WorldWideScience

Sample records for repeat length errors

  1. Role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kraus, B.; Briegel, H.-J.; Duer, W.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory and (ii) introducing two operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e., without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an order of magnitude with reasonable overhead in physical resources. We outline the architecture of a quantum repeater that can possibly ensure intercontinental quantum communication

  2. Repeated speech errors: evidence for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Karin R; Menzies, Heather; Lake, Johanna K

    2010-11-01

    Three experiments elicited phonological speech errors using the SLIP procedure to investigate whether there is a tendency for speech errors on specific words to reoccur, and whether this effect can be attributed to implicit learning of an incorrect mapping from lemma to phonology for that word. In Experiment 1, when speakers made a phonological speech error in the study phase of the experiment (e.g. saying "beg pet" in place of "peg bet") they were over four times as likely to make an error on that same item several minutes later at test. A pseudo-error condition demonstrated that the effect is not simply due to a propensity for speakers to repeat phonological forms, regardless of whether or not they have been made in error. That is, saying "beg pet" correctly at study did not induce speakers to say "beg pet" in error instead of "peg bet" at test. Instead, the effect appeared to be due to learning of the error pathway. Experiment 2 replicated this finding, but also showed that after 48 h, errors made at study were no longer more likely to reoccur. As well as providing constraints on the longevity of the effect, this provides strong evidence that the error reoccurrences observed are not due to item-specific difficulty that leads individual speakers to make habitual mistakes on certain items. Experiment 3 showed that the diminishment of the effect 48 h later is not due to specific extra practice at the task. We discuss how these results fit in with a larger view of language as a dynamic system that is constantly adapting in response to experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...

  4. Critical lengths of error events in convolutional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    1994-01-01

    If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes......If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes...

  5. Critical Lengths of Error Events in Convolutional Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1998-01-01

    If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes......If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes...

  6. In situ detection of tandem DNA repeat length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.; Smith, C.L. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    A simple method for scoring short tandem DNA repeats is presented. An oligonucleotide target, containing tandem repeats embedded in a unique sequence, was hybridized to a set of complementary probes, containing tandem repeats of known lengths. Single-stranded loop structures formed on duplexes containing a mismatched (different) number of tandem repeats. No loop structure formed on duplexes containing a matched (identical) number of tandem repeats. The matched and mismatched loop structures were enzymatically distinguished and differentially labeled by treatment with S1 nuclease and the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  7. ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat length correlates with risk of ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproviero, William; Shatunov, Aleksey; Stahl, Daniel; Shoai, Maryam; van Rheenen, Wouter; Jones, Ashley R; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Andersen, Peter M; Bonini, Nancy M; Conforti, Francesca L; Van Damme, Philip; Daoud, Hussein; Del Mar Amador, Maria; Fogh, Isabella; Forzan, Monica; Gaastra, Ben; Gellera, Cinzia; Gitler, Aaron D; Hardy, John; Fratta, Pietro; La Bella, Vincenzo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Van Langenhove, Tim; Lattante, Serena; Lee, Yi-Chung; Malaspina, Andrea; Meininger, Vincent; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Orrell, Richard; Rademakers, Rosa; Robberecht, Wim; Rouleau, Guy; Ross, Owen A; Salachas, Francois; Sidle, Katie; Smith, Bradley N; Soong, Bing-Wen; Sorarù, Gianni; Stevanin, Giovanni; Kabashi, Edor; Troakes, Claire; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Shaw, Christopher E; Powell, John F; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-03-01

    We investigated a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two new case-control studies, a British dataset of 1474 ALS cases and 567 controls, and a Dutch dataset of 1328 ALS cases and 691 controls were analyzed. In addition, to increase power, we systematically searched PubMed for case-control studies published after 1 August 2010 that investigated the association between ATXN2 intermediate repeats and ALS. We conducted a meta-analysis of the new and existing studies for the relative risks of ATXN2 intermediate repeat alleles of between 24 and 34 CAG trinucleotide repeats and ALS. There was an overall increased risk of ALS for those carrying intermediate sized trinucleotide repeat alleles (odds ratio 3.06 [95% confidence interval 2.37-3.94]; p = 6 × 10 -18 ), with an exponential relationship between repeat length and ALS risk for alleles of 29-32 repeats (R 2  = 0.91, p = 0.0002). No relationship was seen for repeat length and age of onset or survival. In contrast to trinucleotide repeat diseases, intermediate ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat expansion in ALS does not predict age of onset but does predict disease risk. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Repeat-aware modeling and correction of short read errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Aluru, Srinivas; Dorman, Karin S

    2011-02-15

    High-throughput short read sequencing is revolutionizing genomics and systems biology research by enabling cost-effective deep coverage sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes. Error detection and correction are crucial to many short read sequencing applications including de novo genome sequencing, genome resequencing, and digital gene expression analysis. Short read error detection is typically carried out by counting the observed frequencies of kmers in reads and validating those with frequencies exceeding a threshold. In case of genomes with high repeat content, an erroneous kmer may be frequently observed if it has few nucleotide differences with valid kmers with multiple occurrences in the genome. Error detection and correction were mostly applied to genomes with low repeat content and this remains a challenging problem for genomes with high repeat content. We develop a statistical model and a computational method for error detection and correction in the presence of genomic repeats. We propose a method to infer genomic frequencies of kmers from their observed frequencies by analyzing the misread relationships among observed kmers. We also propose a method to estimate the threshold useful for validating kmers whose estimated genomic frequency exceeds the threshold. We demonstrate that superior error detection is achieved using these methods. Furthermore, we break away from the common assumption of uniformly distributed errors within a read, and provide a framework to model position-dependent error occurrence frequencies common to many short read platforms. Lastly, we achieve better error correction in genomes with high repeat content. The software is implemented in C++ and is freely available under GNU GPL3 license and Boost Software V1.0 license at "http://aluru-sun.ece.iastate.edu/doku.php?id = redeem". We introduce a statistical framework to model sequencing errors in next-generation reads, which led to promising results in detecting and correcting errors

  9. Low-Normal FMR1 CGG Repeat Length: Phenotypic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha eMailick

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This population-based study investigates genotype-phenotype correlations of low-normal CGG repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene. FMR1 plays an important role in brain development and function, and encodes FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein, an RNA-binding protein that regulates protein synthesis impacting activity-dependent synaptic development and plasticity. Most past research has focused on CGG premutation expansions (41 to 200 CGG repeats and on fragile X syndrome (200+ CGG repeats, with considerably less attention on the other end of the spectrum of CGG repeats. Using existing data, older adults with 23 or fewer CGG repeats (2 SDs below the mean were compared with age-peers who have normal numbers of CGGs (24-40 with respect to cognition, mental health, cancer, and having children with disabilities. Men (n = 341 with an allele in the low-normal range and women (n = 46 with two low-normal alleles had significantly more difficulty with their memory and ability to solve day to day problems. Women with both FMR1 alleles in the low-normal category had significantly elevated odds of feeling that they need to drink more to get the same effect as in the past. These women also had two and one-half times the odds of having had breast cancer and four times the odds of uterine cancer. Men and women with low-normal CGGs had higher odds of having a child with a disability, either a developmental disability or a mental health condition. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that there is a need for tight neuronal homeostatic control mechanisms for optimal cognitive and behavioral functioning, and more generally that low numbers as well as high numbers of CGG repeats may be problematic for health.

  10. ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat length correlates with risk of ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sproviero, William; Shatunov, Aleksey; Stahl, Daniel; Shoai, Maryam; van Rheenen, Wouter; Jones, Ashley R; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Andersen, Peter M.; Bonini, Nancy M; Conforti, Francesca L; Van Damme, Philip; Daoud, Hussein; Del Mar Amador, Maria; Fogh, Isabella; Forzan, Monica; Gaastra, Ben; Gellera, Cinzia; Gitler, Aaron D; Hardy, John; Fratta, Pietro; La Bella, Vincenzo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Van Langenhove, Tim; Lattante, Serena; Lee, Yi-Chung; Malaspina, Andrea; Meininger, Vincent; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Orrell, Richard W; Rademakers, Rosa; Robberecht, Wim; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ross, Owen A; Salachas, Francois; Sidle, Katie; Smith, Bradley N; Soong, Bing-Wen; Sorarù, Gianni; Stevanin, Giovanni; Kabashi, Edor; Troakes, Claire; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Shaw, Christopher E; Powell, John F.; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two new case-control studies, a British dataset of 1474 ALS cases and 567 controls, and a Dutch dataset of 1328 ALS cases and 691 controls were analyzed. In addition, to increase power, we

  11. Reverse Transcription Errors and RNA-DNA Differences at Short Tandem Repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungtammasan, Arkarachai; Tomaszkiewicz, Marta; Campos-Sánchez, Rebeca; Eckert, Kristin A; DeGiorgio, Michael; Makova, Kateryna D

    2016-10-01

    Transcript variation has important implications for organismal function in health and disease. Most transcriptome studies focus on assessing variation in gene expression levels and isoform representation. Variation at the level of transcript sequence is caused by RNA editing and transcription errors, and leads to nongenetically encoded transcript variants, or RNA-DNA differences (RDDs). Such variation has been understudied, in part because its detection is obscured by reverse transcription (RT) and sequencing errors. It has only been evaluated for intertranscript base substitution differences. Here, we investigated transcript sequence variation for short tandem repeats (STRs). We developed the first maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE) to infer RT error and RDD rates, taking next generation sequencing error rates into account. Using the MLE, we empirically evaluated RT error and RDD rates for STRs in a large-scale DNA and RNA replicated sequencing experiment conducted in a primate species. The RT error rates increased exponentially with STR length and were biased toward expansions. The RDD rates were approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than the RT error rates. The RT error rates estimated with the MLE from a primate data set were concordant with those estimated with an independent method, barcoded RNA sequencing, from a Caenorhabditis elegans data set. Our results have important implications for medical genomics, as STR allelic variation is associated with >40 diseases. STR nonallelic transcript variation can also contribute to disease phenotype. The MLE and empirical rates presented here can be used to evaluate the probability of disease-associated transcripts arising due to RDD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. CAG repeat length variation in the polymerase gamma (POLG) gene: effect on semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, G. H.; Kaaij-Visser, L.; Tanck, M.; van der Veen, F.; Repping, S.

    2008-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated the effect of CAG repeat length variation in the POLG gene on male fertility and semen quality. Some described an association between the homozygous not10 CAG-repeat genotype and male subfertility and/or reduced semen quality, whereas others did not.

  13. Size matters: Associations between the androgen receptor CAG repeat length and the intrafollicular hormone milieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, T; Macek, M; Chrudimska, J

    2015-01-01

    Granulosa cell (GC) expressed androgen receptors (AR) and intrafollicular androgens are central to fertility. The transactivating domain of the AR contains a polymorphic CAG repeat sequence, which is linked to the transcriptional activity of AR and may influence the GC function. This study aims...... to evaluate the effects of the AR CAG repeat length on the intrafollicular hormone profiles, and the gene expression profiles of GC from human small antral follicles. In total, 190 small antral follicles (3-11 mm in diameter) were collected from 58 women undergoing ovarian cryopreservation for fertility...... expression compared to medium CAG repeat lengths (P = 0.03). In conclusion, long CAG repeat lengths in the AR were associated to significant attenuated levels of androgens and an increased conversion of testosterone into oestradiol, in human small antral follicles....

  14. A statistical approach designed for finding mathematically defined repeats in shotgun data and determining the length distribution of clone-inserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Lan; Zhang, Kunlin; Huang, Xiangang

    2003-01-01

    that repeats of different copy number have different probabilities of appearance in shotgun data, so based on this principle, we constructed a statistical model and inferred criteria for mathematically defined repeats (MDRs) at different shotgun coverages. According to these criteria, we developed software...... MDRmasker to identify and mask MDRs in shotgun data. With repeats masked prior to assembly, the speed of assembly was increased with lower error probability. In addition, clone-insert size affect the accuracy of repeat assembly and scaffold construction, we also designed length distribution of clone...

  15. Similarities between the target and the intruder in naturally-occurring repeated person naming errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge eBredart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated an intriguing phenomenon that did not receive much attention so far: repeatedly calling a familiar person with someone else’s name. From participants’ responses to a questionnaire, these repeated naming errors were characterized with respect to a number of properties (e.g., type of names being substituted, error frequency, error longevity and different features of similarity (e.g., age, gender, type of relationship with the participant, face resemblance and similarity of the contexts of encounter between the bearer of the target name and the bearer of the wrong name. Moreover, it was evaluated whether the phonological similarity between names, the participants’ age, the difference of age between the two persons whose names were substituted, and face resemblance between the two persons predicted the frequency of error. Regression analyses indicated that phonological similarity between the target name and the wrong name predicted the frequency of repeated person naming errors. The age of the participant was also a significant predictor of error frequency: the older the participant the higher the frequency of errors. Consistent with previous research stressing the importance of the age of acquisition of words on lexical access in speech production, results indicated that bearer of the wrong name was on average known for longer than the bearer of the target name.

  16. Read length and repeat resolution: exploring prokaryote genomes using next-generation sequencing technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt J Cahill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are a growing number of next-generation sequencing technologies. At present, the most cost-effective options also produce the shortest reads. However, even for prokaryotes, there is uncertainty concerning the utility of these technologies for the de novo assembly of complete genomes. This reflects an expectation that short reads will be unable to resolve small, but presumably abundant, repeats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a simple model of repeat assembly, we develop and test a technique that, for any read length, can estimate the occurrence of unresolvable repeats in a genome, and thus predict the number of gaps that would need to be closed to produce a complete sequence. We apply this technique to 818 prokaryote genome sequences. This provides a quantitative assessment of the relative performance of various lengths. Notably, unpaired reads of only 150nt can reconstruct approximately 50% of the analysed genomes with fewer than 96 repeat-induced gaps. Nonetheless, there is considerable variation amongst prokaryotes. Some genomes can be assembled to near contiguity using very short reads while others require much longer reads. CONCLUSIONS: Given the diversity of prokaryote genomes, a sequencing strategy should be tailored to the organism under study. Our results will provide researchers with a practical resource to guide the selection of the appropriate read length.

  17. Read length and repeat resolution: Exploring prokaryote genomes using next-generation sequencing technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Cahill, Matt J.

    2010-07-12

    Background: There are a growing number of next-generation sequencing technologies. At present, the most cost-effective options also produce the shortest reads. However, even for prokaryotes, there is uncertainty concerning the utility of these technologies for the de novo assembly of complete genomes. This reflects an expectation that short reads will be unable to resolve small, but presumably abundant, repeats. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using a simple model of repeat assembly, we develop and test a technique that, for any read length, can estimate the occurrence of unresolvable repeats in a genome, and thus predict the number of gaps that would need to be closed to produce a complete sequence. We apply this technique to 818 prokaryote genome sequences. This provides a quantitative assessment of the relative performance of various lengths. Notably, unpaired reads of only 150nt can reconstruct approximately 50% of the analysed genomes with fewer than 96 repeat-induced gaps. Nonetheless, there is considerable variation amongst prokaryotes. Some genomes can be assembled to near contiguity using very short reads while others require much longer reads. Conclusions: Given the diversity of prokaryote genomes, a sequencing strategy should be tailored to the organism under study. Our results will provide researchers with a practical resource to guide the selection of the appropriate read length. 2010 Cahill et al.

  18. Read length and repeat resolution: Exploring prokaryote genomes using next-generation sequencing technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Cahill, Matt J.; Kö ser, Claudio U.; Ross, Nicholas E.; Archer, John A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There are a growing number of next-generation sequencing technologies. At present, the most cost-effective options also produce the shortest reads. However, even for prokaryotes, there is uncertainty concerning the utility of these technologies for the de novo assembly of complete genomes. This reflects an expectation that short reads will be unable to resolve small, but presumably abundant, repeats. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using a simple model of repeat assembly, we develop and test a technique that, for any read length, can estimate the occurrence of unresolvable repeats in a genome, and thus predict the number of gaps that would need to be closed to produce a complete sequence. We apply this technique to 818 prokaryote genome sequences. This provides a quantitative assessment of the relative performance of various lengths. Notably, unpaired reads of only 150nt can reconstruct approximately 50% of the analysed genomes with fewer than 96 repeat-induced gaps. Nonetheless, there is considerable variation amongst prokaryotes. Some genomes can be assembled to near contiguity using very short reads while others require much longer reads. Conclusions: Given the diversity of prokaryote genomes, a sequencing strategy should be tailored to the organism under study. Our results will provide researchers with a practical resource to guide the selection of the appropriate read length. 2010 Cahill et al.

  19. Correlation of normal-range FMR1 repeat length or genotypes and reproductive parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Davis, Stephanie; Engmann, Lawrence; Nulsen, John C; Benadiva, Claudio A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to ascertain whether the length of normal-ranged CGG repeats on the FMR1 gene correlates with abnormal reproductive parameters. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional study of all FMR1 carrier screening performed as part of routine care at a large university-based fertility center from January 2011 to March 2014. Correlations were performed between normal-range FMR1 length and baseline serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), cycle day 3 follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), ovarian volumes (OV), antral follicle counts (AFC), and incidence of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), while controlling for the effect of age. Six hundred three FMR1 screening results were collected. One subject was found to be a pre-mutation carrier and was excluded from the study. Baseline serum AMH, cycle day 3 FSH, OV, and AFC data were collected for the 602 subjects with normal-ranged CGG repeats. No significant difference in median age was noted amongst any of the FMR1 repeat genotypes. No significant correlation or association was found between any allele length or genotype, with any of the reproductive parameters or with incidence of DOR at any age (p > 0.05). However, subjects who were less than 35 years old with low/low genotype were significantly more likely to have below average AMH levels compared to those with normal/normal genotype (RR 3.82; 95 % CI 1.38-10.56). This large study did not demonstrate any substantial association between normal-range FMR1 repeat lengths and reproductive parameters.

  20. RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pointer Marie A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans. We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans, and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face

  1. Prediction of Monte Carlo errors by a theory generalized to treat track-length estimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, T.E.; Amster, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Present theories for predicting expected Monte Carlo errors in neutron transport calculations apply to estimates of flux-weighted integrals sampled directly by scoring individual collisions. To treat track-length estimators, the recent theory of Amster and Djomehri is generalized to allow the score distribution functions to depend on the coordinates of two successive collisions. It has long been known that the expected track length in a region of phase space equals the expected flux integrated over that region, but that the expected statistical error of the Monte Carlo estimate of the track length is different from that of the flux integral obtained by sampling the sum of the reciprocals of the cross sections for all collisions in the region. These conclusions are shown to be implied by the generalized theory, which provides explicit equations for the expected values and errors of both types of estimators. Sampling expected contributions to the track-length estimator is also treated. Other general properties of the errors for both estimators are derived from the equations and physically interpreted. The actual values of these errors are then obtained and interpreted for a simple specific example

  2. CGG repeat length and AGG interruptions as indicators of fragile X-associated diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekovich, Jovana; Man, Limor; Xu, Kangpu; Canon, Chelsea; Lilienthal, Debra; Stewart, Joshua D; Pereira, Nigel; Rosenwaks, Zev; Gerhardt, Jeannine

    2017-12-21

    PurposeFragile X premutation (PM) carriers may experience difficulties conceiving a child probably due to fragile X-associated diminished ovarian reserve (FXDOR). We investigated which subgroups of carriers with a PM are at higher risk of FXDOR, and whether the number of AGG interruptions within the repeat sequence further ameliorates the risk.MethodsWe compared markers of ovarian reserve, including anti-Müllerian hormone, antral follicle count, and number of oocytes retrieved between different subgroups of patients with a PM.ResultsWe found that carriers with midrange repeats size (70-90 CGG) demonstrate significantly lower ovarian reserve. Additionally, the number of AGG interruptions directly correlated with parameters of ovarian reserve. Patients with longer uninterrupted CGG repeats post-AGG interruptions had the lowest ovarian reserve.ConclusionThis study connects AGG interruptions and certain CGG repeat length to reduced ovarian reserve in carriers with a PM. A possible explanation for our findings is the proposed gonadotoxicity of the FMR1 transcripts. Reduction of AGG interruptions could increase the likelihood that secondary RNA structures in the FMR1 messenger RNA are formed, which could cause cell dysfunction within the ovaries. These findings may provide women with guidance regarding their fertility potential and accordingly assist with their family planning.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 21 December 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.220.

  3. DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium leprae strains using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) - fragment length analysis (FLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ronald W; Rivest, Jason; Li, Wei; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2011-07-15

    presence of the desired DNA segments, and then submitted for fluorescent fragment length analysis (FLA) using capillary electrophoresis. DNA from armadillo passaged bacteria with a known number of repeat copies for each locus is used as a positive control. The FLA chromatograms are then examined using Peak Scanner software and fragment length is converted to number of VNTR copies (allele). Finally, the VNTR haplotypes are analyzed for patterns, and when combined with patient clinical data can be used to track distribution of strain types.

  4. Assessing thermally induced errors of machine tools by 3D length measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florussen, G.H.J.; Delbressine, F.L.M.; Schellekens, P.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    A new measurement technique is proposed for the assessment of thermally induced errors of machine tools. The basic idea is to measure changes of length by a telescopic double ball bar (TDEB) at multiple locations in the machine's workspace while the machine is thermally excited. In addition thermal

  5. Androgen receptor CAG repeats length polymorphism and the risk of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rajender

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS refers to an inheritable androgen excess disorder characterized by multiple small follicles located at the ovarian periphery. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS, and inverse correlation between androgen receptor (AR CAG numbers and AR function, led us to hypothesize that CAG length variations may affect PCOS risk. METHODS: CAG repeat region of 169 patients recruited following strictly defined Rotterdam (2003 inclusion criteria and that of 175 ethnically similar control samples, were analyzed. We also conducted a meta-analysis on the data taken from published studies, to generate a pooled estimate on 2194 cases and 2242 controls. RESULTS: CAG bi-allelic mean length was between 8.5 and 24.5 (mean = 17.43, SD = 2.43 repeats in the controls and between 11 and 24 (mean = 17.39, SD = 2.29 repeats in the cases, without any significant difference between the two groups. Further, comparison of bi-allelic mean and its frequency distribution in three categories (short, moderate and long alleles did not show any significant difference between controls and various case subgroups. Frequency distribution of bi-allelic mean in two categories (extreme and moderate alleles showed over-representation of extreme sized alleles in the cases with marginally significant value (50.3% vs. 61.5%, χ(2 = 4.41; P = 0.036, which turned insignificant upon applying Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. X-chromosome inactivation analysis showed no significant difference in the inactivation pattern of CAG alleles or in the comparison of weighed bi-allelic mean between cases and controls. Meta-analysis also showed no significant correlation between CAG length and PCOS risk, except a minor over-representation of short CAG alleles in the cases. CONCLUSION: CAG bi-allelic mean length did not differ between controls and cases/case sub-groups nor did the allele distribution. Over-representation of short

  6. Androgen receptor CAG repeats length polymorphism and the risk of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajender, Singh; Carlus, Silas Justin; Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh; Negi, Mahendra Pratap Singh; Sadasivam, Nirmala; Sadasivam, Muthusamy Narayanan; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) refers to an inheritable androgen excess disorder characterized by multiple small follicles located at the ovarian periphery. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS, and inverse correlation between androgen receptor (AR) CAG numbers and AR function, led us to hypothesize that CAG length variations may affect PCOS risk. CAG repeat region of 169 patients recruited following strictly defined Rotterdam (2003) inclusion criteria and that of 175 ethnically similar control samples, were analyzed. We also conducted a meta-analysis on the data taken from published studies, to generate a pooled estimate on 2194 cases and 2242 controls. CAG bi-allelic mean length was between 8.5 and 24.5 (mean = 17.43, SD = 2.43) repeats in the controls and between 11 and 24 (mean = 17.39, SD = 2.29) repeats in the cases, without any significant difference between the two groups. Further, comparison of bi-allelic mean and its frequency distribution in three categories (short, moderate and long alleles) did not show any significant difference between controls and various case subgroups. Frequency distribution of bi-allelic mean in two categories (extreme and moderate alleles) showed over-representation of extreme sized alleles in the cases with marginally significant value (50.3% vs. 61.5%, χ(2) = 4.41; P = 0.036), which turned insignificant upon applying Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. X-chromosome inactivation analysis showed no significant difference in the inactivation pattern of CAG alleles or in the comparison of weighed bi-allelic mean between cases and controls. Meta-analysis also showed no significant correlation between CAG length and PCOS risk, except a minor over-representation of short CAG alleles in the cases. CAG bi-allelic mean length did not differ between controls and cases/case sub-groups nor did the allele distribution. Over-representation of short/extreme-sized alleles in the cases may be a chance finding

  7. Length and repeat-sequence variation in 58 STRs and 94 SNPs in two Spanish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Ferran; Anglada, Roger; Bonet, Núria; Rasal, Raquel; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Hoogenboom, Jerry; Solé-Morata, Neus; Comas, David; Calafell, Francesc

    2017-09-01

    We have genotyped the 58 STRs (27 autosomal, 24 Y-STRs and 7 X-STRs) and 94 autosomal SNPs in Illumina ForenSeq™ Primer Mix A in 88 Spanish Roma (Gypsy) samples and 143 Catalans. Since this platform is based in massive parallel sequencing, we have used simple R scripts to uncover the sequence variation in the repeat region. Thus, we have found, across 58 STRs, 541 length-based alleles, which, after considering repeat-sequence variation, became 804 different alleles. All loci in both populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F ST between both populations was 0.0178 for autosomal SNPs, 0.0146 for autosomal STRs, 0.0101 for X-STRs and 0.1866 for Y-STRs. Combined a priori statistics showed quite large; for instance, pooling all the autosomal loci, the a priori probabilities of discriminating a suspect become 1-(2.3×10 -70 ) and 1-(5.9×10 -73 ), for Roma and Catalans respectively, and the chances of excluding a false father in a trio are 1-(2.6×10 -20 ) and 1-(2.0×10 -21 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Shorter CAG repeat length in the AR gene is associated with poor outcome in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Fabíola Encinas; dos Santos, Rodrigo Mattos; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia

    2007-01-01

    microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in these tumors. DESIGN: Matched samples of blood and head and neck tumors were evaluated using two methodologies, silver-stained gels to perform the analyses of MSI and LOH, and automated analysis to confirm these results and for genotyping...... of the AR [CAG](n) repeat length. Sixty-nine individuals without cancer were used as a control group for both procedures. The Log-rank test was used to compare overall survival and disease-free survival curves. The Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed to determine the [CAG](n) repeats......: These results suggest that short [CAG](n) repeat length (poor prognosis in a subset of male patients with head and neck cancer and that AR gene microsatellite instability is uncommon in these tumors....

  9. Analytical model and error analysis of arbitrary phasing technique for bunch length measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qushan; Qin, Bin; Chen, Wei; Fan, Kuanjun; Pei, Yuanji

    2018-05-01

    An analytical model of an RF phasing method using arbitrary phase scanning for bunch length measurement is reported. We set up a statistical model instead of a linear chirp approximation to analyze the energy modulation process. It is found that, assuming a short bunch (σφ / 2 π → 0) and small relative energy spread (σγ /γr → 0), the energy spread (Y =σγ 2) at the exit of the traveling wave linac has a parabolic relationship with the cosine value of the injection phase (X = cosφr|z=0), i.e., Y = AX2 + BX + C. Analogous to quadrupole strength scanning for emittance measurement, this phase scanning method can be used to obtain the bunch length by measuring the energy spread at different injection phases. The injection phases can be randomly chosen, which is significantly different from the commonly used zero-phasing method. Further, the systematic error of the reported method, such as the influence of the space charge effect, is analyzed. This technique will be especially useful at low energies when the beam quality is dramatically degraded and is hard to measure using the zero-phasing method.

  10. Assessment of Correlation between Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length and Infertility in Infertile Men Living in Khuzestan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Reza Khatami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The androgen receptor (AR gene contains a polymorphic trinucleotide repeat that encodes a polyglutamine tract in its N-terminal transactivation domain (NTAD. We aimed to find a correlation between the length of this polymorphic tract and azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study during two years till 2010, we searched for microdeletions in the Y chromosome in 84 infertile male patients with normal karyotype who lived in Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran. All cases (n=12 of azoospermia or oligozoospermia resulting from Y chromosome microdeletions were excluded from our study. The number of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene was determined in 72 patients with azoospermia or oligozoospermia and in 72 fertile controls, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: Microdeletions were detected in 14.3% (n=12 patients suffering severe oligozoospermia. The mean CAG repeat length was 18.99 ± 0.35 (range, 11-26 and 19.96 ± 0.54 (range, 12-25 in infertile males and controls, respectively. Also in the infertile group, the most common allele was 19 (26.38%, while in controls, it was 25 (22.22%. Conclusion: Y chromosome microdeletions could be one of the main reasons of male infertility living in Khuzestan Province, while there was no correlation between CAG length in AR gene with azoospermia or oligozoospermia in infertile men living in Khuzestan, Iran.

  11. Murine protein H is comprised of 20 repeating units, 61 amino acids in length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Tack, B F

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA library constructed from size-selected (greater than 28 S) poly(A)+ RNA isolated from the livers of C57B10. WR mice was screened by using a 249-base-pair (bp) cDNA fragment encoding 83 amino acid residues of human protein H as a probe. Of 120,000 transformants screened, 30 hybridized......, 448 bp of 3'-untranslated sequence, and a polyadenylylated tail of undetermined length. Murine pre-protein H was deduced to consist of an 18-amino acid signal peptide and 1216 residues of H-protein sequence. Murine H was composed of 20 repetitive units, each about 61 amino acid residues in length...

  12. Length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect the risk of early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Katherine S.; Bennett, Claire E.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is the length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range associated with the risk of early menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER The length of repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect risk of early menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There is a strong, well-established relationship between length of premutation FMR1 alleles and age at menopause, suggesting that this relationship could continue into the normal range. Within the normal range, there is conflicting evidence; differences in ovarian reserve have been identified with FMR1 repeat allele length, but a recent population-based study did not find any association with age at menopause as a quantitative trait. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We analysed cross-sectional baseline survey data collected at recruitment from 2004 to 2010 from a population-based, prospective epidemiological cohort study of >110 000 women to investigate whether repeat allele length was associated with early menopause. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD We included 4333 women from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS), of whom 2118 were early menopause cases (menopause under 46 years) and 2215 were controls. We analysed the relationship between length of FMR1 alleles and early menopause using logistic regression with allele length as continuous and categorical variables. We also conducted analyses with the outcome age at menopause as a quantitative trait as well as appropriate sensitivity and exploratory analyses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no association of the shorter or longer FMR1 allele or their combined genotype with the clinically relevant end point of early menopause in our main analysis. Likewise, there were no associations with age at menopause as a quantitative trait in our secondary analysis. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Women with homozygous alleles in the normal range may have undetected FMR1 premutation alleles, although there was no evidence to suggest this. We

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of Gossypium L. using restriction fragment length polymorphism of repeated sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiping; Rong, Ying; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Zhang, Yang; Stelly, David M; Zhang, Hong-Bin

    2015-10-01

    Cotton is the world's leading textile fiber crop and is also grown as a bioenergy and food crop. Knowledge of the phylogeny of closely related species and the genome origin and evolution of polyploid species is significant for advanced genomics research and breeding. We have reconstructed the phylogeny of the cotton genus, Gossypium L., and deciphered the genome origin and evolution of its five polyploid species by restriction fragment analysis of repeated sequences. Nuclear DNA of 84 accessions representing 35 species and all eight genomes of the genus were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree of the genus was reconstructed using the parsimony method on 1033 polymorphic repeated sequence restriction fragments. The genome origin of its polyploids was determined by calculating the diploid-polyploid restriction fragment correspondence (RFC). The tree is consistent with the morphological classification, genome designation and geographic distribution of the species at subgenus, section and subsection levels. Gossypium lobatum (D7) was unambiguously shown to have the highest RFC with the D-subgenomes of all five polyploids of the genus, while the common ancestor of Gossypium herbaceum (A1) and Gossypium arboreum (A2) likely contributed to the A-subgenomes of the polyploids. These results provide a comprehensive phylogenetic tree of the cotton genus and new insights into the genome origin and evolution of its polyploid species. The results also further demonstrate a simple, rapid and inexpensive method suitable for phylogenetic analysis of closely related species, especially congeneric species, and the inference of genome origin of polyploids that constitute over 70 % of flowering plants.

  14. Nine Loci for Ocular Axial Length Identified through Genome-wide Association Studies, Including Shared Loci with Refractive Error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Schache, Maria; Ikram, M. Kamran; Young, Terri L.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Vitart, Veronique; Macgregor, Stuart; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Liao, Jiemin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; St Pourcain, Beate; Kemp, John P.; McMahon, George; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mishra, Aniket; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Polasek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F.; Amin, Najaf; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Wilson, James F.; Pennell, Craig E.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Tay, Wan-Ting; Zheng, Yingfeng; Chew, Merwyn; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Craig, Jamie E.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Chew, Emily Y.; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Metspalu, Andres; Wedenoja, Juho; Simpson, Claire L.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, combining 12,531 Europeans and 8,216 Asians. We

  15. Errors in Length-weight Parameters at FishBase.org

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Courtney; Simeon Cole-Fletcher; Lucas Marin-Salcedo; Ajaya Rana

    2011-01-01

    Background: FishBase.org is an on-line database of fish related data that has been cited over 1500 times in the fisheries literature. Length-weight relationships in fish traditionally employ the model, W(L) = aL^b^, where L is length and W is weight. Parameters a and b are catalogued by FishBase for a large number of sources and species. FishBase.org detects outliers in a plot of log(a) vs. b to identify dubious length-weight parameters.

  16. The Standard Error of a Proportion for Different Scores and Test Length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Walker

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Smith's (2003 proposed standard error of a proportion index..associated with the idea of reliability as sufficiency of information. A detailed table..indexing all of the standard error values affiliated with assessments that range from 5 to..100 items, where students scored as low as 50% correct and 50% incorrect to as high as..95% correct and 5% incorrect, calculated in increments of 1 percentage point, is..presented, along with distributional qualities. Examples using this measure for classroom..teachers and higher education instructors of assessment are provided.

  17. Confinement and the Glass Transition Temperature in Supported Polymer Films: Molecular Weight, Repeat Unit Modification, and Cooperativity Length Scale Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Manish K.

    2005-03-01

    It is well known that the glass transition temperatures, Tgs, of supported polystyrene (PS) films decrease dramatically with decreasing film thickness below 60-80 nm. However, a detailed understanding of the cause of this effect is lacking. We have investigated the impact of several parameters, including polymer molecular weight (MW), repeat unit structure, and the length scale of cooperatively rearranging regions in bulk. There is no significant effect of PS MW on the Tg-confinement effect over a range of 5,000 to 3,000,000 g/mol. In contrast, the strength of the Tg reduction and the onset of the confinement effect increase dramatically upon changing the polymer from PS to poly(4-tert-butylstyrene) (PTBS), with PTBS exhibiting a Tg reduction relative to bulk at a thickness of 300-400 nm. PTBS also shows a Tg reduction relative to bulk of 47 K in a 21-nm-thick film, more than twice that observed in a PS film of identical thickness. Characterization of the length scale of cooperatively rearranging regions has been done by differential scanning calorimetry but reveals at best a limited correlation with the confinement effect.

  18. Optical 'dampening' of the refractive error to axial length ratio: implications for outcome measures in myopia control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Fiona E; Logan, Nicola S

    2018-05-01

    To gauge the extent to which differences in the refractive error axial length relationship predicted by geometrical optics are observed in actual refractive/biometric data. This study is a retrospective analysis of existing data. Right eye refractive error [RX] and axial length [AXL] data were collected on 343 6-to-7-year-old children [mean 7.18 years (S.D. 0.35)], 294 12-to-13-year-old children [mean 13.12 years (S.D. 0.32)] and 123 young adults aged 18-to-25-years [mean 20.56 years (S.D. 1.91)]. Distance RX was measured with the Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 infrared open-field autorefractor. Child participants were cyclopleged prior to data collection (1% Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride). Myopia was defined as a mean spherical equivalent [MSE] ≤-0.50 D. Axial length was measured using the Zeiss IOLMaster 500. Optical modelling was based on ray tracing and manipulation of parameters of a Gullstrand reduced model eye. There was a myopic shift in mean MSE with age (6-7 years +0.87 D, 12-13 years -0.06 D and 18-25 years -1.41 D), associated with an increase in mean AXL (6-7 years 22.70 mm, 12-13 years 23.49 mm and 18-25 years 23.98 mm). There was a significant negative correlation between MSE and AXL for all age groups (all p theory predicts that there will be a reduction in the RX: AXL ratio with longer eyes. The participant data although adhering to this theory show a reduced effect, with eyes with longer axial lengths having a lower refractive error to axial length ratio than predicted by model eye calculations. We propose that in myopia control intervention studies when comparing efficacy, consideration should be given to the dampening effect seen with a longer eye. © 2018 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of College of Optometrists.

  19. Changes in nucleosome repeat lengths precede replication in the early replicating metallothionein II gene region of cells synchronized in early S phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anna, J.A.; Tobey, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Previous investigations showed that inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea, aphidicolin, or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine produced large changes in the composition and nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin. There the authors report results of investigations to determine whether the changes in nucleosome repeat lengths might be localized in the initiated replicons, as postulated. In most experiments, Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells were synchronized in G1, or they were synchronized in early S phase by allowing G1 cells to enter S phase in medium containing 1 mM hydroxyurea or 5 μg mL -1 aphidicolin, a procedure believed to produce an accumulation of initiated replicons that arise from normally early replicating DNA. Measurements of nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin, the early replicating unexpressed metallothionein II (MTII) gene region, and a later replicating repeated sequence indicate that the changes in repeat lengths occur preferentially in the early replicating MTII gene region as G1 cells enter and become synchronized in early S phase. During that time, the MTII gene region is not replicated nor is there any evidence for induction of MTII messenger RNA. Thus, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in chromatin structure occur preferentially in the early replicating (presumably initiated) replicons at initiation or that changes in chromatin structure can precede replication during inhibition of DNA synthesis. The shortened repeat lengths that precede MTII replication are, potentially, reversible, because they become elongated when the synchronized early S-phase cells are released to resume cell cycle progression

  20. Viral delivery of C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions in mice leads to repeat-length-dependent neuropathology and behavioural deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Herranz-Martin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Intronic GGGGCC repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Two major pathologies stemming from the hexanucleotide RNA expansions (HREs have been identified in postmortem tissue: intracellular RNA foci and repeat-associated non-ATG dependent (RAN dipeptides, although it is unclear how these and other hallmarks of disease contribute to the pathophysiology of neuronal injury. Here, we describe two novel lines of mice that overexpress either 10 pure or 102 interrupted GGGGCC repeats mediated by adeno-associated virus (AAV and recapitulate the relevant human pathology and disease-related behavioural phenotypes. Similar levels of intracellular RNA foci developed in both lines of mice, but only mice expressing 102 repeats generated C9orf72 RAN pathology, neuromuscular junction (NMJ abnormalities, dispersal of the hippocampal CA1, enhanced apoptosis, and deficits in gait and cognition. Neither line of mice, however, showed extensive TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43 pathology or neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that RNA foci pathology is not a good predictor of C9orf72 RAN dipeptide formation, and that RAN dipeptides and NMJ dysfunction are drivers of C9orf72 disease pathogenesis. These AAV-mediated models of C9orf72-associated ALS/FTD will be useful tools for studying disease pathophysiology and developing new therapeutic approaches.

  1. Length of Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeats in the Carboxyl Ester Lipase (CEL) Gene May Confer Susceptibility to Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis but Not Alcoholic Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeld, Karianne; Beer, Sebastian; Johnstone, Marianne; Zimmer, Constantin; Mössner, Joachim; Ruffert, Claudia; Krehan, Mario; Zapf, Christian; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Johansson, Stefan; Bugert, Peter; Miyajima, Fabio; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Brown, Laura J; Winn, Simon A; Davies, Kelly; Latawiec, Diane; Gunson, Bridget K; Criddle, David N; Pirmohamed, Munir; Grützmann, Robert; Michl, Patrick; Greenhalf, William; Molven, Anders; Sutton, Robert; Rosendahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) contributes to fatty acid ethyl ester metabolism, which is implicated in alcoholic pancreatitis. The CEL gene harbours a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) region in exon 11. Variation in this VNTR has been linked to monogenic pancreatic disease, while conflicting results were reported for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Here, we aimed to investigate a potential association of CEL VNTR lengths with alcoholic CP. Overall, 395 alcoholic CP patients, 218 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) serving as controls with a comparable amount of alcohol consumed, and 327 healthy controls from Germany and the United Kingdom (UK) were analysed by determination of fragment lengths by capillary electrophoresis. Allele frequencies and genotypes of different VNTR categories were compared between the groups. Twelve repeats were overrepresented in UK ACP patients (P = 0.04) compared to controls, whereas twelve repeats were enriched in German ALC compared to alcoholic CP patients (P = 0.03). Frequencies of CEL VNTR lengths of 14 and 15 repeats differed between German ALC patients and healthy controls (P = 0.03 and 0.008, respectively). However, in the genotype and pooled analysis of VNTR lengths no statistical significant association was depicted. Additionally, the 16-16 genotype as well as 16 repeats were more frequent in UK ALC than in alcoholic CP patients (P = 0.034 and 0.02, respectively). In all other calculations, including pooled German and UK data, allele frequencies and genotype distributions did not differ significantly between patients and controls or between alcoholic CP and ALC. We did not obtain evidence that CEL VNTR lengths are associated with alcoholic CP. However, our results suggest that CEL VNTR lengths might associate with ALC, a finding that needs to be clarified in larger cohorts.

  2. Non-linear association between androgen receptor CAG and GGN repeat lengths and reproductive parameters in fertile European and Inuit men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brokken, L J S; Rylander, L; Jönsson, B A

    2013-01-01

    Recently the dogma that there is an inverse linear association between androgen receptor (AR) CAG and GGN polymorphisms and receptor activity has been challenged. We analysed the pattern of association between 21 male reproductive phenotypes and AR CAG/GGN repeat lengths in 557 proven-fertile men...

  3. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M.N.; Kremer, K.; Lan, N.T.; Buu, T.N.; Cobelens, F.G.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Haas, P. de; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard

  4. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, Mai N. T.; Kremer, Kristin; Lan, Nguyen T. N.; Buu, Tran N.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Tiemersma, Edine W.; de Haas, Petra; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard in typing of

  5. Nine Loci for Ocular Axial Length Identified through Genome-wide Association Studies, Including Shared Loci with Refractive Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Schache, Maria; Ikram, M. Kamran; Young, Terri L.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Vitart, Veronique; MacGregor, Stuart; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Liao, Jiemin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Kemp, John P.; McMahon, George; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mishra, Aniket; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Polasek, Ozren; Wright, Alan F.; Amin, Najaf; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Wilson, James F.; Pennell, Craig E.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Tay, Wan-Ting; Zheng, Yingfeng; Chew, Merwyn; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Yamashiro, Kenji; Miyake, Masahiro; Delcourt, Cécile; Maubaret, Cecilia; Williams, Cathy; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Northstone, Kate; Ring, Susan M.; Davey-Smith, George; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Fogarty, Rhys D.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasathian, Sarayut; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasathian, Sarayut; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; MacGregor, Stuart; Lu, Yi; Jonas, Jost B.; Xu, Liang; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baird, Paul N.; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Jonas, Jost B.; Nangia, Vinay; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Vitart, Veronique; Polasek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Vatavuk, Zoran; Vitart, Veronique; Paterson, Andrew D.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Fondran, Jeremy R.; Young, Terri L.; Feng, Sheng; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Klaver, Caroline C.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Metspalu, Andres; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Pärssinen, Olavi; Wedenoja, Juho; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; Wojciechowski, Robert; Baird, Paul N.; Schache, Maria; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Höhn, René; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Peng; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Wegner, Aharon; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Yamashiro, Kenji; Miyake, Masahiro; Pärssinen, Olavi; Yip, Shea Ping; Ho, Daniel W.H.; Pirastu, Mario; Murgia, Federico; Portas, Laura; Biino, Genevra; Wilson, James F.; Fleck, Brian; Vitart, Veronique; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; Hewitt, Alex W.; Ang, Wei; Verhoeven, Virginie J.M.; Klaver, Caroline C.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tai, E-Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Saw, Seang-Mei; Teo, Yik-Ying; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M. Kamran; Mackey, David A.; MacGregor, Stuart; Hammond, Christopher J.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Deangelis, Margaret M.; Morrison, Margaux; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; Paterson, Andrew D.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Craig, Jamie E.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Igo, Robert P.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Reinhart, William; Belin, Michael W.; Schultze, Robert L.; Morason, Todd; Sugar, Alan; Mian, Shahzad; Soong, Hunson Kaz; Colby, Kathryn; Jurkunas, Ula; Yee, Richard; Vital, Mark; Alfonso, Eduardo; Karp, Carol; Lee, Yunhee; Yoo, Sonia; Hammersmith, Kristin; Cohen, Elisabeth; Laibson, Peter; Rapuano, Christopher; Ayres, Brandon; Croasdale, Christopher; Caudill, James; Patel, Sanjay; Baratz, Keith; Bourne, William; Maguire, Leo; Sugar, Joel; Tu, Elmer; Djalilian, Ali; Mootha, Vinod; McCulley, James; Bowman, Wayne; Cavanaugh, H. Dwight; Verity, Steven; Verdier, David; Renucci, Ann; Oliva, Matt; Rotkis, Walter; Hardten, David R.; Fahmy, Ahmad; Brown, Marlene; Reeves, Sherman; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Lindstrom, Richard; Hauswirth, Scott; Hamilton, Stephen; Lee, W. Barry; Price, Francis; Price, Marianne; Kelly, Kathleen; Peters, Faye; Shaughnessy, Michael; Steinemann, Thomas; Dupps, B.J.; Meisler, David M.; Mifflin, Mark; Olson, Randal; Aldave, Anthony; Holland, Gary; Mondino, Bartly J.; Rosenwasser, George; Gorovoy, Mark; Dunn, Steven P.; Heidemann, David G.; Terry, Mark; Shamie, Neda; Rosenfeld, Steven I.; Suedekum, Brandon; Hwang, David; Stone, Donald; Chodosh, James; Galentine, Paul G.; Bardenstein, David; Goddard, Katrina; Chin, Hemin; Mannis, Mark; Varma, Rohit; Borecki, Ingrid; Chew, Emily Y.; Haller, Toomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Metspalu, Andres; Wedenoja, Juho; Simpson, Claire L.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Höhn, René; Mirshahi, Alireza; Zeller, Tanja; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Lackner, Karl J.; Donnelly, Peter; Barroso, Ines; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Deloukas, Panos; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Hellenthal, Garrett; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Pirinen, Matti; Pearson, Richard; Strange, Amy; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Donnelly, Peter; Langford, Cordelia; Hunt, Sarah E.; Edkins, Sarah; Gwilliam, Rhian; Blackburn, Hannah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Dronov, Serge; Gillman, Matthew; Gray, Emma; Hammond, Naomi; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; McCann, Owen T.; Liddle, Jennifer; Potter, Simon C.; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ricketts, Michelle; Waller, Matthew; Weston, Paul; Widaa, Sara; Whittaker, Pamela; Barroso, Ines; Deloukas, Panos; Mathew, Christopher G.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Brown, Matthew A.; Corvin, Aiden; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Bettecken, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Pirastu, Mario; Portas, Laura; Nag, Abhishek; Williams, Katie M.; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Paterson, Andrew D.; Genuth, S.; Nathan, D.M.; Zinman, B.; Crofford, O.; Crandall, J.; Reid, M.; Brown-Friday, J.; Engel, S.; Sheindlin, J.; Martinez, H.; Shamoon, H.; Engel, H.; Phillips, M.; Gubitosi-Klug, R.; Mayer, L.; Pendegast, S.; Zegarra, H.; Miller, D.; Singerman, L.; Smith-Brewer, S.; Novak, M.; Quin, J.; Dahms, W.; Genuth, Saul; Palmert, M.; Brillon, D.; Lackaye, M.E.; Kiss, S.; Chan, R.; Reppucci, V.; Lee, T.; Heinemann, M.; Whitehouse, F.; Kruger, D.; Jones, J.K.; McLellan, M.; Carey, J.D.; Angus, E.; Thomas, A.; Galprin, A.; Bergenstal, R.; Johnson, M.; Spencer, M.; Morgan, K.; Etzwiler, D.; Kendall, D.; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Golden, E.; Jacobson, A.; Beaser, R.; Ganda, O.; Hamdy, O.; Wolpert, H.; Sharuk, G.; Arrigg, P.; Schlossman, D.; Rosenzwieg, J.; Rand, L.; Nathan, D.M.; Larkin, M.; Ong, M.; Godine, J.; Cagliero, E.; Lou, P.; Folino, K.; Fritz, S.; Crowell, S.; Hansen, K.; Gauthier-Kelly, C.; Service, J.; Ziegler, G.; Luttrell, L.; Caulder, S.; Lopes-Virella, M.; Colwell, J.; Soule, J.; Fernandes, J.; Hermayer, K.; Kwon, S.; Brabham, M.; Blevins, A.; Parker, J.; Lee, D.; Patel, N.; Pittman, C.; Lindsey, P.; Bracey, M.; Lee, K.; Nutaitis, M.; Farr, A.; Elsing, S.; Thompson, T.; Selby, J.; Lyons, T.; Yacoub-Wasef, S.; Szpiech, M.; Wood, D.; Mayfield, R.; Molitch, M.; Schaefer, B.; Jampol, L.; Lyon, A.; Gill, M.; Strugula, Z.; Kaminski, L.; Mirza, R.; Simjanoski, E.; Ryan, D.; Kolterman, O.; Lorenzi, G.; Goldbaum, M.; Sivitz, W.; Bayless, M.; Counts, D.; Johnsonbaugh, S.; Hebdon, M.; Salemi, P.; Liss, R.; Donner, T.; Gordon, J.; Hemady, R.; Kowarski, A.; Ostrowski, D.; Steidl, S.; Jones, B.; Herman, W.H.; Martin, C.L.; Pop-Busui, R.; Sarma, A.; Albers, J.; Feldman, E.; Kim, K.; Elner, S.; Comer, G.; Gardner, T.; Hackel, R.; Prusak, R.; Goings, L.; Smith, A.; Gothrup, J.; Titus, P.; Lee, J.; Brandle, M.; Prosser, L.; Greene, D.A.; Stevens, M.J.; Vine, A.K.; Bantle, J.; Wimmergren, N.; Cochrane, A.; Olsen, T.; Steuer, E.; Rath, P.; Rogness, B.; Hainsworth, D.; Goldstein, D.; Hitt, S.; Giangiacomo, J.; Schade, D.S.; Canady, J.L.; Chapin, J.E.; Ketai, L.H.; Braunstein, C.S.; Bourne, P.A.; Schwartz, S.; Brucker, A.; Maschak-Carey, B.J.; Baker, L.; Orchard, T.; Silvers, N.; Ryan, C.; Songer, T.; Doft, B.; Olson, S.; Bergren, R.L.; Lobes, L.; Rath, P. Paczan; Becker, D.; Rubinstein, D.; Conrad, P.W.; Yalamanchi, S.; Drash, A.; Morrison, A.; Bernal, M.L.; Vaccaro-Kish, J.; Malone, J.; Pavan, P.R.; Grove, N.; Iyer, M.N.; Burrows, A.F.; Tanaka, E.A.; Gstalder, R.; Dagogo-Jack, S.; Wigley, C.; Ricks, H.; Kitabchi, A.; Murphy, M.B.; Moser, S.; Meyer, D.; Iannacone, A.; Chaum, E.; Yoser, S.; Bryer-Ash, M.; Schussler, S.; Lambeth, H.; Raskin, P.; Strowig, S.; Zinman, B.; Barnie, A.; Devenyi, R.; Mandelcorn, M.; Brent, M.; Rogers, S.; Gordon, A.; Palmer, J.; Catton, S.; Brunzell, J.; Wessells, H.; de Boer, I.H.; Hokanson, J.; Purnell, J.; Ginsberg, J.; Kinyoun, J.; Deeb, S.; Weiss, M.; Meekins, G.; Distad, J.; Van Ottingham, L.; Dupre, J.; Harth, J.; Nicolle, D.; Driscoll, M.; Mahon, J.; Canny, C.; May, M.; Lipps, J.; Agarwal, A.; Adkins, T.; Survant, L.; Pate, R.L.; Munn, G.E.; Lorenz, R.; Feman, S.; White, N.; Levandoski, L.; Boniuk, I.; Grand, G.; Thomas, M.; Joseph, D.D.; Blinder, K.; Shah, G.; Boniuk; Burgess; Santiago, J.; Tamborlane, W.; Gatcomb, P.; Stoessel, K.; Taylor, K.; Goldstein, J.; Novella, S.; Mojibian, H.; Cornfeld, D.; Lima, J.; Bluemke, D.; Turkbey, E.; van der Geest, R.J.; Liu, C.; Malayeri, A.; Jain, A.; Miao, C.; Chahal, H.; Jarboe, R.; Maynard, J.; Gubitosi-Klug, R.; Quin, J.; Gaston, P.; Palmert, M.; Trail, R.; Dahms, W.; Lachin, J.; Cleary, P.; Backlund, J.; Sun, W.; Braffett, B.; Klumpp, K.; Chan, K.; Diminick, L.; Rosenberg, D.; Petty, B.; Determan, A.; Kenny, D.; Rutledge, B.; Younes, Naji; Dews, L.; Hawkins, M.; Cowie, C.; Fradkin, J.; Siebert, C.; Eastman, R.; Danis, R.; Gangaputra, S.; Neill, S.; Davis, M.; Hubbard, L.; Wabers, H.; Burger, M.; Dingledine, J.; Gama, V.; Sussman, R.; Steffes, M.; Bucksa, J.; Nowicki, M.; Chavers, B.; O’Leary, D.; Polak, J.; Harrington, A.; Funk, L.; Crow, R.; Gloeb, B.; Thomas, S.; O’Donnell, C.; Soliman, E.; Zhang, Z.M.; Prineas, R.; Campbell, C.; Ryan, C.; Sandstrom, D.; Williams, T.; Geckle, M.; Cupelli, E.; Thoma, F.; Burzuk, B.; Woodfill, T.; Low, P.; Sommer, C.; Nickander, K.; Budoff, M.; Detrano, R.; Wong, N.; Fox, M.; Kim, L.; Oudiz, R.; Weir, G.; Espeland, M.; Manolio, T.; Rand, L.; Singer, D.; Stern, M.; Boulton, A.E.; Clark, C.; D’Agostino, R.; Lopes-Virella, M.; Garvey, W.T.; Lyons, T.J.; Jenkins, A.; Virella, G.; Jaffa, A.; Carter, Rickey; Lackland, D.; Brabham, M.; McGee, D.; Zheng, D.; Mayfield, R.K.; Boright, A.; Bull, S.; Sun, L.; Scherer, S.; Zinman, B.; Natarajan, R.; Miao, F.; Zhang, L.; Chen;, Z.; Nathan, D.M.; Makela, Kari-Matti; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kahonen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Chen, Li Jia; Pang, Chi Pui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K.H.; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Foster, Paul J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Vithana, Eranga; Tai, E-Shyong; Fan, Qiao; Xu, Liang; Campbell, Harry; Fleck, Brian; Rudan, Igor; Aung, Tin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Bencic, Goran; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Forward, Hannah; Pärssinen, Olavi; Mitchell, Paul; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hewitt, Alex W.; Williams, Cathy; Oostra, Ben A.; Teo, Yik-Ying; Hammond, Christopher J.; Stambolian, Dwight; Mackey, David A.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Baird, Paul N.

    2013-01-01

    Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, combining 12,531 Europeans and 8,216 Asians. We identified eight genome-wide significant loci for AL (RSPO1, C3orf26, LAMA2, GJD2, ZNRF3, CD55, MIP, and ALPPL2) and confirmed one previously reported AL locus (ZC3H11B). Of the nine loci, five (LAMA2, GJD2, CD55, ALPPL2, and ZC3H11B) were associated with refraction in 18 independent cohorts (n = 23,591). Differential gene expression was observed for these loci in minus-lens-induced myopia mouse experiments and human ocular tissues. Two of the AL genes, RSPO1 and ZNRF3, are involved in Wnt signaling, a pathway playing a major role in the regulation of eyeball size. This study provides evidence of shared genes between AL and refraction, but importantly also suggests that these traits may have unique pathways. PMID:24144296

  6. Large normal-range TBP and ATXN7 CAG repeat lengths are associated with increased lifetime risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardiner, S. L.; van Belzen, M. J.; Boogaard, M. W.

    2017-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating psychiatric disorders worldwide. Recently, we showed that both relatively short and relatively long cytosine–adenine–guanine (CAG) repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT) are associated with an increased risk of lifetime depression. However, t...

  7. Hexanucleotide Repeats in ALS/FTD Form Length-Dependent RNA Foci, Sequester RNA Binding Proteins, and Are Neurotoxic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Bok Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The GGGGCC (G4C2 intronic repeat expansion within C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Intranuclear neuronal RNA foci have been observed in ALS and FTD tissues, suggesting that G4C2 RNA may be toxic. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of 38× and 72× G4C2 repeats form intranuclear RNA foci that initiate apoptotic cell death in neuronal cell lines and zebrafish embryos. The foci colocalize with a subset of RNA binding proteins, including SF2, SC35, and hnRNP-H in transfected cells. Only hnRNP-H binds directly to G4C2 repeats following RNA immunoprecipitation, and only hnRNP-H colocalizes with 70% of G4C2 RNA foci detected in C9ORF72 mutant ALS and FTD brain tissues. We show that expanded G4C2 repeats are potently neurotoxic and bind hnRNP-H and other RNA binding proteins. We propose that RNA toxicity and protein sequestration may disrupt RNA processing and contribute to neurodegeneration.

  8. Application of a repeat-measure biomarker measurement error model to 2 validation studies: examination of the effect of within-person variation in biomarker measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Sarah Rosner; Spiegelman, Donna; Zhao, Barbara Bojuan; Moshfegh, Alanna; Baer, David J; Willett, Walter C

    2011-03-15

    Repeat-biomarker measurement error models accounting for systematic correlated within-person error can be used to estimate the correlation coefficient (ρ) and deattenuation factor (λ), used in measurement error correction. These models account for correlated errors in the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the 24-hour diet recall and random within-person variation in the biomarkers. Failure to account for within-person variation in biomarkers can exaggerate correlated errors between FFQs and 24-hour diet recalls. For 2 validation studies, ρ and λ were calculated for total energy and protein density. In the Automated Multiple-Pass Method Validation Study (n=471), doubly labeled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) were measured twice in 52 adults approximately 16 months apart (2002-2003), yielding intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.43 for energy (DLW) and 0.54 for protein density (UN/DLW). The deattenuated correlation coefficient for protein density was 0.51 for correlation between the FFQ and the 24-hour diet recall and 0.49 for correlation between the FFQ and the biomarker. Use of repeat-biomarker measurement error models resulted in a ρ of 0.42. These models were similarly applied to the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study (1999-2000). In conclusion, within-person variation in biomarkers can be substantial, and to adequately assess the impact of correlated subject-specific error, this variation should be assessed in validation studies of FFQs. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  9. Mature clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats RNA (crRNA) length is measured by a ruler mechanism anchored at the precursor processing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Maniv, Inbal; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2011-12-27

    Precise RNA processing is fundamental to all small RNA-mediated interference pathways. In prokaryotes, clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci encode small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that protect against invasive genetic elements by antisense targeting. CRISPR loci are transcribed as a long precursor that is cleaved within repeat sequences by CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. In many organisms, this primary processing generates crRNA intermediates that are subject to additional nucleolytic trimming to render mature crRNAs of specific lengths. The molecular mechanisms underlying this maturation event remain poorly understood. Here, we defined the genetic requirements for crRNA primary processing and maturation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. We show that changes in the position of the primary processing site result in extended or diminished maturation to generate mature crRNAs of constant length. These results indicate that crRNA maturation occurs by a ruler mechanism anchored at the primary processing site. We also show that maturation is mediated by specific cas genes distinct from those genes involved in primary processing, showing that this event is directed by CRISPR/Cas loci.

  10. Influence of a roughness length error on vertical wind speed extrapolation for 2D ideal hills using an OpenFOAM® RANS simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einav-Levy Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modelling wind flow over a flat and complex terrain, the choice of roughness-length-distribution is critical for accurate wind speed predications. This choice is often made based on the Davenport scale [1]. A satellite or aerial image of the location is used [2–4] and subjective or objective measures are used for translating the image into roughness length - z0 - based on the Davenport scale. The choice of a Davenport table value is generally regarded as within an error of plus or minus one table value, leading to a ±6% error in wind speed predictions for a flat terrain in neutral conditions [5]. In the paper this error is studied for a non-flat terrain, using a series of CFD simulations for 2D hills of various combinations of aspect ratio and steepness. Results show that the wind speed prediction error as a result of a “wrong” parameterization decreases with hill steepness until separation occurs. As a result of separation the error increases slightly, and then decreases again with a further increase in hill steepness.

  11. Avoiding a Systematic Error in Assessing Fat Graft Survival in the Breast with Repeated Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glovinski, Peter Viktor; Herly, Mikkel; Müller, Felix C

    2016-01-01

    Several techniques for measuring breast volume (BV) are based on examining the breast on magnetic resonance imaging. However, when techniques designed to measure total BV are used to quantify BV changes, for example, after fat grafting, a systematic error is introduced because BV changes lead to ...

  12. Comparison of anterior segment measurements using Sirius Topographer® and Nidek Axial Length-Scan® with assessing repeatability in patients with cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resat Duman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate anterior segment measurements obtained using CSO Sirius Topographer® (CSO, Firenze, Italy and Nidek Axial Length (AL-Scan® (Nidek CO., Gamagori, Japan. Methods: A total of 43 eyes of 43 patients were included in this prospective study. The central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, white-to-white distance (WTW, flat keratometry (K1, steep keratometry (K2, and mean keratometry (K values were randomly measured three times with each device by the same examiner. The intraclass correlation coefficient of repeatability was analyzed. The compatibility of both devices was evaluated using the 95% limits of the agreement proposed by Bland and Altman. Results: Examiner achieved high repeatability for all parameters on each device except the WTW measured by Sirius. All measurements except WTW and K1 taken with the Sirius were higher than that taken with the Nidek AL-Scan®. The difference in CCT, ACD, and WTW values was statistically significant. Conclusion: High repeatability of the measurements was achieved on both devices. Although Km, K1, and K2 measurements of the Sirius and the AL-Scan® showed good agreement, WTW, CCT, and ACD measurements significantly differed between two devices. Thus, anterior segment measurements except for Km, K1, and K2 cannot be used interchangeably between Sirius and Nidek AL-Scan® devices.

  13. [[Length polymorphism of minisatellite repeat B2-VNTR of the bradykinin B2 receptor gene in healthy Russians and in patients with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchkova, I O; Pavlinova, L I; Larionova, E E; Alenina, N V; Solov'ev, K V; Baranova, T V; Belotserkovskaia, E V; Sasina, L K; Bader, M; Denisenko, A D; Mustafina, O E; Khusnutdinova, E K; Patkin, E L

    2014-01-01

    Bradykinin B2 receptor is involved in many processes, including the regulation of blood pressure and smooth muscle contraction, vasodilation, inflammation, edema, cell proliferation, pain. It is suggested that this receptor may be one of the factors that have cardioprotective and infarct-limiting effects. It is assumed that certain genetic variants in both coding and non-coding regions ofBDKRB2 gene may influence its expression. In the 3'-untranslated region of BDKRB2 exon 3 the minisatellite repeat B2-VNTR is located. B2-VNTR has previously been shown to affect the BDKRB2 mRNA stability. Therefore, it is important to perform the molecular genetic analysis of this minisatellite in patients with different forms of coronary heart disease in order to reveal possible associations between specific B2-VNTR alleles and certain clinical forms of coronary heart disease. In the present study, a comparative analysis of the allele and genotype frequencies of B2-VNTR was carried out in groups of healthy individuals and patients with two clinical forms of coronary heart disease (angina pectoris and myocardial infarction), ethnically Russian. The results of the B2-VNTR length polymorphism analysis indicate that this tandem repeat may be attributed to a class of low polymorphic and non-hypervariable minisatellite. In all analyzed groups we revealed three B2-VNTR alleles, consisting of 43, 38 and 33 repeat units. Alleles of 43 and 33 repeats were major in all investigated groups. No statistically significant differences were found in the B2-VNTR allele and genotype frequencies between men and women in control group, and also between healthy men and men with angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Thus, B2-VNTR length polymorphism was not associated with these clinical forms of coronary heart disease in Russian men. However, we do not exclude the possibility of association between the B2-VNTR short alleles (38 and 33 repeats) and cardioprotective effects of bradykinin B2 receptor

  14. Performance of bias-correction methods for exposure measurement error using repeated measurements with and without missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistatou, Evridiki; McNamee, Roseanne

    2012-12-10

    It is known that measurement error leads to bias in assessing exposure effects, which can however, be corrected if independent replicates are available. For expensive replicates, two-stage (2S) studies that produce data 'missing by design', may be preferred over a single-stage (1S) study, because in the second stage, measurement of replicates is restricted to a sample of first-stage subjects. Motivated by an occupational study on the acute effect of carbon black exposure on respiratory morbidity, we compare the performance of several bias-correction methods for both designs in a simulation study: an instrumental variable method (EVROS IV) based on grouping strategies, which had been recommended especially when measurement error is large, the regression calibration and the simulation extrapolation methods. For the 2S design, either the problem of 'missing' data was ignored or the 'missing' data were imputed using multiple imputations. Both in 1S and 2S designs, in the case of small or moderate measurement error, regression calibration was shown to be the preferred approach in terms of root mean square error. For 2S designs, regression calibration as implemented by Stata software is not recommended in contrast to our implementation of this method; the 'problematic' implementation of regression calibration although substantially improved with use of multiple imputations. The EVROS IV method, under a good/fairly good grouping, outperforms the regression calibration approach in both design scenarios when exposure mismeasurement is severe. Both in 1S and 2S designs with moderate or large measurement error, simulation extrapolation severely failed to correct for bias. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyen Mai NT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard in typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, some reports indicated that VNTR typing may be less suitable for Beijing genotype isolates. We therefore compared the performance of internationally standardized RFLP and 24 loci VNTR typing to discriminate among 100 Beijing genotype isolates from the Southern Vietnam. Methods Hundred Beijing genotype strains defined by spoligotyping were randomly selected and typed by RFLP and VNTR typing. The discriminatory power of VNTR and RFLP typing was compared using the Bionumerics software. Results Among 95 Beijing strains available for analysis, 14 clusters were identified comprising 34 strains and 61 unique profiles in 24 loci VNTR typing ((Hunter Gaston Discrimination Index (HGDI = 0.994. 13 clusters containing 31 strains and 64 unique patterns in RFLP typing (HGDI = 0.994 were found. Nine RFLP clusters were subdivided by VNTR typing and 12 VNTR clusters were split by RFLP. Five isolates (5% revealing double alleles or no signal in two or more loci in VNTR typing could not be analyzed. Conclusions Overall, 24 loci VNTR typing and RFLP typing had similar high-level of discrimination among 95 Beijing strains from Southern Vietnam. However, loci VNTR 154, VNTR 2461 and VNTR 3171 had hardly added any value to the level of discrimination.

  16. Use of inter-simple sequence repeats and amplified fragment length polymorphisms to analyze genetic relationships among small grain-infecting species of ustilago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, J G; Bakkeren, G; Matheson, F; Procunier, J D; Woods, S

    2003-02-01

    ABSTRACT In the smut fungi, few features are available for use as taxonomic criteria (spore size, shape, morphology, germination type, and host range). DNA-based molecular techniques are useful in expanding the traits considered in determining relationships among these fungi. We examined the phylogenetic relationships among seven species of Ustilago (U. avenae, U. bullata, U. hordei, U. kolleri, U. nigra, U. nuda, and U. tritici) using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to compare their DNA profiles. Fifty-four isolates of different Ustilago spp. were analyzed using ISSR primers, and 16 isolates of Ustilago were studied using AFLP primers. The variability among isolates within species was low for all species except U. bullata. The isolates of U. bullata, U. nuda, and U. tritici were well separated and our data supports their speciation. U. avenae and U. kolleri isolates did not separate from each other and there was little variability between these species. U. hordei and U. nigra isolates also showed little variability between species, but the isolates from each species grouped together. Our data suggest that U. avenae and U. kolleri are monophyletic and should be considered one species, as should U. hordei and U. nigra.

  17. Violation of the Sphericity Assumption and Its Effect on Type-I Error Rates in Repeated Measures ANOVA and Multi-Level Linear Models (MLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Nicolas; Beauducel, André

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of violations of the sphericity assumption on Type I error rates for different methodical approaches of repeated measures analysis using a simulation approach. In contrast to previous simulation studies on this topic, up to nine measurement occasions were considered. Effects of the level of inter-correlations between measurement occasions on Type I error rates were considered for the first time. Two populations with non-violation of the sphericity assumption, one with uncorrelated measurement occasions and one with moderately correlated measurement occasions, were generated. One population with violation of the sphericity assumption combines uncorrelated with highly correlated measurement occasions. A second population with violation of the sphericity assumption combines moderately correlated and highly correlated measurement occasions. From these four populations without any between-group effect or within-subject effect 5,000 random samples were drawn. Finally, the mean Type I error rates for Multilevel linear models (MLM) with an unstructured covariance matrix (MLM-UN), MLM with compound-symmetry (MLM-CS) and for repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) models (without correction, with Greenhouse-Geisser-correction, and Huynh-Feldt-correction) were computed. To examine the effect of both the sample size and the number of measurement occasions, sample sizes of n = 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 were considered as well as measurement occasions of m = 3, 6, and 9. With respect to rANOVA, the results plead for a use of rANOVA with Huynh-Feldt-correction, especially when the sphericity assumption is violated, the sample size is rather small and the number of measurement occasions is large. For MLM-UN, the results illustrate a massive progressive bias for small sample sizes ( n = 20) and m = 6 or more measurement occasions. This effect could not be found in previous simulation studies with a smaller number of measurement occasions. The

  18. Comparative Study of IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the Netherlands, Based on a 5-Year Nationwide Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, J.L. de; Ingen, J. van; Vries, G. de; Erkens, C.; Sebek, M.; Mulder, A.; Sloot, R.; Brandt, A.M. van den; Enaimi, M.; Kremer, K.; Supply, P.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a

  19. Comparative study of IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism and variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the Netherlands, based on a 5-year nationwide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; van Ingen, Jakko; de Vries, Gerard; Erkens, Connie; Sebek, Maruschka; Mulder, Arnout; Sloot, Rosa; van den Brandt, Anne-Marie; Enaimi, Mimount; Kremer, Kristin; Supply, Philip; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a

  20. Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of an electronic medication management system to reduce medication errors, adverse drug events and average length of stay at two paediatric hospitals: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J I; Li, L; Raban, M Z; Baysari, M T; Mumford, V; Prgomet, M; Georgiou, A; Kim, T; Lake, R; McCullagh, C; Dalla-Pozza, L; Karnon, J; O'Brien, T A; Ambler, G; Day, R; Cowell, C T; Gazarian, M; Worthington, R; Lehmann, C U; White, L; Barbaric, D; Gardo, A; Kelly, M; Kennedy, P

    2016-10-21

    Medication errors are the most frequent cause of preventable harm in hospitals. Medication management in paediatric patients is particularly complex and consequently potential for harms are greater than in adults. Electronic medication management (eMM) systems are heralded as a highly effective intervention to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs), yet internationally evidence of their effectiveness in paediatric populations is limited. This study will assess the effectiveness of an eMM system to reduce medication errors, ADEs and length of stay (LOS). The study will also investigate system impact on clinical work processes. A stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) will measure changes pre-eMM and post-eMM system implementation in prescribing and medication administration error (MAE) rates, potential and actual ADEs, and average LOS. In stage 1, 8 wards within the first paediatric hospital will be randomised to receive the eMM system 1 week apart. In stage 2, the second paediatric hospital will randomise implementation of a modified eMM and outcomes will be assessed. Prescribing errors will be identified through record reviews, and MAEs through direct observation of nurses and record reviews. Actual and potential severity will be assigned. Outcomes will be assessed at the patient-level using mixed models, taking into account correlation of admissions within wards and multiple admissions for the same patient, with adjustment for potential confounders. Interviews and direct observation of clinicians will investigate the effects of the system on workflow. Data from site 1 will be used to develop improvements in the eMM and implemented at site 2, where the SWCRCT design will be repeated (stage 2). The research has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network and Macquarie University. Results will be reported through academic journals and seminar and conference presentations. Australian New Zealand

  1. Androgen receptor polyglutamine repeat length (AR-CAGn) modulates the effect of testosterone on androgen-associated somatic traits in Filipino young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Calen P; Georgiev, Alexander V; McDade, Thomas W; Gettler, Lee T; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Rzhetskaya, Margarita; Agustin, Sonny S; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2017-06-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) mediates expression of androgen-associated somatic traits such as muscle mass and strength. Within the human AR is a highly variable glutamine short-tandem repeat (AR-CAGn), and CAG repeat number has been inversely correlated to AR transcriptional activity in vitro. However, evidence for an attenuating effect of long AR-CAGn on androgen-associated somatic traits has been inconsistent in human populations. One possible explanation for this lack of consistency is that the effect of AR-CAGn on AR bioactivity in target tissues likely varies in relation to circulating androgen levels. We tested whether relationships between AR-CAGn and several androgen-associated somatic traits (waist circumference, lean mass, arm muscle area, and grip strength) were modified by salivary (waking and pre-bed) and circulating (total) testosterone (T) levels in young adult males living in metropolitan Cebu, Philippines (n = 675). When men's waking T was low, they had a reduction in three out of four androgen-associated somatic traits with lengthening AR-CAGn (p AR-CAGn was associated with an increase in these same somatic traits. Our finding that longer AR-CAGn predicts greater androgen-associated trait expression among high-T men runs counter to in vitro work, but is generally consistent with the few prior studies to evaluate similar interactions in human populations. Collectively, these results raise questions about the applicability of findings derived from in vitro AR-CAGn studies to the receptor's role in maintaining androgen-associated somatic traits in human populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Markers typing and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism fingerprinting of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marttila Harri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mycobacterioses are regarded as a potential zoonotic risk and cause economical losses world wide. M. avium subsp. hominissuis is a slow-growing subspecies found in mycobacterial infected humans and pigs and therefore rapid and discriminatory typing methods are needed for epidemiological studies. The genetic similarity of M. avium subsp. hominissuis from human and porcine origins using two different typing methods have not been studied earlier. The objective of this study was to compare the IS1245 RFLP pattern and MIRU-VNTR typing to study the genetic relatedness of M. avium strains isolated from slaughter pigs and humans in Finland with regard to public health aspects. Methods A novel PCR-based genotyping method, variable number tandem repeat (VNTR typing of eight mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs, was evaluated for its ability to characterize Finnish Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis strains isolated from pigs (n = 16 and humans (n = 13 and the results were compared with those obtained by the conventional IS1245 RFLP method. Results The MIRU-VNTR results showed a discriminatory index (DI of 0,92 and the IS1245 RFLP resulted in DI 0,98. The combined DI for both methods was 0,98. The MIRU-VNTR test has the advantages of being simple, reproducible, non-subjective, which makes it suitable for large-scale screening of M. avium strains. Conclusions Both typing methods demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains of human and porcine origin. The parallel application of the methods adds epidemiological value to the comparison of the strains and their origins. The present approach and results support the hypothesis that there is a common source of M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection for pigs and humans or alternatively one species may be the infective source to the other.

  3. Effect of error in crack length measurement on maximum load fracture toughness of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bind, A.K.; Sunil, Saurav; Singh, R.N.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2016-03-01

    Recently it was found that maximum load toughness (J max ) for Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material was practically unaffected by error in Δ a . To check the sensitivity of the J max to error in Δ a measurement, the J max was calculated assuming no crack growth up to the maximum load (P max ) for as received and hydrogen charged Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material. For load up to the P max , the J values calculated assuming no crack growth (J NC ) were slightly higher than that calculated based on Δ a measured using DCPD technique (JDCPD). In general, error in the J calculation found to be increased exponentially with Δ a . The error in J max calculation was increased with an increase in Δ a and a decrease in J max . Based on deformation theory of J, an analytic criterion was developed to check the insensitivity of the J max to error in Δ a . There was very good linear relation was found between the J max calculated based on Δ a measured using DCPD technique and the J max calculated assuming no crack growth. This relation will be very useful to calculate J max without measuring the crack growth during fracture test especially for irradiated material. (author)

  4. Analysis of CTG repeat length variation in the DMPK gene in the general population and the molecular diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Kathlin K; Ishak, Taufik; Lian, Lay-Hoong; Goh, Khean-Jin; Wong, Kum-Thong; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Thong, Meow-Keong

    2017-03-31

    The lack of epidemiological data and molecular diagnostic services in Malaysia has hampered the setting-up of a comprehensive management plan for patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), leading to delayed diagnosis, treatment and support for patients and families. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of DM1 in the 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia and evaluate the feasibility of a single tube triplet-primed PCR (TP-PCR) method for diagnosis of DM1 in Malaysia. We used PCR to determine the size of CTG repeats in 377 individuals not known to be affected by DM and 11 DM1 suspected patients, recruited from a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur. TP-PCR was performed on selected samples, followed by Southern blot hybridisation of PCR amplified fragments to confirm and estimate the size of CTG expansion. The number of individuals not known to be affected by DM with (CTG) >18 was determined according to ethnic group and as a whole population. The χ 2 test was performed to compare the distribution of (CTG) >18 with 12 other populations. Additionally, the accuracy of TP-PCR in detecting CTG expansion in 11 patients with DM1 was determined by comparing the results with that from Southern blot hybridisation. Of the 754 chromosomes studied, (CTG) >18 frequency of 3.60%, 1.57% and 4.00% in the Malay, Chinese and Indian subpopulations, respectively, was detected, showing similarities to data from Thai, Taiwanese and Kuwaiti populations. We also successfully detected CTG expansions in 9 patients using the TP-PCR method followed by the estimation of CTG expansion size via Southern blot hybridisation. The results show a low DM1 prevalence in Malaysia with the possibility of underdiagnosis and demonstrates the feasibility of using a clinical and TP-PCR-based approach for rapid and cost-effective DM1 diagnosis in developing countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Comparative Study of IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the Netherlands, Based on a 5-Year Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; van Ingen, Jakko; de Vries, Gerard; Erkens, Connie; Sebek, Maruschka; Mulder, Arnout; Sloot, Rosa; van den Brandt, Anne-Marie; Enaimi, Mimount; Kremer, Kristin; Supply, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a detailed evaluation on discriminatory power and agreement with findings in a cluster investigation was performed on 3,975 tuberculosis cases during the period of 2004 to 2008. The level of discrimination of the two typing methods did not differ substantially: RFLP typing yielded 2,733 distinct patterns compared to 2,607 in VNTR typing. The global concordance, defined as isolates labeled unique or identically distributed in clusters by both methods, amounted to 78.5% (n = 3,123). Of the remaining 855 cases, 12% (n = 479) of the cases were clustered only by VNTR, 7.7% (n = 305) only by RFLP typing, and 1.8% (n = 71) revealed different cluster compositions in the two approaches. A cluster investigation was performed for 87% (n = 1,462) of the cases clustered by RFLP. For the 740 cases with confirmed or presumed epidemiological links, 92% were concordant with VNTR typing. In contrast, only 64% of the 722 cases without an epidemiological link but clustered by RFLP typing were also clustered by VNTR typing. We conclude that VNTR typing has a discriminatory power equal to IS6110 RFLP typing but is in better agreement with findings in a cluster investigation performed on an RFLP-clustering-based cluster investigation. Both aspects make VNTR typing a suitable method for tuberculosis surveillance systems. PMID:23363841

  6. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    evaluating the deployment repeatability builds upon the testing or analysis of deployment kinematics (Chapter 6) and adds repetition. Introduction...material yield or failure during a test. For the purposes of this chapter, zero shift will refer to permanent changes in the structure, while reversible ...the content of other chapters in this book: Gravity Compensation (Chapter 4) and Deployment Kinematics and Dynamics (Chapter 6). Repeating the

  7. Characterization of Erwinia amylovora strains from different host plants using repetitive-sequences PCR analysis, and restriction fragment length polymorphism and short-sequence DNA repeats of plasmid pEA29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barionovi, D; Giorgi, S; Stoeger, A R; Ruppitsch, W; Scortichini, M

    2006-05-01

    The three main aims of the study were the assessment of the genetic relationship between a deviating Erwinia amylovora strain isolated from Amelanchier sp. (Maloideae) grown in Canada and other strains from Maloideae and Rosoideae, the investigation of the variability of the PstI fragment of the pEA29 plasmid using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and the determination of the number of short-sequence DNA repeats (SSR) by DNA sequence analysis in representative strains. Ninety-three strains obtained from 12 plant genera and different geographical locations were examined by repetitive-sequences PCR using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus, BOX and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic primer sets. Upon the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis, a deviating strain from Amelanchier sp. was analysed using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) analysis and the sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. This strain showed 99% similarity to other E. amylovora strains in the 16S gene and the same banding pattern with ARDRA. The RFLP analysis of pEA29 plasmid using MspI and Sau3A restriction enzymes showed a higher variability than that previously observed and no clear-cut grouping of the strains was possible. The number of SSR units reiterated two to 12 times. The strains obtained from pear orchards showing for the first time symptoms of fire blight had a low number of SSR units. The strains from Maloideae exhibit a wider genetic variability than previously thought. The RFLP analysis of a fragment of the pEA29 plasmid would not seem a reliable method for typing E. amylovora strains. A low number of SSR units was observed with first epidemics of fire blight. The current detection techniques are mainly based on the genetic similarities observed within the strains from the cultivated tree-fruit crops. For a more reliable detection of the fire blight pathogen also in wild and ornamentals Rosaceous plants the genetic

  8. Comparison of a Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) Method for Typing Mycobacterium avium with Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-VNTR and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, Takayuki; Nishimori, Kei; Yagi, Tetsuya; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Moriyama, Makoto; Nakagawa, Taku; Shibayama, Takami; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Nikai, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections are increasing annually in various countries, including Japan, but the route of transmission and pathophysiology of the infection remain unclear. Currently, a variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing method using the Mycobacterium avium tandem repeat (MATR) loci (MATR-VNTR) is employed in Japan for epidemiological studies using clinical isolates of M. avium. In this study, the usefulness of this MATR-VNTR typing method was compared with that of ...

  9. Error Budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinyard, Natalia Sergeevna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Theodore Sonne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    We calculate opacity from k (hn)=-ln[T(hv)]/pL, where T(hv) is the transmission for photon energy hv, p is sample density, and L is path length through the sample. The density and path length are measured together by Rutherford backscatter. Δk = $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial T$ ΔT + $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial (pL)$. We can re-write this in terms of fractional error as Δk/k = Δ1n(T)/T + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission itself is calculated from T=(U-E)/(V-E)=B/B0, where B is transmitted backlighter (BL) signal and B0 is unattenuated backlighter signal. Then ΔT/T=Δln(T)=ΔB/B+ΔB0/B0, and consequently Δk/k = 1/T (ΔB/B + ΔB$_0$/B$_0$ + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission is measured in the range of 0.2

  10. Error quantification of osteometric data in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Natalie R; Meadows Jantz, Lee; McNulty, Shauna; Maijanen, Heli; Ousley, Stephen D; Jantz, Richard L

    2018-04-10

    This study evaluates the reliability of osteometric data commonly used in forensic case analyses, with specific reference to the measurements in Data Collection Procedures 2.0 (DCP 2.0). Four observers took a set of 99 measurements four times on a sample of 50 skeletons (each measurement was taken 200 times by each observer). Two-way mixed ANOVAs and repeated measures ANOVAs with pairwise comparisons were used to examine interobserver (between-subjects) and intraobserver (within-subjects) variability. Relative technical error of measurement (TEM) was calculated for measurements with significant ANOVA results to examine the error among a single observer repeating a measurement multiple times (e.g. repeatability or intraobserver error), as well as the variability between multiple observers (interobserver error). Two general trends emerged from these analyses: (1) maximum lengths and breadths have the lowest error across the board (TEMForensic Skeletal Material, 3rd edition. Each measurement was examined carefully to determine the likely source of the error (e.g. data input, instrumentation, observer's method, or measurement definition). For several measurements (e.g. anterior sacral breadth, distal epiphyseal breadth of the tibia) only one observer differed significantly from the remaining observers, indicating a likely problem with the measurement definition as interpreted by that observer; these definitions were clarified in DCP 2.0 to eliminate this confusion. Other measurements were taken from landmarks that are difficult to locate consistently (e.g. pubis length, ischium length); these measurements were omitted from DCP 2.0. This manual is available for free download online (https://fac.utk.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/DCP20_webversion.pdf), along with an accompanying instructional video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BtkLFl3vim4). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Repeating Marx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Christian; Monticelli, Lara

    2018-01-01

    This introduction sets out the context of the special issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”, which was published on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary on 5 May 2018. First, we give a brief overview of contemporary capitalism’s development...... and its crises. Second, we argue that it is important to repeat Marx today. Third, we reflect on lessons learned from 200 years of struggles for alternatives to capitalism. Fourth, we give an overview of the contributions in this special issue. Taken together, the contributions in this special issue show...... that Marx’s theory and politics remain key inspirations for understanding exploitation and domination in 21st-century society and for struggles that aim to overcome these phenomena and establishing a just and fair society. We need to repeat Marx today....

  12. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    large cohort of trials to spot unusual cases. However, deployment repeatability is inherently a nonlinear phenomenon, which makes modeling difficult...and GEMS tip position were both tracked during ground testing by a laser target tracking system. Earlier SAILMAST testing in 2005 [8] used...recalls the strategy used by SRTM, where a constellation of lights was installed at the tip of the boom and a modified star tracker was used to track tip

  13. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  14. Telomeric repeat factor 1 protein levels correlates with telomere length in colorectal cancer Los niveles proteicos del factor de repetición telomérico 1 se correlacionan con la longitud del telómero en el cáncer colorrectal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Valls-Bautista

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: colorectal cancer is the third cancer cause of death in Spain. It is important to investigate new tumoral markers for early diagnosis, disease monitoring and prevention strategies. Telomeres protect the chromosome from degradation by nucleases and end-to-end fusion. The progressive loss of the telomeric ends of chromosomes is an important mechanism in the timing of human cellular aging. Telomeric Repeat Factor 1 (TRF1 is a protein that binds at telomere ends. Purpose: to measure the concentrations of TRF1 and the relationships among telomere length, telomerase activity, and TRF1 levels in tumor and normal colorectal mucosa. Method: from normal and tumoral samples of 83 patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer we analyzed TRF1 protein concentration by Western Blot, telomerase activity, by the fluorescent-telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay and telomere length by Southern Blot. Results: high levels of TRF1 were observed in 68.7% of tumor samples, while the majority of normal samples (59% showed negative or weak TRF1 concentrations. Among the tumor samples, telomere length was significantly associated with TRF1 protein levels (p = 0.023. Conclusions: a relationship was found between telomere length and TRF1 abundance protein in tumor samples, which means that TRF1 is an important factor in the tumor progression and maybe a diagnostic factor.

  15. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  16. Sex-specific mediation effect of the right fusiform face area volume on the association between variants in repeat length of AVPR1A RS3 and altruistic behavior in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junping; Qin, Wen; Liu, Feng; Liu, Bing; Zhou, Yuan; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2016-07-01

    Microsatellite variants in the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A) RS3 have been associated with normal social behaviors variation and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in a sex-specific manner. However, neural mechanisms underlying these associations remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that AVPR1A RS3 variants affect altruistic behavior by modulating the gray matter volume (GMV) of specific brain regions in a sex-specific manner. We investigated 278 young healthy adults using the Dictator Game to assess altruistic behavior. All subjects were genotyped and main effect of AVPR1A RS3 repeat polymorphisms and interaction of genotype-by-sex on the GMV were assessed in a voxel-wise manner. We observed that male subjects with relatively short repeats allocated less money to others and exhibited a significantly smaller GMV in the right fusiform face area (FFA) compared with male long homozygotes. In male subjects, the GMV of the right FFA exhibited a significant positive correlation with altruistic behavior. A mixed mediation and moderation analysis further revealed both a significant mediation effect of the GMV of the right FFA on the association between AVPR1A RS3 repeat polymorphisms and allocation sums and a significant moderation effect of sex (only in males) on the mediation effect. Post hoc analysis showed that the GMV of the right FFA was significantly smaller in male subjects carrying allele 426 than in non-426 carriers. These results suggest that the GMV of the right FFA may be a potential mediator whereby the genetic variants in AVPR1A RS3 affect altruistic behavior in healthy male subjects. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2700-2709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Error forecasting schemes of error correction at receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2007-08-01

    To combat error in computer communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Recently Chakraborty has proposed a simple technique called the packet combining scheme in which error is corrected at the receiver from the erroneous copies. Packet Combining (PC) scheme fails: (i) when bit error locations in erroneous copies are the same and (ii) when multiple bit errors occur. Both these have been addressed recently by two schemes known as Packet Reversed Packet Combining (PRPC) Scheme, and Modified Packet Combining (MPC) Scheme respectively. In the letter, two error forecasting correction schemes are reported, which in combination with PRPC offer higher throughput. (author)

  18. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Ren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method’s theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m.

  19. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  20. Error Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Li, Z.

    2001-01-01

    In coding theory the problem of decoding focuses on error vectors. In the simplest situation code words are $(0,1)$-vectors, as are the received messages and the error vectors. Comparison of a received word with the code words yields a set of error vectors. In deciding on the original code word,

  1. How much DNA is lost? Measuring DNA loss of short-tandem-repeat length fragments targeted by the PowerPlex 16® system using the Qiagen MinElute Purification Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Brian M; Winters, Misa; Monroe, Cara; Barta, Jodi Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The success in recovering genetic profiles from aged and degraded biological samples is diminished by fundamental aspects of DNA extraction, as well as its long-term preservation, that are not well understood. While numerous studies have been conducted to determine whether one extraction method was superior to others, nearly all of them were initiated with no knowledge of the actual starting DNA quantity in the samples prior to extraction, so they ultimately compared the outcome of all methods relative to the best. Using quantitative PCR to estimate the copy count of synthetic standards before (i.e., "copies in") and after (i.e., "copies out") purification by the Qiagen MinElute PCR Purification Kit, we documented DNA loss within a pool of 16 different-sized fragments ranging from 106 to 409 bp in length, corresponding to those targeted by the PowerPlex 16 System (Promega, Madison, WI). Across all standards from 10(4) to 10(7) copies/μL, loss averaged between 21.75% and 60.56% (mean, 39.03%), which is not congruent with Qiagen's claim that 80% of 70 bp to 4 kb fragments are retained using this product (i.e., 20% loss). Our study also found no clear relationship either between DNA strand length and retention or between starting copy number and retention. This suggests that there is no molecule bias across the MinElute column membrane and highlights the need for manufacturers to clearly and accurately describe on what their claims are based, and should also encourage researchers to document DNA retention efficiencies of their own methods and protocols. Understanding how and where to reduce loss of molecules during extraction and purification will serve to generate clearer and more accurate data, which will enhance the utility of ancient and low-copy-number DNA as a tool for closing forensic cases or in reconstructing the evolutionary history of humans and other organisms.

  2. Operator errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefer; Lindauer

    1980-01-01

    Besides that at spectacular events a combination of component failure and human error is often found. Especially the Rasmussen-Report and the German Risk Assessment Study show for pressurised water reactors that human error must not be underestimated. Although operator errors as a form of human error can never be eliminated entirely, they can be minimized and their effects kept within acceptable limits if a thorough training of personnel is combined with an adequate design of the plant against accidents. Contrary to the investigation of engineering errors, the investigation of human errors has so far been carried out with relatively small budgets. Intensified investigations in this field appear to be a worthwhile effort. (orig.)

  3. Accurate typing of short tandem repeats from genome-wide sequencing data and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungtammasan, Arkarachai; Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Sun, Chen; Harris, Robert; Medvedev, Paul; Eckert, Kristin; Makova, Kateryna D

    2015-05-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are implicated in dozens of human genetic diseases and contribute significantly to genome variation and instability. Yet profiling STRs from short-read sequencing data is challenging because of their high sequencing error rates. Here, we developed STR-FM, short tandem repeat profiling using flank-based mapping, a computational pipeline that can detect the full spectrum of STR alleles from short-read data, can adapt to emerging read-mapping algorithms, and can be applied to heterogeneous genetic samples (e.g., tumors, viruses, and genomes of organelles). We used STR-FM to study STR error rates and patterns in publicly available human and in-house generated ultradeep plasmid sequencing data sets. We discovered that STRs sequenced with a PCR-free protocol have up to ninefold fewer errors than those sequenced with a PCR-containing protocol. We constructed an error correction model for genotyping STRs that can distinguish heterozygous alleles containing STRs with consecutive repeat numbers. Applying our model and pipeline to Illumina sequencing data with 100-bp reads, we could confidently genotype several disease-related long trinucleotide STRs. Utilizing this pipeline, for the first time we determined the genome-wide STR germline mutation rate from a deeply sequenced human pedigree. Additionally, we built a tool that recommends minimal sequencing depth for accurate STR genotyping, depending on repeat length and sequencing read length. The required read depth increases with STR length and is lower for a PCR-free protocol. This suite of tools addresses the pressing challenges surrounding STR genotyping, and thus is of wide interest to researchers investigating disease-related STRs and STR evolution. © 2015 Fungtammasan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. An analysis of error patterns in children′s backward digit recall in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homira Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine whether perceptual masking or cognitive processing accounts for a decline in working memory performance in the presence of competing speech. The types and patterns of errors made on the backward digit span in quiet and multitalker babble at -5 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR were analyzed. The errors were classified into two categories: item (if digits that were not presented in a list were repeated and order (if correct digits were repeated but in an incorrect order. Fifty five children with normal hearing were included. All the children were aged between 7 years and 10 years. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA revealed the main effects for error type and digit span length. In terms of listening condition interaction, it was found that the order errors occurred more frequently than item errors in the degraded listening condition compared to quiet. In addition, children had more difficulty recalling the correct order of intermediate items, supporting strong primacy and recency effects. Decline in children′s working memory performance was not primarily related to perceptual difficulties alone. The majority of errors was related to the maintenance of sequential order information, which suggests that reduced performance in competing speech may result from increased cognitive processing demands in noise.

  5. An analysis of error patterns in children's backward digit recall in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Homira; Sullivan, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether perceptual masking or cognitive processing accounts for a decline in working memory performance in the presence of competing speech. The types and patterns of errors made on the backward digit span in quiet and multitalker babble at -5 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were analyzed. The errors were classified into two categories: item (if digits that were not presented in a list were repeated) and order (if correct digits were repeated but in an incorrect order). Fifty five children with normal hearing were included. All the children were aged between 7 years and 10 years. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) revealed the main effects for error type and digit span length. In terms of listening condition interaction it was found that the order errors occurred more frequently than item errors in the degraded listening condition compared to quiet. In addition, children had more difficulty recalling the correct order of intermediate items, supporting strong primacy and recency effects. Decline in children's working memory performance was not primarily related to perceptual difficulties alone. The majority of errors was related to the maintenance of sequential order information, which suggests that reduced performance in competing speech may result from increased cognitive processing demands in noise. PMID:26168949

  6. Einstein's error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterflood, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    In discussing Einstein's Special Relativity theory it is claimed that it violates the principle of relativity itself and that an anomalous sign in the mathematics is found in the factor which transforms one inertial observer's measurements into those of another inertial observer. The apparent source of this error is discussed. Having corrected the error a new theory, called Observational Kinematics, is introduced to replace Einstein's Special Relativity. (U.K.)

  7. Variable-length code construction for incoherent optical CDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Yung; Jhou, Jhih-Syue; Wen, Jyh-Horng

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the multirate transmission in fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. In this article, we propose a variable-length code construction for any existing optical orthogonal code to implement a multirate optical CDMA system (called as the multirate code system). For comparison, a multirate system where the lower-rate user sends each symbol twice is implemented and is called as the repeat code system. The repetition as an error-detection code in an ARQ scheme in the repeat code system is also investigated. Moreover, a parallel approach for the optical CDMA systems, which is proposed by Marić et al., is also compared with other systems proposed in this study. Theoretical analysis shows that the bit error probability of the proposed multirate code system is smaller than other systems, especially when the number of lower-rate users is large. Moreover, if there is at least one lower-rate user in the system, the multirate code system accommodates more users than other systems when the error probability of system is set below 10 -9.

  8. Spherical aberration compensation method for long focal-length measurement based on Talbot interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yupeng; Huang, Xiao; Bai, Jian; Du, Juan; Liu, Qun; Luo, Yujie; Luo, Jia

    2017-08-01

    Large-aperture and long focal-length lens is widely used in high energy laser system. The method based on Talbot interferometry is a reliable method to measure the focal length of such elements. By employing divergent beam and two gratings of different periods, this method could realize full-aperture measurement, higher accuracy and better repeatability. However, it does not take into account the spherical aberration of the measured lens resulting in the moiré fringes bending, which will introduce measurement error. Furthermore, in long-focal measurement with divergent beam, this error is an important factor affecting the measurement accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new spherical aberration compensation method, which could significantly reduce the measurement error. Characterized by central-symmetric scanning window, the proposed method is based on the relationship between spherical aberration and the lens aperture. Angle data of moiré fringes in each scanning window is retrieved by Fourier analysis and statistically fitted to estimate a globally optimum value for spherical-aberration-free focal length calculation. Simulation and experiment have been carried out. Compared to the previous work, the proposed method is able to reduce the relative measurement error by 50%. The effect of scanning window size and shift step length on the results is also discussed.

  9. Random access to mobile networks with advanced error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippold, Michael

    1990-01-01

    A random access scheme for unreliable data channels is investigated in conjunction with an adaptive Hybrid-II Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) scheme using Rate Compatible Punctured Codes (RCPC) Forward Error Correction (FEC). A simple scheme with fixed frame length and equal slot sizes is chosen and reservation is implicit by the first packet transmitted randomly in a free slot, similar to Reservation Aloha. This allows the further transmission of redundancy if the last decoding attempt failed. Results show that a high channel utilization and superior throughput can be achieved with this scheme that shows a quite low implementation complexity. For the example of an interleaved Rayleigh channel and soft decision utilization and mean delay are calculated. A utilization of 40 percent may be achieved for a frame with the number of slots being equal to half the station number under high traffic load. The effects of feedback channel errors and some countermeasures are discussed.

  10. CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-M.; Ramos, E.M.; Lee, J.-H.; Gillis, T.; Mysore, J.S.; Hayden, M.R.; Warby, S.C.; Morrison, P.; Nance, M.; Ross, C.A.; Margolis, R.L.; Squitieri, F.; Orobello, S.; Di Donato, S.; Gomez-Tortosa, E.; Ayuso, C.; Suchowersky, O.; Trent, R.J.A.; McCusker, E.; Novelletto, A.; Frontali, M.; Jones, R.; Ashizawa, T.; Frank, S.; Saint-Hilaire, M.H.; Hersch, S.M.; Rosas, H.D.; Lucente, D.; Harrison, M.B.; Zanko, A.; Abramson, R.K.; Marder, K.; Sequeiros, J.; Paulsen, J.S.; Landwehrmeyer, G.B.; Myers, R.H.; MacDonald, M.E.; Durr, Alexandra; Rosenblatt, Adam; Frati, Luigi; Perlman, Susan; Conneally, Patrick M.; Klimek, Mary Lou; Diggin, Melissa; Hadzi, Tiffany; Duckett, Ayana; Ahmed, Anwar; Allen, Paul; Ames, David; Anderson, Christine; Anderson, Karla; Anderson, Karen; Andrews, Thomasin; Ashburner, John; Axelson, Eric; Aylward, Elizabeth; Barker, Roger A.; Barth, Katrin; Barton, Stacey; Baynes, Kathleen; Bea, Alexandra; Beall, Erik; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Biglan, Kevin; Bjork, Kristine; Blanchard, Steve; Bockholt, Jeremy; Bommu, Sudharshan Reddy; Brossman, Bradley; Burrows, Maggie; Calhoun, Vince; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chesire, Amy; Chiu, Edmond; Chua, Phyllis; Connell, R.J.; Connor, Carmela; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Craufurd, David; Cross, Stephen; Cysique, Lucette; Santos, Rachelle Dar; Davis, Jennifer; Decolongon, Joji; DiPietro, Anna; Doucette, Nicholas; Downing, Nancy; Dudler, Ann; Dunn, Steve; Ecker, Daniel; Epping, Eric A.; Erickson, Diane; Erwin, Cheryl; Evans, Ken; Factor, Stewart A.; Farias, Sarah; Fatas, Marta; Fiedorowicz, Jess; Fullam, Ruth; Furtado, Sarah; Garde, Monica Bascunana; Gehl, Carissa; Geschwind, Michael D.; Goh, Anita; Gooblar, Jon; Goodman, Anna; Griffith, Jane; Groves, Mark; Guttman, Mark; Hamilton, Joanne; Harrington, Deborah; Harris, Greg; Heaton, Robert K.; Helmer, Karl; Henneberry, Machelle; Hershey, Tamara; Herwig, Kelly; Howard, Elizabeth; Hunter, Christine; Jankovic, Joseph; Johnson, Hans; Johnson, Arik; Jones, Kathy; Juhl, Andrew; Kim, Eun Young; Kimble, Mycah; King, Pamela; Klimek, Mary Lou; Klöppel, Stefan; Koenig, Katherine; Komiti, Angela; Kumar, Rajeev; Langbehn, Douglas; Leavitt, Blair; Leserman, Anne; Lim, Kelvin; Lipe, Hillary; Lowe, Mark; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Mallonee, William M.; Mans, Nicole; Marietta, Jacquie; Marshall, Frederick; Martin, Wayne; Mason, Sarah; Matheson, Kirsty; Matson, Wayne; Mazzoni, Pietro; McDowell, William; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Miller, Michael; Mills, James; Miracle, Dawn; Montross, Kelsey; Moore, David; Mori, Sasumu; Moser, David J.; Moskowitz, Carol; Newman, Emily; Nopoulos, Peg; Novak, Marianne; O'Rourke, Justin; Oakes, David; Ondo, William; Orth, Michael; Panegyres, Peter; Pease, Karen; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Peterson, Asa; Phillips, Michael; Pierson, Ron; Potkin, Steve; Preston, Joy; Quaid, Kimberly; Radtke, Dawn; Rae, Daniela; Rao, Stephen; Raymond, Lynn; Reading, Sarah; Ready, Rebecca; Reece, Christine; Reilmann, Ralf; Reynolds, Norm; Richardson, Kylie; Rickards, Hugh; Ro, Eunyoe; Robinson, Robert; Rodnitzky, Robert; Rogers, Ben; Rosenblatt, Adam; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Price, Kathy; Price, Kathy; Ryan, Pat; Salmon, David; Samii, Ali; Schumacher, Jamy; Schumacher, Jessica; Sendon, Jose Luis Lópenz; Shear, Paula; Sheinberg, Alanna; Shpritz, Barnett; Siedlecki, Karen; Simpson, Sheila A.; Singer, Adam; Smith, Jim; Smith, Megan; Smith, Glenn; Snyder, Pete; Song, Allen; Sran, Satwinder; Stephan, Klaas; Stober, Janice; Sü?muth, Sigurd; Suter, Greg; Tabrizi, Sarah; Tempkin, Terry; Testa, Claudia; Thompson, Sean; Thomsen, Teri; Thumma, Kelli; Toga, Arthur; Trautmann, Sonja; Tremont, Geoff; Turner, Jessica; Uc, Ergun; Vaccarino, Anthony; van Duijn, Eric; Van Walsem, Marleen; Vik, Stacie; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Vuletich, Elizabeth; Warner, Tom; Wasserman, Paula; Wassink, Thomas; Waterman, Elijah; Weaver, Kurt; Weir, David; Welsh, Claire; Werling-Witkoske, Chris; Wesson, Melissa; Westervelt, Holly; Weydt, Patrick; Wheelock, Vicki; Williams, Kent; Williams, Janet; Wodarski, Mary; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Wood, Jessica; Wood-Siverio, Cathy; Wu, Shuhua; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; de Yebenes, Justo Garcia; Zhao, Yong Qiang; Zimbelman, Janice; Zschiegner, Roland; Aaserud, Olaf; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Andrews, Thomasin; Andrich, Jurgin; Antczak, Jakub; Arran, Natalie; Artiga, Maria J. Saiz; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Banaszkiewicz, Krysztof; di Poggio, Monica Bandettini; Bandmann, Oliver; Barbera, Miguel A.; Barker, Roger A.; Barrero, Francisco; Barth, Katrin; Bas, Jordi; Beister, Antoine; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Bertini, Elisabetta; Biunno, Ida; Bjørgo, Kathrine; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Bohlen, Stefan; Bonelli, Raphael M.; Bos, Reineke; Bourne, Colin; Bradbury, Alyson; Brockie, Peter; Brown, Felicity; Bruno, Stefania; Bryl, Anna; Buck, Andrea; Burg, Sabrina; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Burns, Peter; Burrows, Liz; Busquets, Nuria; Busse, Monica; Calopa, Matilde; Carruesco, Gemma T.; Casado, Ana Gonzalez; Catena, Judit López; Chu, Carol; Ciesielska, Anna; Clapton, Jackie; Clayton, Carole; Clenaghan, Catherine; Coelho, Miguel; Connemann, Julia; Craufurd, David; Crooks, Jenny; Cubillo, Patricia Trigo; Cubo, Esther; Curtis, Adrienne; De Michele, Giuseppe; De Nicola, A.; de Souza, Jenny; de Weert, A. Marit; de Yébenes, Justo Garcia; Dekker, M.; Descals, A. Martínez; Di Maio, Luigi; Di Pietro, Anna; Dipple, Heather; Dose, Matthias; Dumas, Eve M.; Dunnett, Stephen; Ecker, Daniel; Elifani, F.; Ellison-Rose, Lynda; Elorza, Marina D.; Eschenbach, Carolin; Evans, Carole; Fairtlough, Helen; Fannemel, Madelein; Fasano, Alfonso; Fenollar, Maria; Ferrandes, Giovanna; Ferreira, Jaoquim J.; Fillingham, Kay; Finisterra, Ana Maria; Fisher, K.; Fletcher, Amy; Foster, Jillian; Foustanos, Isabella; Frech, Fernando A.; Fullam, Robert; Fullham, Ruth; Gago, Miguel; García, RocioGarcía-Ramos; García, Socorro S.; Garrett, Carolina; Gellera, Cinzia; Gill, Paul; Ginestroni, Andrea; Golding, Charlotte; Goodman, Anna; Gørvell, Per; Grant, Janet; Griguoli, A.; Gross, Diana; Guedes, Leonor; BascuñanaGuerra, Monica; Guerra, Maria Rosalia; Guerrero, Rosa; Guia, Dolores B.; Guidubaldi, Arianna; Hallam, Caroline; Hamer, Stephanie; Hammer, Kathrin; Handley, Olivia J.; Harding, Alison; Hasholt, Lis; Hedge, Reikha; Heiberg, Arvid; Heinicke, Walburgis; Held, Christine; Hernanz, Laura Casas; Herranhof, Briggitte; Herrera, Carmen Durán; Hidding, Ute; Hiivola, Heli; Hill, Susan; Hjermind, Lena. E.; Hobson, Emma; Hoffmann, Rainer; Holl, Anna Hödl; Howard, Liz; Hunt, Sarah; Huson, Susan; Ialongo, Tamara; Idiago, Jesus Miguel R.; Illmann, Torsten; Jachinska, Katarzyna; Jacopini, Gioia; Jakobsen, Oda; Jamieson, Stuart; Jamrozik, Zygmunt; Janik, Piotr; Johns, Nicola; Jones, Lesley; Jones, Una; Jurgens, Caroline K.; Kaelin, Alain; Kalbarczyk, Anna; Kershaw, Ann; Khalil, Hanan; Kieni, Janina; Klimberg, Aneta; Koivisto, Susana P.; Koppers, Kerstin; Kosinski, Christoph Michael; Krawczyk, Malgorzata; Kremer, Berry; Krysa, Wioletta; Kwiecinski, Hubert; Lahiri, Nayana; Lambeck, Johann; Lange, Herwig; Laver, Fiona; Leenders, K.L.; Levey, Jamie; Leythaeuser, Gabriele; Lezius, Franziska; Llesoy, Joan Roig; Löhle, Matthias; López, Cristobal Diez-Aja; Lorenza, Fortuna; Loria, Giovanna; Magnet, Markus; Mandich, Paola; Marchese, Roberta; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Mariotti, Caterina; Mariscal, Natividad; Markova, Ivana; Marquard, Ralf; Martikainen, Kirsti; Martínez, Isabel Haro; Martínez-Descals, Asuncion; Martino, T.; Mason, Sarah; McKenzie, Sue; Mechi, Claudia; Mendes, Tiago; Mestre, Tiago; Middleton, Julia; Milkereit, Eva; Miller, Joanne; Miller, Julie; Minster, Sara; Möller, Jens Carsten; Monza, Daniela; Morales, Blas; Moreau, Laura V.; Moreno, Jose L. López-Sendón; Münchau, Alexander; Murch, Ann; Nielsen, Jørgen E.; Niess, Anke; Nørremølle, Anne; Novak, Marianne; O'Donovan, Kristy; Orth, Michael; Otti, Daniela; Owen, Michael; Padieu, Helene; Paganini, Marco; Painold, Annamaria; Päivärinta, Markku; Partington-Jones, Lucy; Paterski, Laurent; Paterson, Nicole; Patino, Dawn; Patton, Michael; Peinemann, Alexander; Peppa, Nadia; Perea, Maria Fuensanta Noguera; Peterson, Maria; Piacentini, Silvia; Piano, Carla; Càrdenas, Regina Pons i; Prehn, Christian; Price, Kathleen; Probst, Daniela; Quarrell, Oliver; Quiroga, Purificacion Pin; Raab, Tina; Rakowicz, Maryla; Raman, Ashok; Raymond, Lucy; Reilmann, Ralf; Reinante, Gema; Reisinger, Karin; Retterstol, Lars; Ribaï, Pascale; Riballo, Antonio V.; Ribas, Guillermo G.; Richter, Sven; Rickards, Hugh; Rinaldi, Carlo; Rissling, Ida; Ritchie, Stuart; Rivera, Susana Vázquez; Robert, Misericordia Floriach; Roca, Elvira; Romano, Silvia; Romoli, Anna Maria; Roos, Raymond A.C.; Røren, Niini; Rose, Sarah; Rosser, Elisabeth; Rosser, Anne; Rossi, Fabiana; Rothery, Jean; Rudzinska, Monika; Ruíz, Pedro J. García; Ruíz, Belan Garzon; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Ryglewicz, Danuta; Saft, Carston; Salvatore, Elena; Sánchez, Vicenta; Sando, Sigrid Botne; Šašinková, Pavla; Sass, Christian; Scheibl, Monika; Schiefer, Johannes; Schlangen, Christiane; Schmidt, Simone; Schöggl, Helmut; Schrenk, Caroline; Schüpbach, Michael; Schuierer, Michele; Sebastián, Ana Rojo; Selimbegovic-Turkovic, Amina; Sempolowicz, Justyna; Silva, Mark; Sitek, Emilia; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Snowden, Julie; Soleti, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Sollom, Andrea; Soltan, Witold; Sorbi, Sandro; Sorensen, Sven Asger; Spadaro, Maria; Städtler, Michael; Stamm, Christiane; Steiner, Tanja; Stokholm, Jette; Stokke, Bodil; Stopford, Cheryl; Storch, Alexander; Straßburger, Katrin; Stubbe, Lars; Sulek, Anna; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Tabrizi, Sarah; Taylor, Rachel; Terol, Santiago Duran-Sindreu; Thomas, Gareth; Thompson, Jennifer; Thomson, Aileen; Tidswell, Katherine; Torres, Maria M. Antequera; Toscano, Jean; Townhill, Jenny; Trautmann, Sonja; Tucci, Tecla; Tuuha, Katri; Uhrova, Tereza; Valadas, Anabela; van Hout, Monique S.E.; van Oostrom, J.C.H.; van Vugt, Jeroen P.P.; vanm, Walsem Marleen R.; Vandenberghe, Wim; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Vergara, Mar Ruiz; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Verstraelen, Nichola; Viladrich, Celia Mareca; Villanueva, Clara; Wahlström, Jan; Warner, Thomas; Wehus, Raghild; Weindl, Adolf; Werner, Cornelius J.; Westmoreland, Leann; Weydt, Patrick; Wiedemann, Alexandra; Wild, Edward; Wild, Sue; Witjes-Ané, Marie-Noelle; Witkowski, Grzegorz; Wójcik, Magdalena; Wolz, Martin; Wolz, Annett; Wright, Jan; Yardumian, Pam; Yates, Shona; Yudina, Elizaveta; Zaremba, Jacek; Zaugg, Sabine W.; Zdzienicka, Elzbieta; Zielonka, Daniel; Zielonka, Euginiusz; Zinzi, Paola; Zittel, Simone; Zucker, Birgrit; Adams, John; Agarwal, Pinky; Antonijevic, Irina; Beck, Christopher; Chiu, Edmond; Churchyard, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Dorsey, Ray; Drazinic, Carolyn; Dubinsky, Richard; Duff, Kevin; Factor, Stewart; Foroud, Tatiana; Furtado, Sarah; Giuliano, Joe; Greenamyre, Timothy; Higgins, Don; Jankovic, Joseph; Jennings, Dana; Kang, Un Jung; Kostyk, Sandra; Kumar, Rajeev; Leavitt, Blair; LeDoux, Mark; Mallonee, William; Marshall, Frederick; Mohlo, Eric; Morgan, John; Oakes, David; Panegyres, Peter; Panisset, Michel; Perlman, Susan; Perlmutter, Joel; Quaid, Kimberly; Raymond, Lynn; Revilla, Fredy; Robertson, Suzanne; Robottom, Bradley; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Scott, Burton; Shannon, Kathleen; Shoulson, Ira; Singer, Carlos; Tabbal, Samer; Testa, Claudia; van, Kammen Dan; Vetter, Louise; Walker, Francis; Warner, John; Weiner, illiam; Wheelock, Vicki; Yastrubetskaya, Olga; Barton, Stacey; Broyles, Janice; Clouse, Ronda; Coleman, Allison; Davis, Robert; Decolongon, Joji; DeLaRosa, Jeanene; Deuel, Lisa; Dietrich, Susan; Dubinsky, Hilary; Eaton, Ken; Erickson, Diane; Fitzpatrick, Mary Jane; Frucht, Steven; Gartner, Maureen; Goldstein, Jody; Griffith, Jane; Hickey, Charlyne; Hunt, Victoria; Jaglin, Jeana; Klimek, Mary Lou; Lindsay, Pat; Louis, Elan; Loy, Clemet; Lucarelli, Nancy; Malarick, Keith; Martin, Amanda; McInnis, Robert; Moskowitz, Carol; Muratori, Lisa; Nucifora, Frederick; O'Neill, Christine; Palao, Alicia; Peavy, Guerry; Quesada, Monica; Schmidt, Amy; Segro, Vicki; Sperin, Elaine; Suter, Greg; Tanev, Kalo; Tempkin, Teresa; Thiede, Curtis; Wasserman, Paula; Welsh, Claire; Wesson, Melissa; Zauber, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound implications for disease mechanism and modification, we tested whether the normal allele, interaction between the expanded and normal alleles, or presence of a second expanded allele affects age at onset of HD motor signs. Methods: We modeled natural log-transformed age at onset as a function of CAG repeat lengths of expanded and normal alleles and their interaction by linear regression. Results: An apparently significant effect of interaction on age at motor onset among 4,068 subjects was dependent on a single outlier data point. A rigorous statistical analysis with a well-behaved dataset that conformed to the fundamental assumptions of linear regression (e.g., constant variance and normally distributed error) revealed significance only for the expanded CAG repeat, with no effect of the normal CAG repeat. Ten subjects with 2 expanded alleles showed an age at motor onset consistent with the length of the larger expanded allele. Conclusions: Normal allele CAG length, interaction between expanded and normal alleles, and presence of a second expanded allele do not influence age at onset of motor manifestations, indicating that the rate of HD pathogenesis leading to motor diagnosis is determined by a completely dominant action of the longest expanded allele and as yet unidentified genetic or environmental factors. Neurology® 2012;78:690–695 PMID:22323755

  11. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  12. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  13. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  15. Random and Systematic Errors Share in Total Error of Probes for CNC Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Wozniak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Probes for CNC machine tools, as every measurement device, have accuracy limited by random errors and by systematic errors. Random errors of these probes are described by a parameter called unidirectional repeatability. Manufacturers of probes for CNC machine tools usually specify only this parameter, while parameters describing systematic errors of the probes, such as pre-travel variation or triggering radius variation, are used rarely. Systematic errors of the probes, linked to the differences in pre-travel values for different measurement directions, can be corrected or compensated, but it is not a widely used procedure. In this paper, the share of systematic errors and random errors in total error of exemplary probes are determined. In the case of simple, kinematic probes, systematic errors are much greater than random errors, so compensation would significantly reduce the probing error. Moreover, it shows that in the case of kinematic probes commonly specified unidirectional repeatability is significantly better than 2D performance. However, in the case of more precise strain-gauge probe systematic errors are of the same order as random errors, which means that errors correction or compensation, in this case, would not yield any significant benefits.

  16. On Solving Intransitivities in Repeated Pairwise Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Maas (Arne); Th.G.G. Bezembinder (Thom); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAn operational method is presented for deriving a linear ranking of alternatives from repeated paired comparisons of the alternatives. Intransitivities in the observed preferences are cleared away by the introduction of decision errors of varying importance. An observed preference

  17. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  18. Errors in practical measurement in surveying, engineering, and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.A.; Morris, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses statistical measurement, error theory, and statistical error analysis. The topics of the book include an introduction to measurement, measurement errors, the reliability of measurements, probability theory of errors, measures of reliability, reliability of repeated measurements, propagation of errors in computing, errors and weights, practical application of the theory of errors in measurement, two-dimensional errors and includes a bibliography. Appendices are included which address significant figures in measurement, basic concepts of probability and the normal probability curve, writing a sample specification for a procedure, classification, standards of accuracy, and general specifications of geodetic control surveys, the geoid, the frequency distribution curve and the computer and calculator solution of problems

  19. Error detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toru; Kasami, Tadao; Lin, Shu

    1989-09-01

    The error-detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3 are investigated. These codes are also used for error detection in the data link layer of the Ethernet, a local area network. The weight distributions for various code lengths are calculated to obtain the probability of undetectable error and that of detectable error for a binary symmetric channel with bit-error rate between 0.00001 and 1/2.

  20. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  1. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  2. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  3. Quantum repeated games revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable. (paper)

  4. Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.

  5. Repeat migration and disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  6. Apraxia of Speech: Perceptual Analysis of Trisyllabic Word Productions across Repeated Sampling Occasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauszycki, Shannon C.; Wambaugh, Julie L.; Cameron, Rosalea M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Early apraxia of speech (AOS) research has characterized errors as being variable, resulting in a number of different error types being produced on repeated productions of the same stimuli. Conversely, recent research has uncovered greater consistency in errors, but there are limited data examining sound errors over time (more than one…

  7. Towards accurate de novo assembly for genomes with repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucur, Doina

    2017-01-01

    De novo genome assemblers designed for short k-mer length or using short raw reads are unlikely to recover complex features of the underlying genome, such as repeats hundreds of bases long. We implement a stochastic machine-learning method which obtains accurate assemblies with repeats and

  8. Assembly of Repeat Content Using Next Generation Sequencing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor; Copeland, Alex

    2014-03-17

    Repetitive organisms pose a challenge for short read assembly, and typically only unique regions and repeat regions shorter than the read length, can be accurately assembled. Recently, we have been investigating the use of Pacific Biosciences reads for de novo fungal assembly. We will present an assessment of the quality and degree of repeat reconstruction possible in a fungal genome using long read technology. We will also compare differences in assembly of repeat content using short read and long read technology.

  9. Analysis of errors in forensic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiao Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of expert testimony is one of the foundations of judicial justice. Both expert bias and scientific errors affect the reliability of expert opinion, which in turn affects the trustworthiness of the findings of fact in legal proceedings. Expert bias can be eliminated by replacing experts; however, it may be more difficult to eliminate scientific errors. From the perspective of statistics, errors in operation of forensic science include systematic errors, random errors, and gross errors. In general, process repetition and abiding by the standard ISO/IEC:17025: 2005, general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, during operation are common measures used to reduce errors that originate from experts and equipment, respectively. For example, to reduce gross errors, the laboratory can ensure that a test is repeated several times by different experts. In applying for forensic principles and methods, the Federal Rules of Evidence 702 mandate that judges consider factors such as peer review, to ensure the reliability of the expert testimony. As the scientific principles and methods may not undergo professional review by specialists in a certain field, peer review serves as an exclusive standard. This study also examines two types of statistical errors. As false-positive errors involve a higher possibility of an unfair decision-making, they should receive more attention than false-negative errors.

  10. SeqEntropy: genome-wide assessment of repeats for short read sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Ting Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies on genome assembly from short-read sequencing data reported the limitation of this technology to reconstruct the entire genome even at very high depth coverage. We investigated the limitation from the perspective of information theory to evaluate the effect of repeats on short-read genome assembly using idealized (error-free reads at different lengths. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We define a metric H(k to be the entropy of sequencing reads at a read length k and use the relative loss of entropy ΔH(k to measure the impact of repeats for the reconstruction of whole-genome from sequences of length k. In our experiments, we found that entropy loss correlates well with de-novo assembly coverage of a genome, and a score of ΔH(k>1% indicates a severe loss in genome reconstruction fidelity. The minimal read lengths to achieve ΔH(k<1% are different for various organisms and are independent of the genome size. For example, in order to meet the threshold of ΔH(k<1%, a read length of 60 bp is needed for the sequencing of human genome (3.2 10(9 bp and 320 bp for the sequencing of fruit fly (1.8×10(8 bp. We also calculated the ΔH(k scores for 2725 prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids at several read lengths. Our results indicate that the levels of repeats in different genomes are diverse and the entropy of sequencing reads provides a measurement for the repeat structures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed entropy-based measurement, which can be calculated in seconds to minutes in most cases, provides a rapid quantitative evaluation on the limitation of idealized short-read genome sequencing. Moreover, the calculation can be parallelized to scale up to large euakryotic genomes. This approach may be useful to tune the sequencing parameters to achieve better genome assemblies when a closely related genome is already available.

  11. Comparing Measurement Error between Two Different Methods of Measurement of Various Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement error is a common problem in several fields of research such as medicine, physiology, and exercise science. The standard deviation of repeated measurements on the same person is the measurement error. One way of presenting measurement error is called the repeatability, which is 2.77 multiplied by the within subject standard deviation.…

  12. Learning from prescribing errors

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, B

    2002-01-01

    

 The importance of learning from medical error has recently received increasing emphasis. This paper focuses on prescribing errors and argues that, while learning from prescribing errors is a laudable goal, there are currently barriers that can prevent this occurring. Learning from errors can take place on an individual level, at a team level, and across an organisation. Barriers to learning from prescribing errors include the non-discovery of many prescribing errors, lack of feedback to th...

  13. Phonological length, phonetic duration and aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbers, D.G.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; van der Linde, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study discusses an error type that is expected to occur in aphasics suffering from a phonological disorder, i.e. Wernicke's and conduction aphasics, but not in aphasics suffering from a phonetic disorder, i.e. Broca's aphasics. The critical notion is 'phonological length'. It will be argued

  14. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Fiser, Andras; Roderick, Steven L.; Takiff, Howard E.; Blanchard, John S.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S,T,A,V][D,N][L,F]-[S,T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Myc...

  15. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  16. simple sequence repeat (SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  17. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  18. Part two: Error propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of exact results as related to nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities; propagation of error for a single measured value; propagation of error for several measured values; error propagation for materials balances; and an application of error propagation to an example of uranium hexafluoride conversion process

  19. Learning from Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Legaz, Juan Enrique; Soubeyran, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of learning in which agents learn from errors. If an action turns out to be an error, the agent rejects not only that action but also neighboring actions. We find that, keeping memory of his errors, under mild assumptions an acceptable solution is asymptotically reached. Moreover, one can take advantage of big errors for a faster learning.

  20. Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Grabe, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in 200 years Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus addresses a rigorous, complete and self-consistent revision of the Gaussian error calculus. Since experimentalists realized that measurements in general are burdened by unknown systematic errors, the classical, widespread used evaluation procedures scrutinizing the consequences of random errors alone turned out to be obsolete. As a matter of course, the error calculus to-be, treating random and unknown systematic errors side by side, should ensure the consistency and traceability of physical units, physical constants and physical quantities at large. The generalized Gaussian error calculus considers unknown systematic errors to spawn biased estimators. Beyond, random errors are asked to conform to the idea of what the author calls well-defined measuring conditions. The approach features the properties of a building kit: any overall uncertainty turns out to be the sum of a contribution due to random errors, to be taken from a confidence inter...

  1. Medication errors: prescribing faults and prescription errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo, Giampaolo P; Minuz, Pietro

    2009-06-01

    1. Medication errors are common in general practice and in hospitals. Both errors in the act of writing (prescription errors) and prescribing faults due to erroneous medical decisions can result in harm to patients. 2. Any step in the prescribing process can generate errors. Slips, lapses, or mistakes are sources of errors, as in unintended omissions in the transcription of drugs. Faults in dose selection, omitted transcription, and poor handwriting are common. 3. Inadequate knowledge or competence and incomplete information about clinical characteristics and previous treatment of individual patients can result in prescribing faults, including the use of potentially inappropriate medications. 4. An unsafe working environment, complex or undefined procedures, and inadequate communication among health-care personnel, particularly between doctors and nurses, have been identified as important underlying factors that contribute to prescription errors and prescribing faults. 5. Active interventions aimed at reducing prescription errors and prescribing faults are strongly recommended. These should be focused on the education and training of prescribers and the use of on-line aids. The complexity of the prescribing procedure should be reduced by introducing automated systems or uniform prescribing charts, in order to avoid transcription and omission errors. Feedback control systems and immediate review of prescriptions, which can be performed with the assistance of a hospital pharmacist, are also helpful. Audits should be performed periodically.

  2. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  3. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease. (paper)

  4. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.

  5. Topological analysis of polymeric melts: chain-length effects and fast-converging estimators for entanglement length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Robert S; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Kröger, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Primitive path analyses of entanglements are performed over a wide range of chain lengths for both bead spring and atomistic polyethylene polymer melts. Estimators for the entanglement length N_{e} which operate on results for a single chain length N are shown to produce systematic O(1/N) errors. The mathematical roots of these errors are identified as (a) treating chain ends as entanglements and (b) neglecting non-Gaussian corrections to chain and primitive path dimensions. The prefactors for the O(1/N) errors may be large; in general their magnitude depends both on the polymer model and the method used to obtain primitive paths. We propose, derive, and test new estimators which eliminate these systematic errors using information obtainable from the variation in entanglement characteristics with chain length. The new estimators produce accurate results for N_{e} from marginally entangled systems. Formulas based on direct enumeration of entanglements appear to converge faster and are simpler to apply.

  6. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  7. Field error lottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quimby, D.C. (Spectra Technology, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Isolation of human simple repeat loci by hybridization selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Neumann, R; Gobert, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1994-04-01

    We have isolated short tandem repeat arrays from the human genome, using a rapid method involving filter hybridization to enrich for tri- or tetranucleotide tandem repeats. About 30% of clones from the enriched library cross-hybridize with probes containing trimeric or tetrameric tandem arrays, facilitating the rapid isolation of large numbers of clones. In an initial analysis of 54 clones, 46 different tandem arrays were identified. Analysis of these tandem repeat loci by PCR showed that 24 were polymorphic in length; substantially higher levels of polymorphism were displayed by the tetrameric repeat loci isolated than by the trimeric repeats. Primary mapping of these loci by linkage analysis showed that they derive from 17 chromosomes, including the X chromosome. We anticipate the use of this strategy for the efficient isolation of tandem repeats from other sources of genomic DNA, including DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes, and from other species.

  9. Performance Comparisons of Improved Regular Repeat Accumulate (RA and Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA Turbo Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulkadhim Hamad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different techniques are used to improve the turbo decoding of regular repeat accumulate (RA and irregular repeat accumulate (IRA codes. The adaptive scaling of a-posteriori information produced by Soft-output Viterbi decoder (SOVA is proposed. The encoded pilots are another scheme that applied for short length RA codes. This work also suggests a simple and a fast method to generate a random interleaver having a free 4 cycle Tanner graph. Progressive edge growth algorithm (PEG is also studied and simulated to create the Tanner graphs which have a great girth.

  10. Prescription Errors in Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    clinical pharmacists in detecting errors before they have a (sometimes serious) clinical impact should not be underestimated. Research on medication error in mental health care is limited. .... participation in ward rounds and adverse drug.

  11. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  12. Ocular surface sensitivity repeatability with Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Cecilia; Stapleton, Fiona; Badarudin, Ezailina; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2015-02-01

    To determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer on the same day and 3 months apart. Two separate studies were conducted to determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements made on the same day (n = 20 subjects) and 3 months apart (n = 29 subjects). The Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was used to measure corneal and inferior conjunctival thresholds using the ascending method of limits. The pressure exerted by the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was determined using an analytical balance, for both the 0.08- and 0.12-mm-diameter filaments. This calibration was then used to convert filament length measurements to pressure. Repeatability was determined using a Bland and Altman analysis. The pressure exerted at each filament length differed between the two filament diameters. The measured pressure also differed from values provided by the manufacturer. Repeatability of threshold measurements at the central cornea was shown to be good, with better repeatability for same-day measurements (coefficient of repeatability [CoR] = ±0.23 g/mm²) than for those 3 months apart (CoR = ±0.52 g/mm²). Threshold measurements at the inferior conjunctiva, in contrast, were poorly repeatable (CoR = ±12.78 g/mm²). Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry is repeatable when performed on the central cornea on the same day and 3 months apart, but this instrument is not recommended for conjunctival threshold measurements.

  13. Errors in otology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartush, J M

    1996-11-01

    Practicing medicine successfully requires that errors in diagnosis and treatment be minimized. Malpractice laws encourage litigators to ascribe all medical errors to incompetence and negligence. There are, however, many other causes of unintended outcomes. This article describes common causes of errors and suggests ways to minimize mistakes in otologic practice. Widespread dissemination of knowledge about common errors and their precursors can reduce the incidence of their occurrence. Consequently, laws should be passed to allow for a system of non-punitive, confidential reporting of errors and "near misses" that can be shared by physicians nationwide.

  14. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  15. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  16. Summary of coherent neutron scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.

    1981-07-01

    Experimental values of neutron-nuclei bound scattering lengths for some 354 isotopes and elements and the various spin-states are compiled in a uniform way together with their error bars as quoted in the original literature. Recommended values are also given. The definitions of the relevant quantities presented in the data tables and the basic principles of measurements are explained in the introductory chapters. The data is also available on a magnetic tape

  17. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  18. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  19. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... coordinators estimate the effect on coordination fees? Does the supposed benefit that mobile repeater stations... allow the licensing and operation of vehicular repeater systems and other mobile repeaters by public... email: [email protected] or phone: 202-418- 0530 or TTY: 202-418-0432. For detailed instructions for...

  20. Evaluation of Data with Systematic Errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, F. H.

    2003-01-01

    Application-oriented evaluated nuclear data libraries such as ENDF and JEFF contain not only recommended values but also uncertainty information in the form of 'covariance' or 'error files'. These can neither be constructed nor utilized properly without a thorough understanding of uncertainties and correlations. It is shown how incomplete information about errors is described by multivariate probability distributions or, more summarily, by covariance matrices, and how correlations are caused by incompletely known common errors. Parameter estimation for the practically most important case of the Gaussian distribution with common errors is developed in close analogy to the more familiar case without. The formalism shows that, contrary to widespread belief, common ('systematic') and uncorrelated ('random' or 'statistical') errors are to be added in quadrature. It also shows explicitly that repetition of a measurement reduces mainly the statistical uncertainties but not the systematic ones. While statistical uncertainties are readily estimated from the scatter of repeatedly measured data, systematic uncertainties can only be inferred from prior information about common errors and their propagation. The optimal way to handle error-affected auxiliary quantities ('nuisance parameters') in data fitting and parameter estimation is to adjust them on the same footing as the parameters of interest and to integrate (marginalize) them out of the joint posterior distribution afterward

  1. The error in total error reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witnauer, James E; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

    2014-02-01

    Most models of human and animal learning assume that learning is proportional to the discrepancy between a delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by all cues present during that trial (i.e., total error across a stimulus compound). This total error reduction (TER) view has been implemented in connectionist and artificial neural network models to describe the conditions under which weights between units change. Electrophysiological work has revealed that the activity of dopamine neurons is correlated with the total error signal in models of reward learning. Similar neural mechanisms presumably support fear conditioning, human contingency learning, and other types of learning. Using a computational modeling approach, we compared several TER models of associative learning to an alternative model that rejects the TER assumption in favor of local error reduction (LER), which assumes that learning about each cue is proportional to the discrepancy between the delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by that specific cue on that trial. The LER model provided a better fit to the reviewed data than the TER models. Given the superiority of the LER model with the present data sets, acceptance of TER should be tempered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    VBGF (soVBGF) requires a more intensive search due to two additional parameters. This work describes the implementation of two optimisation approaches ("simulated annealing" and "genetic algorithm") for growth function fitting using the open-source software "R." Using a generated LFQ data set......Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...... of the asymptotic length parameter (L-infinity) are found to have significant effects on parameter estimation error. An outlook provides context as to the significance of the R-based implementation for further testing and development, as well as the general relevance of the method for data-limited stock assessment....

  3. Errors in Neonatology

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Boldrini; Rosa T. Scaramuzzo; Armando Cuttano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy). Results: In Neonatology the main err...

  4. Systematic Procedural Error

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrne, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    .... This problem has received surprisingly little attention from cognitive psychologists. The research summarized here examines such errors in some detail both empirically and through computational cognitive modeling...

  5. Human errors and mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    Human errors have a major contribution to the risks for industrial accidents. Accidents have provided important lesson making it possible to build safer systems. In avoiding human errors it is necessary to adapt the systems to their operators. The complexity of modern industrial systems is however increasing the danger of system accidents. Models of the human operator have been proposed, but the models are not able to give accurate predictions of human performance. Human errors can never be eliminated, but their frequency can be decreased by systematic efforts. The paper gives a brief summary of research in human error and it concludes with suggestions for further work. (orig.)

  6. Repeated causal decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in such situations and how they use their knowledge to adapt to changes in the decision context. Our studies show that decision makers' behavior is strongly contingent on their causal beliefs and that people exploit their causal knowledge to assess the consequences of changes in the decision problem. A high consistency between hypotheses about causal structure, causally expected values, and actual choices was observed. The experiments show that (a) existing causal hypotheses guide the interpretation of decision feedback, (b) consequences of decisions are used to revise existing causal beliefs, and (c) decision makers use the experienced feedback to induce a causal model of the choice situation even when they have no initial causal hypotheses, which (d) enables them to adapt their choices to changes of the decision problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  8. Development of a Method to Compensate for Signal Quality Variations in Repeated Auditory Event-Related Potential Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukkunen, Antti K. O.; Leminen, Miika M.; Sepponen, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Reliable measurements are mandatory in clinically relevant auditory event-related potential (AERP)-based tools and applications. The comparability of the results gets worse as a result of variations in the remaining measurement error. A potential method is studied that allows optimization of the length of the recording session according to the concurrent quality of the recorded data. In this way, the sufficiency of the trials can be better guaranteed, which enables control of the remaining measurement error. The suggested method is based on monitoring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and remaining measurement error which are compared to predefined threshold values. The SNR test is well defined, but the criterion for the measurement error test still requires further empirical testing in practice. According to the results, the reproducibility of average AERPs in repeated experiments is improved in comparison to a case where the number of recorded trials is constant. The test-retest reliability is not significantly changed on average but the between-subject variation in the value is reduced by 33–35%. The optimization of the number of trials also prevents excessive recordings which might be of practical interest especially in the clinical context. The efficiency of the method may be further increased by implementing online tools that improve data consistency. PMID:20407635

  9. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Fanglue; Mitra, Niloy J.; Huang, Xiaolei; Hu, Shimin

    2010-01-01

    variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary

  10. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  12. Identifying systematic DFT errors in catalytic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune; Hansen, Heine Anton; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-01-01

    Using CO2 reduction reactions as examples, we present a widely applicable method for identifying the main source of errors in density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The method has broad applications for error correction in DFT calculations in general, as it relies on the dependence...... of the applied exchange–correlation functional on the reaction energies rather than on errors versus the experimental data. As a result, improved energy corrections can now be determined for both gas phase and adsorbed reaction species, particularly interesting within heterogeneous catalysis. We show...... that for the CO2 reduction reactions, the main source of error is associated with the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bonds and not the typically energy corrected OCO backbone....

  13. Variational lower bound on the scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering length A characterizes the zero-energy scattering of one system by another. It was shown some time ago that a variational upper bound on A could be obtained using methods, of the Rayleigh-Ritz type, which are commonly employed to obtain upper bounds on energy eigenvalues. Here we formulate a method for obtaining a variational lower bound on A. Once again the essential idea is to express the scattering length as a variational estimate plus an error term and then to reduce the problem of bounding the error term to one involving bounds on energy eigenvalues. In particular, the variational lower bound on A is rigorously established provided a certin modified Hamiltonian can be shown to have no discrete states lying below the level of the continuum threshold. It is unfortunately true that necessary conditions for the existence of bound states are not available for multiparticle systems in general. However, in the case of positron-atom scattering the adiabatic approximation can be introduced as an (essentially) solvable comparison problem to rigorously establish the nonexistence of bound states of the modified Hamiltonian. It has recently been shown how the validity of the variational upper bound on A can be maintained when the target ground-state wave function is imprecisely known. Similar methods can be used to maintain the variational lower bound on A. Since the bound is variational, the error in the calculated scattering length will be of second order in the error in the wave function. The use of the adiabatic approximation in the present context places no limitation in principle on the accuracy achievable

  14. Learning from Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the…

  15. Action errors, error management, and learning in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina

    2015-01-03

    Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.

  16. Automated path length and M56 measurements at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.; Tang, J.; Legg, R.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate measurement of path length and path length changes versus momentum (M 56 ) are critical for maintaining minimum beam energy spread in the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The relative path length for each circuit of the beam (1256m) must be equal within 1.5 degrees of 1497 MHz RF phase. A relative path length measurement is made by measuring the relative phases of RF signals from a cavity that is separately excited for each pass of a 4.2 μs pulsed beam. This method distinguishes the path length to less than 0.5 path length error. The development of a VME based automated measurement system for path length and M 56 has contributed to faster machine setup time and has the potential for use as a feedback parameter for automated control

  17. Somatic mosaicism of androgen receptor CAG repeats in colorectal carcinoma epithelial cells from men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Francesco; Alvarado, Carlos; Gologan, Adrian; Youssef, Emad; Voda, Linda; Mitmaker, Elliot; Beitel, Lenore K; Gordon, Philip H; Trifiro, Mark

    2009-06-01

    The X-linked human androgen receptor gene (AR) contains an exonic polymorphic trinucleotide CAG. The length of this encoded CAG tract inversely affects AR transcriptional activity. Colorectal carcinoma is known to express the androgen receptor, but data on somatic CAG repeat lengths variations in malignant and normal epithelial cells are still sporadic. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM), epithelial cells from colorectal carcinoma and normal-appearing mucosa were collected from the fresh tissue of eight consecutive male patients undergoing surgery (mean age, 70 y; range, 54-82). DNA isolated from each LCM sample underwent subsequent PCR and DNA sequencing to precisely determine AR CAG repeat lengths and the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI). Different AR CAG repeat lengths were observed in colorectal carcinoma (ranging from 0 to 36 CAG repeats), mainly in the form of multiple shorter repeat lengths. This genetic heterogeneity (somatic mosaicism) was also found in normal-appearing colorectal mucosa. Half of the carcinoma cases examined tended to have a higher number of AR CAG repeat lengths with a wider range of repeat size variation compared to normal mucosa. MSI carcinomas tended to have longer median AR CAG repeat lengths (n = 17) compared to microsatellite stable carcinomas (n = 14), although the difference was not significant (P = 0.31, Mann-Whitney test). Multiple unique somatic mutations of the AR CAG repeats occur in colorectal mucosa and in carcinoma, predominantly resulting in shorter alleles. Colorectal epithelial cells carrying AR alleles with shorter CAG repeat lengths may be more androgen-sensitive and therefore have a growth advantage.

  18. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  19. Tackling systematic errors in quantum logic gates with composite rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, Holly K.; Llewellyn, Gavin; Jones, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the use of composite rotations to combat systematic errors in single-qubit quantum logic gates and discuss three families of composite rotations which can be used to correct off-resonance and pulse length errors. Although developed and described within the context of nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing, these sequences should be applicable to any implementation of quantum computation

  20. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  1. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  2. Uncorrected refractive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin S; Jaggernath, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC), were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR) Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  3. Uncorrected refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovin S Naidoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC, were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  4. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  5. Errors and violations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is in three parts. The first part summarizes the human failures responsible for the Chernobyl disaster and argues that, in considering the human contribution to power plant emergencies, it is necessary to distinguish between: errors and violations; and active and latent failures. The second part presents empirical evidence, drawn from driver behavior, which suggest that errors and violations have different psychological origins. The concluding part outlines a resident pathogen view of accident causation, and seeks to identify the various system pathways along which errors and violations may be propagated

  6. Large Polyglutamine Repeats Cause Muscle Degeneration in SCA17 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In polyglutamine (polyQ diseases, large polyQ repeats cause juvenile cases with different symptoms than those of adult-onset patients, who carry smaller expanded polyQ repeats. The mechanisms behind the differential pathology mediated by different polyQ repeat lengths remain unknown. By studying knockin mouse models of spinal cerebellar ataxia-17 (SCA17, we found that a large polyQ (105 glutamines in the TATA-box-binding protein (TBP preferentially causes muscle degeneration and reduces the expression of muscle-specific genes. Direct expression of TBP with different polyQ repeats in mouse muscle revealed that muscle degeneration is mediated only by the large polyQ repeats. Different polyQ repeats differentially alter TBP’s interaction with neuronal and muscle-specific transcription factors. As a result, the large polyQ repeat decreases the association of MyoD with TBP and DNA promoters. Our findings suggest that specific alterations in protein interactions by large polyQ repeats may account for the unique pathology in juvenile polyQ diseases.

  7. Large Polyglutamine Repeats Cause Muscle Degeneration in SCA17 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanshan; Yang, Su; Guo, Jifeng; Yan, Sen; Gaertig, Marta A.; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, large polyQ repeats cause juvenile cases with different symptoms than adult-onset patients, who carry smaller expanded polyQ repeats. The mechanisms behind the differential pathology mediated by different polyQ repeat lengths remain unknown. By studying knock-in mouse models of spinal cerebellar ataxia-17 (SCA17), we found that a large polyQ (105 glutamines) in the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) preferentially causes muscle degeneration and reduces the expression of muscle-specific genes. Direct expression of TBP with different polyQ repeats in mouse muscle revealed that muscle degeneration is mediated only by the large polyQ repeats. Different polyQ repeats differentially alter TBP’s interaction with neuronal and muscle-specific transcription factors. As a result, the large polyQ repeat decreases the association of MyoD with TBP and DNA promoters. Our findings suggest that specific alterations in protein interactions by large polyQ repeats may account for the unique pathology in juvenile polyQ diseases. PMID:26387956

  8. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  9. Film repeats in radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwan, A. Z.; Al-Shakharah, A. I

    1997-01-01

    During a one year period, 4910 radiographs of 55780 films were repeated. The objective of our study was to analyse and to classify the causes in order to minimize the repeats, cut the expenses and to provide optimal radiographs for accurate diagnosis. Analysis of the different factors revealed that, 43.6% of film repeats in our service were due to faults in exposure factors, centering comprises 15.9% of the repeats, while too much collimation was responsible for 7.6% of these repeats. All of which can be decreased by awareness and programmed training of technicians. Film blurring caused by patient motion was also responsible for 4.9% for radiographs reexamination, which can be minimized by detailed explanation to the patient and providing the necessary privacy. Fogging of X-Ray films by improper storage or inadequate handling or processing faults were responsible for 14.5% in repeats in our study. Methods and criteria for proper storage and handling of films were discussed. Recommendation for using modern day-light and laser processor has been high lighted. Artefacts are noticeably high in our cases, due to spinal dresses and frequent usage of precious metals for c osmotic purposes in this part of the world. The repeated films comprise 8.8% of all films We conclude that, the main factor responsible for repeats of up to 81.6% of cases was the technologists, thus emphasizing the importance of adequate training of the technologists. (authors). 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 table

  10. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  11. Repeated Prescribed Burning in Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Infrequent burning weather, low flammability of the aspen-hardwood association, and prolific sprouting and seeding of shrubs and hardwoods made repeated dormant season burning a poor tool to convert good site aspen to conifers. Repeat fall burns for wildlife habitat maintenance is workable if species composition changes are not important.

  12. Help prevent hospital errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000618.htm Help prevent hospital errors To use the sharing features ... in the hospital. If You Are Having Surgery, Help Keep Yourself Safe Go to a hospital you ...

  13. Pedal Application Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This project examined the prevalence of pedal application errors and the driver, vehicle, roadway and/or environmental characteristics associated with pedal misapplication crashes based on a literature review, analysis of news media reports, a panel ...

  14. Rounding errors in weighing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeach, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    When rounding error is large relative to weighing error, it cannot be ignored when estimating scale precision and bias from calibration data. Further, if the data grouping is coarse, rounding error is correlated with weighing error and may also have a mean quite different from zero. These facts are taken into account in a moment estimation method. A copy of the program listing for the MERDA program that provides moment estimates is available from the author. Experience suggests that if the data fall into four or more cells or groups, it is not necessary to apply the moment estimation method. Rather, the estimate given by equation (3) is valid in this instance. 5 tables

  15. Spotting software errors sooner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, D.

    1989-01-01

    Static analysis is helping to identify software errors at an earlier stage and more cheaply than conventional methods of testing. RTP Software's MALPAS system also has the ability to check that a code conforms to its original specification. (author)

  16. Errors in energy bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kop, L.

    2001-01-01

    On request, the Dutch Association for Energy, Environment and Water (VEMW) checks the energy bills for her customers. It appeared that in the year 2000 many small, but also big errors were discovered in the bills of 42 businesses

  17. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  18. The surveillance error grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  19. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  20. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  1. Repeatability of visual acuity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, T W; Bailey, I L; Bullimore, M A

    1998-05-01

    This study investigates features of visual acuity chart design and acuity testing scoring methods which affect the validity and repeatability of visual acuity measurements. Visual acuity was measured using the Sloan and British Standard letter series, and Landolt rings. Identifiability of the different letters as a function of size was estimated, and expressed in the form of frequency-of-seeing curves. These functions were then used to simulate acuity measurements with a variety of chart designs and scoring criteria. Systematic relationships exist between chart design parameters and acuity score, and acuity score repeatability. In particular, an important feature of a chart, that largely determines the repeatability of visual acuity measurement, is the amount of size change attributed to each letter. The methods used to score visual acuity performance also affect repeatability. It is possible to evaluate acuity score validity and repeatability using the statistical principles discussed here.

  2. Design for Error Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1983-01-01

    An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability.......An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability....

  3. Accommodating error analysis in comparison and clustering of molecular fingerprints.

    OpenAIRE

    Salamon, H.; Segal, M. R.; Ponce de Leon, A.; Small, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular epidemiologic studies of infectious diseases rely on pathogen genotype comparisons, which usually yield patterns comprising sets of DNA fragments (DNA fingerprints). We use a highly developed genotyping system, IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to develop a computational method that automates comparison of large numbers of fingerprints. Because error in fragment length measurements is proportional to fragment length and is ...

  4. Apologies and Medical Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    One way in which physicians can respond to a medical error is to apologize. Apologies—statements that acknowledge an error and its consequences, take responsibility, and communicate regret for having caused harm—can decrease blame, decrease anger, increase trust, and improve relationships. Importantly, apologies also have the potential to decrease the risk of a medical malpractice lawsuit and can help settle claims by patients. Patients indicate they want and expect explanations and apologies after medical errors and physicians indicate they want to apologize. However, in practice, physicians tend to provide minimal information to patients after medical errors and infrequently offer complete apologies. Although fears about potential litigation are the most commonly cited barrier to apologizing after medical error, the link between litigation risk and the practice of disclosure and apology is tenuous. Other barriers might include the culture of medicine and the inherent psychological difficulties in facing one’s mistakes and apologizing for them. Despite these barriers, incorporating apology into conversations between physicians and patients can address the needs of both parties and can play a role in the effective resolution of disputes related to medical error. PMID:18972177

  5. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  6. Repeatability and reproducibility of decisions by latent fingerprint examiners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T Ulery

    Full Text Available The interpretation of forensic fingerprint evidence relies on the expertise of latent print examiners. We tested latent print examiners on the extent to which they reached consistent decisions. This study assessed intra-examiner repeatability by retesting 72 examiners on comparisons of latent and exemplar fingerprints, after an interval of approximately seven months; each examiner was reassigned 25 image pairs for comparison, out of total pool of 744 image pairs. We compare these repeatability results with reproducibility (inter-examiner results derived from our previous study. Examiners repeated 89.1% of their individualization decisions, and 90.1% of their exclusion decisions; most of the changed decisions resulted in inconclusive decisions. Repeatability of comparison decisions (individualization, exclusion, inconclusive was 90.0% for mated pairs, and 85.9% for nonmated pairs. Repeatability and reproducibility were notably lower for comparisons assessed by the examiners as "difficult" than for "easy" or "moderate" comparisons, indicating that examiners' assessments of difficulty may be useful for quality assurance. No false positive errors were repeated (n = 4; 30% of false negative errors were repeated. One percent of latent value decisions were completely reversed (no value even for exclusion vs. of value for individualization. Most of the inter- and intra-examiner variability concerned whether the examiners considered the information available to be sufficient to reach a conclusion; this variability was concentrated on specific image pairs such that repeatability and reproducibility were very high on some comparisons and very low on others. Much of the variability appears to be due to making categorical decisions in borderline cases.

  7. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  8. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of full-length mariner elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mariner like elements (MLEs) are widely distributed type II transposons with an open reading frame (ORF) for transposase. We studied comparative phylogenetic evolution and inverted terminal repeat (ITR) conservation of MLEs from Indian saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta with other full length MLEs submitted in the ...

  9. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  10. Learning from Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Lendita Kryeziu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Errare humanum est”, a well known and widespread Latin proverb which states that: to err is human, and that people make mistakes all the time. However, what counts is that people must learn from mistakes. On these grounds Steve Jobs stated: “Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.” Similarly, in learning new language, learners make mistakes, thus it is important to accept them, learn from them, discover the reason why they make them, improve and move on. The significance of studying errors is described by Corder as: “There have always been two justifications proposed for the study of learners' errors: the pedagogical justification, namely that a good understanding of the nature of error is necessary before a systematic means of eradicating them could be found, and the theoretical justification, which claims that a study of learners' errors is part of the systematic study of the learners' language which is itself necessary to an understanding of the process of second language acquisition” (Corder, 1982; 1. Thus the importance and the aim of this paper is analyzing errors in the process of second language acquisition and the way we teachers can benefit from mistakes to help students improve themselves while giving the proper feedback.

  11. Compact disk error measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, D.; Harriman, K.; Tehranchi, B.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: provide hardware and software that will perform simple, real-time, high resolution (single-byte) measurement of the error burst and good data gap statistics seen by a photoCD player read channel when recorded CD write-once discs of variable quality (i.e., condition) are being read; extend the above system to enable measurement of the hard decision (i.e., 1-bit error flags) and soft decision (i.e., 2-bit error flags) decoding information that is produced/used by the Cross Interleaved - Reed - Solomon - Code (CIRC) block decoder employed in the photoCD player read channel; construct a model that uses data obtained via the systems described above to produce meaningful estimates of output error rates (due to both uncorrected ECC words and misdecoded ECC words) when a CD disc having specific (measured) error statistics is read (completion date to be determined); and check the hypothesis that current adaptive CIRC block decoders are optimized for pressed (DAD/ROM) CD discs. If warranted, do a conceptual design of an adaptive CIRC decoder that is optimized for write-once CD discs.

  12. Crystalline lens power and refractive error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Rafael; Morgan, Ian G; Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B

    2012-02-01

    To study the relationships between the refractive power of the crystalline lens, overall refractive error of the eye, and degree of nuclear cataract. All phakic participants of the population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study with an age of 50+ years were included. Calculation of the refractive lens power was based on distance noncycloplegic refractive error, corneal refractive power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and axial length according to Bennett's formula. The study included 1885 subjects. Mean refractive lens power was 25.5 ± 3.0 D (range, 13.9-36.6). After adjustment for age and sex, the standardized correlation coefficients (β) of the association with the ocular refractive error were highest for crystalline lens power (β = -0.41; P lens opacity grade (β = -0.42; P lens power (β = -0.95), lower corneal refractive power (β = -0.76), higher lens thickness (β = 0.30), deeper anterior chamber (β = 0.28), and less marked nuclear lens opacity (β = -0.05). Lens thickness was significantly lower in eyes with greater nuclear opacity. Variations in refractive error in adults aged 50+ years were mostly influenced by variations in axial length and in crystalline lens refractive power, followed by variations in corneal refractive power, and, to a minor degree, by variations in lens thickness and anterior chamber depth.

  13. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  14. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  15. Errors in Neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Boldrini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy. Results: In Neonatology the main error domains are: medication and total parenteral nutrition, resuscitation and respiratory care, invasive procedures, nosocomial infections, patient identification, diagnostics. Risk factors include patients’ size, prematurity, vulnerability and underlying disease conditions but also multidisciplinary teams, working conditions providing fatigue, a large variety of treatment and investigative modalities needed. Discussion and Conclusions: In our opinion, it is hardly possible to change the human beings but it is likely possible to change the conditions under they work. Voluntary errors report systems can help in preventing adverse events. Education and re-training by means of simulation can be an effective strategy too. In Pisa (Italy Nina (ceNtro di FormazIone e SimulazioNe NeonAtale is a simulation center that offers the possibility of a continuous retraining for technical and non-technical skills to optimize neonatological care strategies. Furthermore, we have been working on a novel skill trainer for mechanical ventilation (MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications, MERESSINA. Finally, in our opinion national health policy indirectly influences risk for errors. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  16. At least some errors are randomly generated (Freud was wrong)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellen, A. J.; Senders, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to expose something about human error generating mechanisms. In the context of the experiment, an error was made when a subject pressed the wrong key on a computer keyboard or pressed no key at all in the time allotted. These might be considered, respectively, errors of substitution and errors of omission. Each of seven subjects saw a sequence of three digital numbers, made an easily learned binary judgement about each, and was to press the appropriate one of two keys. Each session consisted of 1,000 presentations of randomly permuted, fixed numbers broken into 10 blocks of 100. One of two keys should have been pressed within one second of the onset of each stimulus. These data were subjected to statistical analyses in order to probe the nature of the error generating mechanisms. Goodness of fit tests for a Poisson distribution for the number of errors per 50 trial interval and for an exponential distribution of the length of the intervals between errors were carried out. There is evidence for an endogenous mechanism that may best be described as a random error generator. Furthermore, an item analysis of the number of errors produced per stimulus suggests the existence of a second mechanism operating on task driven factors producing exogenous errors. Some errors, at least, are the result of constant probability generating mechanisms with error rate idiosyncratically determined for each subject.

  17. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  18. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  19. Error Free Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical theory for development of "higher order" software to catch computer mistakes resulted from a Johnson Space Center contract for Apollo spacecraft navigation. Two women who were involved in the project formed Higher Order Software, Inc. to develop and market the system of error analysis and correction. They designed software which is logically error-free, which, in one instance, was found to increase productivity by 600%. USE.IT defines its objectives using AXES -- a user can write in English and the system converts to computer languages. It is employed by several large corporations.

  20. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  1. An upper bound on the number of errors corrected by a convolutional code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    The number of errors that a convolutional codes can correct in a segment of the encoded sequence is upper bounded by the number of distinct syndrome sequences of the relevant length.......The number of errors that a convolutional codes can correct in a segment of the encoded sequence is upper bounded by the number of distinct syndrome sequences of the relevant length....

  2. CAG repeat expansion in Huntington disease determines age at onset in a fully dominant fashion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, J-M; Ramos, E M; Lee, J-H

    2012-01-01

    Age at onset of diagnostic motor manifestations in Huntington disease (HD) is strongly correlated with an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat. The length of the normal CAG repeat allele has been reported also to influence age at onset, in interaction with the expanded allele. Due to profound...

  3. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science and Automation at ... the Reed-Solomon code contained 223 bytes of data, (a byte ... then you have a data storage system with error correction, that ..... practical codes, storing such a table is infeasible, as it is generally too large.

  4. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  5. Challenge and Error: Critical Events and Attention-Related Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, James Allan; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Solman, Grayden J. F.; Smilek, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Attention lapses resulting from reactivity to task challenges and their consequences constitute a pervasive factor affecting everyday performance errors and accidents. A bidirectional model of attention lapses (error [image omitted] attention-lapse: Cheyne, Solman, Carriere, & Smilek, 2009) argues that errors beget errors by generating attention…

  6. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Reason, James

    1999-01-01

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  7. Quantum key distribution with two-segment quantum repeaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampermann, Hermann; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bruss, Dagmar [Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum repeaters represent one possible way to achieve long-distance quantum key distribution. One way of improving the repeater rate and decreasing the memory coherence time is the usage of multiplexing. Motivated by the experimental fact that long-range connections are practically demanding, we extend the analysis of the quantum repeater multiplexing protocol to the case of short-range connections. We derive formulas for the repeater rate and we show that short-range connections lead to most of the benefits of a full-range multiplexing protocol. A less demanding QKD-protocol without quantum memories was recently introduced by Lo et al. We generalize this measurement-device-independent quantum key Distribution protocol to the scenario where the repeater Station contains also heralded quantum memories. We assume either single-photon sources or weak coherent pulse sources plus decay states. We show that it is possible to significantly outperform the original proposal, even in presence of decoherence of the quantum memory. We give formulas in terms of device imperfections i.e., the quantum bit error rate and the repeater rate.

  8. Identifying uniformly mutated segments within repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinalp, S Cenk; Eichler, Evan; Goldberg, Paul; Berenbrink, Petra; Friedetzky, Tom; Ergun, Funda

    2004-12-01

    Given a long string of characters from a constant size alphabet we present an algorithm to determine whether its characters have been generated by a single i.i.d. random source. More specifically, consider all possible n-coin models for generating a binary string S, where each bit of S is generated via an independent toss of one of the n coins in the model. The choice of which coin to toss is decided by a random walk on the set of coins where the probability of a coin change is much lower than the probability of using the same coin repeatedly. We present a procedure to evaluate the likelihood of a n-coin model for given S, subject a uniform prior distribution over the parameters of the model (that represent mutation rates and probabilities of copying events). In the absence of detailed prior knowledge of these parameters, the algorithm can be used to determine whether the a posteriori probability for n=1 is higher than for any other n>1. Our algorithm runs in time O(l4logl), where l is the length of S, through a dynamic programming approach which exploits the assumed convexity of the a posteriori probability for n. Our test can be used in the analysis of long alignments between pairs of genomic sequences in a number of ways. For example, functional regions in genome sequences exhibit much lower mutation rates than non-functional regions. Because our test provides means for determining variations in the mutation rate, it may be used to distinguish functional regions from non-functional ones. Another application is in determining whether two highly similar, thus evolutionarily related, genome segments are the result of a single copy event or of a complex series of copy events. This is particularly an issue in evolutionary studies of genome regions rich with repeat segments (especially tandemly repeated segments).

  9. Human medial frontal cortex activity predicts learning from errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Barre, Natalie; Murphy, Kevin; Silk, Tim J; Mattingley, Jason B

    2008-08-01

    Learning from errors is a critical feature of human cognition. It underlies our ability to adapt to changing environmental demands and to tune behavior for optimal performance. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) has been implicated in the evaluation of errors to control behavior, although it has not previously been shown that activity in this region predicts learning from errors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activity in the pMFC during an associative learning task in which participants had to recall the spatial locations of 2-digit targets and were provided with immediate feedback regarding accuracy. Activity within the pMFC was significantly greater for errors that were subsequently corrected than for errors that were repeated. Moreover, pMFC activity during recall errors predicted future responses (correct vs. incorrect), despite a sizeable interval (on average 70 s) between an error and the next presentation of the same recall probe. Activity within the hippocampus also predicted future performance and correlated with error-feedback-related pMFC activity. A relationship between performance expectations and pMFC activity, in the absence of differing reinforcement value for errors, is consistent with the idea that error-related pMFC activity reflects the extent to which an outcome is "worse than expected."

  10. Accuracy of repeated kidney size estimation by ultrasonography and urography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hederstroem, E.; Forsberg, L.

    1985-01-01

    The accuracy of repeated sonographic and urographic kidney length measurements in kidney size evaluation was investigated in 80 children 0 to 14 years of age, mean age 4.5 years. At sonography 250 kidney lengths were compared. A difference of 0 to 1.0 cm in repeated length measurement was considered to be good accuracy and 94 per cent of right and 96 per cent of left kidney length were found within this interval-a better result than for urography with 76 per cent of repeated right kidney and 79 per cent of kidney lengths within the same interval (94 lengths). Both methods display a variation of kidney lengths which may lead to under- and overestimation of kidney size and growth. The investigation thus indicates good accuracy for repeated sonographic kidney size assessment which should be repeated often enough to estabilish a growth chart displaying the trend rather than rely too much on single measurements. Sonography can be highly recommended as a convenient and harmless alternative to urography. (orig.)

  11. Can anchovy age structure be estimated from length distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis provides a new time-series of proportions-at-age 1, together with associated standard errors, for input into assessments of the resource. The results also caution against the danger of scientists reading more information into data than is really there. Keywords: anchovy, effective sample size, length distribution, ...

  12. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... variously described as determined by the ocular biometric variables. There have been many studies on the relationship between refractive error and ocular axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth, corneal radius of curvature (CR), keratometric readings as well as other ocular biometric variables such as ...

  13. The error performance analysis over cyclic redundancy check codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee B.

    1991-06-01

    The burst error is generated in digital communication networks by various unpredictable conditions, which occur at high error rates, for short durations, and can impact services. To completely describe a burst error one has to know the bit pattern. This is impossible in practice on working systems. Therefore, under the memoryless binary symmetric channel (MBSC) assumptions, the performance evaluation or estimation schemes for digital signal 1 (DS1) transmission systems carrying live traffic is an interesting and important problem. This study will present some analytical methods, leading to efficient detecting algorithms of burst error using cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code. The definition of burst error is introduced using three different models. Among the three burst error models, the mathematical model is used in this study. The probability density function, function(b) of burst error of length b is proposed. The performance of CRC-n codes is evaluated and analyzed using function(b) through the use of a computer simulation model within CRC block burst error. The simulation result shows that the mean block burst error tends to approach the pattern of the burst error which random bit errors generate.

  14. Imagery of Errors in Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Martina; Martinez, Fanny; Wenke, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    Using a typing task we investigated whether insufficient imagination of errors and error corrections is related to duration differences between execution and imagination. In Experiment 1 spontaneous error imagination was investigated, whereas in Experiment 2 participants were specifically instructed to imagine errors. Further, in Experiment 2 we…

  15. Assessment of salivary flow rate: biologic variation and measure error.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, P.H.; Limbeek, J. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability of the swab method in the measurement of salivary flow rate in multiple-handicap drooling children. To quantify the measurement error of the procedure and the biologic variation in the population. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: In a repeated

  16. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  17. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    The Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 and Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis

  18. Correction of refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pfeifer

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spectacles and contact lenses are the most frequently used, the safest and the cheapest way to correct refractive errors. The development of keratorefractive surgery has brought new opportunities for correction of refractive errors in patients who have the need to be less dependent of spectacles or contact lenses. Until recently, RK was the most commonly performed refractive procedure for nearsighted patients.Conclusions: The introduction of excimer laser in refractive surgery has given the new opportunities of remodelling the cornea. The laser energy can be delivered on the stromal surface like in PRK or deeper on the corneal stroma by means of lamellar surgery. In LASIK flap is created with microkeratome in LASEK with ethanol and in epi-LASIK the ultra thin flap is created mechanically.

  19. Error-Free Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    001 is an integrated tool suited for automatically developing ultra reliable models, simulations and software systems. Developed and marketed by Hamilton Technologies, Inc. (HTI), it has been applied in engineering, manufacturing, banking and software tools development. The software provides the ability to simplify the complex. A system developed with 001 can be a prototype or fully developed with production quality code. It is free of interface errors, consistent, logically complete and has no data or control flow errors. Systems can be designed, developed and maintained with maximum productivity. Margaret Hamilton, President of Hamilton Technologies, also directed the research and development of USE.IT, an earlier product which was the first computer aided software engineering product in the industry to concentrate on automatically supporting the development of an ultrareliable system throughout its life cycle. Both products originated in NASA technology developed under a Johnson Space Center contract.

  20. Two tandemly repeated telomere-associated sequences in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C M; Wang, C T; Wang, C J; Ho, C H; Kao, Y Y; Chen, C C

    1997-12-01

    Two tandemly repeated telomere-associated sequences, NP3R and NP4R, have been isolated from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. The length of a repeating unit for NP3R and NP4R is 165 and 180 nucleotides respectively. The abundance of NP3R, NP4R and telomeric repeats is, respectively, 8.4 x 10(4), 6 x 10(3) and 1.5 x 10(6) copies per haploid genome of N. plumbaginifolia. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that NP3R is located at the ends and/or in interstitial regions of all 10 chromosomes and NP4R on the terminal regions of three chromosomes in the haploid genome of N. plumbaginifolia. Sequence homology search revealed that not only are NP3R and NP4R homologous to HRS60 and GRS, respectively, two tandem repeats isolated from N. tabacum, but that NP3R and NP4R are also related to each other, suggesting that they originated from a common ancestral sequence. The role of these repeated sequences in chromosome healing is discussed based on the observation that two to three copies of a telomere-similar sequence were present in each repeating unit of NP3R and NP4R.

  1. Minimum Tracking Error Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Luca RICCETTI

    2010-01-01

    Investors assign part of their funds to asset managers that are given the task of beating a benchmark. The risk management department usually imposes a maximum value of the tracking error volatility (TEV) in order to keep the risk of the portfolio near to that of the selected benchmark. However, risk management does not establish a rule on TEV which enables us to understand whether the asset manager is really active or not and, in practice, asset managers sometimes follow passively the corres...

  2. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  3. Satellite Photometric Error Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    Satellite Photometric Error Determination Tamara E. Payne, Philip J. Castro, Stephen A. Gregory Applied Optimization 714 East Monument Ave, Suite...advocate the adoption of new techniques based on in-frame photometric calibrations enabled by newly available all-sky star catalogs that contain highly...filter systems will likely be supplanted by the Sloan based filter systems. The Johnson photometric system is a set of filters in the optical

  4. Playing hide and seek with repeats in local and global de novo transcriptome assembly of short RNA-seq reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leandro; Sinaimeri, Blerina; Sacomoto, Gustavo; Lopez-Maestre, Helene; Marchet, Camille; Miele, Vincent; Sagot, Marie-France; Lacroix, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The main challenge in de novo genome assembly of DNA-seq data is certainly to deal with repeats that are longer than the reads. In de novo transcriptome assembly of RNA-seq reads, on the other hand, this problem has been underestimated so far. Even though we have fewer and shorter repeated sequences in transcriptomics, they do create ambiguities and confuse assemblers if not addressed properly. Most transcriptome assemblers of short reads are based on de Bruijn graphs (DBG) and have no clear and explicit model for repeats in RNA-seq data, relying instead on heuristics to deal with them. The results of this work are threefold. First, we introduce a formal model for representing high copy-number and low-divergence repeats in RNA-seq data and exploit its properties to infer a combinatorial characteristic of repeat-associated subgraphs. We show that the problem of identifying such subgraphs in a DBG is NP-complete. Second, we show that in the specific case of local assembly of alternative splicing (AS) events, we can implicitly avoid such subgraphs, and we present an efficient algorithm to enumerate AS events that are not included in repeats. Using simulated data, we show that this strategy is significantly more sensitive and precise than the previous version of KisSplice (Sacomoto et al. in WABI, pp 99-111, 1), Trinity (Grabherr et al. in Nat Biotechnol 29(7):644-652, 2), and Oases (Schulz et al. in Bioinformatics 28(8):1086-1092, 3), for the specific task of calling AS events. Third, we turn our focus to full-length transcriptome assembly, and we show that exploring the topology of DBGs can improve de novo transcriptome evaluation methods. Based on the observation that repeats create complicated regions in a DBG, and when assemblers try to traverse these regions, they can infer erroneous transcripts, we propose a measure to flag transcripts traversing such troublesome regions, thereby giving a confidence level for each transcript. The originality of our work when

  5. Video Error Correction Using Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, David L.; Mersereau, Russell M.

    2002-12-01

    The transmission of any data is always subject to corruption due to errors, but video transmission, because of its real time nature must deal with these errors without retransmission of the corrupted data. The error can be handled using forward error correction in the encoder or error concealment techniques in the decoder. This MPEG-2 compliant codec uses data hiding to transmit error correction information and several error concealment techniques in the decoder. The decoder resynchronizes more quickly with fewer errors than traditional resynchronization techniques. It also allows for perfect recovery of differentially encoded DCT-DC components and motion vectors. This provides for a much higher quality picture in an error-prone environment while creating an almost imperceptible degradation of the picture in an error-free environment.

  6. Video Error Correction Using Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie David L

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of any data is always subject to corruption due to errors, but video transmission, because of its real time nature must deal with these errors without retransmission of the corrupted data. The error can be handled using forward error correction in the encoder or error concealment techniques in the decoder. This MPEG-2 compliant codec uses data hiding to transmit error correction information and several error concealment techniques in the decoder. The decoder resynchronizes more quickly with fewer errors than traditional resynchronization techniques. It also allows for perfect recovery of differentially encoded DCT-DC components and motion vectors. This provides for a much higher quality picture in an error-prone environment while creating an almost imperceptible degradation of the picture in an error-free environment.

  7. Recognition of medical errors' reporting system dimensions in educational hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H; Mohammadinia, Leila; Tavakoli, Nahid; Ghalriz, Parvin; Haghshenas, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays medical errors are one of the serious issues in the health-care system and carry to account of the patient's safety threat. The most important step for achieving safety promotion is identifying errors and their causes in order to recognize, correct and omit them. Concerning about repeating medical errors and harms, which were received via theses errors concluded to designing and establishing medical error reporting systems for hospitals and centers that are presenting therapeutic services. The aim of this study is the recognition of medical errors' reporting system dimensions in educational hospitals. This research is a descriptive-analytical and qualities' study, which has been carried out in Shahid Beheshti educational therapeutic center in Isfahan during 2012. In this study, relevant information was collected through 15 face to face interviews. That each of interviews take place in about 1hr and creation of five focused discussion groups through 45 min for each section, they were composed of Metron, educational supervisor, health officer, health education, and all of the head nurses. Concluded data interviews and discussion sessions were coded, then achieved results were extracted in the presence of clear-sighted persons and after their feedback perception, they were categorized. In order to make sure of information correctness, tables were presented to the research's interviewers and final the corrections were confirmed based on their view. The extracted information from interviews and discussion groups have been divided into nine main categories after content analyzing and subject coding and their subsets have been completely expressed. Achieved dimensions are composed of nine domains of medical error concept, error cases according to nurses' prospection, medical error reporting barriers, employees' motivational factors for error reporting, purposes of medical error reporting system, error reporting's challenges and opportunities, a desired system

  8. Tandemly repeated sequence in 5'end of mtDNA control region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extensive length variability was observed in 5' end sequence of the mitochondrial DNA control region of the Japanese Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus niphonius). This length variability was due to the presence of varying numbers of a 56-bp tandemly repeated sequence and a 46-bp insertion/deletion (indel).

  9. Error-related brain activity and error awareness in an error classification paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gregorio, Francesco; Steinhauser, Marco; Maier, Martin E

    2016-10-01

    Error-related brain activity has been linked to error detection enabling adaptive behavioral adjustments. However, it is still unclear which role error awareness plays in this process. Here, we show that the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), an event-related potential reflecting early error monitoring, is dissociable from the degree of error awareness. Participants responded to a target while ignoring two different incongruent distractors. After responding, they indicated whether they had committed an error, and if so, whether they had responded to one or to the other distractor. This error classification paradigm allowed distinguishing partially aware errors, (i.e., errors that were noticed but misclassified) and fully aware errors (i.e., errors that were correctly classified). The Ne/ERN was larger for partially aware errors than for fully aware errors. Whereas this speaks against the idea that the Ne/ERN foreshadows the degree of error awareness, it confirms the prediction of a computational model, which relates the Ne/ERN to post-response conflict. This model predicts that stronger distractor processing - a prerequisite of error classification in our paradigm - leads to lower post-response conflict and thus a smaller Ne/ERN. This implies that the relationship between Ne/ERN and error awareness depends on how error awareness is related to response conflict in a specific task. Our results further indicate that the Ne/ERN but not the degree of error awareness determines adaptive performance adjustments. Taken together, we conclude that the Ne/ERN is dissociable from error awareness and foreshadows adaptive performance adjustments. Our results suggest that the relationship between the Ne/ERN and error awareness is correlative and mediated by response conflict. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coordination in continuously repeated games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeren, A.J.T.M.; Schumacher, J.M.; Engwerda, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to describe the effectiveness of coordination in a continuously repeated two-player game. We study how the choice of a decision rule by a coordinator affects the strategic behavior of the players, resulting in more or less cooperation. Our model requires the analysis

  11. Repeated checking causes memory distrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain why in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) checkers distrust in memory persists despite extensive checking. It is argued that: (1) repeated checking increases familiarity with the issues checked; (2) increased familiarity promotes conceptual processing which inhibits

  12. Instability of (CTGn•(CAGn trinucleotide repeats and DNA synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guoqi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Expansion of (CTGn•(CAGn trinucleotide repeat (TNR microsatellite sequences is the cause of more than a dozen human neurodegenerative diseases. (CTGn and (CAGn repeats form imperfectly base paired hairpins that tend to expand in vivo in a length-dependent manner. Yeast, mouse and human models confirm that (CTGn•(CAGn instability increases with repeat number, and implicate both DNA replication and DNA damage response mechanisms in (CTGn•(CAGn TNR expansion and contraction. Mutation and knockdown models that abrogate the expression of individual genes might also mask more subtle, cumulative effects of multiple additional pathways on (CTGn•(CAGn instability in whole animals. The identification of second site genetic modifiers may help to explain the variability of (CTGn•(CAGn TNR instability patterns between tissues and individuals, and offer opportunities for prognosis and treatment.

  13. From Concrete to Abstract in the Measurement of Length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanou, Andreas; Fisher, William P Jr

    2013-01-01

    The concatenation of units of length is widely viewed as the paradigmatic expression of fundamental measurement. Survey, assessment, and test scores in educational and psychological measurement are often interpreted in ways that assume a concatenation of units to have been established, even though these assumptions are rarely stated or tested. A concatenation model for measurement is shown to be equivalent to a Rasch model: any two units of measurement placed end to end must together be of the same length as either one of them added to itself. This additive principle and a concatenation model of measurement together serve as a heuristic guide for organizing two experimental approaches to calibrating instruments for measuring length. The capacity to reproduce the unit of measurement from theory with no need for repeated empirical calibration experiments, as in the geometrical bisection of the line and the resultant halving of the length measure, is highlighted as essential to demonstrating a thorough understanding of the construct

  14. Analysis of error-correction constraints in an optical disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jonathan D.; Ryley, Alan; Jones, David M.; Burke, David

    1996-07-01

    The compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) is a mature storage medium with complex error control. It comprises four levels of Reed Solomon codes allied to a sequence of sophisticated interleaving strategies and 8:14 modulation coding. New storage media are being developed and introduced that place still further demands on signal processing for error correction. It is therefore appropriate to explore thoroughly the limit of existing strategies to assess future requirements. We describe a simulation of all stages of the CD-ROM coding, modulation, and decoding. The results of decoding the burst error of a prescribed number of modulation bits are discussed in detail. Measures of residual uncorrected error within a sector are displayed by C1, C2, P, and Q error counts and by the status of the final cyclic redundancy check (CRC). Where each data sector is encoded separately, it is shown that error-correction performance against burst errors depends critically on the position of the burst within a sector. The C1 error measures the burst length, whereas C2 errors reflect the burst position. The performance of Reed Solomon product codes is shown by the P and Q statistics. It is shown that synchronization loss is critical near the limits of error correction. An example is given of miscorrection that is identified by the CRC check.

  15. Diagnostic errors in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.; Voss, Stephan D.; Melvin, Patrice R.; Graham, Dionne A.

    2011-01-01

    Little information is known about the frequency, types and causes of diagnostic errors in imaging children. Our goals were to describe the patterns and potential etiologies of diagnostic error in our subspecialty. We reviewed 265 cases with clinically significant diagnostic errors identified during a 10-year period. Errors were defined as a diagnosis that was delayed, wrong or missed; they were classified as perceptual, cognitive, system-related or unavoidable; and they were evaluated by imaging modality and level of training of the physician involved. We identified 484 specific errors in the 265 cases reviewed (mean:1.8 errors/case). Most discrepancies involved staff (45.5%). Two hundred fifty-eight individual cognitive errors were identified in 151 cases (mean = 1.7 errors/case). Of these, 83 cases (55%) had additional perceptual or system-related errors. One hundred sixty-five perceptual errors were identified in 165 cases. Of these, 68 cases (41%) also had cognitive or system-related errors. Fifty-four system-related errors were identified in 46 cases (mean = 1.2 errors/case) of which all were multi-factorial. Seven cases were unavoidable. Our study defines a taxonomy of diagnostic errors in a large academic pediatric radiology practice and suggests that most are multi-factorial in etiology. Further study is needed to define effective strategies for improvement. (orig.)

  16. Quantum Error Correction and Fault Tolerant Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Gaitan, Frank

    2008-01-01

    It was once widely believed that quantum computation would never become a reality. However, the discovery of quantum error correction and the proof of the accuracy threshold theorem nearly ten years ago gave rise to extensive development and research aimed at creating a working, scalable quantum computer. Over a decade has passed since this monumental accomplishment yet no book-length pedagogical presentation of this important theory exists. Quantum Error Correction and Fault Tolerant Quantum Computing offers the first full-length exposition on the realization of a theory once thought impo

  17. The Effect of Exposure to High Noise Levels on the Performance and Rate of Error in Manual Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajenasiri, Farahnaz; Zamanian, Alireza; Zamanian, Zahra

    2016-03-01

    Sound is among the significant environmental factors for people's health, and it has an important role in both physical and psychological injuries, and it also affects individuals' performance and productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to high noise levels on the performance and rate of error in manual activities. This was an interventional study conducted on 50 students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (25 males and 25 females) in which each person was considered as its own control to assess the effect of noise on her or his performance at the sound levels of 70, 90, and 110 dB by using two factors of physical features and the creation of different conditions of sound source as well as applying the Two-Arm coordination Test. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Repeated measurements were used to compare the length of performance as well as the errors measured in the test. Based on the results, we found a direct and significant association between the levels of sound and the length of performance. Moreover, the participant's performance was significantly different for different sound levels (at 110 dB as opposed to 70 and 90 dB, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). This study found that a sound level of 110 dB had an important effect on the individuals' performances, i.e., the performances were decreased.

  18. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  19. Wind and load forecast error model for multiple geographically distributed forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Reyes-Spindola, Jorge F.; Samaan, Nader; Diao, Ruisheng; Hafen, Ryan P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The impact of wind and load forecast errors on power grid operations is frequently evaluated by conducting multi-variant studies, where these errors are simulated repeatedly as random processes based on their known statistical characteristics. To simulate these errors correctly, we need to reflect their distributions (which do not necessarily follow a known distribution law), standard deviations. auto- and cross-correlations. For instance, load and wind forecast errors can be closely correlated in different zones of the system. This paper introduces a new methodology for generating multiple cross-correlated random processes to produce forecast error time-domain curves based on a transition probability matrix computed from an empirical error distribution function. The matrix will be used to generate new error time series with statistical features similar to observed errors. We present the derivation of the method and some experimental results obtained by generating new error forecasts together with their statistics. (orig.)

  20. Why Don't We Learn to Accurately Forecast Feelings? How Misremembering Our Predictions Blinds Us to Past Forecasting Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyvis, Tom; Ratner, Rebecca K.; Levav, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Why do affective forecasting errors persist in the face of repeated disconfirming evidence? Five studies demonstrate that people misremember their forecasts as consistent with their experience and thus fail to perceive the extent of their forecasting error. As a result, people do not learn from past forecasting errors and fail to adjust subsequent…

  1. Structure-guided investigation of lipopolysaccharide O-antigen chain length regulators reveals regions critical for modal length control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalynych, Sergei; Ruan, Xiang; Valvano, Miguel A; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2011-08-01

    The O-antigen component of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) represents a population of polysaccharide molecules with nonrandom (modal) chain length distribution. The number of the repeat O units in each individual O-antigen polymer depends on the Wzz chain length regulator, an inner membrane protein belonging to the polysaccharide copolymerase (PCP) family. Different Wzz proteins confer vastly different ranges of modal lengths (4 to >100 repeat units), despite having remarkably conserved structural folds. The molecular mechanism responsible for the selective preference for a certain number of O units is unknown. Guided by the three-dimensional structures of PCPs, we constructed a panel of chimeric molecules containing parts of two closely related Wzz proteins from Salmonella enterica and Shigella flexneri which confer different O-antigen chain length distributions. Analysis of the O-antigen length distribution imparted by each chimera revealed the region spanning amino acids 67 to 95 (region 67 to 95), region 200 to 255, and region 269 to 274 as primarily affecting the length distribution. We also showed that there is no synergy between these regions. In particular, region 269 to 274 also influenced chain length distribution mediated by two distantly related PCPs, WzzB and FepE. Furthermore, from the 3 regions uncovered in this study, region 269 to 274 appeared to be critical for the stability of the oligomeric form of Wzz, as determined by cross-linking experiments. Together, our data suggest that chain length determination depends on regions that likely contribute to stabilize a supramolecular complex.

  2. Entanglement renormalization, quantum error correction, and bulk causality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Isaac H. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center,1101 Kitchawan Rd., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Kastoryano, Michael J. [NBIA, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-04-07

    Entanglement renormalization can be viewed as an encoding circuit for a family of approximate quantum error correcting codes. The logical information becomes progressively more well-protected against erasure errors at larger length scales. In particular, an approximate variant of holographic quantum error correcting code emerges at low energy for critical systems. This implies that two operators that are largely separated in scales behave as if they are spatially separated operators, in the sense that they obey a Lieb-Robinson type locality bound under a time evolution generated by a local Hamiltonian.

  3. Online learning in repeated auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Weed, Jonathan; Perchet, Vianney; Rigollet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by online advertising auctions, we consider repeated Vickrey auctions where goods of unknown value are sold sequentially and bidders only learn (potentially noisy) information about a good's value once it is purchased. We adopt an online learning approach with bandit feedback to model this problem and derive bidding strategies for two models: stochastic and adversarial. In the stochastic model, the observed values of the goods are random variables centered around the true value of t...

  4. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  5. A repeating fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  6. REPEATABILITY OF FRUIT QUALITY TRAITS OF CACTUS PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALTÂNIA XAVIER NUNES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Repeatability analysis has been used to study traits in several crops, assisting in the definition of the minimum number needed to evaluate genotypes more efficiently and with less time and resource consumption. So far, however, no repeatability studies on cactus pear have been found in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the coefficient of repeatability for cactus pear fruits traits and the minimum number of evaluations (fruit that can provide acceptable accuracy for the prediction of the true value. The experiment was conducted at the Federal Institute of Bahia/Campus Guanambi, with 150 fruits collected from three municipalities in the state of Bahia. The coefficients of repeatability were estimated by the methods of analysis of variance, principal components based on the covariance (PCCV and correlation (PCC matrices, and structural analysis based on the correlation matrix (SA. The analysis of variance showed that, except for fruit diameter, the effect of the production site (municipality was significant for all traits evaluated. The PCCV method was proven the most suitable for studying the repeatability of quality traits of cactus pear fruits. Seven fruits were required to determine, with 90% confidence, the traits length, diameter, fruit firmness, skin thickness, number of seeds, fruit mass, bark mass, pulp mass, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, SS/AT ratio, and pulp yield.

  7. Flanking Variation Influences Rates of Stutter in Simple Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August E. Woerner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been posited that the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS of tandem repeats, as defined by the number of exactly matching repeating motif units, is a better predictor of rates of stutter than the parental allele length (PAL. While there are cases where this hypothesis is likely correct, such as the 9.3 allele in the TH01 locus, there can be situations where it may not apply as well. For example, the PAL may capture flanking indel variations while remaining insensitive to polymorphisms in the repeat, and these haplotypic changes may impact the stutter rate. To address this, rates of stutter were contrasted against the LUS as well as the PAL on different flanking haplotypic backgrounds. This study shows that rates of stutter can vary substantially depending on the flanking haplotype, and while there are cases where the LUS is a better predictor of stutter than the PAL, examples to the contrary are apparent in commonly assayed forensic markers. Further, flanking variation that is 7 bp from the repeat region can impact rates of stutter. These findings suggest that non-proximal effects, such as DNA secondary structure, may be impacting the rates of stutter in common forensic short tandem repeat markers.

  8. Evaluating a medical error taxonomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Brixey, Juliana; Johnson, Todd R.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2002-01-01

    Healthcare has been slow in using human factors principles to reduce medical errors. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) recognizes that a lack of attention to human factors during product development may lead to errors that have the potential for patient injury, or even death. In response to the need for reducing medication errors, the National Coordinating Council for Medication Errors Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP) released the NCC MERP taxonomy that provides a stand...

  9. Obesity, diabetes, and length of time in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity prevalence remains high in the United States (US), and is rising in most other countries. This is a repeated cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were separately performed for adults (n?=?37,639) and children/adolescents (n?=?28,282) to assess the associations between the length of time in the US, and the prevalences of obesity and diabetes...

  10. An investigation of error correcting techniques for OMV and AXAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Frank; Fryer, John

    1991-01-01

    The original objectives of this project were to build a test system for the NASA 255/223 Reed/Solomon encoding/decoding chip set and circuit board. This test system was then to be interfaced with a convolutional system at MSFC to examine the performance of the concantinated codes. After considerable work, it was discovered that the convolutional system could not function as needed. This report documents the design, construction, and testing of the test apparatus for the R/S chip set. The approach taken was to verify the error correcting behavior of the chip set by injecting known error patterns onto data and observing the results. Error sequences were generated using pseudo-random number generator programs, with Poisson time distribution between errors and Gaussian burst lengths. Sample means, variances, and number of un-correctable errors were calculated for each data set before testing.

  11. Uncertainty quantification and error analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higdon, Dave M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Mark C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klein, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berliner, Mark [OHIO STATE UNIV.; Covey, Curt [LLNL; Ghattas, Omar [UNIV OF TEXAS; Graziani, Carlo [UNIV OF CHICAGO; Seager, Mark [LLNL; Sefcik, Joseph [LLNL; Stark, Philip [UC/BERKELEY; Stewart, James [SNL

    2010-01-01

    UQ studies all sources of error and uncertainty, including: systematic and stochastic measurement error; ignorance; limitations of theoretical models; limitations of numerical representations of those models; limitations on the accuracy and reliability of computations, approximations, and algorithms; and human error. A more precise definition for UQ is suggested below.

  12. Error Patterns in Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Beatrice C.

    Although many common problem-solving errors within the realm of school mathematics have been previously identified, a compilation of such errors is not readily available within learning disabilities textbooks, mathematics education texts, or teacher's manuals for school mathematics texts. Using data on error frequencies drawn from both the Fourth…

  13. Performance, postmodernity and errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter

    2013-01-01

    speaker’s competency (note the –y ending!) reflects adaptation to the community langue, including variations. This reversal of perspective also reverses our understanding of the relationship between structure and deviation. In the heyday of structuralism, it was tempting to confuse the invariant system...... with the prestige variety, and conflate non-standard variation with parole/performance and class both as erroneous. Nowadays the anti-structural sentiment of present-day linguistics makes it tempting to confuse the rejection of ideal abstract structure with a rejection of any distinction between grammatical...... as deviant from the perspective of function-based structure and discuss to what extent the recognition of a community langue as a source of adaptive pressure may throw light on different types of deviation, including language handicaps and learner errors....

  14. Errors in causal inference: an organizational schema for systematic error and random error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Tsuda, Toshihide; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-11-01

    To provide an organizational schema for systematic error and random error in estimating causal measures, aimed at clarifying the concept of errors from the perspective of causal inference. We propose to divide systematic error into structural error and analytic error. With regard to random error, our schema shows its four major sources: nondeterministic counterfactuals, sampling variability, a mechanism that generates exposure events and measurement variability. Structural error is defined from the perspective of counterfactual reasoning and divided into nonexchangeability bias (which comprises confounding bias and selection bias) and measurement bias. Directed acyclic graphs are useful to illustrate this kind of error. Nonexchangeability bias implies a lack of "exchangeability" between the selected exposed and unexposed groups. A lack of exchangeability is not a primary concern of measurement bias, justifying its separation from confounding bias and selection bias. Many forms of analytic errors result from the small-sample properties of the estimator used and vanish asymptotically. Analytic error also results from wrong (misspecified) statistical models and inappropriate statistical methods. Our organizational schema is helpful for understanding the relationship between systematic error and random error from a previously less investigated aspect, enabling us to better understand the relationship between accuracy, validity, and precision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of Navigation Ultrasound for Clavicular Length Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Anders Thorsmark; Villa, Chiara; Christensen, Ole M.

    2017-01-01

    interval): approximately ± 7.5 mm, Pearson's correlation R: 0.948-0.974). Navigation ultrasound can measure clavicular length with an intra-rater reliability matching that of 3-D rendered computed tomography scans and with high validity. Its use could spread to other fields requiring accurate...... of 52.5 (range: 21-78 y) were included. Navigation ultrasound exhibited high reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.942-0.997, standard error of the mean: 0.7-2.9 mm, minimal detectable change: 2.3-8.1 mm) and validity (measurement error: 1.3%-1.8%, limits of agreement (95% confidence...

  16. Controlling errors in unidosis carts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Díaz Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify errors in the unidosis system carts. Method: For two months, the Pharmacy Service controlled medication either returned or missing from the unidosis carts both in the pharmacy and in the wards. Results: Uncorrected unidosis carts show a 0.9% of medication errors (264 versus 0.6% (154 which appeared in unidosis carts previously revised. In carts not revised, the error is 70.83% and mainly caused when setting up unidosis carts. The rest are due to a lack of stock or unavailability (21.6%, errors in the transcription of medical orders (6.81% or that the boxes had not been emptied previously (0.76%. The errors found in the units correspond to errors in the transcription of the treatment (3.46%, non-receipt of the unidosis copy (23.14%, the patient did not take the medication (14.36%or was discharged without medication (12.77%, was not provided by nurses (14.09%, was withdrawn from the stocks of the unit (14.62%, and errors of the pharmacy service (17.56% . Conclusions: It is concluded the need to redress unidosis carts and a computerized prescription system to avoid errors in transcription.Discussion: A high percentage of medication errors is caused by human error. If unidosis carts are overlooked before sent to hospitalization units, the error diminishes to 0.3%.

  17. Prioritising interventions against medication errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Marianne; Pape-Larsen, Louise; Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard

    errors are therefore needed. Development of definition: A definition of medication errors including an index of error types for each stage in the medication process was developed from existing terminology and through a modified Delphi-process in 2008. The Delphi panel consisted of 25 interdisciplinary......Abstract Authors: Lisby M, Larsen LP, Soerensen AL, Nielsen LP, Mainz J Title: Prioritising interventions against medication errors – the importance of a definition Objective: To develop and test a restricted definition of medication errors across health care settings in Denmark Methods: Medication...... errors constitute a major quality and safety problem in modern healthcare. However, far from all are clinically important. The prevalence of medication errors ranges from 2-75% indicating a global problem in defining and measuring these [1]. New cut-of levels focusing the clinical impact of medication...

  18. Social aspects of clinical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Joel; Mason, Tom; Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; McIntosh, Annette; Mercer, Dave

    2009-08-01

    Clinical errors, whether committed by doctors, nurses or other professions allied to healthcare, remain a sensitive issue requiring open debate and policy formulation in order to reduce them. The literature suggests that the issues underpinning errors made by healthcare professionals involve concerns about patient safety, professional disclosure, apology, litigation, compensation, processes of recording and policy development to enhance quality service. Anecdotally, we are aware of narratives of minor errors, which may well have been covered up and remain officially undisclosed whilst the major errors resulting in damage and death to patients alarm both professionals and public with resultant litigation and compensation. This paper attempts to unravel some of these issues by highlighting the historical nature of clinical errors and drawing parallels to contemporary times by outlining the 'compensation culture'. We then provide an overview of what constitutes a clinical error and review the healthcare professional strategies for managing such errors.

  19. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  1. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  2. The impact of repeat-testing of common chemistry analytes at critical concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyenekwu, Chinelo P; Hudson, Careen L; Zemlin, Annalise E; Erasmus, Rajiv T

    2014-12-01

    Early notification of critical values by the clinical laboratory to the treating physician is a requirement for accreditation and is essential for effective patient management. Many laboratories automatically repeat a critical value before reporting it to prevent possible misdiagnosis. Given today's advanced instrumentation and quality assurance practices, we questioned the validity of this approach. We performed an audit of repeat-testing in our laboratory to assess for significant differences between initial and repeated test results, estimate the delay caused by repeat-testing and to quantify the cost of repeating these assays. A retrospective audit of repeat-tests for sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the first quarter of 2013 at Tygerberg Academic Laboratory was conducted. Data on the initial and repeat-test values and the time that they were performed was extracted from our laboratory information system. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment criteria for allowable error were employed to assess for significant difference between results. A total of 2308 repeated tests were studied. There was no significant difference in 2291 (99.3%) of the samples. The average delay ranged from 35 min for magnesium to 42 min for sodium and calcium. At least 2.9% of laboratory running costs for the analytes was spent on repeating them. The practice of repeating a critical test result appears unnecessary as it yields similar results, delays notification to the treating clinician and increases laboratory running costs.

  3. Repeatability of Lucas chamber measurements; Powtarzalnosc pomiarow za pomoca komory Lucasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-12-31

    Results of investigations concerning the repeatability of the measurements carried out with Lucas chamber are presented in the report. The Lucas chamber is used for determination of radon concentration in air, and the Lucas chamber itself is measured in a laboratory stand. The repeatability of measurements is {+-}5.4% relative. The error due to instability of measuring channel gain is estimated to be 2-3% relative. (author). 5 refs, 17 figs, 5 tabs.

  4. Preoperative estimation of tibial nail length--because size does matter.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galbraith, J G

    2012-11-01

    Selecting the correct tibial nail length is essential for satisfactory outcomes. Nails that are inserted and are found to be of inappropriate length should be removed. Accurate preoperative nail estimation has the potential to reduce intra-operative errors, operative time and radiation exposure.

  5. The problem of assessing landmark error in geometric morphometrics: theory, methods, and modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Frazier, Brenda C; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2007-09-01

    Geometric morphometric methods rely on the accurate identification and quantification of landmarks on biological specimens. As in any empirical analysis, the assessment of inter- and intra-observer error is desirable. A review of methods currently being employed to assess measurement error in geometric morphometrics was conducted and three general approaches to the problem were identified. One such approach employs Generalized Procrustes Analysis to superimpose repeatedly digitized landmark configurations, thereby establishing whether repeat measures fall within an acceptable range of variation. The potential problem of this error assessment method (the "Pinocchio effect") is demonstrated and its effect on error studies discussed. An alternative approach involves employing Euclidean distances between the configuration centroid and repeat measures of a landmark to assess the relative repeatability of individual landmarks. This method is also potentially problematic as the inherent geometric properties of the specimen can result in misleading estimates of measurement error. A third approach involved the repeated digitization of landmarks with the specimen held in a constant orientation to assess individual landmark precision. This latter approach is an ideal method for assessing individual landmark precision, but is restrictive in that it does not allow for the incorporation of instrumentally defined or Type III landmarks. Hence, a revised method for assessing landmark error is proposed and described with the aid of worked empirical examples. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Errors in clinical laboratories or errors in laboratory medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory testing is a highly complex process and, although laboratory services are relatively safe, they are not as safe as they could or should be. Clinical laboratories have long focused their attention on quality control methods and quality assessment programs dealing with analytical aspects of testing. However, a growing body of evidence accumulated in recent decades demonstrates that quality in clinical laboratories cannot be assured by merely focusing on purely analytical aspects. The more recent surveys on errors in laboratory medicine conclude that in the delivery of laboratory testing, mistakes occur more frequently before (pre-analytical) and after (post-analytical) the test has been performed. Most errors are due to pre-analytical factors (46-68.2% of total errors), while a high error rate (18.5-47% of total errors) has also been found in the post-analytical phase. Errors due to analytical problems have been significantly reduced over time, but there is evidence that, particularly for immunoassays, interference may have a serious impact on patients. A description of the most frequent and risky pre-, intra- and post-analytical errors and advice on practical steps for measuring and reducing the risk of errors is therefore given in the present paper. Many mistakes in the Total Testing Process are called "laboratory errors", although these may be due to poor communication, action taken by others involved in the testing process (e.g., physicians, nurses and phlebotomists), or poorly designed processes, all of which are beyond the laboratory's control. Likewise, there is evidence that laboratory information is only partially utilized. A recent document from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommends a new, broader definition of the term "laboratory error" and a classification of errors according to different criteria. In a modern approach to total quality, centered on patients' needs and satisfaction, the risk of errors and mistakes

  7. Errors in abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, S.; Marting, I.; Dixon, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-nine patients are presented in whom a substantial error was made on the initial abdominal computed tomography report. Certain features of these errors have been analysed. In 30 (43.5%) a lesion was simply not recognised (error of observation); in 39 (56.5%) the wrong conclusions were drawn about the nature of normal or abnormal structures (error of interpretation). The 39 errors of interpretation were more complex; in 7 patients an abnormal structure was noted but interpreted as normal, whereas in four a normal structure was thought to represent a lesion. Other interpretive errors included those where the wrong cause for a lesion had been ascribed (24 patients), and those where the abnormality was substantially under-reported (4 patients). Various features of these errors are presented and discussed. Errors were made just as often in relation to small and large lesions. Consultants made as many errors as senior registrar radiologists. It is like that dual reporting is the best method of avoiding such errors and, indeed, this is widely practised in our unit. (Author). 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  9. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  10. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  11. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  12. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2010-07-26

    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  13. Comparison of stethoscope bell and diaphragm, and of stethoscope tube length, for clinical blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyu; Griffiths, Clive; Murray, Alan; Zheng, Dingchang

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of stethoscope side and tube length on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Thirty-two healthy participants were studied. For each participant, four measurements with different combinations of stethoscope characteristics (bell or diaphragm side, standard or short tube length) were each recorded at two repeat sessions, and eight Korotkoff sound recordings were played twice on separate days to one experienced listener to determine the systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Analysis of variance was carried out to study the measurement repeatability between the two repeat sessions and between the two BP determinations on separate days, as well as the effects of stethoscope side and tube length. There was no significant paired difference between the repeat sessions and between the repeat determinations for both SBP and DBP (all P-values>0.10, except the repeat session for SBP using short tube and diaphragm). The key result was that there was a small but significantly higher DBP on using the bell in comparison with the diaphragm (0.66 mmHg, P=0.007), and a significantly higher SBP on using the short tube in comparison with the standard length (0.77 mmHg, P=0.008). This study shows that stethoscope characteristics have only a small, although statistically significant, influence on clinical BP measurement. Although this helps understand the measurement technique and resolves questions in the published literature, the influence is not clinically significant.

  14. THE DISKMASS SURVEY. II. ERROR BUDGET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Martinsson, Thomas; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a performance analysis of the DiskMass Survey. The survey uses collisionless tracers in the form of disk stars to measure the surface density of spiral disks, to provide an absolute calibration of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ * ), and to yield robust estimates of the dark-matter halo density profile in the inner regions of galaxies. We find that a disk inclination range of 25 0 -35 0 is optimal for our measurements, consistent with our survey design to select nearly face-on galaxies. Uncertainties in disk scale heights are significant, but can be estimated from radial scale lengths to 25% now, and more precisely in the future. We detail the spectroscopic analysis used to derive line-of-sight velocity dispersions, precise at low surface-brightness, and accurate in the presence of composite stellar populations. Our methods take full advantage of large-grasp integral-field spectroscopy and an extensive library of observed stars. We show that the baryon-to-total mass fraction (F bar ) is not a well-defined observational quantity because it is coupled to the halo mass model. This remains true even when the disk mass is known and spatially extended rotation curves are available. In contrast, the fraction of the rotation speed supplied by the disk at 2.2 scale lengths (disk maximality) is a robust observational indicator of the baryonic disk contribution to the potential. We construct the error budget for the key quantities: dynamical disk mass surface density (Σ dyn ), disk stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ disk * ), and disk maximality (F *,max disk ≡V disk *,max / V c ). Random and systematic errors in these quantities for individual galaxies will be ∼25%, while survey precision for sample quartiles are reduced to 10%, largely devoid of systematic errors outside of distance uncertainties.

  15. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  16. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  17. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  18. Laboratory errors and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miligy, Dawlat A

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory data are extensively used in medical practice; consequently, laboratory errors have a tremendous impact on patient safety. Therefore, programs designed to identify and reduce laboratory errors, as well as, setting specific strategies are required to minimize these errors and improve patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to identify part of the commonly encountered laboratory errors throughout our practice in laboratory work, their hazards on patient health care and some measures and recommendations to minimize or to eliminate these errors. Recording the encountered laboratory errors during May 2008 and their statistical evaluation (using simple percent distribution) have been done in the department of laboratory of one of the private hospitals in Egypt. Errors have been classified according to the laboratory phases and according to their implication on patient health. Data obtained out of 1,600 testing procedure revealed that the total number of encountered errors is 14 tests (0.87 percent of total testing procedures). Most of the encountered errors lay in the pre- and post-analytic phases of testing cycle (representing 35.7 and 50 percent, respectively, of total errors). While the number of test errors encountered in the analytic phase represented only 14.3 percent of total errors. About 85.7 percent of total errors were of non-significant implication on patients health being detected before test reports have been submitted to the patients. On the other hand, the number of test errors that have been already submitted to patients and reach the physician represented 14.3 percent of total errors. Only 7.1 percent of the errors could have an impact on patient diagnosis. The findings of this study were concomitant with those published from the USA and other countries. This proves that laboratory problems are universal and need general standardization and bench marking measures. Original being the first data published from Arabic countries that

  19. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.; Maity, A.; Mammen, E.; Yu, K.

    2009-01-01

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements

  20. Dopamine reward prediction error coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards-an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware.

  1. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Byron P.

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k2. The specific terms unisim and multisim were coined by Peter Meyers and Steve Brice, respectively, for the MiniBooNE experiment. However, the concepts have been developed over time and have been in general use for some time.

  2. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, Byron P. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)]. E-mail: byronroe@umich.edu

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k{sup 2}.

  3. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, Byron P.

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k 2

  4. Architecture design for soft errors

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Shubu

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of the architetural techniques to tackle the soft error problem. It covers the new methodologies for quantitative analysis of soft errors as well as novel, cost-effective architectural techniques to mitigate them. To provide readers with a better grasp of the broader problem deffinition and solution space, this book also delves into the physics of soft errors and reviews current circuit and software mitigation techniques.

  5. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards?an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less...

  6. RePS: a sequence assembler that masks exact repeats identified from the shotgun data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jun; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Ni, Peixiang

    2002-01-01

    We describe a sequence assembler, RePS (repeat-masked Phrap with scaffolding), that explicitly identifies exact 20mer repeats from the shotgun data and removes them prior to the assembly. The established software is used to compute meaningful error probabilities for each base. Clone......-end-pairing information is used to construct scaffolds that order and orient the contigs. We show with real data for human and rice that reasonable assemblies are possible even at coverages of only 4x to 6x, despite having up to 42.2% in exact repeats. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-May...

  7. Identifying Error in AUV Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Joseph; Merrill, Kaylani; O'Rourke, Michael; Rajala, Andrew G; Edwards, Dean B

    2006-01-01

    Mine Countermeasures (MCM) involving Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are especially susceptible to error, given the constraints on underwater acoustic communication and the inconstancy of the underwater communication channel...

  8. Human Errors in Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Shahriari; Aliandrina, Dessy; Feng, Yan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify human errors in decision making process. The study was focused on a research question such as: what could be the human error as a potential of decision failure in evaluation of the alternatives in the process of decision making. Two case studies were selected from the literature and analyzed to find the human errors contribute to decision fail. Then the analysis of human errors was linked with mental models in evaluation of alternative step. The results o...

  9. Finding beam focus errors automatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    An automated method for finding beam focus errors using an optimization program called COMFORT-PLUS. The steps involved in finding the correction factors using COMFORT-PLUS has been used to find the beam focus errors for two damping rings at the SLAC Linear Collider. The program is to be used as an off-line program to analyze actual measured data for any SLC system. A limitation on the application of this procedure is found to be that it depends on the magnitude of the machine errors. Another is that the program is not totally automated since the user must decide a priori where to look for errors

  10. Heuristic errors in clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Melanie; Guerrasio, Jeannette

    2016-08-01

    Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the types of heuristic errors made by third-year medical students and first-year residents. This study surveyed approximately 150 clinical educators inquiring about the types of heuristic errors they observed in third-year medical students and first-year residents. Anchoring and premature closure were the two most common errors observed amongst third-year medical students and first-year residents. There was no difference in the types of errors observed in the two groups. Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality Clinical educators perceived that both third-year medical students and first-year residents committed similar heuristic errors, implying that additional medical knowledge and clinical experience do not affect the types of heuristic errors made. Further work is needed to help identify methods that can be used to reduce heuristic errors early in a clinician's education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. In vitro radiographic determination of distances from working length files to root ends comparing Kodak RVG 6000, Schick CDR, and Kodak insight film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Robert T; Goodell, Gary G; McClanahan, Scott B; Cohen, Mark E

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that digital and film-based radiography are similar for endodontic measurements. This study compared the accuracy and acceptability of measured distances from the tips of size #10 and #15 files to molar root apices in cadaver jaw sections using the newly developed Kodak RVG 6000, and the Schick CDR digital systems to digitized Kodak film. Standardized images were taken of files placed 0.5 to 1.5 mm short of true radiographic lengths. Images were imported into Adobe PhotoShop 7.0, thereby blinding observers who measured distances from files to root apices and assessed images for clarity (acceptability). Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post hoc tests demonstrated that Kodak RVG 6000 images with enhanced contrast produced significantly less measurement error than unenhanced contrast Schick CDR images (p Kodak RVG 6000 system provided the best overall images.

  12. Characterization of the repeat expansion size in C9orf72 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols-Icardo, Oriol; García-Redondo, Alberto; Rojas-García, Ricard; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Noguera, Aina; Gómez-Tortosa, Estrella; Pastor, Pau; Hernández, Isabel; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; Suárez-Calvet, Marc; Antón-Aguirre, Sofía; Amer, Guillermo; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Blesa, Rafael; Fortea, Juan; Alcolea, Daniel; Capdevila, Aura; Antonell, Anna; Lladó, Albert; Muñoz-Blanco, José Luís; Mora, Jesús S; Galán-Dávila, Lucía; Rodríguez De Rivera, Francisco Javier; Lleó, Alberto; Clarimón, Jordi

    2014-02-01

    Hexanucleotide repeat expansions within the C9orf72 gene are the most important genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The difficulty of developing a precise method to determine the expansion size has hampered the study of possible correlations between the hexanucleotide repeat number and clinical phenotype. Here we characterize, through a new non-radioactive Southern blot protocol, the expansion size range in a series of 38 ALS and 22 FTD heterozygous carriers of >30 copies of the repeat. Maximum, median and modal hexanucleotide repeat number were higher in ALS patients than in FTD patients (P< 0.05 in all comparisons). A higher median number of repeats correlated with a bigger range of repeat sizes (Spearman's ρ = 0.743, P = 1.05 × 10(-11)). We did not find any correlation between age of onset or disease duration with the repeat size in neither ALS nor FTD mutation carriers. Clinical presentation (bulbar or spinal) in ALS patients did not correlate either with the repeat length. We finally analyzed two families with affected and unaffected repeat expansion carriers, compared the size of the repeat expansion between two monozygotic (MZ) twins (one affected of ALS and the other unaffected), and examined the expansion size in two different tissues (cerebellum and peripheral blood) belonging to the same FTD patient. The results suggested that the length of the C9orf72 repeat varies between family members, including MZ twins, and among different tissues from the same individual.

  13. A Hybrid Unequal Error Protection / Unequal Error Resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality layers are then assigned an Unequal Error Resilience to synchronization loss by unequally allocating the number of headers available for synchronization to them. Following that Unequal Error Protection against channel noise is provided to the layers by the use of Rate Compatible Punctured Convolutional ...

  14. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  15. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  16. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  17. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  18. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  19. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility

  20. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  1. Hybrid FRC under repeated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlos, K.; Babal, B.; Nuernbergerova, T.

    1993-01-01

    Fibre reinforced concretes (FRC) containing several volume fractions in different ratios of two types of fibres - polypropylene and steel, were tested under repeated loading. Mechanical properties of specimens - cubes 150/150/150 mm (for compressive strength), prisms 100/100/400 (for flexural strength), short cylinders 150/60 mm (for impact strength) have been experimentally investigated before and after cyclic loading at the age of 28 days curing time. Mix proportions were designed after DIN 1045 with max. aggregate size 8 mm and grading curve B 8. Portland Cement PC 400 in the amount of 450 kg. m -3 was applied and W/C ratio 0.55. Workability of mixes was measured by Vebe method and regulated by plasticizing admixture Ligoplast Na. Maximum hybrid fibre volume fraction (polypropylene + steel) was 1.0%. Dynamic forces generated in Schenck testing machine with frequency 16 Hz had sinusoidal wave form varying between 0.7 and 0.1 of static mechanical characteristics. The number of cycles in all tests was 10 5 . The residual MOR at static four point bending test and working diagram force-deflection was carried out as well. The impact properties after repeated loading in compression were tested by means of falling weight test. Relationships between composition of fibre composites with different combination of polypropylene (0.2, 0.3, 0.5% by volume) and steel (0.5, 0.7, and 0.8% by volume) fibre content were obtained and technological properties of mixes as well. (author)

  2. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  3. Isolation and characterization of repeat elements of the oak genome and their application in population analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluch, S.; Burg, K.

    1998-01-01

    Four minisatellite sequence elements have been identified and isolated from the genome of the oak species Quercus petraea and Quercus robur. Minisatellites 1 and 2 are putative members of repeat families, while minisatellites 3 and 4 show repeat length variation among individuals of test populations. A 590 base pair (bp) long element has also been identified which reveals individual-specific autoradiographic patterns when used as probe in Southern hybridisations of genomic oak DNA. (author)

  4. Error studies for SNS Linac. Part 1: Transverse errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The SNS linac consist of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), a drift-tube linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) and a coupled-cavity linac (CCL). The RFQ and DTL are operated at 402.5 MHz; the CCDTL and CCL are operated at 805 MHz. Between the RFQ and DTL is a medium-energy beam-transport system (MEBT). This error study is concerned with the DTL, CCDTL and CCL, and each will be analyzed separately. In fact, the CCL is divided into two sections, and each of these will be analyzed separately. The types of errors considered here are those that affect the transverse characteristics of the beam. The errors that cause the beam center to be displaced from the linac axis are quad displacements and quad tilts. The errors that cause mismatches are quad gradient errors and quad rotations (roll)

  5. Breaks in the 45S rDNA Lead to Recombination-Mediated Loss of Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël O. Warmerdam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available rDNA repeats constitute the most heavily transcribed region in the human genome. Tumors frequently display elevated levels of recombination in rDNA, indicating that the repeats are a liability to the genomic integrity of a cell. However, little is known about how cells deal with DNA double-stranded breaks in rDNA. Using selective endonucleases, we show that human cells are highly sensitive to breaks in 45S but not the 5S rDNA repeats. We find that homologous recombination inhibits repair of breaks in 45S rDNA, and this results in repeat loss. We identify the structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 5 (SMC5 as contributing to recombination-mediated repair of rDNA breaks. Together, our data demonstrate that SMC5-mediated recombination can lead to error-prone repair of 45S rDNA repeats, resulting in their loss and thereby reducing cellular viability.

  6. What Can We Learn From Point-of-Care Blood Glucose Values Deleted and Repeated by Nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corl, Dawn; Yin, Tom; Ulibarri, May; Lien, Heather; Tylee, Tracy; Chao, Jing; Wisse, Brent E

    2018-03-01

    Hospitals rely on point-of-care (POC) blood glucose (BG) values to guide important decisions related to insulin administration and glycemic control. Evaluation of POC BG in hospitalized patients is associated with measurement and operator errors. Based on a previous quality improvement (QI) project we introduced an option for operators to delete and repeat POC BG values suspected as erroneous. The current project evaluated our experience with deleted POC BG values over a 2-year period. A retrospective QI project included all patients hospitalized at two regional academic medical centers in the Pacific Northwest during 2014 and 2015. Laboratory Medicine POC BG data were reviewed to evaluate all inpatient episodes of deleted and repeated POC BG. Inpatient operators choose to delete and repeat only 0.8% of all POC BG tests. Hypoglycemic and extreme hyperglycemic BG values are more likely to be deleted and repeated. Of initial values values (18% of all values) are errors. Of values >400 mg/dL, 40% of deleted values (5% of all values) are errors. Not all repeated POC BG values are first deleted. Optimal use of the option to delete and repeat POC BG values values that are measurement/operator errors. Eliminating these errors significantly reduces documented rates of severe hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and has the potential to improve patient safety.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulations Comparing Fisher Exact Test and Unequal Variances t Test for Analysis of Differences Between Groups in Brief Hospital Lengths of Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Bayman, Emine O; Dexter, Elisabeth U

    2017-12-01

    We examined type I and II error rates for analysis of (1) mean hospital length of stay (LOS) versus (2) percentage of hospital LOS that are overnight. These 2 end points are suitable for when LOS is treated as a secondary economic end point. We repeatedly resampled LOS for 5052 discharges of thoracoscopic wedge resections and lung lobectomy at 26 hospitals. Unequal variances t test (Welch method) and Fisher exact test both were conservative (ie, type I error rate less than nominal level). The Wilcoxon rank sum test was included as a comparator; the type I error rates did not differ from the nominal level of 0.05 or 0.01. Fisher exact test was more powerful than the unequal variances t test at detecting differences among hospitals; estimated odds ratio for obtaining P < .05 with Fisher exact test versus unequal variances t test = 1.94, with 95% confidence interval, 1.31-3.01. Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney had comparable statistical power in terms of differentiating LOS between hospitals. For studies with LOS to be used as a secondary end point of economic interest, there is currently considerable interest in the planned analysis being for the percentage of patients suitable for ambulatory surgery (ie, hospital LOS equals 0 or 1 midnight). Our results show that there need not be a loss of statistical power when groups are compared using this binary end point, as compared with either Welch method or Wilcoxon rank sum test.

  8. Error begat error: design error analysis and prevention in social infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Peter E D; Lopez, Robert; Edwards, David J; Goh, Yang M

    2012-09-01

    Design errors contribute significantly to cost and schedule growth in social infrastructure projects and to engineering failures, which can result in accidents and loss of life. Despite considerable research that has addressed their error causation in construction projects they still remain prevalent. This paper identifies the underlying conditions that contribute to design errors in social infrastructure projects (e.g. hospitals, education, law and order type buildings). A systemic model of error causation is propagated and subsequently used to develop a learning framework for design error prevention. The research suggests that a multitude of strategies should be adopted in congruence to prevent design errors from occurring and so ensure that safety and project performance are ameliorated. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Random and systematic sampling error when hooking fish to monitor skin fluke (Benedenia seriolae) and gill fluke (Zeuxapta seriolae) burden in Australian farmed yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, J R; Bubner, E; D'Antignana, T; Landos, M; Caraguel, C G B

    2018-05-01

    The Australian farmed yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi, YTK) industry monitor skin fluke (Benedenia seriolae) and gill fluke (Zeuxapta seriolae) burden by pooling the fluke count of 10 hooked YTK. The random and systematic error of this sampling strategy was evaluated to assess potential impact on treatment decisions. Fluke abundance (fluke count per fish) in a study cage (estimated 30,502 fish) was assessed five times using the current sampling protocol and its repeatability was estimated the repeatability coefficient (CR) and the coefficient of variation (CV). Individual body weight, fork length, fluke abundance, prevalence, intensity (fluke count per infested fish) and density (fluke count per Kg of fish) were compared between 100 hooked and 100 seined YTK (assumed representative of the entire population) to estimate potential selection bias. Depending on the fluke species and age category, CR (expected difference in parasite count between 2 sampling iterations) ranged from 0.78 to 114 flukes per fish. Capturing YTK by hooking increased the selection of fish of a weight and length in the lowest 5th percentile of the cage (RR = 5.75, 95% CI: 2.06-16.03, P-value = 0.0001). These lower end YTK had on average an extra 31 juveniles and 6 adults Z. seriolae per Kg of fish and an extra 3 juvenile and 0.4 adult B. seriolae per Kg of fish, compared to the rest of the cage population (P-value sampling towards the smallest and most heavily infested fish in the population, resulting in poor repeatability (more variability amongst sampled fish) and an overestimation of parasite burden in the population. In this particular commercial situation these finding supported that health management program, where the finding of an underestimation of parasite burden could provide a production impact on the study population. In instances where fish populations and parasite burdens are more homogenous, sampling error may be less severe. Sampling error when capturing fish

  10. Study on effective MOSFET channel length extracted from gate capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Katsuhiro; Terada, Kazuo; Fujisaka, Hisato

    2018-01-01

    The effective channel length (L GCM) of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is extracted from the gate capacitances of actual-size MOSFETs, which are measured by charge-injection-induced-error-free charge-based capacitance measurement (CIEF CBCM). To accurately evaluate the capacitances between the gate and the channel of test MOSFETs, the parasitic capacitances are removed by using test MOSFETs having various channel sizes and a source/drain reference device. A strong linear relationship between the gate-channel capacitance and the design channel length is obtained, from which L GCM is extracted. It is found that L GCM is slightly less than the effective channel length (L CRM) extracted from the measured MOSFET drain current. The reason for this is discussed, and it is found that the capacitance between the gate electrode and the source and drain regions affects this extraction.

  11. C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions in Chinese sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji; Tang, Lu; Benyamin, Beben; Shah, Sonia; Hemani, Gib; Liu, Rong; Ye, Shan; Liu, Xiaolu; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Huagang; Cremin, Katie; Leo, Paul; Wray, Naomi R; Visscher, Peter M; Xu, Huji; Brown, Matthew A; Bartlett, Perry F; Mangelsdorf, Marie; Fan, Dongsheng

    2015-09-01

    A hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) in the C9orf72 gene has been identified as the most common mutation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among Caucasian populations. We sought to comprehensively evaluate genetic and epigenetic variants of C9orf72 and the contribution of the HRE in Chinese ALS cases. We performed fragment-length and repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction to determine GGGGCC copy number and expansion within the C9orf72 gene in 1092 sporadic ALS (sALS) and 1062 controls from China. We performed haplotype analysis of 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within and surrounding C9orf72. The C9orf72 HRE was found in 3 sALS patients (0.3%) but not in control subjects (p = 0.25). For 2 of the cases with the HRE, genotypes of 8 single-nucleotide polymorphisms flanking the HRE were inconsistent with the haplotype reported to be strongly associated with ALS in Caucasian populations. For these 2 individuals, we found hypermethylation of the CpG island upstream of the repeat, an observation not detected in other sALS patients (p HRE were highly associated with repeat lengths >8 repeats implying that both haplotypes may confer instability of repeat length. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution and Evolution of Yersinia Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueming; Huang, He; Hui, Xinjie; Cheng, Xi; White, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are widely distributed in bacteria, playing important roles in various protein-protein interaction processes. In Yersinia, the well-characterized type III secreted effector YopM also belongs to the LRR protein family and is encoded by virulence plasmids. However, little has been known about other LRR members encoded by Yersinia genomes or their evolution. In this study, the Yersinia LRR proteins were comprehensively screened, categorized, and compared. The LRR proteins encoded by chromosomes (LRR1 proteins) appeared to be more similar to each other and different from those encoded by plasmids (LRR2 proteins) with regard to repeat-unit length, amino acid composition profile, and gene expression regulation circuits. LRR1 proteins were also different from LRR2 proteins in that the LRR1 proteins contained an E3 ligase domain (NEL domain) in the C-terminal region or an NEL domain-encoding nucleotide relic in flanking genomic sequences. The LRR1 protein-encoding genes (LRR1 genes) varied dramatically and were categorized into 4 subgroups (a to d), with the LRR1a to -c genes evolving from the same ancestor and LRR1d genes evolving from another ancestor. The consensus and ancestor repeat-unit sequences were inferred for different LRR1 protein subgroups by use of a maximum parsimony modeling strategy. Structural modeling disclosed very similar repeat-unit structures between LRR1 and LRR2 proteins despite the different unit lengths and amino acid compositions. Structural constraints may serve as the driving force to explain the observed mutations in the LRR regions. This study suggests that there may be functional variation and lays the foundation for future experiments investigating the functions of the chromosomally encoded LRR proteins of Yersinia. PMID:27217422

  13. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  14. Barriers to medical error reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorolajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan,Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Results: Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%, lack of proper reporting form (51.8%, lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%, and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%. The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%, age of 50-40 years (67.6%, less-experienced personnel (58.7%, educational level of MSc (87.5%, and staff of radiology department (88.9%. Conclusions: This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  15. Probabilistic error bounds for reduced order modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, M.G.; Wang, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H.S., E-mail: abdo@purdue.edu, E-mail: wang1730@purdue.edu, E-mail: abdelkhalik@purdue.edu [Purdue Univ., School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Reduced order modeling has proven to be an effective tool when repeated execution of reactor analysis codes is required. ROM operates on the assumption that the intrinsic dimensionality of the associated reactor physics models is sufficiently small when compared to the nominal dimensionality of the input and output data streams. By employing a truncation technique with roots in linear algebra matrix decomposition theory, ROM effectively discards all components of the input and output data that have negligible impact on reactor attributes of interest. This manuscript introduces a mathematical approach to quantify the errors resulting from the discarded ROM components. As supported by numerical experiments, the introduced analysis proves that the contribution of the discarded components could be upper-bounded with an overwhelmingly high probability. The reverse of this statement implies that the ROM algorithm can self-adapt to determine the level of the reduction needed such that the maximum resulting reduction error is below a given tolerance limit that is set by the user. (author)

  16. Nonparametric modeling and analysis of association between Huntington's disease onset and CAG repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanyuan; Wang, Yuanjia

    2014-04-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a dominant genetic mode of inheritance caused by an expansion of CAG repeats on chromosome 4. Typically, a longer sequence of CAG repeat length is associated with increased risk of experiencing earlier onset of HD. Previous studies of the association between HD onset age and CAG length have favored a logistic model, where the CAG repeat length enters the mean and variance components of the logistic model in a complex exponential-linear form. To relax the parametric assumption of the exponential-linear association to the true HD onset distribution, we propose to leave both mean and variance functions of the CAG repeat length unspecified and perform semiparametric estimation in this context through a local kernel and backfitting procedure. Motivated by including family history of HD information available in the family members of participants in the Cooperative Huntington's Observational Research Trial (COHORT), we develop the methodology in the context of mixture data, where some subjects have a positive probability of being risk free. We also allow censoring on the age at onset of disease and accommodate covariates other than the CAG length. We study the theoretical properties of the proposed estimator and derive its asymptotic distribution. Finally, we apply the proposed methods to the COHORT data to estimate the HD onset distribution using a group of study participants and the disease family history information available on their family members. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The leucine-rich repeat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C

    2008-08-01

    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  18. Repeatability analysis on LPFGs written by a CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespereira, Marta; Castro Alves, D.; Coelho, João. M. P.; Monteiro, Fernando; Abreu, Manuel; Rebordão, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanisms involved in the writing process of long period fiber gratings (LPFG) using mid-infrared radiation emitted by CO2 lasers limit the obtained characteristics, in particular the minimum period that can be achieved. In order to evaluate the performances of a new methodology developed by us, we analyzed its capability to produce gratings with different periods (from 600 μm down to 300 μm). We also present a repeatability study on the obtained LPFG characteristics (mainly the resonant wavelength and grating length) for several values of the repetition period.

  19. Quantifying geocode location error using GIS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Bennett R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP collects maternal address information at the time of delivery for infants and fetuses with birth defects. These addresses have been geocoded by two independent agencies: (1 the Georgia Division of Public Health Office of Health Information and Policy (OHIP and (2 a commercial vendor. Geographic information system (GIS methods were used to quantify uncertainty in the two sets of geocodes using orthoimagery and tax parcel datasets. Methods We sampled 599 infants and fetuses with birth defects delivered during 1994–2002 with maternal residence in either Fulton or Gwinnett County. Tax parcel datasets were obtained from the tax assessor's offices of Fulton and Gwinnett County. High-resolution orthoimagery for these counties was acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. For each of the 599 addresses we attempted to locate the tax parcel corresponding to the maternal address. If the tax parcel was identified the distance and the angle between the geocode and the residence were calculated. We used simulated data to characterize the impact of geocode location error. In each county 5,000 geocodes were generated and assigned their corresponding Census 2000 tract. Each geocode was then displaced at a random angle by a random distance drawn from the distribution of observed geocode location errors. The census tract of the displaced geocode was determined. We repeated this process 5,000 times and report the percentage of geocodes that resolved into incorrect census tracts. Results Median location error was less than 100 meters for both OHIP and commercial vendor geocodes; the distribution of angles appeared uniform. Median location error was approximately 35% larger in Gwinnett (a suburban county relative to Fulton (a county with urban and suburban areas. Location error occasionally caused the simulated geocodes to be displaced into incorrect census tracts; the median percentage

  20. A theory of human error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Clement, W. F.; Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Human errors tend to be treated in terms of clinical and anecdotal descriptions, from which remedial measures are difficult to derive. Correction of the sources of human error requires an attempt to reconstruct underlying and contributing causes of error from the circumstantial causes cited in official investigative reports. A comprehensive analytical theory of the cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error is indispensable to a reconstruction of the underlying and contributing causes. A validated analytical theory of the input-output behavior of human operators involving manual control, communication, supervisory, and monitoring tasks which are relevant to aviation, maritime, automotive, and process control operations is highlighted. This theory of behavior, both appropriate and inappropriate, provides an insightful basis for investigating, classifying, and quantifying the needed cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error.

  1. Correcting AUC for Measurement Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Tworoger, Shelley; Qiu, Weiliang

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers are used frequently in epidemiologic and clinical work. The ability of a diagnostic biomarker to discriminate between subjects who develop disease (cases) and subjects who do not (controls) is often measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The diagnostic biomarkers are usually measured with error. Ignoring measurement error can cause biased estimation of AUC, which results in misleading interpretation of the efficacy of a diagnostic biomarker. Several methods have been proposed to correct AUC for measurement error, most of which required the normality assumption for the distributions of diagnostic biomarkers. In this article, we propose a new method to correct AUC for measurement error and derive approximate confidence limits for the corrected AUC. The proposed method does not require the normality assumption. Both real data analyses and simulation studies show good performance of the proposed measurement error correction method.

  2. Cognitive aspect of diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Dong Haur; Tan, Nigel C K

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic errors can result in tangible harm to patients. Despite our advances in medicine, the mental processes required to make a diagnosis exhibits shortcomings, causing diagnostic errors. Cognitive factors are found to be an important cause of diagnostic errors. With new understanding from psychology and social sciences, clinical medicine is now beginning to appreciate that our clinical reasoning can take the form of analytical reasoning or heuristics. Different factors like cognitive biases and affective influences can also impel unwary clinicians to make diagnostic errors. Various strategies have been proposed to reduce the effect of cognitive biases and affective influences when clinicians make diagnoses; however evidence for the efficacy of these methods is still sparse. This paper aims to introduce the reader to the cognitive aspect of diagnostic errors, in the hope that clinicians can use this knowledge to improve diagnostic accuracy and patient outcomes.

  3. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  4. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  5. Error Floor Analysis of Coded Slotted ALOHA over Packet Erasure Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Graell i Amat, Alexandre; Brannstrom, F.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for the analysis of the error floor of coded slotted ALOHA (CSA) for finite frame lengths over the packet erasure channel. The error floor is caused by stopping sets in the corresponding bipartite graph, whose enumeration is, in general, not a trivial problem. We therefore ...... identify the most dominant stopping sets for the distributions of practical interest. The derived analytical expressions allow us to accurately predict the error floor at low to moderate channel loads and characterize the unequal error protection inherent in CSA.......We present a framework for the analysis of the error floor of coded slotted ALOHA (CSA) for finite frame lengths over the packet erasure channel. The error floor is caused by stopping sets in the corresponding bipartite graph, whose enumeration is, in general, not a trivial problem. We therefore...

  6. AN ERROR ANALYSIS OF ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY (CASE STUDY AT UNIVERSITY MUHAMMADIYAH OF METRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny - Thresia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was study analyze the students’ error in writing argumentative essay. The researcher focuses on errors of verb, concord and learner language. This study took 20 students as the subject of research from the third semester. The data took from observation and documentation. Based on the result of the data analysis there are some errors still found on the student’s argumentative essay in English writing? The common errors which repeatedly appear are verb. The second is concord, and learner languages are the smallest error. From 20 samples that took, the frequency the errors of verb are 12 items (60%, concord are 8 items (40%, learner languages are 7 items (35%. As a result, verb has the biggest number of common errors.

  7. πK-scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths

  8. Detection, characterization and evolution of internal repeats in Chitinases of known 3-D structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manigandan Sivaji

    Full Text Available Chitinase proteins have evolved and diversified almost in all organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. During evolution, internal repeats may appear in amino acid sequences of proteins which alter the structural and functional features. Here we deciphered the internal repeats from Chitinase and characterized the structural similarities between them. Out of 24 diverse Chitinase sequences selected, six sequences (2CJL, 2DSK, 2XVP, 2Z37, 3EBV and 3HBE did not contain any internal repeats of amino acid sequences. Ten sequences contained repeats of length <50, and the remaining 8 sequences contained repeat length between 50 and 100 residues. Two Chitinase sequences, 1ITX and 3SIM, were found to be structurally similar when analyzed using secondary structure of Chitinase from secondary and 3-Dimensional structure database of Protein Data Bank. Internal repeats of 3N17 and 1O6I were also involved in the ligand-binding site of those Chitinase proteins, respectively. Our analyses enhance our understanding towards the identification of structural characteristics of internal repeats in Chitinase proteins.

  9. The telomere length dynamic and methods of its assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kah-Wai; Yan, Ju

    2005-01-01

    Human telomeres are composed of long repeating sequences of TTAGGG, associated with a variety of telomere-binding proteins. Its function as an end-protector of chromosomes prevents the chromosome from end-to-end fusion, recombination and degradation. Telomerase acts as reverse transcriptase in the elongation of telomeres, which prevent the loss of telomeres due to the end replication problems. However, telomerase activity is detected at low level in somatic cells and high level in embryonic stem cells and tumor cells. It confers immortality to embryonic stem cells and tumor cells. In most tumor cells, telomeres are extremely short and stable. Telomere length is an important indicator of the telomerase activity in tumor cells and it may be used in the prognosis of malignancy. Thus, the assessment of telomeres length is of great experimental and clinical significance. This review describes the role of telomere and telomerase in cancer pathogenesis and the dynamics of the telomeres length in different cell types. The various methods of measurement of telomeres length, i.e. southern blot, hybridization protection assay, fluorescence in situ hybridization, primed in situ, quantitative PCR and single telomere length analysis are discussed. The principle and comparative evaluation of these methods are reviewed. The detection of G-strand overhang by telomeric-oligonucleotide ligation assay, primer extension/nick translation assay and electron microscopy are briefly discussed.

  10. On the a priori estimation of collocation error covariance functions: a feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabelos, D.N.; Forsberg, René; Tscherning, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    and the associated error covariance functions were conducted in the Arctic region north of 64 degrees latitude. The correlation between the known features of the data and the parameters variance and correlation length of the computed error covariance functions was estimated using multiple regression analysis...

  11. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, J.E.; Jensen, B.R.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Svalastoga, E.L.; Eriksen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind

  12. Fusing metabolomics data sets with heterogeneous measurement errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaijenborg, Sandra; Korobko, Oksana; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Lips, Mirjam; Hankemeier, Thomas; Wilderjans, Tom F.; Smilde, Age K.

    2018-01-01

    Combining different metabolomics platforms can contribute significantly to the discovery of complementary processes expressed under different conditions. However, analysing the fused data might be hampered by the difference in their quality. In metabolomics data, one often observes that measurement errors increase with increasing measurement level and that different platforms have different measurement error variance. In this paper we compare three different approaches to correct for the measurement error heterogeneity, by transformation of the raw data, by weighted filtering before modelling and by a modelling approach using a weighted sum of residuals. For an illustration of these different approaches we analyse data from healthy obese and diabetic obese individuals, obtained from two metabolomics platforms. Concluding, the filtering and modelling approaches that both estimate a model of the measurement error did not outperform the data transformation approaches for this application. This is probably due to the limited difference in measurement error and the fact that estimation of measurement error models is unstable due to the small number of repeats available. A transformation of the data improves the classification of the two groups. PMID:29698490

  13. Error Distributions on Large Entangled States with Non-Markovian Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCutcheon, Dara; Lindner, Netanel H.; Rudolph, Terry

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the distribution of errors on a computationally useful entangled state generated via the repeated emission from an emitter undergoing strongly non-Markovian evolution. For emitter-environment coupling of pure-dephasing form, we show that the probability that a particular patten...... of errors occurs has a bound of Markovian form, and thus, accuracy threshold theorems based on Markovian models should be just as effective. Beyond the pure-dephasing assumption, though complicated error structures can arise, they can still be qualitatively bounded by a Markovian error model....

  14. DNA Replication Dynamics of the GGGGCC Repeat of the C9orf72 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Ryan Griffin; Wang, Yuh-Hwa

    2015-11-27

    DNA has the ability to form a variety of secondary structures in addition to the normal B-form DNA, including hairpins and quadruplexes. These structures are implicated in a number of neurological diseases and cancer. Expansion of a GGGGCC repeat located at C9orf72 is associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. This repeat expands from two to 24 copies in normal individuals to several hundreds or thousands of repeats in individuals with the disease. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that as little as four repeats have the ability to form a stable DNA secondary structure known as a G-quadruplex. Quadruplex structures have the ability to disrupt normal DNA processes such as DNA replication and transcription. Here we examine the role of GGGGCC repeat length and orientation on DNA replication using an SV40 replication system in human cells. Replication through GGGGCC repeats leads to a decrease in overall replication efficiency and an increase in instability in a length-dependent manner. Both repeat expansions and contractions are observed, and replication orientation is found to influence the propensity for expansions or contractions. The presence of replication stress, such as low-dose aphidicolin, diminishes replication efficiency but has no effect on instability. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrates a replication stall with as few as 20 GGGGCC repeats. These results suggest that replication of the GGGGCC repeat at C9orf72 is perturbed by the presence of expanded repeats, which has the potential to result in further expansion, leading to disease. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Quantum mean-field decoding algorithm for error-correcting codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi; Saika, Yohei; Okada, Masato

    2009-01-01

    We numerically examine a quantum version of TAP (Thouless-Anderson-Palmer)-like mean-field algorithm for the problem of error-correcting codes. For a class of the so-called Sourlas error-correcting codes, we check the usefulness to retrieve the original bit-sequence (message) with a finite length. The decoding dynamics is derived explicitly and we evaluate the average-case performance through the bit-error rate (BER).

  16. Optimization of sequence alignment for simple sequence repeat regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Francis C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs, are tandemly repeated DNA sequences, including tandem copies of specific sequences no longer than six bases, that are distributed in the genome. SSR has been used as a molecular marker because it is easy to detect and is used in a range of applications, including genetic diversity, genome mapping, and marker assisted selection. It is also very mutable because of slipping in the DNA polymerase during DNA replication. This unique mutation increases the insertion/deletion (INDELs mutation frequency to a high ratio - more than other types of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs. SNPs are more frequent than INDELs. Therefore, all designed algorithms for sequence alignment fit the vast majority of the genomic sequence without considering microsatellite regions, as unique sequences that require special consideration. The old algorithm is limited in its application because there are many overlaps between different repeat units which result in false evolutionary relationships. Findings To overcome the limitation of the aligning algorithm when dealing with SSR loci, a new algorithm was developed using PERL script with a Tk graphical interface. This program is based on aligning sequences after determining the repeated units first, and the last SSR nucleotides positions. This results in a shifting process according to the inserted repeated unit type. When studying the phylogenic relations before and after applying the new algorithm, many differences in the trees were obtained by increasing the SSR length and complexity. However, less distance between different linage had been observed after applying the new algorithm. Conclusions The new algorithm produces better estimates for aligning SSR loci because it reflects more reliable evolutionary relations between different linages. It reduces overlapping during SSR alignment, which results in a more realistic

  17. Errors, error detection, error correction and hippocampal-region damage: data and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W

    2013-11-01

    This review and perspective article outlines 15 observational constraints on theories of errors, error detection, and error correction, and their relation to hippocampal-region (HR) damage. The core observations come from 10 studies with H.M., an amnesic with cerebellar and HR damage but virtually no neocortical damage. Three studies examined the detection of errors planted in visual scenes (e.g., a bird flying in a fish bowl in a school classroom) and sentences (e.g., I helped themselves to the birthday cake). In all three experiments, H.M. detected reliably fewer errors than carefully matched memory-normal controls. Other studies examined the detection and correction of self-produced errors, with controls for comprehension of the instructions, impaired visual acuity, temporal factors, motoric slowing, forgetting, excessive memory load, lack of motivation, and deficits in visual scanning or attention. In these studies, H.M. corrected reliably fewer errors than memory-normal and cerebellar controls, and his uncorrected errors in speech, object naming, and reading aloud exhibited two consistent features: omission and anomaly. For example, in sentence production tasks, H.M. omitted one or more words in uncorrected encoding errors that rendered his sentences anomalous (incoherent, incomplete, or ungrammatical) reliably more often than controls. Besides explaining these core findings, the theoretical principles discussed here explain H.M.'s retrograde amnesia for once familiar episodic and semantic information; his anterograde amnesia for novel information; his deficits in visual cognition, sentence comprehension, sentence production, sentence reading, and object naming; and effects of aging on his ability to read isolated low frequency words aloud. These theoretical principles also explain a wide range of other data on error detection and correction and generate new predictions for future test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human errors in NPP operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jufang

    1993-01-01

    Based on the operational experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the importance of studying human performance problems is described. Statistical analysis on the significance or frequency of various root-causes and error-modes from a large number of human-error-related events demonstrate that the defects in operation/maintenance procedures, working place factors, communication and training practices are primary root-causes, while omission, transposition, quantitative mistake are the most frequent among the error-modes. Recommendations about domestic research on human performance problem in NPPs are suggested

  19. Linear network error correction coding

    CERN Document Server

    Guang, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    There are two main approaches in the theory of network error correction coding. In this SpringerBrief, the authors summarize some of the most important contributions following the classic approach, which represents messages by sequences?similar to algebraic coding,?and also briefly discuss the main results following the?other approach,?that uses the theory of rank metric codes for network error correction of representing messages by subspaces. This book starts by establishing the basic linear network error correction (LNEC) model and then characterizes two equivalent descriptions. Distances an

  20. Information technology-based approaches to reducing repeat drug exposure in patients with known drug allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin M; Sheikh, Aziz

    2008-05-01

    There is increasing interest internationally in ways of reducing the high disease burden resulting from errors in medicine management. Repeat exposure to drugs to which patients have a known allergy has been a repeatedly identified error, often with disastrous consequences. Drug allergies are immunologically mediated reactions that are characterized by specificity and recurrence on reexposure. These repeat reactions should therefore be preventable. We argue that there is insufficient attention being paid to studying and implementing system-based approaches to reducing the risk of such accidental reexposure. Drawing on recent and ongoing research, we discuss a number of information technology-based interventions that can be used to reduce the risk of recurrent exposure. Proven to be effective in this respect are interventions that provide real-time clinical decision support; also promising are interventions aiming to enhance patient recognition, such as bar coding, radiofrequency identification, and biometric technologies.

  1. Passport officers' errors in face matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Kemp, Richard I; Jenkins, Rob; Matheson, Michael; Burton, A Mike

    2014-01-01

    Photo-ID is widely used in security settings, despite research showing that viewers find it very difficult to match unfamiliar faces. Here we test participants with specialist experience and training in the task: passport-issuing officers. First, we ask officers to compare photos to live ID-card bearers, and observe high error rates, including 14% false acceptance of 'fraudulent' photos. Second, we compare passport officers with a set of student participants, and find equally poor levels of accuracy in both groups. Finally, we observe that passport officers show no performance advantage over the general population on a standardised face-matching task. Across all tasks, we observe very large individual differences: while average performance of passport staff was poor, some officers performed very accurately--though this was not related to length of experience or training. We propose that improvements in security could be made by emphasising personnel selection.

  2. Passport officers' errors in face matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David White

    Full Text Available Photo-ID is widely used in security settings, despite research showing that viewers find it very difficult to match unfamiliar faces. Here we test participants with specialist experience and training in the task: passport-issuing officers. First, we ask officers to compare photos to live ID-card bearers, and observe high error rates, including 14% false acceptance of 'fraudulent' photos. Second, we compare passport officers with a set of student participants, and find equally poor levels of accuracy in both groups. Finally, we observe that passport officers show no performance advantage over the general population on a standardised face-matching task. Across all tasks, we observe very large individual differences: while average performance of passport staff was poor, some officers performed very accurately--though this was not related to length of experience or training. We propose that improvements in security could be made by emphasising personnel selection.

  3. Accounting for measurement error: a critical but often overlooked process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Edward F; Smith, Richard N

    2009-12-01

    Due to instrument imprecision and human inconsistencies, measurements are not free of error. Technical error of measurement (TEM) is the variability encountered between dimensions when the same specimens are measured at multiple sessions. A goal of a data collection regimen is to minimise TEM. The few studies that actually quantify TEM, regardless of discipline, report that it is substantial and can affect results and inferences. This paper reviews some statistical approaches for identifying and controlling TEM. Statistically, TEM is part of the residual ('unexplained') variance in a statistical test, so accounting for TEM, which requires repeated measurements, enhances the chances of finding a statistically significant difference if one exists. The aim of this paper was to review and discuss common statistical designs relating to types of error and statistical approaches to error accountability. This paper addresses issues of landmark location, validity, technical and systematic error, analysis of variance, scaled measures and correlation coefficients in order to guide the reader towards correct identification of true experimental differences. Researchers commonly infer characteristics about populations from comparatively restricted study samples. Most inferences are statistical and, aside from concerns about adequate accounting for known sources of variation with the research design, an important source of variability is measurement error. Variability in locating landmarks that define variables is obvious in odontometrics, cephalometrics and anthropometry, but the same concerns about measurement accuracy and precision extend to all disciplines. With increasing accessibility to computer-assisted methods of data collection, the ease of incorporating repeated measures into statistical designs has improved. Accounting for this technical source of variation increases the chance of finding biologically true differences when they exist.

  4. The Performance of CSAM SAM when Cycle Length is extended

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Kyung-ho; Moon, Sang-rae [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to verify validation of that, CPC Axial Power Distribution is compared with Axial Power Distribution based on ICI every week. The difference between CPC Axial Power Distribution and Axial Power Distribution based on ICI increases according as fuels are burned. It is called CPC Axial Power Distribution Root Mean Square Error (CPC RMS Error). SAM and calibration of ex-core detector are important factors influencing the magnitude of the difference. According to vendor, the difference is limited by 8%. Otherwise, CPC penalty increases as many as difference increase. Therefore, KHNP developed Constrained Simulated Annealing Method (CSAM), which has better performance than that of Least Square Method (LSM), to calculate SAM constant. The CSA SAM contributed largely to maintain CPC operating margin. Somewhat, KHNP is developing the technology to be able to operate nuclear power plants for 24 month to optimize their efficiency. This paper shows trends of CPC RMS Error in a case of 24 months operation. Trends are based on data of a few OPR1000s under operation. It is data of OPR1000s that CSA SAM is applied. KHNP is developing the technology to extend operation cycle length in order to optimize the operation efficiency of OPR1000. To verify effect of extended operation cycle length on CPC, CPC Axial Power Distribution RMS Error in a case of 24 months operation was expected using operation data of six cycles in OPR1000. In cases that CPC Axial Power Distribution RMS Error exceeds threshold, operation margin is decreased due to CPC penalty. To prevent CPC operation margin from being decreased, improved method to calculate SAM or to calibrate ex-core detector is required. KHNP will consider the way to maintain CPC operation margin along with 24 month operation technology development, hereafter.

  5. Drug delivery across length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcassian, Derfogail; Patel, Asha K; Cortinas, Abel B; Langer, Robert

    2018-02-20

    Over the last century, there has been a dramatic change in the nature of therapeutic, biologically active molecules available to treat disease. Therapies have evolved from extracted natural products towards rationally designed biomolecules, including small molecules, engineered proteins and nucleic acids. The use of potent drugs which target specific organs, cells or biochemical pathways, necessitates new tools which can enable controlled delivery and dosing of these therapeutics to their biological targets. Here, we review the miniaturisation of drug delivery systems from the macro to nano-scale, focussing on controlled dosing and controlled targeting as two key parameters in drug delivery device design. We describe how the miniaturisation of these devices enables the move from repeated, systemic dosing, to on-demand, targeted delivery of therapeutic drugs and highlight areas of focus for the future.

  6. Error field considerations for BPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaHaye, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Irregularities in the position of poloidal and/or toroidal field coils in tokamaks produce resonant toroidal asymmetries in the vacuum magnetic fields. Otherwise stable tokamak discharges become non-linearly unstable to disruptive locked modes when subjected to low level error fields. Because of the field errors, magnetic islands are produced which would not otherwise occur in tearing mode table configurations; a concomitant reduction of the total confinement can result. Poloidal and toroidal asymmetries arise in the heat flux to the divertor target. In this paper, the field errors from perturbed BPX coils are used in a field line tracing code of the BPX equilibrium to study these deleterious effects. Limits on coil irregularities for device design and fabrication are computed along with possible correcting coils for reducing such field errors

  7. The uncorrected refractive error challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovin Naidoo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Refractive error affects people of all ages, socio-economic status and ethnic groups. The most recent statistics estimate that, worldwide, 32.4 million people are blind and 191 million people have vision impairment. Vision impairment has been defined based on distance visual acuity only, and uncorrected distance refractive error (mainly myopia is the single biggest cause of worldwide vision impairment. However, when we also consider near visual impairment, it is clear that even more people are affected. From research it was estimated that the number of people with vision impairment due to uncorrected distance refractive error was 107.8 million,1 and the number of people affected by uncorrected near refractive error was 517 million, giving a total of 624.8 million people.

  8. Quantile Regression With Measurement Error

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Ying

    2009-08-27

    Regression quantiles can be substantially biased when the covariates are measured with error. In this paper we propose a new method that produces consistent linear quantile estimation in the presence of covariate measurement error. The method corrects the measurement error induced bias by constructing joint estimating equations that simultaneously hold for all the quantile levels. An iterative EM-type estimation algorithm to obtain the solutions to such joint estimation equations is provided. The finite sample performance of the proposed method is investigated in a simulation study, and compared to the standard regression calibration approach. Finally, we apply our methodology to part of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project growth data, a longitudinal study with an unusual measurement error structure. © 2009 American Statistical Association.

  9. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  10. Numerical optimization with computational errors

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    This book studies the approximate solutions of optimization problems in the presence of computational errors. A number of results are presented on the convergence behavior of algorithms in a Hilbert space; these algorithms are examined taking into account computational errors. The author illustrates that algorithms generate a good approximate solution, if computational errors are bounded from above by a small positive constant. Known computational errors are examined with the aim of determining an approximate solution. Researchers and students interested in the optimization theory and its applications will find this book instructive and informative. This monograph contains 16 chapters; including a chapters devoted to the subgradient projection algorithm, the mirror descent algorithm, gradient projection algorithm, the Weiszfelds method, constrained convex minimization problems, the convergence of a proximal point method in a Hilbert space, the continuous subgradient method, penalty methods and Newton’s meth...

  11. Dual processing and diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical, conscious, and conceptual process, called System 2. Exemplar theories of categorization propose that many category decisions in everyday life are made by unconscious matching to a particular example in memory, and these remain available and retrievable individually. I then review studies of clinical reasoning based on these theories, and show that the two processes are equally effective; System 1, despite its reliance in idiosyncratic, individual experience, is no more prone to cognitive bias or diagnostic error than System 2. Further, I review evidence that instructions directed at encouraging the clinician to explicitly use both strategies can lead to consistent reduction in error rates.

  12. The impact of precise robotic lesion length measurement on stent length selection: ramifications for stent savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Paul T; Kruse, Kevin R; Kroll, Christopher R; Patterson, Janet Y; Esposito, Michele J

    2015-09-01

    Coronary stent deployment outcomes can be negatively impacted by inaccurate lesion measurement and inappropriate stent length selection (SLS). We compared visual estimate of these parameters to those provided by the CorPath 200® Robotic PCI System. Sixty consecutive patients who underwent coronary stent placement utilizing the CorPath System were evaluated. The treating physician assessed orthogonal images and provided visual estimates of lesion length and SLS. The robotic system was then used for the same measures. SLS was considered to be accurate when visual estimate and robotic measures were in agreement. Visual estimate SLSs were considered to be "short" or "long" if they were below or above the robotic-selected stents, respectively. Only 35% (21/60) of visually estimated lesions resulted in accurate SLS, whereas 33% (20/60) and 32% (19/60) of the visually estimated SLSs were long and short, respectively. In 5 cases (8.3%), 1 less stent was placed based on the robotic lesion measurement being shorter than the visual estimate. Visual estimate assessment of lesion length and SLS is highly variable with 65% of the cases being inaccurately measured when compared to objective measures obtained from the robotic system. The 32% of the cases where lesions were visually estimated to be short represents cases that often require the use of extra stents after the full lesion is not covered by 1 stent [longitudinal geographic miss (LGM)]. Further, these data showed that the use of the robotic system prevented the use of extra stents in 8.3% of the cases. Measurement of lesions with robotic PCI may reduce measurement errors, need for extra stents, and LGM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...... of such frames. In particular we argue that a three-error correcting BCH is the best choice for the component code in such systems....

  14. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn DH

    2013-01-01

    David H SohnDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort syst...

  15. Eliminating US hospital medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Steinebach, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the USA have continued to rise steadily since the 1980s. Medical errors are one of the major causes of deaths and injuries of thousands of patients every year, contributing to soaring healthcare costs. The purpose of this study is to examine what has been done to deal with the medical-error problem in the last two decades and present a closed-loop mistake-proof operation system for surgery processes that would likely eliminate preventable medical errors. The design method used is a combination of creating a service blueprint, implementing the six sigma DMAIC cycle, developing cause-and-effect diagrams as well as devising poka-yokes in order to develop a robust surgery operation process for a typical US hospital. In the improve phase of the six sigma DMAIC cycle, a number of poka-yoke techniques are introduced to prevent typical medical errors (identified through cause-and-effect diagrams) that may occur in surgery operation processes in US hospitals. It is the authors' assertion that implementing the new service blueprint along with the poka-yokes, will likely result in the current medical error rate to significantly improve to the six-sigma level. Additionally, designing as many redundancies as possible in the delivery of care will help reduce medical errors. Primary healthcare providers should strongly consider investing in adequate doctor and nurse staffing, and improving their education related to the quality of service delivery to minimize clinical errors. This will lead to an increase in higher fixed costs, especially in the shorter time frame. This paper focuses additional attention needed to make a sound technical and business case for implementing six sigma tools to eliminate medical errors that will enable hospital managers to increase their hospital's profitability in the long run and also ensure patient safety.

  16. Approximation errors during variance propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinsmore, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analyses are often performed by constructing and quantifying large fault trees. The inputs to these models are component failure events whose probability of occuring are best represented as random variables. This paper examines the errors inherent in two approximation techniques used to calculate the top event's variance from the inputs' variance. Two sample fault trees are evaluated and several three dimensional plots illustrating the magnitude of the error over a wide range of input means and variances are given

  17. Accuracy of crystal structure error estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.; Kennard, O.

    1986-01-01

    A statistical analysis of 100 crystal structures retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database is reported. Each structure has been determined independently by two different research groups. Comparison of the independent results leads to the following conclusions: (a) The e.s.d.'s of non-hydrogen-atom positional parameters are almost invariably too small. Typically, they are underestimated by a factor of 1.4-1.45. (b) The extent to which e.s.d.'s are underestimated varies significantly from structure to structure and from atom to atom within a structure. (c) Errors in the positional parameters of atoms belonging to the same chemical residue tend to be positively correlated. (d) The e.s.d.'s of heavy-atom positions are less reliable than those of light-atom positions. (e) Experimental errors in atomic positional parameters are normally, or approximately normally, distributed. (f) The e.s.d.'s of cell parameters are grossly underestimated, by an average factor of about 5 for cell lengths and 2.5 for cell angles. There is marginal evidence that the accuracy of atomic-coordinate e.s.d.'s also depends on diffractometer geometry, refinement procedure, whether or not the structure has a centre of symmetry, and the degree of precision attained in the structure determination. (orig.)

  18. [Medical errors: inevitable but preventable].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, R W

    2001-10-27

    Medical errors are increasingly reported in the lay press. Studies have shown dramatic error rates of 10 percent or even higher. From a methodological point of view, studying the frequency and causes of medical errors is far from simple. Clinical decisions on diagnostic or therapeutic interventions are always taken within a clinical context. Reviewing outcomes of interventions without taking into account both the intentions and the arguments for a particular action will limit the conclusions from a study on the rate and preventability of errors. The interpretation of the preventability of medical errors is fraught with difficulties and probably highly subjective. Blaming the doctor personally does not do justice to the actual situation and especially the organisational framework. Attention for and improvement of the organisational aspects of error are far more important then litigating the person. To err is and will remain human and if we want to reduce the incidence of faults we must be able to learn from our mistakes. That requires an open attitude towards medical mistakes, a continuous effort in their detection, a sound analysis and, where feasible, the institution of preventive measures.

  19. Quantum error correction for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2013-01-01

    Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large-scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large-scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. The development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future. (review article)

  20. Medical Error and Moral Luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbeling, Dieneke

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the concept of moral luck. Moral luck is discussed in the context of medical error, especially an error of omission that occurs frequently, but only rarely has adverse consequences. As an example, a failure to compare the label on a syringe with the drug chart results in the wrong medication being administered and the patient dies. However, this error may have previously occurred many times with no tragic consequences. Discussions on moral luck can highlight conflicting intuitions. Should perpetrators receive a harsher punishment because of an adverse outcome, or should they be dealt with in the same way as colleagues who have acted similarly, but with no adverse effects? An additional element to the discussion, specifically with medical errors, is that according to the evidence currently available, punishing individual practitioners does not seem to be effective in preventing future errors. The following discussion, using relevant philosophical and empirical evidence, posits a possible solution for the moral luck conundrum in the context of medical error: namely, making a distinction between the duty to make amends and assigning blame. Blame should be assigned on the basis of actual behavior, while the duty to make amends is dependent on the outcome.

  1. Investment, Reprocurement and Franchise Contract Length in the British Railway Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Affuso, Luisa; Newbery, David M G

    2000-01-01

    This Paper studies the interaction between repeated auctions of rail franchises of different lengths, uncertainty, and incentives for investment in rolling stock, following the privatization of British Rail. Theoretical predictions are tested empirically using a unique panel of data. Theory suggests that short franchise lengths reduce incentives to invest in specific assets. Our empirical results suggest that competition and strategic behaviour at the re-procurement stage can create incentive...

  2. A study on radiographic repeat rate data of several hospitals in Jeddah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Malki, M.A.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Kinsara, A.A

    2003-07-01

    Radiographic repeat rate data in diagnostic radiology in King Fahad Hospital (KFH), King Abdulaziz Hospital (KAH), and Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, have been studied. The study provided valuable information to suggest preventive measures to reduce repeats. The variables included in the study are exposure techniques, examination types, total number of films used, number of films repeated, the film sizes, gender, the age groups of the patients, and reason for repetition. The total number of examinations in all three hospitals is 6001 using 8887 films on 5412 patients. The average repeat rate was 7.93%, where the individual hospital repeat rates were 9.57% in the MCH, 7.84% in KAH and 7.44% in KFH. The repeat rate for children and infants was found to be undesirable. The quality assurance (QA) programme can effectively reduce the unnecessary exposure and can identify the cause of the exposure. The overexposure, underexposure and position fault were the foremost contributors for repeats and constitute 32.91%, 28.94% and 22.98% of the total respectively. The QA study identified that human error and equipment malfunction are the major contributors to these causes of repeats. The highest repetition rate was for pelvis, 13.64%, followed by skull, 11.59%, and abdomen, 10.41%. It is estimated that the total area of wasted film in all three hospitals is 74.3 m{sup 2}. As per the average repeat rate, the cost of repeat films in the entire kingdom per year has been projected to be about US$1.82 million (SR 6.83 million) in the government hospitals only. Based on the findings of this study a set of recommendations have been prescribed for the radiology department to reduce the repeat rate and to improve the safety culture. (author)

  3. A study on radiographic repeat rate data of several hospitals in Jeddah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Malki, M.A.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Kinsara, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiographic repeat rate data in diagnostic radiology in King Fahad Hospital (KFH), King Abdulaziz Hospital (KAH), and Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, have been studied. The study provided valuable information to suggest preventive measures to reduce repeats. The variables included in the study are exposure techniques, examination types, total number of films used, number of films repeated, the film sizes, gender, the age groups of the patients, and reason for repetition. The total number of examinations in all three hospitals is 6001 using 8887 films on 5412 patients. The average repeat rate was 7.93%, where the individual hospital repeat rates were 9.57% in the MCH, 7.84% in KAH and 7.44% in KFH. The repeat rate for children and infants was found to be undesirable. The quality assurance (QA) programme can effectively reduce the unnecessary exposure and can identify the cause of the exposure. The overexposure, underexposure and position fault were the foremost contributors for repeats and constitute 32.91%, 28.94% and 22.98% of the total respectively. The QA study identified that human error and equipment malfunction are the major contributors to these causes of repeats. The highest repetition rate was for pelvis, 13.64%, followed by skull, 11.59%, and abdomen, 10.41%. It is estimated that the total area of wasted film in all three hospitals is 74.3 m 2 . As per the average repeat rate, the cost of repeat films in the entire kingdom per year has been projected to be about US$1.82 million (SR 6.83 million) in the government hospitals only. Based on the findings of this study a set of recommendations have been prescribed for the radiology department to reduce the repeat rate and to improve the safety culture. (author)

  4. The two errors of using the within-subject standard deviation (WSD) as the standard error of a reliable change index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, Gerard H

    2010-08-01

    In this Journal, Lewis and colleagues introduced a new Reliable Change Index (RCI(WSD)), which incorporated the within-subject standard deviation (WSD) of a repeated measurement design as the standard error. In this note, two opposite errors in using WSD this way are demonstrated. First, being the standard error of measurement of only a single assessment makes WSD too small when practice effects are absent. Then, too many individuals will be designated reliably changed. Second, WSD can grow unlimitedly to the extent that differential practice effects occur. This can even make RCI(WSD) unable to detect any reliable change.

  5. Alu repeats as markers for forensic DNA analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kass, D.H. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1994-01-01

    The Human-Specific (HS) subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of 500 nearly identical members which are almost exclusively restricted to the human genome. Individual subfamily members share an average of 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS subfamily consensus sequence, and have an average age of 2.8 million years. We have developed a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay using primers complementary to the 5 inch and 3 inch unique flanking DNA sequences from each HS Alu that allow the locus to be assayed for the presence or absence of the Alu repeat. The dimorphic HS Alu sequences probably inserted in the human genome after the radiation of modem humans (within the last 200,000-one million years) and represent a unique source of information for human population genetics and forensic DNA analyses. These sites can be developed into Dimorphic Alu Sequence Tagged Sites (DASTS) for the Human Genome Project. HS Alu family member insertions differ from other types of polymorphism (e.g. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat [VNTR] or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism [RFLP]) in that polymorphisms due to Alu insertions arise as a result of a unique event which has occurred only one time in the human population and spread through the population from that point. Therefore, individuals that share HS Alu repeats inherited these elements from a common ancestor. Most VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms may arise multiple times in parallel within a population.

  6. Measuring Repeatability of the Focus-variable Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Řezníček

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of photogrammetry, the optical system, usually represented by the glass lens, is used for metric purposes. Therefore, the aberration characteristics of such a lens, inducing deviations from projective imaging, has to be well known. However, the most important property of the metric lens is the stability of its glass and mechanical elements, ensuring long-term reliability of the measured parameters. In case of a focus-variable lens, the repeatability of the lens setup is important as well. Lenses with a fixed focal length are usually considered as “fixed” though, in fact, most of them contain one or more movable glass elements, providing the focusing function. In cases where the lens is not equipped with fixing screws, the repeatability of the calibration parameters should be known. This paper derives simple mathematical formulas that can be used for measuring the repeatability of the focus-variable lenses, and gives a demonstrative example of such measuring. The given procedure has the advantage that only demanded parameters are estimated, hence, no unwanted correlations with the additional parameters exist. The test arrangement enables us to measure each demanded magnification of the optical system, which is important in close-range photogrammetry.

  7. Distribution and characterization of staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRUs) and potential use for strain differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardy, K.J.; Ussery, David; Oppenheim, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    are similar to those used in the study of the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clades. Seven VNTRs, termed staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRUs), distributed around the genome are described, occurring in both unique and multiple sites, and varying in length from 48 to 159 bp. Variations...

  8. Shorter CAG repeat in the AR gene is associated with atypical hyperplasia and breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Abreu, Francine Blumental; Pirolo, Leandro Júnior; Canevari, Renata de Azevedo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous reports into the role of [CAG]n repeat lengths in the androgen receptor (AR) gene indicate that these may play an important part in the development and progression of breast cancer, however, knowledge regarding benign breast lesions is limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PCR-based...

  9. Improved Design of Unequal Error Protection LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandberg Sara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an improved method for designing unequal error protection (UEP low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. The method is based on density evolution. The degree distribution with the best UEP properties is found, under the constraint that the threshold should not exceed the threshold of a non-UEP code plus some threshold offset. For different codeword lengths and different construction algorithms, we search for good threshold offsets for the UEP code design. The choice of the threshold offset is based on the average a posteriori variable node mutual information. Simulations reveal the counter intuitive result that the short-to-medium length codes designed with a suitable threshold offset all outperform the corresponding non-UEP codes in terms of average bit-error rate. The proposed codes are also compared to other UEP-LDPC codes found in the literature.

  10. Genetic Contributors to Intergenerational CAG Repeat Instability in Huntington's Disease Knock-In Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, João Luís; Lee, Jong-Min; Afridi, Ali; Gillis, Tammy; Guide, Jolene R; Dempsey, Stephani; Lager, Brenda; Alonso, Isabel; Wheeler, Vanessa C; Pinto, Ricardo Mouro

    2017-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Longer repeat sizes are associated with increased disease penetrance and earlier ages of onset. Intergenerationally unstable transmissions are common in HD families, partly underlying the genetic anticipation seen in this disorder. HD CAG knock-in mouse models also exhibit a propensity for intergenerational repeat size changes. In this work, we examine intergenerational instability of the CAG repeat in over 20,000 transmissions in the largest HD knock-in mouse model breeding datasets reported to date. We confirmed previous observations that parental sex drives the relative ratio of expansions and contractions. The large datasets further allowed us to distinguish effects of paternal CAG repeat length on the magnitude and frequency of expansions and contractions, as well as the identification of large repeat size jumps in the knock-in models. Distinct degrees of intergenerational instability were observed between knock-in mice of six background strains, indicating the occurrence of trans-acting genetic modifiers. We also found that lines harboring a neomycin resistance cassette upstream of Htt showed reduced expansion frequency, indicative of a contributing role for sequences in cis, with the expanded repeat as modifiers of intergenerational instability. These results provide a basis for further understanding of the mechanisms underlying intergenerational repeat instability. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Unusual structures are present in DNA fragments containing super-long Huntingtin CAG repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Duzdevich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD, expansion of the CAG trinucleotide repeat length beyond about 300 repeats induces a novel phenotype associated with a reduction in transcription of the transgene.We analysed the structure of polymerase chain reaction (PCR-generated DNA containing up to 585 CAG repeats using atomic force microscopy (AFM. As the number of CAG repeats increased, an increasing proportion of the DNA molecules exhibited unusual structural features, including convolutions and multiple protrusions. At least some of these features are hairpin loops, as judged by cross-sectional analysis and sensitivity to cleavage by mung bean nuclease. Single-molecule force measurements showed that the convoluted DNA was very resistant to untangling. In vitro replication by PCR was markedly reduced, and TseI restriction enzyme digestion was also hindered by the abnormal DNA structures. However, significantly, the DNA gained sensitivity to cleavage by the Type III restriction-modification enzyme, EcoP15I."Super-long" CAG repeats are found in a number of neurological diseases and may also appear through CAG repeat instability. We suggest that unusual DNA structures associated with super-long CAG repeats decrease transcriptional efficiency in vitro. We also raise the possibility that if these structures occur in vivo, they may play a role in the aetiology of CAG repeat diseases such as HD.

  12. Telomere length modulation in human astroglial brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico La Torre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres alteration during carcinogenesis and tumor progression has been described in several cancer types. Telomeres length is stabilized by telomerase (h-TERT and controlled by several proteins that protect telomere integrity, such as the Telomere Repeat-binding Factor (TRF 1 and 2 and the tankyrase-poli-ADP-ribose polymerase (TANKs-PARP complex. OBJECTIVE: To investigate telomere dysfunction in astroglial brain tumors we analyzed telomeres length, telomerase activity and the expression of a panel of genes controlling the length and structure of telomeres in tissue samples obtained in vivo from astroglial brain tumors with different grade of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight Low Grade Astrocytomas (LGA, 11 Anaplastic Astrocytomas (AA and 11 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM samples were analyzed. Three samples of normal brain tissue (NBT were used as controls. Telomeres length was assessed through Southern Blotting. Telomerase activity was evaluated by a telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay. The expression levels of TRF1, TRF2, h-TERT and TANKs-PARP complex were determined through Immunoblotting and RT-PCR. RESULTS: LGA were featured by an up-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and by shorter telomeres. Conversely, AA and GBM were featured by a down-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and an up-regulation of both telomerase and TANKs-PARP complex. CONCLUSIONS: In human astroglial brain tumours, up-regulation of TRF1 and TRF2 occurs in the early stages of carcinogenesis determining telomeres shortening and genomic instability. In a later stage, up-regulation of PARP-TANKs and telomerase activation may occur together with an ADP-ribosylation of TRF1, causing a reduced ability to bind telomeric DNA, telomeres elongation and tumor malignant progression.

  13. PET functional volume delineation: a robustness and repeatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze-le Rest, Catherine; Albarghach, Nidal; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional uptake volume segmentation in PET imaging consist of threshold-based approaches, whose parameters often require specific optimization for a given scanner and associated reconstruction algorithms. Different advanced image segmentation approaches previously proposed and extensively validated, such as among others fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering, or fuzzy locally adaptive bayesian (FLAB) algorithm have the potential to improve the robustness of functional uptake volume measurements. The objective of this study was to investigate robustness and repeatability with respect to various scanner models, reconstruction algorithms and acquisition conditions. Robustness was evaluated using a series of IEC phantom acquisitions carried out on different PET/CT scanners (Philips Gemini and Gemini Time-of-Flight, Siemens Biograph and GE Discovery LS) with their associated reconstruction algorithms (RAMLA, TF MLEM, OSEM). A range of acquisition parameters (contrast, duration) and reconstruction parameters (voxel size) were considered for each scanner model, and the repeatability of each method was evaluated on simulated and clinical tumours and compared to manual delineation. For all the scanner models, acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms considered, the FLAB algorithm demonstrated higher robustness in delineation of the spheres with low mean errors (10%) and variability (5%), with respect to threshold-based methodologies and FCM. The repeatability provided by all segmentation algorithms considered was very high with a negligible variability of <5% in comparison to that associated with manual delineation (5-35%). The use of advanced image segmentation algorithms may not only allow high accuracy as previously demonstrated, but also provide a robust and repeatable tool to aid physicians as an initial guess in determining functional volumes in PET. (orig.)

  14. Antipsychotic Selection for Acute Agitation and Time to Repeat Use in a Psychiatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Seth; Dopheide, Julie

    2016-11-01

    Early recognition and treatment of agitated patients is essential to avoid violence in the psychiatric emergency department (ED). Antipsychotics have established efficacy in managing agitation, yet little is known about how the choice of initial antipsychotic impacts time to repeat use and length of stay (LOS) in the psychiatric ED. To describe the impact of initial antipsychotic selection on time to repeat use and LOS in the psychiatric ED. A chart review identified 388 cases in which patients were administered an antipsychotic for agitation in the psychiatric ED between July 1 and August 31, 2014. Time to repeat use and LOS were compared for intramuscular (IM) haloperidol, other IM antipsychotics, and oral second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) using the Kruskal-Wallis or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Of the 388 cases, 31% (n=122) required repeat medications. Mean time to repeat use for IM haloperidol was 20.1±18.4 hours, which was not significantly different from mean time to repeat use in the groups receiving other IM antipsychotics or oral SGAs (P=0.35). The mean LOS was 29.7±28.7 hours for IM haloperidol, 30.3±36.9 hours for other IM antipsychotics, and 22.6±28.0 hours for oral SGAs. Significant differences in LOS between repeat and nonrepeat users of IM haloperidol and other IM antipsychotics were observed, but not among those who received oral SGAs. Mean time to repeat use ranged from 14 to 20 hours with IM haloperidol, other IM antipsychotics, and oral SGAs without significant differences in time to repeat use in the 3 different groups. Repeat users of IM antipsychotics had a significantly longer LOS in the ED compared with nonrepeat users of IM antipsychotics. However, patients who were initially administered oral SGAs did not have longer LOS in the ED even if a repeat dose was given.

  15. Comparison of step-by-step kinematics in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland

    2018-01-04

    The aim of this study was to compare kinematics in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players. Seventeen subjects performed seven 30m sprints every 30s in one session. Kinematics were measured with an infrared contact mat and laser gun, and running times with an electronic timing device. The main findings were that sprint times increased in the repeated sprint ability test. The main changes in kinematics during the repeated sprint ability test were increased contact time and decreased step frequency, while no change in step length was observed. The step velocity increased in almost each step until the 14, which occurred around 22m. After this, the velocity was stable until the last step, when it decreased. This increase in step velocity was mainly caused by the increased step length and decreased contact times. It was concluded that the fatigue induced in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players resulted in decreased step frequency and increased contact time. Employing this approach in combination with a laser gun and infrared mat for 30m makes it very easy to analyse running kinematics in repeated sprints in training. This extra information gives the athlete, coach and sports scientist the opportunity to give more detailed feedback and help to target these changes in kinematics better to enhance repeated sprint performance.

  16. Error-Induced Learning as a Resource-Adaptive Process in Young and Elderly Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Nicola K.; Weiten, Anja; Mecklinger, Axel; Kray, Jutta

    Thorndike described in his law of effect [44] that actions followed by positive events are more likely to be repeated in the future, whereas actions that are followed by negative outcomes are less likely to be repeated. This implies that behavior is evaluated in the light of its potential consequences, and non-reward events (i.e., errors) must be detected for reinforcement learning to take place. In short, humans have to monitor their performance in order to detect and correct errors, and this allows them to successfully adapt their behavior to changing environmental demands and acquire new behavior, i.e., to learn.

  17. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  18. simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 212 primer pairs selected, based on repeat patterns of n≥8 for di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeat ... Cluster analysis revealed a high genetic similarity among the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding lines which could reduce the genetic gain in ..... The multiple allele characteristic of SSR com-.

  19. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan; Manolescu, Ioana; Afanasiev, Loredana; Feng, Jieling; Gou, G.; Hadjieleftheriou, Marios; Harizopoulos, Stavros; Kalnis, Panos; Karanasos, Konstantinos; Laurent, Dominique; Lupu, M.; Onose, N.; Ré , C.; Sans, Virginie; Senellart, Pierre; Wu, T.; Shasha, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  20. Predictors of Errors of Novice Java Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Manabat, Geecee Maybelline A.; Tolentino, Miguel Angelo A.; Torres, Edmon L.

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study determined which of the sources of errors would predict the errors committed by novice Java programmers. Descriptive statistics revealed that the respondents perceived that they committed the identified eighteen errors infrequently. Thought error was perceived to be the main source of error during the laboratory programming…

  1. Learning time-dependent noise to reduce logical errors: real time error rate estimation in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming-Xia; Li, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Quantum error correction is important to quantum information processing, which allows us to reliably process information encoded in quantum error correction codes. Efficient quantum error correction benefits from the knowledge of error rates. We propose a protocol for monitoring error rates in real time without interrupting the quantum error correction. Any adaptation of the quantum error correction code or its implementation circuit is not required. The protocol can be directly applied to the most advanced quantum error correction techniques, e.g. surface code. A Gaussian processes algorithm is used to estimate and predict error rates based on error correction data in the past. We find that using these estimated error rates, the probability of error correction failures can be significantly reduced by a factor increasing with the code distance.

  2. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  3. Spectral interferometric length measurement and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkl, W.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents a new method for optical length measurement using the principles of spectral interferometry. Results of thickness measurements on glass plates, the human cornea in vivo and human finger and toe nails in vivo and in vitro are discussed. It could be demonstrated that the absorption coefficient of red and green ink can be measured depth sensitive. Another chapter describes a new technique to measure a thickness profile of a sample within the illuminating beam. It could be demonstrated that a thickness profile over a distance of a few millimeters can be measured with one single measurement. At the Institute of Medical Physics of the University of Vienna a method to measure intraocular distances by the means of interferometry has been developed during the last ten years. Basing on this method (dual beam interferometry) an optical in vivo tomography experiment could be established. A thickness map of the retina of a human eye in vivo can be easily measured. The dual beam technique uses a Michelson interferometer with a moving mirror to adjust the length of the interferometer arms. The mirror is moved by a stepper motor. This movement induces vibrations, misalignment and other disadvantages. So mechanically moved parts as reasons for possible errors should be eliminated. This work shows one possible solution - using the principle of spectral interferometry. A spectral interferometry experiment is a static experiment, no moving parts are used. A spectral interferometry experiment has been used to measure the thickness of glass plates and stacks of glass plates. Using two light sources of different wavelengths spectral absorption properties of a sample can be measured depth sensitive. This could be demonstrated with stacks of glass plates and the use of red and green ink between two plates. The obtained results are compared to the results of a computer simulation. To demonstrate the ability of spectral interferometry to measure the thickness of biologic

  4. Effects of Target Positioning Error on Motion Compensation for Airborne Interferometric SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yin-wei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement inaccuracies of Inertial Measurement Unit/Global Positioning System (IMU/GPS as well as the positioning error of the target may contribute to the residual uncompensated motion errors in the MOtion COmpensation (MOCO approach based on the measurement of IMU/GPS. Aiming at the effects of target positioning error on MOCO for airborne interferometric SAR, the paper firstly deduces a mathematical model of residual motion error bring out by target positioning error under the condition of squint. And the paper analyzes the effects on the residual motion error caused by system sampling delay error, the Doppler center frequency error and reference DEM error which result in target positioning error based on the model. Then, the paper discusses the effects of the reference DEM error on the interferometric SAR image quality, the interferometric phase and the coherent coefficient. The research provides theoretical bases for the MOCO precision in signal processing of airborne high precision SAR and airborne repeat-pass interferometric SAR.

  5. Redundant measurements for controlling errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.H.; Crawford, J.M.; Madeen, M.L.

    1979-07-01

    Current federal regulations for nuclear materials control require consideration of operating data as part of the quality control program and limits of error propagation. Recent work at the BNFP has revealed that operating data are subject to a number of measurement problems which are very difficult to detect and even more difficult to correct in a timely manner. Thus error estimates based on operational data reflect those problems. During the FY 1978 and FY 1979 R and D demonstration runs at the BNFP, redundant measurement techniques were shown to be effective in detecting these problems to allow corrective action. The net effect is a reduction in measurement errors and a significant increase in measurement sensitivity. Results show that normal operation process control measurements, in conjunction with routine accountability measurements, are sensitive problem indicators when incorporated in a redundant measurement program

  6. Large errors and severe conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D L; Van Wormer, L A

    2002-01-01

    Physical parameters that can assume real-number values over a continuous range are generally represented by inherently positive random variables. However, if the uncertainties in these parameters are significant (large errors), conventional means of representing and manipulating the associated variables can lead to erroneous results. Instead, all analyses involving them must be conducted in a probabilistic framework. Several issues must be considered: First, non-linear functional relations between primary and derived variables may lead to significant 'error amplification' (severe conditions). Second, the commonly used normal (Gaussian) probability distribution must be replaced by a more appropriate function that avoids the occurrence of negative sampling results. Third, both primary random variables and those derived through well-defined functions must be dealt with entirely in terms of their probability distributions. Parameter 'values' and 'errors' should be interpreted as specific moments of these probabil...

  7. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohn DH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available David H SohnDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort system in the United States; and review current and future solutions, including medical malpractice reform, alternative dispute resolution, health courts, and no-fault compensation systems. The current political environment favors investigation of non-cap tort reform remedies; investment into more rational oversight systems, such as health courts or no-fault systems may reap both quantitative and qualitative benefits for a less costly and safer health system.Keywords: medical malpractice, tort reform, no fault compensation, alternative dispute resolution, system errors

  8. Spacecraft and propulsion technician error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Daniel Clyde

    Commercial aviation and commercial space similarly launch, fly, and land passenger vehicles. Unlike aviation, the U.S. government has not established maintenance policies for commercial space. This study conducted a mixed methods review of 610 U.S. space launches from 1984 through 2011, which included 31 failures. An analysis of the failure causal factors showed that human error accounted for 76% of those failures, which included workmanship error accounting for 29% of the failures. With the imminent future of commercial space travel, the increased potential for the loss of human life demands that changes be made to the standardized procedures, training, and certification to reduce human error and failure rates. Several recommendations were made by this study to the FAA's Office of Commercial Space Transportation, space launch vehicle operators, and maintenance technician schools in an effort to increase the safety of the space transportation passengers.

  9. Sensation seeking and error processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya; Sheng, Wenbin; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-09-01

    Sensation seeking is defined by a strong need for varied, novel, complex, and intense stimulation, and a willingness to take risks for such experience. Several theories propose that the insensitivity to negative consequences incurred by risks is one of the hallmarks of sensation-seeking behaviors. In this study, we investigated the time course of error processing in sensation seeking by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) while high and low sensation seekers performed an Eriksen flanker task. Whereas there were no group differences in ERPs to correct trials, sensation seeking was associated with a blunted error-related negativity (ERN), which was female-specific. Further, different subdimensions of sensation seeking were related to ERN amplitude differently. These findings indicate that the relationship between sensation seeking and error processing is sex-specific. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Context Tree Estimation in Variable Length Hidden Markov Models

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    We address the issue of context tree estimation in variable length hidden Markov models. We propose an estimator of the context tree of the hidden Markov process which needs no prior upper bound on the depth of the context tree. We prove that the estimator is strongly consistent. This uses information-theoretic mixture inequalities in the spirit of Finesso and Lorenzo(Consistent estimation of the order for Markov and hidden Markov chains(1990)) and E.Gassiat and S.Boucheron (Optimal error exp...

  11. Errors of Inference Due to Errors of Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Robert L.; Werts, Charles E.

    Failure to consider errors of measurement when using partial correlation or analysis of covariance techniques can result in erroneous conclusions. Certain aspects of this problem are discussed and particular attention is given to issues raised in a recent article by Brewar, Campbell, and Crano. (Author)

  12. Measurement error models with uncertainty about the error variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberski, D.L.; Satorra, A.

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that measurement error in observable variables induces bias in estimates in standard regression analysis and that structural equation models are a typical solution to this problem. Often, multiple indicator equations are subsumed as part of the structural equation model, allowing

  13. Reward positivity: Reward prediction error or salience prediction error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Sepideh; Holroyd, Clay B

    2016-08-01

    The reward positivity is a component of the human ERP elicited by feedback stimuli in trial-and-error learning and guessing tasks. A prominent theory holds that the reward positivity reflects a reward prediction error signal that is sensitive to outcome valence, being larger for unexpected positive events relative to unexpected negative events (Holroyd & Coles, 2002). Although the theory has found substantial empirical support, most of these studies have utilized either monetary or performance feedback to test the hypothesis. However, in apparent contradiction to the theory, a recent study found that unexpected physical punishments also elicit the reward positivity (Talmi, Atkinson, & El-Deredy, 2013). The authors of this report argued that the reward positivity reflects a salience prediction error rather than a reward prediction error. To investigate this finding further, in the present study participants navigated a virtual T maze and received feedback on each trial under two conditions. In a reward condition, the feedback indicated that they would either receive a monetary reward or not and in a punishment condition the feedback indicated that they would receive a small shock or not. We found that the feedback stimuli elicited a typical reward positivity in the reward condition and an apparently delayed reward positivity in the punishment condition. Importantly, this signal was more positive to the stimuli that predicted the omission of a possible punishment relative to stimuli that predicted a forthcoming punishment, which is inconsistent with the salience hypothesis. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Measurement of the diffusion length of thermal neutrons inside graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertaud, A.; Beauge, R.; Fauquez, H.; De Laboulay, H.; Mercier, C.; Vautrey, L.

    1948-11-01

    The diffusion length of thermal neutrons inside a given industrial graphite is determined by measuring the neutron density inside a parallelepipedal piling up of graphite bricks (2.10 x 2.10 x 2.442 m). A 3.8 curies (Ra α → Be) source is placed inside the parallelepipedal block of graphite and thin manganese detectors are used. Corrections are added to the unweighted measurements to take into account the effects of the damping of supra-thermal neutrons in the measurement area. These corrections are experimentally deduced from the differential measurements made with a cadmium screen interposed between the source and the first plane of measurement. An error analysis completes the report. The diffusion length obtained is: L = 45.7 cm ± 0.3. The average density of the graphite used is 1.76 and the average apparent density of the piling up is 1.71. (J.S.)

  15. What is the Entanglement Length in a Polymer Melt?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grest, Gary S.; Kremer, Kurt; Putz, Mathias

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of very long model polymer chains analyzed by various experimentally relevant techniques. The segment motion of the chains is found to be in very good agreement with the reptation model. We also calculated the plateau modulus G 0 N . The predictions of the entanglement length N e from G 0 N and from the mean square displacement of the chain segments disagree by a factor of about 2.2(2), indicating an error in the prefactor in the standard formula for G 0 N . We show that recent neutron spin echo measurements were carried out for chain lengths which are too small to allow for a correct determination of N e

  16. Measurement of electron beam bunch phase length by rectangular cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, V.D.; Rudychev, V.G.; Ushakov, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of a phase length of electron bunches with the help of crossed rectangular resonators with the Hsub(102) oscillation type has been made. It has been shown that the electron coordinates after the duplex resonator are described by an ellipse equation for a non-modulated beam. An influence of the initial energy spread upon the electron motion has been studied. It has been ascertained that energy modulation of the electron beam results in displacement of each electron with respect to the ellipse which is proportional to modulation energy, i.e. an error in determination of the phase length of an electron bunch is proportional to the beam energy spread. Relations have been obtained which enable to find genuine values of phases of the analyzed electrons with an accuracy up to linear multipliers

  17. Assessment of the uncertainty associated with systematic errors in digital instruments: an experimental study on offset errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attivissimo, F; Giaquinto, N; Savino, M; Cataldo, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the assessment of the uncertainty due to systematic errors, particularly in A/D conversion-based instruments. The problem of defining and assessing systematic errors is briefly discussed, and the conceptual scheme of gauge repeatability and reproducibility is adopted. A practical example regarding the evaluation of the uncertainty caused by the systematic offset error is presented. The experimental results, obtained under various ambient conditions, show that modelling the variability of systematic errors is more problematic than suggested by the ISO 5725 norm. Additionally, the paper demonstrates the substantial difference between the type B uncertainty evaluation, obtained via the maximum entropy principle applied to manufacturer's specifications, and the type A (experimental) uncertainty evaluation, which reflects actually observable reality. Although it is reasonable to assume a uniform distribution of the offset error, experiments demonstrate that the distribution is not centred and that a correction must be applied. In such a context, this work motivates a more pragmatic and experimental approach to uncertainty, with respect to the directions of supplement 1 of GUM. (paper)

  18. ERROR HANDLING IN INTEGRATION WORKFLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey M. Nazarenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation experiments performed while solving multidisciplinary engineering and scientific problems require joint usage of multiple software tools. Further, when following a preset plan of experiment or searching for optimum solu- tions, the same sequence of calculations is run multiple times with various simulation parameters, input data, or conditions while overall workflow does not change. Automation of simulations like these requires implementing of a workflow where tool execution and data exchange is usually controlled by a special type of software, an integration environment or plat- form. The result is an integration workflow (a platform-dependent implementation of some computing workflow which, in the context of automation, is a composition of weakly coupled (in terms of communication intensity typical subtasks. These compositions can then be decomposed back into a few workflow patterns (types of subtasks interaction. The pat- terns, in their turn, can be interpreted as higher level subtasks.This paper considers execution control and data exchange rules that should be imposed by the integration envi- ronment in the case of an error encountered by some integrated software tool. An error is defined as any abnormal behavior of a tool that invalidates its result data thus disrupting the data flow within the integration workflow. The main requirementto the error handling mechanism implemented by the integration environment is to prevent abnormal termination of theentire workflow in case of missing intermediate results data. Error handling rules are formulated on the basic pattern level and on the level of a composite task that can combine several basic patterns as next level subtasks. The cases where workflow behavior may be different, depending on user's purposes, when an error takes place, and possible error handling op- tions that can be specified by the user are also noted in the work.

  19. Analysis of Medication Error Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Paul D.; Young, Jonathan; Santell, John; Hicks, Rodney; Posse, Christian; Fecht, Barbara A.

    2004-11-15

    In medicine, as in many areas of research, technological innovation and the shift from paper based information to electronic records has created a climate of ever increasing availability of raw data. There has been, however, a corresponding lag in our abilities to analyze this overwhelming mass of data, and classic forms of statistical analysis may not allow researchers to interact with data in the most productive way. This is true in the emerging area of patient safety improvement. Traditionally, a majority of the analysis of error and incident reports has been carried out based on an approach of data comparison, and starts with a specific question which needs to be answered. Newer data analysis tools have been developed which allow the researcher to not only ask specific questions but also to “mine” data: approach an area of interest without preconceived questions, and explore the information dynamically, allowing questions to be formulated based on patterns brought up by the data itself. Since 1991, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has been collecting data on medication errors through voluntary reporting programs. USP’s MEDMARXsm reporting program is the largest national medication error database and currently contains well over 600,000 records. Traditionally, USP has conducted an annual quantitative analysis of data derived from “pick-lists” (i.e., items selected from a list of items) without an in-depth analysis of free-text fields. In this paper, the application of text analysis and data analysis tools used by Battelle to analyze the medication error reports already analyzed in the traditional way by USP is described. New insights and findings were revealed including the value of language normalization and the distribution of error incidents by day of the week. The motivation for this effort is to gain additional insight into the nature of medication errors to support improvements in medication safety.

  20. Medication errors: definitions and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2009-01-01

    To understand medication errors and to identify preventive strategies, we need to classify them and define the terms that describe them. The four main approaches to defining technical terms consider etymology, usage, previous definitions, and the Ramsey–Lewis method (based on an understanding of theory and practice). A medication error is ‘a failure in the treatment process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient’. Prescribing faults, a subset of medication errors, should be distinguished from prescription errors. A prescribing fault is ‘a failure in the prescribing [decision-making] process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient’. The converse of this, ‘balanced prescribing’ is ‘the use of a medicine that is appropriate to the patient's condition and, within the limits created by the uncertainty that attends therapeutic decisions, in a dosage regimen that optimizes the balance of benefit to harm’. This excludes all forms of prescribing faults, such as irrational, inappropriate, and ineffective prescribing, underprescribing and overprescribing. A prescription error is ‘a failure in the prescription writing process that results in a wrong instruction about one or more of the normal features of a prescription’. The ‘normal features’ include the identity of the recipient, the identity of the drug, the formulation, dose, route, timing, frequency, and duration of administration. Medication errors can be classified, invoking psychological theory, as knowledge-based mistakes, rule-based mistakes, action-based slips, and memory-based lapses. This classification informs preventive strategies. PMID:19594526

  1. [Evaluation of administration errors of injectable drugs in neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, A; Sayadi, M; Ben Hmida, H; Ben Ameur, K; Mestiri, K

    2015-11-01

    Use of injectable drugs in newborns represents more than 90% of prescriptions and requires special precautions in order to ensure more safety and efficiency. The aim of this study is to gather errors relating to the administration of injectable drugs and to suggest corrective actions. This descriptive and transversal study has evaluated 300 injectable drug administrations in a neonatology unit. Two hundred and sixty-one administrations have contained an error. Data are collected by direct observations of administrative act. Errors observed are: an inappropriate mixture (2.6% of cases); an incorrect delivery rate (33.7% of cases); incorrect dilutions (26.7% of cases); error in calculation of the dose to be injected (16.7% of cases); error while sampling small volumes (6.3% of cases); error or omission of administration schedule (1% of cases). These data have enabled us to evaluate administration of injectable drugs in neonatology. Different types of errors observed could be a source of therapeutic inefficiency, extended lengths of stay or iatrogenic drug. Following these observations, corrective actions have been undertaken by pharmacists and consist of: organizing training sessions for nursing; developing an explanatory guide for dilution and administration of injectable medicines, which was made available to the clinical service. Collaborative strategies doctor-nurse-pharmacist can help to reduce errors in the medication process especially during his administration. It permits improvement of injectable drugs use, offering more security and better efficiency and contribute to guarantee ideal therapy for patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Estimation of ocular volume from axial length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Logan, Nicola S

    2014-12-01

    To determine which biometric parameters provide optimum predictive power for ocular volume. Sixty-seven adult subjects were scanned with a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. Mean spherical error (MSE) (D) was measured with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor and a Zeiss IOLMaster used to measure (mm) axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal radius (CR). Total ocular volume (TOV) was calculated from T2-weighted MRIs (voxel size 1.0 mm(3)) using an automatic voxel counting and shading algorithm. Each MR slice was subsequently edited manually in the axial, sagittal and coronal plane, the latter enabling location of the posterior pole of the crystalline lens and partitioning of TOV into anterior (AV) and posterior volume (PV) regions. Mean values (±SD) for MSE (D), AL (mm), ACD (mm) and CR (mm) were -2.62±3.83, 24.51±1.47, 3.55±0.34 and 7.75±0.28, respectively. Mean values (±SD) for TOV, AV and PV (mm(3)) were 8168.21±1141.86, 1099.40±139.24 and 7068.82±1134.05, respectively. TOV showed significant correlation with MSE, AL, PV (all p<0.001), CR (p=0.043) and ACD (p=0.024). Bar CR, the correlations were shown to be wholly attributable to variation in PV. Multiple linear regression indicated that the combination of AL and CR provided optimum R(2) values of 79.4% for TOV. Clinically useful estimations of ocular volume can be obtained from measurement of AL and CR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Correcting quantum errors with entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-10-20

    We show how entanglement shared between encoder and decoder can simplify the theory of quantum error correction. The entanglement-assisted quantum codes we describe do not require the dual-containing constraint necessary for standard quantum error-correcting codes, thus allowing us to "quantize" all of classical linear coding theory. In particular, efficient modern classical codes that attain the Shannon capacity can be made into entanglement-assisted quantum codes attaining the hashing bound (closely related to the quantum capacity). For systems without large amounts of shared entanglement, these codes can also be used as catalytic codes, in which a small amount of initial entanglement enables quantum communication.

  4. Human Error and Organizational Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecxandrina DEACONU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern for performance is a topic that raises interest in the businessenvironment but also in other areas that – even if they seem distant from thisworld – are aware of, interested in or conditioned by the economy development.As individual performance is very much influenced by the human resource, wechose to analyze in this paper the mechanisms that generate – consciously or not–human error nowadays.Moreover, the extremely tense Romanian context,where failure is rather a rule than an exception, made us investigate thephenomenon of generating a human error and the ways to diminish its effects.

  5. Preventing statistical errors in scientific journals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for a high prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology and other scientific fields. These errors display a systematic preference for statistically significant results, distorting the scientific literature. There are several possible causes for this systematic error

  6. A PCR-based protocol to accurately size C9orf72 intermediate-length alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Archetti, Silvana; Di Lorenzo, Diego; Merola, Francesca; Paiardi, Giulia; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Padovani, Alessandro; Filosto, Massimiliano; Bonvicini, Cristian; Caimi, Luigi; Zanella, Isabella

    2017-04-01

    Although large expansions of the non-coding GGGGCC repeat in C9orf72 gene are clearly defined as pathogenic for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD), intermediate-length expansions have also been associated with those and other neurodegenerative diseases. Intermediate-length allele sizing is complicated by intrinsic properties of current PCR-based methodologies, in that somatic mosaicism could be suspected. We designed a protocol that allows the exact sizing of intermediate-length alleles, as well as the identification of large expansions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A TALE-inspired computational screen for proteins that contain approximate tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perycz, Malgorzata; Krwawicz, Joanna; Bochtler, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors (TALEs) are bacterial proteins that are secreted from bacteria to plant cells to act as transcriptional activators. TALEs and related proteins (RipTALs, BurrH, MOrTL1 and MOrTL2) contain approximate tandem repeats that differ in conserved positions that define specificity. Using PERL, we screened ~47 million protein sequences for TALE-like architecture characterized by approximate tandem repeats (between 30 and 43 amino acids in length) and sequence variability in conserved positions, without requiring sequence similarity to TALEs. Candidate proteins were scored according to their propensity for nuclear localization, secondary structure, repeat sequence complexity, as well as covariation and predicted structural proximity of variable residues. Biological context was tentatively inferred from co-occurrence of other domains and interactome predictions. Approximate repeats with TALE-like features that merit experimental characterization were found in a protein of chestnut blight fungus, a eukaryotic plant pathogen.

  8. Prediction of the Length of Upcoming Solar Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakad, Bharati; Kakad, Amar; Ramesh, Durbha Sai

    2017-12-01

    The forecast of solar cycle (SC) characteristics is crucial particularly for several space-based missions. In the present study, we propose a new model for predicting the length of the SC. The model uses the information of the width of an autocorrelation function that is derived from the daily sunspot data for each SC. We tested the model on Versions 1 and 2 of the daily international sunspot number data for SCs 10 - 24. We found that the autocorrelation width Aw n of SC n during the second half of its ascending phase correlates well with the modified length that is defined as T_{cy}^{n+2} - Tan. Here T_{cy}^{n+2} and T_{ a}n are the length and ascent time of SCs n+2 and n, respectively. The estimated correlation coefficient between the model parameters is 0.93 (0.91) for Version 1 (Version 2) sunspot series. The standard errors in the observed and predicted lengths of the SCs for Version 1 and Version 2 data are 0.38 and 0.44 years, respectively. The advantage of the proposed model is that the predictions of the length of the upcoming two SCs ( i.e., n+1, n+2) are readily available at the time of the peak of SC n. The present model gives a forecast of 11.01, 10.52, and 11.91 years (11.01, 12.20, and 11.68 years) for the length of SCs 24, 25, and 26, respectively, for Version 1 (Version 2).

  9. Association between Refractive Errors and Ocular Biometry in Iranian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Miraftab, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between ocular biometrics such as axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), vitreous chamber depth (VCD) and corneal power (CP) with different refractive errors. Methods: In a cross-sectional study on the 40 to 64-year-old population of Shahroud, random cluster sampling was performed. Ocular biometrics were measured using the Allegro Biograph (WaveLight AG, Erlangen, Germany) for all participants. Refractive errors were determined using cycloplegic refraction. Results: In the first model, the strongest correlations were found between spherical equivalent with axial length and corneal power. Spherical equivalent was strongly correlated with axial length in high myopic and high hyperopic cases, and with corneal power in high hyperopic cases; 69.5% of variability in spherical equivalent was attributed to changes in these variables. In the second model, the correlations between vitreous chamber depth and corneal power with spherical equivalent were stronger in myopes than hyperopes, while the correlations between lens thickness and anterior chamber depth with spherical equivalent were stronger in hyperopic cases than myopic ones. In the third model, anterior chamber depth + lens thickness correlated with spherical equivalent only in moderate and severe cases of hyperopia, and this index was not correlated with spherical equivalent in moderate to severe myopia. Conclusion: In individuals aged 40-64 years, corneal power and axial length make the greatest contribution to spherical equivalent in high hyperopia and high myopia. Anterior segment biometric components have a more important role in hyperopia than myopia. PMID:26730304

  10. Accommodating error analysis in comparison and clustering of molecular fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, H; Segal, M R; Ponce de Leon, A; Small, P M

    1998-01-01

    Molecular epidemiologic studies of infectious diseases rely on pathogen genotype comparisons, which usually yield patterns comprising sets of DNA fragments (DNA fingerprints). We use a highly developed genotyping system, IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to develop a computational method that automates comparison of large numbers of fingerprints. Because error in fragment length measurements is proportional to fragment length and is positively correlated for fragments within a lane, an align-and-count method that compensates for relative scaling of lanes reliably counts matching fragments between lanes. Results of a two-step method we developed to cluster identical fingerprints agree closely with 5 years of computer-assisted visual matching among 1,335 M. tuberculosis fingerprints. Fully documented and validated methods of automated comparison and clustering will greatly expand the scope of molecular epidemiology.

  11. SimCommSys: taking the errors out of error-correcting code simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann A. Briffa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present SimCommSys, a simulator of communication systems that we are releasing under an open source license. The core of the project is a set of C + + libraries defining communication system components and a distributed Monte Carlo simulator. Of principal interest is the error-control coding component, where various kinds of binary and non-binary codes are implemented, including turbo, LDPC, repeat-accumulate and Reed–Solomon. The project also contains a number of ready-to-build binaries implementing various stages of the communication system (such as the encoder and decoder, a complete simulator and a system benchmark. Finally, SimCommSys also provides a number of shell and python scripts to encapsulate routine use cases. As long as the required components are already available in SimCommSys, the user may simulate complete communication systems of their own design without any additional programming. The strict separation of development (needed only to implement new components and use (to simulate specific constructions encourages reproducibility of experimental work and reduces the likelihood of error. Following an overview of the framework, we provide some examples of how to use the framework, including the implementation of a simple codec, the specification of communication systems and their simulation.

  12. Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: linking early adversity and cellular aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, SS; Theall, K; Gleason, MM; Smyke, AT; De Vivo, I; Wong, JYY; Fox, NA; Zeanah, CH; Nelson, CA

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated telomere length attrition has been associated with psychological stress and early adversity in adults; however, no studies have examined whether telomere length in childhood is associated with early experiences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a unique randomized controlled trial of foster care placement compared with continued care in institutions. As a result of the study design, participants were exposed to a quantified range of time in institutional care, and represented an ideal population in which to examine the association between a specific early adversity, institutional care and telomere length. We examined the association between average relative telomere length, telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number (T/S) ratio and exposure to institutional care quantified as the percent of time at baseline (mean age 22 months) and at 54 months of age that each child lived in the institution. A significant negative correlation between T/S ratio and percentage of time was observed. Children with greater exposure to institutional care had significantly shorter relative telomere length in middle childhood. Gender modified this main effect. The percentage of time in institutional care at baseline significantly predicted telomere length in females, whereas the percentage of institutional care at 54 months was strongly predictive of telomere length in males. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between telomere length and institutionalization, the first study to find an association between adversity and telomere length in children, and contributes to the growing literature linking telomere length and early adversity. PMID:21577215

  13. Repeat film analysis and its implications for quality assurance in dental radiology: An institutional case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Acharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The goal of any radiologist is to produce the highest quality diagnostic radiographs, while keeping patient exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA. Aims: The aim of this study was to describe the reasons for radiograph rejections through a repeat film analysis in an Indian dental school. Settings and Design: An observational study conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Materials and Methods: During a 6-month study period, a total of 9,495 intra-oral radiographs and 2339 extraoral radiographs taken in the Radiology Department were subjected to repeat film analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS Version 16. Descriptive analysis used. Results: The results showed that the repeat rates were 7.1% and 5.86% for intraoral and extraoral radiographs, respectively. Among the causes for errors reported, positioning error (38.7% was the most common, followed by improper angulations (26.1%, and improper film placement (11.2% for intra-oral radiographs. The study found that the maximum frequency of repeats among extraoral radiographs was for panoramic radiographs (49% followed by lateral cephalogram (33%, and paranasal sinus view (14%. It was also observed that repeat rate of intraoral radiographs was highest for internees (44.7%, and undergraduate students (28.2%. Conclusions: The study pointed to a need for more targeted interventions to achieve the goal of keeping patient exposure ALARA in a dental school setting.

  14. Development of analog watch with minute repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigami, Tomio; Aoyama, Shigeru; Osa, Takashi; Igarashi, Kiyotaka; Ikegami, Tomomi

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor with large scale integration was developed for an electronic minute repeater. It is equipped with the synthetic struck sound circuit to generate natural struck sound necessary for the minute repeater. This circuit consists of an envelope curve drawing circuit, frequency mixer, polyphonic mixer, and booster circuit made by using analog circuit technology. This large scale integration is a single chip microcomputer with motor drivers and input ports in addition to the synthetic struck sound circuit, and it is possible to make an electronic system of minute repeater at a very low cost in comparison with the conventional type.

  15. Medication errors in pediatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishoej, Rikke Mie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to describe medication errors (MEs) in hospitalized children reported to the national mandatory reporting and learning system, the Danish Patient Safety Database (DPSD). MEs were extracted from DPSD from the 5-year period of 2010–2014. We included reports from public hospitals on pati...... safety in pediatric inpatients.(Table presented.)...

  16. Learner Corpora without Error Tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastelli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the possibility of adopting a form-to-function perspective when annotating learner corpora in order to get deeper insights about systematic features of interlanguage. A split between forms and functions (or categories is desirable in order to avoid the "comparative fallacy" and because – especially in basic varieties – forms may precede functions (e.g., what resembles to a "noun" might have a different function or a function may show up in unexpected forms. In the computer-aided error analysis tradition, all items produced by learners are traced to a grid of error tags which is based on the categories of the target language. Differently, we believe it is possible to record and make retrievable both words and sequence of characters independently from their functional-grammatical label in the target language. For this purpose at the University of Pavia we adapted a probabilistic POS tagger designed for L1 on L2 data. Despite the criticism that this operation can raise, we found that it is better to work with "virtual categories" rather than with errors. The article outlines the theoretical background of the project and shows some examples in which some potential of SLA-oriented (non error-based tagging will be possibly made clearer.

  17. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  18. and Correlated Error-Regressor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    in queuing theory and econometrics, where the usual assumption of independent error terms may not be plausible in most cases. Also, when using time-series data on a number of micro-economic units, such as households and service oriented channels, where the stochastic disturbance terms in part reflect variables which ...

  19. Rank error-correcting pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Peñas, Umberto; Pellikaan, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Error-correcting pairs were introduced as a general method of decoding linear codes with respect to the Hamming metric using coordinatewise products of vectors, and are used for many well-known families of codes. In this paper, we define new types of vector products, extending the coordinatewise ...

  20. Clinical errors and medical negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebode, Femi

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the definition, nature and origins of clinical errors including their prevention. The relationship between clinical errors and medical negligence is examined as are the characteristics of litigants and events that are the source of litigation. The pattern of malpractice claims in different specialties and settings is examined. Among hospitalized patients worldwide, 3-16% suffer injury as a result of medical intervention, the most common being the adverse effects of drugs. The frequency of adverse drug effects appears superficially to be higher in intensive care units and emergency departments but once rates have been corrected for volume of patients, comorbidity of conditions and number of drugs prescribed, the difference is not significant. It is concluded that probably no more than 1 in 7 adverse events in medicine result in a malpractice claim and the factors that predict that a patient will resort to litigation include a prior poor relationship with the clinician and the feeling that the patient is not being kept informed. Methods for preventing clinical errors are still in their infancy. The most promising include new technologies such as electronic prescribing systems, diagnostic and clinical decision-making aids and error-resistant systems. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Finding errors in big data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puts, Marco; Daas, Piet; de Waal, A.G.

    No data source is perfect. Mistakes inevitably creep in. Spotting errors is hard enough when dealing with survey responses from several thousand people, but the difficulty is multiplied hugely when that mysterious beast Big Data comes into play. Statistics Netherlands is about to publish its first

  2. The Errors of Our Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Errors don't exist in our data, but they serve a vital function. Reality is complicated, but our models need to be simple in order to be manageable. We assume that attributes are invariant over some conditions of observation, and once we do that we need some way of accounting for the variability in observed scores over these conditions of…

  3. Cascade Error Projection Learning Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, T. A.; Stubberud, A. R.; Daud, T.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed mathematical analysis is presented for a new learning algorithm termed cascade error projection (CEP) and a general learning frame work. This frame work can be used to obtain the cascade correlation learning algorithm by choosing a particular set of parameters.

  4. Safe and effective error rate monitors for SS7 signaling links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes SS7 error monitor characteristics, discusses the existing SUERM (Signal Unit Error Rate Monitor), and develops the recently proposed EIM (Error Interval Monitor) for higher speed SS7 links. A SS7 error monitor is considered safe if it ensures acceptable link quality and is considered effective if it is tolerant to short-term phenomena. Formal criteria for safe and effective error monitors are formulated in this paper. This paper develops models of changeover transients, the unstable component of queue length resulting from errors. These models are in the form of recursive digital filters. Time is divided into sequential intervals. The filter's input is the number of errors which have occurred in each interval. The output is the corresponding change in transmit queue length. Engineered EIM's are constructed by comparing an estimated changeover transient with a threshold T using a transient model modified to enforce SS7 standards. When this estimate exceeds T, a changeover will be initiated and the link will be removed from service. EIM's can be differentiated from SUERM by the fact that EIM's monitor errors over an interval while SUERM's count errored messages. EIM's offer several advantages over SUERM's, including the fact that they are safe and effective, impose uniform standards in link quality, are easily implemented, and make minimal use of real-time resources.

  5. Repeatability of grasp recognition for robotic hand prosthesis control based on sEMG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francesca; Cognolato, Matteo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Muller, Henning; Caputo, Barbara; Atzori, Manfredo

    2017-07-01

    Control methods based on sEMG obtained promising results for hand prosthetics. Control system robustness is still often inadequate and does not allow the amputees to perform a large number of movements useful for everyday life. Only few studies analyzed the repeatability of sEMG classification of hand grasps. The main goals of this paper are to explore repeatability in sEMG data and to release a repeatability database with the recorded experiments. The data are recorded from 10 intact subjects repeating 7 grasps 12 times, twice a day for 5 days. The data are publicly available on the Ninapro web page. The analysis for the repeatability is based on the comparison of movement classification accuracy in several data acquisitions and for different subjects. The analysis is performed using mean absolute value and waveform length features and a Random Forest classifier. The accuracy obtained by training and testing on acquisitions at different times is on average 27.03% lower than training and testing on the same acquisition. The results obtained by training and testing on different acquisitions suggest that previous acquisitions can be used to train the classification algorithms. The inter-subject variability is remarkable, suggesting that specific characteristics of the subjects can affect repeatibility and sEMG classification accuracy. In conclusion, the results of this paper can contribute to develop more robust control systems for hand prostheses, while the presented data allows researchers to test repeatability in further analyses.

  6. TALEN-Induced Double-Strand Break Repair of CTG Trinucleotide Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Mosbach

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Trinucleotide repeat expansions involving CTG/CAG triplets are responsible for several neurodegenerative disorders, including myotonic dystrophy and Huntington’s disease. Because expansions trigger the disease, contracting repeat length could be a possible approach to gene therapy for these disorders. Here, we show that a TALEN-induced double-strand break was very efficient at contracting expanded CTG repeats in yeast. We show that RAD51, POL32, and DNL4 are dispensable for double-strand break repair within CTG repeats, the only required genes being RAD50, SAE2, and RAD52. Resection was totally abolished in the absence of RAD50 on both sides of the break, whereas it was reduced in a sae2Δ mutant on the side of the break containing the longest repeat tract, suggesting that secondary structures at double-strand break ends must be removed by the Mre11-Rad50 complex and Sae2. Following the TALEN double-strand break, single-strand annealing occurred between both sides of the repeat tract, leading to repeat contraction.

  7. Error and its meaning in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. The giant protein titin regulates the length of the striated muscle thick filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonino, Paola; Kiss, Balazs; Strom, Josh; Methawasin, Mei; Smith, John E; Kolb, Justin; Labeit, Siegfried; Granzier, Henk

    2017-10-19

    The contractile machinery of heart and skeletal muscles has as an essential component the thick filament, comprised of the molecular motor myosin. The thick filament is of a precisely controlled length, defining thereby the force level that muscles generate and how this force varies with muscle length. It has been speculated that the mechanism by which thick filament length is controlled involves the giant protein titin, but no conclusive support for this hypothesis exists. Here we show that in a mouse model in which we deleted two of titin's C-zone super-repeats, thick filament length is reduced in cardiac and skeletal muscles. In addition, functional studies reveal reduced force generation and a dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) phenotype. Thus, regulation of thick filament length depends on titin and is critical for maintaining muscle health.

  9. Repeatability and reproducibility of ribotyping and its computer interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefresne, Gwénola; Latrille, Eric; Irlinger, Françoise; Grimont, Patrick A D

    2004-04-01

    Many molecular typing methods are difficult to interpret because their repeatability (within-laboratory variance) and reproducibility (between-laboratory variance) have not been thoroughly studied. In the present work, ribotyping of coryneform bacteria was the basis of a study involving within-gel and between-gel repeatability and between-laboratory reproducibility (two laboratories involved). The effect of different technical protocols, different algorithms, and different software for fragment size determination was studied. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed, within a laboratory, that there was no significant added variance between gels. However, between-laboratory variance was significantly higher than within-laboratory variance. This may be due to the use of different protocols. An experimental function was calculated to transform the data and make them compatible (i.e., erase the between-laboratory variance). The use of different interpolation algorithms (spline, Schaffer and Sederoff) was a significant source of variation in one laboratory only. The use of either Taxotron (Institut Pasteur) or GelCompar (Applied Maths) was not a significant source of added variation when the same algorithm (spline) was used. However, the use of Bio-Gene (Vilber Lourmat) dramatically increased the error (within laboratory, within gel) in one laboratory, while decreasing the error in the other laboratory; this might be due to automatic normalization attempts. These results were taken into account for building a database and performing automatic pattern identification using Taxotron. Conversion of the data considerably improved the identification of patterns irrespective of the laboratory in which the data were obtained.

  10. A methodology for translating positional error into measures of attribute error, and combining the two error sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohay Carmel; Curtis Flather; Denis Dean

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes our efforts to investigate the nature, behavior, and implications of positional error and attribute error in spatiotemporal datasets. Estimating the combined influence of these errors on map analysis has been hindered by the fact that these two error types are traditionally expressed in different units (distance units, and categorical units,...

  11. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.

  12. Spectral Analysis of Forecast Error Investigated with an Observing System Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prive, N. C.; Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The spectra of analysis and forecast error are examined using the observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASAGMAO). A global numerical weather prediction model, the Global Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation, is cycled for two months with once-daily forecasts to 336 hours to generate a control case. Verification of forecast errors using the Nature Run as truth is compared with verification of forecast errors using self-analysis; significant underestimation of forecast errors is seen using self-analysis verification for up to 48 hours. Likewise, self analysis verification significantly overestimates the error growth rates of the early forecast, as well as mischaracterizing the spatial scales at which the strongest growth occurs. The Nature Run-verified error variances exhibit a complicated progression of growth, particularly for low wave number errors. In a second experiment, cycling of the model and data assimilation over the same period is repeated, but using synthetic observations with different explicitly added observation errors having the same error variances as the control experiment, thus creating a different realization of the control. The forecast errors of the two experiments become more correlated during the early forecast period, with correlations increasing for up to 72 hours before beginning to decrease.

  13. Blood specimen labelling errors: Implications for nephrology nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duteau, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is the foundation of high-quality health care, as recognized both nationally and worldwide. Patient blood specimen identification is critical in ensuring the delivery of safe and appropriate care. The practice of nephrology nursing involves frequent patient blood specimen withdrawals to treat and monitor kidney disease. A critical review of the literature reveals that incorrect patient identification is one of the major causes of blood specimen labelling errors. Misidentified samples create a serious risk to patient safety leading to multiple specimen withdrawals, delay in diagnosis, misdiagnosis, incorrect treatment, transfusion reactions, increased length of stay and other negative patient outcomes. Barcode technology has been identified as a preferred method for positive patient identification leading to a definitive decrease in blood specimen labelling errors by as much as 83% (Askeland, et al., 2008). The use of a root cause analysis followed by an action plan is one approach to decreasing the occurrence of blood specimen labelling errors. This article will present a review of the evidence-based literature surrounding blood specimen labelling errors, followed by author recommendations for completing a root cause analysis and action plan. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) will be presented as one method to determine root cause, followed by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU) as a framework for implementation of strategies to reduce blood specimen labelling errors.

  14. Neural network decoder for quantum error correcting codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastanov, Stefan; Jiang, Liang

    Artificial neural networks form a family of extremely powerful - albeit still poorly understood - tools used in anything from image and sound recognition through text generation to, in our case, decoding. We present a straightforward Recurrent Neural Network architecture capable of deducing the correcting procedure for a quantum error-correcting code from a set of repeated stabilizer measurements. We discuss the fault-tolerance of our scheme and the cost of training the neural network for a system of a realistic size. Such decoders are especially interesting when applied to codes, like the quantum LDPC codes, that lack known efficient decoding schemes.

  15. Relationship between photoreceptor outer segment length and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forooghian, Farzin; Stetson, Paul F; Meyer, Scott A; Chew, Emily Y; Wong, Wai T; Cukras, Catherine; Meyerle, Catherine B; Ferris, Frederick L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify photoreceptor outer segment (PROS) length in 27 consecutive patients (30 eyes) with diabetic macular edema using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and to describe the correlation between PROS length and visual acuity. Three spectral domain-optical coherence tomography scans were performed on all eyes during each session using Cirrus HD-OCT. A prototype algorithm was developed for quantitative assessment of PROS length. Retinal thicknesses and PROS lengths were calculated for 3 parameters: macular grid (6 x 6 mm), central subfield (1 mm), and center foveal point (0.33 mm). Intrasession repeatability was assessed using coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient. The association between retinal thickness and PROS length with visual acuity was assessed using linear regression and Pearson correlation analyses. The main outcome measures include intrasession repeatability of macular parameters and correlation of these parameters with visual acuity. Mean retinal thickness and PROS length were 298 mum to 381 microm and 30 microm to 32 mum, respectively, for macular parameters assessed in this study. Coefficient of variation values were 0.75% to 4.13% for retinal thickness and 1.97% to 14.01% for PROS length. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.96 to 0.99 and 0.73 to 0.98 for retinal thickness and PROS length, respectively. Slopes from linear regression analyses assessing the association of retinal thickness and visual acuity were not significantly different from 0 (P > 0.20), whereas the slopes of PROS length and visual acuity were significantly different from 0 (P < 0.0005). Correlation coefficients for macular thickness and visual acuity ranged from 0.13 to 0.22, whereas coefficients for PROS length and visual acuity ranged from -0.61 to -0.81. Photoreceptor outer segment length can be quantitatively assessed using Cirrus HD-OCT. Although the intrasession repeatability of PROS

  16. SSRscanner: a program for reporting distribution and exact location of simple sequence repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Tamanna; Khan, Asad U

    2006-02-20

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have become important molecular markers for a broad range of applications, such as genome mapping and characterization, phenotype mapping, marker assisted selection of crop plants and a range of molecular ecology and diversity studies. These repeated DNA sequences are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are distributed almost at random throughout the genome, ranging from mononucleotide to trinucleotide repeats. They are also found at longer lengths (> 6 repeating units) of tracts. Most of the computer programs that find SSRs do not report its exact position. A computer program SSRscanner was written to find out distribution, frequency and exact location of each SSR in the genome. SSRscanner is user friendly. It can search repeats of any length and produce outputs with their exact position on chromosome and their frequency of occurrence in the sequence. This program has been written in PERL and is freely available for non-commercial users by request from the authors. Please contact the authors by E-mail: huzzi99@hotmail.com.

  17. Influence of the gauge length on the accuracy of long-gauge sensors employed in monitoring of prismatic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glisic, Branko

    2011-01-01

    Depending on the geometric basis of measurement (gauge length), discrete strain sensors used in structural monitoring of civil engineering structures can be considered as short-gauge sensors or long-gauge sensors. Long-gauge sensors measure average strain over the gauge lengths and are used for global monitoring of structures, in particular, those built of inhomogeneous materials. However, the strain distribution along the sensor's gauge length may be nonlinear and the measured average strain value that is commonly attributed to the midpoint of the sensor may be different from the real value of strain at that point. Consequently, excessively long sensors may feature significant errors in measurement. However, short-gauge sensors are more susceptible to other types of measurement error, most notably, error caused by discontinuities (open cracks) distributed in the monitored material. Thus an optimum gauge length is to be found. The error in average strain measurement inherent to the sensor's gauge length introduced by the strain distribution and discontinuities in the monitored material is modelled for the most common applications met in civil engineering practice. The modelling takes into account the geometric properties of the monitored structure and various load cases. Guidelines for the selection of an appropriate gauge length are proposed, and tables for measurement error estimation are presented

  18. Evaluation of measurement precision errors at different bone density values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.; Wong, J.; Bartlett, M.; Lee, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The precision error commonly used in serial monitoring of BMD values using Dual Energy X Ray Absorptometry (DEXA) is 0.01-0.015g/cm - for both the L2 L4 lumbar spine and total femur. However, this limit is based on normal individuals with bone densities similar to the population mean. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate precision errors over the range of bone density values encountered in clinical practice. In 96 patients a BMD scan of the spine and femur was immediately repeated by the same technologist with the patient taken off the bed and repositioned between scans. Nine technologists participated. Values were obtained for the total femur and spine. Each value was classified as low range (0.75-1.05 g/cm ) and medium range (1.05- 1.35g/cm ) for the spine, low range (0.55 0. 85 g/cm ) and medium range (0.85-1.15 g/cm ) for the total femur. Results show that the precision error was significantly lower in the medium range for total femur results with the medium range value at 0.015 g/cm - and the low range at 0.025 g/cm - (p<0.01). No significant difference was found for the spine results. We also analysed precision errors between three technologists and found a significant difference (p=0.05) occurred between only two technologists and this was seen in the spine data only. We conclude that there is some evidence that the precision error increases at the outer limits of the normal bone density range. Also, the results show that having multiple trained operators does not greatly increase the BMD precision error. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  19. Discretization vs. Rounding Error in Euler's Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Carlos F.

    2011-01-01

    Euler's method for solving initial value problems is an excellent vehicle for observing the relationship between discretization error and rounding error in numerical computation. Reductions in stepsize, in order to decrease discretization error, necessarily increase the number of steps and so introduce additional rounding error. The problem is…

  20. Total Survey Error for Longitudinal Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynn, Peter; Lugtig, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the application of the total survey error paradigm to longitudinal surveys. Several aspects of survey error, and of the interactions between different types of error, are distinct in the longitudinal survey context. Furthermore, error trade-off decisions in survey design and

  1. Correcting for multivariate measurement error by regression calibration in meta-analyses of epidemiological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.

    2009-01-01

    Within-person variability in measured values of multiple risk factors can bias their associations with disease. The multivariate regression calibration (RC) approach can correct for such measurement error and has been applied to studies in which true values or independent repeat measurements of the

  2. Measurement error of a simplified protocol for quantitative sensory tests in chronic pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Monika; Biurrun Manresa, José; Limacher, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Large-scale application of Quantitative Sensory Tests (QST) is impaired by lacking standardized testing protocols. One unclear methodological aspect is the number of records needed to minimize measurement error. Traditionally, measurements are repeated 3 to 5 times...

  3. Learning Correct Responses and Errors in the Hebb Repetition Effect: Two Faces of the Same Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Mathieu; Lafond, Daniel; Tremblay, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    In a serial recall task, the "Hebb repetition effect" occurs when recall performance improves for a sequence repeated throughout the experimental session. This phenomenon has been replicated many times. Nevertheless, such cumulative learning seldom leads to perfect recall of the whole sequence, and errors persist. Here the authors report…

  4. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, David H

    2013-01-01

    Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort system in the United States; and review current and future solutions, including medical malpractice reform, alternative dispute resolution, health courts, and no-fault compensation systems. The current political environment favors investigation of non-cap tort reform remedies; investment into more rational oversight systems, such as health courts or no-fault systems may reap both quantitative and qualitative benefits for a less costly and safer health system. PMID:23426783

  5. Robot learning and error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, L.

    1977-01-01

    A model of robot learning is described that associates previously unknown perceptions with the sensed known consequences of robot actions. For these actions, both the categories of outcomes and the corresponding sensory patterns are incorporated in a knowledge base by the system designer. Thus the robot is able to predict the outcome of an action and compare the expectation with the experience. New knowledge about what to expect in the world may then be incorporated by the robot in a pre-existing structure whether it detects accordance or discrepancy between a predicted consequence and experience. Errors committed during plan execution are detected by the same type of comparison process and learning may be applied to avoiding the errors.

  6. Error studies of Halbach Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-02

    These error studies were done on the Halbach magnets for the CBETA “First Girder” as described in note [CBETA001]. The CBETA magnets have since changed slightly to the lattice in [CBETA009]. However, this is not a large enough change to significantly affect the results here. The QF and BD arc FFAG magnets are considered. For each assumed set of error distributions and each ideal magnet, 100 random magnets with errors are generated. These are then run through an automated version of the iron wire multipole cancellation algorithm. The maximum wire diameter allowed is 0.063” as in the proof-of-principle magnets. Initially, 32 wires (2 per Halbach wedge) are tried, then if this does not achieve 1e-­4 level accuracy in the simulation, 48 and then 64 wires. By “1e-4 accuracy”, it is meant the FOM defined by √(Σn≥sextupole an 2+bn 2) is less than 1 unit, where the multipoles are taken at the maximum nominal beam radius, R=23mm for these magnets. The algorithm initially uses 20 convergence interations. If 64 wires does not achieve 1e-­4 accuracy, this is increased to 50 iterations to check for slow converging cases. There are also classifications for magnets that do not achieve 1e-4 but do achieve 1e-3 (FOM ≤ 10 units). This is technically within the spec discussed in the Jan 30, 2017 review; however, there will be errors in practical shimming not dealt with in the simulation, so it is preferable to do much better than the spec in the simulation.

  7. [Errors in laboratory daily practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrose, C; Le Carrer, D

    2007-01-01

    Legislation set by GBEA (Guide de bonne exécution des analyses) requires that, before performing analysis, the laboratory directors have to check both the nature of the samples and the patients identity. The data processing of requisition forms, which identifies key errors, was established in 2000 and in 2002 by the specialized biochemistry laboratory, also with the contribution of the reception centre for biological samples. The laboratories follow a strict criteria of defining acceptability as a starting point for the reception to then check requisition forms and biological samples. All errors are logged into the laboratory database and analysis report are sent to the care unit specifying the problems and the consequences they have on the analysis. The data is then assessed by the laboratory directors to produce monthly or annual statistical reports. This indicates the number of errors, which are then indexed to patient files to reveal the specific problem areas, therefore allowing the laboratory directors to teach the nurses and enable corrective action.

  8. Technical errors in MR arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodler, Juerg

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses potential technical problems of MR arthrography. It starts with contraindications, followed by problems relating to injection technique, contrast material and MR imaging technique. For some of the aspects discussed, there is only little published evidence. Therefore, the article is based on the personal experience of the author and on local standards of procedures. Such standards, as well as medico-legal considerations, may vary from country to country. Contraindications for MR arthrography include pre-existing infection, reflex sympathetic dystrophy and possibly bleeding disorders, avascular necrosis and known allergy to contrast media. Errors in injection technique may lead to extra-articular collection of contrast agent or to contrast agent leaking from the joint space, which may cause diagnostic difficulties. Incorrect concentrations of contrast material influence image quality and may also lead to non-diagnostic examinations. Errors relating to MR imaging include delays between injection and imaging and inadequate choice of sequences. Potential solutions to the various possible errors are presented. (orig.)

  9. Technical errors in MR arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodler, Juerg [Orthopaedic University Hospital of Balgrist, Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-01-15

    This article discusses potential technical problems of MR arthrography. It starts with contraindications, followed by problems relating to injection technique, contrast material and MR imaging technique. For some of the aspects discussed, there is only little published evidence. Therefore, the article is based on the personal experience of the author and on local standards of procedures. Such standards, as well as medico-legal considerations, may vary from country to country. Contraindications for MR arthrography include pre-existing infection, reflex sympathetic dystrophy and possibly bleeding disorders, avascular necrosis and known allergy to contrast media. Errors in injection technique may lead to extra-articular collection of contrast agent or to contrast agent leaking from the joint space, which may cause diagnostic difficulties. Incorrect concentrations of contrast material influence image quality and may also lead to non-diagnostic examinations. Errors relating to MR imaging include delays between injection and imaging and inadequate choice of sequences. Potential solutions to the various possible errors are presented. (orig.)

  10. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  11. Topological quantum computing with a very noisy network and local error rates approaching one percent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Naomi H; Li, Ying; Benjamin, Simon C

    2013-01-01

    A scalable quantum computer could be built by networking together many simple processor cells, thus avoiding the need to create a single complex structure. The difficulty is that realistic quantum links are very error prone. A solution is for cells to repeatedly communicate with each other and so purify any imperfections; however prior studies suggest that the cells themselves must then have prohibitively low internal error rates. Here we describe a method by which even error-prone cells can perform purification: groups of cells generate shared resource states, which then enable stabilization of topologically encoded data. Given a realistically noisy network (≥10% error rate) we find that our protocol can succeed provided that intra-cell error rates for initialisation, state manipulation and measurement are below 0.82%. This level of fidelity is already achievable in several laboratory systems.

  12. Modeling the probability distribution of positional errors incurred by residential address geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazumdar Soumya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assignment of a point-level geocode to subjects' residences is an important data assimilation component of many geographic public health studies. Often, these assignments are made by a method known as automated geocoding, which attempts to match each subject's address to an address-ranged street segment georeferenced within a streetline database and then interpolate the position of the address along that segment. Unfortunately, this process results in positional errors. Our study sought to model the probability distribution of positional errors associated with automated geocoding and E911 geocoding. Results Positional errors were determined for 1423 rural addresses in Carroll County, Iowa as the vector difference between each 100%-matched automated geocode and its true location as determined by orthophoto and parcel information. Errors were also determined for 1449 60%-matched geocodes and 2354 E911 geocodes. Huge (> 15 km outliers occurred among the 60%-matched geocoding errors; outliers occurred for the other two types of geocoding errors also but were much smaller. E911 geocoding was more accurate (median error length = 44 m than 100%-matched automated geocoding (median error length = 168 m. The empirical distributions of positional errors associated with 100%-matched automated geocoding and E911 geocoding exhibited a distinctive Greek-cross shape and had many other interesting features that were not capable of being fitted adequately by a single bivariate normal or t distribution. However, mixtures of t distributions with two or three components fit the errors very well. Conclusion Mixtures of bivariate t distributions with few components appear to be flexible enough to fit many positional error datasets associated with geocoding, yet parsimonious enough to be feasible for nascent applications of measurement-error methodology to spatial epidemiology.

  13. On the accuracy of triple phase boundary lengths calculated from tomographic image data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Yakal-Kremski, Kyle; Wilson, James

    2014-01-01

    to systematic errors in TPB estimates. Here, two approaches for calculating the TPB density are compared to investigate how different TPB aspects such as curvature, orientation, and phase contact angles affect the results. The first approach applies a correction factor to the TPB length calculated by simply...

  14. A Short Introduction to Model Selection, Kolmogorov Complexity and Minimum Description Length (MDL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannen, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The concept of overtting in model selection is explained and demon- strated. After providing some background information on information theory and Kolmogorov complexity, we provide a short explanation of Minimum Description Length and error minimization. We conclude with a discussion of the typical

  15. The Length of a Pestle: A Class Exercise in Measurement and Statistical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines the simple exercise of measuring the length of an object as a concrete paradigm of the entire process of making chemical measurements and treating the resulting data. Discusses the procedure, significant figures, measurement error, spurious data, rejection of results, precision and accuracy, and student responses. (TW)

  16. Clock error models for simulation and estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meditch, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    Mathematical models for the simulation and estimation of errors in precision oscillators used as time references in satellite navigation systems are developed. The results, based on all currently known oscillator error sources, are directly implementable on a digital computer. The simulation formulation is sufficiently flexible to allow for the inclusion or exclusion of individual error sources as desired. The estimation algorithms, following from Kalman filter theory, provide directly for the error analysis of clock errors in both filtering and prediction

  17. MSDB: A Comprehensive Database of Simple Sequence Repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avvaru, Akshay Kumar; Saxena, Saketh; Sowpati, Divya Tej; Mishra, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Microsatellites, also known as Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs), are short tandem repeats of 1-6 nt motifs present in all genomes, particularly eukaryotes. Besides their usefulness as genome markers, SSRs have been shown to perform important regulatory functions, and variations in their length at coding regions are linked to several disorders in humans. Microsatellites show a taxon-specific enrichment in eukaryotic genomes, and some may be functional. MSDB (Microsatellite Database) is a collection of >650 million SSRs from 6,893 species including Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, Plants, and Animals. This database is by far the most exhaustive resource to access and analyze SSR data of multiple species. In addition to exploring data in a customizable tabular format, users can view and compare the data of multiple species simultaneously using our interactive plotting system. MSDB is developed using the Django framework and MySQL. It is freely available at http://tdb.ccmb.res.in/msdb. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Kinematic repeatability of a multi-segment foot model for dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sarah L; Sato, Nahoko; Hopper, Luke S

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intra and inter-assessor repeatability of a modified Rizzoli Foot Model for analysing the foot kinematics of ballet dancers. Six university-level ballet dancers performed the movements; parallel stance, turnout plié, turnout stance, turnout rise and flex-point-flex. The three-dimensional (3D) position of individual reflective markers and marker triads was used to model the movement of the dancers' tibia, entire foot, hindfoot, midfoot, forefoot and hallux. Intra and inter-assessor reliability demonstrated excellent (ICC ≥ 0.75) repeatability for the first metatarsophalangeal joint in the sagittal plane. Intra-assessor reliability demonstrated excellent (ICC ≥ 0.75) repeatability during flex-point-flex across all inter-segmental angles except for the tibia-hindfoot and hindfoot-midfoot frontal planes. Inter-assessor repeatability ranged from poor to excellent (0.5 > ICC ≥ 0.75) for the 3D segment rotations. The most repeatable measure was the tibia-foot dorsiflexion/plantar flexion articulation whereas the least repeatable measure was the hindfoot-midfoot adduction/abduction articulation. The variation found in the inter-assessor results is likely due to inconsistencies in marker placement. This 3D dance specific multi-segment foot model provides insight into which kinematic measures can be reliably used to ascertain in vivo technical errors and/or biomechanical abnormalities in a dancer's foot motion.

  19. Sexual Dimorphism and Estimation of Height from Body Length Anthropometric Parameters among the Hausa Ethnic Group of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Aliyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the sexual dimorphism in length and other anthropometric parameters. To also generate formulae for height estimation using anthropometric measurements of some length parameters among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 500 subjects participated in this study which was mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 16-27 years, anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard protocols. It was observed that there was significant sexual dimorphism in all the parameters except for body mass index. In all the parameters males tend to have significantly (P < 0.05 higher mean values except biaxillary distances. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length, followed by knee height, thigh length, sitting height, hand length, foot length, humeral length, forearm length and weight respectively. There were weak and positive correlations between height and neck length as well as biaxillary length. The demi span length showed the strongest correlation coefficient and low standard error of estimate indicating the strong estimation ability than other parameters. The combination of two parameters tends to give better estimations and low standard error of estimates, so also combining the three parameters gives better estimations with a lower standard error of estimates. The better correlation coefficient was also observed with the double and triple parameters respectively. Male Hausa tend to have larger body proportion compared to female. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length. Body length anthropometric proved to be useful in estimation of stature among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna state Nigeria.

  20. Alu repeats as markers for human population genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bazan, H. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Medical Center] [and others

    1993-09-01

    The Human-Specific (HS) subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of 500 nearly identical members which are almost exclusively restricted to the human genome. Individual subfamily members share an average of 97.9% nucleotide identity with each other and an average of 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS subfamily consensus sequence. HS Alu family members are thought to be derived from a single source ``master`` gene, and have an average age of 2.8 million years. We have developed a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay using primers complementary to the 5 in. and 3 in. unique flanking DNA sequences from each HS Alu that allows the locus to be assayed for the presence or absence of an Alu repeat. Individual HS Alu sequences were found to be either monomorphic or dimorphic for the presence or absence of each repeat. The monomorphic HS Alu family members inserted in the human genome after the human/great ape divergence (which is thought to have occurred 4--6 million years ago), but before the radiation of modem man. The dimorphic HS Alu sequences inserted in the human genome after the radiation of modem man (within the last 200,000-one million years) and represent a unique source of information for human population genetics and forensic DNA analyses. These sites can be developed into Dimorphic Alu Sequence Tagged Sites (DASTS) for the Human Genome Project as well. HS Alu family member insertion dimorphism differs from other types of polymorphism (e.g. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat [VNTR] or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism [RFLP]) because individuals share HS Alu family member insertions based upon identity by descent from a common ancestor as a result of a single event which occurred one time within the human population. The VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms may arise multiple times within a population and are identical by state only.

  1. Correcting for multivariate measurement error by regression calibration in meta-analyses of epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Within-person variability in measured values of multiple risk factors can bias their associations with disease. The multivariate regression calibration (RC) approach can correct for such measurement error and has been applied to studies in which true values or independent repeat measurements...... of the risk factors are observed on a subsample. We extend the multivariate RC techniques to a meta-analysis framework where multiple studies provide independent repeat measurements and information on disease outcome. We consider the cases where some or all studies have repeat measurements, and compare study......-specific, averaged and empirical Bayes estimates of RC parameters. Additionally, we allow for binary covariates (e.g. smoking status) and for uncertainty and time trends in the measurement error corrections. Our methods are illustrated using a subset of individual participant data from prospective long-term studies...

  2. Effect of altering starting length and activation timing of muscle on fiber strain and muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Timothy A; Herzog, Walter

    2006-05-01

    Muscle strain injuries are some of the most frequent injuries in sports and command a great deal of attention in an effort to understand their etiology. These injuries may be the culmination of a series of subcellular events accumulated through repetitive lengthening (eccentric) contractions during exercise, and they may be influenced by a variety of variables including fiber strain magnitude, peak joint torque, and starting muscle length. To assess the influence of these variables on muscle injury magnitude in vivo, we measured fiber dynamics and joint torque production during repeated stretch-shortening cycles in the rabbit tibialis anterior muscle, at short and long muscle lengths, while varying the timing of activation before muscle stretch. We found that a muscle subjected to repeated stretch-shortening cycles of constant muscle-tendon unit excursion exhibits significantly different joint torque and fiber strains when the timing of activation or starting muscle length is changed. In particular, measures of fiber strain and muscle injury were significantly increased by altering activation timing and increasing the starting length of the muscle. However, we observed differential effects on peak joint torque during the cyclic stretch-shortening exercise, as increasing the starting length of the muscle did not increase torque production. We conclude that altering activation timing and muscle length before stretch may influence muscle injury by significantly increasing fiber strain magnitude and that fiber dynamics is a more important variable than muscle-tendon unit dynamics and torque production in influencing the magnitude of muscle injury.

  3. Error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, J.H.W.

    1981-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods have been widely applied to problems in nuclear physics, mathematical reliability, communication theory, and other areas. The work in this thesis is developed mainly with neutron transport applications in mind. For nuclear reactor and many other applications, random walk processes have been used to estimate multi-dimensional integrals and obtain information about the solution of integral equations. When the analysis is statistically based such calculations are often costly, and the development of efficient estimation techniques plays a critical role in these applications. All of the error reduction techniques developed in this work are applied to model problems. It is found that the nearly optimal parameters selected by the analytic method for use with GWAN estimator are nearly identical to parameters selected by the multistage method. Modified path length estimation (based on the path length importance measure) leads to excellent error reduction in all model problems examined. Finally, it should be pointed out that techniques used for neutron transport problems may be transferred easily to other application areas which are based on random walk processes. The transport problems studied in this dissertation provide exceptionally severe tests of the error reduction potential of any sampling procedure. It is therefore expected that the methods of this dissertation will prove useful in many other application areas

  4. SU-E-T-195: Gantry Angle Dependency of MLC Leaf Position Error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, S; Hong, C; Kim, M; Chung, K; Kim, J; Han, Y; Ahn, S; Chung, S; Shin, E; Shin, J; Kim, H; Kim, D; Choi, D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the gantry angle dependency of the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position error. Methods: An automatic MLC quality assurance system (AutoMLCQA) was developed to evaluate the gantry angle dependency of the MLC leaf position error using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). To eliminate the EPID position error due to gantry rotation, we designed a reference maker (RM) that could be inserted into the wedge mount. After setting up the EPID, a reference image was taken of the RM using an open field. Next, an EPID-based picket-fence test (PFT) was performed without the RM. These procedures were repeated at every 45° intervals of the gantry angle. A total of eight reference images and PFT image sets were analyzed using in-house software. The average MLC leaf position error was calculated at five pickets (-10, -5, 0, 5, and 10 cm) in accordance with general PFT guidelines using in-house software. This test was carried out for four linear accelerators. Results: The average MLC leaf position errors were within the set criterion of <1 mm (actual errors ranged from -0.7 to 0.8 mm) for all gantry angles, but significant gantry angle dependency was observed in all machines. The error was smaller at a gantry angle of 0° but increased toward the positive direction with gantry angle increments in the clockwise direction. The error reached a maximum value at a gantry angle of 90° and then gradually decreased until 180°. In the counter-clockwise rotation of the gantry, the same pattern of error was observed but the error increased in the negative direction. Conclusion: The AutoMLCQA system was useful to evaluate the MLC leaf position error for various gantry angles without the EPID position error. The Gantry angle dependency should be considered during MLC leaf position error analysis.

  5. Observations of geographically correlated orbit errors for TOPEX/Poseidon using the global positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, E. J.; Haines, B. J.; Mccoll, K. C.; Nerem, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    We have compared Global Positioning System (GPS)-based dynamic and reduced-dynamic TOPEX/Poseidon orbits over three 10-day repeat cycles of the ground-track. The results suggest that the prelaunch joint gravity model (JGM-1) introduces geographically correlated errors (GCEs) which have a strong meridional dependence. The global distribution and magnitude of these GCEs are consistent with a prelaunch covariance analysis, with estimated and predicted global rms error statistics of 2.3 and 2.4 cm rms, respectively. Repeating the analysis with the post-launch joint gravity model (JGM-2) suggests that a portion of the meridional dependence observed in JGM-1 still remains, with global rms error of 1.2 cm.

  6. Righting errors in writing errors: the Wing and Baddeley (1980) spelling error corpus revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Alan M; Baddeley, Alan D

    2009-03-01

    We present a new analysis of our previously published corpus of handwriting errors (slips) using the proportional allocation algorithm of Machtynger and Shallice (2009). As previously, the proportion of slips is greater in the middle of the word than at the ends, however, in contrast to before, the proportion is greater at the end than at the beginning of the word. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis of memory effects in a graphemic output buffer.

  7. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  8. Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O

  9. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  10. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  11. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  12. Validity and repeatability of inertial measurement units for measuring gait parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Edward P; Kalyanaraman, Tarun; Adamczyk, Peter G; Claflin, Edward S; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2017-06-01

    Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are small wearable sensors that have tremendous potential to be applied to clinical gait analysis. They allow objective evaluation of gait and movement disorders outside the clinic and research laboratory, and permit evaluation on large numbers of steps. However, repeatability and validity data of these systems are sparse for gait metrics. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and between-day repeatability of spatiotemporal metrics (gait speed, stance percent, swing percent, gait cycle time, stride length, cadence, and step duration) as measured with the APDM Opal IMUs and Mobility Lab system. We collected data on 39 healthy subjects. Subjects were tested over two days while walking on a standard treadmill, split-belt treadmill, or overground, with IMUs placed in two locations: both feet and both ankles. The spatiotemporal measurements taken with the IMU system were validated against data from an instrumented treadmill, or using standard clinical procedures. Repeatability and minimally detectable change (MDC) of the system was calculated between days. IMUs displayed high to moderate validity when measuring most of the gait metrics tested. Additionally, these measurements appear to be repeatable when used on the treadmill and overground. The foot configuration of the IMUs appeared to better measure gait parameters; however, both the foot and ankle configurations demonstrated good repeatability. In conclusion, the IMU system in this study appears to be both accurate and repeatable for measuring spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver’s cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51–71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction

  14. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubuchon, Adam C.; Chan, Michael D.; Lovato, James F.; Balamucki, Christopher J.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80–90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60–90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  15. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  16. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  17. Two developmentally temporal quantitative trait loci underlie convergent evolution of increased branchial bone length in sticklebacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Priscilla A.; Glazer, Andrew M.; Cleves, Phillip A.; Smith, Alyson S.; Miller, Craig T.

    2014-01-01

    In convergent evolution, similar phenotypes evolve repeatedly in independent populations, often reflecting adaptation to similar environments. Understanding whether convergent evolution proceeds via similar or different genetic and developmental mechanisms offers insight towards the repeatability and predictability of evolution. Oceanic populations of threespine stickleback fish, Gasterosteus aculeatus, have repeatedly colonized countless freshwater lakes and streams, where new diets lead to morphological adaptations related to feeding. Here, we show that heritable increases in branchial bone length have convergently evolved in two independently derived freshwater stickleback populations. In both populations, an increased bone growth rate in juveniles underlies the convergent adult phenotype, and one population also has a longer cartilage template. Using F2 crosses from these two freshwater populations, we show that two quantitative trait loci (QTL) control branchial bone length at distinct points in development. In both populations, a QTL on chromosome 21 controls bone length throughout juvenile development, and a QTL on chromosome 4 controls bone length only in adults. In addition to these similar developmental profiles, these QTL show similar chromosomal locations in both populations. Our results suggest that sticklebacks have convergently evolved longer branchial bones using similar genetic and developmental programmes in two independently derived populations. PMID:24966315

  18. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi; Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

  19. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author).

  20. An adaptive orienting theory of error processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2018-03-01

    The ability to detect and correct action errors is paramount to safe and efficient goal-directed behaviors. Existing work on the neural underpinnings of error processing and post-error behavioral adaptations has led to the development of several mechanistic theories of error processing. These theories can be roughly grouped into adaptive and maladaptive theories. While adaptive theories propose that errors trigger a cascade of processes that will result in improved behavior after error commission, maladaptive theories hold that error commission momentarily impairs behavior. Neither group of theories can account for all available data, as different empirical studies find both impaired and improved post-error behavior. This article attempts a synthesis between the predictions made by prominent adaptive and maladaptive theories. Specifically, it is proposed that errors invoke a nonspecific cascade of processing that will rapidly interrupt and inhibit ongoing behavior and cognition, as well as orient attention toward the source of the error. It is proposed that this cascade follows all unexpected action outcomes, not just errors. In the case of errors, this cascade is followed by error-specific, controlled processing, which is specifically aimed at (re)tuning the existing task set. This theory combines existing predictions from maladaptive orienting and bottleneck theories with specific neural mechanisms from the wider field of cognitive control, including from error-specific theories of adaptive post-error processing. The article aims to describe the proposed framework and its implications for post-error slowing and post-error accuracy, propose mechanistic neural circuitry for post-error processing, and derive specific hypotheses for future empirical investigations. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. WACC: Definition, misconceptions and errors

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The WACC is just the rate at which the Free Cash Flows must be discounted to obtain the same result as in the valuation using Equity Cash Flows discounted at the required return to equity (Ke) The WACC is neither a cost nor a required return: it is a weighted average of a cost and a required return. To refer to the WACC as the "cost of capital" may be misleading because it is not a cost. The paper includes 7 errors due to not remembering the definition of WACC and shows the relationship betwe...

  2. Wavefront error sensing for LDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Eldred F.; Glavich, T. A.

    1988-01-01

    Wavefront sensing is a significant aspect of the LDR control problem and requires attention at an early stage of the control system definition and design. A combination of a Hartmann test for wavefront slope measurement and an interference test for piston errors of the segments was examined and is presented as a point of departure for further discussion. The assumption is made that the wavefront sensor will be used for initial alignment and periodic alignment checks but that it will not be used during scientific observations. The Hartmann test and the interferometric test are briefly examined.

  3. Range walk error correction and modeling on Pseudo-random photon counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shanshan; Chen, Qian; He, Weiji

    2017-08-01

    Signal to noise ratio and depth accuracy are modeled for the pseudo-random ranging system with two random processes. The theoretical results, developed herein, capture the effects of code length and signal energy fluctuation are shown to agree with Monte Carlo simulation measurements. First, the SNR is developed as a function of the code length. Using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GMAPDs), longer code length is proven to reduce the noise effect and improve SNR. Second, the Cramer-Rao lower bound on range accuracy is derived to justify that longer code length can bring better range accuracy. Combined with the SNR model and CRLB model, it is manifested that the range accuracy can be improved by increasing the code length to reduce the noise-induced error. Third, the Cramer-Rao lower bound on range accuracy is shown to converge to the previously published theories and introduce the Gauss range walk model to range accuracy. Experimental tests also converge to the presented boundary model in this paper. It has been proven that depth error caused by the fluctuation of the number of detected photon counts in the laser echo pulse leads to the depth drift of Time Point Spread Function (TPSF). Finally, numerical fitting function is used to determine the relationship between the depth error and the photon counting ratio. Depth error due to different echo energy is calibrated so that the corrected depth accuracy is improved to 1cm.

  4. Missing dosages and neuroleptic usage may prolong length of stay in hospitalized Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martinez-Ramirez

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease patients are more likely to be hospitalized, have higher rates of hospital complications, and have an increased risk of deterioration during hospitalization. Length of stay is an important underlying factor for these increased risks. We aimed to investigate potential medication errors that may occur during hospitalization and its impact on length of hospital stay.A cross-sectional chart review of 339 consecutive hospital encounters from 212 PD subjects was performed. Medication errors were defined as wrong timing or omission of administration for dopaminergic drugs and administration of contraindicated dopamine blockers. An analysis of covariance was applied to examine whether these medication errors were related to increased length of hospital stays.A significant effect for dopaminergic administration (p<0.01 on length of hospital stay was observed. Subjects who had delayed administration or missed at least one dose stayed longer (M=8.2 days, SD=8.9 vs. M=3.6 days SD=3.4. Contraindicated dopamine blocking agents were administered in 23% (71/339 of cases, and this was also significantly related to an increased length of stay (M=8.2 days, SD=8.9 vs. M=3.6 days SD=3.4, p<0.05. Participants who received a contraindicated dopamine blocker stayed in the hospital longer (M=7.5 days, SD=9.1 compared to those who did not (M=5.9 days, SD=6.8. Neurologists were consulted in 24.5% of encounters. Specialty consultation had no effect on the medication related errors.Missing dopaminergic dosages and administration of dopamine blockers occur frequently in hospitalized Parkinson's disease patients and this may impact length of stay. These potentially modifiable factors may reduce the risk of a longer stay related to hospitalization.

  5. Factors related to axial length elongation and myopia progression in orthokeratology practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate which baseline factors are predictive for axial length growth over an average period of 2.5 years in a group of children wearing orthokeratology (OK contact lenses.In this retrospective study, the clinical records of 249 new OK wearers between January 2012 and December 2013 from the contact lens clinic at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were reviewed. The primary outcome measure was axial length change from baseline to the time of review (July-August 2015. Independent variables included baseline measures of age at initiation of OK wear, gender, refractive error (spherical equivalent, astigmatism, average keratometry, corneal toricity, central corneal thickness, white-to-white corneal diameter, pupil size, corneal topography eccentricity value (e-value, intraocular pressure (IOP and total time in follow-up (months total. The contributions of all independent variables on axial length change at the time of review were assessed using univariate and multivariable regression analyses.Univariate analyses of the right eyes of 249 OK patients showed that smaller increases in axial length were associated with older age at the onset of OK lens wear, greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error, less time in follow-up and a smaller e-value. Multivariable analyses of the significant right eye variables showed that the factors associated with smaller axial length growth were older age at the onset of OK lens wear (p<0.0001, greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error (p = 0.0046 and less time in follow-up (p<0.0001.The baseline factors demonstrating the greatest correlation with reduced axial length elongation during OK lens wear in myopic children included greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error and older age at the onset of OK lens wear.

  6. Calculation of the KIc using the average increase in crack length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uskov, E.I.; Babak, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    The test results from high temperature tensile testing of tungsten specimens were analytically examined. The specimens were tested for crack resistance over the temperature range 2200 C down to the temperature of embrittlement. The critical stress intensity factor (KIc) was selected as the controlling parameter for determining the resistance to cracking. Although KIc values are normally obtained by repeatedly removing the specimens from the test chamber and assaying the crack lengths, a correction coefficient was defined in order to accommodate the use of the specimen for performing fracture toughness trials at different temperatures without repeatedly removing the specimen from the test chamber. 8 references

  7. Medical errors in hospitalized pediatric trauma patients with chronic health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compares medical errors in pediatric trauma patients with and without chronic conditions. Methods: The 2009 Kids’ Inpatient Database, which included 123,303 trauma discharges, was analyzed. Medical errors were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. The medical error rates per 100 discharges and per 1000 hospital days were calculated and compared between inpatients with and without chronic conditions. Results: Pediatric trauma patients with chronic conditions experienced a higher medical error rate compared with patients without chronic conditions: 4.04 (95% confidence interval: 3.75–4.33 versus 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.98–1.16 per 100 discharges. The rate of medical error differed by type of chronic condition. After controlling for confounding factors, the presence of a chronic condition increased the adjusted odds ratio of medical error by 37% if one chronic condition existed (adjusted odds ratio: 1.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.21–1.5, and 69% if more than one chronic condition existed (adjusted odds ratio: 1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.48–1.53. In the adjusted model, length of stay had the strongest association with medical error, but the adjusted odds ratio for chronic conditions and medical error remained significantly elevated even when accounting for the length of stay, suggesting that medical complexity has a role in medical error. Higher adjusted odds ratios were seen in other subgroups. Conclusion: Chronic conditions are associated with significantly higher rate of medical errors in pediatric trauma patients. Future research should evaluate interventions or guidelines for reducing the risk of medical errors in pediatric trauma patients with chronic conditions.

  8. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function after repeated freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Esteso, M C; Pradiee, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; O'Brien, E; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Martínez-Nevado, E; Delclaux, M; Fernández-Morán, J; Zhihe, Z

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the effects of subsequent cycles of freezing-thawing on giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) sperm morphometry and function, and assesses whether density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) can increase the number of freezing-thawing cycles this sperm can withstand. A sperm sample was collected by electroejaculation from a mature giant panda and subjected to five freezing-thawing cycles. Although repeated freezing-thawing negatively affected (P 60% of the sperm cells in both treatments showed acrosome integrity even after the fifth freezing cycle. In fresh semen, the sperm head length was 4.7 μm, the head width 3.6 μm, area 14.3 μm(2) and perimeter length 14.1 μm. The present results suggest that giant panda sperm trends to be resistant to repeated freezing-thawing, even without DGC selection. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Adaptive subdivision and the length and energy of Bézier curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    1997-01-01

    It is an often used fact that the control polygon of a Bézier curve approximates the curve and that the approximation gets better when the curve is subdivided. In particular, if a Bézier curve is subdivided into some number of pieces, then the arc-length of the original curve is greater than...... the sum of the chord-lengths of the pieces, and less than the sum of the polygon-lengths of the pieces. Under repeated subdivisions, the difference between this lower and upper bound gets arbitrarily small.If $L_c$ denotes the total chord-length of the pieces and $L_p$ denotes the total polygon...... combination, and it forms the basis for a fast adaptive algorithm, which determines the arc-length of a Bézier curve.The energy of a curve is half the square of the curvature integrated with respect to arc-length. Like in the case of the arc-length, it is possible to use the chord-length and polygon...

  10. Transmission efficiency of neutron guide tube with alignment errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Masanobu; Harami, Taikan; Takahashi, Hidetake; Onishi, Nobuaki

    1990-01-01

    The experimental studies on the neutron transmission efficiencies of neutron guide tubes were carried out by using thermal neutrons from the JAERI electron linac. The neutron guide tube facility on a large scale have been planned on the reconstructed JRR-3 in JAERI. The neutron efficiencies of the 1/10 scale neutron guide tube, which is 2 mm width and 1.8 m length, with and without appreciable alignment errors were studied to evaluate the efficiencies of the planned ones. Calculated results by the Neutron Guide Tube Analysis Code 'NEUGT' were also assessed by these neutron experiments. The experimental results agree well with the calculated results by 'NEUGT' even with alignment errors. From this experimental study, the efficiency of the planned neutron guide tubes is estimated to be good enough for the neutron beam experiments. (author)

  11. Human decision error (HUMDEE) trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrom, L.T.

    1993-01-01

    Graphical presentations of human actions in incident and accident sequences have been used for many years. However, for the most part, human decision making has been underrepresented in these trees. This paper presents a method of incorporating the human decision process into graphical presentations of incident/accident sequences. This presentation is in the form of logic trees. These trees are called Human Decision Error Trees or HUMDEE for short. The primary benefit of HUMDEE trees is that they graphically illustrate what else the individuals involved in the event could have done to prevent either the initiation or continuation of the event. HUMDEE trees also present the alternate paths available at the operator decision points in the incident/accident sequence. This is different from the Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) event trees. There are many uses of these trees. They can be used for incident/accident investigations to show what other courses of actions were available and for training operators. The trees also have a consequence component so that not only the decision can be explored, also the consequence of that decision

  12. Apology for errors: whose responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leape, Lucian L

    2012-01-01

    When things go wrong during a medical procedure, patients' expectations are fairly straightforward: They expect an explanation of what happened, an apology if an error was made, and assurance that something will be done to prevent it from happening to another patient. Patients have a right to full disclosure; it is also therapeutic in relieving their anxiety. But if they have been harmed by our mistake, they also need an apology to maintain trust. Apology conveys respect, mutual suffering, and responsibility. Meaningful apology requires that the patient's physician and the institution both take responsibility, show remorse, and make amends. As the patient's advocate, the physician must play the lead role. However, as custodian of the systems, the hospital has primary responsibility for the mishap, for preventing that error in the future, and for compensation. The responsibility for making all this happen rests with the CEO. The hospital must have policies and practices that ensure that every injured patient is treated the way we would want to be treated ourselves--openly, honestly, with compassion, and, when indicated, with an apology and compensation. To make that happen, hospitals need to greatly expand training of physicians and others, and develop support programs for patients and caregivers.

  13. Error exponents for entanglement concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Koashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Keiji; Morikoshi, Fumiaki; Winter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Consider entanglement concentration schemes that convert n identical copies of a pure state into a maximally entangled state of a desired size with success probability being close to one in the asymptotic limit. We give the distillable entanglement, the number of Bell pairs distilled per copy, as a function of an error exponent, which represents the rate of decrease in failure probability as n tends to infinity. The formula fills the gap between the least upper bound of distillable entanglement in probabilistic concentration, which is the well-known entropy of entanglement, and the maximum attained in deterministic concentration. The method of types in information theory enables the detailed analysis of the distillable entanglement in terms of the error rate. In addition to the probabilistic argument, we consider another type of entanglement concentration scheme, where the initial state is deterministically transformed into a (possibly mixed) final state whose fidelity to a maximally entangled state of a desired size converges to one in the asymptotic limit. We show that the same formula as in the probabilistic argument is valid for the argument on fidelity by replacing the success probability with the fidelity. Furthermore, we also discuss entanglement yield when optimal success probability or optimal fidelity converges to zero in the asymptotic limit (strong converse), and give the explicit formulae for those cases

  14. Telomere Length Dynamics and the Evolution of Cancer Genome Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kez Cleal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are progressively eroded during repeated rounds of cell division due to the end replication problem but also undergo additional more substantial stochastic shortening events. In most cases, shortened telomeres induce a cell-cycle arrest or trigger apoptosis, although for those cells that bypass such signals during tumour progression, a critical length threshold is reached at which telomere dysfunction may ensue. Dysfunction of the telomere nucleoprotein complex can expose free chromosome ends to the DNA double-strand break (DSB repair machinery, leading to telomere fusion with both telomeric and non-telomeric loci. The consequences of telomere fusions in promoting genome instability have long been appreciated through the breakage–fusion–bridge (BFB cycle mechanism, although recent studies using high-throughput sequencing technologies have uncovered evidence of involvement in a wider spectrum of genomic rearrangements including chromothripsis. A critical step in cancer progression is the transition of a clone to immortality, through the stabilisation of the telomere repeat array. This can be achieved via the reactivation of telomerase, or the induction of the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT pathway. Whilst telomere dysfunction may promote genome instability and tumour progression, by limiting the replicative potential of a cell and enforcing senescence, telomere shortening can act as a tumour suppressor mechanism. However, the burden of senescent cells has also been implicated as a driver of ageing and age-related pathology, and in the promotion of cancer through inflammatory signalling. Considering the critical role of telomere length in governing cancer biology, we review questions related to the prognostic value of studying the dynamics of telomere shortening and fusion, and discuss mechanisms and consequences of telomere-induced genome rearrangements.

  15. Measurement error models with interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midthune, Douglas; Carroll, Raymond J.; Freedman, Laurence S.; Kipnis, Victor

    2016-01-01

    An important use of measurement error models is to correct regression models for bias due to covariate measurement error. Most measurement error models assume that the observed error-prone covariate (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$W$\\end{document}) is a linear function of the unobserved true covariate (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$X$\\end{document}) plus other covariates (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$Z$\\end{document}) in the regression model. In this paper, we consider models for \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$W$\\end{document} that include interactions between \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$X$\\end{document} and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$Z$\\end{document}. We derive the conditional distribution of

  16. Vocal tract length and formant frequency dispersion correlate with body size in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W T

    1997-08-01

    Body weight, length, and vocal tract length were measured for 23 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of various sizes using radiographs and computer graphic techniques. linear predictive coding analysis of tape-recorded threat vocalizations were used to determine vocal tract resonance frequencies ("formants") for the same animals. A new acoustic variable is proposed, "formant dispersion," which should theoretically depend upon vocal tract length. Formant dispersion is the averaged difference between successive formant frequencies, and was found to be closely tied to both vocal tract length and body size. Despite the common claim that voice fundamental frequency (F0) provides an acoustic indication of body size, repeated investigations have failed to support such a relationship in many vertebrate species including humans. Formant dispersion, unlike voice pitch, is proposed to be a reliable predictor of body size in macaques, and probably many other species.

  17. Repeating and non-repeating fast radio bursts from binary neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shotaro; Totani, Tomonori; Kiuchi, Kenta

    2018-04-01

    Most fast radio bursts (FRB) do not show evidence of repetition, and such non-repeating FRBs may be produced at the time of a merger of binary neutron stars (BNS), provided that the BNS merger rate is close to the high end of the currently possible range. However, the merger environment is polluted by dynamical ejecta, which may prohibit the radio signal from propagating. We examine this by using a general-relativistic simulation of a BNS merger, and show that the ejecta appears about 1 ms after the rotation speed of the merged star becomes the maximum. Therefore there is a time window in which an FRB signal can reach outside, and the short duration of non-repeating FRBs can be explained by screening after ejecta formation. A fraction of BNS mergers may leave a rapidly rotating and stable neutron star, and such objects may be the origin of repeating FRBs like FRB 121102. We show that a merger remnant would appear as a repeating FRB on a time scale of ˜1-10 yr, and expected properties are consistent with the observations of FRB 121102. We construct an FRB rate evolution model that includes these two populations of repeating and non-repeating FRBs from BNS mergers, and show that the detection rate of repeating FRBs relative to non-repeating ones rapidly increases with improving search sensitivity. This may explain why only the repeating FRB 121102 was discovered by the most sensitive FRB search with Arecibo. Several predictions are made, including the appearance of a repeating FRB 1-10 yr after a BNS merger that is localized by gravitational waves and subsequent electromagnetic radiation.

  18. Length scale for configurational entropy in microemulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, H.; Kegel, W.K.; Groenewold, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the length scale that must be used in evaluating the mixing entropy in a microemulsion. The central idea involves the choice of a length scale in configuration space that is consistent with the physical definition of entropy in phase space. We show that this scale may be

  19. Proofs of Contracted Length Non-covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Different proofs of contracted length non covariance are discussed. The way based on the establishment of interval inconstancy (dependence on velocity) seems to be the most convincing one. It is stressed that the known non covariance of the electromagnetic field energy and momentum of a moving charge ('the problem 4/3') is a direct consequence of contracted length non covariance. 8 refs

  20. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.