidates for its next Earth Explorer Core mission. This mission will be launched in the beginning of the next decade, and will contribute significantly to Earth science in addition to the already approved six missions in the programme. The scientific priorities for the call for proposals were the global water cycle, the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry and the human element in the Earth system. The presentation will outline the scientific objectives of each of the six mission proposals, and in particular address the potential contribution to the water and energy cycle research and CEOP. The six mission proposals are: BIOMASS global measurements of forest biomass. The measurement is accomplished by a space-borne P-band synthetic aperture polarimetric radar. The technique is mainly based on the measurement of the cross- polar backscattering coefficient, from which forest biomass is directly retrieved. Also uses multipolarization measurements and interferometry. The studies for this mission will include comparative studies to measure terrestrial biomass using P- or L-band and consideration of alternative implementations using L-band. TRAQ TRopospheric composition and Air Quality: Monitoring of air quality and long-range transport of air pollutants. A new synergistic sensor concept for process studies, particularly with respect to aerosol-cloud interactions. Focus on the rate of air quality change on regional and global scales, the strength and distribution of sources and sinks of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols influencing air quality, and the role of tropospheric composition in global change. Carries imaging spectrometers in the range from ultraviolet to short-wave infrared. PREMIER PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation: Aims at understanding processes that link trace gases, radiation, chemistry and climate in the atmosphere

  15. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  16. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Majedi, A Hamed

    2010-01-01

    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases of with and without a repeater node. We find the cross-over distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the non-repeater one. That provides us with the optimum inter-node distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal exci...

  17. Remarkable selective constraints on exonic dinucleotide repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Long dinucleotide repeats found in exons present a substantial mutational hazard: mutations at these loci occur often and generate frameshifts. Here, we provide clear and compelling evidence that exonic dinucleotides experience strong selective constraint. In humans, only 18 exonic dinucleotides have repeat lengths greater than six, which contrasts sharply with the genome-wide distribution of dinucleotides. We genotyped each of these dinucleotides in 200 humans from eight 1000 Genomes Project populations and found a near-absence of polymorphism. More remarkably, divergence data demonstrate that repeat lengths have been conserved across the primate phylogeny in spite of what is likely considerable mutational pressure. Coalescent simulations show that even a very low mutation rate at these loci fails to explain the anomalous patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Our data support two related selective constraints on the evolution of exonic dinucleotides: a short-term intolerance for any change to repeat length and a long-term prevention of increases to repeat length. In general, our results implicate purifying selection as the force that eliminates new, deleterious mutants at exonic dinucleotides. We briefly discuss the evolution of the longest exonic dinucleotide in the human genome--a 10 x CA repeat in fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1)--that should possess a considerably greater mutation rate than any other exonic dinucleotide and therefore generate a large number of deleterious variants. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2013-06-15

    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  19. LISA Pathfinder: mission and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonucci, F; Cavalleri, A; Congedo, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Armano, M [European Space Astronomy Centre, European Space Agency, Villanueva de la Canada, 28692 Madrid (Spain); Audley, H; Bogenstahl, J; Danzmann, K [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik und Universitaet Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Auger, G; Binetruy, P [APC UMR7164, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Benedetti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e Tecnologie Industriali, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Boatella, C [CNES, DCT/AQ/EC, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse, Cedex 9 (France); Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Cristofolini, I [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Strutturale, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Caleno, M; Cesa, M [European Space Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Chmeissani, M [IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ciani, G [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States); Conchillo, A [ICE-CSIC/IEEC, Facultat de Ciencies, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Cruise, M, E-mail: Paul.McNamara@esa.int [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-07

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. The technologies required for LISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical LISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the LISA constellation by shrinking the 5 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the LISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in 2013 on-board a dedicated small launch vehicle (VEGA). After a series of apogee raising manoeuvres using an expendable propulsion module, LISA Pathfinder will enter a transfer orbit towards the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L1). After separation from the propulsion module, the LPF spacecraft will be stabilized using the micro-Newton thrusters, entering a 500 000 km by 800 000 km Lissajous orbit around L1. Science results will be available approximately 2 months after launch.

  20. DARWIN mission proposal to ESA

    CERN Document Server

    Leger, Alain

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of extra-solar planets is one of the greatest achievements of modern astronomy. There are now more than 200 such objects known, and the recent detection of planets with masses approximately 5 times that of Earth demonstrates that extra-solar planets of low mass exist. In addition to providing a wealth of scientific information on the formation and structure of planetary systems, these discoveries capture the interest of both scientists and the wider public with the profound prospect of the search for life in the Universe. We propose an L-type mission, called Darwin, whose primary goal is the study of terrestrial extrasolar planets and the search for life on them. By its very nature, Darwin advances the first Grand Theme of ESA Cosmic Vision. Accomplishing the mission objectives will require collaborative science across disciplines ranging from planet formation and atmospheres to chemistry and biology, and these disciplines will reap profound rewards from their contributions to the Darwin mission...

  1. The Van Allen Probes mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, James

    2014-01-01

    This collection of articles provides broad and detailed information about NASA’s Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes) twin-spacecraft Earth-orbiting mission. The mission has the objective of achieving predictive understanding of the dynamic, intense, energetic, dangerous, and presently unpredictable belts of energetic particles that are magnetically trapped in Earth’s space environment above the atmosphere. It documents the science of the radiation belts and the societal benefits of achieving predictive understanding. Detailed information is provided about the Van Allen Probes mission design, the spacecraft, the science investigations, and the onboard instrumentation that must all work together to make unprecedented measurements within a most unforgiving environment, the core of Earth’s most intense radiation regions.
 This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in space science, solar-terrestrial interactions and studies of the up...

  2. Tandem-X Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, M.

    2015-04-01

    TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) is an innovative formation flying radar mission that opens a new era in spaceborne radar remote sensing. Its primary objective is the acquisition of a global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with unprecedented accuracy (12 m horizontal resolution and 2 m relative height accuracy). This goal is achieved by extending the TerraSAR-X synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mission by a second TerraSAR-X like satellite, TanDEM-X (TDX). Both satellites fly in close orbit formation of a few hundred meters distance, and the resulting large single-pass SAR interferometer features flexible baseline selection enabling the acquisition of highly accurate cross-track interferograms not impacted by temporal decorrelation and atmospheric disturbances. Beyond the global DEM, several secondary mission objectives based on along-track interferometry as well as new bistatic and multistatic SAR techniques have been defined. Since 2010 both satellites have been operated in close formation to map all land surfaces at least twice and difficult terrain even up to four times. While data acquisition for the DEM generation will be concluded by the end of 2014 it is expected to complete the processing of the global DEM in the second half of 2016.

  3. The ASTRO-H Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kelley, Richard; Aharonian, Felix; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steve; Anabuki, Naohisa; Angelini, Lorella; Arnaud, Keith; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Bamba, Aya; Bando, Nobutaka; Bautz, Mark; Blandford, Roger; Boyce, Kevin; Brown, Greg; Chernyakova, Maria; Coppi, Paolo; Costantini, Elisa; Cottam, Jean; Crow, John; de Plaa, Jelle; de Vries, Cor; Herder, Jan-Willem den; DiPirro, Michael; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ebisawa, Ken; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Funk, Stefan; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gandhi, Poshak; Gendreau, Keith; Gilmore, Kirk; Haba, Yoshito; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hughes, John; Hwang, Una; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ishida, Manabu; Ishimura, Kosei; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Isobe, Naoki; Ito, Masayuki; Iwata, Naoko; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Timothy; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Katagiri, Hideaki; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Shigeo; Khangaluyan, Dmitry; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kinugasa, Kenzo; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Kosaka, Tatsuro; Kotani, Taro; Koyama, Katsuji; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, Francois; Limousin, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox; Madejski, Grzegorz; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Makishima, Kazuo; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; McCammon, Dan; Miller, Jon; Mineshige, Shin; Minesugi, Kenji; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Koji; Mori, Hideyuki; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Toshio; Mushotzky, Richard; Nakagawa, Yujin; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Namba, Yoshiharu; Nomachi, Masaharu; Dell, Steve O'; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Mina; Ogi, Keiji; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Okajima, Takashi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, Stéphane; Parmer, Arvind; Petre, Robert; Pohl, Martin; Porter, Scott; Ramsey, Brian; Reynolds, Christopher; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Sambruna, Rita; Sato, Goro; Sato, Yoichi; Serlemitsos, Peter; Shida, Maki; Shimada, Takanobu; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Shirron, Peter; Smith, Randall; Sneiderman, Gary; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Lukasz; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Takayuki; Tamura, Keisuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Miyako; Tsuboi, Yoko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Uchiyama, Hideki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Uno, Shinichiro; Urry, Meg; Watanabe, Shin; White, Nicholas; Yamada, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamasaki, Noriko; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Yoshida, Atsumasa

    2010-01-01

    The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe by performing high-resolution, high-throughput spectroscopy with moderate angular resolution. ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. ASTRO-H allows a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (5-80 keV) provided by multilayer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3-12 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope (0.4-12 keV) and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector (40-600 keV) . The micro-calorimeter system is developed by an international collaboration led by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral reso...

  4. The ASTRO-H Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotani, Tadayasu; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2012-07-01

    ASTRO-H, the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission, planed for launch in 2014. ASTRO-H is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector based on a narrow-FOV semiconductor Compton Camera. With these instruments, ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The simultaneous broad band pass, coupled with high spectral resolution of super massive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei; trace the growth history of the largest structures in the Universe; provide insights into the behavior of material in extreme gravitational fields; trace particle acceleration structures in clusters of galaxies and SNRs; and investigate the detailed physics of jets. In this presentation, we will describe the mission, scientific goal and the recent progress of the project.

  5. UAV Mission Planning: From Robust to Agile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are important assets for information gathering in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Depending on the uncertainty in the planning parameters, the complexity of the mission and its constraints and requirements, different planning methods might

  6. Low Energy Mission Planning Toolbox Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Energy Mission Planning Toolbox is designed to significantly reduce the resources and time spent on designing missions in multi-body gravitational...

  7. [Issues of biomedical support of explorations missions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A N; Sinyak, Yu E; Petrov, V M

    2013-01-01

    Sine qua non for piloted exploration missions is a system of biomedical support. The future system will be considerably different from the analogous systems applied in current orbital missions. The reason is the challenging conditions in expeditions to remote space. In a mission to Mars, specifically, these are high levels of radiation, hypomagnetic environment, alternation of micro- and hypogravity, very long mission duration and autonomy. The paper scrutinizes the major issues of medical support to future explorers of space.

  8. Exploration Missions to Host Small Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtain, Jonathan; Pelfrey, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The next-generation heavy launch vehicle, the Space Launch System (SLS), will provide the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the exploration mission trajectory. We will describe the payload mission concept of operations, the payload capacity for the SLS, and the payload requirements. Exploration Mission 1, currently planned for launch in December 2017, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS.

  9. The Trojans' Odyssey space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, P.; Vernazza, P.; Groussin, O.; Poncy, J.; Martinot, V.; Hinglais, E.; Bell, J.; Cruikshank, D.; Helbert, J.; Marzari, F.; Morbidelli, A.; Rosenblatt, P.

    2011-10-01

    In our present understanding of the Solar System, small bodies (asteroids, Jupiter Trojans, comets and TNOs) are the most direct remnants of the original building blocks that formed the planets. Jupiter Trojan and Hilda asteroids are small primitive bodies located beyond the "snow line", around respectively the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter at 5.2 AU (Trojans) and in the 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter near 3.9 AU (Hildas). They are at the crux of several outstanding and still conflicting issues regarding the formation and evolution of the Solar System. They hold the potential to unlock the answers to fundamental questions about planetary migration, the late heavy bombardment, the formation of the Jovian system, the origin and evolution of trans-neptunian objects, and the delivery of water and organics to the inner planets. The proposed Trojans' Odyssey mission is envisioned as a reconnaissance, multiple flyby mission aimed at visiting several objects, typically five Trojans and one Hilda. It will attempt exploring both large and small objects and sampling those with any known differences in photometric properties. The orbital strategy consists in a direct trajectory to one of the Trojan swarms. By carefully choosing the aphelion of the orbit (typically 5.3 AU), the trajectory will offer a long arc in the swarm thus maximizing the number of flybys. Initial gravity assists from Venus and Earth will help reducing the cruise to 7 years as well as the ?V needed for injection thus offering enough capacity to navigate among Trojans. This solution further opens the unique possibility to flyby a Hilda asteroid when leaving the Trojan swarm. During the cruise phase, a Main Belt Asteroid could be targeted if requiring a modest ?V. The specific science objectives of the mission will be best achieved with a payload that will perform high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral imaging, thermal-infrared imaging/ radiometry, near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy

  10. The Europa Clipper mission concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Lopes, Rosaly

    Jupiter's moon Europa may be a habitable world. Galileo spacecraft data suggest that an ocean most likely exists beneath Europa’s icy surface and that the “ingredients” necessary for life (liquid water, chemistry, and energy) could be present within this ocean today. Because of the potential for revolutionizing our understanding of life in the solar system, future exploration of Europa has been deemed an extremely high priority for planetary science. A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon’s surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite’s ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from these science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces

  11. Mechanical design of the Mars Pathfinder mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Howard Jay; Buck, Carl W.; Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Umland, Jeffrey W.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission and the Sojourner rover is reported on, with emphasis on the various mission steps and the performance of the technologies involved. The mechanical design of mission hardware was critical to the success of the entry sequence and the landing operations. The various mechanisms employed are considered.

  12. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  13. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Havens, Glen G.

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and is currently in Extended Mission operations. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission uses twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  14. CHEOPS: A transit photometry mission for ESA's small mission programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queloz D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground based radial velocity (RV searches continue to discover exoplanets below Neptune mass down to Earth mass. Furthermore, ground based transit searches now reach milli-mag photometric precision and can discover Neptune size planets around bright stars. These searches will find exoplanets around bright stars anywhere on the sky, their discoveries representing prime science targets for further study due to the proximity and brightness of their host stars. A mission for transit follow-up measurements of these prime targets is currently lacking. The first ESA S-class mission CHEOPS (CHaracterizing ExoPlanet Satellite will fill this gap. It will perform ultra-high precision photometric monitoring of selected bright target stars almost anywhere on the sky with sufficient precision to detect Earth sized transits. It will be able to detect transits of RV-planets by photometric monitoring if the geometric configuration results in a transit. For Hot Neptunes discovered from the ground, CHEOPS will be able to improve the transit light curve so that the radius can be determined precisely. Because of the host stars' brightness, high precision RV measurements will be possible for all targets. All planets observed in transit by CHEOPS will be validated and their masses will be known. This will provide valuable data for constraining the mass-radius relation of exoplanets, especially in the Neptune-mass regime. During the planned 3.5 year mission, about 500 targets will be observed. There will be 20% of open time available for the community to develop new science programmes.

  15. 晚期糖基化终产物诱导人脐静脉内皮细胞ERM蛋白磷酸化的机制%Mechanism of advanced glycation end products-stimulated phosphorylation of ERM protein in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占华; 郭晓华; 陈波; 李强; 王吉萍; 朱平; 王陵军; 吴炜; 黄巧冰

    2010-01-01

    采用免疫荧光细胞化学和Western印迹法,探讨晚期糖基化终产物(AGE)对人脐静脉内皮细胞的ERM(ezrin/radixint/moesin)蛋白磷酸化水平和定位的影响及其机制.AGE以时间和剂量依赖性地增加ERM蛋白磷酸化水平(均P<0.05),并促进其转位至胞浆内.AGE通过与其受体结合刺激ERM蛋白的磷酸化,Rho激酶及p38丝裂原活化蛋白激酶通路参与了此过程.%The effects of advanced glycation end products(AGE)on phosphorylation of ezrin/radixin/ moesin(ERM)protein in human umbilical vein endothelial ceils were detected by immunofluorescence cytochemistry and its mechanism was explored.AGE stimulated the phosphorylation of ERM protein in dose-and time-dependent manners(all P<0.05),which was involved in AGE receptor,Rho kinase,and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

  16. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  17. Mission Design of the Dutch-Chinese FAST Micro-Satellite Mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, D.C.; Guo, J.; Gill, E.; Laan, E.; Moon, S.; Zheng, G.T.

    2009-01-01

    The paper treats the mission design for the Dutch-Chinese FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) mission. The space segment of the 2.5 year mission consists out of two formation flying micro-satellites. During the mission, new technologies will be demonstrated and, usi

  18. Mission Design of the Dutch-Chinese FAST Micro-Satellite Mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, D.C.; Guo, J.; Gill, E.; Laan, E.; Moon, S.; Zheng, G.T.

    2009-01-01

    The paper treats the mission design for the Dutch-Chinese FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) mission. The space segment of the 2.5 year mission consists out of two formation flying micro-satellites. During the mission, new technologies will be demonstrated and, usi

  19. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  20. Astrometric Gravitation Probe: a space mission concept for fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Fienga, Agnes; Gai, Mario; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Riva, Alberto; Busonero, Deborah

    2015-08-01

    Modern technological developments have pushed the accuracy of astrometric measurements in the visible band down to the micro-arcsec level. This allows to test theories of gravity in the weak field limit to unprecedented level, with possible consequences spanning from the validity of fundamental physics principles, to tests of theories describing cosmological and galactic dynamics without resorting to Dark Matter and Dark Energy.This is the main goal of Astrometric Gravitation Probe (AGP) mission, which will be achieved by highly accurate astrometric determination of light deflection (as a modern rendition of the Dyson, Eddington, and Robertson eclipse experiment of 1919), aberration, and of the orbits of selected Solar System objects, with specific reference to the excess shift of the pericentre effect.The AGP concept was recently proposed for the recent call for ESA M4 missions as a collaboration among several scientists coming from many different European and US institutions. Its payload is based on a 1.15 m diameter telescope fed through a coronagraphic system by four fields, two set in symmetric positions around the Sun, and two in the opposite direction, all imaged on a CCD detector. Large parts of the instrument are common mode to all fields. The baseline operation mode is the scan of the ±1.13 deg Ecliptic strip, repeated for a minimum of 3 years and up to an optimal duration of 5 years. Operations and calibrations are simultaneous, defined in order to ensure common mode instrumental effects, identified and removed in data reduction. The astrometric and coronagraphic technologies build on the heritage of Gaia and Solar Orbiter.We review the mission concept and its science case, and discuss how this measurement concepts can be scaled to different mission implementations.

  1. The ESA Polar Platform: A work-horse for future Earth Observation Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibaldi, G. G.; Cendral, J. L.

    1993-09-01

    In the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) Long Term Plan, the Earth Observation Missions play a very important role in contributing to a better knowledge and monitoring of the Earth Environment. Within the range of future Earth Observation missions, the low altitude sun synchronous polar orbit is of special interest because it offers a repeated coverage of the complete surface of the Earth. For this type of mission, a large number of instruments having different technology and application objectives have been developed or are under development in Europe. To cope with those needs, ESA has initiated the development of the Polar Platform as part of its infrastructure to become the work-horse of future Earth Observation Missions in the Polar orbits. This spacecraft bus, through its design modularity, can cope with a wide range of payload complements and instrument requirements so that the future development emphasis in Europe can be placed on payload and observations rather than repeated satellite developments. The Polar Platform design makes maximum use of the SPOT and ERS programmes experience and design in order to reduce development risk and minimize costs. The modular design can cope with different payload accommodation, power and mass requirements as well as different orbit altitudes. The development is well advanced and is now well into the detailed design and development programme, with components and long lead hardware procurement already initiated. The development of the payload complement for the first mission has been initiated in parallel via the POEM-1 Programme. The Polar Platform will also make use of the other ESA's future infrastructure, such as the Ariane 5 Launcher as well as the Data Relay Satellite System in order to ensure global coverage of observations. The launch of the first ESA Polar Platform Mission carrying the POEM-1 Mission is planned for mid-1988. The performance requirements, design and status of development of the Polar Platform

  2. Mining of simple sequence repeats in the Genome of Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sathishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs or short tandem repeats are short repeat motifs that show high level of length polymorphism due to insertion or deletion mutations of one or more repeat types. Here, we present the detection and abundance of microsatellites or SSRs in nucleotide sequences of Gentianaceae family. A total of 545 SSRs were mined in 4698 nucleotide sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. Among the SSR sequences, the frequency of repeat type was about 429 -mono repeats, 99 -di repeats, 15 -tri repeats, and 2 --hexa repeats. Mononucleotide repeats were found to be abundant repeat types, about 78%, followed by dinucleotide repeats (18.16% among the SSR sequences. An attempt was made to design primer pairs for 545 identified SSRs but these were found only for 169 sequences.

  3. Human Mars Missions: Cost Driven Architecture Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates various methods of reducing the cost in space transportation systems for human Mars missions. The reference mission for this task is a mission currently under study at NASA. called the Mars Design Reference Mission, characterized by In-Situ propellant production at Mars. This study mainly consists of comparative evaluations to the reference mission with a view to selecting strategies that would reduce the cost of the Mars program as a whole. One of the objectives is to understand the implications of certain Mars architectures, mission modes, vehicle configurations, and potentials for vehicle reusability. The evaluations start with year 2011-2014 conjunction missions which were characterized by their abort-to-the-surface mission abort philosophy. Variations within this mission architecture, as well as outside the set to other architectures (not predicated on an abort to surface philosophy) were evaluated. Specific emphasis has been placed on identifying and assessing overall mission risk. Impacts that Mars mission vehicles might place upon the Space Station, if it were to be used as an assembly or operations base, were also discussed. Because of the short duration of this study only on a few propulsion elements were addressed (nuclear thermal, cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen, cryogenic oxygen-methane, and aerocapture). Primary ground rules and assumptions were taken from NASA material used in Marshall Space Flight Center's own assessment done in 1997.

  4. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....

  5. Kepler planet-detection mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borucki...[], William J.; Koch, David; Buchhave, Lars C. Astrup

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission was designed to determine the frequency of Earth-sized planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The habitable zone is the region where planetary temperatures are suitable for water to exist on a planet’s surface. During the first 6 weeks of observations, Kepler...... is one of the lowest-density planets (~0.17 gram per cubic centimeter) yet detected. Kepler-5b, -6b, and -8b confirm the existence of planets with densities lower than those predicted for gas giant planets....

  6. PolyQ repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are CAA interrupted repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ repeats of 27-33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2, encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ≥ 34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1-3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT, while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC. Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2.

  7. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  8. Repeatability of peripheral aberrations in young emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Theagarayan, Baskar; Carius, Staffan; Gustafsson, Jörgen

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the intrasession repeatability of ocular aberration measurements in the peripheral visual field with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer (complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research). The higher-order off-axis aberrations data in young healthy emmetropic eyes are also reported. The aberrations of the right eye of 18 emmetropes were measured using an aberrometer with an open field of view that allows peripheral measurements. Five repeated measures of ocular aberrations were obtained and assessed in steps of 10° out to ±40° in the horizontal visual field (nasal + and temporal -) and -20° in the inferior visual field. The coefficient of repeatability, coefficient of variation, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated as a measure of intrasession repeatability. In all eccentric angles, the repeatability of the third- and fourth-order aberrations was better than the fifth and sixth order aberrations. The coefficient of variation was coefficient was >0.90 for the third and fourth order but reduced gradually for higher orders. There was no statistical significant difference in variance of total higher-order root mean square between on- and off-axis measurements (p > 0.05). The aberration data in this group of young emmetropes showed that the horizontal coma (C(3)(1)) was most positive at 40° in the temporal field, decreasing linearly toward negative values with increasing off-axis angle into the nasal field, whereas all other higher-order aberrations showed little or no change. The complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research provides fast, repeatable, and valid peripheral aberration measurements and can be used efficiently to measure off-axis aberrations in the peripheral visual field.

  9. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  10. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  11. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 1: Integrated payload and mission planning process evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, T. P.; Davin, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The integrated payload and mission planning process for STS payloads was defined, and discrete tasks which evaluate performance and support initial implementation of this process were conducted. The scope of activity was limited to NASA and NASA-related payload missions only. The integrated payload and mission planning process was defined in detail, including all related interfaces and scheduling requirements. Related to the payload mission planning process, a methodology for assessing early Spacelab mission manager assignment schedules was defined.

  12. Copy number of tandem direct repeats within the inverted repeats of Marek's disease virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, A; Nakajima, K; Ikuta, K; Ueda, S; Kato, S; Hirai, K

    1986-12-01

    We previously reported that DNA of the oncogenic strain BC-1 of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1) contains three units of tandem direct repeats with 132 base pair (bp) repeats within the inverted repeats of the long regions of the MDV1 genome, whereas the attenuated, nononcogenic viral DNA contains multiple units of tandem direct repeats (Maotani et al., 1986). In the present study, the difference in the copy numbers of 132 bp repeats of oncogenic and nononcogenic MDV1 DNAs in other strains of MDV1 was investigated by Southern blot hybridization. The main copy numbers in different oncogenic MDV1 strains differed: those of BC-1, JM and highly oncogenic Md5 were 3, 5 to 12 and 2, respectively. The viral DNA population with two units of repeats was small, but detectable, in cells infected with either the oncogenic BC-1 or JM strain. The MDV1 DNA in various MD cell lines contained either two units or both two and three units of repeats. The significance of the copy number of repeats in oncogenicity of MDV1 is discussed.

  13. The Cassini-Huygens mission

    CERN Document Server

    The joint NASA-ESA Cassini-Huygens mission promises to return four (and possibly more) years of unparalleled scientific data from the solar system’s most exotic planet, the ringed, gas giant, Saturn. Larger than Galileo with a much greater communication bandwidth, Cassini can accomplish in a single flyby what Galileo returned in a series of passes. Cassini explores the Saturn environment in three dimensions, using gravity assists to climb out of the equatorial plane to look down on the rings from above, to image the aurora and to study polar magnetospheric processes such as field-aligned currents. Since the radiation belt particle fluxes are much more benign than those at Jupiter, Cassini can more safely explore the inner regions of the magnetosphere. The spacecraft approaches the planet closer than Galileo could, and explores the inner moons and the rings much more thoroughly than was possible at Jupiter. This book is the second volume, in a three volume set, that describes the Cassini/Huygens mission. Thi...

  14. Global Precipitation Mission Visualization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaller, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) software provides graphic visualization tools that enable easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. It was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground-based, S- and C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite's precipitation radar instrument. This design is also applicable to other groundbased and space-based radars, and allows both ground- and space-based radar data to be compared for validation purposes. The tool creates an operational system that routinely performs several steps. It ingests satellite radar data (precipitation radar data from TRMM) and groundbased meteorological radar data from a number of sources. Principally, the ground radar data comes from national networks of weather radars (see figure). The data ingested by the visualization tool must conform to the data formats used in GPM Validation Network Geometry-matched data product generation. The software also performs match-ups of the radar volume data for the ground- and space-based data, as well as statistical and graphical analysis (including two-dimensional graphical displays) on the match-up data. The visualization tool software is written in IDL, and can be operated either in the IDL development environment or as a stand-alone executable function.

  15. Ravens satellite mission concept study

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Eric F

    2011-01-01

    The concept for Ravens satellite mission was proposed in response to a CSA AO for potential Canadian mission contributions to the International Living With a Star (ILWS) program. Ravens was conceived of to fill an important gap in the ILWS program: global imaging. Ravens will build on the heritage of world-class global imaging carried out in Canada. It would do much more than provide global observations to complete the system level capabilities of ILWS. Ravens would be comprised of two satellites on elliptical polar orbits, relatively phased on those orbits to provide the first-ever continuous (ie., 24 hours per day 7 days per week) global imaging of the northern hemisphere auroral and polar cap regions. This would provide the first-ever unbroken sequences of global images of the auroral response during long duration geomagnetic processes like storms and steady magnetospheric convection events. Ravens could track the spatio-temporal evolution of the global electron and proton auroral distribution, and would o...

  16. The NeXT Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, T; Mitsuda, K; Kunieda, H; Petre, R; White, N; Dotani, T; Fujimoto, R; Fukazawa, Y; Hayashida, K; Ishida, M; Ishisaki, Y; Kokubun, M; Makishima, K; Koyama, K; Madejski, G M; Mori, K; Mushotzky, R; Nakazawa, K; Ogasaka, Y; Ohashi, T; Ozaki, M; Tajima, H; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Tsunemi, H; Tsuru, T G; Ueda, Y; Yamasaki, N; Watanabe, S

    2008-01-01

    The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector. With these instruments, NeXT covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The micro-calorimeter system will be developed by international collaboration lead by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution of Delta E ~ 7 eV by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued.

  17. DUAL Gamma-Ray Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Boggs, S; von Ballmoos, P; Takahashi, T; Gehrels, N; Tueller, J; Baring, M; Beacom, J; Diehl, R; Greiner, J; Grove, E; Hartmann, D; Hernanz, M; Jean, P; Johnson, N; Kanbach, G; Kippen, M; Knödlseder, J; Leising, M; Madejski, G; McConnell, M; Milne, P; Motohide, K; Nakazawa, K; Oberlack, U; Phlips, B; Ryan, J; Skinner, G; Starrfield, S; Tajima, H; Wulf, E; Zoglauer, A; Zych, A

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy presents an extraordinary scientific potential for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. In order to take full advantage of this potential, the next generation of instrumentation for this domain will have to achieve an improvement in sensitivity over present technologies of at least an order of magnitude. The DUAL mission concept takes up this challenge in two complementary ways: a very long observation of the entire sky, combined with a large collection area for simultaneous observations of Type Ia SNe. While the Wide-Field Compton Telescope (WCT) accumulates data from the full gamma-ray sky (0.1-10 MeV) over the entire mission lifetime, the Laue-Lens Telescope (LLT) focuses on 56Co emission from SNe Ia (0.8-0.9 MeV), collecting gamma-rays from its large area crystal lens onto the WCT. Two separated spacecraft flying in formation will maintain the DUAL payloads at the lens' focal distance.

  18. Mission and ethics in Galatians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus Kok

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is investigated how the concepts identity, ethics and ethos interrelate, and how the ethics of the Pauline communities in Galatians functioned against the background of the missionary context of the early church. The author argued that the missionary dimension originated in the context of the missio Dei, and that God called Paul as a missionary to be taken up in the latter. The missionary process did not end with Paul, but was designed to be carried further by believers who should be, by their very nature, missionary. In the process, the author investigated how the transformation of identity (the understanding of self, God and others leads to the creation of ethical values and how it is particularised in different socioreligious and cultural contexts in the development of the early church. The author argued that there is an implicit missionary dimension in the ethics of Paul in Galatians. In the process, it is argued that those who want to speak of ethics should make something of mission, and those who speak of mission in Galatians, should speak about the role of identity, ethics and ethos in the letter.

  19. The Sentinel-2 Mission Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Ferran

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. This system will deliver a new generation of optical data products designed to directly feed downstream services acting in several domains such as land management, agricultural industry, forestry, food security, or disaster control management following floods, volcanic eruptions, landslides, etc. The Sentinel-2 mission designed to generate products with accurate radiometric and geometric performances (including multi-temporal imagery co-registration). To maximize the products suitability and readiness to downstream usage for the majority of applications, the Sentinel-2 PDGS will systematically generate and archive Level-1C products, which will provide Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance images, orthorectified using a global DEM and UTM projection. A Level-1B product will also be available for expert users and will provide the radiometrically corrected pixels in sensor geometry with the geometric model appended. Finally, a complementary atmospheric correction and enhanced cloud screening algorithm is being prototyped in parallel with the goal of providing some initial capabilities to the users, by means of a specific software toolbox operated on their platforms, to translate the Level-1C TOA reflectance image into Bottom of Atmosphere (BOA) reflectance.

  20. ERM-based Research on Risk Management in College Equity Participation Investment%基于ERM的高校参股投资风险管控的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玮; 刘未月

    2016-01-01

    随着我国高校规模显著扩大,经济活动总量持续增长,各类投资活动不断丰富,赋予了高校财务管理更多的内涵,基于此,高校作为一个市场主体必将面临对应的财务风险,财务风险的防范与控制成为了高校新的命题,本文通过对ERM(Enterprise Risk Management)进行深入学习和分类梳理,旨在对高校参股投资活动的现状、风险点及相应管控策略进行研究,以期为高校的财务风险管理提供一点思考和借鉴。%The fiscal management of colleges and universities has more contents than ever before due to the significant expansion of their scale, sustained growth of their economic aggregate, and their various investment activities. Therefore, colleges and universities have to be faced with the fiscal risks as market subjects. How to prevent and control fiscal risks becomes a new chanllege for college. This paper researches the present situation of college investment as stock holders, the risk points, and the management strategies by studying and cataloging ERM (Enterprise Risk Management). The result is a reference for college fiscal risk management.

  1. CMBPol Mission Concept Study: A Mission to Map our Origins

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Daniel; Dodelson, Scott; Dunkley, Joanna; Fraisse, Aurélien A; Jackson, Mark G; Kogut, Al; Krauss, Lawrence M; Smith, Kendrick M; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2008-01-01

    Quantum mechanical metric fluctuations during an early inflationary phase of the universe leave a characteristic imprint in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The amplitude of this signal depends on the energy scale at which inflation occurred. Detailed observations by a dedicated satellite mission (CMBPol) therefore provide information about energy scales as high as $10^{15}$ GeV, twelve orders of magnitude greater than the highest energies accessible to particle accelerators, and probe the earliest moments in the history of the universe. This summary provides an overview of a set of studies exploring the scientific payoff of CMBPol in diverse areas of modern cosmology, such as the physics of inflation, gravitational lensing and cosmic reionization, as well as foreground science and removal .

  2. Mission objectives and scientific rationale for the magnetometer mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, R. A.

    1991-12-01

    Based on a review of the characteristics of the geomagnetic field, objectives for the magnetic portion of the ARISTOTELES mission are: (1) To derive a description of the main magnetic field and its secular variation. (2) To investigate the correlation between the geomagnetic field and variations in the length of day. (3) To study properties of the fluid core. (4) To study the conductivity of the mantle. (5) To model the state and evolution of the crust and upper lithosphere. (6) To measure and characterize field aligned currents and ionospheric currents and to understand their generation mechanisms and their role in energy coupling in the interplanetary-magnetospheric-ionospheric systems. Procedures for these investigations are outlined.

  3. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  4. Chandrayaan-1: India's first planetary science mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath Goswami, Jitendra

    A new initiative of the Indian Space Research Organization to have dedicated Space Science Missions led to two major missions that are currently in progress: Astrosat and Chandrayaan-1, the latter being the first planetary science mission of the country. The spadework for this mission started about ten years back and culminated in late 2003 with the official endorsement for the mission. This remote sensing mission, to be launched in early next year, is expected to further our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon based on a chemical, mineralogical and topographic study of the lunar surface at spatial and spectral resolutions much better than those for previous and other currently planned lunar missions. The Chandrayaan-1 mission is also international in character and will have an array of Indian instruments as well as several instruments from abroad some of which will have very strong Indian collaboration. This talk will provide a brief overview of our present understanding of the Moon, the science objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission and how we hope to achieve these from the data to be obtained by the various instruments on board the mission. A possible road map for Indian planetary exploration programme in the context of the International scenario will be presented at the end.

  5. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  6. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  7. Episodes of repeated sudden deafness following pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Osinska, Katarzyna; Burduk, Pawel K; Kopczynski, Andrzej

    2009-04-01

    Sex hormones influence and provoke changes in hearing levels. Sudden deafness is rarely observed in pregnant women. The effective treatment of sudden deafness in pregnant women is a challenging problem. We present a case of repeatable, completely regressed sudden deafness in a woman during her first and second pregnancies.

  8. Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Harvey M; Cooke, Karl; Sumners, David P; Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2013-12-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) is a critical success factor for intermittent sport performance. Repeated sprint training has been shown to improve RSA, we hypothesised that hypoxia would augment these training adaptations. Thirty male well-trained academy rugby union and rugby league players (18.4 ± 1.5 years, 1.83 ± 0.07 m, 88.1 ± 8.9 kg) participated in this single-blind repeated sprint training study. Participants completed 12 sessions of repeated sprint training (10 × 6 s, 30 s recovery) over 4 weeks in either hypoxia (13% FiO₂) or normoxia (21% FiO₂). Pretraining and post-training, participants completed sports specific endurance and sprint field tests and a 10 × 6 s RSA test on a non-motorised treadmill while measuring speed, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, muscle and cerebral deoxygenation and respiratory measures. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test performance improved after RS training in both groups, but gains were significantly greater in the hypoxic (33 ± 12%) than the normoxic group (14 ± 10%, prepeated aerobic high intensity workout than an equivalent normoxic training. Performance gains are evident in the short term (4 weeks), a period similar to a preseason training block.

  9. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly ...

  10. A Structured Group Program for Repeat Dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen

    1989-01-01

    Describes a structured group program for women who repeatedly diet and may be at risk of developing more serious eating disorders. Discusses sessions focusing on eating behavior as well as internal factors that contribute to low body esteem and food and weight preoccupation. Evaluates effectiveness of program by self-reports of members of two…

  11. Why Do Students Repeat Admissions Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martha S.

    Attitudes and beliefs about the admissions process, especially the role of standardized testing in admissions, were examined for students who took a standardized admissions test more than once. Their attitudes were compared with those of students who did not repeat the test. About 200 preveterinary students who had taken the Veterinary Aptitude…

  12. The Effect of Repeaters on Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeKyoung; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Test equating might be affected by including in the equating analyses examinees who have taken the test previously. This study evaluated the effect of including such repeaters on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) equating using a population invariance approach. Three-parameter logistic (3-PL) item response theory (IRT) true score and…

  13. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  14. A Repeater in the Language Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B. T.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the feasilility of the use of repeater devices in the language laboratory in order to enable the student to "recapitulate effortlessly and and indefinitely any utterance of any length which is causing him difficulty or is of special interest. (FWB)

  15. The Differential Effects of Repeating Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkam, David T.; LoGerfo, Laura; Ready, Doug; Lee, Valerie E.

    2007-01-01

    We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate national patterns addressing (a) who repeats kindergarten, and (b) the subsequent cognitive effects of this event. Using OLS regression techniques, we investigate 1st-time kindergartners who are promoted, 1st-time kindergartners who are retained, and children who are already repeating…

  16. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  17. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiji eNageshwaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions frequently exist as dinucleotide, trinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeats. The association between repetitive regions and disease was emphasised following the discovery of abnormal trinucleotide repeats underlying spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy’s disease and fragile X syndrome of mental retardation (FRAXA in 1991. In this review we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and then focus on several diseases caused by DNA triplet-repeat expansions, which exhibit diverse epigenetic effects. It is clear that the emerging field of epigenetics is already generating novel potential therapeutic avenues for this group of largely incurable diseases.

  18. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  19. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species

  20. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  1. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence.

  2. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  3. Photometric Repeatability of Scanned Imagery: UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Clare E.; McCullough, Peter; Baggett, Sylvia

    2017-08-01

    We provide the preliminary results of a study on the photometric repeatability of spatial scans of bright, isolated white dwarf stars with the UVIS channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze straight-line scans from the first pair of identical orbits of HST program 14878 to assess if sub 0.1% repeatability can be attained with WFC3/UVIS. This study is motivated by the desire to achieve better signal-to-noise in the UVIS contamination and stability monitor, in which observations of standard stars in staring mode have been taken from the installation of WFC3 in 2009 to the present to assess temporal photometric stability. Higher signal to noise in this program would greatly benefit the sensitivity to detect contamination, and to better characterize the observed small throughput drifts over time. We find excellent repeatability between identical visits of program 14878, with sub 0.1% repeatability achieved in most filters. These! results support the initiative to transition the staring mode UVIS contamination and photometric stability monitor from staring mode images to spatial scans.

  4. Repeat surgery after failed midurethral slings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    MUS from 1998 through 2007. The outcome was repeat surgery with any subsequent procedure code for urinary incontinence within a 5-year period of the first procedure. RESULTS: A total of 5,820 women (mean age 55.4 years, ± 12.1) were registered with a synthetic MUS, and 354 (6 %) underwent reoperation...

  5. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  6. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...

  7. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  8. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  9. Bone Metabolism on ISS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption (1, 2), and either unchanged or decreased rates of bone formation. Resistive exercise had been proposed as a countermeasure, and data from bed rest supported this concept (3). An interim resistive exercise device (iRED) was flown for early ISS crews. Unfortunately, the iRED provided no greater bone protection than on missions where only aerobic and muscular endurance exercises were available (4, 5). In 2008, the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), a more robust device with much greater resistance capability, (6, 7) was launched to the ISS. Astronauts who had access to ARED, coupled with adequate energy intake and vitamin D status, returned from ISS missions with bone mineral densities virtually unchanged from preflight (7). Bone biochemical markers showed that while the resistive exercise and adequate energy consumption did not mitigate the increased bone resorption, bone formation was increased (7, 8). The typical drop in circulating parathyroid hormone did not occur in ARED crewmembers. In 2014, an updated look at the densitometry data was published. This study confirmed the initial findings with a much larger set of data. In 42 astronauts (33 male, 9 female), the bone mineral density response to flight was the same for men and women (9), and those with access to the ARED did not have the typical decrease in bone mineral density that was observed in early ISS crewmembers with access to the iRED (Figure 1) (7). Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption responded similarly in men and women. These data are encouraging, and represent the first in-flight evidence in the history of human space flight that diet and exercise can maintain bone mineral density on long-duration missions. However, the maintenance of bone mineral density through bone remodeling, that is, increases in both resorption and formation, may yield a bone with strength characteristics different from those

  10. Space Mission : Y3K

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    ESA and the APME are hosting a contest for 10 - 15 year olds in nine European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The contest is based on an interactive CD ROM, called Space Mission: Y3K, which explores space technology and shows some concrete uses of that technology in enhancing the quality of life on Earth. The CD ROM invites kids to join animated character Space Ranger Pete on an action-packed, colourful journey through space. Space Ranger Pete begins on Earth: the user navigates around a 'locker room' to learn about synthetic materials used in rocket boosters, heat shields, space suits and helmets, and how these materials have now become indispensable to everyday life. From Earth he flies into space and the user follows him from the control room in the spacecraft to a planet, satellites and finally to the International Space Station. Along the way, the user jots down clues that he or she discovers in this exploration, designing an imaginary space community and putting together a submission for the contest. The lucky winners will spend a weekend training as "junior astronauts" at the European Space Centre in Belgium (20-22 April 2001). They will be put through their astronaut paces, learning the art of space walking, running their own space mission, piloting a space capsule and re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The competition features in various youth media channels across Europe. In the UK, popular BBC Saturday morning TV show, Live & Kicking, will be launching the competition and will invite viewers to submit their space community designs to win a weekend at ESC. In Germany, high circulation children's magazine Geolino will feature the competition in the January issue and on their internet site. And youth magazine ZoZitDat will feature the competition in the Netherlands throughout February. Space Mission: Y3K is part of an on-going partnership between the ESA's Technology Transfer

  11. TerraSAR-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werninghaus, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    The TerraSAR-X is a German national SAR- satellite system for scientific and commercial applications. It is the continuation of the scientifically and technologically successful radar missions X-SAR (1994) and SRTM (2000) and will bring the national technology developments DESA and TOPAS into operational use. The space segment of TerraSAR-X is an advanced high-resolution X-Band radar satellite. The system design is based on a sound market analysis performed by Infoterra. The TerraSAR-X features an advanced high-resolution X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar based on the active phased array technology which allows the operation in Spotlight-, Stripmap- and ScanSAR Mode with various polarizations. It combines the ability to acquire high resolution images for detailed analysis as well as wide swath images for overview applications. In addition, experimental modes like the Dual Receive Antenna Mode allow for full-polarimetric imaging as well as along track interferometry, i.e. moving target identification. The Ground Segment is optimized for flexible response to (scientific and commercial) User requests and fast image product turn-around times. The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main goals. The first goal is to provide the strongly supportive scientific community with multi-mode X-Band SAR data. The broad spectrum of scientific application areas include Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography (DEM Generation) and Interferometry. The second goal is the establishment of a commercial EO-market in Europe which is driven by Infoterra. The commercial goal is the development of a sustainable EO-business so that the e.g. follow-on systems can be completely financed by industry from the profit. Due to its commercial potential, the TerraSAR-X project will be implemented based on a public-private partnership with the Astrium GmbH. This paper will describe first the mission objectives as well as the

  12. RepeatsDB 2.0: improved annotation, classification, search and visualization of repeat protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladin, Lisanna; Hirsh, Layla; Piovesan, Damiano; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2017-01-01

    RepeatsDB 2.0 (URL: http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is an update of the database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Repeat proteins are a widespread class of non-globular proteins carrying heterogeneous functions involved in several diseases. Here we provide a new version of RepeatsDB with an improved classification schema including high quality annotations for ∼5400 protein structures. RepeatsDB 2.0 features information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units for all entries. The extensive growth of repeat unit characterization was possible by applying the novel ReUPred annotation method over the entire Protein Data Bank, with data quality is guaranteed by an extensive manual validation for >60% of the entries. The updated web interface includes a new search engine for complex queries and a fully re-designed entry page for a better overview of structural data. It is now possible to compare unit positions, together with secondary structure, fold information and Pfam domains. Moreover, a new classification level has been introduced on top of the existing scheme as an independent layer for sequence similarity relationships at 40%, 60% and 90% identity. PMID:27899671

  13. I satelliti della missione EROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano De Corso

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available EROS mission satellitesThe EROS (Earth Remote Observation Satellite constellation is property of ImageSat International N.V. an international company and a commercial provider of high-resolution, satellite earth-imagery collected by its Earth Remote Observation Satellite. EROS A is equipped with a camera whose focal plane of CCD (Charge Coupled Device detectors produces a standard image resolution of 1.9 meters. EROS B slightly larger and similar in appearance to EROS A, the new satellite has superior capabilities, including a larger camera of CCD/ TDI type (Charge Coupled Device/Time Delay Integration, with standard panchromatic resolution of 0.70 m at an altitude of about 500 km, a larger on-board recorder, improved pointing accuracy and a faster data communication link.

  14. Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alland, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes my work with the Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS) team during the summer of 2011. It gives some background on the motivation for this project and describes the expected benefit to the Cassini program. It then introduces the two tasks that I worked on - an automatic system auditing tool and a series of corrections to the Cassini Sequence Generator (SEQ_GEN) - and the specific objectives these tasks were to accomplish. Next, it details the approach I took to meet these objectives and the results of this approach, followed by a discussion of how the outcome of the project compares with my initial expectations. The paper concludes with a summary of my experience working on this project, lists what the next steps are, and acknowledges the help of my Cassini colleagues.

  15. The SSETI-express Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten; Melville, N.

    provides a description of the organisation behind the project and the mission of the satellite. Further it provides a technical overview of both the space segment and the ground segment together with key lessons learnt from the process of building a student satellite with widely distributed teams.......In January 2004 a group of students met at the European Space Technology and Research Centre (ESTEC) in Holland to discuss the feasibility of building a micro-satellite, dubbed SSETI-Express, from parts derived from other student satellite projects and launch it within one and a half year....... The project is an initiative under the ESA Education Department and the Student Space Exploration and Technology Initiative (SSETI)[3], an European student organisation. The satellite is currently scheduled for launch on the 30th of June 2005 atop a "Cosmos" launch vehicle from Plesetsk in Russia. This paper...

  16. Solar sail Engineering Development Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    Since photons have momentum, a useful force can be obtained by reflecting sunlight off of a large, low mass surface (most likely a very thin metal-coated plastic film) and robbing the light of some of its momentum. A solar sail Engineering Development Mission (EDM) is currently being planned by the World Space Foundation for the purpose of demonstrating and evaluating solar sailing technology and to gain experience in the design and operation of a spacecraft propelled by sunlight. The present plan is for the EDM spacecraft to be launched (sail stowed) in a spin-stabilized configuration into an initial elliptical orbit with an apogee of 36,000 km and a perigee of a few hundred kilometers. The spacecraft will then use its own chemical propulsion system to raise the perigee to at least 1,200 km. The deployed sail will have an area of 880 sq m and generate a solar force of about 0.007 N.

  17. Job Orders (Ordres de mission)

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2005-01-01

    Please note that individual job orders and continuous job orders (valid for one calendar year, i.e. from 1st January to 31st December) must henceforth be completed via EDH and approved by the Department Leader concerned (or the person appointed by him via EDHAdmin). Once approved, the form must be printed and kept for the duration of the mission by the driver to whom the job order is issued. You will find the icon for this document on the EDH Desktop, as well as on-line help on how to use it. In emergencies, paper copies of individual job orders (SCEM 54.50.20.168.5) may be issued outside normal working hours by the Fire Brigade (Meyrin Site, Building 65). Organisation & Procedures, FI Department, Tel. 73905 Relations with the Host States Service, Tel. 72848

  18. Aquarius/SAC-D mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amit; Caruso, Daniel; Lagerloef, Gary; Torrusio, Sandra; Durham, David; Falcon, Carlos

    2008-10-01

    Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is a key parameter in the global water cycle but it is not yet monitored from space. Conventional in situ SSS sampling is too sparse to give the global view of salinity variability that a remote sensing satellite can provide. The Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will make pioneering space-based measurements of global SSS with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to characterize salinity variations (spatial and temporal), investigate the linkage between ocean circulation, the Earth's water cycle, and climate variability. It is being jointly developed by NASA and the Space Agency of Argentina, the Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE). The Project is currently in implementation phase with the flight Aquarius Instrument undergoing environmental testing at NASA-JPL/Caltech in California, USA and the SAC-D instruments and spacecraft development undergoing at CONAE/INVAP facilities in Argentina. Aquarius/SAC-D launch is scheduled for May 2010.

  19. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Gail

    2014-05-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core satellite, scheduled for launch at the end of February 2014, is well designed estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s highly successful rain-sensing package [3]. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM Core Observatory was developed and tested at NASA

  20. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  1. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  2. The incentive effects of missions - Evidence from experiments with NGO employees and students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the incentive effects of an organization׳s ‘mission’ on the effort provision of agents. Across treatments, I exogenously vary how much the agents׳ and their projects׳ missions match. In the first study, NGO employees are assigned the role of agents in an online, one......-shot, principal-agent experiment. In the second study, I replicate the experimental design with a student subject pool. In both experiments the agents׳ effort choices are, for any given piece rate, increasing in their mission match. In a third study, a laboratory experiment with a finitely repeated principal......-agent game with random matching, I do not find a motivational effect of missions, unlike in my first two studies....

  3. NASA's Missions for Exoplanet Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Exoplanets are detected and characterized using a range of observational techniques - including direct imaging, astrometry, transits, microlensing, and radial velocities. Each technique illuminates a different aspect of exoplanet properties and statistics. This diversity of approach has contributed to the rapid growth of the field into a major research area in only two decades. In parallel with exoplanet observations, major efforts are now underway to interpret the physical and atmospheric properties of exoplanets for which spectroscopy is now possible. In addition, comparative planetology probes questions of interest to both exoplanets and solar system studies. In this talk I describe NASA's activities in exoplanet research, and discuss plans for near-future missions that have reflected-light spectroscopy as a key goal. The WFIRST-AFTA concept currently under active study includes a major microlensing survey, and now includes a visible light coronagraph for exoplanet spectroscopy and debris disk imaging. Two NASA-selected community-led teams are studying probe-scale (spectroscopy. These concepts complement existing NASA missions that do exoplanet science (such as transit spectroscopy and debris disk imaging with HST and Spitzer) or are under development (survey of nearby transiting exoplanets with TESS, and followup of the most important targets with transit spectroscopy on JWST), and build on the work of ground-based instruments such as LBTI and observing with HIRES on Keck. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2014. California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  4. A Mission to Earth's Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P.

    2016-12-01

    The last few decades have witnessed extraordinary progress on Earth's deep interior, particularly for Earth's core. Notable examples include seismic detection of fine structure and heterogeneity from the CMB to the depths of the inner core; improved constraints on the thermal regime and critical physical properties; direct experimental access to core pressures and temperatures; partial resolution of geomagnetic history into the deep past, new cosmochemical constraints on core formation, plus a first-order solution of the dynamo problem. Nevertheless, many fundamental questions about Earth's core remain unanswered, representing significant impediments to further understanding, not just of the Earth system, but also the interiors of other planets. A partial list of unsolved problems includes the composition of the core especially its light element inventory, the nature of heterogeneity in the core and its dynamical significance, quantifying heat and mass exchanges between core and mantle, the record of core evolution exemplified by inner core nucleation and the magnetic superchron cycle, and the role of core formation in governing Earth history. A more concerted and better-focused interdisciplinary effort is needed to resolve these long-standing problems, one that is comparable in its scale and structure to a planetary exploration mission. Such a Mission to Earth's Center would foster technological developments aimed specifically at these questions, such as seismic arrays designed for imaging the core, experimental capability for determining the phase diagram of the core, resolution of geomagnetic history into the deep past, plus next-generation dynamical models for the mantle, the core, and their interaction.

  5. THE JEM-EUSO MISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bertaina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The JEM-EUSO mission explores the origin of the extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs above 50EeV and explores the limits of the fundamental physics, through the observations of their arrival directions and energies. It is designed to open a new particle astronomy channel. This superwide-field (60 degrees telescope with a diameter of about 2.5m looks down from space onto the night sky to detect near UV photons (330 ÷ 400nm, both fluorescent and Cherenkov photons emitted from the giant air showers produced by EECRs. The arrival direction map with more than five hundred events will tell us the origin of the EECRs and allow us to identify the nearest EECR sources with known astronomical objects. It will allow them to be examined in other astronomical channels. This is likely to lead to an  nderstanding of the acceleration mechanisms perhaps producing discoveries in astrophysics and/or fundamental physics. The comparison of the energy spectra among the spatially resolved individual sources will help to clarify the acceleration/emission mechanism, and also finally confirm the Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuz’min process for the validation of Lorentz invariance up to γ ~ 1011. Neutral components (neutrinos and gamma rays can also be detected as well, if their fluxes are high enough. The JEM-EUSO mission is planned to be launched by a H2B rocket about 2017 and transferred to ISS by H2 Transfer Vehicle (HTV. It will be attached to the Exposed Facility external experiment platform of “KIBO”.

  6. Agile: From Software to Mission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Shirley, Mark; Hobart, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    To maximize efficiency and flexibility in Mission Operations System (MOS) design, we are evolving principles from agile and lean methods for software, to the complete mission system. This allows for reduced operational risk at reduced cost, and achieves a more effective design through early integration of operations into mission system engineering and flight system design. The core principles are assessment of capability through demonstration, risk reduction through targeted experiments, early test and deployment, and maturation of processes and tools through use.

  7. The Scots abroad: migration and mission

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Kenneth Ross’s essay begins with an overview of the migration of the Scots round the world in the age of colonialism. He then examines this more closely, exploring the relationship between migration and missions in the diaspora church. Beginning with mission-migrant relations in Malawi, Ross then points to more general, more deeply-rooted tensions arising in the Scottish diaspora, reflected in the conflicting interests of expatriate churches and mission agencies. Publisher PDF

  8. GSFC Safety and Mission Assurance Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's approach to safety and mission assurance. The contents include: 1) NASA GSFC Background; 2) Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate; 3) The Role of SMA-D and the Technical Authority; 4) GSFC Mission assurance Requirements; 5) GSFC Systems Review Office (SRO); 6) GSFC Supply Chain Management Program; and 7) GSFC ISO9001/AS9100 Status Brief.

  9. Component Verification and Certification in NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Penix, John; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Software development for NASA missions is a particularly challenging task. Missions are extremely ambitious scientifically, have very strict time frames, and must be accomplished with a maximum degree of reliability. Verification technologies must therefore be pushed far beyond their current capabilities. Moreover, reuse and adaptation of software architectures and components must be incorporated in software development within and across missions. This paper discusses NASA applications that we are currently investigating from these perspectives.

  10. Investigation of the population structure of Mycobacterium abscessus complex strains using 17-locus variable number tandem repeat typing and the further distinction of Mycobacterium massiliense hsp65 genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shiomi; Arikawa, Kentaro; Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Harada, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Hideaki; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Hayashi, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus complex is a significant pathogen in patients with non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF). Nevertheless, there is little description of the genetic diversity of this species. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of M. abscessus complex isolated from respiratory specimens by variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing. The results of 104 clinical isolates from 104 non-CF patients were compared using PFGE, hsp65 genotypes and clarithromycin susceptibility. The allelic diversity (Hunter-Gaston Discriminatory Index) of the 17 loci examined by VNTR typing was high (0.977). We determined that C28 sequevar erm(41) genotypes and clarithromycin-acquired resistance isolates were scattered in the minimum spanning tree. Intriguingly, VNTR typing and PFGE were highly congruent and revealed that there were clear examples of grouping of isolates from different individuals amongst both M. abscessus and M. massiliense, and showed five clusters of distinct identical isolates. Within these clusters, M. massiliense hsp65 type I formed three different clusters. Although the distribution of M. massiliense hsp65 type II-1 was low (9.3 %), M. massiliense hsp65 type II-1 isolates separated from clusters contained hsp65 type I isolates. Thus, M. massiliense hsp65 genotypes could be discriminated by analysing VNTRs with sufficient genetic distance for intra-species-level discrimination.

  11. 47 CFR 80.1179 - On-board repeater limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-board repeater limitations. 80.1179 Section... On-board repeater limitations. When an on-board repeater is used, the following limitations must be met: (a) The on-board repeater antenna must be located no higher than 3 meters (10 feet) above...

  12. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  13. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  14. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Juan; Ballard, Christopher G.; Hahn, Yungsun

    2012-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft was launched in October 1997 on a mission to observe Saturn and its moons; it entered orbit around Saturn in July 2004 for a nominal four-year Prime Mission, later augmented by two extensions: the Equinox Mission, from July 2008 through September 2010, and the Solstice Mission, from October 2010 through September 2017. This paper provides an overview of the maneuver activities from August 2011 through June 2012 which include the design of 38 Orbit Trim Maneuvers--OTM-288 through OTM-326-- for attaining 14 natural satellite encounters: seven with Titan, six with Enceladus, and one with Dione.

  15. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sean V.; Arrieta, Juan; Ballard, Christopher G.; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Valerino, Powtawche N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft began its four-year Prime Mission to study Saturn's system in July 2004. Two tour extensions followed: a two-year Equinox Mission beginning in July 2008 and a seven-year Solstice Mission starting in September 2010. This paper highlights Cassini maneuver activities from June 2010 through June 2011, covering the transition from the Equinox to Solstice Mission. This interval included 38 scheduled maneuvers, nine targeted Titan flybys, three targeted Enceladus flybys, and one close Rhea flyby. In addition, beyond the demanding nominal navigation schedule, numerous unforeseen challenges further complicated maneuver operations. These challenges will be discussed in detail.

  16. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  17. Autolanding for Sample Return Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA and commercial missions will increasingly target destinations with challenging topography and limited communication including unmapped asteroids, comets,...

  18. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Giorgio; Kaspi, Victoria; Tennant, Allyn; Coppi, Paolo; Wu, Kinwah; Siegmund, Oswald

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful---yet inexpensive---dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsize the important physical and astrophysical questions such a mission would address.

  19. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  20. ESPA for Lunar and Science Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA mission planning in the next decade includes small spacecraft and secondary flight opportunities on Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), specifically...

  1. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Giorgio; Kaspi, Victoria; Tennant, Allyn; hide

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful---yet inexpensive---dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsize the important physical and astrophysical questions such a mission would address.

  2. A preliminary estimate of geoid-induced variations in repeat orbit satellite altimeter observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Anita C.; Beckley, B. D.; Koblinsky, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    Altimeter satellites are often maintained in a repeating orbit to facilitate the separation of sea-height variations from the geoid. However, atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure cause a satellite orbit to drift. For Geosat this drift causes the ground track to vary by + or - 1 km about the nominal repeat path. This misalignment leads to an error in the estimates of sea surface height variations because of the local slope in the geoid. This error has been estimated globally for the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission using a mean sea surface constructed from Geos 3 and Seasat altimeter data. Over most of the ocean the geoid gradient is small, and the repeat-track misalignment leads to errors of only 1 to 2 cm. However, in the vicinity of trenches, continental shelves, islands, and seamounts, errors can exceed 20 cm. The estimated error is compared with direct estimates from Geosat altimetry, and a strong correlation is found in the vicinity of the Tonga and Aleutian trenches. This correlation increases as the orbit error is reduced because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. A preliminary estimate of geoid-induced variations in repeat orbit satellite altimeter observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Anita C.; Beckley, B. D.; Koblinsky, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    Altimeter satellites are often maintained in a repeating orbit to facilitate the separation of sea-height variations from the geoid. However, atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure cause a satellite orbit to drift. For Geosat this drift causes the ground track to vary by + or - 1 km about the nominal repeat path. This misalignment leads to an error in the estimates of sea surface height variations because of the local slope in the geoid. This error has been estimated globally for the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission using a mean sea surface constructed from Geos 3 and Seasat altimeter data. Over most of the ocean the geoid gradient is small, and the repeat-track misalignment leads to errors of only 1 to 2 cm. However, in the vicinity of trenches, continental shelves, islands, and seamounts, errors can exceed 20 cm. The estimated error is compared with direct estimates from Geosat altimetry, and a strong correlation is found in the vicinity of the Tonga and Aleutian trenches. This correlation increases as the orbit error is reduced because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio.

  4. SLS launched missions concept studies for LUVOIR mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2015-09-01

    NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. The multi-center ATLAST Team is working to meet these needs. The MSFC Team is examining potential concepts that leverage the advantages of the SLS (Space Launch System). A key challenge is how to affordably get a large telescope into space. The JWST design was severely constrained by the mass and volume capacities of its launch vehicle. This problem is solved by using an SLS Block II-B rocket with its 10-m diameter x 30-m tall fairing and estimated 45 mt payload to SE-L2. Previously, two development study cycles produced a detailed concept called ATLAST-8. Using ATLAST-8 as a point of departure, this paper reports on a new ATLAST-12 concept. ATLAST-12 is a 12-m class segmented aperture LUVOIR with an 8-m class center segment. Thus, ATLAST-8 is now a de-scope option.

  5. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  6. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  7. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  8. Quantum repeaters with entangled coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Laurat, Julien; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Entangled coherent states can be prepared remotely by subtracting non-locally a single photon from two quantum superpositions of coherent states, the so-called "Schroedinger's cat" state. Such entanglement can further be distributed over longer distances by successive entanglement swapping operations using linear optics and photon-number resolving detectors. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of this approach to quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communications. Despite many attractive features at first sight, we show that, when using state-of-the-art photon counters and quantum memories, they do not achieve higher entanglement generation rates than repeaters based on single-photon entanglement. We discuss potential developments which may take better advantage of the richness of entanglement based on continuous variables, including in particular efficient parity measurements.

  9. Quantum repeaters based on heralded qubit amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Minář, Jiří; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum repeater scheme based on the recently proposed qubit amplifier [N. Gisin, S. Pironio and N. Sangouard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)]. It relies on a on-demand entangled-photon pair source which uses on-demand single-photon sources, linear optical elements and atomic ensembles. Interestingly, the imperfections affecting the states created from this source, caused e.g. by detectors with non-unit efficiencies, are systematically purified from an entanglement swapping operation based on a two-photon detection. This allows the distribution of entanglement over very long distances with a high fidelity, i.e. without vacuum components and multiphoton errors. Therefore, the resulting quantum repeater architecture does not necessitate final postselections and thus achieves high entanglement distribution rates. This also provides unique opportunities for device-independent quantum key distribution over long distances with linear optics and atomic ensembles.

  10. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  11. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  12. High-bandwidth hybrid quantum repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, W J; Van Meter, R; Louis, Sebastien G R; Nemoto, Kae

    2008-07-25

    We present a physical- and link-level design for the creation of entangled pairs to be used in quantum repeater applications where one can control the noise level of the initially distributed pairs. The system can tune dynamically, trading initial fidelity for success probability, from high fidelity pairs (F=0.98 or above) to moderate fidelity pairs. The same physical resources that create the long-distance entanglement are used to implement the local gates required for entanglement purification and swapping, creating a homogeneous repeater architecture. Optimizing the noise properties of the initially distributed pairs significantly improves the rate of generating long-distance Bell pairs. Finally, we discuss the performance trade-off between spatial and temporal resources.

  13. Do Gamma-Ray Burst Sources Repeat?

    OpenAIRE

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and...

  14. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  15. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  16. Repeatability of Response to Asthma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann; Tantisira, Kelan; Li, Lingling; Schuemann, Brooke; Weiss, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies of drug response in asthma assume that patients respond consistently to a treatment but that treatment response varies across patients, however, no formal studies have demonstrated this. Objective To determine the repeatability of commonly used outcomes for treatment response to asthma medications: bronchodilator response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20). Methods The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a multi-center clinical trial of children randomized to receiving budesonide, nedocromil, or placebo. We determined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome over repeated visits over four years in CAMP using mixed effects regression models. We adjusted for the covariates: age, race/ethnicity, height, family income, parental education, and symptom score. We incorporated each outcome for each child as repeated outcome measurements and stratified by treatment group. Results The ICC for bronchodilator response was 0.31 in the budesonide group, 0.35 in the nedocromil group, and 0.40 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for FEV1 was 0.71 in the budesonide group, 0.60 in the nedocromil group, and 0.69 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for PC20 was 0.67 in the budesonide and placebo groups and 0.73 in the nedocromil group, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The within treatment group repeatability of FEV1 and PC20 are high; thus these phenotypes are heritable. FEV1 and PC20 may be better phenotypes than bronchodilator response for studies of treatment response in asthma. PMID:19064281

  17. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  18. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  19. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  20. A Central Limit Theorem for Repeating Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Landau, Henry; Landau, Zeph; Pommersheim, James

    2012-01-01

    This note gives a central limit theorem for the length of the longest subsequence of a random permutation which follows some repeating pattern. This includes the case of any fixed pattern of ups and downs which has at least one of each, such as the alternating case considered by Stanley in [2] and Widom in [3]. In every case considered the convergence in the limit of long permutations is to normal with mean and variance linear in the length of the permutations.