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Sample records for repeat immunoglobulin therapy

  1. Immunoglobulin therapy for enteroviral meningitides in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Kimirilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors give the material of their own observations on the clinical and laboratory efficacy of the Russian intravenous immunoglobulin Gabriglobin for the treatment of enteroviral meningitides in children.The performed trials indicated that the use of Gabriglobin in the combination therapy of severe enteroviral meningitides in children reduced the duration of intoxication, global cerebral symptoms, meningeal syndrome, the time of cerebrospinal fluid sanitation by 1,5 times, and that of in-hospital treatment by 5,8±1,8 days as compared to those who received conventional basic therapy.

  2. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Levy, Yair; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2005-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with diverse manifestations. We suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy may be beneficial and safe for various manifestations in SLE. A structured literature search of articles published on the efficacy of IVIg in the treatment of SLE between 1983 and 2005 was conducted. We searched the terms "IVIg," "intravenous immunoglobulin," "lupus," "SLE," and "systemic lupus erythematosus." The various clinical manifestations of SLE that were reported to be successfully treated by IVIg in case reports include autoimmune hemolytic anemia, acquired factor VIII inhibitors, acquired von Willebrand disease, pure red cell aplasia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, pneumonitis, pleural effusion, pericarditis, myocarditis, cardiogenic shock, nephritis, end-stage renal disease, encephalitis, neuropsychiatric lupus, psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, and vasculitis. The most extensive experience is with lupus nephritis. There are only a few case series of IVIg use in patients with SLE with various manifestations, in which the response rate to IVIg therapy ranged from 33 to 100%. We suggest that IVIg devoid of sucrose, at a dose of 2 g/kg over a 5-d period given uniformly and at a slow infusion rate in patients without an increased risk for thromboembolic events or renal failure, is a safe and beneficial adjunct therapy for cases of SLE that are resistant to or refuse conventional treatment. The duration of therapy is yet to be established. Controlled trials are warranted.

  3. Clinical outcomes of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in refractory uveitis.

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    Garcia-Geremias, M; Carreño, E; Epps, S J; Lee, R W J; Dick, A D

    2015-04-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy has multiple mechanisms of immunomodulatory action. We wished therefore to assess its efficacy in a spectrum of patients with refractory uveitis. Retrospective review of clinical charts was conducted to document response to IVIg treatment in consecutive patients with treatment-refractory uveitis. Main outcome measures were control of intraocular inflammation, visual acuity, progression of the disease, and complications. Four (two male) patients, with a mean age at the beginning of the treatment of 47 years (range: 39-64), were included in the study. Indication for treatment was patients with active non-infectious uveitis refractory to steroids and immunomodulatory therapy. All patients received a course of 0.5 g/kg per day of IVIg for three consecutive days, repeating this course at a mean of 11 week (range: 2-39 weeks) intervals when indicated clinically. The median duration of the IVIg therapy was 7 months (range: 3-14 months). In three patients treatment resulted in stabilisation and prevention of progression of the disease, and additionally in two patients it facilitated a decrease in prednisolone dose. Treatment failed to induce long-term remission in one patient with recurrence of macular oedema. IVIg was well tolerated with neither immediate nor longer-term adverse events observed. In three out of four cases IVIg was an effective adjunctive therapy and well tolerated for the management of treatment-refractory uveitis.

  4. Immunoglobulin therapy in hematologic neoplasms and after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

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    Ueda, Masumi; Berger, Melvin; Gale, Robert Peter; Lazarus, Hillard M

    2018-03-01

    Immunoglobulins are used to prevent or reduce infection risk in primary immune deficiencies and in settings which exploit its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects. Rigorous proof of immunoglobulin efficacy in persons with lympho-proliferative neoplasms, plasma cell myeloma, and persons receiving hematopoietic cell transplants is lacking despite many clinical trials. Further, there are few consensus guidelines or algorithms for use in these conditions. Rapid development of new therapies targeting B-cell signaling and survival pathways and increased use of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy will likely result in more acquired deficiencies of humoral immunity and infections in persons with cancer. We review immunoglobulin formulations and discuss efficacy and potential adverse effects in the context of preventing infections and in graft-versus-host disease. We suggest an algorithm for evaluating acquired deficiencies of humoral immunity in persons with hematologic neoplasms and recommend appropriate use of immunoglobulin therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Structure of filamin A immunoglobulin-like repeat 10 from Homo sapiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, Richard C.; Clark, Jeffrey G.; Misra, Saurav

    2011-01-01

    The structure of immunoglobulin-like repeat 10 from human filamin A solved at 2.44 Å resolution suggests the potential effects of mutations correlated with otopalatodigital syndrome spectrum disorders. Filamin A (FlnA) plays a critical role in cytoskeletal organization, cell motility and cellular signaling. FlnA utilizes different binding sites on a series of 24 immunoglobulin-like domains (Ig repeats) to interact with diverse cytosolic proteins and with cytoplasmic portions of membrane proteins. Mutations in a specific domain, Ig10 (FlnA-Ig10), are correlated with two severe forms of the otopalatodigital syndrome spectrum disorders Melnick–Needles syndrome and frontometaphyseal dysplasia. The crystal structure of FlnA-Ig10 determined at 2.44 Å resolution provides insight into the perturbations caused by these mutations

  6. Experience with polyclonal immunoglobulin therapy in poly trauma patients with severe sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjua, S.K.; Hussain, R.M.; Mohsin, S.T.; Iqbal, A.; Mishwani, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy on progression of severe sepsis in patients of poly trauma. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Peshawar from June 2008 to Dec 2009. Patients and Methods: Forty six patients of poly trauma with severe sepsis were included. Along with the standard management i.e., surgical management, fluid resuscitation, antibiotics, analgesics, ionotropic, ventilatory and nutritional support, IVIG 5% (intravenous immunoglobulin) was infused over a period of 6 hours and repeated for three consecutive days. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was used to assess the progress in all the patients. Results: At the time of enrolment mean SOFA score was 5.41+- 1.127 and on the 15 day it was 1.62 +- 2.24, mean age was 39.21+10.26 years. Thirty four patients (73.91%) developed gram negative sepsis and eighteen patients (39.13%) developed septic shock. Mean duration of stay in ICU and on ventilatory support was 20.80+9.61 and 10.52 + 5.52 days respectively. Thirty five days mortality rate of these patients was 30.43%. Conclusion: The IVIG administration, when used along with the standard management appears to improve significantly the prognosis in patients of poly trauma with severe sepsis. (author)

  7. Predictors of nonresponse to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in Kawasaki disease

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    Hyo Min Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available <b>Purpose:</b> It has been reported that 10% to 20% of children with Kawasaki disease (KD will not respond to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG treatment. In this study, we aimed to identify useful predictors of therapeutic failure in children with KD. <b>Methods:</b> We examined 309 children diagnosed with KD at the Kyungpook National University Hospital and the Inje University Busan Paik Hospital between January 2005 and June 2011. We retrospectively reviewed their medical records and analyzed multiple parameters in responders and nonresponders to IVIG. <b>Results:</b> Among the 309 children, 30 (9.7% did not respond to IVIG. They had significantly higher proportion of neutrophils, and higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin, and N-terminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide than did responders. IVIGnonresponders had a significantly longer duration of hospitalization, and more frequently experienced coronary artery lesion, and sterile pyuria. No differences in the duration of fever at initial treatment or, clinical features were noted. <b>Conclusion:</b> Two independent predictors (ALT?#248;4 IU/L, total bilirubin?#240;.9 mg/dL for nonresponse were confirmed through multivariate logistic regression analysis. Thus elevated ALT and total bilirubin levels might be useful in predicting nonresponse to IVIG therapy in children with KD.

  8. Repeated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Tokuuye, Koichi; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Igaki, Hiroshi; Hata, Masaharu; Kagei, Kenji; Sugahara, Shinji; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of repeated proton beam therapy for newly developed or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From June 1989 through July 2000, 225 patients with HCC underwent their first course of proton beam therapy at University of Tsukuba. Of them, 27 with 68 lesions who had undergone two or more courses were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Median interval between the first and second course was 24.5 months (range 3.3-79.8 months). Median total dose of 72 Gy in 16 fractions and 66 Gy in 16 fractions were given for the first course and the rest of the courses, respectively. Results: The 5-year survival rate and median survival period from the beginning of the first course for the 27 patients were 55.6% and 62.2 months, respectively. Five-year local control rate for the 68 lesions was 87.8%. Of the patients, 1 with Child-Pugh class B and another with class C before the last course suffered from acute hepatic failure. Conclusions: Repeated proton beam therapy for HCC is safe when the patient has a target in the peripheral region of the liver and liver function is Child-Pugh class A

  9. On the Dark Side of Therapies with Immunoglobulin Concentrates: The Adverse Events

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    Sp?th, Peter J.; Granata, Guido; La Marra, Fabiola; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Quinti, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Abstract to the dark side of therapies with human immunoglobulin G concentratesTherapy by human immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrates is a success story ongoing for decades with an ever increasing demand for this plasma product. The success of IgG concentrates on a clinical level is documented by the slowly increasing number of registered indication and the more rapid increase of the off-label uses, a topic dealt with in another contribution to this special issue of Frontiers in Immunology. A p...

  10. On the dark side of therapies with immunoglobulin concentrates: the adverse events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Späth, Peter J.; Granata, Guido; La Marra, Fabiola; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Quinti, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Therapy by human immunoglobulin G (lgG) concentrates is a success story ongoing for decades with an ever increasing demand for this plasma product. The success of IgG concentrates on a clinical level is documented by the slowly increasing number of registered indication and the more rapid increase

  11. Immunoglobulin transfusion in hemolytic disease of the newborn: place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundy CA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia A Mundy, Jatinder Bhatia Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Georgia Regents University, Children's Hospital of Georgia, GA, USA Abstract: Hemolytic disease of the newborn continues to be a common neonatal disorder that requires a comprehensive understanding on the part of those caring for infants. Common treatments include hydration and phototherapy. Exchange transfusion is used in severe hemolytic disease, but infants undergoing this treatment are exposed to many adverse effects. Intravenous immunoglobulin is a newer strategy that is showing promise in the treatment of the disease. This review discusses the current use and future expectations of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in newborns. Keywords: hyperbilirubinemia, ABO incompatibility, neonatal jaundice 

  12. The Prospect of Immunoglobulin Y for Therapy of Canine parvovirus Infection in Dogs

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    I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV is a highly infectious virus. The virus causes death in dogs worldwide. The mortality rate due to infection of CPV in dog reaches 91%. Prevention of CPV infection in puppies has been done by vaccination which is effectively proven. Protective mechanisms of maternal antibodies contribute to the failure of vaccination. Highly stable characteristics of parvovirus enable the virus still exist in the environment. Various therapies are performed only to suppress the clinical symptoms but can not reduce puppy mortalities. This review discusses CPV alternative therapy and the advantages using immunoglobulin Y (IgY specific antibodies isolated from chicken egg yolk. Immunoglobulin Y will neutralize the virus, so it can not infect host cells. Intravenous IgY therapy has shown to suppress the spread of CPV infection and prevent death.

  13. Recommendations for the use of immunoglobulin therapy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In primary immunodeficiencies, therapy reconstitutes humoral immunity at replacement doses (0.4 - 0.6g/ kg/month), decreasing infections, and is usually lifelong. However, high doses, usually 2g/kg total dose over five days, are required for immunomodulation in autoimmune and inflammatory indications. A high-quality ...

  14. A conserved gene family encodes transmembrane proteins with fibronectin, immunoglobulin and leucine-rich repeat domains (FIGLER

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    Haga Christopher L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mouse the cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7 is required for generation of B lymphocytes, but human IL-7 does not appear to have this function. A bioinformatics approach was therefore used to identify IL-7 receptor related genes in the hope of identifying the elusive human cytokine. Results Our database search identified a family of nine gene candidates, which we have provisionally named fibronectin immunoglobulin leucine-rich repeat (FIGLER. The FIGLER 1–9 genes are predicted to encode type I transmembrane glycoproteins with 6–12 leucine-rich repeats (LRR, a C2 type Ig domain, a fibronectin type III domain, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain containing one to four tyrosine residues. Members of this multichromosomal gene family possess 20–47% overall amino acid identity and are differentially expressed in cell lines and primary hematopoietic lineage cells. Genes for FIGLER homologs were identified in macaque, orangutan, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, chicken, toad, and puffer fish databases. The non-human FIGLER homologs share 38–99% overall amino acid identity with their human counterpart. Conclusion The extracellular domain structure and absence of recognizable cytoplasmic signaling motifs in members of the highly conserved FIGLER gene family suggest a trophic or cell adhesion function for these molecules.

  15. Perforated Appendicitis After Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in a Term Neonate with Haemolytic Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atikan, B. Y.; Koroglu, O. A.; Yalaz, M.; Ergun, O.; Dokumcu, Z.; Doganavasrgil, B.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal appendicitis is a rare clinical condition that may cause high morbidity and mortality if diagnosis is delayed. There is usually an underlying disease; it can also be a localized form of necrotizing enterocolitis. Here, we present a term neonate who was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin because of severe isoimmune hemolytic jaundice. The patient developed abdominal symptoms within 10 hours of therapy, was diagnosed with acute perforated appendicitis and completely recovered after surgery. (author)

  16. On the dark side of therapies with immunoglobulin concentrates. The adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Spaeth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract to the dark side of therapies with human immunoglobulin G concentratesTherapy by human immunoglobulin G (IgG concentrates is a success story ongoing for decades with an ever increasing demand for this plasma product. The success of IgG concentrates on a clinical level is documented by the slowly increasing number of registered indication and the more rapid increase of the off-label uses, a topic dealt with in another contribution to this special issue of Frontiers in Immunology. A part of the success is the adverse event (AE profile of IgG concentrates which, even at life-long need for therapy, is excellent. Transmission of pathogens in the last decade could be entirely controlled through the antecedent introduction by authorities of a regulatory network and installing quality standards by the plasma fractionation industry. The cornerstone of the regulatory network is current Good Manufacturing practice. Non-infectious AEs occur rarely and mainly are mild to moderate. However, in recent times the increase in frequency of hemolytic and thrombotic AEs raised worrying questions on the possible background for these AEs. Below we review elements of non-infectious AEs , and particularly focus on hemolysis and thrombosis. We discuss how the introduction of plasma fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography and polishing by immunoaffinity chromatographic steps might alter repertoire of specificities and influence AE profiles and efficacy of IgG concentrates.

  17. Cognitive behavioural therapy halves the risk of repeated suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Gøtzsche, Pernille K

    2017-01-01

    is excluded, the risk ratio becomes 0.61 (0.46-0.80) and the heterogeneity in the results disappears (I(2 )= 0%). Conclusions Cognitive behavioural therapy reduces not only repeated self-harm but also repeated suicide attempts. It should be the preferred treatment for all patients with depression.......Objective To study whether cognitive behavioural therapy decreases suicide attempts in people with previous suicide attempts. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting Randomised trials that compare cognitive behavioural therapy with treatment as usual. Participants Patients who had...... engaged in any type of suicide attempt in the six months prior to trial entry resulting in presentation to clinical services. Main outcome measure Suicide attempt. Results We included ten trials, eight from Cochrane reviews and two from our updated searches (1241 patients, 219 of whom had at least one new...

  18. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in a patient with lupus serositis and nephritis.

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    Meissner, M; Sherer, Y; Levy, Y; Chwalinska-Sadowska, H; Langevitz, P; Shoenfeld, Y

    2000-01-01

    The use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been reported as an immunomodulating agent in several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein we report a SLE patient with severe clinical presentation that included pericarditis, pleural effusion, nephrotic range proteinuria, leukopenia, and lymphopenia. The patient received one course of high-dose IVIg (2.8 g/kg body weight), and within a week of post-IVIg therapy, her condition significantly improved. One-month post-IVIg there were decreased proteinuria, elevated leukocytes and lymphocytes count, decrease in antinuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies, and disappearance of pericarditis and pleuritis. This case demonstrates the efficacy of IVIg in severe SLE with various clinical manifestations.

  19. Absence of bacterial resistance following repeat exposure to photodynamic therapy

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    Pedigo, Lisa A.; Gibbs, Aaron J.; Scott, Robert J.; Street, Cale N.

    2009-06-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria necessitates exploration of alternative approaches to treat hospital and community acquired infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether bacterial pathogens develop resistance to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) during repeated sub-lethal challenge. Antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus and antibiotic sensitive E. coli were subjected to repeat PDT treatments using a methylene blue photosensitizer formulation and 670 nm illumination from a non-thermal diode laser. Parameters were adjusted such that kills were antibiotic resistance strains. Furthermore, repeated sub-lethal exposure does not induce resistance to subsequent PDT treatments. The absence of resistance formation represents a significant advantage of PDT over traditional antibiotics.

  20. Consecutive successful pregnancies subsequent to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in a patient with recurrent spontaneous miscarriage

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    Diejomaoh MF

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Diejomaoh,1,2 Zainab Bello,2 Waleed Al Jassar,1,2 Jiri Jirous,2 Kavitha Karunakaran,2 Asiya T Mohammed11Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Safat, 2Maternity Hospital, Shuwaikh, Kuwait Background: Recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM has a multifactorial etiology, mainly due to karyotype abnormalities including balanced translocation, anatomical uterine disorders, and immunological factors, although in 50%–60% the etiology is unexplained. The treatment of RSM remains challenging, and the role of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG in RSM is controversial. Case report: Mrs HM, 37 years old, obstetric summary: P0+1+13+1, a known case of hypothyroidism/polycystic ovary syndrome, married to an unrelated 47-year-old man, presented to our RSM clinic in early January 2014 for investigation and treatment. She has had multiple failed in vitro fertilization trials and 13 first-trimester missed miscarriages terminating at 6–7 weeks, all without IVIG therapy. Her tenth pregnancy was spontaneous, managed in London, UK, with multiple supportive therapy and courses of IVIG starting from the third to the 30th week of pregnancy. The pregnancy ended at 36 weeks of gestation with a cesarean section and a live girl baby was delivered. Mrs HM had balanced translocation, 46XX t (7:11 (p10:q10. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis/intracytoplasmic sperm injection/in vitro fertilization was performed with embryo transfer on May 29, 2014, and resulted in a successful pregnancy. She was commenced immediately on metformin, luteal support, and IVIG therapy, started at 6 weeks of gestation and at monthly intervals until 30 weeks of gestation, and also received additional therapy. The pregnancy was monitored with ultrasound, progressed uneventfully until admission at 35 weeks of gestation, with mildly elevated liver enzymes and suspected fetal growth restriction. She was managed conservatively, and in the light of

  1. Investigations of immunoglobulins, circulating immune complexes and plasma free hemoglobin in cancer patients on 60Co gamma-ray therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, M.; Rode, I.L.; Fekete, B.; Kiss, B.; Ringwald, G.

    1981-01-01

    32 patients with different tumours were irradiated by 60 Co gamma-rays. During therapy lasting for several weeks, changes in the content of immunoglobulin and of some other serum proteins, circulating immune complexes and plasma free hemoglobin were determined. Immunosuppression according to immunoglobulin content in serum was not produced by this type of radiation. Decrease in immune complex levels was a good prognostic sign. Low values of plasma hemoglobin content during treatment indicated that no erythrocyte membrane damage had been effected. (orig.) [de

  2. Low rate of infectious complications following immunoadsorption therapy without regular substitution of intravenous immunoglobulins.

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    Tselmin, Sergey; Julius, Ulrich; Bornstein, Stefan R; Hohenstein, Bernd

    2017-11-01

    Immunoadsorption (IA) is increasingly used instead of plasma exchange due to lower risk of side effects and a higher selectivity. As a consequence of the reduction of immunoglobulins (Ig), the rate of infectious complications might increase in those patients. We therefore aimed to investigate the infection rate following IA without intravenous IG (IVIG) substitution in our apheresis center, where patients do not receive IVIG on a regular basis. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the IA treatments performed between 2010 and 2015 without IVIG substitution and collected data on patient age, diagnosis, number of IA treatments, serum levels of Ig, total protein, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and infectious complications that occurred within 2 months after the IA treatment cycle. A total number of 52 patients (27 females) received at least 5 IA sessions using the following adsorbers: TheraSorb™-Ig (n = 3), TheraSorb™-Ig flex (n = 44), TheraSorb™ Ig pro (n = 1) and TheraSorb™-IgE (n = 5). The median number of treatment sessions was 8.8 [range 5-16], the median IgG reduction was 82 [11-99] %. Serum albumin was decreased by 8%. The median CRP levels remained normal until the end of therapy and within 2 months after that (3.10 and 4.30 mg/L respectively). Only 4 patients had infections (7.7%). Three of them received additional immunosuppressive therapy. Immunoadsorption leads to a significant reduction of IgG. CRP as inflammatory marker is not affected. Even without substitution of IVIG the complication rate directly linked with IA is low and questionable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) therapy for significant hyperbilirubinemia in ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn.

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    Miqdad, A M; Abdelbasit, O B; Shaheed, M M; Seidahmed, M Z; Abomelha, A M; Arcala, O P

    2004-09-01

    Although intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) therapy has been reported in hyperbilirubinemia of Rh hemolytic disease, its use in ABO hemolytic disease has been reported in only a few studies. In our institute we have observed that almost 30% of babies with hyperbilirubinemia due to ABO hemolytic disease required exchange transfusion. To determine whether administration of IVIG to newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia due to ABO hemolytic disease would reduce the need for exchange transfusion as a primary goal in these babies. This was a prospective study involving all newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia due to direct Coombs-positive ABO hemolytic disease. All healthy term babies with ABO hemolytic disease with positive direct Coombs test in the period between 2000 and 2002 were identified. Significant hyperbilirubinemia was defined as hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy and/or rising by 8.5 micromol/l per h (0.5 mg/dl per h) or more to require exchange transfusion. Babies were randomly assigned into two groups: group 1 (study group) received phototherapy plus IVIG (500 mg/kg); and group 2 (control group) received phototherapy alone. Exchange transfusion was carried out in any group if at any time the bilirubin level reached 340 micromol/l (20 mg/dl) or more, or rose by 8.5 micromol/l per h (0.5 mg/dl per h) in group 2. A total of 112 babies were enrolled over 2 years, 56 in each group. Exchange transfusion was carried out in four babies in the study group, while 16 babies in the control group required exchange. Late anemia was not of concern in either group. No adverse effects related to IVIG administration were recorded. Administration of IVIG to newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia due to ABO hemolytic disease with positive direct Coomb's test reduces the need for exchange transfusion without producing immediate adverse effects.

  4. Intravenous Immunoglobulin therapy for anti-E hemolytic disease in the newborn.

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    Onesimo, Roberta; Rizzo, Daniela; Ruggiero, Antonio; Valentini, Piero

    2010-09-01

    Anti-E alloimmunisation is a less common cause of haemolytic disease in the newborn (HDN) and is usually associated with mild to moderate clinical manifestations, that are often less severe than anti-D immunisation. Conventional treatments for HDN are phototherapy and exchange transfusion, the latter still representing a high-risk procedure. Currently, intravenous immunoglobulin has been used as alternative treatment for HDN to reduce the need for exchange transfusion, as well as the length of phototherapy and hospitalisation. We report a case of anti-E HDN treated successfully with intravenous immunoglobulin, as adjuvant treatment to phototherapy.

  5. Pulse methylprednisolone therapy for impending cardiac tamponade in immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlem, P. G.; von Rosenstiel, I. A.; Lam, J.; Kuijpers, T. W.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a boy with Kawasaki disease (KD) whose clinical course was marked by a rapid improvement upon treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and oral aspirin, which - within 14 days - was followed by the development of a large pericardial effusion with symptoms of impending cardiac

  6. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin as first-line therapy in treatment-naive patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, L H; Sindrup, S H; Christiansen, I

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is effective as maintenance treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We investigated whether multiple subcutaneous infusions are as effective as conventional therapy with intravenous loading doses in treatment...... treatment arm and followed for a further 10 weeks. All participants were evaluated at weeks 0, 2, 5 and 10 during both therapies. Primary outcome was combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS). Secondary outcomes were disability, clinical evaluation of muscle strength and the performance of various function...... tests. RESULTS: All participants received both therapies, 14 completing the protocol. Overall, cIKS increased by 7.4 ± 14.5% (P = 0.0003) during SCIG and by 6.9 ± 16.8% (P = 0.002) during IVIG, the effect being similar (P = 0.80). Improvement of cIKS peaked 2 weeks after IVIG and 5 weeks after SCIG...

  7. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy leading to dramatic improvement in a patient with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and severe pericarditis resistant to steroid pulse therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa-Yashiro, Tomomi; Oki, Eishin; Tsuruga, Kazushi; Nakahata, Tohru; Ito, Etsuro; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    A 7-year-old Japanese boy with a 4-month history of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (s-JIA) experienced disease flare with spiking fever, exanthema and arthralgia. He then developed progressive dyspnea due to severe pericarditis, and proinflammatory hypercytokinemia was suspected. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was ineffective and echocardiography showed massive pericardial effusion had persisted. Alternatively, subsequent intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy resulted in dramatic resolution of the pericardial effusion, and his general condition significantly improved within a few days. This case report may lend further support the use of IVIG for selected patients with s-JIA and severe pericarditis.

  8. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin in responders to intravenous therapy with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Debost, J-C; Harbo, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesized that subcutaneous administration of immunoglobulins (SCIG) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is feasible, safe and superior to treatment with saline for the performance of muscle strength. METHODS: Thirty patients with motor...... Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength, standardized electrophysiological recordings from three nerves, and plasma IgG levels were evaluated. RESULTS: SCIG treatment was well tolerated in all 14 patients. Six patients complained of mild side-effects at the injection site. In the SCIG group...

  9. Preemptive intravenous immunoglobulin allows safe and timely administration of antineoplastic therapies in patients with multiple myeloma and parvovirus B19 disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, L; Shahid, Z; Restrepo, A; Muzaffar, J; Alapat, D; Anaissie, E

    2013-08-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19) disease is a rare cause of anemia in cancer patients and often goes unrecognized, causing delays in anticancer therapy. A retrospective review was carried out of the records of patients with multiple myeloma who underwent melphalan-based autologous stem cell transplantation (MEL-ASCT) and developed B19 infection (January 2009-December 2011). Cases were defined by the presence of clinical and laboratory findings consistent with B19 disease in patients with repeatedly positive plasma quantitative polymerase chain reaction for parvovirus. Six patients qualified as cases; 5 presented with trilineage cytopenias (chronic in 1) and 1 with anemia later progressing to pancytopenia. Transfusion-dependent thrombocytopenia led to testing in 5 patients. Two of these patients also had manifestations of autoimmune disease. Therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resulted in clinical and hematologic response in all; however, 1 patient, whose white blood cell counts and serum hemoglobin levels improved, required splenectomy for persistent thrombocytopenia. All patients required additional IVIG for recurrent B19 disease. Although viral load at diagnosis did not correlate with the severity of cytopenia, its decrease was associated with response during 17 of 20 evaluable episodes (P = 0.02). Preemptive IVIG allowed the safe administration of chemotherapy in 3 patients, including MEL-ASCT in 1. Parvovirus B19 can cause severe disease in myeloma patients including ASCT recipients. Thrombocytopenia - not anemia - was the leading presentation and may be associated with autoimmune conditions. Patients with unexplained cytopenias, particularly when prolonged, should undergo testing for circulating parvovirus. A reduction in viral load was associated with response to IVIG, although additional therapy was needed for recurrent disease. Most importantly, preemptive IVIG allowed for safe and timely administration of antineoplastic therapy in patients with ongoing B

  10. Repeated 89Sr therapy in breast cancer patient with multiple bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Soung; Yang, Weon Il; Kim, Byung Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Hong, Soung Woon

    2000-01-01

    The single 89 Sr therapy has been used for pain relief in patients with multiple bony metastases and it is known to be very effective without serious complications except mild bone marrow suppression. But usually repeated therapy is needed because it is not a completely curative therapy. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of repeated 89 Sr therapy on therapeutic outcome compared to first therapy. This study was performed retrospectively with fifteen breast cancer patients treated more than twice with 89 SrCl 2 against multiple bony metastases. There were total 42 cases-there were eight, four, two and one patients treated twice, three times, four times and six times respectively. The time interval between therapy was 179.1±107.5 (90-550) days. We scored zero to five about performance, analgesics, subjective pain, sleep pattern respectively and summed as the pain score (0-20). Before therapy and one month and three months after therapy the pain score was evaluated and blood leukocyte and platelet was estimated. Bone scan was performed before therapy and one, three and six months after therapy. The pain score was 6.5±2.4 (2-10) before first therapy. Among 42 cases the pain score was improved in 22 cases (52.4%), not changed in 8 cases (19.0%) and aggravated in 12 cases (28.6%). The pain score was not affected by therapy number. Bone scan showed various changes without statistical correlation with pain score. One month after therapy blood leukocyte and platelet was decreased more than 20% than before therapy in six cases (28.6%) and seven cases (16.7%) among 21 cases, respectively. The leukocyte and platelet was not more decreased as increased therapy number. The repeated 89 Sr therapy is not so different from the first therapy in effects and bone marrow suppression. Bone scan finding was independent to the pain score

  11. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella in patients with primary immunodeficiency undergoing intravenous immunoglobulin therapy: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernanda Aimée; Gonzalez, Isabela Garrido da Silva; Simão, Raquel Maria; de Moraes Pinto, Maria Isabel; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares

    2014-06-21

    Patients with antibody deficiencies depend on the presence of a variety of antibody specificities in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to ensure continued protection against pathogens. Few studies have examined levels of antibodies to specific pathogens in IVIG preparations and little is known about the specific antibody levels in patients under regular IVIG treatment. The current study determined the range of antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella in IVIG products and the levels of these antibodies in patients undergoing IVIG treatment. We selected 21 patients with primary antibody deficiencies who were receiving regular therapy with IVIG. Over a period of one year, we collected four blood samples from each patient (every 3 months), immediately before immunoglobulin infusion. We also collected samples from the IVIG preparation the patients received the month prior to blood collection. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella virus were measured in plasma and IVIG samples. Total IgG levels were determined in plasma samples. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, varicella virus and measles showed considerable variation in different IVIG lots, but they were similar when compared between commercial preparations. All patients presented with protective levels of antibodies specific for tetanus, measles and varicella. Some patients had suboptimal diphtheria antibody levels. There was a significant correlation between serum and IVIG antibodies to all pathogens, except tetanus. There was a significant correlation between diphtheria and varicella antibodies with total IgG levels, but there was no significant correlation with antibodies to tetanus or measles. The study confirmed the variation in specific antibody levels between batches of the same brand of IVIG. Apart from the most common infections to which these patients are susceptible, health care providers must be aware of other vaccine preventable diseases, which still exist

  12. Association of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor polymorphisms with chronic hepatitis C and responses to therapy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Jesus Maués Pereira Móia, Lizomar; Amaral, Ivanete do Socorro Abraçado; Miranda, Esther Castello Branco Mello; CicaliseTakeshita, Louise Yukari; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; de Araújo Melo Mendes, Lilian; Sastre, Danuta; Tamegão-Lopes, Bruna Pedroso; de Aquino Pedroza, Larysse Santa Rosa; Batista dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel; Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira; de Araújo, Marialva Tereza Ferreira; Bandeira, Camila Lucas; de Sousa da Silva, Adriana Maria Paixão; de Medeiros, Zilene Lameira; Sena, Leonardo; Demachki, Samia; dos Santos, Eduardo José Melo

    2013-01-01

    Soroprevalence for Hepatitis C virus is reported as 2.12% in Northern Brazil, with about 50% of the patients exhibiting a sustained virological response (SVR). Aiming to associate polymorphisms in Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) with chronic hepatitis C and therapy responses we investigated 125 chronic patients and 345 controls. Additionally, 48 ancestry markers were genotyped to control for population stratification. The frequency of the KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL2+HLA-CAsp80 gene and ligand was higher in chronic infected patients than in controls (p < 0.0009, OR = 3.4; p = 0.001, OR = 3.45). In fact, KIR2DL3 is a weaker inhibitor of NK activity than KIR2DL2, which could explain the association of KIR2DL2 with chronic infection. Moreover, KIR2DS2 and KIR2DS2+HLA-CAsp80 (p < 0.0001, OR = 2.51; p = 0.0084, OR = 2.62) and KIR2DS3 (p < 0.0001; OR = 2.57) were associated with chronic infection, independently from KIR2DL2. No differences in ancestry composition were observed between control and patients, even with respect to therapy response groups. The allelic profile KIR2DL2/KIR2DS2/KIR2DS3 was associated with the chronic hepatitis C (p < 0.0001; OR = 3). Furthermore, the patients also showed a higher mean number of activating genes and a lower frequency of the homozygous AA profile, which is likely secondary to the association with non-AA and/or activating genes. In addition, the KIR2DS5 allele was associated with SVR (p = 0.0261; OR = 0.184).The ancestry analysis of samples ruled out any effects of population substructuring and did not evidence interethnic differences in therapy response, as suggested in previous studies. PMID:23569404

  13. Association of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor polymorphisms with chronic hepatitis C and responses to therapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Mota de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soroprevalence for Hepatitis C virus is reported as 2.12% in Northern Brazil, with about 50% of the patients exhibiting a sustained virological response (SVR. Aiming to associate polymorphisms in Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR with chronic hepatitis C and therapy responses we investigated 125 chronic patients and 345 controls. Additionally, 48 ancestry markers were genotyped to control for population stratification. The frequency of the KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL2+HLA-C Asp80 gene and ligand was higher in chronic infected patients than in controls (p < 0.0009, OR = 3.4; p = 0.001, OR = 3.45. In fact, KIR2DL3 is a weaker inhibitor of NK activity than KIR2DL2, which could explain the association of KIR2DL2 with chronic infection. Moreover, KIR2DS2 and KIR2DS2+HLA-C Asp80 (p < 0.0001, OR = 2.51; p = 0.0084, OR = 2.62 and KIR2DS3 (p < 0.0001; OR = 2.57 were associated with chronic infection, independently from KIR2DL2. No differences in ancestry composition were observed between control and patients, even with respect to therapy response groups. The allelic profile KIR2DL2/KIR2DS2/KIR2DS3 was associated with the chronic hepatitis C (p < 0.0001; OR = 3. Furthermore, the patients also showed a higher mean number of activating genes and a lower frequency of the homozygous AA profile, which is likely secondary to the association with non-AA and/or activating genes. In addition, the KIR2DS5 allele was associated with SVR (p = 0.0261; OR = 0.184.The ancestry analysis of samples ruled out any effects of population substructuring and did not evidence interethnic differences in therapy response, as suggested in previous studies.

  14. Intravenous immunoglobulins and rituximab therapy for severe transplant glomerulopathy in chronic antibody-mediated rejection: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, Thomas; Nodimar, Celine; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Lepreux, Sebastien; Moreau, Karine; Morel, Delphine; Guidicelli, Gwendaline; Couzi, Lionel; Merville, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Outcome of patients with transplant glomerulopathy (TG) is poor. Using B-cell targeting molecules represent a rational strategy to treat TG during chronic antibody-mediated rejection. In this pilot study, 21 patients with this diagnosis received four doses of intravenous immunoglobulins and two doses of rituximab (IVIG/RTX group). They were retrospectively compared with a untreated control group of 10 patients. At 24 months post-biopsy, graft survival was similar and poor between the treated and the untreated group, 47% vs. 40%, respectively, p = 0.69. This absence of response of IVIG/RTX treatment was observed, regardless the phenotype of TG. Baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and decline in eGFR during the first six months after the treatment were risk factors associated with 24-month graft survival. The IVIG/RTX therapy had a modest effect on the kinetics of donor-specific alloantibodies at M24, compared to the untreated group, not associated with an improvement in graft survival. The mean number of adverse events per patient was higher in the IVIG/RTX group than in the control group (p = 0.03). Taken together, IVIG/RTX treatment for severe TG during chronic antibody-mediated rejection does not seem to change the natural history of TG and is associated with a high incidence of adverse events. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Repeated dose titration versus age-based method in electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aten, J.J.; Oudega, M.L.; van Exel, E.; Stek, M.L.; van Waarde, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a dose titration method (DTM) was suggested to be more individualized and therefore more accurate than formula-based dosing methods. A repeated DTM (every sixth session and dose adjustment accordingly) was compared to an age-based method (ABM) regarding treatment

  16. Effective intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatous angiitis complicated by neuropathy of the eighth cranial nerve: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozaki Yoshio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report the case of a patient with Churg-Strauss syndrome with eighth cranial nerve palsy. Vestibulocochlear nerve palsy is extremely rare in Churg-Strauss syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of complicated neuropathy of the eighth cranial nerve has been described in a previous report presenting an aggregate calculation, but no differentiation between polyarteritis nodosa and Churg-Strauss syndrome was made. High-dose immunoglobulin was administered to our patient, and her neuropathy of the eighth cranial nerve showed improvement. Case presentation At the age of 46, a Japanese woman developed Churg-Strauss syndrome that later became stable with low-dose prednisolone treatment. At the age of 52, she developed sudden difficulty of hearing in her left ear, persistent severe rotary vertigo, and mononeuritis multiplex. At admission, bilateral perceptive deafness of about 80dB and eosinophilia of 4123/μL in peripheral blood were found. A diagnosis of cranial neuropathy of the eighth cranial nerve associated with exacerbated Churg-Strauss syndrome was made. Although high doses of steroid therapy alleviated the inflammatory symptoms and markers, the vertigo and bilateral hearing loss remained. Addition of a high-dose immunoglobulin finally resulted in marked alleviation of the symptoms associated with neuropathy of the eighth cranial nerve. Conclusions A high dose of immunoglobulin therapy shows favorable effects in neuropathy of the eighth cranial nerve, but no reports regarding its efficacy in cranial neuropathy have been published.

  17. Shift from intravenous or 16% subcutaneous replacement therapy to 20% subcutaneous immunoglobulin in patients with primary antibody deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Clementina; Iacopelli, Jessica; Pecoraro, Antonio; Spadaro, Giuseppe; Matucci, Andrea; Milito, Cinzia; Vultaggio, Alessandra; Agostini, Carlo; Cinetto, Francesco; Danieli, Maria Giovanna; Gambini, Simona; Marasco, Carolina; Trizzino, Antonino; Vacca, Angelo; De Mattia, Domenico; Martire, Baldassarre; Plebani, Alessandro; Di Gioacchino, Mario; Gatta, Alessia; Finocchi, Andrea; Licciardi, Francesco; Martino, Silvana; De Carli, Marco; Moschese, Viviana; Azzari, Chiara

    2017-03-01

    In patients with primary antibody deficiencies, subcutaneous administration of IgG (SCIG) replacement is effective, safe, well-tolerated, and can be self-administered at home. A new SCIG replacement at 20% concentration (Hizentra ® ) has been developed and has replaced Vivaglobin ® (SCIG 16%). An observational prospective multi-centric open-label study, with retrospective comparison was conducted in 15 Italian centers, in order to investigate whether and to what extent switching to Hizentra ® would affect frequency of infusions, number of infusion sites, patients' satisfaction, and tolerability in patients previously treated with Vivaglobin ® or intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). Any variations of dosage, frequency and duration of the infusions, and of number of infusion sites induced by Hizentra ® with respect to the former treatment were recorded. Practical advantages and disadvantages of Hizentra ® , with respect to the medicinal product formerly used, and the variations in patients' therapy-related satisfaction were monitored by means of the TSQM (Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication); number, frequency, and duration of infectious events and adverse effects were recorded. Eighty-two patients switched to Hizentra ® : 19 (23.2%) from IVIG and 63 (76.8%) from Vivaglobin ® . The mean interval between infusions was not affected by the shift (7.0 ± 2.0 days with previous treatment versus 7.1 ± 1.2 during Hizentra ® ). A decrease in the number of infusion sites with Hizentra ® was recorded in 12 out of 56 patients for whom these data were available. At 6 months, 89.7% of patients were satisfied with Hizentra ® ; no difference in terms of effectiveness, side effects, convenience, and global satisfaction was observed. No difference in the incidence of adverse events was reported.

  18. Immunoglobulin M

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleass, Richard J; Moore, Shona C; Stevenson, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an ancient antibody class that is found in all vertebrates, with the exception of coelacanths, and is indispensable in both innate and adaptive immunity. The equally ancient human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, formed an intimate relationship with IgM with whic...

  19. Greater Efficacy of Total Thyroidectomy versus Radioiodine Therapy on Hyperthyroidism and Thyroid-Stimulating Immunoglobulin Levels in Patients with Graves' Disease Previously Treated with Antithyroid Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautbally, Shakeel; Alexopoulou, Orsalia; Daumerie, Chantal; Jamar, François; Mourad, Michel; Maiter, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Aims We compared the effects of total thyroidectomy (TTx) and radioiodine (RAI) administration on the course of thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI) in patients with Graves' disease. Methods We retrospectively studied 80 patients initially treated with antithyroid drugs and requiring either RAI (8.3 ± 1.7 mCi of 131I; n = 40) or TTx (n = 40) as second-line therapy. Results The TTx and RAI groups were not different, except for larger goiter, higher FT3 and more frequent Graves' orbitopathy at diagnosis in the surgery group (p antithyroid drugs. PMID:24783007

  20. Fish Immunoglobulins

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Mashoof; Michael F. Criscitiello

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglob...

  1. Regulatory T cell frequency, but not plasma IL-33 levels, represents potential immunological biomarker to predict clinical response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, Mohan S; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Das, Mrinmoy; Prakhar, Praveen; Sharma, Varun K; Singh, Vikas; Rabin, Magalie; Trinath, Jamma; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N; Bolgert, Francis; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Magy, Laurent; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2017-03-20

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a polyspecific pooled immunoglobulin G preparation and one of the commonly used therapeutics for autoimmune diseases including those of neurological origin. A recent report in murine model proposed that IVIG expands regulatory T (T reg ) cells via induction of interleukin 33 (IL-33). However, translational insight on these observations is lacking. Ten newly diagnosed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients were treated with IVIG at the rate of 0.4 g/kg for three to five consecutive days. Clinical evaluation for muscular weakness was performed by Medical Research Council (MRC) and modified Rankin scoring (MRS) system. Heparinized blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 4-5 weeks post-IVIG therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained for surface CD4 and intracellular Foxp3, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and were analyzed by flow cytometry. IL-33 and prostaglandin E2 in the plasma were measured by ELISA. The fold changes in plasma IL-33 at week 1 showed no correlation with the MRC and MRS scores at weeks 1, 2, and ≥4 post-IVIG therapy. Clinical recovery following IVIG therapy appears to be associated with T reg cell response. Contrary to murine study, there was no association between the fold changes in IL-33 at week 1 and T reg cell frequency at weeks 1, 2, and ≥4 post-IVIG therapy. T reg cell-mediated clinical response to IVIG therapy in GBS patients was associated with reciprocal regulation of effector T cells-expressing TNF-α. T reg cell expansion by IVIG in patients with autoimmune diseases lack correlation with IL-33. T reg cell frequency, but not plasma IL-33 levels, represents potential immunological biomarker to predict clinical response to IVIG therapy.

  2. Primary structure of and immunoglobulin E response to the repeat subunit of gp15/400 from human lymphatic filarial parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paxton, W. A.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Kurniawan, A.; Partono, F.; Maizels, R. M.; Selkirk, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated and sequenced clones encoding the repeated subunit of the surface-associated glycoprotein gp15/400 from the two nematode species predominantly responsible for lymphatic filariasis in humans: Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. The amino acid sequence of the 15-kDa subunit,

  3. Repeat Whole Brain Radiation Therapy with a Simultaneous Infield Boost: A Novel Technique for Reirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, W.A.; Prabhu, R.S.; Crocker, I.R.; Dhabban, A.; Ogunleye, T.; Kandula, Sh.; Jiang, X.; Curran, W.J.; Shu, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of patients who experience intracranial progression after whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is a clinical challenge. Novel radiation therapy delivery technologies are being applied with the objective of improving tumor and symptom control in these patients. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical outcomes of the application of a novel technology to deliver repeat WBRT with volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and a simultaneous infield boost (WB-SIB) to gross disease. A total of 16 patients were initially treated with WBRT between 2000 and 2008 and then experienced intracranial progression, were treated using repeat WB-SIB, and were analyzed. The median dose for the first course of WBRT was 35 Gy (range: 30–50.4 Gy). Median time between the initial course of WBRT and repeat WB-SIB was 11.3 months. The median dose at reirradiation was 20 Gy to the whole brain with a median boost dose of 30 Gy to gross disease. A total of 2 patients demonstrated radiographic disease progression after treatment. The median overall survival (OS) time from initial diagnosis of brain metastases was 18.9 months (range: 7.1–66.6 (95% CI: 0.8–36.9)). The median OS time after initiation of reirradiation for all patients was 2.7 months (range: 0.46–14.46 (95% CI: 1.3–8.7)). Only 3 patients experienced CTCAE grade 3 fatigue. No other patients experienced any ≥ CTCAE grade 3 toxicity. This analysis reports the result of a novel RT delivery technique for the treatment of patients with recurrent brain metastases. Side effects were manageable and comparable to other conventional repeat WBRT series. Repeat WB-SIB using the VMAT RT delivery technology is feasible and appears to have acceptable short-term acute toxicity. These results may provide a foundation for further exploration of the WB-SIB technique for repeat WBRT in future prospective clinical trials.

  4. Crystalline-Like Keratopathy after Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy with Incomplete Kawasaki Disease: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Erdem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old girl had presented with high body temperature and joint pain which continued for 3 days. Because of the prolonged history of unexplained fever, rash, bilateral nonpurulent conjunctival injection, oropharyngeal erythema, strawberry tongue, and extreme of age, incomplete Kawasaki disease was considered and started on an intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. Six days after this treatment, patient was referred to eye clinic with decreased vision and photophobia. Visual acuity was reduced to 20/40 in both eyes. Slit-lamp examination revealed bilateral diffuse corneal punctate epitheliopathy and anterior stromal haze. Corneal epitheliopathy seemed like crystal deposits. One day after presentation, mild anterior uveitis was added to clinical picture. All ocular findings disappeared in one week with topical steroid and unpreserved artificial tear drops. We present a case who was diagnosed as incomplete Kawasaki disease along with bilateral diffuse crystalline-like keratopathy. We supposed that unusual ocular presentation may be associated with intravenous immunoglobulin treatment.

  5. Clinical applications of immunoglobulin: update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Zago Novaretti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunoglobulin is the most used blood product in the clinical practice. Immunoglobulin applications have increased quickly since the elucidation of its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties which turned this blood product into a precious tool in the treatment of numerous diseases that present with humoral immune deficiency or that cause immune system dysfunction. Currently, the approved indications for Ig are: primary immunodeficiencies, secondary immunodeficiencies (multiple myeloma or chronic lymphoid leukemia, Kawasaki syndrome, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Guillain Barré syndrome, graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplantation and repeat infections in HIV children. On the other hand, there are numerous "off-label" indications of immunoglobulin, which represent 20-60% of all clinical applications of this drug. It is important to study all these indications and, above all, the scientific evidence for its use, in order to provide patients with a new therapeutic option without burdening the health system. This review results from a wide selection of papers identified in the Pubmed and Lilacs scientific electronic databases. A group of descriptors were used from human immunoglobulin to the names of each disease that immunoglobulin is clinically applied. Our main objective is to list the numerous indications of immunoglobulin, both authorized and "off-label" and to analyze these indications in the light of the most recent scientific evidence.

  6. The compulsion to repeat relationships with abusive partners and how group therapy can help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Mary W

    2013-07-01

    The mystery of why some people are compelled to repeatedly engage in relationships with people who are cruel to them is frequently pondered in literature and psychology. The present paper posits that the etiology of this pathological relationship pattern derives from a parental relationship that was both highly exciting and highly frustrating. Spontaneous recapitulations of the passionate masochistic relationship in the therapy group allow the patient, the therapist and the group to appreciate the exact nature of the "bad" partner's appeal for the patient and its link to parental antecedents. In addition, the author suggests, group therapy can provide attachment experiences that are stimulating and rewarding enough to override the patient's attraction to the toxic partner(s) and build an enhanced capacity for intimacy. The cases of two patients are presented who spent three and a half years in the same long term psychodynamic group, and who, through the processes described above, successfully resolved their masochistic relationship patterns.

  7. Modeling the effects of repeated systemic administrations of small activity amounts In radionuclide therapy with beta emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, Carlos; Gonzalez, Joaquin; Cepero, Janet; Colom, Camila; Rodriguez, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Good results for radionuclide therapy treatments where repeated short time spaced systemic injection of small activity amounts are given have been reported. Bone marrow and kidneys are usually considered as dose-limiting organs in radionuclide therapy. The treatments in radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be optimized if irradiation effects in those one might be estimated. Xeno-grafted mice is the often biological model used during the evaluation of candidates for radionuclide therapy. A mathematical model of tumor cell kinetics was combined with another one reported for marrow cell kinetics which allows the calculation of marrow cell survival and proliferation in response to different irradiation schemes. Radionuclide therapy treatment with repeated administrations with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with beta emitters were simulated. The effects on fast-growing and slow-growing tumors were evaluated, as well as radiosensitive and radioresistant tumors. For more realistic estimation of absorbed dose in mice organs the cross-irradiation due to high energy beta particles was included into the MIRD's formula. Tumor and kidneys responses to the irradiation were estimated on the linear-quadratic model framework which was adapted for a multi-exponential dose rate function describing radionuclide therapy treatments with repeated administrations. Published values for murine tumors kinetics, marrows cellular turnover rates and radiosensitivities were used during the calculations. Iso-effective schemes were also determined varying the interval between fractions and the number of administration. For a given tolerated level of thrombocytopenia and absorbed dose in kidneys an optimal regime of radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be found. The mathematical model presented here allows the prediction of the nadir and duration of thrombocytopenia, the effects on kidneys and the tumor cell response to various treatment schemes

  8. Maternal hepatitis C (HCV) infection and Anti-D immunoglobulin therapy: study testing antibodies, RNA and Genotype of HCV in Baghdad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kubaisy, Waqar; Daud, Suzanna; Al-Kubaisi, Mustafa Waseem; Al-Kubaisi, Omar Waseem; Abdullah, Nik Nairan

    2018-04-30

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem. It is a major contributor to end-stage liver disease. Worldwide, 1-8% of all pregnant women were infected. Women with viral hepatitis may be at an increased risk of pregnancy complications. There are several obstetrics intervention acts as risk factors, which are specific to women pertaining the HCV infection; anti-D immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy may be one of them. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), RNA, and genotype distribution among women with anti-D Ig therapy. A cross sectional study was conducted. A sample of 154 Rhesus negative (Rh - ve) pregnant women regardless of the anti-D Ig therapy was collected. Anti-HCV were tested using third generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA-3) and immunoblot assay (Lia Tek-111), subsequently. In addition, 89 serum samples were subjected to molecular analysis using RT-PCR and DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) method for the detection of HCV-RNA and genotypes. Anti-HCV, and HCV-RNA seroprevalence were significantly higher (17.1, 35.5%) among women with anti-D Ig than their counter group (6.4, 13.16%), p = .038, .018, respectively. Significant direct positive dose response correlation (r = 0.78, p = .005) had been seen between number of anti-D Ig therapy and anti-HCV seropositive rate. Anti-D Ig therapy act as a risk factor (odds ratio (OR) = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.01-8.9) especially from the third dose onward. Women with anti-D Ig therapy were at higher risk (3.6 times more) of positive HCV-RNA (OR =3.6, 95%CI =1.19-10.837). Genotype HCV-1b showed higher prevalent (52.9%) among the recipients of anti-D Ig therapy while genotype HCV-3a (6.6%) was the lowest. Our study showed that Anti-D immunoglobulin therapy acts as a risk factor for acquiring HCV infection. Screening for HCV should be recommended for all recipients of anti-D Ig. Not only HCV antibodies but HCV-RNA detection being recommended for the diagnosis of HCV

  9. Repeated dose titration versus age-based method in electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aten, Jan Jaap; Oudega, Mardien; van Exel, Eric; Stek, Max L; van Waarde, Jeroen A

    2015-06-01

    In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a dose titration method (DTM) was suggested to be more individualized and therefore more accurate than formula-based dosing methods. A repeated DTM (every sixth session and dose adjustment accordingly) was compared to an age-based method (ABM) regarding treatment characteristics, clinical outcome, and cognitive functioning after ECT. Thirty-nine unipolar depressed patients dosed using repeated DTM and 40 matched patients treated with ABM were compared. Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the index course, as well as the total number of ECT sessions. Both groups were similar regarding age, sex, psychotic features, mean baseline MADRS, and median baseline MMSE. At the end of the index course, the two methods showed equal outcome (mean end MADRS, 11.6 ± 8.3 in DTM and 9.5 ± 7.6 in ABM (P = 0.26); median end MMSE, 28 (25-29) and 28 (25-29.8), respectively (P = 0.81). However, the median number of all ECT sessions differed 16 (11-22) in DTM versus 12 (10-14.8) in ABM; P = 0.02]. Using regression analysis, dosing method and age were independently associated with the total number of ECT sessions, with less sessions needed in ABM (P = 0.02) and in older patients (P = 0.001). In this comparative cohort study, ABM and DTM showed equal outcome for depression and cognition. However, the median ECT course duration in repeated DTM appeared longer. Additionally, higher age was associated with shorter ECT courses regardless of the dosing method. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  10. Long-term survival in advanced melanoma patients using repeated therapies: successive immunomodulation improving the odds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coventry, Brendon J; Baume, Dominique; Lilly, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    . Even with recent therapies, the factors for improved survival remain enigmatic; however, one apparent common denominator in most cases was the persistent use of repeated therapies to reduce tumor bulk, induce tumor necrosis, and/or cause immunostimulation. These cases are instructive, suggesting manipulation of an established, endogenous, existing immune response. These observations provide practical evidence that the course for any patient with advanced melanoma at the outset should be considered unpredictable, open to immunomanipulation, and thus not uniformly fatal. The findings were compared and interpreted with reported newer immunotherapeutic approaches

  11. Long-term survival in advanced melanoma patients using repeated therapies: successive immunomodulation improving the odds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coventry BJ

    2015-04-01

    had died. Published studies of melanoma therapies were tabled for comparison. Conclusion: The fact that 18 cases of exceptional survival in advanced melanoma were identified is remarkable in itself. Even with recent therapies, the factors for improved survival remain enigmatic; however, one apparent common denominator in most cases was the persistent use of repeated therapies to reduce tumor bulk, induce tumor necrosis, and/or cause immunostimulation. These cases are instructive, suggesting manipulation of an established, endogenous, existing immune response. These observations provide practical evidence that the course for any patient with advanced melanoma at the outset should be considered unpredictable, open to immunomanipulation, and thus not uniformly fatal. The findings were compared and interpreted with reported newer immunotherapeutic approaches. Keywords: advanced melanoma, clinical responses, immunotherapy, prolonged survival

  12. Effect of Immunoglobulin Therapy on the Rate of Infections in Multiple Myeloma Patients Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation and or Treated with Immunomodulatory Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are few data available regarding the prevalence of infection in multiple myeloma (MM patients in conjunction with newer generations of immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide or post autologous stem cell transplantation.  We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients with MM from March 2006 to June 2009 at our institution. All patients received thalidomide and steroid therapy for at least 6 months. Nine patients received bortezomib and 11 lenalidomide subsequently to thalidomide, because of disease progression and 22 patients underwent autologous stem cell transplantation.   The median age was 64 years (range 37-86, with a female–to-male ratio of 18:29. The median residual-serum IgG-level at time of infection was 3.2 g/L, IgA 0.3 g/L and IgM 0.2 g/L. Most patients suffered from recurrent moderate to severe infections. All patients except 3 received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG therapy with a significant decline of the rate of infection thereafter. Our analysis shows that IVIG appears to be an effective strategy to prevent infection in MM patients. Further studies to confirm these findings are warranted.

  13. Intravenous Immunoglobulins: Mechanism of Action and Limitations of Clinical Application in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Mokiia-Serbina

    2016-02-01

    IVIG consumption is increasing due to the fact that in many cases the drugs are being used off-label. IVIG were more likely to be used in autoimmune and systemic inflammatory diseases. However, in randomized clinical trials, a good effect was achieved only in Kawasaki disease and immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Current clinical guidelines narrowed the indications for IVIG, limiting their use in sepsis. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy is recommended for children with physiological delay of immunoglobulin production only in repeated infections, which can not be controlled or prevented with antibiotics. In secondary ID, replacement therapy must be carried out if the cause of hypogammaglobulinemia can not be eliminated or elimination is contraindicated, as well as in association with β-cell cancers, in which severe infections caused by encapsulated bacteria persist despite preventive antibiotic therapy.

  14. Analysis of S gene mutation of the hepatitis B virus in adult liver transplant recipients showing resistance to hepatitis B immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G-C; Hwang, S; Ahn, C-S; Kim, K-H; Moon, D-B; Ha, T-Y; Song, G-W; Jung, D-H; Shin, Y W; Kim, S-H; Chang, K-H; Namgoong, J-M; Park, C-S; Park, H-W; Park, Y-H; Kang, S-H; Jung, B-H; Lee, S-G

    2013-10-01

    A considerable proportion of recipients of liver transplantations who are presented hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) monotherapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) prophylaxis develop HBIG resistance. In this study, we investigated the mutation patterns in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of amino acid sequences 100 to 160. Using the gene sequence analyzer for amino acid sequences 0 to 226 in the S/pre-S region we analyzed blood samples of 15 patients showing HBIG resistance after high-dose HBIG prophylaxis. Various mutations in the MHR were observed in 14/15 samples: Gly145Arg mutation in 8/13 Adr subtype and 1/2 Ayw subtype samples (60%). The next most common mutation was Gly165Trp in 8/13 Adr subtype but neither of 2 Ayw subtype samples (53.3%). Concurrent antiviral resistance was noted in 5 patients: lamivudine (n = 5), or entecavir (n = 3), but not adefovir, suggesting the occurrence of simultaneous, antiviral cross-resistances. Two patients underwent retransplantation due to the progression of HBV infection despite vigorous antiviral therapy. At diagnosis of HBV recurrence, the mean HBV DNA load was 6.5 × 10(6) copies/mL; 4 patients showed paradoxical coexistence of anti-HBs and HBsAg. Currently, 2 subjects show low-level HBV DNA replication in peripheral blood, although the other 12 had no DNA replication after prolonged antiviral therapy. This study suggested that various mutations in the "a" determinant were associated with HBIG resistance. Since treatment failure to rescue antiviral therapy was often associated with delayed detection of HBV recurrence rather than concurrent antiviral resistance, frequent HBV surveillance using more sensitive screening tests, such as HBeAg and HBV DNA polymerase chain reaction assay, seems to be mandatory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute Hemorrhagic Encephalitis Responding to Combined Decompressive Craniectomy, Intravenous Immunoglobulin, and Corticosteroid Therapies: Association with Novel RANBP2 Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Alawadhi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAcute hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis (AHEM is considered as a rare form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis characterized by fulminant encephalopathy with hemorrhagic necrosis and most often fatal outcome.ObjectiveTo report the association with Ran Binding Protein (RANBP2 gene variant and the response to decompressive craniectomy and high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP in life-threatening AHEM.DesignSingle case study.Case reportA 6-year-old girl known to have sickle cell disease (SCD presented an acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS with diplopia due to sudden unilateral fourth nerve palsy. She received five pulses of IVMP (30 mg/kg/day. Two weeks after steroid weaning, she developed right hemiplegia and coma. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a left frontal necrotico-hemorrhagic lesion and new multifocal areas of demyelination. She underwent decompressive craniotomy and evacuation of an ongoing left frontoparietal hemorrhage. Comprehensive investigations ruled out vascular and infectious process. The neurological deterioration stopped concomitantly with combined neurosurgical drainage of the hematoma, decompressive craniotomy, IVMP, and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG. She developed during the following months Crohn disease and sclerosing cholangitis. After 2-year follow-up, there was no new neurological manifestation. The patient still suffered right hemiplegia and aphasia, but was able to walk. Cognitive/behavioral abilities significantly recovered. A heterozygous novel rare missense variant (c.4993A>G, p.Lys1665Glu was identified in RANBP2, a gene associated with acute necrotizing encephalopathy. RANBP2 is a protein playing an important role in the energy homeostasis of neuronal cells.ConclusionIn any ADS occurring in the context of SCD and/or autoimmune condition, we recommend to slowly wean steroids and to closely monitor the patient after weaning to quickly treat any recurrence of neurological symptom

  16. Immunoglobulins in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn Thorup

    2015-01-01

    immunoglobulin synthesis. Intrathecally synthesised immunoglobulins are usually of restricted clonality, and electrophoresis-based methods can be used for detecting this in the form of oligoclonal bands. These methods depend on comparing paired CSF and blood samples. Qualitative analyses for the assessment......The assessment of intrathecally synthesised immunoglobulin is an important part of routine cerebrospinal fl uid (CSF) analysis. Immunoglobulins can be detected in normal CSF and are derived from plasma. The appearance of immunoglobulins in normal CSF is readily explained by size-dependent diffusion...

  17. Apheresis and intravenous immunoglobulins used in addition to conventional therapy to treat high-risk pregnant antiphospholipid antibody syndrome patients. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffatti, Amelia; Favaro, Maria; Hoxha, Ariela; Zambon, Alessandra; Marson, Piero; Del Ross, Teresa; Calligaro, Antonia; Tonello, Marta; Nardelli, Giovanni B

    2016-06-01

    Pregnant women with triple antibody positive antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) who have had thrombosis or a history of early, severe pregnancy complications are generally considered at high risk of pregnancy loss. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy and safety of a relatively new treatment protocol used in addition to conventional therapy in high-risk pregnant patients affected with primary APS. The study's two inclusion criteria were: (1) the presence of triple antiphospholipid positivity, (2) previous thrombosis and/or a history of one or more early, severe pregnancy complications. Eighteen pregnancies occurring between 2002 and 2015 in 14 APS patients, (mean age 34.8±3.6 SD) were monitored. All 14 (100%) patients had triple antiphospholipid positivity. In addition, six of them (42.8%) had a history of thrombosis, four (28.6%) had one or more previous early and severe pregnancy complications, and four (30.8%) met both clinical study criteria. The study protocol included weekly plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption and fortnightly 1g/kg intravenous immunoglobulins. Seventeen of the pregnancies (94.4%) produced live neonates, all born between the 26th and 37th weeks of gestation (mean 33.1±3.5 SD). One female (5.5%), born prematurely at 24 weeks, died of sepsis a week after birth. There were two cases (11.1%) of severe pregnancy complications. No treatment side effects were registered. Given the high live birth rate and the safety associated to it, the study protocol described here could be taken into consideration by medical teams treating high-risk APS pregnant patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Epitopes of MUC1 Tandem Repeats in Cancer as Revealed by Antibody Crystallography: Toward Glycopeptide Signature-Guided Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally O-glycosylated MUC1 tandem repeat glycopeptide epitopes expressed by multiple types of cancer have long been attractive targets for therapy in the race against genetic mutations of tumor cells. Glycopeptide signature-guided therapy might be a more promising avenue than mutation signature-guided therapy. Three O-glycosylated peptide motifs, PDTR, GSTA, and GVTS, exist in a tandem repeat HGVTSAPDTRPAPGSTAPPA, containing five O-glycosylation sites. The exact peptide and sugar residues involved in antibody binding are poorly defined. Co-crystal structures of glycopeptides and respective monoclonal antibodies are very few. Here we review 3 groups of monoclonal antibodies: antibodies which only bind to peptide portion, antibodies which only bind to sugar portion, and antibodies which bind to both peptide and sugar portions. The antigenicity of peptide and sugar portions of glyco-MUC1 tandem repeat were analyzed according to available biochemical and structural data, especially the GSTA and GVTS motifs independent from the most studied PDTR. Tn is focused as a peptide-modifying residue in vaccine design, to induce glycopeptide-binding antibodies with cross reactivity to Tn-related tumor glycans, but not glycans of healthy cells. The unique requirement for the designs of antibody in antibody-drug conjugate, bi-specific antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptors are also discussed.

  19. The causes and the nursing interventions of the complications due to repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lingfang; Sun Ge

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the causes of the complications occurred after repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations and to discuss their nursing interventions. Methods: A total of 54 embolization procedures were performed in 17 patients with huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The causes of complications were carefully examined and the preventive measures were discussed. The prompt and necessary nursing interventions were formulated in order to prevent the complications or serious consequences. Results: Among the total 17 patients, one patient gave up the treatment because of the cerebral hemorrhage which occurred two months after receiving 3 times of embolization therapy. One patient experienced cerebral vascular spasm during the procedure, which was relieved after antispasmodic medication and no neurological deficit was left behind. Two patients developed transient dizziness and headache, which were alleviated spontaneously. One patient presented with nervousness, fear and irritability, which made him hard to cooperate with the operation and the basis intravenous anesthesia was employed. No complications occurred in the remaining cases. Conclusion: The predictive nursing interventions for the prevention of complications are very important for obtaining a successful repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations, which will ensure that the patients can get the best treatment and the complications can be avoided. (authors)

  20. Repeated Radionuclide therapy in metastatic paraganglioma leading to the highest reported cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezziddin, Samer; Sabet, Amir; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Xun, Sunny; Matthies, Alexander; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    131 I-MIBG therapy for neuroendocrine tumours may be dose limited. The common range of applied cumulative activities is 10-40 GBq. We report the uneventful cumulative administration of 111 GBq (= 3 Ci) 131 I-MIBG in a patient with metastatic paraganglioma. Ten courses of 131 I-MIBG therapy were given within six years, accomplishing symptomatic, hormonal and tumour responses with no serious adverse effects. Chemotherapy with cisplatin/vinblastine/dacarbazine was the final treatment modality with temporary control of disease, but eventually the patient died of progression. The observed cumulative activity of 131 I-MIBG represents the highest value reported to our knowledge, and even though 12.6 GBq of 90 Y-DOTATOC were added intermediately, no associated relevant bone marrow, hepatic or other toxicity were observed. In an individual attempt to palliate metastatic disease high cumulative activity alone should not preclude the patient from repeat treatment

  1. Long-term results of repeated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in eyes with retinal pigment epithelial tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Carlos A; Arana, Luis A; Zago, Rommel J

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of retinal pigment epithelium tears in eyes treated with repeated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Five patients with retinal pigment epithelial tears (without foveal center involvement) after anti-VEGF injection were studied retrospectively. Mean follow-up time was 52 months, with measurements of visual acuity and evaluation of macular findings by angiography and optical coherence tomography during this period. All eyes had a persistent submacular neovascular membrane 30 days after the tear. An anti-VEGF drug was reinjected until the membranes stopped leaking. The mean initial visual acuity immediately after the tear was 20/160, and the mean final visual acuity was 20/60. The number of anti-VEGF reinjections varied from two to eight during the follow-up period. Long-term optical coherence tomography analysis showed reduced fluid and remodeling of the torn retinal pigment epithelium. Long-term visual results with repeated anti-VEGF therapy are not as devastating as suggested previously. Visual acuity and metamorphopsia improve with time as long as the neovascular membrane is inactive. Optical coherence tomography changes in the macular area reflect the visual acuity improvement.

  2. Repeated combined endovascular therapy with milrinone and nimodipine for the treatment of severe vasospasm: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Camillo; Wambacher, Bernhard; Loyoddin, Michel; Karaic, Radenko; Krafft, Peter; Valentin, Andreas; Tscholakoff, Dimiter; Kleinpeter, Guenther

    2015-01-01

    Delayed vasospasm (VSP) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) remains a major source of morbidity. Milrinone was recently suggested as an invasive VSP treatment option. It is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor with vasodilating and additional positive inotrope and anti-inflammatory effects. In this preliminary series, we included patients with severe VSP and unsuccessful maximum conservative therapy. Inclusion criteria were (1) transcranial Doppler (TCD) mean >180 cm/s; (2) increase of >50 % of TCD mean values within 6 h to values >150 cm/s; and/or (3) neurological deterioration (after exclusion of hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, and other systemic reasons). Patients received endovascular therapy with nimodipine 2 mg followed by milrinone 4-8 mg. Reinterventions were indicated aggressively in cases of persistent neurological deficits or persistent high mean TCD >180 cm/s. Of 121 consecutive aSAH patients, 16 (13.2 %) received endovascular VSP therapy. Of these, 11 patients (68.5 %) received ≥ 3 interventions (median 4; maximum 9); 14 (87.5 %) showed postinterventional angiographic improvement of vessel diameters; and 11 (68.5 %) showed improvement of their neurological deficits after a mean follow-up time of 4.5 months. No cardiovascular adverse events attributed to milrinone were observed. Milrinone may be a useful supplementary substance for endovascular VSP therapy. Aggressive reintervention indications did not cause additional adverse events.

  3. The role of antiviral and immunoglobulin therapy in the prevention of Epstein-Barr virus infection and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease following solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Reyes, J; Webber, S; Rowe, D

    2001-06-01

    The recognition of the importance of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, including EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), has led to a new focus on the prevention of this problem. This paper reviews the scientific rationale behind, and clinical experience with, the use of chemoprophylaxis (using acyclovir or ganciclovir) and immunoprophylaxis (using intravenous immunoglobulin) in the prevention of EBV/PTLD. While some centers have already introduced the use of one or both of these agents as standard prophylaxis against the development of this complication, published data in support of these protocols are currently lacking. Well designed clinical trials are necessary to evaluate the potential role of both antiviral and immunoglobulin agents in the prevention of EBV/PTLD in organ transplant recipients.

  4. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with repeated suicidal and self-harming behavior: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Lars; Tørmoen, Anita J; Ramberg, Maria; Haga, Egil; Diep, Lien M; Laberg, Stine; Larsson, Bo S; Stanley, Barbara H; Miller, Alec L; Sund, Anne M; Grøholt, Berit

    2014-10-01

    We examined whether a shortened form of dialectical behavior therapy, dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents (DBT-A) is more effective than enhanced usual care (EUC) to reduce self-harm in adolescents. This was a randomized study of 77 adolescents with recent and repetitive self-harm treated at community child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics who were randomly allocated to either DBT-A or EUC. Assessments of self-harm, suicidal ideation, depression, hopelessness, and symptoms of borderline personality disorder were made at baseline and after 9, 15, and 19 weeks (end of trial period), and frequency of hospitalizations and emergency department visits over the trial period were recorded. Treatment retention was generally good in both treatment conditions, and the use of emergency services was low. DBT-A was superior to EUC in reducing self-harm, suicidal ideation, and depressive symptoms. Effect sizes were large for treatment outcomes in patients who received DBT-A, whereas effect sizes were small for outcomes in patients receiving EUC. Total number of treatment contacts was found to be a partial mediator of the association between treatment and changes in the severity of suicidal ideation, whereas no mediation effects were found on the other outcomes or for total treatment time. DBT-A may be an effective intervention to reduce self-harm, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents with repetitive self-harming behavior. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment for Adolescents With Deliberate Self Harm; http://ClinicalTrials.gov/; NCT00675129. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electronomicroscopic evaluation of the microlesional aspects in the pulp dentinal complex after repeated whitening therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodea, Rodica; Jianu, Rodica; Marchese, Cristian; Vasile, Liliana

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cellular and matriceal dynamics within pulp tissue of the teeth with repeated bleaching. Material and method - The study was made on 25 patients aged between 15 and 45, to whom bleaching method of the premolars with indication of extraction in orthodontic purposes was applied. None of the subjects smoked and throughout the investigation no antibiotics had been used. We initiated an intensive oral hygiene program, and we removed the supragingival and subgingival deposits. Oral hygiene and the gingival health were evaluated before every session of bleaching. During each visit the dentition was cleaned professionally and if needed the subjects were reinstucted in proper oral hygiene. After 3 and 5 successive bleachings of the teeth, we removed the dental pulps and we extracted the premolars. The pulpal biopsies were fixed in buffed formaldehyde 10% for 48 hours, then paraffinized, sectioned at 3-5 μ and stained with topographic, H&E and trichrome stained. For the electonomicroscopic study we used the Lehner technique to process the biopsies (n=3) after the reinclusion of the pieces from the paraffine blocks in Epon, postfixated in buffered glutaraldehyde, micro sectioned at 0,5 μ, contrastated with Pb citrate (stained) and examination in transmission electronic microscopy with Philips microscope. Results - At cellular and matriceal level we observed a marked collagen fibrillogenesis in the presence of active fibroblasts, with well developed cellular organites and fibroclastic aspects which suggest matriceal active repair. The microvascular network presents an activated endothelium with turgescent endothelial cells, with intracitoplasmatic resorbtion vacuols, well developed Golgi Complex. Conclusion - We interpreed the cell - matriceal lesions in the context of the acute inflammatory process in the first lesional phase and chronic scleroatrophic process after successive bleaching.

  6. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  7. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  8. Photoprotection due to pigmentation and epidermal thickness after repeated exposure to ultraviolet light and psoralen plus ultraviolet A therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bech-Thomsen, N.; Wulf, H.C. [Rigshospitalet, The National Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Dermatology, Lab. of Photobiology, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1995-10-01

    Tanning and thickening of the epidermis are cardinal defensive responses of human skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation that lead to increased photoprotection. Earlier studies have shown that skin pigmentation can be used to predict minimal erythema dose and minimal phototoxic dose. In this study it was calculated how much of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of repeated exposure to suberythemogenic doses of either UVA or UVB radiation sources or psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) therapy that was attributable to melanogenesis. The backs of 12 volunteers were exposed to 6 different UVA and UVB radiation sources 9 times during 4 weeks. Skin pigmentation was assessed by skin reflectance measuring. Photoprotection was determined from the minimal erythema dose. Melanogenesis accounted for 63-95% of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of exposure to UVA radiation. Exposure to two UVB sources induced a significant increase in photoprotection but not in pigmentation. Melanogenesis accounted only for 6-11% of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of UVB exposure. The pigmentary and photoprotective responses to PUVA therapy were followed in 14 patients. After 2 weeks of exposure, the increase in photoprotection was significantly higher than predicted form the increase in skin pigmentation. After 4 weeks, melanogenesis accounted for only 36% of the increase in photoprotection. This study shows that melanogenesis accounts for the increased photoprotection after 2 weeks of exposure to UVA radiation, but after 4 weeks other protective mechanisms occur during suberythemal UVB exposure and during PUVA therapy the importance of skin pigmentation in the overall photoprotection gradually decreases during a 4-week irradiation period. (au) 17 refs.

  9. Photoprotection due to pigmentation and epidermal thickness after repeated exposure to ultraviolet light and psoralen plus ultraviolet A therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech-Thomsen, N.; Wulf, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    Tanning and thickening of the epidermis are cardinal defensive responses of human skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation that lead to increased photoprotection. Earlier studies have shown that skin pigmentation can be used to predict minimal erythema dose and minimal phototoxic dose. In this study it was calculated how much of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of repeated exposure to suberythemogenic doses of either UVA or UVB radiation sources or psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) therapy that was attributable to melanogenesis. The backs of 12 volunteers were exposed to 6 different UVA and UVB radiation sources 9 times during 4 weeks. Skin pigmentation was assessed by skin reflectance measuring. Photoprotection was determined from the minimal erythema dose. Melanogenesis accounted for 63-95% of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of exposure to UVA radiation. Exposure to two UVB sources induced a significant increase in photoprotection but not in pigmentation. Melanogenesis accounted only for 6-11% of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of UVB exposure. The pigmentary and photoprotective responses to PUVA therapy were followed in 14 patients. After 2 weeks of exposure, the increase in photoprotection was significantly higher than predicted form the increase in skin pigmentation. After 4 weeks, melanogenesis accounted for only 36% of the increase in photoprotection. This study shows that melanogenesis accounts for the increased photoprotection after 2 weeks of exposure to UVA radiation, but after 4 weeks other protective mechanisms occur during suberythemal UVB exposure and during PUVA therapy the importance of skin pigmentation in the overall photoprotection gradually decreases during a 4-week irradiation period. (au) 17 refs

  10. Repeated Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies in a Malaria Hyperendemic Area of Mali: Efficacy, Safety, and Public Health Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, Issaka; Fofana, Bakary; Gaudart, Jean; Sidibe, Bakary; Togo, Amadou; Toure, Sekou; Sanogo, Kassim; Dembele, Demba; Dicko, Alassane; Giorgi, Roch; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The public health benefit and safety of repeated administration of a given ACT are poorly studied. We conducted a randomized trial comparing artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS+AQ) and artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP) in patients 6 months of age and older with uncomplicated malaria in Mali from July 2005 to July 2007. The patient received the same initial treatment of each subsequent uncomplicated malaria episode except for treatment failures where quinine was used. Overall, 780 patients were included. Patients in the AS+AQ and AS+SP arms had significantly less risk of having malaria episodes; risk ratio (RR) = 0.84 (P = 0.002) and RR = 0.80 (P = 0.001), respectively. The treatment efficacy was similar and above 95% in all arms. Although all drugs were highly efficacious and well tolerated, AS+AQ and AS+SP were associated with less episodes of malaria. PMID:22764291

  11. Production of non-stimulatory immunoglobulins that inhibit TSH binding in Graves' disease after radioiodine administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, K.; Bliddal, H.; Siersbaek-Nielsen, K.; Friis, T.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of single dose of 131 I upon thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins has been studied in twenty-two patients with Graves' disease. The thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins were assessed by parallel measurements of thyrotrophin receptor binding inhibitory immunoglobulins (TBII) and of thyroid adenylate cyclase stimulating immunoglobulins (TACSI) in serum by radioreceptor assay and stimulation of adenylate cyclase respectively. The present study thus confirms that radioiodine therapy is followed by an increase of TBII and TACSI in most patients with Graves' disease. The level of TBII can probably provide a marker for development of hypothyroidism following 131 I therapy and might be involved in its pathogenesis. (author)

  12. Estimating prognosis at the time of repeat whole brain radiation therapy for multiple brain metastases: The reirradiation score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Logie, MD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: In the largest reported cohort to receive repeat WBRT, application of the RPA score was not predictive of MS. The new ReRT score is a simple tool based on readily available clinical information.

  13. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism independently influences recovery of male sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy in postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Delli Muti, Nicola; Corona, Giovanni; Maggi, Mario; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    Few and contradictory studies have evaluated the possible influence of androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat polymorphism on male sexual function. In this study we evaluated the role of AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism in the recovery of sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition which is often associated with hypopituitarism and in which the sexual benefits of TRT must be distinguished from those of pituitary-function replacement therapies. Fifteen men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT. Main outcome measures included sexual parameters as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire, levels of pituitary dependent hormones (total testosterone, free T3, free T4, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], prolactin), and results of genetic analysis (AR gene CAG repeat number). Plasma concentrations of free T3, free T4, cortisol, and prolactin did not vary significantly between the two phases, while testosterone and IGF-1 increased significantly after TRT. A significant improvement in all sexual parameters studied was found. The number of CAG triplets was negatively and significantly correlated with changes in all the sexual parameters, while opposite correlations were found between changes in sexual parameters and changes in testosterone levels; no correlation of change in IGF1 with change in sexual parameters was reported. On multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for changes in testosterone, nearly all the associations between the number of CAG triplets and changes in sexual parameters were confirmed. Shorter length AR gene CAG repeat number is associated with the recovery of sexual function after TRT in postsurgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, independently of the effects of concomitant pituitary-replacement therapies. © 2014 International Society

  14. The interaction between calreticulin and immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin Y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllegaard, Karen Mai; Duus, Karen; Træholt, Sofie Dietz

    2011-01-01

    accumulating in support of calreticulin as a polypeptide binding chaperone. In contrast to mammalian immunoglobulin G (IgG), which has complex type N-glycans, chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) possesses a monoglucosylated high mannose N-linked glycan, which is a ligand for calreticulin. Here, we have used solid...... and solution-phase assays to analyze the in vitro binding of calreticulin, purified from human placenta, to human IgG and chicken IgY in order to compare the interactions. In addition, peptides from the respective immunoglobulins were included to further probe the binding specificity of calreticulin....... The experiments demonstrate the ability of calreticulin to bind to denatured forms of both IgG and IgY regardless of the glycosylation state of the proteins. Furthermore, calreticulin exhibits binding to peptides (glycosylated and non-glycosylated) derived from trypsin digestion of both immunoglobulins...

  15. Unilateral Oral Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: Refractory Atypical Presentation Successfully Treated with Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Laureano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old male presented with a 6-month history of blisters and painful erosions on the right buccal mucosa. No skin or other mucosal involvement was seen. The findings of histopathological and direct immunofluorescence examinations were sufficient for the diagnosis of oral mucous membrane pemphigoid in the context of adequate clinical correlation. No response was seen after topical therapies and oral corticosteroids or dapsone. Intravenous immunoglobulin was started and repeated every three weeks. Complete remission was achieved after three cycles and no recurrence was seen after two years of follow-up. The authors report a rare unilateral presentation of oral mucous membrane pemphigoid on the right buccal and hard palate mucosa, without additional involvement during a period of five years. Local trauma or autoimmune factors are possible etiologic factors for this rare disorder, here with unique presentation.

  16. Economic analysis of intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange therapies for the treatment of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in a university-based hospital in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Paulo Machado de Brito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Direct costs for treating Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS represent a significant financial burden to public hospitals. Few studies compared the cost of plasma exchange (PE treatment with human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg. Objectives: To compare the cost of two therapies for GBS: IVIg and PE. Secondary objective was to evaluate compliance to IVIg prescription guidelines of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee (PTC. Methods: A cross-sectional study included 25 patients with GBS admitted in a university affiliated hospital from June, 2003 through June, 2008. The costs of IVIg (n=20 and PE (n=5 were evaluated through the cost minimization method, considering direct medical costs yield by the management of the institution. Patients receiving treatments other than PE or IVIg were excluded. Data were collected by medical records review. Clinical endpoint was disability on discharge, established by the 7-point scale of Hughes. Compliance to the PTC guidelines was evaluated considering the dose and prescription regime of IVIg. Results: Twenty-five participants, ranging from 2 to 70 years of age, were included. No difference occurred in any medical variables related to the treatment or in the main clinical outcome measured by the Hughes’ scale. The mean direct cost of PE treatment was US$ 6,059± 1,701 per patient, and the same expense for IVIg was US$ 18,344±12,259 (P = 0.035. Total inpatient cost was US$ 25,730± 18,714 in the PE group, and 34,768± 27,766 (p=0.530 in the IVIg group. Conclusions: In a university-based hospital, PE is equally effective and less expensive than IVIg to treat GBS.

  17. Treatment of Alzheimer disease using combination therapy with plasma exchange and haemapheresis with albumin and intravenous immunoglobulin: Rationale and treatment approach of the AMBAR (Alzheimer Management By Albumin Replacement) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, M; Ramos-Fernández, E; Guivernau, B; Muñoz, F J; Costa, M; Ortiz, A M; Jorquera, J I; Núñez, L; Torres, M; Páez, A

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest in new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) which focus on reducing the beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) burden in the brain by sequestering plasma Aβ, a large proportion of which is bound to albumin and other proteins. This review discusses the concepts of interaction between Aβ and albumin that have given rise to AMBAR (Alzheimer's Disease Management by Albumin Replacement) project, a new multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial for the treatment of AD. Results from preliminary research suggest that Albutein(®) (therapeutic albumin, Grifols) contains no quantifiable levels of Aβ. Studies also show that Albutein(®) has Aβ binding capacity. On the other hand, AD entails a high level of nitro-oxidative stress associated with fibrillar aggregates of Aβ that can induce albumin modification, thus affecting its biological functions. Results from the phase ii study confirm that using therapeutic apheresis to replace endogenous albumin with Albutein(®) 5% is feasible and safe in patients with AD. This process resulted in mobilisation of Aβ and cognitive improvement in treated patients. The AMBAR study will test combination therapy with therapeutic apheresis and haemopheresis with the possible leverage effect of Albutein(®) with intravenous immunoglobulin replacement (Flebogamma(®) DIF). Cognitive, functional, and behavioural changes in patients with mild to moderate AD will be assessed. the AMBAR study represents a new therapeutic perspective for AD. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Group Therapy for Repeated Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents: Failure of Replication of a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Philip L.; Martin, Graham; McGill, Katherine; Kay, Tracey; Wood, Alison; Trainor, Gemma; Harrington, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A study revealing the superiority of group therapy to routine care in preventing the recurrence of self-harming behavior among adolescents is unsuccessfully replicated. The study's findings contradicted those of the original study.

  19. Repeated PSMA-targeting radioligand therapy of metastatic prostate cancer with {sup 131}I-MIP-1095

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Haberkorn, Uwe [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Zechmann, Christian; Mier, Walter; Spohn, Fabian; Debus, Nils; Kratochwil, Clemens [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Armor, Thomas [Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Holland-Letz, Tim [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Babich, John [Weill Cornell Medicine, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medicine, Citigroup Biomedical Imaging Center, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medicine, Meyer Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting radioligand therapy (RLT) was introduced in 2011. The first report described the antitumor and side effects of a single dose. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate toxicity and antitumor activity after single and repetitive therapies. Thirty-four men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer received PSMA-RLT with {sup 131}I-MIP-1095. Twenty-three patients received a second, and three patients a third dose, timed at PSA progression after an initial response to the preceding therapy. The applied doses were separated in three groups: <3.5, 3.5-5.0 and >5.0 GBq. Antitumor and side-effects were analyzed by blood samples and other clinical data. Follow-up was conducted for up to 5 years. The best therapeutic effect was achieved by the first therapy. A PSA decline of ≥50% was achieved in 70.6% of the patients. The second and third therapies were significantly less effective. There was neither an association between the applied activity and PSA response or the time-to-progression. Hematologic toxicities were less prevalent but presented in a higher percentage of patients with increasing number of therapies. After hematologic toxicities, xerostomia was the second most frequent side effect and presented more often and with higher intensity after the second or third therapy. The first dose of RLT with {sup 131}I-MIP-1095 presented with low side effects and could significantly reduce the tumor burden in a majority of patients. The second and third therapies were less effective and presented with more frequent and more intense side effects, especially hematologic toxicities and xerostomia. (orig.)

  20. Immunoglobulin E-Mediated Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Maurer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of autoimmunity mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE autoantibodies, which may be termed autoallergy, is in its infancy. It is now recognized that systemic lupus erythematosus, bullous pemphigoid (BP, and chronic urticaria, both spontaneous and inducible, are most likely to be mediated, at least in part, by IgE autoantibodies. The situation in other conditions, such as autoimmune uveitis, rheumatoid arthritis, hyperthyroid Graves’ disease, autoimmune pancreatitis, and even asthma, is far less clear but evidence for autoallergy is accumulating. To be certain of an autoallergic mechanism, it is necessary to identify both IgE autoantibodies and their targets as has been done with the transmembrane protein BP180 and the intracellular protein BP230 in BP and IL-24 in chronic spontaneous urticaria. Also, IgE-targeted therapies, such as anti-IgE, must have been shown to be of benefit to patients as has been done with both of these conditions. This comprehensive review of the literature on IgE-mediated autoallergy focuses on three related questions. What do we know about the prevalence of IgE autoantibodies and their targets in different diseases? What do we know about the relevance of IgE autoantibodies in different diseases? What do we know about the cellular and molecular effects of IgE autoantibodies? In addition to providing answers to these questions, based on a broad review of the literature, we outline the current gaps of knowledge in our understanding of IgE autoantibodies and describe approaches to address them.

  1. Delayed response after repeated {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy in patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbar, Kambiz; Schaefers, Michael [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Boegeman, Martin [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Urology, Muenster (Germany); Yordanova, Anna; Essler, Markus; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Eveslage, Maria [University Hospital Muenster, Institute for Biostatistics, Muenster (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Radioligand therapy (RLT) using Lutetium-177 labeled PSMA-617 (Lu-PSMA) ligand is a new therapeutic option for salvage therapy in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze response in patients receiving 3 cycles of Lu-PSMA. Seventy-one patients (median age: 72 years; range 44-87) received 3 cycles of RLT with Lu-PSMA (mean administered activity: 6.016 ± 0.543 GBq) every 8 weeks. Response was evaluated using serum PSA levels and a PSA decline ≥50% was considered as biochemical response. Additionally, any PSA decline after the first cycle was evaluated for further therapy effects after the second and third cycle. A total of 213 cycles were performed in 71 patients. Data for response and adverse events were available for all patients. A PSA decline ≥50% and some PSA decline occurred in 56% and 66% of the patients. Of 30 patients with a PSA response after the first cycle, 28 remained responders and 12/41 of non-responders responded to further therapy cycles. RLT with Lu-177-PSMA-617 shows respectable response rates. In this retrospective analysis, a relevant number of patients showed a delayed response, even if they did not respond to the first cycle of the therapy. (orig.)

  2. Complete clinical responses to cancer therapy caused by multiple divergent approaches: a repeating theme lost in translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coventry, Brendon J; Ashdown, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    Over 50 years of cancer therapy history reveals complete clinical responses (CRs) from remarkably divergent forms of therapies (eg, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, vaccines, autologous cell transfers, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies) for advanced solid malignancies occur with an approximately similar frequency of 5%–10%. This has remained frustratingly almost static. However, CRs usually underpin strong durable 5-year patient survival. How can this apparent paradox be explained? Over some 20 years, realization that (1) chronic inflammation is intricately associated with cancer, and (2) the immune system is delicately balanced between responsiveness and tolerance of cancer, provides a greatly significant insight into ways cancer might be more effectively treated. In this review, divergent aspects from the largely segmented literature and recent conferences are drawn together to provide observations revealing some emerging reasoning, in terms of “final common pathways” of cancer cell damage, immune stimulation, and auto-vaccination events, ultimately leading to cancer cell destruction. Created from this is a unifying overarching concept to explain why multiple approaches to cancer therapy can provide complete responses at almost equivalent rates. This “missing” aspect provides a reasoned explanation for what has, and is being, increasingly reported in the mainstream literature – that inflammatory and immune responses appear intricately associated with, if not causative of, complete responses induced by divergent forms of cancer therapy. Curiously, whether by chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, or other means, therapy-induced cell injury results, leaving inflammation and immune system stimulation as a final common denominator across all of these mechanisms of cancer therapy. This aspect has been somewhat obscured and has been “lost in translation” to date

  3. Complete clinical responses to cancer therapy caused by multiple divergent approaches: a repeating theme lost in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coventry BJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Brendon J Coventry, Martin L AshdownDiscipline of Surgery, University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Over 50 years of cancer therapy history reveals complete clinical responses (CRs from remarkably divergent forms of therapies (eg, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, vaccines, autologous cell transfers, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies for advanced solid malignancies occur with an approximately similar frequency of 5%–10%. This has remained frustratingly almost static. However, CRs usually underpin strong durable 5-year patient survival. How can this apparent paradox be explained?Over some 20 years, realization that (1 chronic inflammation is intricately associated with cancer, and (2 the immune system is delicately balanced between responsiveness and tolerance of cancer, provides a greatly significant insight into ways cancer might be more effectively treated. In this review, divergent aspects from the largely segmented literature and recent conferences are drawn together to provide observations revealing some emerging reasoning, in terms of "final common pathways" of cancer cell damage, immune stimulation, and auto-vaccination events, ultimately leading to cancer cell destruction. Created from this is a unifying overarching concept to explain why multiple approaches to cancer therapy can provide complete responses at almost equivalent rates. This "missing" aspect provides a reasoned explanation for what has, and is being, increasingly reported in the mainstream literature – that inflammatory and immune responses appear intricately associated with, if not causative of, complete responses induced by divergent forms of cancer therapy. Curiously, whether by chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, or other means, therapy-induced cell injury results, leaving inflammation and immune system stimulation as a final common denominator across all of these mechanisms of cancer

  4. Repeatability and response to therapy of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis in a large multicentre trial setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterton, John C. [University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Personalised Healthcare and Biomarkers, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield (United Kingdom); Ho, Meilien [AstraZeneca, Global Medicines Development, Macclesfield (United Kingdom); Nordenmark, Lars H. [AstraZeneca, Global Medicines Development, Moelndal (Sweden); Jenkins, Martin [AstraZeneca, Global Medicines Development, Cambridge (United Kingdom); DiCarlo, Julie; Peterfy, Charles [Spire Sciences Inc, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Guillard, Gwenael; Bowes, Michael A. [Imorphics, Manchester (United Kingdom); Roberts, Caleb; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni [Bioxydyn, Manchester (United Kingdom); Parker, Geoffrey J.M. [University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bioxydyn, Manchester (United Kingdom); Kellner, Herbert [Private Practice and Division of Rheumatology KHI Neuwittelsbach, Muenchen (Germany); Taylor, Peter C. [University of Oxford, Kennedy Institute, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-15

    To determine the repeatability and response to therapy of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI biomarkers of synovitis in the hand and wrist of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and in particular the performance of the transfer constant K{sup trans}, in a multicentre trial setting. DCE-MRI and RA MRI scoring (RAMRIS) were performed with meticulous standardisation at baseline and 6 and 24 weeks in a substudy of fostamatinib monotherapy in reducing synovitis compared with placebo or adalimumab. Analysis employed statistical shape modelling to avoid biased regions-of-interest, kinetic modelling and heuristic analyses. Repeatability was also evaluated. At early study termination, DCE-MRI data had been acquired from 58 patients in 19 imaging centres. K{sup trans} intra-subject coefficient of variation (N = 14) was 30%. K{sup trans} change demonstrated inferiority of fostamatinib (N = 11) relative to adalimumab (N = 10) after 6 weeks (treatment ratio = 1.92, p = 0.003), and failed to distinguish fostamatinib from placebo (N = 10, p = 0.79). RAMRIS showed superiority of fostamatinib relative to placebo at 6 weeks (p = 0.023), and did not distinguish fostamatinib from adalimumab at either 6 (p = 0.175) or 24 (p = 0.230) weeks. This demonstrated repeatability of K{sup trans} and its ability to distinguish treatment groups show that DCE-MRI biomarkers are suitable for use in multicentre RA trials. (orig.)

  5. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria W. Mauritz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. Objectives: The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1 PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2 changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients’ experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. Methods: This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25 with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results

  6. Direct and Repeated Clinical Measurements of pO2 for Enhancing Cancer Therapy and Other Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Harold M; Williams, Benjamin B; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Jarvis, Lesley A; Chen, Eunice Y; Schaner, Philip E; Ali, Arif; Gallez, Bernard; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Flood, Ann B

    2016-01-01

    The first systematic multi-center study of the clinical use of EPR oximetry has begun, with funding as a PPG from the NCI. Using particulate oxygen sensitive EPR, materials in three complementary forms (India Ink, "OxyChips", and implantable resonators) the clinical value of the technique will be evaluated. The aims include using repeated measurement of tumor pO2 to monitor the effects of treatments on tumor pO2, to use the measurements to select suitable subjects for the type of treatment including the use of hyperoxic techniques, and to provide data that will enable existing clinical techniques which provide data relevant to tumor pO2 but which cannot directly measure it to be enhanced by determining circumstances where they can give dependable information about tumor pO2.

  7. Prophylactic immunoglobulin therapy in secondary immune deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agostini, Carlo; Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Kimby, Eva

    2016-01-01

    RT in secondary immune deficiencies (SID), and most published guidelines are mere extrapolations from the experience in PID. AREAS COVERED: In this article, four European experts provide their consolidated opinion on open questions surrounding the prophylactic use of IgRT in SID, based on their clinical...

  8. INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN IN PEDIATRIC RHEUMATOLOGY PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Alexeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern successful treatment of rheumatic diseases is impossible without the use of intravenous immunoglobulin. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin is based on strict indications developed as a result of long-term multicenter controlled studies. The article highlights the issues of using immunoglobulin in pediatric rheumatology practice, and provides the review of literature with the results from the evaluation of the efficiency of intravenous immunoglobulin confirming the efficiency of the drug only for certain rheumatic diseases. 

  9. Immunoglobulin adsorption on modified surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Preservation of biological functioning of proteins during immobilisation is of special interest in various biomedical and biotechnical applications. In industry physical adsorption of immunoglobulins (IgGs) onto solid surfaces is still the predominant immobilisation procedure because it is

  10. 7(th) International Immunoglobulin Conference: Poster presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnatz, K; Ballow, M; Stangel, M; Bril, V

    2014-12-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy is the mainstay of treatment for primary antibody deficiency disorders and has proved to be efficacious in specific autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Additionally, due to the role of Ig in complement activation, it is being used increasingly in solid organ transplantation. Furthermore, Ig is the primary or secondary treatment in some immune-mediated neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) or multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). This session discusses trends of Ig use in Europe, proposed mechanisms of action, adverse effects and the potential role of Ig therapy in transplantation. Dr Šedivá reported that Ig therapy is available in all European countries, although dosing is not always optimal, due partly to reimbursement plans. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) has become increasingly accessible in recent years; however, the chosen route of administration still varies widely between countries. Dr Berger's presentation on optimization of Ig therapy in neuropathies, and Dr Rojavin's report on a pharmacometric model to determine the serum IgG levels achieved by different dosing regimens in primary antibody deficiency (PAD) patients, led to the challenging concept of using individualized dosing strategies. Dr Klehmet reported on the potential benefit of using antigen-specific T cell responses as a biomarker of IVIg responsiveness in CIDP patients, while Dr von Gunten provided an insight into the mechanisms of action of Ig preparations, suggesting that the immunoregulatory effects of IgG may be mediated by IgG antibodies against glycans. Dr Basta reported on the potential thrombogenic adverse effects associated with Ig therapy. Although these adverse events are rare, further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between Ig replacement and immunomodulatory therapy and these adverse reactions. In transplantation, Dr Carbone described that prophylactic IVIg treatment was found to decrease the

  11. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    evaluating the deployment repeatability builds upon the testing or analysis of deployment kinematics (Chapter 6) and adds repetition. Introduction...material yield or failure during a test. For the purposes of this chapter, zero shift will refer to permanent changes in the structure, while reversible ...the content of other chapters in this book: Gravity Compensation (Chapter 4) and Deployment Kinematics and Dynamics (Chapter 6). Repeating the

  12. Favorable outcome of Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder complicated by immunoglobulin G4-related disease treated with rituximab-based therapy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koki; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Kazuei; Sukegawa, Masumi; Sano, Takahiro; Kimura, Satoshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Hashimoto, Yuko; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-08-24

    After acute infection of Epstein-Barr virus, Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells survive but usually do not show clonal proliferation. However, Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells occasionally acquire a proliferative capacity that provokes clonal lymphoproliferative disorders. We herein present a case with Epstein-Barr virus-infected CD30+ B cell and immunoglobulin G4+ plasmacytoid cell proliferation in the lymph nodes, suggesting a pathological and clinical interaction between Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and immunoglobulin G4-related disease. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease has been recognized as a benign disease with proliferation of IgG4-related disease+ plasmacytoid cells. Several studies have recently reported the coexistence of immunoglobulin G4-related disease+ plasmacytoid cells with Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in lymph nodes in some immunoglobulin G4-related disease cases. However, the pathogenic role of the clonal proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in immunoglobulin G4-related disease, as well as the treatments for patients with both Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells and immunoglobulin G4-related disease, have never been discussed. A 50-year-old Japanese man was referred to us for persistent fatigue and lymphadenopathy. His blood examination showed elevated IgG4, and detected high levels of Epstein-Barr virus DNA. A lymph node biopsy revealed IgG4+ plasmacytoid cells and infiltration of large lymphoid cells, which were positive for CD20, CD30, Epstein-Barr virus-related late membrane protein 1, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA, and were negative for IgG4. Based on the diagnosis of both Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder and IgG4-related disease, the patient received eight cycles of rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone, which resulted in the complete disappearance of lymphadenopathy. Moreover, his serum IgG4 level was significantly

  13. [Correlation of serum IL-16, IL-18 levels and immunoglobulins in children with asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-Nan; Zou, Xian-De; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the changes of serum levels of interleukin (IL)-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulins and the correlation of serum IL-16, IL-18 levels and immunoglobulins in children with asthma and aimed to explore the role of IL-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulins in the pathogenesis of asthma. Thirty-four children with asthma and 21 age and gender-matched healthy children were enrolled in this study. The levels of IL-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) were determined using ELISA. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) were detected by immunoturbidimetry. The levels of IL-16, IL-18 and IgE in patients with asthma at both acute attack and convalescence stages were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. An increased IgG and a decreased IgA levels were found in asthmatic patients at the acute attack stage. There was a positive correlation between the IL-16 and IL-18 levels at both acute attack and convalescence stages of asthma (r=0.70, P attack stage of asthma (r=0.624, P asthma. The immunologic imbalance exists in children with asthma at both acute attack and convalescence stages. Anti-allergic therapy should be administered through the acute attack to the convalescence stages of asthma.

  14. Ex vivo response to histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR derived from HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao K Lu

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi can induce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transcription from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR. However, ex vivo and in vivo responses to HDACi are variable and the activity of HDACi in cells other than T-cells have not been well characterised. Here, we developed a novel assay to determine the activity of HDACi on patient-derived HIV LTRs in different cell types. HIV LTRs from integrated virus were amplified using triple-nested Alu-PCR from total memory CD4+ T-cells (CD45RO+ isolated from HIV-infected patients prior to and following suppressive antiretroviral therapy. NL4-3 or patient-derived HIV LTRs were cloned into the chromatin forming episomal vector pCEP4, and the effect of HDACi investigated in the astrocyte and epithelial cell lines SVG and HeLa, respectively. There were no significant differences in the sequence of the HIV LTRs isolated from CD4+ T-cells prior to and after 18 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. We found that in both cell lines, the HDACi panobinostat, trichostatin A, vorinostat and entinostat activated patient-derived HIV LTRs to similar levels seen with NL4-3 and all patient derived isolates had similar sensitivity to maximum HDACi stimulation. We observed a marked difference in the maximum fold induction of luciferase by HDACi in HeLa and SVG, suggesting that the effect of HDACi may be influenced by the cellular environment. Finally, we observed significant synergy in activation of the LTR with vorinostat and the viral protein Tat. Together, our results suggest that the LTR sequence of integrated virus is not a major determinant of a functional response to an HDACi.

  15. Radioimmunoassay to quantitatively measure cell surface immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishman, E.C.; Jewell, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay techniques developed to quantitatively measure the presence of immunoglobulins on the surface of cells, is described. The amount of immunoglobulins found on different tumor cells varied from 200 to 1140 ng/10 6 cells. Determination of immunoglobulins on the peripheral lymphocytes obtained from different cancer patients varied between 340 to 1040 ng/10 6 cells. Cultured tumor cells, on the other hand, were found to contain negligible quantities of human IgG [pt

  16. Transgenic Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/Cas9-Mediated Viral Gene Targeting for Antiviral Therapy of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuqing; Hou, Chengxiang; Bi, Honglun; Wang, Yueqiang; Xu, Jun; Li, Muwang; James, Anthony A; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2017-04-15

    We developed a novel antiviral strategy by combining transposon-based transgenesis and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system for the direct cleavage of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) genome DNA to promote virus clearance in silkworms. We demonstrate that transgenic silkworms constitutively expressing Cas9 and guide RNAs targeting the BmNPV immediate early-1 ( ie-1 ) and me53 genes effectively induce target-specific cleavage and subsequent mutagenesis, especially large (∼7-kbp) segment deletions in BmNPV genomes, and thus exhibit robust suppression of BmNPV proliferation. Transgenic animals exhibited higher and inheritable resistance to BmNPV infection than wild-type animals. Our approach will not only contribute to modern sericulture but also shed light on future antiviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Pathogen genome targeting has shown its potential in antiviral research. However, transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 system-mediated viral genome targeting has not been reported as an antiviral strategy in a natural animal host of a virus. Our data provide an effective approach against BmNPV infection in a real-world biological system and demonstrate the potential of transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 systems in antiviral research in other species. Copyright © 2017 Chen et al.

  17. Repeating Marx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Christian; Monticelli, Lara

    2018-01-01

    This introduction sets out the context of the special issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”, which was published on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary on 5 May 2018. First, we give a brief overview of contemporary capitalism’s development...... and its crises. Second, we argue that it is important to repeat Marx today. Third, we reflect on lessons learned from 200 years of struggles for alternatives to capitalism. Fourth, we give an overview of the contributions in this special issue. Taken together, the contributions in this special issue show...... that Marx’s theory and politics remain key inspirations for understanding exploitation and domination in 21st-century society and for struggles that aim to overcome these phenomena and establishing a just and fair society. We need to repeat Marx today....

  18. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    large cohort of trials to spot unusual cases. However, deployment repeatability is inherently a nonlinear phenomenon, which makes modeling difficult...and GEMS tip position were both tracked during ground testing by a laser target tracking system. Earlier SAILMAST testing in 2005 [8] used...recalls the strategy used by SRTM, where a constellation of lights was installed at the tip of the boom and a modified star tracker was used to track tip

  19. Detection of inflammatory lesions with radiolabelled immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, D.; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden; Ogtrop, M. van; Arndt, J.W.; Camps, J.A.J.; Feitsma, R.I.J.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous reports on the use of radiolabelled immunoglobulins led us to undertake a pilot experiment in an animal model to investigate the potentials sodium pertechnate Tc 99m-immunoglobulin scintigraphy in the detection of infectious foci. Mice infected in one leg with staphylococcus infection in were injected with sodium pertechnote Tc 99m-immunoglobulin, albumin aggregated technetium Tc 99m or gallium citrate Ga 67. The results obtained by scintigraphy suggested a specific accumulation of radiolabelled immunoglobulin at the site of infection. Visualization of the infection and the image quality, especially the 6- and 24-h images, were clearly enhanced after the use of immunoglobulin preparations as compared with those labelled with gallium. (orig.)

  20. Immunoglobulin for alloimmune hemolytic disease in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiers, Carolien; Scheffer-Rath, Mirjam Ea; Lopriore, Enrico; de Haas, Masja; Liley, Helen G

    2018-03-18

    Exchange transfusion and phototherapy have traditionally been used to treat jaundice and avoid the associated neurological complications. Because of the risks and burdens of exchange transfusion, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been suggested as an alternative therapy for alloimmune hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) to reduce the need for exchange transfusion. To assess the effect and complications of IVIg in newborn infants with alloimmune HDN on the need for and number of exchange transfusions. We performed electronic searches of CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase (Ovid), Web of Science, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Academic Search Premier, and the trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and controlled-trials.com in May 2017. We also searched reference lists of included and excluded trials and relevant reviews for further relevant studies. We considered all randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of IVIg in the treatment of alloimmune HDN. Trials must have used predefined criteria for the use of IVIg and exchange transfusion therapy to be included. We used the standard methods of Cochrane and its Neonatal Review Group. We assessed studies for inclusion and two review authors independently assessed quality and extracted data. We discussed any differences of opinion to reach consensus. We contacted investigators for additional or missing information. We calculated risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) for categorical outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) for continuous variables. We used GRADE criteria to assess the risk of bias for major outcomes and to summarize the level of evidence. Nine studies with 658 infants fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Term and preterm infants with Rh or ABO (or both) incompatibility were included. The use of exchange transfusion decreased significantly in the immunoglobulin treated group (typical RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.49; typical RD -0.22, 95% CI -0.27 to

  1. Successful use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin For Recalcitrant Impetigo Herpetiformis: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Impetigo herpetiformis (IH, if left untreated, is associated with a high rate of perinatal morbidity and mortality and may lead to the decision of termination of pregnancy. There are various and effective therapeutic agents available for the treatment of the disease. A 23-year-old woman with a history of plaque psoriasis presented with a sudden generalized pustular eruption on the 25th week of her first gestation. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical and histopathological findings. The patient was treated with systemic prednisolone (2 mg/kg/d first and, cyclosporine A (3 mg/kg/d was added to the treatment after two weeks because prednisolone was not effective alone. The lesions did not regress despite four weeks of combined treatment with prednisolone and cyclosporine. Intravenous immunoglobuline (IVIG (0.3 g/kg/d, 6 days was added on the 30th week of gestation and resulted in regression of cutaneous rashes. On the 33rd week of gestation, IVIG (0.7 g/kg/d, 3 days was repeated due to reactivation of pustules, and an improvement was observed. In this case report, we called attention to IVIG therapy in IH, for having the pregnancy continued enough for the fetal maturation before the delivery.

  2. Malacoplakia associated with vesicoureteral reflux and selective immunoglobulin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherington, R; Branan, W J; Wray, B B; Best, G K

    1984-11-01

    A case of malacoplakia involving the lower urinary tract of a young black boy, with associated bilateral vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis and selective immunoglobulin A deficiency is reported. Reflux was caused by the malacoplakia. Reflux and hydronephrosis persisted despite elimination of bacterial infection and malacoplakia by drug therapy. These abnormalities were corrected by a conventional antireflux operation. Malacoplakia appears to be related to immunologic incompetence and diminished levels of intracellular cyclic 3',5' guanine monophosphate. Cholinergic agonists reverse or prevent the pathological changes of malacoplakia.

  3. Use of intravenous immunoglobulins in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. Donyush

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are main component of immune defense; they take part in anti-infectious resistance of organism and regulate processes of different immune reactions. Intravenous immunoglobulins are the most frequently used products made from donor blood plasma. The need in these drugs is steadily increasing during last 15–20 years, and indications are widening due to modern hightechnology methods of production and cleaning. The article presents modern data on formula, mechanisms of action and indications for different groups of intravenous immunoglobulins (standard, hyperimmune, fortified and description of possible adverse events.Key words: immuglobulines, prophylaxis, treatment, unfavorable reaction, children.

  4. Repeat stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with pulmonary malignancies who had previously received SBRT to the same or an adjacent tumor site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Valakh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Repeat image-guided SBRT for patients with small peripheral recurrences was feasible and severe toxicity was not observed. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of lung reirradiation using 2 nd SBRT.

  5. Methods for the purification of equine rabies immunoglobulin: Effects on yield and biological activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Hong; E.J.M. Rooijakkers; N.T. Ke; J.M. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractSince rabies is still a major cause of human death in many developing countries and the implementation of recommended post-exposure prophylaxis by vaccination and specific immunoglobulin therapy is largely hampered by its high cost, the development of cheap rabies vaccines and

  6. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in colostrum and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide...... a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases....... The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted...

  7. Enhancement of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor transcytosis by biparatopic VHH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris D Emmerson

    Full Text Available The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR ensures the transport of dimeric immunoglobulin A (dIgA and pentameric immunoglobulin M (pIgM across epithelia to the mucosal layer of for example the intestines and the lungs via transcytosis. Per day the human pIgR mediates the excretion of 2 to 5 grams of dIgA into the mucosa of luminal organs. This system could prove useful for therapies aiming at excretion of compounds into the mucosa. Here we investigated the use of the variable domain of camelid derived heavy chain only antibodies, also known as VHHs or Nanobodies®, targeting the human pIgR, as a transport system across epithelial cells. We show that VHHs directed against the human pIgR are able to bind the receptor with high affinity (∼1 nM and that they compete with the natural ligand, dIgA. In a transcytosis assay both native and phage-bound VHH were only able to get across polarized MDCK cells that express the human pIgR gene in a basolateral to apical fashion. Indicating that the VHHs are able to translocate across epithelia and to take along large particles of cargo. Furthermore, by making multivalent VHHs we were able to enhance the transport of the compounds both in a MDCK-hpIgR and Caco-2 cell system, probably by inducing receptor clustering. These results show that VHHs can be used as a carrier system to exploit the human pIgR transcytotic system and that multivalent compounds are able to significantly enhance the transport across epithelial monolayers.

  8. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  9. THE ROLE OF IgM-ENRICHED INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN IN TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó Judit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available After organ transplantation, gamma globulin and intravenous immunoglobulin enriched with IgM are most frequently used in septic shock as early immune-support. If the explanted organ is infected, the transplantation, as a life-saving operation, can be performed if there is no systemic inflammation and the patient receives IgM enriched immunoglobulin prophylaxis during surgery. The period after transplantation can be divided into three parts from the infection point of view: the first month after transplantation, the first sixth months and the following six months. Infections within the first month are basically related to the surgical procedure. Because of the immunosuppressive therapy, the opportunistic and fungal infections are more common during the first sixth months. After this period, the occurrence and the type of infections are similar to that of the non-transplant population except for pulmonary infections. The latter is two to three times more frequent. This is explained by the secondary hypogammaglobulinaemia (lower blood levels of IgM and IgG which is caused by the steroids but most of mycophenolate mofetil by inhibition of the T and B lymphocyte proliferation. Septic shock develops with a continuing fall of IgM levels. Under these circumstances additional intravenous immunoglobulin therapy with IgM can be lifesaving. Besides, immunoglobulin concentrates with IgM may also be used in the case of viral infections without prophylaxis and/or without etiological therapy such as in the case of West Nile virus infection. As a result of the increase in antibiotic resistance, the application of immunotherapy, including immunoglobulins may become the mainstream in the treatment of septic shock.

  10. An experience in the clinical use of specific immunoglobulin from horse blood serum for prophylaxis of Ebola haemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisevich, I V; Chemikova, Natalya K; Markov, V I; Krasnianskiy, V P; Borisevich, S V; Rozhdestvenskiy, E V

    The aim of this work was to estimate the efficacy and safety of single intramuscular introduction of specific heterologous immunoglobulin as prophylactic drug against Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Materials and methods. The specific heterologous immunoglobulin was introduced as a special prophylactic drug to 28 patients in epidemic situations, after skin hurt with infectious materials or contact with infectious blood. Clinico-laboratory observation was performed in 24 subjects after single intramuscular introduction of heterologous immunoglobulin Ebola. The samples of blood serum were investigated for immunoglobulin Ebola and antibodies to horse gamma-globulin on the 30th and 60th days after prophylaxis. Results. None of the subjects of the study contracted Ebola fever. There were no anaphylactic reactions after special prophylaxis with specific heterologous immunoglobulin. Among the subjects with normal allergic state 31% responded with local reactions; 13%, with a general reaction (mild case of the serum disease). Almost no reaction was observed in patients with unfavorable allergic state subjected to desensitizing therapy; in the absence of desensitizing therapy, 50% of patients with unfavorable allergic state exhibited local reactions; 17%, mild cases of the serum disease; 33%, moderate cases of the serum disease. In summary, if the tactics of immunoglobulin application was right, the quantity of local allergic reactions was 28%; of wide spread reactions, 6%. Weak serum disease was observed in 11% of the subjects. The prognostic period of resistance to Ebola fever was less than 30 days. Conclusion. The prophylactic use of specific immunoglobulin from horse blood serum against hemorrhagic Ebola fever is effective and relatively safe in patients subjected to desensitizing therapy.

  11. Facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Conlon, Niall; Petermann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    and diverse medical needs that treatments for SID management should strive to meet. In this special report, we study the opportunities provided by facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration (fSCIg) to treat patients for whom the conventional routes (intravenous and subcutaneous) are sub...

  12. Ancient Phylogenetic Beginnings of Immunoglobulin Hypermutation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubrycht, J.; Sigler, Karel; Růžička, Michal; Souček, P.; Borecký, J.; Ježek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2006), s. 691-706 ISSN 0022-2844 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : immunoglobulin * hypermutation * antigen Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.767, year: 2006

  13. The Immunobiology of Immunoglobulin G4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lighaam, Laura C.; Rispens, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies are in many ways unusual. In this review, an overview is given of the structural and functional aspects of IgG4 antibodies, the consequences of IgG4 antibody formation in various disease settings, and the factors involved in the regulation of IgG4 responses.

  14. Immunoglobulins and their fragments on solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Summary

    Adsorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a common step in the production of immunological tests and biosensors. The use of IgG in these applications stems from its ability to specifically bind all kinds of molecules (antigens). In these tests the IgG

  15. [Production, specificity and structure of immunoglobulins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujard, C; Delfraissy, J F

    1991-03-21

    Immunoglobulin is a key factor of the immune response resulting from B-cell activation and associated with T-cell stimulation. Because of its structure, this antibody has a dual function: it specifically recognizes the inducer antigen in the variable region and eliminates it by a constant portion which is responsible for effector properties. Surface immunoglobulin, therefore, is the B-cell antigen receptor; it differs from the T-cell receptor in that it recognizes the antigen unbound to the major istocompatibility complex; binding the antigen results in direct signal transduction first in the cytoplasm, then in the nucleus. This receptor can be secreted in the body: it is made up of circulating immunoglobulins. Human immunoglobulins are divided into 5 classes, each of them with its own response kinetics, distribution and functions. The variability of the antibody response accounts for a genetic organization involving numerous genes which may be associated with each other, or mutate, or recombine during maturation of the lymphocytes. Altogether, this system has a theoretical capacity of response to three hundred million different antigens.

  16. Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the Treatment of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ranieri, Deirdre; Fenny, Nana Sarkoah

    2017-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used as antibody replacement therapy in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) for more than 50 years. Its role as a therapeutic agent has expanded over the past couple of decades as its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory mechanisms of action have been elucidated. It is now used "off-label" to treat other autoimmune diseases. This article focuses on the role of IVIG in the treatment of PIDDs characterized by absent or deficient antibody production. Replacement doses are given on a monthly basis in these conditions as a prophylactic measure to prevent acute and serious bacterial infections. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(1):e8-e12.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, C; Schnabel, A; Csernok, E; De Groot, K; Reinhold-Keller, E; Gross, W L

    1995-07-01

    In this uncontrolled study 15 patients with ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis, who were poor responders to conventional therapy, were treated with single or multiple courses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), 30 g/day over 5 days. Clinical and serological evaluation was performed before and 4 weeks after IVIG. Six of the 15 patients experienced clinically significant benefit from IVIG. Improvement was confined to single organ manifestations (skin, ENT findings), no improvement was seen with conjunctivitis and scleritis, pericarditis or nephritis. No patient experienced complete remission after IVIG. Repeated courses of IVIG at 4-week intervals were no more effective than single courses. In six anti-proteinase 3 (PR3)-positive patients pretreatment sera were incubated with F(ab')2 fragments of the IVIG preparation in vitro to measure the inhibitory effect of IVIG on anti-PR3 activity. An inhibition of anti-PR3 activity by 25-70% was observed; this did not correlate with clinical effects. Approximately 40% of patients benefited from IVIG treatment, though complete remission of disease activity did not occur. Neither clinical characteristics nor the inhibitory effect of the IVIG preparation on serum anti-PR3 activity in vitro predicted clinical response to this treatment modality.

  18. [Value of intravenous immunoglobulins. A case of Guillain-Barré syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidou, M; Olivier, J; Vivant, J F

    1992-01-01

    A case of severe Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) was treated with high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), 400 mg.kg-1.days-1, over three consecutive days. The treatment was repeated once. We observed a time-related response between immunoglobulins administration and clinical improvement. The pathologic lesions of the GBS suggest that this syndrome has an immunologic basis: a humoral factor is probably not the only immunological mechanism and cellular mechanisms are also likely to be of importance. Specific mechanisms might also be present in GBS, such as anti-idiotypic suppression of autoantibodies, and elimination of circulating immune complexes. Treatment with IVIG might have several therapeutic advantages over plasmapheresis: IVIG is easily infused without any delay, is easily available and has been used widely without serious complications.

  19. Lower brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels associated with worsening fatigue in prostate cancer patients during repeated stress from radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saligan, L N; Lukkahatai, N; Holder, G; Walitt, B; Machado-Vieira, R

    2016-12-01

    Fatigue during cancer treatment is associated with depression. Neurotrophic factors play a major role in depression and stress and might provide insight into mechanisms of fatigue. This study investigated the association between plasma concentrations of three neurotrophic factors (BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDNF, glial-derived neurotrophic factor; and SNAPIN, soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion attachment receptor-associated protein) and initial fatigue intensification during external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in euthymic non-metastatic prostate cancer men. Fatigue, as measured by the 13-item Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F), and plasma neurotrophic factors were collected at baseline (prior to EBRT) and mid-EBRT. Subjects were categorized into fatigue and no fatigue groups using a > 3-point change in FACT-F scores between the two time points. Multiple linear regressions analysed the associations between fatigue and neurotrophic factors. FACT-F scores of 47 subjects decreased from baseline (43.95 ± 1.3) to mid-EBRT (38.36 ± 1.5, P fatigue. SNAPIN levels were associated with fatigue scores (r s = 0.43, P = 0.005) at baseline. A significant decrease of BDNF concentration (P = 0.008) was found in fatigued subjects during EBRT (n = 39). Baseline SNAPIN and decreasing BDNF levels may influence worsening fatigue during EBRT. Further investigations are warranted to confirm their role in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of fatigue.

  20. Quantifying the reduction in immunoglobulin use over time in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura receiving romiplostim (AMG 531)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullarkat, Vinod A.; Gernsheirner, Terry B.; Wasser, Jeffrey S.; Newland, Adrian; Guthrie, Troy H.; de Wolf, Joost Th. M.; Stewart, Ron; Berger, Dietmar

    Patients with Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) often require immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy with intravenous 19 (IVIG) or anti-D to prevent or treat the serious bleeding events. Because the thrombopoietin (TPO) mimetic romiplostim (AMG 531; Nplate) elevates platelet counts in patients with chronic

  1. Intravenous immunoglobulin and Alzheimer's disease immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Beka

    2007-02-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) contributes to the acute progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has become the main target for therapeutics. Active immunization with Abeta in individuals with AD has been efficacious; however, some patients developed side effects, possibly related to an autoimmune response. Evidence that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), an FDA-approved purified immunoglobulin fraction from normal human donor blood, shows promise of passive immunotherapy for AD is reviewed. Investigations into the molecular effects of IVIg on Abeta clearance, using the BV-2 cellular microglia line, demonstrate that IVIg dissolves Abeta fibrils in vitro, increases cellular tolerance to Abeta, enhances microglial migration toward Abeta deposits, and mediates phagocytosis of Abeta. Preliminary clinical results indicate that IVIg, which contains natural antibodies against the Abeta, warrants further study into its potential to deliver a controlled immune attack on the peptide, avoiding the immune toxicities that have had a negative impact on the first clinical trials of vaccine against Abeta.

  2. Repeated nebulisation of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Eric W F W; Armstrong, David K; Ashby, Deborah; Bayfield, Katie J; Bilton, Diana; Bloomfield, Emily V; Boyd, A Christopher; Brand, June; Buchan, Ruaridh; Calcedo, Roberto; Carvelli, Paula; Chan, Mario; Cheng, Seng H; Collie, D David S; Cunningham, Steve; Davidson, Heather E; Davies, Gwyneth; Davies, Jane C; Davies, Lee A; Dewar, Maria H; Doherty, Ann; Donovan, Jackie; Dwyer, Natalie S; Elgmati, Hala I; Featherstone, Rosanna F; Gavino, Jemyr; Gea-Sorli, Sabrina; Geddes, Duncan M; Gibson, James S R; Gill, Deborah R; Greening, Andrew P; Griesenbach, Uta; Hansell, David M; Harman, Katharine; Higgins, Tracy E; Hodges, Samantha L; Hyde, Stephen C; Hyndman, Laura; Innes, J Alastair; Jacob, Joseph; Jones, Nancy; Keogh, Brian F; Limberis, Maria P; Lloyd-Evans, Paul; Maclean, Alan W; Manvell, Michelle C; McCormick, Dominique; McGovern, Michael; McLachlan, Gerry; Meng, Cuixiang; Montero, M Angeles; Milligan, Hazel; Moyce, Laura J; Murray, Gordon D; Nicholson, Andrew G; Osadolor, Tina; Parra-Leiton, Javier; Porteous, David J; Pringle, Ian A; Punch, Emma K; Pytel, Kamila M; Quittner, Alexandra L; Rivellini, Gina; Saunders, Clare J; Scheule, Ronald K; Sheard, Sarah; Simmonds, Nicholas J; Smith, Keith; Smith, Stephen N; Soussi, Najwa; Soussi, Samia; Spearing, Emma J; Stevenson, Barbara J; Sumner-Jones, Stephanie G; Turkkila, Minna; Ureta, Rosa P; Waller, Michael D; Wasowicz, Marguerite Y; Wilson, James M; Wolstenholme-Hogg, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Lung delivery of plasmid DNA encoding the CFTR gene complexed with a cationic liposome is a potential treatment option for patients with cystic fibrosis. We aimed to assess the efficacy of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis. We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial in two cystic fibrosis centres with patients recruited from 18 sites in the UK. Patients (aged ≥12 years) with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 50-90% predicted and any combination of CFTR mutations, were randomly assigned, via a computer-based randomisation system, to receive 5 mL of either nebulised pGM169/GL67A gene-liposome complex or 0.9% saline (placebo) every 28 days (plus or minus 5 days) for 1 year. Randomisation was stratified by % predicted FEV1 (<70 vs ≥70%), age (<18 vs ≥18 years), inclusion in the mechanistic substudy, and dosing site (London or Edinburgh). Participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the relative change in % predicted FEV1. The primary analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01621867. Between June 12, 2012, and June 24, 2013, we randomly assigned 140 patients to receive placebo (n=62) or pGM169/GL67A (n=78), of whom 116 (83%) patients comprised the per-protocol population. We noted a significant, albeit modest, treatment effect in the pGM169/GL67A group versus placebo at 12 months' follow-up (3.7%, 95% CI 0.1-7.3; p=0.046). This outcome was associated with a stabilisation of lung function in the pGM169/GL67A group compared with a decline in the placebo group. We recorded no significant difference in treatment-attributable adverse events between groups. Monthly application of the pGM169/GL67A gene therapy formulation was associated with a significant, albeit modest, benefit in FEV1 compared with placebo at 1 year, indicating a stabilisation of lung function in the treatment group. Further improvements in

  3. Neuromyelitis Optica Immunoglobulin G in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Lynsee A.; Bernard, Timothy J.; Tseng, Brian S.; Miller, Bradford R.; Corboy, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica or Devic’s syndrome is an uncommon demyelinating disorder that preferentially attacks the spinal cord and optic nerves. Although it is well described in adults, childhood neuromyelitis optica has rarely been reported in the literature and is frequently misdiagnosed as severe multiple sclerosis. Recently, a serum immunoglobulin G test for neuromyelitis optica has become available which may clarify and accelerate the diagnosis. This report describes a child with recurrent m...

  4. Is it necessary to repeat CT imaging and replanning during the course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chuanben; Lin Xiang; Pan Jianji; Fei Zhaodong; Chen Lisha; Bai Penggang

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the volumetric and dosimetric changes of target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the necessity of replanning. Twenty locoregionally advanced NPC patients treated by concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT were included. CT and MR images were acquired before treatment and at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 during treatment. The target volumes and OARs were contoured based on the fused CT-MRI images and hybrid plans were generated. The changes of volume and dosimetry were measured by comparing original plan and hybrid plans. Significant volumetric changes of target volumes and parotid gland were observed. The primary nasopharyngeal tumor (GTVnx), clinical target volume 1 (CTV1), involved lymph nodes (GTVnd) and left and right parotid glands, shrank at a mean rate of 14.7, 11.56, 11.40, 6.54 and 6.78% per treatment week, respectively. There were no significant dosimetric changes in GTVnx, GTVnd, CTV1, spinal cord and brain stem while the differences of dose to left and right parotid glands were significant (F=6.73, P=0.007; F=7.43, P=0.007). Remarkable volumetric changes were observed. However, the dosimetric changes were inconspicuous except for the parotid. Replanning might contribute to protect the parotid gland. (author)

  5. Changes in serum immunoglobulin levels during radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneta, Osamu

    1978-01-01

    We have, studied the effect of radiation on humoral immunity in patients with carcinoma of the cervix by measuring variations in serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) during radiotherapy. Of 81 patients with untreated cancer of the cervix (at stages Ib-IIIb), those at stage III had a significantly lower IgG level (P < 0.05) compared with control patients (94 in number). There was a significant fall (P < 0.05) in the mean serum IgA and IgG levels during radiation therapy in group A (36 patients who received this modality of treatment alone). However, in group B (26 patients who underwent pelvic lymphadenectomy prior to radiotherapy) and in group C (9 patients subjected to hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy before irradiation) there was no significant fall in the mean serum IgA and IgG levels. There were two distinct patterns of variation in serum immunoglobulins seen during external irradiation: type a) in which serum immunoglobulin levels tended to decline with the increase in radiation dose, and type b) in which serum immunoglobulin levels either remained the same as those prior to irradiation or varied in an irregular fashion during irradiation. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the incidence of either type a) or b) for IgG and IgM between group A and groups B and C. The type a) pattern of serum immunoglobulin variation was more common in patients with stage 1 carcinoma, and was gradually superceded by type b) in more advanced cases. Thus it would appear that lymph nodes retain the ability to respond to radiation in most cases of early stage carcinoma, but lose this capacity with more advanced carcinoma, a finding which is suggestive of lowered ability for antibody production of the most bearing advanced carcinoma. (author)

  6. Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/ protein isolate: postulated mechanism of action for management of enteropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petschow BW

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bryon W Petschow, Bruce Burnett, Audrey L Shaw, Eric M Weaver, Gerald L Klein Entera Health, Inc., Cary, NC, USA Abstract: The health and performance of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by the interaction of a variety of factors, including diet, nutritional status, genetics, environment, stress, the intestinal microbiota, immune status, and gut barrier. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to enteropathy or intestinal disorders that are known to occur in concert with certain disease states or conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Nutritional support in the form of a medical food along with current therapies could help manage the adverse effects of enteropathy, which include effects on nutrient digestion, absorption, and metabolism, as well as utilization of nutrients from foodstuffs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of plasma- or serum-derived protein concentrates containing high levels of immunoglobulins can improve weight management, normalize gut barrier function, and reduce the severity of enteropathy in animals. Recent trials in humans provide preliminary evidence that a serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate is safe and improves symptoms, nutritional status, and various biomarkers associated with enteropathy in patients with HIV infection or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. This review summarizes data from preclinical and clinical studies with immunoglobulin-containing plasma/serum protein concentrates, with a focus on the postulated mode of action of serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate for patients with enteropathy. Keywords: bovine immunoglobulins, nutrient, gut barrier, microbiota

  7. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Compared With Enhanced Usual Care for Adolescents With Repeated Suicidal and Self-Harming Behavior: Outcomes Over a One-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Lars; Ramberg, Maria; Tørmoen, Anita J; Haga, Egil; Diep, Lien M; Stanley, Barbara H; Miller, Alec L; Sund, Anne M; Grøholt, Berit

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a 1-year prospective follow-up study of posttreatment clinical outcomes in adolescents with recent and repetitive self-harm who had been randomly allocated to receive 19 weeks of either dialectical behavior therapy adapted for adolescents (DBT-A) or enhanced usual care (EUC) at community child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics. Assessments of self-harm, suicidal ideation, depression, hopelessness, borderline symptoms, and global level of functioning were made at the end of the 19-week treatment period and at follow-up 1 year later. Altogether 75 of the 77 (97%) adolescents participated at both time points. Frequencies of hospitalizations, emergency department visits and other use of mental health care during the 1-year follow-up period were recorded. Change analyses were performed using mixed effects linear spline regression and mixed effect Poisson regression with robust variance. Over the 52-week follow-up period, DBT-A remained superior to EUC in reducing the frequency of self-harm. For other outcomes such as suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depressive or borderline symptoms and for the global level of functioning, inter-group differences apparent at the 19-week assessment were no longer observed, mainly due to participants in the EUC group having significantly improved on these dimensions over the follow-up year, whereas DBT-A participants remained unchanged. A stronger long-term reduction in self-harm and a more rapid recovery in suicidal ideation, depression, and borderline symptoms suggest that DBT-A may be a favorable treatment alternative for adolescents with repetitive self-harming behavior. Treatment for Adolescents With Deliberate Self Harm; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00675129. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of repeated cycles of radioligand therapy using [{sup 177}Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 on renal function in patients with hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanova, Anna; Becker, Anja; Eppard, Elisabeth; Kuerpig, Stefan; Essler, Markus; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Fisang, Christian [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Urology, Bonn (Germany); Feldmann, Georg [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Internal Medicine, MED3, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    [{sup 177}Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 is a well-tolerated therapy for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. However, because of the mainly renal excretion of the tracer, the kidneys are one of the most limiting organs. The purpose of this study was to examine the post-therapeutic changes in renal function over time and to identify risk factors for developing renal toxicity. We also tested the reliability of markers for renal function monitoring. Fifty-five patients with castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer treated with at least three cycles of [{sup 177}Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 were investigated. Renal function was assessed through laboratory tests (creatinine, GFR, cystatin C) and Tc-99 m-MAG3 measurements. Adverse events were classified according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.0. To identify risk factors for renal toxicity, we used Pearson's correlation coefficient and the corresponding p values. None of the 55 patients experienced severe nephrotoxicity (grade 3/4). In 14 patients (25%), we observed increased creatinine levels of CTC 1 or 2 . There were 16 cases of increased GFR (grade 1/2). At the baseline, only 14 patients had elevated cystatin C. However, post-therapeutic cystatin C was elevated in 32 patients (58%). A significant effect on renal function was found for age (p = 0.049), hypertension (p = 0.001) and pre-existing kidney disease (p = 0.001). The most reliable predictive markers of nephrotoxicity were TER-MAG3 and cystatin C. Renal toxicity in patients treated with [{sup 177}Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 was low. There was no (sub)acute grade 3 or 4 nephrotoxicity. (orig.)

  9. The terminal portion of leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein LigA confers protective immunity against lethal infection in the hamster model of leptospirosis

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Éverton F.; Medeiros, Marco A.; McBride, Alan J. A.; Matsunaga, Jim; Esteves, Gabriela S.; Ramos, João G. R.; Santos, Cleiton S.; Croda, Júlio; Homma, Akira; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Haake, David A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2007-01-01

    Subunit vaccines are a potential intervention strategy against leptospirosis, which is a major public health problem in developing countries and a veterinary disease in livestock and companion animals worldwide. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are a family of surface-exposed determinants that have Ig-like repeat domains found in virulence factors such as intimin and invasin. We expressed fragments of the repeat domain regions of LigA and LigB from Leptospira interrogans serovar...

  10. Effect of radioiodine on stimulatory activity of Graves' immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.; McGregor, A.M.; Kendall-Taylor, P.; Peterson, M.M.; Smith, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of 131 I therapy on the activity of thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) and thyrotrophin binding inhibiting immunoglobulin (TBII) in nineteen patients with Graves' disease have been studied. Prior to 131 I administration, TSAb was detected in 84%, and TBII in 68% of patients. Following 131 I administration TSAb and TBII were detectable in 100% of patients. The elevation 3 months after treatment of the means of both the TSAb and TBII indices for the group of nineteen patients was highly significant compared with pretreatment values. All the patients went into remission during the course of the study and the TSAb index declined in all patients, becoming undetectable in eleven; TBII also declined in most patients but remained detectable in thirteen. The study furthermore afforded the opportunity for a direct comparison of binding with stimulatory activity. These results show that after 131 I therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism there is a transient increase in TSAb as well as TBII, followed by a decline, and that the measurement of binding and stimulatory activities are in good general agreement. (author)

  11. Hydrometer test for estimation of immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleenor, W A; Stott, G H

    1980-06-01

    A practical field method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum has been developed from the linear relationship between colostral specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Fourteen colostrums were collected within 24 h postpartum from nursed and unnursed cows and were assayed for specific gravity and major colostral constituents. Additionally, 15 colostrums were collected immediately postpartum prior to suckling and assayed for specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Regression analysis provided an equation to estimate colostral immunoglobulin concentration from the specific gravity of fresh whole colostrum. From this, a colostrometer was developed for practical field use.

  12. Collaborative study for the validation of alternative in vitro potency assays for human tetanus immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S; Janssen, S W J; de Vries, B; Terao, E; Daas, A; Buchheit, K-H

    2010-07-01

    An international collaborative study to validate 2 alternative in vitro methods for the potency testing of human tetanus immunoglobulin products was organised by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM). The study, run in the framework of the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) under the aegis of the European Commission and the Council of Europe, involved 21 official medicines control and industry laboratories from 15 countries. Both methods, an enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) and a toxoid inhibition assay (TIA), showed good reproducibility, repeatability and precision. EIA and TIA discriminated between low, medium and high potency samples. Potency estimates correlated well and both values were in close agreement with those obtained by in vivo methods. Moreover, these alternative methods allowed to resolve discrepant results between laboratories that were due to product potency loss and reporting errors. The study demonstrated that EIA and TIA are suitable quality control methods for tetanus immunoglobulin, which can be standardised in a control laboratory using a quality assurance system. Consequently, the Group of Experts on Human Blood and Blood Products of the European Pharmacopoeia revised the monograph on human tetanus immunoglobulins to include both the methods as compendial alternatives to the in vivo mouse challenge assay. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening for congenital toxoplasmosis: accuracy of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A tests after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Thalib, Lukman; Tan, Hooi Kuan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of postnatal screening for toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgA. SETTING: Ten centres in three European countries. METHODS: We compared results of the first postnatal IgM or IgA test in infants with infected mothers identified by prenatal screeni...

  14. Current and emerging therapies for the treatment of myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Mantegazza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Renato Mantegazza, Silvia Bonanno, Giorgia Camera, Carlo AntozziDepartment of Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology, Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Myasthenia gravis (MG is an autoimmmune disease in which autoantibodies to different antigens of the neuromuscular junction cause the typical weakness and fatigability. Treatment includes anticholinesterase drugs, immunosuppression, immunomodulation, and thymectomy. The autoimmune response is maintained under control by corticosteroids frequently associated with immunosuppressive drugs, with improvement in the majority of patients. In case of acute exacerbations with bulbar symptoms or repeated relapses, modulation of autoantibody activity by plasmapheresis or intravenous immunoglobulins provides rapid improvement. Recently, techniques removing only circulating immunoglobulins have been developed for the chronic management of treatment-resistant patients. The rationale for thymectomy relies on the central role of the thymus. Despite the lack of controlled studies, thymectomy is recommended as an option to improve the clinical outcome or promote complete remission. New videothoracoscopic techniques have been developed to offer the maximal surgical approach with the minimal invasiveness and hence patient tolerability. The use of biological drugs such as anti-CD20 antibodies is still limited but promising. Studies performed in the animal model of MG demonstrated that several more selective or antigen-specific approaches, ranging from mucosal tolerization to inhibition of complement activity or cellular therapy, might be feasible. Investigation of the transfer of these therapeutic approaches to the human disease will be the challenge for the future.Keywords: myasthenia gravis, therapy, immunosuppression, thymectomy, plasmapheresis

  15. Serology and immunoglobulin profile in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhya, S; Chakraborty, G; Hajra, B; Bhattacharya, S; Sikdar, P K; Sinha, S; Banerjee, P P; Ghosh, E; Chakraborty, P

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and twenty cases of clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis, 80 non-rheumatoid cases suffering from various other diseases and 40 healthy individuals were investigated for the presence of rheumatoid factor, quantitation of serum immunoglobulin, demonstration of ANA and LE cell phenomenon. Microlatex agglutination test of serum for rheumatoid factor showed 56.6% positivity in rheumatoid group and 3.7% positivity in non-rheumatoid group. All three serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA) were raised in serum in significant titre in cases of rheumatoid arthritis, whereas only IgA lever was elevated in the group of non-rheumatoid diseases. ANA and LE cell phenomenon were observed in 11.7% and 4.4% cases of rheumatoid arthritis who had severe underlying disease. In non-rheumatoid group, only one of 6 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus showed rheumatoid factor and that too in an insignificant titre (less than 1:20). Synovium and synovial fluid contained plenty of plasma cells and lymphocytes. It has been observed that RF appears first in synovial fluid and it may take several months to a year to attain detectable level in serum.

  16. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results also confirm suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria. Keywords: Immunoglobulin, Immunity ...

  17. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria. Keywords: Immunoglobulin, Immunity, IgA, IgG, IgM.

  18. Immunoglobulin Concentration in Tears of Contact Lens Wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P Maurya

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The relation of immunoglobulin concentration with increasing duration of wear and material of contact lens shows that tear immunoglobulin rise accrues due to mechanical stimulation, hence contact lenses should not be used for a long period and lenses of hard nature should be discouraged. The maintenance, cleaning and deproteinization of the lenses are of high importance to avoid immunostimulation.

  19. INTERACTION OF ALBUMIN AND IMMUNOGLOBULIN G WITH SYNTHETIC HYDROXYAPATITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pylypchuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It was shown by X-ray phase analysis, IR spectra analysis and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry methods that interaction of synthetic hydroxyapatite with a solution of immunoglobulin G leads to its partial dissolution due to leaching from the surface of calcium triphosphate which, in our opinion, forms complexes with immunoglobulin G.

  20. Clinical Efficiency of Application of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Pregnant Women with Intrauterine Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.L. Ishchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of intrauterine infection (IUI is still relevant today. Ineffective treatment of this pathology is associated with physiological decline of the immunity in these patients. We have proposed the additional use of intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of pregnant women with IUI. There were examined 75 patients with IUI, which was diagnosed in the II trimester. The I group consisted of 40 individuals who received conventional treatment, the II group was formed from 35 women who additionally received intravenous immunoglobulin. On the background of IUI, pregnancy was characterized by an increased incidence of threatened miscarriage and premature labor, gestosis and placental dysfunction; during delivery, premature rupture of amniotic membrane and fetal distress were more common. These patients had placenta with both ultrasonic and histological signs of infection. Among newborns, there was a significant increase in the incidence of pathology associated with intrauterine infection. Additional use of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of IUI during the II trimester of pregnancy in comparison with conventional therapy leads to a significant reduction in the incidence of both obstetric complications and perinatal pathology.

  1. Solar urticaria successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, R

    2012-02-01

    Idiopathic solar urticaria (SU) is a rare, debilitating photodermatosis, which may be difficult to treat. First-line treatment with antihistamines is effective in mild cases, but remission after phototherapeutic induction of tolerance is often short-lived. Other treatment options include plasma exchange, photopheresis and cyclosporin. We present two cases of severe, idiopathic SU, which were resistant to conventional treatment. Both patients achieved remission after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and have remained in remission at 13 months and 4 years, respectively. There are only two case reports of successful treatment of solar urticaria with IVIg. In our experience IVIg given at a total dose of 2 g\\/kg over several 5-day courses about a month apart is an effective treatment option for severe idiopathic SU. It is also generally safe, even if certainly subject to significant theoretical risks, such as induction of viral infection or anaphylaxis.

  2. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mujaini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD is an increasingly recognized immune-mediated condition comprised of a collection of disorders that share specific pathological, serological, and clinical features. IgG4-RD is a fibroinflammatory condition with a tendency to form tumors with inflammatory infiltrate with IgG4 rich plasma cells and elevation of serum IgG4, which may affect virtually every organ and tissue. IgG4-related ophthalmic disease may present as dacryoadenitis, myositis, or involvement of other orbital tissue. Hypophysitis or pachymeningitis may manifest as cranial neuropathies. The diagnosis of IgG4-RD is based on a typical clinical scenario, supportive laboratory test, expected radiological characteristics, and distinct histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressives form the mainline treatment.

  3. Structural repertoire of immunoglobulin λ light chains

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna

    2011-03-01

    The immunoglobulin λ isotype is present in nearly all vertebrates and plays an important role in the human immune system. Despite its importance, few systematic studies have been performed to analyze the structural conformation of its variable regions, contrary to what is the case for κ and heavy chains. We show here that an analysis of the structures of λ chains allows the definition of a discrete set of recurring conformations (canonical structures) of their hypervariable loops and, most importantly, the identification of sequence constraints that can be used to predict their structure. We also show that the structural repertoire of λ chains is different and more varied than that of the κ chains, consistently with the current view of the involvement of the two major light-chain families in complementary strategies of the immune system to ensure a fine tuning between diversity and stability in antigen recognition. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Structural repertoire of immunoglobulin λ light chains

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo; Cirillo, Davide; Tramontano, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The immunoglobulin λ isotype is present in nearly all vertebrates and plays an important role in the human immune system. Despite its importance, few systematic studies have been performed to analyze the structural conformation of its variable regions, contrary to what is the case for κ and heavy chains. We show here that an analysis of the structures of λ chains allows the definition of a discrete set of recurring conformations (canonical structures) of their hypervariable loops and, most importantly, the identification of sequence constraints that can be used to predict their structure. We also show that the structural repertoire of λ chains is different and more varied than that of the κ chains, consistently with the current view of the involvement of the two major light-chain families in complementary strategies of the immune system to ensure a fine tuning between diversity and stability in antigen recognition. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  6. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  7. Quantum repeated games revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable. (paper)

  8. High Efficiency of Human Normal Immunoglobulin for Intravenous Administration in a Patient with Kawasaki Syndrome Diagnosed in the Later Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Sleptsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a case of late diagnosis of mucocutaneous lymphonodular syndrome (Kawasaki syndrome. At the beginning of the therapy, the child had fever, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, rash, solid swelling of hands and feet, and coronaritis with the development of aneurysms. The article describes the successful use of normal human immunoglobulin for intravenous administration at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight per course in combination with acetylsalicylic acid at the dose of 80 mg/kg per day. After 3 days of treatment, the rash disappeared; limb swelling and symptoms of conjunctivitis significantly reduced; and laboratory parameters of disease activity became normal (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein concentration. After 3 months, inflammation in the coronary arteries was stopped. After 6 months, a regression of coronary artery aneurysms was recorded. No adverse effects during the immunoglobulin therapy were observed.

  9. Tattooing to "Toughen up": Tattoo experience and secretory immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Christopher D; Dominguez, Johnna T; DeCaro, Jason A

    2016-09-10

    A costly signaling model suggests tattooing inoculates the immune system to heightened vigilance against stressors associated with soft tissue damage. We sought to investigate this "inoculation hypothesis" of tattooing as a costly honest signal of fitness. We hypothesized that the immune system habituates to the tattooing stressor in repeatedly tattooed individuals and that immune response to the stress of the tattooing process would correlate with lifetime tattoo experience. Participants were 24 women and 5 men (aged 18-47). We measured immune function using secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and cortisol (sCORT) in saliva collected before and after tattoo sessions. We measured tattoo experience as a sum of number of tattoos, lifetime hours tattooed, years since first tattoo, percent of body covered, and number of tattoo sessions. We predicted an inverse relationship between SIgA and sCORT and less SIgA immunosuppression among those with more tattoo experience. We used hierarchical multiple regression to test for a main effect of tattoo experience on post-tattoo SIgA, controlling for pretest SIgA, tattoo session duration, body mass, and the interaction between tattoo experience and test session duration. The regression model was significant (P = 0.006) with a large effect size (r(2)  = 0.711) and significant and positive main (P = 0.03) and interaction effects (P = 0.014). Our data suggest that the body habituates over time to the tattooing stressor. It is possible that individuals with healthy immune systems heal faster, making them more likely to get multiple tattoos. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:603-609, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Neuropathy : Immunoglobulin And Immune Complex Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM and immune complexes IgG (IcG were measured in 58 cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, popularly known as Guillian Barre′ syndrome, and in 30 healthy controls using single radial immunodiffusion assay. Immunoglobulin and immune complex levels were significantly elevated in patients as compared to controls. The increased levels of immunoglobulins and immune complexes may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease and provide rationale for therapeutic plasmapheresis.

  11. Effects of radioiodine on thyrotrophin binding inhibiting immunoglobulins in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, A.M.; Petersen, M.M.; Capiferri, R.; Evered, D.C.; Rees Smith, B.; Hall, R.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of 131 I therapy on thyrotrophin binding inhibiting immunoglobulins (TBII) were studied in fifty-five patients with Graves' disease and five patients with toxic multinodular goitre (MNG). A group of forty patients with Graves' disease and four patients with toxic MNG were treated with drugs and acted as controls. In 78% of patients treated with 131 I there was a dramatic increase in serum TBII activity during the 3 months following therapy, whereas drug-treated patients showed a decrease (77%) or no change in TBII activity over the same period. TBII activity was not detectable in patients with toxic MNG before or after drug or 131 I therapy. Consideration of the mechanisms involved in the changes in serum TBII activity after 131 I treatment or during drug treatment provide insight into the basic defects responsible for the development of Graves' disease and suggest that both the thyroid and immune system are involved. (author)

  12. Repeat migration and disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  13. Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) side-effects in the treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buel, Erin M; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Fikse, Lianne; Bosker, Fokko J; Schoevers, Robert A; Klein, Hans C; Pryce, Christopher R; Eisel, Ulrich Lm

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental animals is electroconvulsive seizure (ECS). Rodent studies have provided valuable insights into potential mechanisms underlying the antidepressant and side effects of ECT. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of ECS in animal models with a depression-relevant manipulation such as chronic stress. In the present study, mice were first exposed to chronic social stress (CSS) or a control procedure for 15 days followed by ECS or a sham procedure for 10 days. Behavioral effects were investigated using an auditory fear conditioning (learning) and expression (memory) test and a treadmill-running fatigue test. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry was conducted on brain material using the microglial marker Iba-1 and the cholinergic fibre marker ChAT. CSS did not increase fear learning and memory in the present experimental design; in both the control and CSS mice ECS reduced fear learning and fear memory expression. CSS induced the expected fatigue-like effect in the treadmill-running test; ECS induced increased fatigue in CSS and control mice. In CSS and control mice ECS induced inflammation in hippocampus in terms of increased expression of Iba-1 in radiatum of CA1 and CA3. CSS and ECS both reduced acetylcholine function in hippocampus as indicated by decreased expression of ChAT in several hippocampal sub-regions. Therefore, CSS increased fatigue and reduced hippocampal ChAT activity and, rather than reversing these effects, a repeated ECS regimen resulted in impaired fear learning-memory, increased fatigue, increased hippocampal Iba-1 expression, and decreased hippocampal ChAT expression. As such, the current model does not provide insights into the

  14. Enrichment of sialylated IgG by lectin fractionation does not enhance the efficacy of immunoglobulin G in a murine model of immune thrombocytopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guhr, T.; Bloem, J.; Derksen, N.I.L.; Wuhrer, M.; Koenderman, A.H.L.; Aalberse, R.C.; Rispens, T.

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIg) is widely used against a range of clinical symptoms. For its use in immune modulating therapies such as treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura high doses of IVIg are required. It has been suggested that only a fraction of IVIg causes this anti immune

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE RESIDUAL TUMOR IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE MYELOMA BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF THE FREE LIGHT CHAINS OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN BLOOD SERUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Мitina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the multiple myeloma treatment with chemotherapy including bortezomib was assessed based on determination of the level of immunoglobulin free light chains in blood serum. The method enables estimation of changes in kinetic parameters of the residual tumor, detection of the disease course prognosis, and the choice of the optimal approach to the disease therapy.

  16. Pathogenic Leptospira species express surface-exposed proteins belonging to the bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, James; Barocchi, Michele A.; Croda, Julio; Young, Tracy A.; Sanchez, Yolanda; Siqueira, Isadora; Bolin, Carole A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Riley, Lee W.; Haake, David A.; Ko, Albert I.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Proteins with bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, such as the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin and Escherichia coli intimin, are surface-expressed proteins that mediate host mammalian cell invasion or attachment. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a new family of Big domain proteins, referred to as Lig (leptospiral Ig-like) proteins, in pathogenic Leptospira. Screening of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri expression libraries with sera from leptospirosis patients identified 13 lambda phage clones that encode tandem repeats of the 90 amino acid Big domain. Two lig genes, designated ligA and ligB, and one pseudo-gene, ligC, were identified. The ligA and ligB genes encode amino-terminal lipoprotein signal peptides followed by 10 or 11 Big domain repeats and, in the case of ligB, a unique carboxy-terminal non-repeat domain. The organization of ligC is similar to that of ligB but contains mutations that disrupt the reading frame. The lig sequences are present in pathogenic but not saprophytic Leptospira species. LigA and LigB are expressed by a variety of virulent leptospiral strains. Loss of Lig protein and RNA transcript expression is correlated with the observed loss of virulence during culture attenuation of pathogenic strains. High-pressure freeze substitution followed by immunocytochemical electron microscopy confirmed that the Lig proteins were localized to the bacterial surface. Immunoblot studies with patient sera found that the Lig proteins are a major antigen recognized during the acute host infection. These observations demonstrate that the Lig proteins are a newly identified surface protein of pathogenic Leptospira, which by analogy to other bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily virulence factors, may play a role in host cell attachment and invasion during leptospiral pathogenesis. PMID:12890019

  17. Pattern of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) use in a pediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) use in a pediatric intensive care facility in a resource limited setting. ... Journal Home > Vol 13, No 2 (2013) > ... Results: The clinical diagnoses included neurology (35%), neonatology (16%), ...

  18. Beneficial use of immunoglobulins in the treatment of Sydenham chorea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. van Immerzeel (Tabitha); R.M. van Gilst (Ruud); N.G. Hartwig (Nico)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis double case report indicates that treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) is effective in patients with Sydenham chorea (SC). SC is a rare but impressive clinical manifestation following streptococcal infection. This movement disorder characterised by chorea, emotional

  19. Human placental immunoglobulins show unique re-association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. Design: Laboratory based experimentation. Setting: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of ...

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G disrupts blood brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, Nasrin; Berg, Carsten Tue; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen

    2015-01-01

    associated with blood-borne horseradish peroxidase leakage indicating blood-brain barrier breakdown. The cerebrospinal fluid aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G therefore distributes widely in brain to initiate astrocytopathy and blood-brain barrier breakdown....... was evaluated. A distinct distribution pattern of aquaporin-4-immunoglobulin G deposition was observed in the subarachnoid and subpial spaces where vessels penetrate the brain parenchyma, via a paravascular route with intraparenchymal perivascular deposition. Perivascular astrocyte-destructive lesions were...

  1. Purification, characterization and ELISA detection of mink immunoglobulins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    2008-01-01

    the estimated molecular weights of the immunoglobulin gamma, alpha and mu heavy chains were found to be 54 kDa, 69 kDa and 83 kDa respectively. The purities of purified IgG, IgM and IgA were estimated by immunoglobulin class specific ELISAs to be more than 90% for IgG and IgM, and more than 80% for IgA....

  2. Allelic polymorphisms in the repeat and promoter regions of the interleukin-4 gene and malaria severity in Ghanaian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyan, B A; Goka, B; Cvetkovic, J T

    2004-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E has been associated with severe malaria suggesting a regulatory role for interleukin (IL)-4 and/or IgE in the pathogenesis of severe malaria. We have investigated possible associations between polymorphisms in the IL-4 repeat region (intron 3) and promoter regions (IL-4 +33CT and...

  3. Current and emerging therapies for the treatment of myasthenia gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantegazza, Renato; Bonanno, Silvia; Camera, Giorgia; Antozzi, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmmune disease in which autoantibodies to different antigens of the neuromuscular junction cause the typical weakness and fatigability. Treatment includes anticholinesterase drugs, immunosuppression, immunomodulation, and thymectomy. The autoimmune response is maintained under control by corticosteroids frequently associated with immunosuppressive drugs, with improvement in the majority of patients. In case of acute exacerbations with bulbar symptoms or repeated relapses, modulation of autoantibody activity by plasmapheresis or intravenous immunoglobulins provides rapid improvement. Recently, techniques removing only circulating immunoglobulins have been developed for the chronic management of treatment-resistant patients. The rationale for thymectomy relies on the central role of the thymus. Despite the lack of controlled studies, thymectomy is recommended as an option to improve the clinical outcome or promote complete remission. New videothoracoscopic techniques have been developed to offer the maximal surgical approach with the minimal invasiveness and hence patient tolerability. The use of biological drugs such as anti-CD20 antibodies is still limited but promising. Studies performed in the animal model of MG demonstrated that several more selective or antigen-specific approaches, ranging from mucosal tolerization to inhibition of complement activity or cellular therapy, might be feasible. Investigation of the transfer of these therapeutic approaches to the human disease will be the challenge for the future. PMID:21552317

  4. Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durandy, Anne; Kracker, Sven

    2012-07-30

    Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies (Ig-CSR-Ds) are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defective switched isotype (IgG/IgA/IgE) production. Depending on the molecular defect in question, the Ig-CSR-D may be combined with an impairment in somatic hypermutation (SHM). Some of the mechanisms underlying Ig-CSR and SHM have been described by studying natural mutants in humans. This approach has revealed that T cell-B cell interaction (resulting in CD40-mediated signaling), intrinsic B-cell mechanisms (activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA damage), and complex DNA repair machineries (including uracil-N-glycosylase and mismatch repair pathways) are all involved in class-switch recombination and SHM. However, several of the mechanisms required for full antibody maturation have yet to be defined. Elucidation of the molecular defects underlying the diverse set of Ig-CSR-Ds is essential for understanding Ig diversification and has prompted better definition of the clinical spectrum of diseases and the development of increasingly accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  5. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Fiser, Andras; Roderick, Steven L.; Takiff, Howard E.; Blanchard, John S.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S,T,A,V][D,N][L,F]-[S,T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Myc...

  6. A new high molecular weight immunoglobulin class from the carcharhine shark: implications for the properties of the primordial immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, R M; Schluter, S F; Shen, S; Marchalonis, J J

    1996-04-16

    All immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors throughout phylogeny share regions of highly conserved amino acid sequence. To identify possible primitive immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin-like molecules, we utilized 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and a highly conserved constant region consensus amino acid sequence to isolate a new immunoglobulin class from the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus. The immunoglobulin, termed IgW, in its secreted form consists of 782 amino acids and is expressed in both the thymus and the spleen. The molecule overall most closely resembles mu chains of the skate and human and a new putative antigen binding molecule isolated from the nurse shark (NAR). The full-length IgW chain has a variable region resembling human and shark heavy-chain (VH) sequences and a novel joining segment containing the WGXGT motif characteristic of H chains. However, unlike any other H-chain-type molecule, it contains six constant (C) domains. The first C domain contains the cysteine residue characteristic of C mu1 that would allow dimerization with a light (L) chain. The fourth and sixth domains also contain comparable cysteines that would enable dimerization with other H chains or homodimerization. Comparison of the sequences of IgW V and C domains shows homology greater than that found in comparisons among VH and C mu or VL, or CL thereby suggesting that IgW may retain features of the primordial immunoglobulin in evolution.

  7. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  8. simple sequence repeat (SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  9. Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT side-effects in the treatment of depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M van Buel

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental animals is electroconvulsive seizure (ECS. Rodent studies have provided valuable insights into potential mechanisms underlying the antidepressant and side effects of ECT. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of ECS in animal models with a depression-relevant manipulation such as chronic stress. In the present study, mice were first exposed to chronic social stress (CSS or a control procedure for 15 days followed by ECS or a sham procedure for 10 days. Behavioral effects were investigated using an auditory fear conditioning (learning and expression (memory test and a treadmill-running fatigue test. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry was conducted on brain material using the microglial marker Iba-1 and the cholinergic fibre marker ChAT. CSS did not increase fear learning and memory in the present experimental design; in both the control and CSS mice ECS reduced fear learning and fear memory expression. CSS induced the expected fatigue-like effect in the treadmill-running test; ECS induced increased fatigue in CSS and control mice. In CSS and control mice ECS induced inflammation in hippocampus in terms of increased expression of Iba-1 in radiatum of CA1 and CA3. CSS and ECS both reduced acetylcholine function in hippocampus as indicated by decreased expression of ChAT in several hippocampal sub-regions. Therefore, CSS increased fatigue and reduced hippocampal ChAT activity and, rather than reversing these effects, a repeated ECS regimen resulted in impaired fear learning-memory, increased fatigue, increased hippocampal Iba-1 expression, and decreased hippocampal ChAT expression. As such, the current model does not provide insights

  10. Immunoglobulin heavy chain exclusion in the shark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Malecek

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system depends on specific antigen receptors, immunoglobulins (Ig in B lymphocytes and T cell receptors (TCR in T lymphocytes. Adaptive responses to immune challenge are based on the expression of a single species of antigen receptor per cell; and in B cells, this is mediated in part by allelic exclusion at the Ig heavy (H chain locus. How allelic exclusion is regulated is unclear; we considered that sharks, the oldest vertebrates possessing the Ig/TCR-based immune system, would yield insights not previously approachable and reveal the primordial basis of the regulation of allelic exclusion. Sharks have an IgH locus organization consisting of 15-200 independently rearranging miniloci (VH-D1-D2-JH-Cmu, a gene organization that is considered ancestral to the tetrapod and bony fish IgH locus. We found that rearrangement takes place only within a minilocus, and the recombining gene segments are assembled simultaneously and randomly. Only one or few H chain genes were fully rearranged in each shark B cell, whereas the other loci retained their germline configuration. In contrast, most IgH were partially rearranged in every thymocyte (developing T cell examined, but no IgH transcripts were detected. The distinction between B and T cells in their IgH configurations and transcription reveals a heretofore unsuspected chromatin state permissive for rearrangement in precursor lymphocytes, and suggests that controlled limitation of B cell lineage-specific factors mediate regulated rearrangement and allelic exclusion. This regulation may be shared by higher vertebrates in which additional mechanistic and regulatory elements have evolved with their structurally complex IgH locus.

  11. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of the post-polio syndrome: sustained effects on quality of life variables and cytokine expression after one year follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF has led to the hypothesis of intrathecal chronic inflammation to explain the denervation observed in post-polio syndrome (PPS. It has been shown that therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG improves physical performance and dampens down the inflammatory process at 6 months in PPS patients. We here examined the effects of IVIG on cytokine expression and clinical outcome one year after IVIG treatment. Methods From a previous study with 135 PPS patients included, 41 patients were further evaluated before un-blinding for one year (21 placebo and 20 treated with IVIG, Xepol® 50 mg/ml, and were assessed for clinical variables by performing the Short Form-36 survey (SF-36 questionnaire assessment, the 6 minute walk distance test (6MWT and registering pain level by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS after IVIG treatment. A separate cohort of 37 PPS patients went through lumbar puncture (LP at baseline and 20 patients, treated with IVIG, repeated the LP one year later. Thirty patients affected with other neurological diseases (OND were used as control group. Inflammatory cytokines TNF, TGFβ, IFNγ, IL-23, IL-13 and IL-10 were measured in blood cells and CSF cells with RT-PCR. Results Scores of the physical components of SF-36 were significantly higher at the one year follow up time-point in the IVIG-treated patients when compared to baseline as well as to the control subjects. Pain VAS score and 6MWT improved significantly in the IVIG-treated patients when compared with baseline Relative expression of TNF and IFN-γ in both PBMCs and CSF from PPS patients were increased compared to OND subjects at baseline (p  Conclusions IVIG has effects on relevant QoL variables and inflammatory cytokines up to one year in patients with PPS. This gives a basis for scheduling IVIG in upcoming trials with this therapy.

  12. Serum immunoglobulin G4 levels and Graves' disease phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carmen Sorina; Sirbu, Anca Elena; Betivoiu, Minodora Andreea; Florea, Suzana; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela; Fica, Simona Vasilica

    2017-02-01

    We investigated, at diagnosis, the relationship between serum immunoglobulin G4 levels and the main characteristics of Graves' disease: hyperthyroidism severity, goiter size, presence of active Graves' ophthalmopathy, antithyroid antibodies status, and titer. This prospective study included 80 newly diagnosed Graves' disease patients. The main parameters measured at diagnosis: thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, total triiodothyronine, thyroglobulin, antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies, immunoglobulin G4. In Graves' disease patients, serum immunoglobulin G4 levels were higher than in general population (p = 0.028) and higher in men compared to women (p = 0.002). Only one female patient with intense hypoechoic goiter, high anti-thyroglobulin antibody, and antithyroid peroxidase antibody titers had an elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 level at diagnosis. Patients with immunoglobulin G4 levels above the 75th percentile (>237.52 mg/dl, N = 20) were younger at Graves' ophthalmopathy onset (p 286.28 mg/dl, N = 8) had lower total triiodothyronine values (p = 0.001) than patients with IgG below the 90th percentile. No significant correlations were found between smoking status (p = 0.58), goiter size (p = 0.50), the presence of ophthalmopathy (p = 0.42) or thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody titers (p = 0.45) and the mean value of immunoglobulin G4 levels at diagnosis. Our data suggest that Graves' disease patients with elevated immunoglobulin G4 levels at diagnosis have a phenotype characterized by higher anti-thyroglobulin antibody and antithyroid peroxidase antibody titers, less severe T3 hyperthyroidism, younger age at ophthalmopathy onset and require a shorter duration of the first methimazole treatment cycle.

  13. Intravenous Immunoglobulins: Mode of Action and Indications in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir A. Dourmishev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs, a mixture of variable amounts of proteins (albumin, IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE antibodies, as well as salt, sugar, solvents, and detergents, are successfully used to treat a variety of dermatological disorders. For decades, IVIGs have been administered for treatment of infectious diseases and immune deficiencies, since they contain natural antibodies that represent a first-line defense against pathogens. Today their indication has expanded, including the off-label therapy for a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In dermatology, IVIGs are administered for treatment of different disorders at different therapeutic regimens, mostly with higher doses then those administered for treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this prospective review is to highlight the indications, effectiveness, side effects, and perspectives of the systemic treatment with IVIGs for patients with severe, life-threatening, and resistant to conventional therapies autoimmune or inflammatory dermatoses.

  14. Immunoglobulin G4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis: A not to be missed diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Mary Matthai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN is a newly recognized clinicopathological entity characterized by a dense interstitial infiltrate of IgG4-positive plasma cells accompanied by fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis causing acute or chronic renal dysfunction amenable to corticosteroid therapy. IgG4-TIN is the dominant manifestation of renal involvement in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD which is a novel, immune-mediated, fibroinflammatory and multiorgan disorder. We describe a case of IgG4-TIN with isolated renal involvement in an elderly male patient with poor response to corticosteroid therapy. The distinctive serological, histopathological, and ultrastructural features of this condition which can facilitate differential diagnosis of TIN are highlighted to emphasize the need for early diagnosis and preservation of kidney function.

  15. An aortoduodenal fistula as a complication of immunoglobulin G4-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Momir; Marjanovic, Ivan; Bezmarevic, Mihailo; Zoranovic, Uros; Petrovic, Stanko; Mihajlovic, Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Most primary aortoduodenal fistulas occur in the presence of an aortic aneurysm, which can be part of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease. We present a case who underwent endovascular grafting of an aortoduodenal fistula associated with a high serum IgG4 level. A 56-year-old male underwent urgent endovascular reconstruction of an aortoduodenal fistula. The patient received antibiotics and other supportive therapy, and the postoperative course was uneventful, however, elevated levels of serum IgG, IgG4 and C-reactive protein were noted, which normalized after the introduction of steroid therapy. Control computed tomography angiography showed no endoleaks. The primary aortoduodenal fistula may have been associated with IgG4-related sclerosing disease as a possible complication of IgG4-related inflammatory aortic aneurysm. Endovascular grafting of a primary aortoduodenal fistula is an effective and minimally invasive alternative to standard surgical repair. PMID:23155348

  16. Severe Periodontal Disease Associated with Long-Term Treatment with Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jôice Dias Corrêa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is used in the treatment of neuropathy. This case report presents, for the first time, a patient with severe periodontal destruction after chronic therapy with IVIG. The patient reported having extracted his maxillary anterior teeth himself due to high mobility. Clinical examination and radiographic images show a generalized and severe periodontitis. No significant alterations in genetic or microbiological features were observed. The present case suggests that periodontal disease aggravation could be considered a new adverse effect of IVIG therapy. Postulated mechanisms are immune complexes formation, complement activation, and a direct effect in osteoclasts. In conclusion, it is important that patients that will receive IVIG treatment underwent dental evaluation.

  17. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  18. Immunoglobulin deposits in peripheral nerve endings detected by skin biopsy in patients with IgM M proteins and neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, V; Jensen, T S; Friis, M L

    1987-01-01

    biopsies provide a simple effective method of detecting immunoglobulin binding to peripheral nerves in patients suspected of having an autoimmune neuropathy. In contrast to sural nerve biopsy, skin biopsy does not cause sensory loss or pain in a denervated area and can easily be repeated.......Immunofluorescence studies of sural nerve and skin biopsies from three patients with IgM M proteins and clinical neuropathy showed that IgM M protein was bound to the nerve myelin in two patients and by the peri- and endoneurium in one. It is suggested that immunohistochemical studies of skin...

  19. Protective efficacy of immunoglobulins Y prepared against Cerastes cerastes snake venom in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Ihab M; Hessan, Ashgan M; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A; Salem-Bekhit, Mounier M; AlRejai, Salim A

    2012-08-01

    To prepare and evaluate the protective efficacy of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) prepared against local Saudi Cerastes cerastes snake venom. The study was conducted between October 2009 and October 2011 at the Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study designed as follow; 4 groups of 8 chickens were immunized intramuscularly with Cerastes cerastes snake venoms mixed with Freund's complete adjuvant. Three weeks later, the injections were repeated with the venoms with incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Three boosters were given with the venoms at 3 weeks intervals. The IgY was extracted by ammonium sulphate-caprylic acid method, the antibody titer were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay, and the protective efficacies of the extracted immunoglobulins were performed. Immunoglobulin Y preparation extracted by ammonium sulphate-caprylic acid method showed lack of low molecular weight bands. The bands representing IgY-antibodies, which have molecular weights ranged from 180-200 KD, appeared sharp and clear. Furthermore, evaluation of the prepared protective value of IgY-antibodies revealed one ml of extracted IgY-antibodies containing 15 mg/ml anti Cerastes cerastes; specific IgY could produce 100% protection against 50 LD50. Laying hens could be used as an alternative source of polyclonal antibodies against Cerastes cerastes snake venoms due to several advantages as compared with mammals.

  20. Bacteriostatic enterochelin-specific immunoglobulin from normal human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.; Yancey, R.J.; Lankford, C.E.; Earhart, C.F.

    1980-02-01

    Heat-inactivated normal human serum produces iron-reversible bacteriostasis of a number of microorganisms. This inhibitory effect was abolished by adsorption of serum with ultraviolet-killed cells of species that produce the siderophore enterochelin. Bacteriostasis also was alleviated by asorption of serum with 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine, a degradation product of enterochelin, bound to the insoluble matrix AH-Sepharose 4B. Our results indicate that enterochelin-specific immunoglobulins exist in normal human serum. These immunoglobulins may act synergistically with transferrin to effect bacteriostasis of enterochelin-producing pathogens.

  1. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  2. Serum immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G reactivity to Agaricus bisporus proteins in mushroom cultivation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Z; Hedayati, M T; Mahdian, S; Mayahi, S

    2015-06-01

    Although molds are regarded as the main fungal allergen sources, evidence indicates that spores of Basidiomycota including Agaricus bisporus ( A. bisporus ) can be also found at high concentrations in the environment and may cause as many respiratory allergies as molds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against A. bisporus via immunoblotting technique in individuals working at mushroom cultivation centers. In this study, 72 workers involved in the cultivation and harvest of button mushrooms were enrolled. For the analysis of serum IgE and IgG, A. bisporus grown in Sabouraud dextrose broth was harvested and ruptured by liquid nitrogen and glass beads. The obtained sample was centrifuged and the supernatant was collected as "crude extract" (CE). CE was separated via Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The separated proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose filter and the bands responsive to IgE and IgG were identified by anti-human conjugated antibodies. All participants were screened in terms of total IgE level. Among 72 workers, 18 (25%) had a total IgE level higher than 188 IU/mL. In SDS-PAGE, the CE of A. bisporus showed 23 different protein bands with a molecular weight range of 13-80 kDa. The sera of 23.6% and 55.5% of participants showed positive response, with specific IgE and IgG antibodies against A. bisporus in the blot, respectively. The bands with molecular weights of 62 and 68 kDa were the most reactive protein components of A. bisporus to specific IgE antibodies. Moreover, bands with molecular weights of 57 and 62 kDa showed the highest reactivity to IgG, respectively. Also, 62 and 68 kDa components were the most reactive bands with both specific IgG and IgE antibodies. The obtained findings revealed that A. bisporus has different allergens and antigens, which contribute to its potential as an aeroallergen in hypersensitivity

  3. 21 CFR 866.5520 - Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5520 Immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fab fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5540 - Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5540 Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists of...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5530 - Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific... Test Systems § 866.5530 Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system. (a) Identification. An immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system is a device that consists of...

  6. [Detection of split products of the immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM during chronic otitis media (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbauer, E R; Hochgesand, K; Hochstrasser, K; Tappermann, G

    1975-07-01

    Proteolytic enzymes such as pepsine or papaine are able to split IgG antibodies into large fragments in vitro. These immunoglobulin fragments (IgG, IgA, IgM) were now detected in vivo from the purulent secretions of cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media and radical mastoid cavities. During chronic otitis media the intact immunoglobulins are split due to the proteolytic activity of neutral proteinases. These fragments were qualitatively and quantitatively investigated by means of various immunological procedures. After the immunoelectrophoretic separation of the purulent middle-ear-secretions and after diffusion against anti-IgG-, anti-IgA- and anti-IgM- serum double precipitate lines could be observed especially in middle-ear-secretion with a bacterial flora of pseudomonas aeruginosa (pyocyanea) and of the proteus-providencia-group. This was the first proof of the presence of split products of the immunoglobulins. The exact demonstration of these split products could be carried out by gel-filtration and fractionation of the intact and split immunoglobulins. During chronic otitis media intact immunoglobulins are split by leucocytic and extracellular bacterial proteinases into fragments of different molecular weight. The most malignant extracellular proteinases with the greatest proteolytic activity against intact immunoglobulins are the bacterial proteinases of pseudomonas aeruginosa. These proteinases can not be inhibited by the other serum proteinaseinhibitors except for alpha-2-macroglobulin of the human blood serum. This inhibitor has a very high molecular weight so that we can not find it in a higher concentration in the middle-ear-secretion. We can liberate this inhibitor by injuring the blood vessels during a tympanoplasty. In this way we get an inhibitory effect against these proteinases and combined with an appropriate antibiotic therapy we can cure a chronic otitis media.

  7. Acute phase proteins and immunoglobulin classes in newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: No single organic cause has been found for schizophrenia and its management has been difficult. More so, there are few data on the immune parameters of Nigerian schizophrenic patients on drug treatment and those that are not on treatment. Methodology: This study determines the levels of immunoglobulin

  8. Pattern of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) use in a pediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Abstract. Background: Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations are scarce biological products used for replacement or immunomodulatory effects. Guidelines have been issued by regulatory health authorities to ensure provision of the products for patients who are in severe need. Objectives: The study aimed at ...

  9. Rhesus anti-D immunoglobulin in chronic autoimmune neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, AEJ; van der Hoeven, JH

    Objective - To investigate the effect of Rhesus anti-D immunoglobulin (anti-D) in patients with an autoimmune demyelinating neuropathy. Material and methods - Three patients with an autoimmune mediated neuropathy received 1000 IU anti-D weekly for 2 months. Results - Two patients worsened gradually

  10. Sensitive chain specific radioimmunoassay for human immunoglobulins using monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, K; Alderson, T St.J.; Ellis, J [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Cambridge (UK)

    1983-02-25

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay is described for human immunoglobulins. This solid-phase assay uses commercially available monoclonal antibodies and is specific for different Ig chain types. Levels of less than 20 ng/ml Ig are detectable. The assay is suitable for the analysis of human hybridoma supernatants.

  11. Alpha chain determinants on the membrane of immunoglobulin synthesizing cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, W.; Schuit, H.R.E.; Radl, J.; Vossen, J.M.J.J.

    1974-01-01

    In a study of surface immunoglobulins (Ig) on lymphocytes from patients with paraproteinemia (1), we observed that a variable number of plasma cells not only contained intracellular Ig, but also had Ig on their surface, as shown in the vital technique of immunofluorescence. Moreover, in the bone

  12. Bacteremia and immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from antiphospholipid- and thyroid- autoantibodies which were reported as underlying causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, specific IgG to patermal MHC and Rh was proposed. This raises the possibility of other classes of immunoglobulin in recurrent abortion. Twenty-four pregnant women with recurrent abortion ...

  13. serum immunoglobulin levels in white, asiatic and bantu blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all assays were calculated as a percentage of the mean of. TABLE I. RESULTS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN ASSAYS OF tOO WHITE, tOO ASIATIC AND 100 BANTU DONORS, EXPRESSED AS A. PERCENTAGE OF A CONTROL SERUM. Parameter. Range. Mean. Variance. Standard deviation. CoefI. of variation.

  14. Haemolytic anaemia as a complication to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas; Christiansen, Ingelise

    performed before and two weeks after infusion of IVIg. Following treatment blood haemoglobin declined from 8.6±0.8 to 8.1±1.3mmol/l, p... naive patients are susceptible to develop haemolysis. Haemolytic anaemia is a severe side effect that seems to be more frequent after immunoglobulin infusions than previously recognized....

  15. Solvent-Detergent Treatment of IgM-Enriched Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Pourmokhtar

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Viral safety of human plasma products plays a key role in their safe uses. Solvent- detergent (SD virus-inactivation method has gained widespread popularity in the manufacture of biological products. This treatment which inactivates lipid-enveloped viruses effectively consists of incubation of a plasma protein solution in the presence of a non-volatile organic solvent and a detergent. In this study, IgM-enriched immunoglobulin was incubated at 24 °C for 6 h under slow stirring in the presence of tri(n-butyl phosphate (0.3% w/w as solvent and tween 80 (1% w/w as detergent. After completion of the inactivation process and removal of the solvent-detergent, the ability of SD-treatment to remove Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR virus (a lipid-enveloped virus and Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (a non-enveloped virus were evaluated by "virus spiking studies" using a scaled down process. Reduction factor of 4 log was obtained for the SD-treatment of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin spiked with IBR virus. No virus inactivation was observed in the SD-treated IgM-enriched immunoglobulin, spiked with Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus. It was concluded that treatment of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin with TNBP-TWEEN 80 may be considered as an efficient lipid-enveloped virus inactivation step in the manufacture of this product.

  16. Mechanism of immunoglobulin G4 Fab-arm exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Theo; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni; Bende, Onno; Aalberse, Rob C.

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are symmetrical molecules that may be regarded as covalent dimers of 2 half-molecules, each consisting of a light chain and a heavy chain. Human IgG4 is an unusually dynamic antibody, with half-molecule exchange ("Fab-arm exchange") resulting in asymmetrical,

  17. Effect of continuous milking on immunoglobulin concentrations in bovine colostrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.J.; Koets, A.P.; Eisenberg, S.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous milking is defined as a dairy cattle management system without a planned dry period for cows in late gestation. Continuous milking has been described to reduce health problems common in periparturient cattle, but may affect colostrum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration and subsequently calf

  18. Intravenous polyclonal human immunoglobulins in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2008-01-01

    to methylprednisolone does not make remission of symptoms faster or more complete. IVIG does not seem to be of any benefit to chronic visual or motor symptoms in MS. In secondary progressive MS, IVIG has not shown any effect on disease progression, relapses or new magnetic resonance imaging lesions. Experimental...... studies in the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats demonstrate that IVIG has to be administered at the time of induction of a relapse in order to be effective. In conclusion, IVIG can be considered as a second-line treatment to approved therapies for relapsing-remitting MS...... and magnetic resonance imaging outcome measures Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  19. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  20. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... coordinators estimate the effect on coordination fees? Does the supposed benefit that mobile repeater stations... allow the licensing and operation of vehicular repeater systems and other mobile repeaters by public... email: [email protected] or phone: 202-418- 0530 or TTY: 202-418-0432. For detailed instructions for...

  1. Developing injectable immunoglobulins to treat cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinitz, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a devastating disorder, clinically characterized by a comprehensive cognitive decline. The novel strategy of anti-amyloid-beta immunotherapy has been suggested following encouraging results obtained in murine models of Alzheimer's disease, in non-human primates, and in small-scale clinical trials. To examine the choice between active or passive anti-amyloid-beta immunization and the choice of the molecule to which the immune machinery should be targeted, which are central issues in future immune therapy of Alzheimer's disease. Research into the new area of Alzheimer's disease immune therapy is primarily based on in vivo and in vitro studies of murine models of Alzheimer's disease. The studies are hence limited to defined genetic deficiencies. In humans, infusion of anti-amyloid-beta antibodies is considered a safer approach than active anti-amyloid-beta vaccination. Alzheimer's-disease-protective anti-amyloid-beta monoclonal antibodies should target specific epitopes within the amyloid beta(1 42) peptide, avoiding possibly harmful binding to the ubiquitous normal amyloid precursor protein. Since Alzheimer's disease immunotherapy requires repeated infusion of antibodies over a prolonged period of time, Alzheimer's disease patients will tolerate such antibodies provided the latter are exclusively of human origin. Human monoclonal antibodies that correspond to ubiquitous anti-amyloid-beta, present in all healthy humans, might bear important protective characteristics.

  2. Molecular Analysis of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Gene in Immunoglobulin-E Deficient Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how class switch recombination (CSR is regulated to produce immunoglobulin E (IgE has become fundamental because of the dramatic increase in the prevalence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. CSR requires the induction of the enzyme AICDA in B cells. Mutations in AICDA have been linked to Hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2, which shows absence of switching to IgE as well as to IgG and IgA. Although isolated IgE deficiency is a rare entity, here we show some individuals with normal serum IgM, IgG, and IgA levels that had undetectable total serum IgE levels. We have analyzed the AICDA gene in these individuals to determine if there are mutations in AICDA that could lead to selective IgE deficiency. Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE and sequencing analysis of AICDA coding sequences demonstrated sequence heterogeneity due to 5923A/G and 7888C/T polymorphisms, but did not reveal any novel mutation that might explain the selective IgE deficit.

  3. Feasibility of a UK community-based, eTherapy mental health service in Greater Manchester: repeated-measures and between-groups study of 'Living Life to the Full Interactive', 'Sleepio' and 'Breaking Free Online' at 'Self Help Services'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elison, Sarah; Ward, Jonathan; Williams, Chris; Espie, Colin; Davies, Glyn; Dugdale, Stephanie; Ragan, Kathryn; Chisnall, Leanne; Lidbetter, Nicky; Smith, Keith

    2017-07-20

    There is increasing evidence to support the effectiveness of eTherapies for mental health, although limited data have been reported from community-based services. Therefore, this service evaluation reports on feasibility and outcomes from an eTherapy mental health service. 'Self Help Services', an Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) eTherapy service in Greater Manchester. 1068 service users referred to the service for secondary care for their mental health difficulties. Participants were triaged into one of three eTherapy programmes: 'Living Life to the Full Interactive' for low mood, stress and anxiety; 'Sleepio' for insomnia; and 'Breaking Free Online' for substance misuse, depending on clinical need. Standardised psychometric assessments of depression, anxiety and social functioning, collected as part of the IAPT Minimum Data Set, were conducted at baseline and post-treatment. Data indicated baseline differences, with the Breaking Free Online group having higher scores for depression and anxiety than the Living Life to the Full Interactive (depression CI 1.27 to 3.21, pmental health scores were found within all three groups (all pmental health difficulties (pmental health difficulties and suggest that eTherapies may be a useful addition to treatment offering in community-based services. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Scleromyxedema with Subcutaneous Nodules: Successful Treatment with Thalidomide and Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dolenc-Voljč

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scleromyxedema is a rare cutaneous mucinosis, usually presenting with generalized papular eruption and sclerodermoid induration, monoclonal gammopathy and systemic manifestations. An atypical clinical presentation with cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules has been reported rarely. In recent years, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg appears to be the therapy of choice for scleromyxedema. Treatment experiences in atypical manifestations with mucinous nodules are limited to sporadic reports. We report the case of male patient with atypical scleromyxedema without underlying paraproteinemia, presenting with generalized papular and sclerodermoid skin eruption and multiple nodular mucinous lesions on the fingers and face as well as on the eyelids, and associated systemic symptoms. Complete regression of all cutaneous lesions and extracutaneous symptoms with sustained remission was achieved by combined treatment with thalidomide and IVIg.

  5. Scleromyxedema with Subcutaneous Nodules: Successful Treatment with Thalidomide and Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc-Voljč, M.; Jurčić, V.; Hočevar, A.; Tomšič, M.

    2013-01-01

    Scleromyxedema is a rare cutaneous mucinosis, usually presenting with generalized papular eruption and sclerodermoid induration, monoclonal gammopathy and systemic manifestations. An atypical clinical presentation with cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules has been reported rarely. In recent years, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) appears to be the therapy of choice for scleromyxedema. Treatment experiences in atypical manifestations with mucinous nodules are limited to sporadic reports. We report the case of male patient with atypical scleromyxedema without underlying paraproteinemia, presenting with generalized papular and sclerodermoid skin eruption and multiple nodular mucinous lesions on the fingers and face as well as on the eyelids, and associated systemic symptoms. Complete regression of all cutaneous lesions and extracutaneous symptoms with sustained remission was achieved by combined treatment with thalidomide and IVIg. PMID:24348379

  6. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab')₂ Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-12-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab')₂ fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab')₂ fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab')₂ passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  7. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab′2 Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab′2 fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab′2 fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab′2 passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  8. Immunoglobulin concentration in blood serum of postcolostral calves: Ratio between immunoglobulin level and appearance of enzootic pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonić Branko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The timely supply of newborn calves with optimal quantities of colostrum has a key role in the process of immune protection in the early phase of their lives. Passively acquired antibodies can protect the digestive organs from infection caused by E.coli bacteria, and it seems also from the appearance of diseases of the respiratory tract. These examinations were performed on a cattle farm where bronchopneumonia was one of the most significant health problems, and a group of 39 calves were selected for the investigations. The calves were fed with their mothers’ colostrum after birth, and then with collective milk. Immunoglobulin concentration was determined in blood samples taken during the postcolostral period, with the method using zinc-sulphate. At the age of 40 days, the calves were administered a polyvalent inactivated vaccine, and revaccinated 20 days after that (Vibak, Veterinary Department Subotica. In 74.34% calves, the immunoglobulin G concentration ranged from 26 to 40 g/l. In 25.66% calves, the immunoglobulin concentration was lower, from 8 to 25 g/l. The calves found to have a lower concentration of immunoglobulin in blood contracted bronchopneumonia more frequently, and the outcome of the disease in some cases was mortality, even.

  9. Comparison of techniques of detecting immunoglobulin-binding protein reactivity to immunoglobulin produced by different avian and mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justiz-Vaillant, A A; Akpaka, P E; McFarlane-Anderson, N; Smikle, M F

    2013-01-01

    The rationale of this study was to use several immunological assays to investigate the reactivity of immunoglobulin binding protein (IBP) to immunoglobulins from various avian and mammalian species. The IBP studied were Staphylococcal protein A (SpA), Streptococcal protein G (SpG), Peptostreptococcal protein L (SpL) and recombinant protein LA (SpLA). The various immunological techniques used were double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique) that tested positive high protein reactivities, direct and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that tested moderate and low positive protein binding capacities, respectively. In addition to sandwich ELISAs, immunoblot analyses and Ig-purification by SpA-affinity chromatography, which were sensitive tests and helpful in the screening and confirmatory tests were also used. The Ouchterlony technique showed that compared to the other proteins, SpLA had the highest range of reactivity with animal sera and purified immunoglobulins while SpL was least reactive. With the direct ELISA, SpL reacted with the raccoon sera, rabbit IgG and with IgY from bantam hens and pigeons. While with the direct ELISA, SpA reacted with sera from skunk, coyote, raccoon, mule, donkey and human. The sandwich ELISA revealed high reactivity of both SpG and SpLA with mammalian sera titres ranging from 1:32 (raccoon serum) to 1:1024 (mule and donkey sera). These results suggest that IBP can be used for the detection of immunoglobulin using various immunological assays and this is important for the diagnosis of infectious diseases in animal and bird populations studied and in the purification of immunoglobulins.

  10. Frequency patterns of T-cell exposed motifs in immunoglobulin heavy chain peptides presented by MHCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Bremel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are highly diverse protein sequences that are processed and presented to T-cells by B-cells and other antigen presenting cells. We examined a large dataset of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions (IGHV to assess the diversity of T-cell exposed motifs (TCEM. TCEM comprise those amino acids in a MHC-bound peptide which face outwards, surrounded by the MHC histotope, and which engage the T-cell receptor. Within IGHV there is a distinct pattern of predicted MHC class II binding and a very high frequency of re-use of the TCEMs. The re-use frequency indicates that only a limited number of different cognate T-cells are required to engage many different clonal B-cells. The amino acids in each outward-facing TCEM are intercalated with the amino acids of inward-facing MHC groove-exposed motifs (GEM. Different GEM may have differing, allele-specific, MHC binding affinities. The intercalation of TCEM and GEM in a peptide allows for a vast combinatorial repertoire of epitopes, each eliciting a different response. Outcome of T-cell receptor binding is determined by overall signal strength, which is a function of the number of responding T-cells and the duration of engagement. Hence, the frequency of T-cell exposed motif re-use appears to be an important determinant of whether a T-cell response is stimulatory or suppressive. The frequency distribution of TCEMs implies that somatic hypermutation is followed by clonal expansion that develop along repeated pathways. The observations of TCEM and GEM derived from immunoglobulins suggest a relatively simple, yet powerful, mechanism to correlate T-cell polyspecificity, through re-use of TCEMs, with a very high degree of specificity achieved by combination with a diversity of GEMs. The frequency profile of TCEMs also points to an economical mechanism for maintaining T-cell memory, recall, and self-discrimination based on an endogenously generated profile of motifs.

  11. Repeated causal decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in such situations and how they use their knowledge to adapt to changes in the decision context. Our studies show that decision makers' behavior is strongly contingent on their causal beliefs and that people exploit their causal knowledge to assess the consequences of changes in the decision problem. A high consistency between hypotheses about causal structure, causally expected values, and actual choices was observed. The experiments show that (a) existing causal hypotheses guide the interpretation of decision feedback, (b) consequences of decisions are used to revise existing causal beliefs, and (c) decision makers use the experienced feedback to induce a causal model of the choice situation even when they have no initial causal hypotheses, which (d) enables them to adapt their choices to changes of the decision problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The immunoglobulin-like domains 1 and 2 of the protein tyrosine phosphatase LAR adopt an unusual horseshoe-like conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biersmith, Bridget H.; Hammel, Michal; Geisbrecht, Erika R.; Bouyain, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis depends on exquisitely regulated interactions between macromolecules on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. In particular, interactions between proteoglycans and members of the type IIa subgroup of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases underlie critical developmental processes such as the formation of synapses at the neuromuscular junction and the migration of axons to their appropriate targets. We report here the crystal structures of the first and second immunoglobulin-like domains of the Drosophila type IIa receptor Dlar and its mouse homologue LAR. These two domains adopt an unusual antiparallel arrangement that has not been previously observed in tandem repeats of immunoglobulin-like domains and that is presumably conserved in all type IIa receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases. PMID:21402080

  13. Treatment with HPMA copolymer-based doxorubicin conjugate containing human immunoglobulin induces long-lasting systemic anti-tumour immunity in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šírová, Milada; Strohalm, Jiří; Šubr, Vladimír; Plocová, Daniela; Rossmann, Pavel; Mrkvan, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel; Říhová, Blanka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, - (2007), s. 35-47 ISSN 0340-7004 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0505; GA ČR GA305/05/2268 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : targered tumour therapy * hpma * human immunoglobulin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.728, year: 2007

  14. Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) side-effects in the treatment of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buel, Erin M; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Fikse, Lianne; Bosker, Fokko J; Schoevers, Robert A; Klein, Hans C; Pryce, Christopher R; Eisel, Ulrich Lm

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental

  15. High levels of immunoglobulin E and a continuous increase in immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M by age in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Jannet; Eising, Stefanie; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbøl

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing, either because of environmental factors accelerating onset of the disease or because of inducement of autoimmune diabetes in children who previously were at lower risk. High levels of immunoglobulin (Ig), specifically, IgM and IgA, and a low...... level of IgG were reported in adult patients; however no studies have analyzed the increasing incidence in relation to Ig levels. Our aim was to describe Ig in children newly diagnosed with diabetes and in their healthy siblings. Children with T1D expressed significantly lower IgG (p

  16. Clinical experience with a radioreceptor assay for TSH-binding inhibiting immunoglobulins (TBII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberling, H.J.; Bierwolf, B.; Lohmann, D.

    1988-01-01

    The aim was evaluate the clinical value of a commercial kit for determination of TSH-binding inhibiting immunoglobulin (TBII). 47 of 50 patients with untreated hyperthyroid Graves' disease were TBII positive (sensitivity 94%). TBII was in the normal range in all normal volunteers and in patients with simple goiter, thyroid cancer and in most cases of nonimmunogenic hyperthyreoidism (19 of 22). After 12 months antithyroid drug therapy with methimazole of 21 patients the prevalence of positive TBII findings was 28%. In contrast to this, 50 percent of the patients had increased microsomal antibodies at the end of therapy. The determination of TBII by TRAK assay proved to be a sensitive, specific and practical method. The assay can be used to differentiate between hyperthyreoidism of autoimmune or nonimmunogenic origin. Even so this method seems to be helpful for the follow-up during medical treatment of patients with Graves' disease. The results indicate that persistence of increased TBII levels are markers of active Graves' disease and suggest that in this situation ablative measures should be performed. Normalization of TBII on the end of a longstanding antithyroid therapy does not exclude the possibility of relapse in the further course. (author)

  17. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  18. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins in alcoholic steatosis and cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Tage-Jensen, Ulrik Viggo

    1983-01-01

    increased (p less than 0.005) concentrations of immunoglobulins G, A, and M when compared to patients with steatosis. These results indicate that the degree of liver damage has more effect than chronic alcoholism on the humoral immune system. Whether this influence is direct or indirect remains......Antinuclear antibodies were significantly more prevalent (p less than 0.01) in 143 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than in 64 patients with alcoholic steatosis and in 94 controls. Smooth muscle antibodies were significantly more prevalent (p less than 0.05) in patients with alcoholic steatosis...... and cirrhosis than in controls. The prevalence of antimitochondrial antibodies and IgG liver membrane antibodies did not differ significantly between the three groups. Immunoglobulin G, A, and M concentrations were only occasionally increased in patients with steatosis. Patients with cirrhosis had significantly...

  19. A role for PCNA ubiquitination in immunoglobulin hypermutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Arakawa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a DNA polymerase cofactor and regulator of replication-linked functions. Upon DNA damage, yeast and vertebrate PCNA is modified at the conserved lysine K164 by ubiquitin, which mediates error-prone replication across lesions via translesion polymerases. We investigated the role of PCNA ubiquitination in variants of the DT40 B cell line that are mutant in K164 of PCNA or in Rad18, which is involved in PCNA ubiquitination. Remarkably, the PCNA(K164R mutation not only renders cells sensitive to DNA-damaging agents, but also strongly reduces activation induced deaminase-dependent single-nucleotide substitutions in the immunoglobulin light-chain locus. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, that vertebrates exploit the PCNA-ubiquitin pathway for immunoglobulin hypermutation, most likely through the recruitment of error-prone DNA polymerases.

  20. A database of immunoglobulins with integrated tools: DIGIT.

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna; Tramontano, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The DIGIT (Database of ImmunoGlobulins with Integrated Tools) database (http://biocomputing.it/digit) is an integrated resource storing sequences of annotated immunoglobulin variable domains and enriched with tools for searching and analyzing them. The annotations in the database include information on the type of antigen, the respective germline sequences and on pairing information between light and heavy chains. Other annotations, such as the identification of the complementarity determining regions, assignment of their structural class and identification of mutations with respect to the germline, are computed on the fly and can also be obtained for user-submitted sequences. The system allows customized BLAST searches and automatic building of 3D models of the domains to be performed.

  1. A database of immunoglobulins with integrated tools: DIGIT.

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna

    2011-11-10

    The DIGIT (Database of ImmunoGlobulins with Integrated Tools) database (http://biocomputing.it/digit) is an integrated resource storing sequences of annotated immunoglobulin variable domains and enriched with tools for searching and analyzing them. The annotations in the database include information on the type of antigen, the respective germline sequences and on pairing information between light and heavy chains. Other annotations, such as the identification of the complementarity determining regions, assignment of their structural class and identification of mutations with respect to the germline, are computed on the fly and can also be obtained for user-submitted sequences. The system allows customized BLAST searches and automatic building of 3D models of the domains to be performed.

  2. Fungicidal activity of peptides encoded by immunoglobulin genes

    OpenAIRE

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Sperind?, Martina; Giovati, Laura; D?Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; Travassos, Luiz R.; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from previous works disclosed the antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-tumour and/or immunomodulatory activity exerted, through different mechanisms of action, by peptides expressed in the complementarity-determining regions or even in the constant region of antibodies, independently from their specificity and isotype. Presently, we report the selection, from available databases, of peptide sequences encoded by immunoglobulin genes for the evaluation of their potential biological activitie...

  3. CD147 Immunoglobulin Superfamily Receptor Function and Role in Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Iacono, Kathryn T.; Brown, Amy L.; Greene, Mark I.; Saouaf, Sandra J.

    2007-01-01

    The immunoglobulin superfamily member CD147 plays an important role in fetal, neuronal, lymphocyte and extracellular matrix development. Here we review the current understanding of CD147 expression and protein interactions with regard to CD147 function and its role in pathologic conditions including heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and cancer. A model linking hypoxic conditions found within the tumor microenvironment to up-regulation of CD147 expression and tumor progression is intr...

  4. Serologic activity of G immunoglobulin of irradiated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.A.; Nevinnaya, A.P.; Mozhajskij, A.M.; Snisar', N.A.

    1977-01-01

    Serologic immunochemical properties of immunoglobulins G (IgG) isolated from blood serum of normal rabbits and those given lethal and midlethal doses of radiation have been comparatively studied. A marked increase in the IgG level was detected in the recovery period of radiation sickness. The number of complement-binding antitissue antibodies in IgG grew in that period, and the anticomplementary activity and the catabolism rate of IgG increased in normal organism

  5. Diversity Analysis of the Immunoglobulin M Heavy Chain Gene in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A full-length cDNA encoding the immunoglobulin (IgM) heavy chain gene of Nile tilapia was successfully cloned using the 5' and 3' RACE techniques. The complete cDNA of the Nile tilapia IgM heavy chain gene is 1,921 bp in length and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,740 bp, which corresponds to 580 amino acid ...

  6. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease: autoimmune pancreatitis and extrapancreatic manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alvarenga Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4-related disease with pancreatic and extrapancreatic involvement, including the biliary and renal systems. Given the importance of imaging methods for the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease and its differentiation from pancreatic adenocarcinoma, we emphasize important abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings related to this recently recognized systemic autoimmune disease.

  7. Characterisation of the clinical and activated T cell response to repeat delayed-type hypersensitivity skin challenges in human subjects, with KLH and PPD, as a potential model to test T cell-targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belson, Alexandra; Schmidt, Tim; Fernando, Disala; Hardes, Kelly; Scott, Nicola; Brett, Sara; Clark, Deborah; Oliveira, João Joaquim; Davis, Bill; McHugh, Simon; Stone, John

    2016-05-01

    To characterise the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to repeated challenges of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) in healthy volunteers, as a potential model to test T cell-targeted investigational agents. Forty-nine subjects received either KLH, PPD, or PBS repeat skin challenges, and clinical assessments including induration, erythema and Laser Doppler Imaging. Skin biopsies or suction blisters were taken after challenge to investigate the cellular infiltrate of the challenge site, the T cell activation status, as determined by LAG-3 expression, and, specifically for the blister, the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. Point estimates, estimates of variation and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were constructed for each type of challenge and timepoint. The DTH response could be measured at 48 and 120 h post-KLH and PPD challenge with induration, erythema and Laser Doppler Imaging, with 48 h post-challenge demonstrating the peak of the response. PPD was well tolerated in subjects after multiple challenges, however, a significant number of KLH-treated subjects demonstrated an injection site reaction 6-7 days following the SC injection. PPD demonstrated a boost effect on the second challenge as measured by increased induration, where as this was not noted consistently for KLH. Compared to unchallenged and PBS control-injected skin, increased T cell numbers were detected in the challenge site by both the skin suction blister and biopsy technique, at either time point following KLH or PPD challenge. Use of the T cell activation marker LAG-3 demonstrated the activated phenotype of these cells. In skin blisters, higher numbers of LAG-3+ T cells were detected at 48 h post-challenge, whereas in the biopsies, similar numbers of LAG-3+ cells were observed at both 48 and 120 h. Analysis of blister T cell subpopulations revealed some differences in phenotypes between the time points and between the CD4

  8. II Brazilian Consensus on the use of human immunoglobulin in patients with primary immunodeficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudouris, Ekaterini Simões; Rego Silva, Almerinda Maria do; Ouricuri, Aluce Loureiro; Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares; Prando, Carolina Cardoso; Kokron, Cristina Maria; Vasconcelos, Dewton de Moraes; Tavares, Fabíola Scancetti; Silva Segundo, Gesmar Rodrigues; Barreto, Irma Cecília; Dorna, Mayra de Barros; Barros, Myrthes Anna; Forte, Wilma Carvalho Neves

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years, new primary immunodeficiencies and genetic defects have been described. Recently, immunoglobulin products with improved compositions and for subcutaneous use have become available in Brazil. In order to guide physicians on the use of human immunoglobulin to treat primary immunodeficiencies, based on a narrative literature review and their professional experience, the members of the Primary Immunodeficiency Group of the Brazilian Society of Allergy and Immunology prepared an updated document of the 1st Brazilian Consensus, published in 2010. The document presents new knowledge about the indications and efficacy of immunoglobulin therapy in primary immunodeficiencies, relevant production-related aspects, mode of use (routes of administration, pharmacokinetics, doses and intervals), adverse events (major, prevention, treatment and reporting), patient monitoring, presentations available and how to have access to this therapeutic resource in Brazil. RESUMO Nos últimos anos, novas imunodeficiências primárias e defeitos genéticos têm sido descritos. Recentemente, produtos de imunoglobulina, com aprimoramento em sua composição e para uso por via subcutânea, tornaram-se disponíveis em nosso meio. Com o objetivo de orientar o médico no uso da imunoglobulina humana para o tratamento das imunodeficiências primárias, os membros do Grupo de Assessoria em Imunodeficiências da Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunologia produziram um documento que teve por base uma revisão narrativa da literatura e sua experiência profissional, atualizando o I Consenso Brasileiro publicado em 2010. Apresentam-se novos conhecimentos sobre indicações e eficácia do tratamento com imunoglobulina nas imunodeficiências primárias, aspectos relevantes sobre a produção, forma de utilização (vias de administração, farmacocinética, doses e intervalos), efeitos adversos (principais efeitos, prevenção, tratamento e notificação), monitorização do

  9. Film repeats in radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwan, A. Z.; Al-Shakharah, A. I

    1997-01-01

    During a one year period, 4910 radiographs of 55780 films were repeated. The objective of our study was to analyse and to classify the causes in order to minimize the repeats, cut the expenses and to provide optimal radiographs for accurate diagnosis. Analysis of the different factors revealed that, 43.6% of film repeats in our service were due to faults in exposure factors, centering comprises 15.9% of the repeats, while too much collimation was responsible for 7.6% of these repeats. All of which can be decreased by awareness and programmed training of technicians. Film blurring caused by patient motion was also responsible for 4.9% for radiographs reexamination, which can be minimized by detailed explanation to the patient and providing the necessary privacy. Fogging of X-Ray films by improper storage or inadequate handling or processing faults were responsible for 14.5% in repeats in our study. Methods and criteria for proper storage and handling of films were discussed. Recommendation for using modern day-light and laser processor has been high lighted. Artefacts are noticeably high in our cases, due to spinal dresses and frequent usage of precious metals for c osmotic purposes in this part of the world. The repeated films comprise 8.8% of all films We conclude that, the main factor responsible for repeats of up to 81.6% of cases was the technologists, thus emphasizing the importance of adequate training of the technologists. (authors). 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 table

  10. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  11. Repeated Prescribed Burning in Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Infrequent burning weather, low flammability of the aspen-hardwood association, and prolific sprouting and seeding of shrubs and hardwoods made repeated dormant season burning a poor tool to convert good site aspen to conifers. Repeat fall burns for wildlife habitat maintenance is workable if species composition changes are not important.

  12. Expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic data analysis of filamin A repeats 14–16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguda, Adeleke Halilu; Sakwe, Amos Malle; Rask, Lars; Robinson, Robert Charles

    2007-01-01

    The crystallization and crystallographic data analysis of filamin repeats 14–16 are reported. Human filamin A is a 280 kDa protein involved in actin-filament cross-linking. It is structurally divided into an actin-binding headpiece (ABD) and a rod domain containing 24 immunoglobulin-like (Ig) repeats. A fragment of human filamin A (Ig repeats 14–16) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was crystallized in 1.6 M ammonium sulfate, 2% PEG 1000 and 100 mM HEPES pH 7.5. The crystals diffracted to 1.95 Å and belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 50.63, b = 52.10, c = 98.46 Å, α = β = γ = 90°

  13. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  14. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  15. Repeatability of visual acuity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, T W; Bailey, I L; Bullimore, M A

    1998-05-01

    This study investigates features of visual acuity chart design and acuity testing scoring methods which affect the validity and repeatability of visual acuity measurements. Visual acuity was measured using the Sloan and British Standard letter series, and Landolt rings. Identifiability of the different letters as a function of size was estimated, and expressed in the form of frequency-of-seeing curves. These functions were then used to simulate acuity measurements with a variety of chart designs and scoring criteria. Systematic relationships exist between chart design parameters and acuity score, and acuity score repeatability. In particular, an important feature of a chart, that largely determines the repeatability of visual acuity measurement, is the amount of size change attributed to each letter. The methods used to score visual acuity performance also affect repeatability. It is possible to evaluate acuity score validity and repeatability using the statistical principles discussed here.

  16. NRG Oncology-Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Study 1014: 1-Year Toxicity Report From a Phase 2 Study of Repeat Breast-Preserving Surgery and 3-Dimensional Conformal Partial-Breast Reirradiation for In-Breast Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Douglas W; Winter, Kathryn A; Kuerer, Henry M; Haffty, Bruce G; Cuttino, Laurie W; Todor, Dorin A; Simone, Nicole L; Hayes, Shelly B; Woodward, Wendy A; McCormick, Beryl; Cohen, Randi J; Sahijdak, Walter M; Canaday, Daniel J; Brown, Doris R; Currey, Adam D; Fisher, Christine M; Jagsi, Reshma; White, Julia

    2017-08-01

    To determine the associated toxicity, tolerance, and safety of partial-breast reirradiation. Eligibility criteria included in-breast recurrence occurring >1 year after whole-breast irradiation, 1 to ≤2 cm, and 1 >2 cm. All patients were clinically node negative. Systemic therapy was delivered in 51%. All treatment plans underwent quality review for contouring accuracy and dosimetric compliance. All treatment plans scored acceptable for tumor volume contouring and tumor volume dose-volume analysis. Only 4 (7%) scored unacceptable for organs at risk contouring and organs at risk dose-volume analysis. Treatment-related skin, fibrosis, and/or breast pain AEs were recorded as grade 1 in 64% and grade 2 in 7%, with only 1 (<2%) grade ≥3 and identified as grade 3 fibrosis of deep connective tissue. Partial-breast reirradiation with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy after second lumpectomy for patients experiencing in-breast failures after whole-breast irradiation is safe and feasible, with acceptable treatment quality achieved. Skin, fibrosis, and breast pain toxicity was acceptable, and grade 3 toxicity was rare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The association between immunoglobulin concentrations and prediabetes prevalence in a large Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Song, Yanqi; Sun, Shaomei; Gao, Li; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Bao, Xue; Gu, Yeqing; Shi, Hongbin; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Yang, Huijun; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun; Zhang, Qing; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-08-01

    Prediabetes has received public attention owing to the increasing prevalence worldwide. Mounting evidence has indicated that inflammation directly contributed to the etiology of glucose metabolism disorders. Although immunoglobulins play a crucial role in immune responses, little research has been done on the link between immunoglobulins and prediabetes in adults. Hence, the aim of the present study was to explore the associations between immunoglobulins levels and prevalence of prediabetes in a general adult population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 8856 adults (mean±standard deviation age: 48.4±10.7years) in Tianjin, China. The serum immunoglobulins concentrations were measured by the immunonephelometric technique. Prediabetes was diagnosed using the following parameters in accordance with the American Diabetes Association: fasting plasma glucose, postprandial glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The associations between concentrations of immunoglobulins and the prevalence of prediabetes were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. Overall, the prevalence of prediabetes was 37.4% (3311/8856). After controlling for confounders, compared with the lowest quintile, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of prediabetes for the highest quintile of immunoglobulins (immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin E, immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A) were as follows: 1.06 (0.91-1.23), 1.31 (1.13-1.52), 0.86 (0.74-1.01), and 1.19 (1.03-1.38) (P for trend were 0.35, prediabetes prevalence. There was also a trending association between immunoglobulin M concentrations and prediabetes prevalence. Further studies are necessary to clarify if there is a causal association of immunoglobulins in prediabetes or if they reflect early immunologic disturbances in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of treatment with radioiodine and propylthiouracil on thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, K.; Nistrup Madsen, S.

    1980-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins (TSAb) were measured in fifty-four patients with Graves' disease before treatment with either radioiodine (seventeen patients) or propylthiouracil (PTU) (thirty-seven patients) and followed during treatment. After radioiodine TSAb increased to levels exceeding pretreatment values, and became detectable in three of six originally TSAb negative patients. In most patients TSAb decreased during treatment with PTU, and became undetectable after a mean of 12 months in patients above 40 years, and after a mean of 6 months in patients below 40 years. In order to eliminate the presumed causative agent in Graves' disease, antithyroid treatment should be at least 18 months in patients above 40 years, and at least 12 months in patients below 40 years of age. In twenty-nine patients TSAb were measured at cessation of 2 years antithyroid drug therapy. Ten patients were TSAb positive and all except one relapsed. Five of nineteen TSAb negative patients relapsed. Although TSAb positivity predicts relapse, it is not an ideal index of prognosis after antithyroid therapy. (author)

  19. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Retroperitoneal Fibrosis Treated with Hochuekkito, a Kampo Medicine, following Steroid Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Fukuchi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF with complete remission and no relapses after therapy with steroids and Hochuekkito, a Kampo (i.e. traditional Japanese herbal medicine. A 62-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of a retroperitoneal mass detected by computed tomography. The mass had a maximum diameter of 11.0 cm; it involved the left ureter and was associated with left hydronephrosis. After inserting a ureteral stent, we performed a biopsy by laparotomy. Histopathology revealed IgG4-related RF. The lesion disappeared after 7 months of steroid therapy. We subsequently used Hochuekkito as an alternative maintenance treatment because of steroid-related complications. The patient has not relapsed in the 3 years since starting the medication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of IgG4-related RF treated with Hochuekkito as a maintenance treatment.

  20. Use of Corticosteroid in Children with Unresponsiveness to Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkarim Hamedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Kawasaki Disease (KD is a vasculitis with multi-organ involvementof unknown etiology; it is the most common cause of pediatric-heart diseases in developed countries. Treatment with Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG prevents coronary artery lesions; although there are some IVIG-resistant cases, combination therapy with corticosteroids and IVIG is one of the recommendations for treatment of these cases. The aim of this study was to compare these three options for treatment of Kawasaki Disease and to evaluate their ability to deal with coronary artery complication of Kawasaki Disease. Materials and Methods A prospective cross- sectional study of hospitalized cases of Kawasaki Disease, conducted in pediatric department of Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad-Iran, during 2013 to 2015 (18 months. Based on demographic and clinical data of these patients, children with high risk of unresponsiveness to IVIG therapy (based on Harada score, were determined and treated with IVIG and corticosteroids- combination initially. Follow-up patients for heart complications were 6 weeks. Results Twenty five patients (89.2% out of total 28 hospitalized patients in this period of time who fulfilled diagnostic criteria were considered as complete Kawasaki Disease. Coronary Artery Lesions (CALs were shown in 4 patients during the follow-up period, with high risk in patients with incomplete presentation (33.3% versus 12%, P

  1. Improved purification of immunoglobulin G from plasma by mixed-mode chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Dong-Sheng; Sun, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Shi, Qing-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Efficient loading of immunoglobulin G in mixed-mode chromatography is often a serious bottleneck in the chromatographic purification of immunoglobulin G. In this work, a mixed-mode ligand, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl) aniline, was coupled to Sepharose Fast Flow to fabricate AN SepFF adsorbents with ligand densities of 15-64 mmol/L, and the chromatographic performances of these adsorbents were thoroughly investigated to identify a feasible approach to improve immunoglobulin G purification. The results indicate that a critical ligand density exists for immunoglobulin G on the AN SepFF adsorbents. Above the critical ligand density, the adsorbents showed superior selectivity to immunoglobulin G at high salt concentrations, and also exhibited much higher dynamic binding capacities. For immunoglobulin G purification, both the yield and binding capacity increased with adsorbent ligand density along with a decrease in purity. It is difficult to improve the binding capacity, purity, and yield of immunoglobulin G simultaneously in AN SepFF chromatography. By using tandem AN SepFF chromatography, a threefold increase in binding capacity as well as high purity and yield of immunoglobulin G were achieved. Therefore, the tandem chromatography demonstrates that AN SepFF adsorbent is a practical and feasible alternative to MEP HyperCel adsorbents for immunoglobulin G purification. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in neonates with haemolytic disease and immune thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Sovtić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intravenous immunoglobulin is a blood product made of human polyclonal immunoglobulin G. The mode of action of intravenous immunoglobulin is very complex. It is indicated in treatment of neonatal immune thrombocytopenia and haemolytic disease of the newborn. The aim of the study was to present our experience in the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in a group of term neonates. Methods. We analysed all relevant clinical and laboratory data of 23 neonates who recieved intravenous immunoglobulin during their hospitalization in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Mother and Child Health Care Institute over a five year period, from 2006. to 2010. Results. There were 11 patients with haemolytic disease of the newborn and 12 neonates with immune thrombocytopenia. All of them recieved 1-2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin in the course of their treatment. There was no adverse effects of intravenous immunoglobulin use. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin led to an increase in platelet number in thrombocytopenic patients, whereas in those with haemolytic disease serum bilirubin level decreased significantly, so that some patients whose bilirubin level was very close to the exchange transfusion criterion, avoided this procedure. Conclusion. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin was shown to be an effective treatment in reducing the need for exchange transfusion, duration of phototherapy and the length of hospital stay in neonates with haemolytic disease. When used in treatment of neonatal immune thrombocytopenia, it leads to an increase in the platelet number, thus decreasing the risk of serious complications of thrombocytopenia.

  3. Immunoglobulin production induced in vitro by glucocorticoid hormones: T cell-dependent stimulation of immunoglobulin production without B cell proliferation in cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, J.; Dooley, N.J.; Koski, I.R.; Blaese, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The direct effects of steroid hormones on the production of immunoglobulins and DNA synthesis by human T and B lymphocytes was evaluated in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As detected by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, the addition of 0.1 mM to 10 nM hydrocortisone to lymphocytes in culture in the absence of other stimulants or mitogens, resulted in the dramatic induction of immunoglobulin production with responses comparable to those seen in similar cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. Steroid-stimulated immunoglobulin production was first seen after 48 h and peaked at 8-10 d of culture. The production of IgG, IgA, and IgM was induced following incubation with steroid. Glucocorticoids, but not estrogens or androgens, were capable of mediating this effect, and only compounds with affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor were active. The induction of immunoglobulin production was dependent on both T cells and monocytes; cultures depleted of either cell type did not produce immunoglobulin when stimulated with glucocorticoid hormones. Proliferation of B cells or T cells could not be detected by [/sup 3/H]thymidine incorporation or total cell recovery from steroid-stimulated cultures, even though such cultures demonstrated marked increases in immunoglobulin production. The mechanism responsible for this functional maturation of B cells to become high rate immunoglobulin producing cells is as yet undefined, although it appears to involve more than merely steroid mediated inactivation of suppressor T cells

  4. StaRProtein, A Web Server for Prediction of the Stability of Repeat Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongtao; Zhou, Xu; Huang, Meilan

    2015-01-01

    Repeat proteins have become increasingly important due to their capability to bind to almost any proteins and the potential as alternative therapy to monoclonal antibodies. In the past decade repeat proteins have been designed to mediate specific protein-protein interactions. The tetratricopeptide and ankyrin repeat proteins are two classes of helical repeat proteins that form different binding pockets to accommodate various partners. It is important to understand the factors that define folding and stability of repeat proteins in order to prioritize the most stable designed repeat proteins to further explore their potential binding affinities. Here we developed distance-dependant statistical potentials using two classes of alpha-helical repeat proteins, tetratricopeptide and ankyrin repeat proteins respectively, and evaluated their efficiency in predicting the stability of repeat proteins. We demonstrated that the repeat-specific statistical potentials based on these two classes of repeat proteins showed paramount accuracy compared with non-specific statistical potentials in: 1) discriminate correct vs. incorrect models 2) rank the stability of designed repeat proteins. In particular, the statistical scores correlate closely with the equilibrium unfolding free energies of repeat proteins and therefore would serve as a novel tool in quickly prioritizing the designed repeat proteins with high stability. StaRProtein web server was developed for predicting the stability of repeat proteins. PMID:25807112

  5. Intravenous immunoglobulins and antiphospholipid syndrome: How, when and why? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenti, Sara; Cheleschi, Sara; Guidelli, Giacomo Maria; Galeazzi, Mauro; Fioravanti, Antonella

    2016-03-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by the occurrence of venous and arterial thromboses and recurrent fetal losses, frequently accompanied by a moderate thrombocytopenia, in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), namely lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), or anti-β2 glycoprotein-I (β2GPI) antibodies. The current mainstay of treatment for thrombotic APS is heparin followed by long-term anticoagulation, while in obstetric APS, the accepted first-line treatment consists in low-dose aspirin (LDA) plus prophylactic unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Recently, new emerging treatment modalities, including intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), have been implemented to manage APS refractory to conventional therapy. The objective of this review is to summarize the currently available information on the IVIG therapy in APS, focusing on the use of IVIG in the obstetric form, CAPS and on primary or secondary thromboprophylaxis. We analyzed 35 studies, reporting the effects of IVIG in APS patients, and we discussed their results. IVIG in obstetric APS seem to be very useful in selected situations (patients not responsive to the conventional treatment, concomitant autoimmune manifestations or infections or patients in whom anticoagulation is contraindicated). IVIG treatment represents an important component of the combination therapy of CAPS and they could be useful, in addition to the standard therapy, to prevent recurrent thrombosis in APS patients refractory to conventional anticoagulant treatment. Anyway, in some cases we also found controversial results that claim the need of further well-designed studies to definitely state the efficacy and tolerability of IVIG in CAPS, obstetric and non-APS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Is dosing of therapeutic immunoglobulins optimal? – A review of a 3-decade long debate in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline eKerr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of immunoglobulins (Ig is increasing due to better recognition of antibody deficiencies, an aging population and new indications. This review aims to examine the various dosing regimens and research developments in the established and in some of the relevant off-label indications in Europe. The background to the current regulatory settings in Europe is provided as a backdrop for the latest developments in primary and secondary immunodeficiencies and in immunomodulatory indications. In these heterogeneous areas, clinical trials encompassing different routes of administration, varying intervals and infusion rates are paving the way towards more individualized therapy regimens.In primary antibody deficiencies adjustments in dosing and intervals will depend on the clinical presentation, effective IgG trough levels and IgG metabolism. Ideally, individual pharmacokinetic profiles in conjunction with the clinical phenotype could lead to highly tailored treatment. In practice, incremental dosage increases are necessary to titrate the optimal dose for more severely ill patients. Higher intravenous doses in these patients also have beneficial immunomodulatory effects beyond mere IgG replacement. Better understanding of the pharmacokinetics of Ig therapy is leading to a move away from simplistic ‘per kg’ dosing.Defective antibody production is common in many secondary immunodeficiencies irrespective of whether the causative factor was lymphoid malignancies (established indications, certain autoimmune disorders, immunosuppressive agents or biologics. This antibody failure, as shown by test immunisation, may be amenable to treatment with replacement Ig therapy. In certain immunomodulatory settings (e.g. ITP selection of patients for Ig therapy may be enhanced by relevant biomarkers in order to exclude non-responders and thus obtain higher response rates. In this review the developments in dosing of therapeutic immunoglobulins have been

  7. Antibody dynamics in BRSV-infected Danish dairy herds as determined by isotype-specific immunoglobulins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, Lars Erik; Philipsen, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Using specific ELISAs, antibody levels of four different isotypes to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were determined in calves, following experimental BRSV infection. Most calves experienced an increase in the specific IgM and IgG1 titres about 6-10 days after infection with BRSV. The Ig......M titre was transient showing positive titres for only 5-10 days, while specific IgG1 was present for a longer time. IgA was detected concomitantly with IgM but at a lower level. Production of IgG2 anti-BRSV antibodies was detected from 3 weeks after infection. In two closed herds, repeated blood......, another herd with acute BRSV was followed by weekly blood samples in six calves; in both herds IgM and IgG1 was detected shortly after the appearance of clinical signs. Serum samples from 50 Danish dairy herds (453 samples) were tested for immunoglobulins of the isotypes IgG1, IgG2 and IgM. The presence...

  8. Falsely Elevated Plasma Creatinine Due to an Immunoglobulin M Paraprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Mitchell R; Vijayan, Anitha; Trulock, Elbert P; Witt, Chad A; Kohler, Giselle D; Scott, Mitchell G

    2016-11-01

    The most common method for measuring plasma creatinine is based on its reaction with picric acid. However, enzymatic methods are becoming more popular due to improved specificity. We present a case of falsely elevated plasma creatinine values obtained by an enzymatic method that turned out to be due to a monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) paraprotein. A 63-year-old woman evaluated for lung transplantation had falsely increased plasma creatinine levels (1.54-1.71mg/dL; corresponding to estimated glomerular filtration rates of 32-36 mL/min/1.73m 2 ) as measured by the Roche Creatinine plus enzymatic assay when compared with the picric acid-based procedure and several other enzymatic methods, which gave plasma creatinine values of 0.7 to 0.8mg/dL. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed an IgM κ light chain paraprotein. Removal of high-molecular-weight (>30kDa) proteins by ultrafiltration reduced the patient's plasma creatinine level by the Roche enzymatic method to 0.7mg/dL. Addition of the patient's immunoglobulin fraction to plasma from other patients with normal plasma creatinine levels resulted in values that were increased by 0.58 to 0.62mg/dL. Furthermore, removal of non-IgM immunoglobulins with protein G-coupled beads did not eliminate the interference from the patient's plasma. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that falsely elevated plasma creatinine values by the Roche enzymatic method can be due to an IgM paraprotein. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  10. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  11. Differentiating immunoglobulin g4-related sclerosing cholangitis from hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Taku; Kamisawa, Terumi; Hara, Seiichi; Kuruma, Sawako; Chiba, Kazuro; Kuwata, Go; Fujiwara, Takashi; Egashira, Hideto; Koizumi, Koichi; Fujiwara, Junko; Arakawa, Takeo; Momma, Kumiko; Kurata, Masanao; Honda, Goro; Tsuruta, Koji; Itoi, Takao

    2013-03-01

    Few studies have differentiated immunoglobulin G (IgG) 4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) from hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Thus, we sought to investigate useful features for differentiating IgG4-SC from hilar CC. We retrospectively compared clinical, serological, imaging, and histological features of six patients with IgG4-SC and 42 patients with hilar CC. In patients with hilar CC, obstructive jaundice was more frequent (philar CC patients (philar or hepatic duct was completely obstructed in 83% of hilar CC patients (philar bile duct stenosis, was more frequent in IgG4-SC patients (philar CC.

  12. Gm typing by immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene RFLP analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jazwinska, E C; Dunckley, H; Propert, D N; Gatenby, P A; Serjeantson, S W

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate a means of assigning Gm allotypes to Caucasians by RFLP analysis. A single immunoglobulin heavy-chain gamma-4 cDNA probe (HU gamma 4) was hybridized with genomic DNA digested separately with two restriction enzymes, TaqI and PvuII. Results showed excellent correlation (P less than .001) between serologically defined Gm allotypes G1m(1), G1m(2), G2m(23), and G1m;G3m (3;5,10) and RFLPs identified with the (HU gamma 4) probe. We conclude that it is now po...

  13. Immunoglobulin G for patients with necrotising soft tissue infection (INSTINCT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Martin B.; Hjortrup, Peter B.; Hansen, Marco B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the INSTINCT trial was to assess the effect of intravenous polyspecific immunoglobulin G (IVIG) compared with placebo on self-reported physical function in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with necrotising soft tissue infection (NSTI). Methods: We randomised 100 patients...... with NSTI 1:1 to masked infusion of 25 g of IVIG (Privigen, CSL Behring) or an equal volume of 0.9% saline once daily for the first 3 days of ICU admission. The primary outcome was the physical component summary (PCS) score of the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) 6 months after randomisation...

  14. Use of [75Se]selenomethionine in immunoglobulin biosynthetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutman, G.A.; Warner, N.L.; Harris, A.W.; Bowles, A.

    1978-01-01

    The gamma-emitting amino acid analog, [ 75 Se] selenomethionine, has been used as a biosynthetic label for immunoglobulins secreted by plasmacytomas in tissue culture. The secreted products are structurally intact with respect to their antibody combining sites and their class and allotype antigenic specificities. A component of [ 75 Se] selenomethionine preparations was found to bind to fetal calf serum proteins, in a manner releasable by mercaptoethanol, but not by sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea. Methods for circumventing the problems caused by this binding are described. (Auth.)

  15. Immunoglobulin Concentration in Tears of Contact Lens Wearers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Rajendra P.; Bhushan, Prashant; Singh, Virendra P.; Singh, Mahendra K.; Kumar, Prakash; Bhatia, Ravindra P.S.; Singh, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate changes in the concentration of tear immunoglobulins in contact lens wearers. Methods: A total of 45 cases including 23 contact lens wearers (43 eyes) and 22 age and sex matched healthy controls having no ocular pathology were studied for immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) in their tears by single radial immunodiffusion method. Results: Most of the cases used soft (56.6%) and semi-soft gas permeable (30.4%) contact lenses. Tear IgM was detected in only 17.4% and tear IgG in 43.6% of contact lens wearers, while in controls IgG was detected in 9.1% but none of the controls had IgM. There was a significant rise in total tear IgA (13.17 ± 4.44 mg/dl) in contact lens wearer as compared to controls (8.93 ± 3.79 mg/dl). Rise of tear IgA was more in symptomatic patients (15.38 ± 5.28 mg/dl) and in those wearing hard (19.73 ± 5.43 mg/dl) and semi-soft contact lenses (13.31 ± 5.43 mg/dl). A significant increase in tear IgA was noticed in subjects wearing lenses for >3 years (15.69 ± 5.39 mg/dl). About 43.4% of lens wearers were symptomatic and 80% of their lenses showed deposits and/or haziness. All cases with IgM in tear were symptomatic. Conclusion: The relation of immunoglobulin concentration with increasing duration of wear and material of contact lens shows that tear immunoglobulin rise accrues due to mechanical stimulation, hence contact lenses should not be used for a long period and lenses of hard nature should be discouraged. The maintenance, cleaning and deproteinization of the lenses are of high importance to avoid immunostimulation. PMID:25667732

  16. INFLUENCE OF HIGH CORTISOL DOSES UPON THE SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Voja Pavlovic; Zoran Pavlovic

    2001-01-01

    The effects of Cortisol upon the serum immunoglobulin concentration areexamined. The experiment involved male guinea pigs of the body weight from 300 to400 g that were nonnally fed and lived under the common laboratory conditions. Theguinea pigs were divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimentalgroup's guinea pigs were given every day (in a 6 days' period) a subcutaneous dose of80 g of corti sol/kg/per day, while the control group ones were given only one ml ofthe physiol...

  17. Grave's disease associated with immunoglobulin A nephropathy: A rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, I; Bhat, R A; Khan, I; Hameed, I

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A (Ig A) nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis. The association of Ig A nephropathy with Grave's disease has not been reported so far. We report a case of 20-year-old female with Grave's disease who presented with edema, facial puffiness, and decreased urine output. She was found to be hypertensive with renal failure and nephrotic range proteinuria. Renal biopsy revealed features of Ig A nephropathy. The patient was treated with oral corticosteroids (1 mg/kg/day). To our knowledge, this is the first case showing association of Grave's disease with Ig A nephropathy.

  18. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  19. Big domains are novel Ca²+-binding modules: evidences from big domains of Leptospira immunoglobulin-like (Lig proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Raman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many bacterial surface exposed proteins mediate the host-pathogen interaction more effectively in the presence of Ca²+. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig proteins, LigA and LigB, are surface exposed proteins containing Bacterial immunoglobulin like (Big domains. The function of proteins which contain Big fold is not known. Based on the possible similarities of immunoglobulin and βγ-crystallin folds, we here explore the important question whether Ca²+ binds to a Big domains, which would provide a novel functional role of the proteins containing Big fold. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected six individual Big domains for this study (three from the conserved part of LigA and LigB, denoted as Lig A3, Lig A4, and LigBCon5; two from the variable region of LigA, i.e., 9(th (Lig A9 and 10(th repeats (Lig A10; and one from the variable region of LigB, i.e., LigBCen2. We have also studied the conserved region covering the three and six repeats (LigBCon1-3 and LigCon. All these proteins bind the calcium-mimic dye Stains-all. All the selected four domains bind Ca²+ with dissociation constants of 2-4 µM. Lig A9 and Lig A10 domains fold well with moderate thermal stability, have β-sheet conformation and form homodimers. Fluorescence spectra of Big domains show a specific doublet (at 317 and 330 nm, probably due to Trp interaction with a Phe residue. Equilibrium unfolding of selected Big domains is similar and follows a two-state model, suggesting the similarity in their fold. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that the Lig are Ca²+-binding proteins, with Big domains harbouring the binding motif. We conclude that despite differences in sequence, a Big motif binds Ca²+. This work thus sets up a strong possibility for classifying the proteins containing Big domains as a novel family of Ca²+-binding proteins. Since Big domain is a part of many proteins in bacterial kingdom, we suggest a possible function these proteins via Ca²+ binding.

  20. Big domains are novel Ca²+-binding modules: evidences from big domains of Leptospira immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajeev; Rajanikanth, V; Palaniappan, Raghavan U M; Lin, Yi-Pin; He, Hongxuan; McDonough, Sean P; Sharma, Yogendra; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2010-12-29

    Many bacterial surface exposed proteins mediate the host-pathogen interaction more effectively in the presence of Ca²+. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins, LigA and LigB, are surface exposed proteins containing Bacterial immunoglobulin like (Big) domains. The function of proteins which contain Big fold is not known. Based on the possible similarities of immunoglobulin and βγ-crystallin folds, we here explore the important question whether Ca²+ binds to a Big domains, which would provide a novel functional role of the proteins containing Big fold. We selected six individual Big domains for this study (three from the conserved part of LigA and LigB, denoted as Lig A3, Lig A4, and LigBCon5; two from the variable region of LigA, i.e., 9(th) (Lig A9) and 10(th) repeats (Lig A10); and one from the variable region of LigB, i.e., LigBCen2. We have also studied the conserved region covering the three and six repeats (LigBCon1-3 and LigCon). All these proteins bind the calcium-mimic dye Stains-all. All the selected four domains bind Ca²+ with dissociation constants of 2-4 µM. Lig A9 and Lig A10 domains fold well with moderate thermal stability, have β-sheet conformation and form homodimers. Fluorescence spectra of Big domains show a specific doublet (at 317 and 330 nm), probably due to Trp interaction with a Phe residue. Equilibrium unfolding of selected Big domains is similar and follows a two-state model, suggesting the similarity in their fold. We demonstrate that the Lig are Ca²+-binding proteins, with Big domains harbouring the binding motif. We conclude that despite differences in sequence, a Big motif binds Ca²+. This work thus sets up a strong possibility for classifying the proteins containing Big domains as a novel family of Ca²+-binding proteins. Since Big domain is a part of many proteins in bacterial kingdom, we suggest a possible function these proteins via Ca²+ binding.

  1. Evaluation of adsorption selectivity of immunoglobulins M, A and G and purification of immunoglobulin M with mixed-mode resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying-Di; Zhang, Qi-Lei; Yao, Shan-Jing; Lin, Dong-Qiang

    2018-01-19

    This study investigated adsorption selectivity of immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin (IgG) on four mixed-mode resins with the functional ligands of 4-mercatoethyl-pyridine (MEP), 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI), 5-aminobenzimidazole (ABI) and tryptophan-5-aminobenzimidazole (W-ABI), respectively. IgM purification processes with mixed-mode resins were also proposed. All resins showed typical pH-dependent adsorption, and high adsorption capacity was found at pH 5.0-8.0 with low adsorption capacity under acidic conditions. Meanwhile, high selectivity of IgM/IgA and IgM/IgG was obtained with ABI-4FF and MMI-4FF resins at pH 4.0-5.0, which was used to develop a method for IgM, IgA and IgG separation by controlling loading and elution pH. Capture of monoclonal IgM from cell culture supernatant with ABI-4FF resins was studied and high purity (∼99%) and good recovery (80.8%) were obtained. Moreover, IgM direct separation from human serum with combined two-step chromatography (ABI-4FF and MMI-4FF) was investigated, and IgM purity of 65.2% and a purification factor of 28.3 were obtained after optimization. The antibody activity of IgM was maintained after purification. The results demonstrated that mixed-mode chromatography with specially-designed ligands is a promising way to improve adsorption selectivity and process efficiency of IgM purification from complex feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunoglobulins in the eggs of the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Ashley N; Flajnik, Martin F; Rumfelt, Lynn L; Wourms, John P

    2005-01-01

    Elasmobranchs, which include the sharks, skates, and rays, emerged over 450 million years ago and are the oldest vertebrates to possess an adaptive immune system. They have evolved diverse reproductive modes, with a variety of physiological adaptations that enhance reproductive success. The nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, is an aplacental, viviparous elasmobranch in which the egg and its associated vitelline vasculature are the primary route for maternal-embryonic interactions. During gestation, nurse shark embryos hatch from their eggcases and develop free in the uterus, which is flushed regularly with seawater. Similar to higher vertebrates, embryonic and neonatal nurse sharks possess an immune system that is not fully competent. In birds and bony fishes, maternal immunoglobulins (Ig) stored in the egg during oogenesis confer protective immunity to embryos during gestation. However, early research suggested that such transfer of passive immunity does not occur in sharks. To better understand how elasmobranch embryos are protected from waterborne pathogens during this potentially vulnerable time, we have re-examined the existence of Igs in elasmobranch eggs. Using monoclonal antibodies, we establish the presence of two classes of Igs in nurse shark eggs: 7S IgM and IgNAR. The potential transfer of immunoglobulins from elasmobranch eggs is discussed.

  3. Immunoglobulins and C3 in the P. brasiliensis granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. V. Biagioni

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis induced in mice by the intravenous injection of yeast-forms of P. brasiliensis (Bt2 strain; 1 x 10(6 viable fungi/animal was used to evaluate sequentially 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 weeks after inoculation: 1. The presence of immunoglobulins and C3 in the pulmonary granuloma-ta, by direct immunofluorescence; 2. The humoral (immunodiffusion test and the cellular (footpad sweeling test immune response; 3. The histopathology of lesions. The cell-immune response was positive since week 2, showing a transitory depression at week 16. Specific antibodies were first detected at week 4 and peaked at week 16. At histology, epithelioid granulomas with numerous fungi and polymorphonuclear agreggates were seen. The lungs showed progressive involvement up to week 16, with little decrease at week 20. From week 2 on, there were deposits of IgG and C3 around fungal walls within the granulomas and IgG stained cells among the mononuclear cell peripheral halo. Interstitital immunoglobulins and C3 deposits in the granulomas were not letected. IgG and C3 seen to play an early an important role in. the host defenses against P. brasiliensis by possibly cooperating in the killing of parasites and blocking the antigenic diffusion.

  4. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Carter, R.L.; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to atomic-bomb radiation affects immune responsiveness, such as the occurrence of autoantibodies and levels of immunoglobulins. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody, and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE) were measured among 2061 Adult Health Study participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki from December 1987 to November 1989. The prevalence and titers of rheumatoid factor increased in a statistically significant manner with increasing radiation dose. No radiation effect was found on the prevalence of antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, and anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody. A statistically significant relationship was also found between radiation exposure and the IgA level in females and the IgM levels in both sexes-both levels increased as radiation dose increased. However, the effects of radiation exposure were not large and accounted for less than 10% of the total variation in each measurement. Levels of IgG and IgE were not affected by radiation exposure. (author)

  5. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, Katherine M; Masha, Luke I; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C; Sloan, J Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60-11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  6. Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors and their Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik N.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Natural killer (NK cells are a subset of lymphocytes comprising around 10% of total lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Due to their role in the innate response, NK cells provide a ‘first line of defense’ against infectious agents and cancer and are also thought to play a role in autoimmunity. The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR are regulatory surface molecules, found on NK cells and on a subset of T lymphocytes. The genes for KIR are present on chromosome 19 in the leukocyte receptor complex and show a major difference for both the type and number of KIR genes present among different ethnic groups. They have been divided into two groups of 2D or 3D, depending on the number of external immunoglobulin domains. The presence of a long cytoplasmic tail with two immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM allows the transduction of inhibitory signals and characterizes the inhibitory KIRs (2DL and 3DL, whereas the presence of short cytoplasmic tails corresponds to the activating KIR receptors (2DS and 3DS.These polymorphic receptors interact with specific motifs on human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules, modulate NK cytolytic activity. Some KIRs are known to interact with HLA-C molecules of target cells, HLA-Bw4 molecules and HLA-A3/11. For some KIRs the corresponding ligands are still unknown.

  7. Cytomegalovirus neutralization by hyperimmune and standard intravenous immunoglobulin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planitzer, Christina B; Saemann, Marcus D; Gajek, Hartwig; Farcet, Maria R; Kreil, Thomas R

    2011-08-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains one of the most important pathogens after transplantation, potentially leading to CMV disease, allograft dysfunction, acute, and chronic rejection and opportunistic infections. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations with high antibody titers against CMV are a valuable adjunctive prevention and treatment option for clinicians and apart from standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), CMV hyperimmune preparations are available. The CMV antibody titer of these preparations is typically determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also used for the selection of high titer plasma donors for the production of the CMV Hyperimmune product. However, CMV ELISA titers do not necessarily correlate with CMV antibody function which is determined by virus neutralization tests. CMV antibody titers were determined by both ELISA and virus neutralization assay and the IgG subclass distribution was compared between a CMV hyperimmune licensed in Europe and standard IVIG preparations. Although the expected high CMV IgG ELISA antibody titers were confirmed for three lots of a CMV hyperimmune preparation, the functionally more relevant CMV neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher for 31 lots of standard IVIG preparations. Moreover, considerably lower IgG3 levels were found for the CMV hyperimmune preparation compared with standard IVIG preparations. The higher functional CMV neutralization titers of standard IVIG preparations and the better availability of these preparations, suggest that these products could be a valuable alternative to the CMV hyperimmune preparation.

  8. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, Katherine M.; Masha, Luke I.; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C.; Sloan, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60–11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26452981

  9. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of antibody-forming cells), lymphocytic neoplasms (cancer of lymphoid tissue), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (increased production of large immunoglobulins), and connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid... portions of immunoglobulin molecules in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. In some disease states, an...

  10. Characterization of immunoglobulin A kappa autoantibodies to human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, R. N.; Oude Elferink, R. P.; Mulder, J.; Kruijswijk, H.

    1987-01-01

    We have purified with a cumulative recovery of 48% from the serum of a patient the immunoglobulin A kappa subunit of the lactate dehydrogenase-immunoglobulin A kappa (LD-IgA kappa) complex. It appears that the pI range of the complex is 5.4-5.8. The Ig part of the complex showed a monoclonal

  11. Evaluation of immunoglobulin G synthesizing plasma cells in periapical granuloma and cyst.

    OpenAIRE

    Grover N; Rao N; Kotian M

    2001-01-01

    Immunoglobulin synthesizing plasma cells for IgG were quantitated in 20 periapical granulomas and 20 periapical cysts, using unlabelled antibody peroxidase-antiperoxidase complex method. Result showed that immunoglobulin G producing plasma cells were predominant in periapical cyst as compared with periapical granuloma. A statistical significant relation was observed between these two lesions.

  12. Prospective study of the changes in thyrotropin binding inhibitory immunoglobulins in Graves' disease treated by subtotal thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, C.S.; Yeung, R.T.T.; Khoo, R.K.K.; Alagaratnam, T.T.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of subtotal thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine on thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins, as measured by a receptor assay, more appropriately termed TSH binding inhibitory immunoglobulins (TBII), were studied in 74 patients with Graves' disease. Fourty-four patients received radioactive iodine therapy, while 30 were subjected to subtotal thyroidectomy. After radioactive iodine, more patients were TBII-positive (90.5% vs 81.8%) than before treatment, and the mean TBII index decreased dramatically, the maximum decrease being 3 months. The mean TBI index subsequently returned gradually to the pretreatment level. Subtotal thyroidectomy had a different effect on TBII activity. TBII indices were positive in 89.3% of these patients before any treatment but were positive in only 40% (12 patients) after antithyroid drugs had been given before surgery. After surgery, TBII indices remained positive in 7 patients, while the remaining 5 patients became TBII negative. Seventeen patients (56.7%) were TBII negative before operation and remained so after surgery. One patient who was TBII negative before operation became TBII positive 2 months after operation. Interestingly, postoperative relapse of hyperthyroidism occurred in 3 patients who were TIBII positive, while hypothyroidism occurred in patients who were TBII negative. Thus, the TBII activity after subtotal thyroidectomy might be an important factor in determining the outcome of surgery

  13. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  14. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    The Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 and Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis

  15. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin G, salivary proteins and salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with Sjögren's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadži-Mihailović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sjögren's syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder, with its major clinical manifestations resulting from changes in exocrine glands. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of circulating immune complexes (CIC and immunoglobulin G (IgG, and salivary proteins (SP and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA in 40 patients with SS, and to correlate these values among themselves, as well as with the unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR and the duration of disease. Methods. The total of 40 patients were included in this research. CIC was determined using the solution of polyethylene glycol and IgG with the standard procedure of radial immunodiffusion. SP was investigated by the method of Lowry and sIgA was separated from the whole saliva using the method of immune chromatography. Results. The values of most of the studied parameters exceeded the normal range in a high degree: CIC 72.5%, IgG 70%, SP 80%. The concentrations of CIC were significantly higher in the patients with the duration of disease less than 10 years. With the decrease of USFR, the concentration of sIgA and IgG were increased with statistical significance. Conclusion The increased prevalence of abnormal values of CIC, IgG and SP indicate that the patients with SS have developed a higher level of immune reactivity. These results could be useful in diagnosis and disease activity monitoring.

  16. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics study of metabolic profiling in immunoglobulin a nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Weiguo; Che, Wenti; Guimai, Zuo; Chen, Jiejing; Li, Liping; Li, Wuxian; Dai, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy is the most common cause of chronic renal failure among primary glomerulonephritis patients. The ability to diagnose immunoglobulin A nephropathy remains poor. However, renal biopsy is an inconvenient, invasive, and painful examination, and no reliable biomarkers have been developed for use in routine patient evaluations. The aims of the present study were to identify immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients, to identify useful biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy and to establish a human immunoglobulin A nephropathy metabolic profile. Methods: Serum samples were collected from immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients who were not using immunosuppressants. A pilot study was undertaken to determine disease-specific metabolite biomarker profiles in three groups: healthy controls (N = 23), low-risk patients in whom immunoglobulin A nephropathy was confirmed as grades I-II by renal biopsy (N = 23), and high-risk patients with nephropathies of grades IV-V (N = 12). Serum samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by applying multivariate pattern recognition analysis for disease classification. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, both the low-risk and high-risk patients had higher levels of phenylalanine, myo-inositol, lactate, L6 lipids ( CH-CH 2 -CH = O), L5 lipids (-CH 2 -C = O), and L3 lipids (-CH 2 -CH 2 -C = O) as well as lower levels of β-glucose, α-glucose, valine, tyrosine, phosphocholine, lysine, isoleucine, glycerolphosphocholine, glycine, glutamine, glutamate, alanine, acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and 1-methylhistidine. Conclusions: These metabolites investigated in this study may serve as potential biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Point scoring of pattern recognition analysis was able to distinguish immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients from healthy controls. However, there were no obvious differences between the low-risk and high-risk groups in our research

  17. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics study of metabolic profiling in immunoglobulin a nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Weiguo; Che, Wenti; Guimai, Zuo; Chen, Jiejing [181st Hospital Guangxi, Central Laboratory, Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases Research, Guangxi Province (China); Li, Liping [Guangxi Normal University, The Life Science College, Guangxi Province (China); Li, Wuxian [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education Ministry, Chongqiong Medical University, Chongqing (China); Dai, Yong [Clinical Medical Research Center, the Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Shenzhen, Guangdong Province (China)

    2012-07-01

    Objectives: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy is the most common cause of chronic renal failure among primary glomerulonephritis patients. The ability to diagnose immunoglobulin A nephropathy remains poor. However, renal biopsy is an inconvenient, invasive, and painful examination, and no reliable biomarkers have been developed for use in routine patient evaluations. The aims of the present study were to identify immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients, to identify useful biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy and to establish a human immunoglobulin A nephropathy metabolic profile. Methods: Serum samples were collected from immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients who were not using immunosuppressants. A pilot study was undertaken to determine disease-specific metabolite biomarker profiles in three groups: healthy controls (N = 23), low-risk patients in whom immunoglobulin A nephropathy was confirmed as grades I-II by renal biopsy (N = 23), and high-risk patients with nephropathies of grades IV-V (N = 12). Serum samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by applying multivariate pattern recognition analysis for disease classification. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, both the low-risk and high-risk patients had higher levels of phenylalanine, myo-inositol, lactate, L6 lipids ( CH-CH{sub 2}-CH = O), L5 lipids (-CH{sub 2}-C = O), and L3 lipids (-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-C = O) as well as lower levels of {beta}-glucose, {alpha}-glucose, valine, tyrosine, phosphocholine, lysine, isoleucine, glycerolphosphocholine, glycine, glutamine, glutamate, alanine, acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and 1-methylhistidine. Conclusions: These metabolites investigated in this study may serve as potential biomarkers of immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Point scoring of pattern recognition analysis was able to distinguish immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients from healthy controls. However, there were no obvious differences between the low-risk and high

  18. Coordination in continuously repeated games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeren, A.J.T.M.; Schumacher, J.M.; Engwerda, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to describe the effectiveness of coordination in a continuously repeated two-player game. We study how the choice of a decision rule by a coordinator affects the strategic behavior of the players, resulting in more or less cooperation. Our model requires the analysis

  19. Repeated checking causes memory distrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain why in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) checkers distrust in memory persists despite extensive checking. It is argued that: (1) repeated checking increases familiarity with the issues checked; (2) increased familiarity promotes conceptual processing which inhibits

  20. Production of intravenous human dengue immunoglobulin from Brazilian-blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Leite Gouveia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue represents an important health problem in Brazil and therefore there is a great need to develop a vaccine or treatment. The neutralization of the dengue virus by a specific antibody can potentially be applied to therapy. The present paper describes, for the first time, the preparation of Immunoglobulin specific for the dengue virus (anti-DENV IgG, collected from screened Brazilian blood-donations. Production was performed using the classic Cohn-Oncley process with minor modifications. The anti-DENV IgG was biochemically and biophysically characterized and fulfilled the requirements defined by the European Pharmacopoeia. The finished product was able to neutralize different virus serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3, while a commercial IgG collected from American blood donations was found to have low anti-dengue antibody titers. Overall, this anti-DENV IgG represents an important step in the study of the therapeutic potential and safety of a specific antibody that neutralizes the dengue virus in humans.

  1. Intravenous Immunoglobulin G Treatment in ABO Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn, is it Myth or Real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beken, Serdar; Hirfanoglu, Ibrahim; Turkyilmaz, Canan; Altuntas, Nilgun; Unal, Sezin; Turan, Ozden; Onal, Esra; Ergenekon, Ebru; Koc, Esin; Atalay, Yildiz

    2014-03-01

    Intravenous Immunoglobulin G (IVIG) therapy has been used as a component of the treatment of hemolytic disease of the newborn. There is still no consensus on its use in ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn routinely. The aim of this study is to determine whether administration of IVIG to newborns with ABO incompatibility is necessary. One hundred and seventeen patients with ABO hemolytic disease and positive Coombs test were enrolled into the study. The subjects were healthy except jaundice. Infants were divided into two groups: Group I (n = 71) received one dose of IVIG (1 g/kg) and LED phototherapy whereas Group II (n = 46) received only LED phototherapy. One patient received erythrocyte transfusion in Group I, no exchange transfusion was performed in both groups. Mean duration of phototherapy was 3.1 ± 1.3 days in Group I and 2.27 ± 0.7 days in Group II (p hemolytic disease. Meticulus follow-up of infants with ABO hemolytic disease and LED phototherapy decreases morbidity. IVIG failed to show preventing hemolysis in ABO hemolytic disease.

  2. Omalizumab: an anti-immunoglobulin E antibody for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bousquet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin E (IgE is central to the development of allergic diseases. Cross-linking of cell-bound IgE by the allergen leads to the initiation of the inflammatory cascade. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody, forms complexes with free IgE, thereby inhibiting the allergic reaction before its commencement. A survey of the clinical trials performed on omalizumab indicated that this anti-IgE antibody is efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment of separate and concomitant asthma and rhinitis. In patients with poorly controlled asthma, omalizumab reduced the asthma exacerbation and emergency visit rate, along with improving the quality of life. The improvement in asthma control was associated with a reduction of inhaled and oral corticosteroids. Improved nasal symptom scores and a reduced need for antihistamines were observed in patients with allergic rhinitis. Omalizumab was also proven to be effective as an add-on therapy for concomitant asthma and rhinitis. In conclusion, omalizumab provides an integrated approach for the treatment and management of allergic respiratory diseases.

  3. FCGR2A Promoter Methylation and Risks for Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment Responses in Kawasaki Disease

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    Ho-Chang Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is characterized by pediatric systemic vasculitis of an unknown cause. The low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-a (FCGR2A gene was reported to be involved in the susceptibility of KD. DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression; thus, we hypothesized that methylation status of CpG islands in FCGR2A promoter associates with the susceptibility and therapeutic outcomes of Kawasaki disease. In this study, 36 KD patients and 24 healthy subjects from out-patient clinic were recruited. Eleven potential methylation sites within the targeted promoter region of FCGR2A were selected for investigation. We marked the eleven methylation sites from A to K. Our results indicated that methylation at the CpG sites G, H, and J associated with the risk of KD. CpG sites B, C, E, F, H, J, and K were found to associate with the outcomes of IVIG treatment. In addition, CpG sites G, J, and K were predicted as transcription factors binding sites for NF-kB, Myc-Max, and SP2, respectively. Our study reported a significant association among the promoter methylation of FCGR2A, susceptibility of KD, and the therapeutic outcomes of IVIG treatment. The methylation levels of CpG sites of FCGR2A gene promoter should be an important marker for optimizing IVIG therapy.

  4. How immunoglobulin G antibodies kill target cells: revisiting an old paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biburger, Markus; Lux, Anja; Nimmerjahn, Falk

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to eliminate virtually any target cell has resulted in the widespread introduction of cytotoxic antibodies into the clinic in settings of cancer therapy, autoimmunity, and transplantation, for example. More recently, it has become apparent that also the protection from viral infection via IgG antibodies may require cytotoxic effector functions, suggesting that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) directed against malignant or virally infected cells is one of the most essential effector mechanisms triggered by IgG antibodies to protect the host. A detailed understanding of the underlying molecular and cellular pathways is critical, therefore, to make full use of this antibody effector function. Several studies over the last years have provided novel insights into the effector pathways and innate immune effector cells responsible for ADCC reactions. One of the most notable outcomes of many of these reports is that cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system rather than natural killer cells are critical for removal of IgG opsonized target cells in vivo. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunoassay of serum polypeptide hormones by using 125I-labelled anti(-immunoglobulin G) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P; Nicholas, H

    1975-03-01

    1. A technique for indirectly labelling antibodies to polypeptide hormones, by combining them with radioactively labelled anti-(immunoglobulin G) is described. (a) 125I-labelled anti-(rabbit immunoglobulin G) and anti-(guinea-pig immunoglobulin G) antibodies with high specific radioactivity were prepared after purification of the antibodies on immunoadsorbents containing the respective antigens. (b) Rabbit immunoglobulin G antibodies to human growth hormone, porcine glucagon and guinea-pig immunoglobulin G antibodies to bovine insulin and bovine parathyroid hormone were combined with immunoadsorbents containing the respective polypeptide hormone antigen. (c) The immunoglobulin G antibodies to the polypeptide hormones were reacted with 125-I-labelled anti-(immunoglobulin G) antibodies directed against the appropriate species of immunoglobulin G,and the anti-hormone antibodies were combined with the hormone-containing immunoadsorbent. (d) 125I-labelled anti-(immunoglobulin G) antibodies and anti-hormone antibodies were simultaneously eluted from the hormone-containing immunoadsorbent by dilute HCl, pH 2.0. After elution the anti-(immunoglobulin G) antibodies and antihormone antibodies were allowed to recombine at pH 8.0 and 4 degrees C. 2. The resultant immunoglobulin G-anti-immunoglobulin G complex was used in immunoradiometric (labelled antibody) and two-site assays of the respective polypeptide hormone. 3. By using these immunoassays, concentrations down to 90pg of human growth hormone/ml, 100 pg of bovine insulin/ml, 80 pg of bovine parathyroid hormone/ml and 150 pg of glucagon/ml were readily detected. Assays of human plasma for growth hormone and insulin by these methods showed good agreement with results obtained by using a directly 125I-labelled anti-hormone antibody in an immunoradiometric assay of human growth hormone or by radioimmunoassay of human insulin. 4. The method described allows immunoradiometric or two-site assays to be performed starting with as

  6. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin preserves muscle strength in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas; Sindrup, Søren Hein

    2014-01-01

    evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary end-points were changes in muscle strength evaluated by isokinetic dynamometry in four affected muscle groups and a composite score of muscle performance and function tests, including Medical Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength, 40-m walking test (40-MWT......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is superior to placebo treatment for maintenance of muscle strength during 12 weeks in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The present study evaluated whether SCIG preserves muscle strength for 1 year......) and nine-hole peg test (9-HPT). Secondary end-points were changes of each of the listed parameters at each time point as well as an overall disability sum score (ODSS). RESULTS: The dose of SCIG was significantly unaltered during the follow-up period. Overall the isokinetic dynamometry value increased by 7...

  7. Immunoglobulin subclass in experimental murine Toxocara cati infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to detect specific immunoglobulin (Ig that could be used to determine monoclonal antibody in conjugate-making an effort for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA diagnostic kit of toxocariasis in human. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted to assess the Ig profile, based on ELISA-isotyping, in mice infected with second stage larvae eggs of Toxocara cati. The optical density values of anti-T. cati mice serum IgG subclasses were analyzed by applying ANOVA factorial. Results: The specific IgG subclass in mice infected with T. cati mice was found to be IgG2β. Conclusion: Subclass of IgG, especially IgG2β, can provide leads about the use of the monoclonal antibody in conjugate making an effort for the indirect ELISA diagnostic kit.

  8. Antibody structural modeling with prediction of immunoglobulin structure (PIGS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcatili, Paolo; Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Chailyan, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies (or immunoglobulins) are crucial for defending organisms from pathogens, but they are also key players in many medical, diagnostic and biotechnological applications. The ability to predict their structure and the specific residues involved in antigen recognition has several useful...... applications in all of these areas. Over the years, we have developed or collaborated in developing a strategy that enables researchers to predict the 3D structure of antibodies with a very satisfactory accuracy. The strategy is completely automated and extremely fast, requiring only a few minutes (∼10 min...... on average) to build a structural model of an antibody. It is based on the concept of canonical structures of antibody loops and on our understanding of the way light and heavy chains pack together....

  9. Antibody structural modeling with prediction of immunoglobulin structure (PIGS)

    KAUST Repository

    Marcatili, Paolo

    2014-11-06

    © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Antibodies (or immunoglobulins) are crucial for defending organisms from pathogens, but they are also key players in many medical, diagnostic and biotechnological applications. The ability to predict their structure and the specific residues involved in antigen recognition has several useful applications in all of these areas. Over the years, we have developed or collaborated in developing a strategy that enables researchers to predict the 3D structure of antibodies with a very satisfactory accuracy. The strategy is completely automated and extremely fast, requiring only a few minutes (~10 min on average) to build a structural model of an antibody. It is based on the concept of canonical structures of antibody loops and on our understanding of the way light and heavy chains pack together.

  10. Current clinical research of immunoglobulin G4-related orbital disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4-related disease(IgG4-related diseasehas received lots of attention in medical community as a recently recognized fibro-inflammatory condition. It is characterized by infiltration of IgG4-immunopositive plasmacytes and concentration of elevated serum IgG4. IgG4-related disease shows organ enlargement or nodular/hyperplastic lesions in various organs including the pancreas, hepatobiliary tract and orbit, which is called IgG4-related orbital disease. The diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease and IgG4-related orbital disease has recently been established, which is based on clinical, imaging and histopathologic features of the orbital lesions. Besides, attention should be drawn to the differentiation from other diseases. The treatment is empirical including corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, radiotherapy, and rituximab. This article reviews clinical progression of IgG4-related orbital disease.

  11. Serum immunoglobulin levels in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C B; Hall, W J; Ashley, F W; Hamilton, H B

    1972-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins (SI) were determined in 803 survivors and matched controls. Each subject's age, sex, health, exposure, and medical record were evaluated with respect to serum IgG, IgA, IgM levels. The IgG and IgA levels tended to be higher for this Hiroshima population than for Americans. Past exposure to ionizing radiation showed no significant correlation to SI levels. However, age and sex did influence the SI. IgM was significantly higher in females. With advancing age IgG and IgA increased in males, and IgM decreased in females. Elevated sedimentation rate and increased lymphocytes were accompanied by increased SI levels. Radiographic TB was detected in 45% of the population; IgG and IgA levels were somewhat elevated in these individuals. (DLC)

  12. Intravenous immunoglobulin in ABO and Rh hemolytic diseases of newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Fatemeh; Mamouri, Gholam A; Babaei, Homa

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate whether the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in newborn infants with isoimmune hemolytic jaundice due to Rh and ABO incompatibility is an effective treatment in reducing the need for exchange transfusion. This study included all direct Coombs' test positive Rh and ABO isoimmunized babies, who admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from October 2003 to October 2004. Significant hyperbilirubinemia was defined as rising by >or=0.5 mg/dl per hour. Babies were randomly assigned to received phototherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) 0.5 g/kg over 4 hours, every 12 hours for 3 doses (study group) or phototherapy alone (control group). Exchange transfusion was performed in any group if serum bilirubin exceeded >or=20mg/dl or rose by >or=1mg/dl/h. A total of 34 babies were eligible for this study (17 babies in each group). The number of exchange transfusion, duration of phototherapy and hospitalization days, were significant shorter in the study group versus control group. When we analyzed the outcome results in ABO and Rh hemolytic disease separately, the efficacy of IVIg was significantly better in Rh versus ABO isoimmunization. Late anemia was more common in the IVIg group 11.8% versus 0%, p=0.48. Adverse effects were not observed during IVIg administration. Administration of IVIg to newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia due to Rh hemolytic disease reduced the need for exchange transfusion but in ABO hemolytic disease there was no significant difference between IVIg and double surface blue light phototherapy.

  13. Secretory immunoglobulin purification from whey by chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlschweiger, Alexander; Engelmaier, Hannah; Himmler, Gottfried; Hahn, Rainer

    2017-08-15

    Secretory immunoglobulins (SIg) are a major fraction of the mucosal immune system and represent potential drug candidates. So far, platform technologies for their purification do not exist. SIg from animal whey was used as a model to develop a simple, efficient and potentially generic chromatographic purification process. Several chromatographic stationary phases were tested. A combination of two anion-exchange steps resulted in the highest purity. The key step was the use of a small-porous anion exchanger operated in flow-through mode. Diffusion of SIg into the resin particles was significantly hindered, while the main impurities, IgG and serum albumin, were bound. In this step, initial purity was increased from 66% to 89% with a step yield of 88%. In a second anion-exchange step using giga-porous material, SIg was captured and purified by step or linear gradient elution to obtain fractions with purities >95%. For the step gradient elution step yield of highly pure SIg was 54%. Elution of SIgA and SIgM with a linear gradient resulted in a step yield of 56% and 35%, respectively. Overall yields for both anion exchange steps were 43% for the combination of flow-through and step elution mode. Combination of flow-through and linear gradient elution mode resulted in a yield of 44% for SIgA and 39% for SIgM. The proposed process allows the purification of biologically active SIg from animal whey in preparative scale. For future applications, the process can easily be adopted for purification of recombinant secretory immunoglobulin species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Repeatability of Bolus Kinetics Ultrasound Perfusion Imaging for the Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, Elisabeth J.; Eyding, Jens; de Korte, Chris L.; Slump, Cornelis H.; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W.E.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound perfusion imaging (UPI) can be used for the quantification of cerebral perfusion. In a neuro-intensive care setting, repeated measurements are required to evaluate changes in cerebral perfusion and monitor therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the repeatability of UPI in

  15. Idiotypes as immunogens: facing the challenge of inducing strong therapeutic immune responses against the variable region of immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Requena, Alejandro; Burrone, Oscar R.; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela

    2012-01-01

    Idiotype (Id)-based immunotherapy has been exploited as cancer treatment option. Conceived as therapy for malignancies bearing idiotypic antigens, it has been also extended to solid tumors because of the capacity of anti-idiotypic antibodies to mimic Id-unrelated antigens. In both these two settings, efforts are being made to overcome the poor immune responsiveness often experienced when using self immunoglobulins as immunogens. Despite bearing a unique gene combination, and thus particular epitopes, it is normally difficult to stimulate the immune response against antibody variable regions. Different strategies are currently used to strengthen Id immunogenicity, such as concomitant use of immune-stimulating molecules, design of Id-containing immunogenic recombinant proteins, specific targeting of relevant immune cells, and genetic immunization. This review focuses on the role of anti-Id vaccination in cancer management and on the current developments used to foster anti-idiotypic B and T cell responses.

  16. Idiotypes as immunogens: facing the challenge of inducing strong therapeutic immune responses against the variable region of immunoglobulins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Requena, Alejandro [Molecular Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy); Immunobiology Division, Center of Molecular Immunology, Havana (Cuba); Bioengineering Research Institute, Biotech Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Beijing (China); Burrone, Oscar R.; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela, E-mail: cescogaspere@gmail.com [Molecular Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy)

    2012-11-09

    Idiotype (Id)-based immunotherapy has been exploited as cancer treatment option. Conceived as therapy for malignancies bearing idiotypic antigens, it has been also extended to solid tumors because of the capacity of anti-idiotypic antibodies to mimic Id-unrelated antigens. In both these two settings, efforts are being made to overcome the poor immune responsiveness often experienced when using self immunoglobulins as immunogens. Despite bearing a unique gene combination, and thus particular epitopes, it is normally difficult to stimulate the immune response against antibody variable regions. Different strategies are currently used to strengthen Id immunogenicity, such as concomitant use of immune-stimulating molecules, design of Id-containing immunogenic recombinant proteins, specific targeting of relevant immune cells, and genetic immunization. This review focuses on the role of anti-Id vaccination in cancer management and on the current developments used to foster anti-idiotypic B and T cell responses.

  17. Beneficial Effects of cART Initiated during Primary and Chronic HIV-1 Infection on Immunoglobulin-Expression of Memory B-Cell Subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Pogliaghi

    Full Text Available During HIV-1 infection the B-cell compartment undergoes profound changes towards terminal differentiation, which are only partially restored by antiretroviral therapy (cART.To investigate the impact of infection as early as during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI we assessed distribution of B-cell subsets in 19 PHI and 25 chronic HIV-1-infected (CHI individuals before and during 48 weeks of cART as compared to healthy controls (n = 23. We also analysed Immunoglobulin-expression of memory B-cell subsets to identify alterations in Immunoglobulin-maturation.Determination of B-cell subsets at baseline showed that total and Naive B-cells were decreased whereas Activated Memory (AM, Tissue-like Memory (TLM B-cells and Plasma cells were increased in both PHI and CHI patients. After 4 weeks of cART total B-cells increased, while AM, TLM B-cells and Plasma cells decreased, although without reaching normal levels in either group of individuals. This trend was maintained until week 48, though only total B-cells normalized in both PHI and CHI. Resting Memory (RM B-cells were preserved since baseline. This subset remained stable in CHI, while was expanded by an early initiation of cART during PHI. Untreated CHI patients showed IgM-overexpression at the expenses of switched (IgM-IgD- phenotypes of the memory subsets. Interestingly, in PHI patients a significant alteration of Immunoglobulin-expression was evident at BL in TLM cells, and after 4 weeks, despite treatment, in AM and RM subsets. After 48 weeks of therapy, Immunoglobulin-expression of AM and RM almost normalized, but remained perturbed in TLM cells in both groups.In conclusion, aberrant activated and exhausted B-cell phenotypes rose already during PHI, while most of the alterations in Ig-expression seen in CHI appeared later, despite 4 weeks of effective cART. After 48 weeks of cART B-cell subsets distribution improved although without full normalization, while Immunoglobulin-expression normalized

  18. Beneficial Effects of cART Initiated during Primary and Chronic HIV-1 Infection on Immunoglobulin-Expression of Memory B-Cell Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliaghi, Manuela; Ripa, Marco; Pensieroso, Simone; Tolazzi, Monica; Chiappetta, Stefania; Nozza, Silvia; Lazzarin, Adriano; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    During HIV-1 infection the B-cell compartment undergoes profound changes towards terminal differentiation, which are only partially restored by antiretroviral therapy (cART). To investigate the impact of infection as early as during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) we assessed distribution of B-cell subsets in 19 PHI and 25 chronic HIV-1-infected (CHI) individuals before and during 48 weeks of cART as compared to healthy controls (n = 23). We also analysed Immunoglobulin-expression of memory B-cell subsets to identify alterations in Immunoglobulin-maturation. Determination of B-cell subsets at baseline showed that total and Naive B-cells were decreased whereas Activated Memory (AM), Tissue-like Memory (TLM) B-cells and Plasma cells were increased in both PHI and CHI patients. After 4 weeks of cART total B-cells increased, while AM, TLM B-cells and Plasma cells decreased, although without reaching normal levels in either group of individuals. This trend was maintained until week 48, though only total B-cells normalized in both PHI and CHI. Resting Memory (RM) B-cells were preserved since baseline. This subset remained stable in CHI, while was expanded by an early initiation of cART during PHI. Untreated CHI patients showed IgM-overexpression at the expenses of switched (IgM-IgD-) phenotypes of the memory subsets. Interestingly, in PHI patients a significant alteration of Immunoglobulin-expression was evident at BL in TLM cells, and after 4 weeks, despite treatment, in AM and RM subsets. After 48 weeks of therapy, Immunoglobulin-expression of AM and RM almost normalized, but remained perturbed in TLM cells in both groups. In conclusion, aberrant activated and exhausted B-cell phenotypes rose already during PHI, while most of the alterations in Ig-expression seen in CHI appeared later, despite 4 weeks of effective cART. After 48 weeks of cART B-cell subsets distribution improved although without full normalization, while Immunoglobulin-expression normalized among AM and

  19. In-depth interviews of patients with primary immunodeficiency who have experienced pump and rapid push subcutaneous infusions of immunoglobulins reveal new insights on their preference and expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozon GJN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Grégoire Jacques Noël Cozon,1 Pierre Clerson,2 Annaïk Dokhan,3 Yann Fardini,2 Taylor Pindi Sala,4 Jean-Charles Crave4 1Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France; 2Soladis Clinical Studies, Roubaix, France; 3KPL, Paris, France; 4Octapharma France, Boulogne, France Purpose: Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID often receive immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT. Physicians and patients have the choice between various methods of administration. For subcutaneous immunoglobulin infusions, patients may use an automated pump (P or push the plunger of a syringe (rapid push [RP]. P infusions are performed once a week and last around 1 hour. RP decreases the duration of administration, but requires more frequent infusions.Patients and methods: Eight out of 30 patients (coming from a single center who had participated in the cross-over, randomized, open-label trial comparing P and RP participated in a focus group or underwent in-depth interviews. Patients had a long history of home-based subcutaneous immunoglobulin using P. The trial suggested that RP had slightly greater interference on daily life than P, but similar efficacy and better cost-effectiveness. When asked about the delivery method they had preferred, around one-third of patients pointed out RP rather than P. In-depth interviews may reveal unforeseen reasons for patients’ preferences. Results: Interviews underlined the complexity of the relationship that the patients maintain with their disease and IgRT. Even if they recognized the genetic nature of the disease and claimed PID was a part of them, patients tried not to be overwhelmed by the disease. IgRT by P was well integrated in patients’ routine. By contrast, RP too frequently reminded the patients of their disease. In addition, some patients pointed out the difficulty of pushing the plunger due to the viscosity of the product. Coming back too frequently, RP was not perceived

  20. Intravenous Immunoglobulins Improve Survival in Monoclonal Gammopathy-Associated Systemic Capillary-Leak Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineton de Chambrun, Marc; Gousseff, Marie; Mauhin, Wladimir; Lega, Jean-Christophe; Lambert, Marc; Rivière, Sophie; Dossier, Antoine; Ruivard, Marc; Lhote, François; Blaison, Gilles; Alric, Laurent; Agard, Christian; Saadoun, David; Graveleau, Julie; Soubrier, Martin; Lucchini-Lecomte, Marie-Josée; Christides, Christine; Bosseray, Annick; Levesque, Hervé; Viallard, Jean-François; Tieulie, Nathalie; Lovey, Pierre-Yves; Le Moal, Sylvie; Bibes, Béatrice; Malizia, Giuseppe; Abgueguen, Pierre; Lifermann, François; Ninet, Jacques; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Amoura, Zahir

    2017-10-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome, also known as Clarkson disease, is a rare condition characterized by recurrent life-threatening episodes of capillary hyperpermeability in the context of a monoclonal gammopathy. This study was conducted to better describe the clinical characteristics, natural history, and long-term outcome of monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome. We conducted a cohort analysis of all patients included in the European Clarkson disease (EurêClark) registry between January 1997 and March 2016. From diagnosis to last follow-up, studied outcomes (eg, the frequency and severity of attacks, death, and evolution toward multiple myeloma) and the type of preventive treatments administered were monitored every 6 months. Sixty-nine patients (M/F sex ratio 1:1; mean ± SD age at disease onset 52 ± 12 years) were included in the study. All patients had monoclonal gammopathy of immunoglobulin G type, with kappa light chains in 47 (68%). Median (interquartile range) follow-up duration was 5.1 (2.5-9.7) years. Twenty-four patients (35%) died after 3.3 (0.9-8) years. Fifty-seven (86%) patients received at least one preventive treatment, including intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) n = 48 (73.8%), theophylline n = 22 (33.8%), terbutaline n = 22 (33.8%), and thalidomide n = 5 (7.7%). In the 65 patients with follow-up, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 78% (n = 35) and 69% (n = 17), respectively. Multivariate analysis found preventive treatment with IVIg (hazard ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.70; P = .007) and terbutaline (hazard ratio 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.96; P = .041) to be independent predictors of mortality. We describe the largest cohort to date of patients with well-defined monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome. Preventive treatment with IVIg was the strongest factor associated with survival, suggesting the use of IVIg as the first

  1. Fragments of the constant region of immunoglobulin light chains are constituents of AL-amyloid proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    Immunoglobulin light chains are the precursor proteins of AL-amyloidosis. In the fibril formation process properties of the variable part of the immunoglobulin light chains are believed to be of major importance. In this work it is shown that fragments of the constant part of the immunoglobulin l...... light chain are a constituent of the AL-amyloid proteins of kappa type. A specific antiserum has identified these fragments in gel filtration fractions where the absorbance approached the base line after the main retarded peak. The fragments are small and have been overlooked previously......Immunoglobulin light chains are the precursor proteins of AL-amyloidosis. In the fibril formation process properties of the variable part of the immunoglobulin light chains are believed to be of major importance. In this work it is shown that fragments of the constant part of the immunoglobulin...... in the purification process. The significance of the constant part in AL-proteins is unclear, but adds new aspects to the discussion of pre- or post-fibrillogenic cleavage of the immunoglobulin light chains....

  2. Prematch salivary secretory immunoglobulin a in soccer players from the 2014 World Cup qualifying campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgans, Ryland; Owen, Adam; Doran, Dominic; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2015-04-01

    To monitor resting salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in international soccer players during the short-term training period that precedes international match play. In a repeated-measure design, saliva samples were obtained from 13 outfield soccer players who participated in the training camps preceding 7 games (5 home and 2 away) of the 2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying campaign. Samples were obtained daily for 4 d preceding each game (and analyzed for SIgA using the IPRO oral-fluid-collection system) at match day minus 1 (MD-1), minus 2 (MD-2), minus 3 (MD-3), and minus 4 (MD-4). SIgA displayed a progressive decline (P = .01) during the 4-d training period (MD-4, 365 ± 127 μg/mL; MD-3, 348 ± 154 μg/mL; MD-2, 290 ± 138 μg/mL; MD-1, 256 ± 90 μg/mL) such that MD-1 values were significantly lower (P = .01) than both MD-4 and MD-3. The 95% confidence intervals for the differences between MD-1 and MD-4 were -191 to -26 and between MD-1 and MD-3 were -155 to -28. Data demonstrate that a short-term soccer-training camp in preparation for international competition induces detectable perturbations to mucosal immunity. Future studies should monitor SIgA (as a practical and noninvasive measure of immunity) alongside internal and external measures of training load in an attempt to strategically individualize training and nutritional strategies that may support optimal preparation for high-level competition.

  3. Intravenous human immunoglobulins for refractory recurrent pericarditis: a systematic review of all published cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazio, Massimo; Lazaros, George; Picardi, Elisa; Vasileiou, Panagiotis; Carraro, Mara; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Belli, Riccardo; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Refractory recurrent pericarditis is a major clinical challenge after colchicine failure, especially in corticosteroid-dependent patients. Human intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) have been proposed as possible therapeutic options for these cases. The goal of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of IVIGs in this context. Studies reporting the use of IVIG for the treatment of recurrent pericarditis and published up to October 2014 were searched in several databases. All references found, upon initial assessment at title and abstract level for suitability, were consequently retrieved as full reports for further appraisal. Among the 18 citations retrieved, 17 reports (4 case series and 13 single case reports, with an overall population of 30 patients) were included. The mean disease duration was 14 months and the mean number of recurrences before IVIG was 3. Approximately 47% of patients had idiopathic recurrent pericarditis, 10% had an infective cause, and the remainder a systemic inflammatory disease. Nineteen out of the 30 patients (63.3%) were on corticosteroids at IVIG commencement. IVIGs were generally administered at a dose of 400-500 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days with repeated cycles according to the clinical response. Complications were uncommon (headache in ~3%) and not life-threatening. After a mean follow-up of approximately 33th months, recurrences occurred in 26.6% of cases after the first IVIG cycle, and 22 of the 30 patients (73.3%) were recurrence-free. Five patients (16.6%) were on corticosteroids at the end of the follow-up. IVIGs are rapidly acting, well tolerated, and efficacious steroid-sparing agents in refractory pericarditis.

  4. Online learning in repeated auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Weed, Jonathan; Perchet, Vianney; Rigollet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by online advertising auctions, we consider repeated Vickrey auctions where goods of unknown value are sold sequentially and bidders only learn (potentially noisy) information about a good's value once it is purchased. We adopt an online learning approach with bandit feedback to model this problem and derive bidding strategies for two models: stochastic and adversarial. In the stochastic model, the observed values of the goods are random variables centered around the true value of t...

  5. Inhibition of neutrophil migration by aggregated immunoglobulin attached to micropore membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A S; Brown, S

    1980-01-01

    The effect of substrate-bound immunoglobulin on neutrophil migration was examined. Immunoglobulin aggregates bound to micropore membranes inhibited the neutrophil response to a chemotactic stimulus. This inhibition was reversed by the presence of aggregates in suspension suggesting competition between substrate-bound and free aggregates for neutrophil surface binding sites. The immobilization of neutrophils by substrate-bound aggregated immunoglobulin suggests a mechanism for the accumulation of neutrophils at sites of immune complex deposition and tissue-bound antibodies in vivo. PMID:7380477

  6. Swine plasma immunoglobulins for prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea: Safety and Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Bendix Hansen, Marie

    . coli F4+ induced PWD, we observed that piglets given IgG as a feed supplement cleared the E coli infection significantly faster than control weaner piglets not receiving an immunoglobulin feed supplement. Furthermore, deep sequencing of the ileal microbiota showed a significantly lowered colonization...... their adhesion to porcine epithelial cells in vitro. As the immunoglobulin fraction is intended for oral use as a feed supplement, we also tested the safety of feeding 4 grams of natural immunoglobulins to 4-5 week old weaner piglets for 14 days and observed no adverse effects. In an experimental model of E...

  7. A repeating fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  8. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayanju, Olatunde A; Rahamon, Sheu K; Joseph, Ijeboime O; Arinola, Olatunbosun G

    2012-10-26

    To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis. Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent. They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20 (aged 46 ± 11 years) cigarette smokers with periodontitis (S+P); 24 (40 ± 12 years) smokers without periodontitis (S-P); and 25 (53 ± 11 years) non-smokers with periodontitis (NS+P). An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis. The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed. About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles. Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Student's t test was used to determine significant differences between the means. Values of P vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.000) and IgM (644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.000) were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group. Salivary IgA (570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.008) and IgM (703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.012) levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group. Only one (5%) periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.20 IU/mL). Similarly, only one smoker (4.17%) had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.04 IU/mL) and two non-smokers (9.52%) had detectable levels of IgE (0.24 IU/mL). Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

  9. Hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome with novel mutations in an afebrile infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus, Simi D; Green, Reid; Carrasco, Ruy; Levy, Moise L; Diaz, Lucia Z

    2018-03-30

    Hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive autoinflammatory syndrome in which a mevalonate kinase deficiency results due to mutations of the mevalonate kinase gene. We report a case of an Asian male infant who was found to have hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome in the absence of fever. His skin manifestations included cephalic pustulosis as well recurrent transient and fixed pink plaques and nodules on the face and extremities. Subsequent examination revealed hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome with two novel allelic mutations in the mevalonate kinase gene: c.895G > A (p.D299N) and c.1168C > T (p.Q390). It is important for dermatologists to recognize the varied cutaneous presentations of hyper-immunoglobulin D syndrome because rapid diagnosis and treatment can significantly affect outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Diversity analysis of the immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene in Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nu tom

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... related industries and supply chains, such as hatcheries, feed manufacturers ... system has a high risk of disease outbreaks. The bulk of ...... immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus in zebrafish: identification and expression of a ...

  11. Intravenous immunoglobulin response in treatment-naïve chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuitwaard, Krista; Hahn, Angelika F.; Vermeulen, Marinus; Venance, Shannon L.; van Doorn, Pieter A.

    2015-01-01

    There is no consensus on which treatment should be used preferentially in individual patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Patients unlikely to respond to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) could be prescribed corticosteroids first to avoid high cost and a delayed

  12. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay of immunoglobulins G, A and M: applicability in analysis of sucrose gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, E F; Danielsen, H [Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark). Medical Department C; Johansen, A S [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Institute of Medical Biochemistry; Larsson, L I [Unit of Histochemistry, University Institute of Pathology, Copenhagen, Denmark

    1984-01-01

    A simple and sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of immunoglobulins G, A and M in sucrose gradients is described. The solid-phase consisted of immunoglobulins adsorbed to polystyrene tubes. Using buffers without detergent and /sup 125/I-labeled sheep anti-rabbit IgA as radioligand, the assay was able to detect 0.8 ng per tube in the IgG assay and 1.6 ng per tube in the IgA and IgM assays. Standard curves with antigen dissolved in 10% and 32% sucrose were superimposable and did not deviate from standard curves with antigen dissolved in buffer without sucrose. Using these techniques on ultracentrifugation samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Schoenlein-Henoch nephritis and IgA glorulonephritis is was possible to detect both immunoglobulin fragments and immunoglobulin aggregates at the same time without prior dialysis of the samples.

  13. Immunoglobulins of patients with Cushing's syndrome due to pigmented adrenocortical micronodular dysplasia stimulate in vitro steroidogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulffraat, N. M.; Drexhage, H. A.; Wiersinga, W. M.; van der Gaag, R. D.; Jeucken, P.; Mol, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The putative stimulation of adrenal steroid production by immunoglobulins (Igs) of five patients with pigmented adrenocortical micronodular dysplasia and clinical Cushing's syndrome was investigated. Ascorbate depletion, a process linked to steroid production, was measured by a cyto-chemical

  14. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian cigarette smokers: Indication for increased risk of oral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Olatunde Olayanju

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that there is decreased salivary IgM in smokers. This observation suggests that reduced salivary immunoglobulin level of IgM might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases in cigarette smokers.

  15. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  17. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND IMMUNE-BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF DOG SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Immunoglobulin G was purified from serum of dog by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. SDS- PAGE analysis of purified dog IgG showed major polypeptides of 66 kDa, 52.40 kDa and 20.72 kDa. The purified Immunoglobulin has been found to be immune-reactive by DID test and Western Blot analysis when treated against hyperimmune sera which was raised in rabbit.

  18. Evaluation of salivary immunoglobulin A levels in tobacco smokers and patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpashree, H. S.; Sarapur, Shriprasad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of smoking on the salivary immunoglobulin response in smokers and to evaluate the salivary immunoglobulin A in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods: The study included total of 80 subjects, of whom 40 were having history of chronic smoking habit, 20 were clinically diagnosed cases of recurrent aphthous ulcer and 20 were in the control group. Sample of unstimulated saliva was collected, centrifuged ...

  19. Biased immunoglobulin light chain gene usage in the shark1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoangeli, Anna; Lui, Anita; Naik, Ushma; Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin; Hsu, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This study of a large family of kappa light (L) chain clusters in nurse shark completes the characterization of its classical immunoglobulin (Ig) gene content (two heavy chain classes, mu and omega, and four L chain isotopes, kappa, lambda, sigma, and sigma-2). The shark kappa clusters are minigenes consisting of a simple VL-JL-CL array, where V to J recombination occurs over a ~500 bp interval, and functional clusters are widely separated by at least 100 kb. Six out of ca. 39 kappa clusters are pre-rearranged in the germline (GL-joined). Unlike the complex gene organization and multistep assembly process of Ig in mammals, each shark Ig rearrangement, somatic or in the germline, appears to be an independent event localized to the minigene. This study examined the expression of functional, non-productive, and sterile transcripts of the kappa clusters compared to the other three L chain isotypes. Kappa cluster usage was investigated in young sharks, and a skewed pattern of split gene expression was observed, one similar in functional and non-productive rearrangements. These results show that the individual activation of the spatially distant kappa clusters is non-random. Although both split and GL-joined kappa genes are expressed, the latter are prominent in young animals and wane with age. We speculate that, in the shark, the differential activation of the multiple isotypes can be advantageously used in receptor editing. PMID:26342033

  20. Serum immunoglobulins E are related to menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellutini, Mariella; Viegi, Giovanni; Parrini, Donatella; Pedreschi, Marzia; Baldacci, Sandra; Modena, Paola; Biavati, Batrizia; Simoni, Marzia; Carrozzi, Laura; Giuntini, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    During a cross sectional epidemiological survey on a general population sample, 596 fertile women underwent total serum IgE determination. They completed an interviewer-administered standardized questionnaire and were categorized according to their menstrual period. They were divided into two groups: those from days 10 to 20, who were considered to be in the periovulatory phase, and those in the other phases. IgE mean values were significantly different (p = 0.01) in the two groups: particularly, lower IgE values were found in those in periovulatory phase, after accounting for smoking habit and atopic status. By multiple regression analysis, taking into account the independent effects of menstrual period, age, smoking habit, hours of fast, skin prick test reactivity and presence of cough, significantly lower IgE values in the periovulatory phase were found. We hypothesize the possibility that a decrease of IgE concentration occurs during midcycle: a reduced immune response might facilitate the ovuli implantation. Further studies are necessary to longitudinally investigate the trend of IgE in the same women, as well as the distributions and the trends of other immunoglobulins

  1. Imaging findings of primary immunoglobulin G4-related cervical lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Masaya; Kato, Hiroki; Goshima, Satoshi; Matsuo, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kito, Yusuke [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Translational Research, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan); Kato, Keizo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Gifu (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    The purpose of the present study was to assess imaging findings of primary immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related cervical lymphadenopathy. Five consecutive patients with clinically, serologically, and histopathologically confirmed primary IgG4-related cervical lymphadenopathy without any other organ involvement were included. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and four underwent {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. We retrospectively reviewed the images and assessed the number, size, location, central necrosis, perinodal infiltration, penetrating vessels, and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the enlarged cervical nodes. Thirteen enlarged cervical nodes measuring larger than 10 mm in minimum diameter were identified. The maximum and minimum diameter of enlarged nodes ranged from 1.2 to 3.2 cm (median, 1.8 cm) and from 1.0 to 1.9 cm (median, 1.2 cm), respectively. Lymphadenopathy was unilateral in all patients, and eight enlarged nodes were located at level IB (62%), one at level II (8%), three at level IV (23%), and one at level V (8%). Central necrosis was not seen in any nodes. Perinodal infiltration was seen in only one node (8%), and penetrating vessels were seen in seven nodes (54%). The median SUVmax of nine nodes was 4.45 (range, 2.08-12.44). Eight enlarged nodes (62%) were located in the submandibular region. Central necrosis was not observed in any nodes and perinodal infiltration was observed in one node (8%). (orig.)

  2. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Protects Against Severe Pandemic Influenza Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Rockman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a highly contagious, acute, febrile respiratory infection that can have fatal consequences particularly in individuals with chronic illnesses. Sporadic reports suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg may be efficacious in the influenza setting. We investigated the potential of human IVIg to ameliorate influenza infection in ferrets exposed to either the pandemic H1N1/09 virus (pH1N1 or highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1. IVIg administered at the time of influenza virus exposure led to a significant reduction in lung viral load following pH1N1 challenge. In the lethal H5N1 model, the majority of animals given IVIg survived challenge in a dose dependent manner. Protection was also afforded by purified F(ab′2 but not Fc fragments derived from IVIg, supporting a specific antibody-mediated mechanism of protection. We conclude that pre-pandemic IVIg can modulate serious influenza infection-associated mortality and morbidity. IVIg could be useful prophylactically in the event of a pandemic to protect vulnerable population groups and in the critical care setting as a first stage intervention.

  3. Natural immunoglobulins (contribution to a debate on biomedical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Nelson M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunology has contributed to biomedical education in many important ways since the creation of scientific medicine in the last quarter of the 19th century. Today, immunology is a major area of biomedical research. Nevertheless, there are many basic problems unresolved in immunological activities and phenomena. Solving these problems is probably necessary to devise predictable and safe ways to produce new vaccines, treat allergy and autoimmune diseases and perform safe transplants. This challenge involves not only technical developments but also changes in attitude, of which the most fundamental is to abandon the traditional stimulus-response perspective in favor of more "systemic" views. Describing immunological activities as the operation of a complex multiconnected network, raises biological and epistemological issues not usually dealt with in biomedical education. Here we point to one example of systemic approaches. A new form of immunoblot (Panama blot, by which the reaction of natural immunoglobulins with complex protein mixtures may be analyzed by a special software and multivariate statistics, has been recently used to characterize human autoimmune diseases. Our preliminary data show that Panama blots can also be used to characterize global (systemic immunogical changes in chronic human parasitic diseases, such as malaria and schistosomiasis mansoni, that correlate with the clinical status.

  4. [Batch release of immunoglobulin and monoclonal antibody products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S

    2014-10-01

    The Paul-Ehrlich Institute (PEI) is an independent institution of the Federal Republic of Germany responsible for performing official experimental batch testing of sera. The institute decides about the release of each batch and performs experimental research in the field. The experimental quality control ensures the potency of the product and also the absence of harmful impurities. For release of an immunoglobulin batch the marketing authorization holder has to submit the documentation of the manufacture and the results of quality control measures together with samples of the batch to the PEI. Experimental testing is performed according to the approved specifications regarding the efficacy and safety. Since implementation of the 15th German drug law amendment, the source of antibody is not defined anymore. According to § 32 German drug law, all batches of sera need to be released by an official control laboratory. Sera are medicinal products, which contain antibodies, antibody fragments or fusion proteins with a functional antibody portion. Therefore, all batches of monoclonal antibodies and derivatives must also be released by the PEI and the marketing authorization holder has to submit a batch release application. Under certain circumstances a waiver for certain products can be issued with regard to batch release. The conditions for such a waiver apply to the majority of monoclonal antibodies.

  5. Glycosylation of immunoglobulin A influences its receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, C; Devauchelle, V; Durand, V; Jamin, C; Pennec, Y L; Youinou, P; Dueymes, M

    1999-12-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is heavily glycosylated, interacts with a variety of receptors, e.g. the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R), which binds terminal galactose residues, and the Fcalpha receptor (FcalphaRI). It has thus been proposed that elevated serum levels of IgA in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are caused by its defective clearance. To test this hypothesis, we developed a method (based on sialyl transferases eluted from a hepatoma cell line) to increase the amount of sialic acid (SA) on IgA, and used a battery of IgA1- and IgA2-specific glycosidases to reduce this amount. Binding of IgA1 and IgA2 to ASGP-R and FcalphaRI was found to be sugar dependent because oversialylated IgA bound less than native or desialylated IgA. However, individual sugars did not play a direct role in this binding. Given that IgA are oversialylated in pSS, defective clearance of IgA may indeed be ascribed to an excess of SA in IgA1 and IgA2.

  6. Ikaros controls isotype selection during immunoglobulin class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellars, MacLean; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo; Kastner, Philippe; Chan, Susan

    2009-05-11

    Class switch recombination (CSR) allows the humoral immune response to exploit different effector pathways through specific secondary antibody isotypes. However, the molecular mechanisms and factors that control immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype choice for CSR are unclear. We report that deficiency for the Ikaros transcription factor results in increased and ectopic CSR to IgG(2b) and IgG(2a), and reduced CSR to all other isotypes, regardless of stimulation. Ikaros suppresses active chromatin marks, transcription, and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) accessibility at the gamma2b and gamma2a genes to inhibit class switching to these isotypes. Further, Ikaros directly regulates isotype gene transcription as it directly binds the Igh 3' enhancer and interacts with isotype gene promoters. Finally, Ikaros-mediated repression of gamma2b and gamma2a transcription promotes switching to other isotype genes by allowing them to compete for AID-mediated recombination at the single-cell level. Thus, our results reveal transcriptional competition between constant region genes in individual cells to be a critical and general mechanism for isotype specification during CSR. We show that Ikaros is a master regulator of this competition.

  7. Imaging findings of primary immunoglobulin G4-related cervical lymphadenopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Masaya; Kato, Hiroki; Goshima, Satoshi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Kito, Yusuke; Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Kato, Keizo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess imaging findings of primary immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related cervical lymphadenopathy. Five consecutive patients with clinically, serologically, and histopathologically confirmed primary IgG4-related cervical lymphadenopathy without any other organ involvement were included. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and four underwent 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. We retrospectively reviewed the images and assessed the number, size, location, central necrosis, perinodal infiltration, penetrating vessels, and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the enlarged cervical nodes. Thirteen enlarged cervical nodes measuring larger than 10 mm in minimum diameter were identified. The maximum and minimum diameter of enlarged nodes ranged from 1.2 to 3.2 cm (median, 1.8 cm) and from 1.0 to 1.9 cm (median, 1.2 cm), respectively. Lymphadenopathy was unilateral in all patients, and eight enlarged nodes were located at level IB (62%), one at level II (8%), three at level IV (23%), and one at level V (8%). Central necrosis was not seen in any nodes. Perinodal infiltration was seen in only one node (8%), and penetrating vessels were seen in seven nodes (54%). The median SUVmax of nine nodes was 4.45 (range, 2.08-12.44). Eight enlarged nodes (62%) were located in the submandibular region. Central necrosis was not observed in any nodes and perinodal infiltration was observed in one node (8%). (orig.)

  8. [Identification and production of monoclonal antibody of Siberian tiger's immunoglobulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaonglong; Zhang, Duanling; Zhou, Ming; Xue, Yuan; Hua, Yuping; Ma, Jianzhang

    2010-03-01

    To purify immunoglobulin (Ig) of Siberian Tiger and prepare monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the Ig,which can be used to develop immunological diagnostic kits for diagnosing infectious disease in Siberian Tiger. The Ig of Siberian tigers was purified with saturated ammonium sulfate combined with recombinant Protein G. The C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the purified Ig. Spleno-cytes of the mice immunized were collected and fused with the mouse myeloma cell line (Sp2/0-Ag14). The positive hybridoma clones were selected by ELISA and were identified by western blot. The sandwich ELISA was used to detect immunocompetence of the purified Ig and the mAb. We obtained three mouse hybridoma clones that produced mAbs against Ig of Siberian Tiger. The derived McAbs could recognize Ig heavy chain of Siberian Tiger specifically. The biological activity of the Ig and obtained McAbs also could be identified by detecting the antibody induced by panleukopenia virus (FPV-HLJ) vaccine in Siberian Tiger. The antibody also would be useful for assess the vaccine efficacy against the infectious disease on the Siberian Tiger. Protein G can be used in Ig purification of Siberian Tiger. The obtained McAbs from the hybridoma ADT11 in this study owned strong ability to bind Ig of Siberian Tiger and have a stable immunocompetence. They can be used to develop diagnostic methods for detecting infectious disease in Siberian Tiger and vaccine research.

  9. Gut microbiota utilize immunoglobulin A for mucosal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, G P; Ladinsky, M S; Yu, K B; Sanders, J G; Yoo, B B; Chou, W-C; Conner, M E; Earl, A M; Knight, R; Bjorkman, P J; Mazmanian, S K

    2018-05-18

    The immune system responds vigorously to microbial infection while permitting lifelong colonization by the microbiome. Mechanisms that facilitate the establishment and stability of the gut microbiota remain poorly described. We found that a regulatory system in the prominent human commensal Bacteroides fragilis modulates its surface architecture to invite binding of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in mice. Specific immune recognition facilitated bacterial adherence to cultured intestinal epithelial cells and intimate association with the gut mucosal surface in vivo. The IgA response was required for B. fragilis (and other commensal species) to occupy a defined mucosal niche that mediates stable colonization of the gut through exclusion of exogenous competitors. Therefore, in addition to its role in pathogen clearance, we propose that IgA responses can be co-opted by the microbiome to engender robust host-microbial symbiosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Chemical stabilization of porous silicon for enhanced biofunctionalization with immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Naveas, Vicente Torres Costa, Dario Gallach, Jacobo Hernandez-Montelongo, Raul Jose Martín Palma, Josefa Predenstinacion Garcia-Ruiz and Miguel Manso-Silván

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon (PSi is widely used in biological experiments, owing to its biocompatibility and well-established fabrication methods that allow tailoring its surface. Nevertheless, there are some unresolved issues such as deciding whether the stabilization of PSi is necessary for its biological applications and evaluating the effects of PSi stabilization on the surface biofunctionalization with proteins. In this work we demonstrate that non-stabilized PSi is prone to detachment owing to the stress induced upon biomolecular adsorption. Biofunctionalized non-stabilized PSi loses the interference properties characteristic of a thin film, and groove-like structures resulting from a final layer collapse were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Likewise, direct PSi derivatization with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTS does not stabilize PSi against immunoglobulin biofunctionalization. To overcome this problem, we developed a simple chemical process of stabilizing PSi (CoxPSi for biological applications, which has several advantages over thermal stabilization (ToxPSi. The process consists of chemical oxidation in H2O2, surface derivatization with APTS and a curing step at 120 °C. This process offers integral homogeneous PSi morphology, hydrophilic surface termination (contact angle θ = 26° and highly efficient derivatized and biofunctionalized PSi surfaces (six times more efficient than ToxPSi. All these features are highly desirable for biological applications, such as biosensing, where our results can be used for the design and optimization of the biomolecular immobilization cascade on PSi surfaces.

  11. Importance of neonatal immunoglobulin transfer for hippocampal development and behaviour in the newborn pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Goncharova

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders are among the main clinical problems affecting preterm children and often result in the development of communication and learning disabilities later in life. Several factors are of importance for brain development, however the role of immunoglobulins (passive immunity transfer has not yet been investigated. Piglets are born agammaglobulinemic, as a result of the lack of transfer of maternal immunoglobulins in utero, thus, they serve as an ideal model to mimic the condition of immunoglobulin deficiency in preterm infants. Thirty six, unsuckled newborn piglets were fed an infant formula or colostrum and supplemented orally or intravenously with either species-specific or foreign immunoglobulin and then compared to both newborn and sow-reared piglets. Two days after the piglets were born behavioural tests (novel recognition and olfactory discrimination of conspecifics scent were performed, after which the piglets were sacrificed and blood, cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampi samples were collected for analyses. Both parameters of neuronal plasticity (neuronal maturation and synapse-associated proteins and behavioural test parameters appeared to be improved by the appearance of species-specific porcine immunoglulin in the circulation and cerebrospinal fluid of the piglets. In conclusion, we postulate possible positive clinical effects following intravenous infusion of human immunoglobulin in terms of neuronal plasticity and cognitive function in preterm infants born with low blood immunoglobulin levels.

  12. Optimized localization of bacterial infections with technetium-99m labelled human immunoglobulin after protein charge selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welling, M.; Feitsma, H.I.J.; Calame, W.; Ensing, G.J.; Goedemans, W.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1994-01-01

    To improve the scintigraphic detection of bacterial infections a protein charge-purified fraction of polyclonal human immunoglobulin was applied as a radiopharmaceutical. This purification was achieved by attaching the immunoglobulin to an anion-exchanger column and by obtaining the column-bound fraction with buffer. The binding to bacteria in vitro and the target to non-target ratios of an experimental thigh infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice were evaluated to compare the purified and the unpurified immunoglobulin. The percentage of binding to all gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria used in this study was significantly (P 99m Tc-labelled protein charge-purified polyclonal human immunoglobulin was administered intravenously. At all time intervals the target (infected thighs) to non-target (non-infected thighs) ratios for both infections were significantly higher (P 99m Tc-labelled protein charge-purified immunoglobulin localizes both a gram-positive and a gram-negative thigh infection more intensely and faster than 99m Tc-labelled unpurified immunoglobulin. (orig.)

  13. Repeat Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant for Refractory Cystoid Macular Edema in Syphilitic Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra C. Lautredou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the successful utilization of adjunctive repeat intravitreal corticosteroid therapy for the treatment of cystoid macular edema in syphilis-related uveitis. Methods/Patients. An HIV-positive patient with treated ocular syphilis who developed refractory cystoid macular edema (CME was treated with repeat intravitreal corticosteroid therapy including dexamethasone intravitreal implants. Results. Treatment led to the resolution of CME and improvement in visual acuity. Conclusions. Intravitreal corticosteroid therapy may be a viable adjunctive treatment for refractory CME in patients with treated syphilitic uveitis. Corticosteroid-induced exacerbation of infection is unlikely in patients with an adequate serologic treatment response.

  14. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.; Maity, A.; Mammen, E.; Yu, K.

    2009-01-01

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements

  15. Monoclonal antibodies to snakehead, Channa striata immunoglobulins: detection and quantification of immunoglobulin-positive cells in blood and lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Rathore, Gaurav; Singh, Akhilesh; Lakra, W S

    2011-02-01

    Snakehead Channa striata is an important freshwater food fish in many Southeast Asian countries. Three monoclonal antibodies (C9, C10 and D10) were developed against purified serum immunoglobulins of Channa striata (Cs-Ig) and characterized. C9 and D10 MAbs were specific to heavy chain, while C10 MAb detected only unreduced Cs-Ig in western blotting. In competitive ELISA, C9 and C10 MAbs were specific to C. striata Ig and showed no cross reactivity with serum Ig of other fish species i.e. Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Clarias batrachus and Labeo rohita. D10 MAb showed reactivity to serum Ig of C. striata and C. marulius. In FACS analysis of gated lymphocytes, the percentage of Ig+ cells detected by C9 MAb was 18.2%, 27.7% and 10.3% in blood, spleen and kidney, respectively (n=3, body weight 500-600 g). However, only a few cells (0.5%) were found to be Ig+ in thymus (n=5). C9 MAb was also successfully employed to demonstrate Ig+ cells in blood smears and formalin fixed sections of spleen and kidney. These findings suggest that the spleen plays an important role in humoral immunity as compared to head kidney. Further, these MAbs can be useful immunological tool in monitoring health status of cultured C. striata. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intravenous Immunoglobulin: A Drug Utilization Review at Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedMojtaba Sohrevardi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Drug use evaluation (DUE aims at improving the patients’ care. Studying the administration pattern of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is an important research topic due to its significant role in the treatment and controlling of many disorders, high prices, and limited availability of this drug.  Methods:This observational cross-sectional study was conducted at Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd, central Iran, from May to September 2014. The orders of different wards in the hospital for IVIG given to the hospital central pharmacy were surveyed. Also, a special form developed for evaluation the method of administration. The related physician and nurse were consulted on drug complications and the causes. Finally, the gleaned data were compared to the available standards on the prescription and administration of IVIG.Results:A total of 75 patients received IVIG during this study. 58.7% of the prescriptions belonged to the cases approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA. The most frequent cause of the use of IVIG was idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP. The rate and dose of administration was suitable in most of the patients, yet, the measurement of laboratory parameters required for IVIG were observed in only a few cases. Complications occurred in 26.7% of the patients receiving it, which was mostly related to infusion-related reactions. On the whole, 3922 g IVIG was used during this study of which 1848 g belonged to the cases approved by FDA.Conclusion:Regarding the high costs of IVIG, complications, and limited information on the quality of the effect of this drug in the treatment of many cases, physicians should be cautious enough with its appropriate use. Besides, the presence of a clinical pharmacist in the health-care team not only improves the quality of drug therapy and treatment results, but also plays an important part in decreasing the treatment costs for the patients.

  17. Dexamethasone, Intravenous Immunoglobulin, and Rituximab Combination Immunotherapy for Pediatric Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; Tate, Elizabeth D

    2017-08-01

    Although pulse-dose dexamethasone is increasingly favored for treating pediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS), and multimodal immunotherapy is associated with improved clinical response, there have been no neuroimmunologic studies of dexamethasone-based multimodal disease-modifying therapy. In this observational retrospective study, 19 children with OMS (with or without associated neuroblastoma) underwent multibiomarker evaluation for neuroinflammation. Nine children of varying OMS severity, duration, and treatment status were treated empirically with pulse dexamethasone, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), and rituximab combination immunotherapy (DEXIR-CI). Another 10 children on dexamethasone alone or with IVIg at initial evaluation only provided a comparison group. Motor severity (total score) was scored rater-blinded via videotapes using the validated OMS Evaluation Scale. DEXIR-CI was associated with a 69% reduction in group total score (P = 0.004) and was clinically well tolerated. Patients given the dexamethasone combination exhibited significantly lowered B cell frequencies in cerebrospinal fluid (-94%) and blood (-76%), normalizing the cerebrospinal fluid B cell percentage. The number of patients with positive inflammatory markers dropped 87% (P = 0.002) as did the number of markers. Cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands were positive in four of nine pretreatment patients but zero of six post-treatment patients. In the comparison group, partial response to dexamethasone alone or with IVIg was associated with multiple positive markers for neuroinflammation despite an average of seven months of treatment. Multimechanistic dexamethasone-based combination immunotherapy increases the therapeutic armamentarium for OMS, providing a viable option for less severely affected individuals. Partial response to dexamethasone with or without IVIg is indicative of ongoing neuroinflammation and should be treated promptly and accordingly. Copyright © 2017

  18. Usefulness of high-dose intravenous human immunoglobulins treatment for refractory recurrent pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Michele; Buiatti, Alessandra; Merlo, Marco; Massa, Laura; Fabris, Enrico; Pinamonti, Bruno; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2013-11-01

    The management of refractory recurrent pericarditis is challenging. Previous clinical reports have noted a beneficial effect of high-dose intravenous human immunoglobulins (IvIgs) in isolated and systemic inflammatory disease-related forms. In this article, we analyzed retrospectively our clinical experience with IvIg therapy in a series of clinical cases of pericarditis refractory to conventional treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 9 patients (1994 to 2010) with refractory recurrent pericarditis, who received high-dose IvIg as a part of their medical treatment. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, or colchicine treatment was not discontinued during IvIg treatment. No patients had a history of autoimmune or connective tissue diseases. During an average period of 11 months from the first recurrence, patients had experienced a mean of 5 relapses before the first IvIg treatment. In 4 cases, patients showed complete clinical remission with no further relapse after the first IvIg cycle. Two patients experienced a single minor relapse, responsive to short-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In 2 patients, we performed a second cycle of IvIg after a recurrence of pericarditis, with subsequent complete remission. One patient did not respond to 3 cycles of IvIg and subsequently underwent pericardial window and long-term immunosuppressive treatment. No major adverse effect was observed in consequence of IvIg administration in all the cases. In conclusion, although IvIg mode of action is still poorly understood in this setting, this treatment can be considered as an option in patients with recurrent pericarditis refractory to conventional medical treatment and, in our small series, has proved to be effective in 8 of 9 cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reflection of serum immunoglobulin isotypes in the egg yolk of laying hens immunized with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Nath Barman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the seroconversion and development of egg yolk immunoglobulins in adult laying White Leghorn hens immunized against an isolate of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC bearing K91 and K88ac antigens, obtained from diarrheic piglet. Materials and Methods: Adult laying White Leghorn hens were immunized with inactivated enterotoxic E. coli strain isolated originally from a case of piglet diarrhea following recommended schedule. The development of whole antibodies and isotype-specific antibodies in serum and egg yolk were measured using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Piglets suffering from diarrhea with fecal samples positive for ETEC were fed with egg yolk and compared with diarrheic control group. Results: The serum and egg yolk ELISA antibody titer against E. coli strain used in the present study was as high as 2666.66±307.92 and 933.33±203.67 respectively on 50 day-post-vaccination (DPV. The immunoglobulin Y (IgY was the predominant isotype in serum and egg yolk, which reached the peak titer of 2200±519.61 in serum on 40 DPV and 800±244.94 in egg yolk on 50 DPV. IgM titer in serum and egg yolk was found to be meager, and no IgA could be detected. Diarrheic piglets fed with the egg yolk suspension from immunized hens showed a promising result in controlling diarrhea. Conclusion: Egg yolk antibodies are considered a suitable immunotherapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy. High titer of egg yolk antibodies raised in the immunized hen against an isolate of ETEC holds the potential to be used for passive protection of diarrheic piglets during their most susceptible period of infection.

  20. Comparison of steroid pulse therapy and conventional oral steroid therapy as initial treatment for autoimmune pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Takashi; Uchida, Kazushige; Matsushita, Mitsunobu; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Fukui, Toshiro; Takaoka, Makoto; Nishio, Akiyoshi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of oral steroid therapy for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is well known, and oral prednisolone treatment is most usually commenced at 30-40 mg/day, but there have been few reports about comparative studies of oral steroid therapy and steroid pulse therapy as the initial treatment for AIP. We studied the clinical course and image findings to estimate the utility of steroid pulse therapy for AIP, comparing it with oral steroid therapy. Laboratory and image findings were assessed retrospectively in 11 patients who received steroid pulse therapy, and the findings were compared to those in 10 patients who received conventional oral steroid therapy. Change in pancreatic size showed no significant difference between the therapies after 2 weeks of treatment. Significant improvement of lower bile duct strictures after 2 weeks of treatment and that of immunoglobulin values within 6 months were shown with both therapies. However, steroid pulse therapy showed significant improvement of γ-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) in 2 weeks and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 2 and 8 weeks, compared with oral steroid therapy. Moreover, there was one patient in whom the lower bile duct stricture was not improved by oral steroid therapy, but it did show improvement with steroid pulse therapy. Initial steroid pulse therapy is a beneficial alternative to oral steroid therapy for the improvement of bile duct lesions. In future, the accumulation of a larger number of patients receiving steroid pulse therapy is needed, and prospective studies will be required. (author)

  1. Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy: When You Need It -- and When You Don't

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this report is at your own risk. Consumer Reports, the American Academy of Asthma, Allergy, & Immunology (AAAAI), ... permission is granted to organizations participating in the Consumer Reports consumer health communication program to disseminate free copies ...

  2. Immunoglobulin transfusion in hemolytic disease of the newborn: place in therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mundy CA; Bhatia J

    2015-01-01

    Cynthia A Mundy, Jatinder Bhatia Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Georgia Regents University, Children's Hospital of Georgia, GA, USA Abstract: Hemolytic disease of the newborn continues to be a common neonatal disorder that requires a comprehensive understanding on the part of those caring for infants. Common treatments include hydration and phototherapy. Exchange transfusion is used in severe hemolytic disease, but infants undergoing this treatment are exposed to ...

  3. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  4. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  5. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  6. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility

  7. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  8. Hybrid FRC under repeated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlos, K.; Babal, B.; Nuernbergerova, T.

    1993-01-01

    Fibre reinforced concretes (FRC) containing several volume fractions in different ratios of two types of fibres - polypropylene and steel, were tested under repeated loading. Mechanical properties of specimens - cubes 150/150/150 mm (for compressive strength), prisms 100/100/400 (for flexural strength), short cylinders 150/60 mm (for impact strength) have been experimentally investigated before and after cyclic loading at the age of 28 days curing time. Mix proportions were designed after DIN 1045 with max. aggregate size 8 mm and grading curve B 8. Portland Cement PC 400 in the amount of 450 kg. m -3 was applied and W/C ratio 0.55. Workability of mixes was measured by Vebe method and regulated by plasticizing admixture Ligoplast Na. Maximum hybrid fibre volume fraction (polypropylene + steel) was 1.0%. Dynamic forces generated in Schenck testing machine with frequency 16 Hz had sinusoidal wave form varying between 0.7 and 0.1 of static mechanical characteristics. The number of cycles in all tests was 10 5 . The residual MOR at static four point bending test and working diagram force-deflection was carried out as well. The impact properties after repeated loading in compression were tested by means of falling weight test. Relationships between composition of fibre composites with different combination of polypropylene (0.2, 0.3, 0.5% by volume) and steel (0.5, 0.7, and 0.8% by volume) fibre content were obtained and technological properties of mixes as well. (author)

  9. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  10. Immunoparesis and polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery after auto-SCT for patients with multiple myeloma treated at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Zepeda, Victor H; Duggan, Peter; Neri, Paola; Chaudhry, Ahsan; Tay, Jason; Bahlis, Nizar

    2017-11-21

    Immunoparesis and polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery have been recently described as common indicators of immune dysfunction in patients with multiple myeloma. In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of immunoparesis and polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery at day-100 post autologous stem cell transplant (auto-SCT) on clinical outcomes. A total of 302 patients were included for the analysis of immunoparesis, and 197 were evaluable for polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery evaluation. Immunoparesis was observed in 93.5% of cases, with 47% of cases having polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery at 12 months post auto-SCT. Median overall and progression-free survival were longer in the group of patients with complete or partial normalization of polyclonal immunoglobulins. Patients receiving consolidation had a lower level of polyclonal reconstitution. In conclusion, polyclonal immunoglobulin recovery by 12 months post-auto-SCT is associated with superior overall and progression free survival in patients with MM. Efforts to better enhance polyclonal recovery deserve further investigation.

  11. Exquisite response to intravenous immunoglobulin in Susac syndrome during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gomez-Figueroa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From its initial report on two female patients in 1979 by J.O. Susac, Susac syndrome (SuS or SICRET (small infarctions of cochlear, retinal and encephalic tissue has persisted as an elusive entity. To date the available evidence for its treatment is based on case reports and case series. The largest systematic review described only 304 reported cases since the 1970s. Here we presented the first reported case to our knowledge in Mexican population and the unusual presentation in a pregnant patient. Case presentation: A 34-year-old Hispanic woman was brought to the ER in our hospital for apathy and behavioral changes. Upon arrival at the ER, her husband described a one-month history of behavioral changes with apathy, progressive abulia, visuospatial disorientation, and gait deterioration. The initial lab test shows no significance except by a positive qualitative hCG. An MRI was obtained and showed hyperintense periventricular white matter lesions in T2 and FLAIR sequences also involving bilateral basal ganglia and with predominant affection of the corpus callosum, in addition to infratentorial cerebellar lesions. After treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins a marked and prompt clinical and radiological improvement was observed. Conclusion: SuS is still an elusive disease. To date, no definitive score or clinical feature can predict the outcome of the disease. The presentation during pregnancy is also rare and therefore the optimal treatment and the prognosis is unknown. We hope that this article will serve as a foundation for future research. Keywords: Susac syndrome, Neuroinflammation, Corpus callosum, Demyelinating disease, Vasculitis

  12. SCM, the M Protein of Streptococcus canis Binds Immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Simone; Eichhorn, Inga; Kohler, Thomas P; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The M protein of Streptococcus canis (SCM) is a virulence factor and serves as a surface-associated receptor with a particular affinity for mini-plasminogen, a cleavage product of the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin. Here, we report that SCM has an additional high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding activity. The ability of a particular S. canis isolate to bind to IgG significantly correlates with a scm -positive phenotype, suggesting a dominant role of SCM as an IgG receptor. Subsequent heterologous expression of SCM in non-IgG binding S. gordonii and Western Blot analysis with purified recombinant SCM proteins confirmed its IgG receptor function. As expected for a zoonotic agent, the SCM-IgG interaction is species-unspecific, with a particular affinity of SCM for IgGs derived from human, cats, dogs, horses, mice, and rabbits, but not from cows and goats. Similar to other streptococcal IgG-binding proteins, the interaction between SCM and IgG occurs via the conserved Fc domain and is, therefore, non-opsonic. Interestingly, the interaction between SCM and IgG-Fc on the bacterial surface specifically prevents opsonization by C1q, which might constitute another anti-phagocytic mechanism of SCM. Extensive binding analyses with a variety of different truncated SCM fragments defined a region of 52 amino acids located in the central part of the mature SCM protein which is important for IgG binding. This binding region is highly conserved among SCM proteins derived from different S. canis isolates but differs significantly from IgG-Fc receptors of S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae sub. equisimilis , respectively. In summary, we present an additional role of SCM in the pathogen-host interaction of S. canis . The detailed analysis of the SCM-IgG interaction should contribute to a better understanding of the complex roles of M proteins in streptococcal pathogenesis.

  13. Immunoglobulin gene usage in the human anti-pathogen response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, M M; Rioux, J D

    1995-09-01

    The human antibody response to foreign pathogens is generated to a relatively small number of target surface proteins and carbohydrates that nonetheless have an extensive array of epitopes. The study of human monoclonal antibodies to different pathogens shows that there are a diversity of mechanisms used to generate a sufficient repertoire of antibodies to combat the invading pathogens. Although many different immunoglobulin gene elements are used to construct the anti-pathogen response, some elements are used more often than would be expected if all elements were used randomly. For example, the immune response to Haemophilus influenzae polysaccharide appears to be quite narrow, being restricted primarily to a specific heavy-chain gene, 3-15, and a lambda light-chain family II member, 4A. In contrast, for the immune response to cytomegalovirus proteins, a wider group of gene elements is needed. It is also surprising that despite an investigator bias for IgG- rather than IgM-secreting immortal B cells (because of their high affinity and neutralizing abilities), 26% of light chains and 13% of heavy chains showed a very low level of somatic mutation, equivalent to an IgM molecule that has not undergone affinity maturation. Although some highly mutated IgG molecules are present in the anti-pathogen response, most of the monoclonal antibodies specific for viruses or bacteria have a level of somatic hypermutation similar to that of the adult IgM repertoire. A number of studies have shown that there are similarities in the antibody responses to pathogens and to self (autoantibodies).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Immunoglobulin Genomics in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongchen; Bao, Yonghua; Meng, Qingwen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Meng, Qingyong; Ren, Liming; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-01-01

    In science, the guinea pig is known as one of the gold standards for modeling human disease. It is especially important as a molecular and cellular biology model for studying the human immune system, as its immunological genes are more similar to human genes than are those of mice. The utility of the guinea pig as a model organism can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization of the guinea pig immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy and light chain genes. The guinea pig IgH locus is located in genomic scaffolds 54 and 75, and spans approximately 6,480 kb. 507 VH segments (94 potentially functional genes and 413 pseudogenes), 41 DH segments, six JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε, and α), and one reverse δ remnant fragment were identified within the two scaffolds. Many VH pseudogenes were found within the guinea pig, and likely constituted a potential donor pool for gene conversion during evolution. The Igκ locus mapped to a 4,029 kb region of scaffold 37 and 24 is composed of 349 Vκ (111 potentially functional genes and 238 pseudogenes), three Jκ and one Cκ genes. The Igλ locus spans 1,642 kb in scaffold 4 and consists of 142 Vλ (58 potentially functional genes and 84 pseudogenes) and 11 Jλ -Cλ clusters. Phylogenetic analysis suggested the guinea pig’s large germline VH gene segments appear to form limited gene families. Therefore, this species may generate antibody diversity via a gene conversion-like mechanism associated with its pseudogene reserves. PMID:22761756

  15. A phase 3 trial of IV immunoglobulin for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relkin, Norman R; Thomas, Ronald G; Rissman, Robert A; Brewer, James B; Rafii, Michael S; van Dyck, Christopher H; Jack, Clifford R; Sano, Mary; Knopman, David S; Raman, Rema; Szabo, Paul; Gelmont, David M; Fritsch, Sandor; Aisen, Paul S

    2017-05-02

    We tested biweekly infusions of IV immunoglobulin (IVIg) as a possible treatment for mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia. In a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 390 participants with mild to moderate AD to receive placebo (low-dose albumin) or IVIg (Gammagard Liquid; Baxalta, Bannockburn, IL) administered IV at doses of 0.2 or 0.4 g/kg every 2 weeks for 18 months. The primary cognitive outcome was change from baseline to 18 months on the 11-item cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale; the primary functional outcome was 18-month change on the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living Inventory. Safety and tolerability data, as well as serial MRIs and plasma samples, were collected throughout the study from all enrolled participants. No beneficial effects were observed in the dual primary outcome measures for the 2 IVIg doses tested. Significant decreases in plasma Aβ42 (but not Aβ40) levels were observed in IVIg-treated participants. Analysis of safety data showed no difference between IVIg and placebo in terms of the rate of occurrence of amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (brain edema or microhemorrhage). IVIg-treated participants had more systemic reactions (chills, rashes) but fewer respiratory infections than participants receiving placebo. Participants with mild to moderate AD showed good tolerability of treatment with low-dose human IVIg for 18 months but did not show beneficial effects on cognition or function relative to participants who received placebo. NCT00818662. This study provides Class II evidence that IVIg infusions performed every 2 weeks do not improve cognition or function at 18 months in patients with mild to moderate AD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. The Unusual Genetics and Biochemistry of Bovine Immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Robyn L; Haakenson, Jeremy; Deiss, Thaddeus C; Criscitiello, Michael F; Wilson, Ian A; Smider, Vaughn V

    2018-01-01

    Antibodies are the key circulating molecules that have evolved to fight infection by the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Typical antibodies of most species contain six complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), where the third CDR of the heavy chain (CDR H3) has the greatest diversity and often makes the most significant contact with antigen. Generally, the process of V(D)J recombination produces a vast repertoire of antibodies; multiple V, D, and J gene segments recombine with additional junctional diversity at the V-D and D-J joints, and additional combinatorial possibilities occur through heavy- and light-chain pairing. Despite these processes, the overall structure of the resulting antibody is largely conserved, and binding to antigen occurs predominantly through the CDR loops of the immunoglobulin V domains. Bovines have deviated from this general paradigm by having few VH regions and thus little germline combinatorial diversity, but their antibodies contain long CDR H3 regions, with substantial diversity generated through somatic hypermutation. A subset of the repertoire comprises antibodies with ultralong CDR H3s, which can reach over 70 amino acids in length. Structurally, these unusual antibodies form a β-ribbon "stalk" and disulfide-bonded "knob" that protrude far from the antibody surface. These long CDR H3s allow cows to mount a particularly robust immune response when immunized with viral antigens, particularly to broadly neutralizing epitopes on a stabilized HIV gp140 trimer, which has been a challenge for other species. The unusual genetics and structural biology of cows provide for a unique paradigm for creation of immune diversity and could enable generation of antibodies against especially challenging targets and epitopes. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intravenous immunoglobulin to treat hyperbilirubinemia in neonates with isolated Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadah Khriesat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency alone or concomitant with ABO isoimmunisation is a widespread indication for neonatal exchange transfusion. Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2006 and 2014 at the Jordan University of Science and technology. The medical records of 43 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for isolated glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency hemolytic disease of the newborns were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I, a historical cohort, included newborns born between 2006 and 2010, Treatment included phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Group II included newborns born between 2011 and 2014, where, in addition to phototherapy, intravenous immunoglobulin was administered. The duration of phototherapy and number of exchange transfusions were evaluated. Results Of 412 newborns that were admitted with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was present in 43. Of these, 22, did not receive intravenous immunoglobulin and served as a control group. The other 21 newborns received intravenous immunoglobulin. There was no difference in the demographic characteristics between the two groups. Infants in the control group were significantly more likely to receive exchange blood transfusion than infants in the immunoglobulin treatment group, but were significantly less likely to need phototherapy. Conclusion Intravenous immunoglobulin is an effective alternative to exchange transfusion in infants with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency hemolytic disease of the newborn. It is suggested that intravenous immunoglobulin may be beneficial as a prophylaxis for infants with hyperbilirubinemia.

  18. The leucine-rich repeat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C

    2008-08-01

    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  19. Effect of low-dose valsartan on proteinuria in normotensive immunoglobulin A nephropathy with minimal proteinuria: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Il; Na, Ha-Young; Moon, Ju-Young; Han, Sang-Woong; Yang, Dong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Ho; Park, Hyeong-Cheon; Choi, Hoon-Young; Lim, So-Dug; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Lee, Yong-Kyu; Shin, Sug-Kyun

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a generally progressive disease, even in patients with favorable prognostic features. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antiproteinuric effect and tolerability of low-dose valsartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker) therapy in normotensive IgAN patients with minimal proteinuria of less than 0.5 to 1.0 g/day. Normotensive IgAN patients, who had persistent proteinuria with a spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio of 0.3 to 1.0 mg/mg creatinine, were recruited from five hospitals and randomly assigned to either 40 mg of valsartan as the low-dose group or 80 mg of valsartan as the regular-dose group. Clinical and laboratory data were collected at baseline, and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after valsartan therapy. Forty-three patients (low-dose group, n = 23; regular-dose group, n = 20) were enrolled in the study. Proteinuria decreased significantly not only in the regular-dose group but also in the low-dose group. The change in urine protein-to-creatinine ratio at week 24 was -41.3% ± 26.1% (p valsartan can significantly reduce proteinuria without causing any intolerability in normotensive IgAN patients with minimal proteinuria.

  20. Current treatment options with immunoglobulin G for the individualization of care in patients with primary immunodeficiency disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, S; Orange, J S; Gardulf, A; Stein, M R; Shapiro, R; Borte, M; Berger, M

    2015-02-01

    Primary antibody deficiencies require lifelong replacement therapy with immunoglobulin (Ig)G to reduce the incidence and severity of infections. Both subcutaneous and intravenous routes of administering IgG can be effective and well tolerated. Treatment regimens can be individualized to provide optimal medical and quality-of-life outcomes in infants, children, adults and elderly people. Frequency, dose, route of administration, home or infusion-centre administration, and the use of self- or health-professional-administered infusion can be tailored to suit individual patient needs and circumstances. Patient education is needed to understand the disease and the importance of continuous therapy. Both the subcutaneous and intravenous routes have advantages and disadvantages, which should be considered in selecting each patient's treatment regimen. The subcutaneous route is attractive to many patients because of a reduced incidence of systemic adverse events, flexibility in scheduling and its comparative ease of administration, at home or in a clinic. Self-infusion regimens, however, require independence and self-reliance, good compliance on the part of the patient/parent and the confidence of the physician and the nurse. Intravenous administration in a clinic setting may be more appropriate in patients with reduced manual dexterity, reluctance to self-administer or a lack of self-reliance, and intravenous administration at home for those with good venous access who prefer less frequent treatments. Both therapy approaches have been demonstrated to provide protection from infections and improve health-related quality of life. Data supporting current options in IgG replacement are presented, and considerations in choosing between the two routes of therapy are discussed. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  1. Desensitization Using Bortezomib and High-dose Immunoglobulin Increases Rate of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Cheol; Jambaldorj, Enkthuya; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Im, Hye Jin; Jeon, Hee Jung; In, Ji Won; Han, Miyeun; Koo, Tai Yeon; Chung, Junho; Song, Eun Young; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-02-01

    Combination therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab showed a good transplant rate in highly sensitized wait-listed patients for deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT), but carried the risk of antibody-mediated rejection. The authors investigated the impact of a new combination therapy of bortezomib, IVIG, and rituximab on transplantation rate.This study was a prospective, open-labeled clinical trial. The desensitization regimen consisted of 2 doses of IVIG (2  g/kg), a single dose of rituximab (375  mg/m), and 4 doses of bortezomib (1.3  mg/m). The transplant rate was analyzed. Anti-Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB antibodies were determined by a Luminex solid-phase bead assay at baseline and after 2, 3, and 6 months in the desensitized patients.There were 19 highly sensitized patients who received desensitization and 17 patients in the control group. Baseline values of class I and II panel reactive antibody (%, peak mean fluorescence intensity) were 83  ±  16.0 (14952  ±  5820) and 63  ±  36.0 (10321  ±  7421), respectively. Deceased donor kidney transplantation was successfully performed in 8 patients (42.1%) in the desensitization group versus 4 (23.5%) in the control group. Multivariate time-varying covariate Cox regression analysis showed that desensitization increased the probability of DDKT (hazard ratio, 46.895; 95% confidence interval, 3.468-634.132; P = 0.004). Desensitization decreased mean fluorescence intensity values of class I panel reactive antibody by 15.5% (20.8%) at 2 months. In addition, a liberal mismatch strategy in post hoc analysis increased the benefit of desensitization in donor-specific antibody reduction. Desensitization was well tolerated, and acute rejection occurred only in the control group.In conclusion, a desensitization protocol using bortezomib, high-dose IVIG, and rituximab increased the DDKT rate in highly sensitized, wait-listed patients.

  2. [Study on causes and treatment of repeated vulvovaginitis in girlhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di-kai; Li, Xiu-yun; Yang, Dong-zi; Kuang, Jian-quan

    2006-07-01

    To explore the causes and treatment of repeated vulvovaginitis in girlhood in order to improve its prevention and treatment. Fifty-one girls with repeated vulvovaginitis (age vulvovaginitis and 14 ones (27%) suffering from posterior recto-vaginal fistula with in 51 patients. Five girls (10%) were smitten with vulval ulcer and 3 ones (6%) had been were found with vaginal foreign bodies. One girl (2%) was smitten with adhesion of labia minora. The vaginal discharges taken from 21 girls were cultured. Seventeen cases found bacteria. The positive rate of bacteria culture in the 21 cases reached 81%, in which, E.coli accounted for 5 cases (24%), staphylococcus and streptococcus accounted for 3 cases (14%) respectively. Patients suffering from non-specific vulvovaginitis and vulval ulcer accepted external lotion, antibiotic ointment or combining with antibiotics. Patients suffering from posterior recto-vaginal fistula accepted fistulectomy. Three girls who found vaginal foreign bodies took out of foreign bodies by hysteroscope. Fifty-one girls all were cured after appropriate therapy. Vulvovaginitis is the most common gynecologic diagnosis in girlhood. The principal cause of repeated invasion is non-specific vulvovaginitis and the secondly one is posterior recto-vaginal fistula. It need overhaul during the diagnosis. It is very availability to use hysteroscopy and do bacteria culture + antibiotic sensitivity test for repeated pediatric vulvovaginitis.

  3. The terminal portion of leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein LigA confers protective immunity against lethal infection in the hamster model of leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Everton F; Medeiros, Marco A; McBride, Alan J A; Matsunaga, Jim; Esteves, Gabriela S; Ramos, João G R; Santos, Cleiton S; Croda, Júlio; Homma, Akira; Dellagostin, Odir A; Haake, David A; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2007-08-14

    Subunit vaccines are a potential intervention strategy against leptospirosis, which is a major public health problem in developing countries and a veterinary disease in livestock and companion animals worldwide. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are a family of surface-exposed determinants that have Ig-like repeat domains found in virulence factors such as intimin and invasin. We expressed fragments of the repeat domain regions of LigA and LigB from Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni. Immunization of Golden Syrian hamsters with Lig fragments in Freund's adjuvant induced robust antibody responses against recombinant protein and native protein, as detected by ELISA and immunoblot, respectively. A single fragment, LigANI, which corresponds to the six carboxy-terminal Ig-like repeat domains of the LigA molecule, conferred immunoprotection against mortality (67-100%, P<0.05) in hamsters which received a lethal inoculum of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni. However, immunization with this fragment did not confer sterilizing immunity. These findings indicate that the carboxy-terminal portion of LigA is an immunoprotective domain and may serve as a vaccine candidate for human and veterinary leptospirosis.

  4. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO EXPERT EVALUATION OF PRECLINICAL AND CLINICAL TRIALS OF HUMAN IMMUNOGLOBULIN PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the experience of Russian and leading foreign regulatory agencies in organisation and conduction of preclinical and clinical trials of human immunoglobulin products. The authors suggest a classification of human immunoglobulins and provide updated information on authorization of these products in Russia. The article summarizes methodological approaches, basic scientific principles and criteria relating to expert evaluation of preclinical and clinical trials of blood products. The authors further define the expert body’s requirements for data on preclinical and clinical trials of human normal immuniglobulins and human specific immunoglobulins for the prevention and/or treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases which are submitted as part of applications for marketing authorization or marketing authorization variation. The article suggests programs of preclinical and clinical trials for human normal immunoglobulins and human specific immunoglobulins for the prevention and/or treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases that are aligned with the Russian legislation and Eurasian Economic Union’s regulations on medicines circulation, and have been elaborated with respect to the guidelines of the European Medicines Agency.

  5. Structure, dynamics and folding of an immunoglobulin domain of the gelation factor (ABP-120) from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Cabrita, Lisa D; Fucini, Paola; Dobson, Christopher M; Christodoulou, John

    2009-05-15

    We have carried out a detailed structural and dynamical characterisation of the isolated fifth repeat of the gelation factor (ABP-120) from Dictyostelium discoideum (ddFLN5) by NMR spectroscopy to provide a basis for studies of co-translational folding on the ribosome of this immunoglobulin-like domain. The isolated ddFLN5 can fold autonomously in solution into a structure that resembles very closely the crystal structure of the domain in a construct in which the adjacent sixth repeat (ddFLN6) is covalently linked to its C-terminus in tandem but deviates locally from a second crystal structure in which ddFLN5 is flanked by ddFLN4 and ddFLN6 at both N- and C-termini. Conformational fluctuations were observed via (15)N relaxation methods and are primarily localised in the interstrand loops that encompass the C-terminal hemisphere. These fluctuations are distinct in location from the region where line broadening is observed in ddFLN5 when attached to the ribosome as part of a nascent chain. This observation supports the conclusion that the broadening is associated with interactions with the ribosome surface [Hsu, S. T. D., Fucini, P., Cabrita, L. D., Launay, H., Dobson, C. M. & Christodoulou, J. (2007). Structure and dynamics of a ribosome-bound nascent chain by NMR spectroscopy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 16516-16521]. The unfolding of ddFLN5 induced by high concentrations of urea shows a low population of a folding intermediate, as inferred from an intensity-based analysis, a finding that differs from that of ddFLN5 as a ribosome-bound nascent chain. These results suggest that interesting differences in detail may exist between the structure of the domain in isolation and when linked to the ribosome and between protein folding in vitro and the folding of a nascent chain as it emerges from the ribosome.

  6. In-depth interviews of patients with primary immunodeficiency who have experienced pump and rapid push subcutaneous infusions of immunoglobulins reveal new insights on their preference and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozon, Grégoire Jacques Noël; Clerson, Pierre; Dokhan, Annaïk; Fardini, Yann; Sala, Taylor Pindi; Crave, Jean-Charles

    2018-01-01

    Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) often receive immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT). Physicians and patients have the choice between various methods of administration. For subcutaneous immunoglobulin infusions, patients may use an automated pump (P) or push the plunger of a syringe (rapid push [RP]). P infusions are performed once a week and last around 1 hour. RP decreases the duration of administration, but requires more frequent infusions. Eight out of 30 patients (coming from a single center) who had participated in the cross-over, randomized, open-label trial comparing P and RP participated in a focus group or underwent in-depth interviews. Patients had a long history of home-based subcutaneous immunoglobulin using P. The trial suggested that RP had slightly greater interference on daily life than P, but similar efficacy and better cost-effectiveness. When asked about the delivery method they had preferred, around one-third of patients pointed out RP rather than P. In-depth interviews may reveal unforeseen reasons for patients' preferences. Interviews underlined the complexity of the relationship that the patients maintain with their disease and IgRT. Even if they recognized the genetic nature of the disease and claimed PID was a part of them, patients tried not to be overwhelmed by the disease. IgRT by P was well integrated in patients' routine. By contrast, RP too frequently reminded the patients of their disease. In addition, some patients pointed out the difficulty of pushing the plunger due to the viscosity of the product. Coming back too frequently, RP was not perceived as time saving over a week. Long-lasting use of P could partly explain patients' reasonable reluctance to change to RP. In-depth interviews of PID patients highlighted unforeseen reasons for patients' preference that the physician needs to explore during the shared medical decision-making process.

  7. Bone marrow dosimetry for monoclonal antibody therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigler, R.E.; Zanzonico, P.B.; Leonard, R.

    1986-01-01

    Immunoglobulins must permeate through the basement membrane of capillaries in order to enter the extracellular space (ECS) of tissue. Since the process is quite slow, the blood plasma activity in various organs contributes considerably to the radiation dose of the dose-limiting tissues. In bone marrow the basement membrane is absent and the blood circulation is functionally open. Therefore, blood plasma and marrow ECS maintain equal concentrations of labeled immunoglobulins. A combination of factors including intravenous administration, slow absorption into most tissues, slow breakdown and elimination of labeled immunoglobulin, and rapid entry into bone marrow ECS as well as known radiosensitivity of marrow led the authors to expect this tissue would prove to be the primary tissue at risk for systemic monoclonal antibody therapy. They have developed and applied in a Phase I clinical study of 131 I labeled CEA antibody a procedure for estimation of radiation dose to red bone marrow. Serieal measurements of blood plasma and total body retention are carried out. Binding of labeled antibody to the cellular components of blood is verified to be very low. They have observed bone marrow depression at doses greater than 400 rad. If no special procedures are used to reconstitute marrow after radiation treatment, this level represents a much greater than generally recognized limitation to radiolabeled monoclonal antibody therapy. 25 references, 4 tables

  8. WPMSD: A Malicious Script Detection Method Inspired by the Process of Immunoglobulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the process of immunoglobulin secretion in biological body, we present a Web Page Malicious Script Detection Method (WPMSD. In this paper, Firstly, the basic definitions of artificial immune items are given. Secondly, according to the spreading range of malicious script, the immunoglobulin number is changed as the detector clone proliferation is stimulated by malicious scripts. Further more, the nonlinear dynamics of antibody number is discussed. Thirdly, we propose a probability approach to trigger alarms to inform that the detected scripts are harmful. Finally, the WPMSD collects the effective immunoglobulin set based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM to update the detector gene library. Compared with the traditional immune based detection methods, such as Negative Selection Algorithm (NSA, Dynamic Colonel Selection (DynamiCS, and Variable size Detector (Vdetector, the false alarm rate of WPMSD has been reduced by 18.09%, 12.6%, and 7.47% respectively.

  9. Higher Serum Levels of Free ĸ plus λ Immunoglobulin Light Chains Ameliorate Survival of Hemodialysis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Caspari, Christina; Scholze, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Impaired immune function is common in patients with chronic renal failure. Now, we determined whether serum levels of free immunoglobulin light chains predict mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study...... of 160 hemodialysis patients with a median follow-up of 15 months (interquartile range, 3-44 months). Serum levels of free κ and λ immunoglobulin light chains were measured at the start of the study. The primary end point was mortality from any cause. Results: In survivors, median serum levels of free κ...... plus λ immunoglobulin light chains were significantly higher compared with nonsurvivors (p light chains above the median compared with patients with serum levels below the median of 210 mg...

  10. Serum immunoglobulin levels in the ABCC-JNIH adult health study: Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R A; Milton, R C; Hamilton, H B

    1973-05-31

    Immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgA, and IgM) were determined on 2043 individuals in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study population, and levels were compared to disease states and the dose of radiation ATB. Mean levels for both cities and sexes combined were IgG = 1577 mg%, IgA = 312 mg%, and IgM = 127 mg%. Differences between these mean levels and those reported in other studies are thought secondary to racial and environmental factors, and technical differences with the methods used for quantitation. Females had higher IgM levels that tended to go down with advancing age. Of the diseases evaluated, rheumatoid arthritis, cirrhosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis affected immunoglobulin levels the greatest. There was no apparent relationship between radiation dose from the atomic bomb and immunoglobulin levels determined more than 25 years after exposure. (6 tables)

  11. High dose intravenous immunoglobulin in Rh and ABO hemolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    suggested as an alternative therapy to ET for rhesus. HDN.11-13 ... (HD-IVIG) in reducing the need for exchange transfusion, duration of phototherapy and/or hospitalization in ... blood group A and 34 neonates with blood group B, distributed ...

  12. Production and Purification Immunoglobulin against E. coli in Egg Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Nassiri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chicken is the only avian species in which polyclonal antibodies, like IgG is transported from the hen to the egg yolk in a similar manner as the transport of mammalian IgG from the mother to the fetus. Immunoglobulin Y in the chicken is transported to the egg and accumulates in the egg yolk in large quantities. IgY is an egg yolk antibody that has been used widely for treatment and prevention of infections in humans and animal. IgY is used for passive protection of the pathogen infections such as Escherichia coli, bovine and human rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, salmonella, staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. IgY is a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics. Eschericha coli strains of serotype O157: H7 belongs to a family of pathogenic E. coli called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC strains responsible for hemorrhagic colitis, bloody or non-bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. This strain of E. coli pathogenises by adhering to host intestinal epithelium and forming bacterial colonies. The purpose of this study was to produce and purify immunoglobulin Y against E. coli O157:H7 and develop specific polyclonal anti E. coli antibody in the egg yolk. Materials and Methods Sixteen-week-old laying hens (Mashhad, Iran were kept in individual cages with food and water ad libitum. Immunization of hens was performed by intramuscularly injecting killed E. coli O157: H7 with an equal volume of Freund’s complete adjuvant into two sides of chest area (Sigma, USA for the first immunization. Two booster immunizations followed up using complete and incomplete Freund’s adjuvants in two weeks interval. Freund’s adjuvant without antigen was injected to the control group. Two weeks after the last injection, the eggs were collected daily for eight weeks, marked and stored at 4 ºC. In order to IgY purification, eggs were collected. Purification of IgY from egg yolk was based on Polson and using PEG6000. Finally, the

  13. Plasma vitamin D-binding protein (GC) factors, immunoglobulin G heavy chain (GM) allotypes and immunoglobulin kappa light chain (KM1) allotype in patients with sarcoidosis and in healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Thymann, Mariann; Graudal, Niels

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sarcoidosis is an immune disease with abnormalities in the production of vitamin D and immunoglobulins. The aim was to examine whether the distribution of plasma vitamin D-binding protein = group-specific component (GC) allotypes, immunoglobulin G heavy chain (GM) allotypes an...

  14. A 6-month mixed-effect pharmacokinetic model for post-transplant intravenous anti-hepatitis B immunoglobulin prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seunghoon Han,1,2 Gun Hyung Na,3 Dong-Goo Kim3 1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea; 2Pharmacometrics Institute for Practical Education and Training, The Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Surgery, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea Background: Although individualized dosage regimens for anti-hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG therapy have been suggested, the pharmacokinetic profile and factors influencing the basis for individualization have not been sufficiently assessed. We sought to evaluate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of anti-HBIG quantitatively during the first 6 months after liver transplantation. Methods: Identical doses of 10,000 IU HBIG were administered to adult liver transplant recipients daily during the first week, weekly thereafter until 28 postoperative days, and monthly thereafter. Blood samples were obtained at days 1, 7, 28, 84, and 168 after transplantation. Plasma HBIG titer was quantified using 4 different immunoassay methods. The titer determined by each analytical method was used for mixed-effect modeling, and the most precise results were chosen. Simulations were performed to predict the plausible immunoglobulin maintenance dose. Results: HBIG was eliminated from the body most rapidly in the immediate post-transplant period, and the elimination rate gradually decreased thereafter. In the early post-transplant period, patients with higher DNA titer tend to have lower plasma HBIG concentrations. The maintenance doses required to attain targets in 90%, 95%, and 99% of patients were ~15.3, 18.2, and 25.1 IU, respectively, multiplied by the target trough level (in IU/L. Conclusion: The variability (explained and unexplained in HBIG pharmacokinetics was relatively larger in the early post-transplant period. Dose individualization based upon

  15. Serum immunoglobulin levels predict fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Stuart; Henderson, Elsbeth; Burt, Alastair D; Day, Christopher P; Anstee, Quentin M

    2014-05-01

    A third of the population are estimated to have NAFLD of varying severity. Serum immunoglobulins are frequently elevated in patients with chronic liver disease, but little is known about serum immunoglobulin levels in patients with NAFLD. Aim of this study was to evaluate serum immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgG, and IgM) in a large cohort of patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and determine if immunoglobulin levels are associated with clinical or histological features. Patients seen in a tertiary fatty liver clinic between 1999 and 2009 were included. Liver biopsies were assessed using the Kleiner score. Immunoglobulin levels and other blood tests were taken at time of biopsy. 285 patients (110 simple steatosis and 175 NASH) had serum immunoglobulins measured within 6months of liver biopsy. 130 (46%) patients had elevated (>1× upper limit of normal) serum IgA levels, 28 (10%) patients had elevated IgG and 22 (8%) raised IgM. Serum IgA levels were elevated more frequently in patients with NASH compared with subjects with simple steatosis (55% vs. 31%, pliver fibrosis (Kleiner stage 3-4). There was a significant positive association between serum IgA levels and the stage of fibrosis (pfibrosis following multivariate analysis. A model constructed from these independent predictors accurately predicted advanced fibrosis (AUROC 0.87). The serum IgA level was frequently elevated in patients with NAFLD and was an independent predictor of advanced fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Computational study on the interactions and orientation of monoclonal human immunoglobulin G on a polystyrene surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javkhlantugs N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Namsrai Javkhlantugs,1,2 Hexig Bayar,3 Chimed Ganzorig,1 Kazuyoshi Ueda2 1Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and Department of Chemical Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; 2Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan; 3The Key Laboratory of Mammalian Reproductive Biology and Biotechnology of the Ministry of Education, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China Abstract: Having a theoretical understanding of the orientation of immunoglobulin on an immobilized solid surface is important in biomedical pathogen-detecting systems and cellular analysis. Despite the stable adsorption of immunoglobulin on a polystyrene (PS surface that has been applied in many kinds of immunoassays, there are many uncertainties in antibody-based clinical and biological experimental methods. To understand the binding mechanism and physicochemical interactions between immunoglobulin and the PS surface at the atomic level, we investigated the binding behavior and interactions of the monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG on the PS surface using the computational method. In our docking simulation with the different arrangement of translational and rotational orientation of IgG onto the PS surface, three typical orientation patterns of the immunoglobulin G on the PS surface were found. We precisely analyzed these orientation patterns and clarified how the immunoglobulin G interacts with the PS surface at atomic scale in the beginning of the adsorption process. Major driving forces for the adsorption of IgG onto the PS surface come from serine (Ser, aspartic acid (Asp, and glutamic acid (Glu residues. Keywords: bionano interface, immunoassay, polystyrene, IgG, physical adsorption, simulation

  17. Serum immunoglobulin and complement levels in prematures with parenteral feeding--preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaro, G; Morena, C; Uxa, F; Candusso, M; Trappan, A; de Vonderweid, U

    1993-01-01

    Immunoglobulins IgA, IgG and IgM and complement factors C3 and C4 have been measured in a population of premature infants to evaluate their degree of immunological maturity. All the infants were receiving complete parenteral nutrition. In parallel, the same parameters were measured in twenty two full term, healthy neonates. To explore maturation and liver function, the authors used other proteins as nutritional markers. Differences in the immunoglobulins, but not in the complement fractions were seen between the two groups. Two applications are suggested: incidence of infections and post partum maturation.

  18. A study of immunoglobulins and complements (C3 &C4 in alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of serum Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA and complements (C3 and C4 was carried out in 100 cases of alopecia areata as per method described by Mancini (1965.[1] Clinically patients were divided in two groups, alopecia areata circumscribed (group I and severe alopecia areata (group II. Significant decrease in levels of one or more Immunoglobulins were observed in most of the patients. However, Serum complements (C3 and C4 were within range of normal control values

  19. The relationship of age, anxiety, and serum immunoglobulins with crystallized and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D; Eisdorfer, C; Vitaliano, P P; Bloom, V

    1980-10-01

    Serum immunoglobulin concentrations (IgG, IgA, and IgM), cognitive performance (crystallized and fluid intelligence), and self-reports of anxiety were evaluated in 24 men and women 60-75 years, and 50 men and women, 30-45 years. Trait anxiety was an important factor relating to performance differences between the young and old on crystallized and fluid subtests. IgM was inversely related to performance in the older age groups. Anxiety was not related to serum immunoglobulin levels.

  20. Prostate atypia: does repeat biopsy detect clinically significant prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Ryan P; Wiener, Scott; Harris, Cory D; Wagner, Joseph R

    2015-05-01

    While the treatment pathway in response to benign or malignant prostate biopsies is well established, there is uncertainty regarding the risk of subsequently diagnosing prostate cancer when an initial diagnosis of prostate atypia is made. As such, we investigated the likelihood of a repeat biopsy diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in patients in which an initial biopsy diagnosed prostate atypia. We reviewed our prospectively maintained prostate biopsy database to identify patients who underwent a repeat prostate biopsy within one year of atypia (atypical small acinar proliferation; ASAP) diagnosis between November 1987 and March 2011. Patients with a history of PCa were excluded. Chart review identified patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy (RT), or active surveillance (AS). For some analyses, patients were divided into two subgroups based on their date of service. Ten thousand seven hundred and twenty patients underwent 13,595 biopsies during November 1987-March 2011. Five hundred and sixty seven patients (5.3%) had ASAP on initial biopsy, and 287 (50.1%) of these patients underwent a repeat biopsy within one year. Of these, 122 (42.5%) were negative, 44 (15.3%) had atypia, 19 (6.6%) had prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 102 (35.6%) contained PCa. Using modified Epstein's criteria, 27/53 (51%) patients with PCa on repeat biopsy were determined to have clinically significant tumors. 37 (36.3%) proceeded to RP, 25 (24.5%) underwent RT, and 40 (39.2%) received no immediate treatment. In patients who underwent surgery, Gleason grade on final pathology was upgraded in 11 (35.5%), and downgraded 1 (3.2%) patient. ASAP on initial biopsy was associated with a significant risk of PCa on repeat biopsy in patients who subsequently underwent definitive local therapy. Patients with ASAP should be counseled on the probability of harboring both clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  2. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of ciguatoxin in fish tissue using chicken immunoglobulin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empey Campora, Cara; Hokama, Yoshitsugi; Yabusaki, Kenichi; Isobe, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect ciguatoxin (CTX) in fish tissue. The assay utilizes two antibodies, chicken immunoglobulin Y specific to the ABCD domain of CTX and a mouse monoclonal immunoglobulin G-horseradish peroxidase conjugate specific to the JKLM domain of CTX. The sensitivity, working range, cross reactivity, accuracy, precision, and reproducibility were examined.

  3. A mode of error: Immunoglobulin binding protein (a subset of anti-citrullinated proteins can cause false positive tuberculosis test results in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Greenwald

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrullinated Immunoglobulin Binding Protein (BiP is a newly described autoimmune target in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, one of many cyclic citrullinated peptides(CCP or ACPA. BiP is over-expressed in RA patients causing T cell expansion and increased interferon levels during incubation for the QuantiFERON-Gold tuberculosis test (QFT-G TB. The QFT-G TB has never been validated where interferon is increased by underlying disease, as for example RA.Of ACPA-positive RA patients (n = 126, we found a 13% false-positive TB test rate by QFT-G TB. Despite subsequent biologic therapy for 3 years of all 126 RA patients, none showed evidence of TB without INH. Most of the false-positive RA patients after treatment with biologic therapy reverted to a negative QFT-G test. False TB tests correlated with ACPA level (p < 0.02.Three healthy women without arthritis or TB exposure had negative QFT-G TB. In vitro, all three tested positive every time for TB correlating to the dose of BiP or anti-BiP added, at 2 ug/ml, 5 ug/ml, 10 ug/ml, and 20 ug/ml.BiP naturally found in the majority of ACPA-positive RA patients can result in a false positive QFT-G TB. Subsequent undertreatment of RA, if biologic therapy is withheld, and overtreatment of presumed latent TB may harm patients. Keywords: Tuberculosis, IGRA, Rheumatoid arthritis, Interferon, Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA, Immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP

  4. Quantitation of Fc receptors and surface immunoglobulin is affected by cell isolation procedures using plasmagel and ficoll-hypaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, E L; Titus, J A; Segal, D M

    1978-01-01

    When mononuclear leukocytes are isolated directly from whole human blood using Ficoll-Hypaque or Plasmagel, cytophilic immunoglobulin is detected on cell surfaces. Upon incubation at 37 degrees C, this cell-associated immunoglobulin is shed slowly into the medium. However, when cells are prewashed in phosphate-buffered saline prior to isolation, they appear to be free of cytophilic immunoglobulin. Compared to prewashed cells, populations retaining cytophilic immunoglobulin on their surfaces demonstrate a decreased binding of soluble immune complexes and radiolabelled trimeric rabbit IgG. The data suggest that Ficoll-Hypaque and Plasmagel cause serum IgG to bind with abnormally high affinity to human mononuclear leukocytes, probably via Fc receptors. This artifact of preparation can lead to erroneous estimates of the numbers of cells bearing Fc receptors or intrinsic membrane immunoglobulin within a given population of cells and to an inaccurate assessment of the average number of Fc receptors per cell.

  5. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  6. simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 212 primer pairs selected, based on repeat patterns of n≥8 for di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeat ... Cluster analysis revealed a high genetic similarity among the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding lines which could reduce the genetic gain in ..... The multiple allele characteristic of SSR com-.

  7. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan; Manolescu, Ioana; Afanasiev, Loredana; Feng, Jieling; Gou, G.; Hadjieleftheriou, Marios; Harizopoulos, Stavros; Kalnis, Panos; Karanasos, Konstantinos; Laurent, Dominique; Lupu, M.; Onose, N.; Ré , C.; Sans, Virginie; Senellart, Pierre; Wu, T.; Shasha, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  8. Clearance of 131I-labeled murine monoclonal antibody from patients' blood by intravenous human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.S.; Sivolapenko, G.B.; Hird, V.; Davies, K.A.; Walport, M.; Ritter, M.A.; Epenetos, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Five patients treated with intraperitoneal 131I-labeled mouse monoclonal antibody for ovarian cancer also received i.v. exogenous polyclonal human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody. The pharmacokinetics of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody in these patients were compared with those of 28 other patients receiving i.p.-radiolabeled monoclonal antibody for the first time without exogenous human anti-murine immunoglobulin, and who had no preexisting endogenous human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody. Patients receiving i.v. human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody demonstrated a rapid clearance of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody from their circulation. The (mean) maximum 131I blood content was 11.4% of the injected activity in patients receiving human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody compared to 23.3% in patients not given human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody. Intravenous human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody decreased the radiation dose to bone marrow (from 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody in the vascular compartment) 4-fold. Following the injection of human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody, 131I-monoclonal/human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody immune complexes were rapidly transported to the liver. Antibody dehalogenation in the liver was rapid, with 87% of the injected 131I excreted in 5 days. Despite the efficient hepatic uptake of immune complexes, dehalogenation of monoclonal antibody was so rapid that the radiation dose to liver parenchyma from circulating 131I was decreased 4-fold rather than increased. All patients developed endogenous human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody 2 to 3 weeks after treatment

  9. An inherited immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiency associated with a defect in the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracker, Sven; Di Virgilio, Michela; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Cuenin, Cyrille; Forveille, Monique; Deau, Marie-Céline; McBride, Kevin M; Majewski, Jacek; Gazumyan, Anna; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Grimbacher, Bodo; Kutukculer, Necil; Herceg, Zdenko; Cavazzana, Marina; Jabado, Nada; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Fischer, Alain; Durandy, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination defects (CSR-D) are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by impaired production of switched immunoglobulin isotypes and normal or elevated IgM levels. They are caused by impaired T:B cooperation or intrinsic B cell defects. However, many immunoglobulin CSR-Ds are still undefined at the molecular level. This study's objective was to delineate new causes of immunoglobulin CSR-Ds and thus gain further insights into the process of immunoglobulin class-switch recombination (CSR). Exome sequencing in 2 immunoglobulin CSR-D patients identified variations in the INO80 gene. Functional experiments were performed to assess the function of INO80 on immunoglobulin CSR. We identified recessive, nonsynonymous coding variations in the INO80 gene in 2 patients affected by defective immunoglobulin CSR. Expression of wild-type INO80 in patients' fibroblastic cells corrected their hypersensitivity to high doses of γ-irradiation. In murine CH12-F3 cells, the INO80 complex accumulates at Sα and Eμ regions of the IgH locus, and downregulation of INO80 as well as its partners Reptin and Pontin impaired CSR. In addition, Reptin and Pontin were shown to interact with activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Finally, an abnormal separation of sister chromatids was observed upon INO80 downregulation in CH12-F3 cells, pinpointing its role in cohesin activity. INO80 deficiency appears to be associated with defective immunoglobulin CSR. We propose that the INO80 complex modulates cohesin function that may be required during immunoglobulin switch region synapsis. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Implication of urinary complement factor H in the progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maojing Liu

    Full Text Available After activation, the complement system is involved in the pathogenesis of Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN. Complement factor H (CFH is a crucial inhibitory factor of the alternative pathway of the complement system. The study investigated the effects of urinary CFH levels on IgAN progression.A total of 351 patients with IgAN participated in this study. They were followed up for an average of 51.8 ± 26.6 months. Renal outcome was defined as a composite endpoint, that included instances of end-stage renal disease (ESRD, ≥ 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR or doubling of plasma creatinine levels. Urinary CFH levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and calculated as the ratio of urinary CFH over creatinine (uCFH/uCr.In the whole cohort, uCFH/uCr values were associated with disease progression either as continuous [log(uCFH/uCr] or categorical traits (dichotomous and quartile variables after adjusting for eGFR, proteinuria, mean arterial blood pressure, histological grading and immunosuppressive therapy in the Cox proportional hazard model. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that higher uCFH/uCr values at baseline predicted worse renal outcome during follow-up (log-rank, P < 0.001. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis showed that log(uCFH/uCr had predictive value for renal outcome (area under curve [AUC] = 0.745, and the AUC increased to 0.805 after being incorporated into baseline eGFR and proteinuria. In subgroup analysis with eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, log(uCFH/uCr had better predictive value (AUC = 0.724, P = 0.002 for renal outcome compared to eGFR (AUC = 0.582, P = 0.259 and proteinuria (AUC = 0.615, P = 0.114.Urinary CFH levels are associated with renal function decline and increased urinary CFH levels are a risk factor for progression of IgA nephropathy.

  11. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  12. Using Mass Spectrometry to Quantify Rituximab and Perform Individualized Immunoglobulin Phenotyping in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, John R.; Cornec, Divi; Dasari, Surendra; Ladwig, Paula M.; Hummel, Amber M.; Cheu, Melissa; Murray, David L.; Willrich, Maria A.; Snyder, Melissa R.; Hoffman, Gary S.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Langford, Carol A.; Merkel, Peter A.; Monach, Paul A.; Seo, Philip; Spiera, Robert F.; St Cair, E. William; Stone, John H.; Specks, Ulrich; Barnidge, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal immunoglobulins (mAbs) are used to treat patients with a wide range of disorders including autoimmune diseases. As pharmaceutical companies bring more fully humanized therapeutic mAb drugs to the healthcare market analytical platforms that perform therapeutic drug monitoring

  13. Fab glycosylation of immunoglobulin G does not associate with improvement of rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bondt (Albert); M. Wuhrer (Manfred); T.M. Kuijper (Martijn); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); R.J.E.M. Dolhain (Radboud)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Changes in immunoglobulin G (IgG) constant domain (Fc) glycosylation are associated with changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in response to pregnancy. Here, we sought to determine whether the same holds true for variable domain (Fab) glycosylation. Methods:

  14. The use of bovine colostrum as a source of immunoglobulin (Ig) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations of both groups of lambs were determined at 6hr intervals during the first 48 hrs of life, using a pocket refractometer. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in Ig levels between the bovine colostrum-fed lambs (21.01 zst units) and the normally suckled lambs (18.26 ...

  15. Immunoglobulin G4-related prostatitis: a case-control study focusing on clinical and pathologic characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Jorie; Maillette de Buy Wenniger, Lucas; van Leenders, Geert; Verheij, Joanne; van Onna, Ilze; Hansen, Bettina; van Heerde, Marianne; Krak, Nanda; Beuers, Ulrich; Bruno, Marco; van Buuren, Henk

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence and histopathologic characteristics of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related prostatic involvement in patients diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis. Nine cases of IgG4-related prostatitis were identified among 117 men in the autoimmune pancreatitis and IgG4-associated

  16. Immunoglobulin G4-related prostatitis: A case-control study focusing on clinical and pathologic characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Buijs (Jorie); L. Maillette De Buy Wenniger (Lucas); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); J. Verheij (Joanne); I. van Onna (Ilze); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); M. van Heerde (Marianne); N.C. Krak (Nanda); U. Beuers (Ulrich); M.J. Bruno (Marco); H.R. van Buuren (Henk)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractOBJECTIVE To evaluate the occurrence and histopathologic characteristics of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)- related prostatic involvement in patients diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis. METHODS Nine cases of IgG4-related prostatitis were identified among 117 men in the

  17. Mucosal immunoglobulins at respiratory surfaces mark an ancient association that predates the emergence of tetrapods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhen; Takizawa, Fumio; Parra, David

    2016-01-01

    the first example of locally induced immunoglobulin in the mucosa of a cold-blooded species. Moreover, we demonstrate that gill microbiota is predominantly coated with IgT, thus providing previously unappreciated evidence that the microbiota present at a respiratory surface of a vertebrate is recognized...

  18. A novel IgA-like immunoglobulin in the reptile Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza, Francisco Gambón; Espinel, Christian Sánchez; Beneitez, Julio Valdueza

    2007-01-01

    The appearance of antibody genes over evolution coincided with the origin of the vertebrates. Reptiles are of great interest in evolution since they are the link between the amphibians, birds, and mammals. This work describes the presence of a gene in the reptile leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) where phylogenetic studies suggest that it is the gene orthologue of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin X (IgX) in Xenopus. Messenger RNA samples taken from different tissues showed expression of this antibody in intestinal tissue. Data on the structure deduced from the sequence of nucleotides showed an antibody with four domains in the constant region. There is a sequence of 20 amino acids in the C terminus similar to the secretory tail of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA. A detailed analysis of the sequence of amino acids displayed a paradox, i.e., domains CH1 and CH2 showed a clear homology with domains CH1 and CH2 of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) while domains CH3 and CH4 were homologous with domains CH3 and CH4 of IgM. This homology pattern is also seen in Xenopus IgX and bird IgA. The most logical explanation for this phenomenon is that a recombination between the IgM and IgY gave rise to the IgA.

  19. Genetic regulation of immunoglobulin E level in different pathological states: integration of mouse and human genetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gusareva, Elena; Kurey, Irina; Grekov, Igor; Lipoldová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2014), s. 375-405 ISSN 1464-7931 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/08/1697; GA MŠk LH12049 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Genetic control of complex diseases * Immunoglobulin E * Epistasis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.670, year: 2014

  20. An immunoenzymatic assay for the diagnosis of hepatitis A utilising immunoglobulin Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre dos Santos da Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV antibody levels by diagnostic kits in the convalescent period of disease generally use immunoglobulin G (IgG, which is expensive. An alternative to IgG is immunoglobulin Y (IgY, an immunoglobulin antibody encountered in birds and reptiles. The aim of this study was to develop a competitive immunoenzymatic assay to measure total anti-HAV antibody levels using anti-HAV IgY as the capture and conjugated immunoglobulins. For this purpose, anti-HAV IgY was conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP and the optimal dilution of HRP-conjugated antibodies was evaluated to establish the competitive immuneenzymatic assay. The results obtained from our "in-house" assay were plotted on a receiver operator curve, which showed a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 98.8%, demonstrating that a competitive anti-HAV IgY immunoenzymatic assay developed "in house" could be used as an alternative to commercial assays that utilise IgG.

  1. Successive immunoglobulin and cytokine expression in the small intestine of juvenile chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Wieland, W.H.; Kruijt, L.; Jansma, A.; Straetemans, T.; Schots, A.; Hartog, den C.G.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa is of major importance for immune development. To further study the ontogeny of avian mucosal immunity, mRNA levels of IgM, IgY and IgA, the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and a number of cytokines were determined at different ages in jejunum and ileum of

  2. Chimeric immunoglobulin E reactive with tumor-associated antigen activates human Fc epsilon RI bearing cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, R. M.; Warnaar, S. O.; Schuurman, J.; Pasmans, S. G.; Latour, S.; Daëron, M.; Fleuren, G. J.; Litvinov, S. V.

    1997-01-01

    Crosslinking of immunoglobulin E molecules that are bound to the Fc epsilon receptors expressed on mast cells or basophils triggers activation of these cells, resulting in the development of a type I hypersensitivity. Targeting this potent immune reaction towards tumors by using IgE that reacts with

  3. Immunoglobulin superfamily members encoded by viruses and their multiple roles in immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Domènec; Martínez-Vicente, Pablo; Engel, Pablo; Angulo, Ana

    2017-05-01

    Pathogens have developed a plethora of strategies to undermine host immune defenses in order to guarantee their survival. For large DNA viruses, these immune evasion mechanisms frequently rely on the expression of genes acquired from host genomes. Horizontally transferred genes include members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, whose products constitute the most diverse group of proteins of vertebrate genomes. Their promiscuous immunoglobulin domains, which comprise the building blocks of these molecules, are involved in a large variety of functions mediated by ligand-binding interactions. The flexible structural nature of the immunoglobulin domains makes them appealing targets for viral capture due to their capacity to generate high functional diversity. Here, we present an up-to-date review of immunoglobulin superfamily gene homologs encoded by herpesviruses, poxviruses, and adenoviruses, that include CD200, CD47, Fc receptors, interleukin-1 receptor 2, interleukin-18 binding protein, CD80, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules, and signaling lymphocyte activation molecules. We discuss their distinct structural attributes, binding properties, and functions, shaped by evolutionary pressures to disarm specific immune pathways. We include several novel genes identified from extensive genome database surveys. An understanding of the properties and modes of action of these viral proteins may guide the development of novel immune-modulatory therapeutic tools. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Spatial and temporal expression of immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, Sjoerd D.; Meijer, Onno C.; Heinen, Charlotte A.; Mol, Isabel M.; Laghmani, El Houari; Sengers, Rozemarijn M. A.; Carreno, Gabriela; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Wit, Jan M.; Oostdijk, Wilma; van Pelt, Ans M. M.; Hamer, Geert; Wagenaar, Gerry T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 (IGSF1) gene cause an X-linked syndrome of central hypothyroidism, macroorchidism, variable prolactin and GH deficiency, delayed pubertal testosterone rise, and obesity. To understand the pathophysiology of this syndrome,

  5. Immunoglobulins of patients with idiopathic Addison's disease block the in vitro action of adrenocorticotropin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulffraat, N. M.; Drexhage, H. A.; Bottazzo, G. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Jeucken, P.; van der Gaag, R.

    1989-01-01

    The presence of serum immunoglobulins (Ig) blocking ACTH-induced adrenal DNA synthesis and/or cortisol production was studied in 25 patients with idiopathic Addison's disease. For this purpose guinea pig adrenal segments kept in organ culture were exposed to ACTH and graded concentrations of patient

  6. A prospective study of nutritional status in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattianayagam, PT; Lane, T; Fox, Z

    2013-01-01

    Weight loss is common in systemic immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis but there are limited data on the impact of nutritional status on outcome. Using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) score, we prospectively examined nutritional status in 110 consecutive newly-diagno...

  7. Intravenous immunoglobulin in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a dose-finding trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, F.; Lublin, F.D.; Li, D.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported a reduction of relapses after the long-term administration of IV immunoglobulin (IVIG) to patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), but they were mostly small and differed in terms of predefined outcome variables and treatment regimen. W...

  8. Immunoglobulin leakiness in scid mice with CD4(+) T-cell-induced chronic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes, J; Reimann, J; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2000-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease in scid mice is initiated by transplantation of CD4(+) T-cells from immunocompetent syngenic donor mice. As the disease progresses, immunoglobulin (Ig)-containing cells appear in the gut lamina propria, suggesting that locally accumulating Ig may play a role in disease ...

  9. A sensitive chain specific radioimmunoassay for human immunoglobulins using monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikora, K.; Alderson, T.St.J.; Ellis, J.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay is described for human immunoglobulins. This solid-phase assay uses commercially available monoclonal antibodies and is specific for different Ig chain types. Levels of less than 20 ng/ml Ig are detectable. The assay is suitable for the analysis of human hybridoma supernatants. (Auth.)

  10. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  11. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:- To evaluate serum levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs), immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA and IgM) and Complement Components (C3c, C4 and Factor B) in Nigerians with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design:- Case control study. Setting:- University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

  12. Carotenoid supplementation and retinoic acid in immunoglobulin A regulation of the gut microbiota dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yi; Wu, Lei; Wang, Fang; Shen, Xinchun; Lin, Dingbo

    2018-04-01

    Dysbiosis, a broad spectrum of imbalance of the gut microbiota, may progress to microbiota dysfunction. Dysbiosis is linked to some human diseases, such as inflammation-related disorders and metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the pathogenesis of dysbiosis remain elusive. Recent findings suggest that the microbiome and gut immune responses, like immunoglobulin A production, play critical roles in the gut homeostasis and function, and the progression of dysbiosis. In the past two decades, much progress has been made in better understanding of production of immunoglobulin A and its association with commensal microbiota. The present minireview summarizes the recent findings in the gut microbiota dysbiosis and dysfunction of immunoglobulin A induced by the imbalance of pathogenic bacteria and commensal microbiota. We also propose the potentials of dietary carotenoids, such as β-carotene and astaxanthin, in the improvement of the gut immune system maturation and immunoglobulin A production, and the consequent promotion of the gut health. Impact statement The concept of carotenoid metabolism in the gut health has not been well established in the literature. Here, we review and discuss the roles of retinoic acid and carotenoids, including pro-vitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls in the maturation of the gut immune system and IgA production. This is the first review article about the carotenoid supplements and the metabolites in the regulation of the gut microbiome. We hope this review would provide a new direction for the management of the gut microbiota dysbiosis by application of bioactive carotenoids and the metabolites.

  13. Characterisation of an ELISA detecting immunoglobulin G to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zervens, Lisa Marie-Louise; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    2013-01-01

    Although colostrum has been used to detect specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle, confounding, non-specific reactions can be a problem. The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of non-specific ELISA reactions in samples...

  14. Development of a sandwich ELISA for quantification of immunoglobulin G in mink blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Ronja; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, T.

    2016-01-01

    early immunity and thus their resistance against pathogenic agents found in the environment. This study describes a sandwich ELISA for quantification of the concentration of total immunoglobulin G in mink blood. The ELISA was validated with serum samples from females (n=8) and their kits (litters of 4...

  15. Adsorption of immunoglobulin G on core-shell latex particles precoated with chaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, CE; Vermeer, AWP; Norde, W

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the adsorption behavior of a monoclonal antibody (immunoglobulin G, IgG) on latex particles, possessing reactive chloromethyl groups, precoated with 3-([3-cholamidopropyl]dimethylammonio-1-propansulfonate (Chaps). The amount and reactivity of the surface

  16. Adsorption of immunoglobulin G on core-shell latex particles precoated with chaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, C.E.; Vermeer, A.W.P.; Norde, W.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the adsorption behavior of a monoclonal antibody (immunoglobulin G, IgG) on latex particles, possessing reactive chloromethyl groups, precoated with 3-([3-cholamidopropyl]dimethylammonio-1-propanesulfonate (Chaps). The amount and reactivity of the surface

  17. Normal human immunoglobulin G4 is bispecific: it has two different antigen-combining sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, J.; van Ree, R.; Perdok, G. J.; van Doorn, H. R.; Tan, K. Y.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Unlike other immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses, IgG4 antibodies in plasma have been reported to be functionally monovalent. In this paper we show that the apparent monovalency of circulating IgG4 is caused by asymmetry of plasma IgG4. A large fraction of plasma IgG4 molecules have two different

  18. An evaluation of serum and tissue bound immunoglobulins in prostatic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gahankari D

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available In forty-four patients with different prostatic lesions serum immunoglobulins and tissue deposited immunoglobulins were studied by single radial immunodiffusion technique, and direct immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase (PAP methods respectively. Serum IgM levels were found reduced only in patients with prostatic carcinomas (80% of cases as compared to controls. Serum IgA levels showed stage dependence in prostatic carcinoma being more raised in advanced malignancy (stage C and D than in localized ones (stage B. Localization of immunoglobulins particularly IgM, was characteristically found in stroma and lumen along with intracellular localization in prostatic carcinoma; while normal and benign lesions of prostate only showed characteristic ′necklace′ pattern. Also the intensity of deposits of immunoglobulins in poorly differentiated prostatic carcinomas was markedly low as compared to well differentiated carcinomas indicating lowered local immunological response in former. In prostatitis, IgA was also found localized in lumen indicating the immunological defence against infection by secretory antibody (IgA.

  19. Hemolytic anemia following high dose intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with chronic neurological disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Christiansen, I; Harbo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    High dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established treatment for various neuromuscular disorders. Recently, cases of hemolytic anemia following IVIG have been observed. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of anemia and hemolysis after IVIG and its relationship...

  20. Interfacial behaviour of proteins, with special reference to immunoglobulins. A physicochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Willem; Lyklema, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Some basic elements of the adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces are briefly reviewed, emphasizing immunoglobulins. The paper focuses on the physicochemical interactions and considers the precautions that have to be taken to let the protein adsorb in a way in which it is biologically active.

  1. IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN COLOSTRUM OF SOWS WITH PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME - PRRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal ROLINEC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PRRS occurrence on sow colostrum immunological quality. We realised the experiment on 20 sows (breed: Large white. From farm without presences of PRRS were 10 sows and other 10 sows were from farm with presence of PRRS. We took the samples of sows colostrums during sucking. We detected concentration of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM in sows colostrum in time of 0 hours to 12 hours after beginning of farrowing with pig Ig ELISA quantitation kits. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgG at the beginning of farrowing, 3 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgA at 6 and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgM at 6 and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. Lower concentrations of colostral immunoglobulins in group with PRRS can be caused of presence of PRRS. Virus PRRS can evocate synthesis of cytokine IL-10, which inhibited the function of macrophages and lymphocytes and so PRRS decrease the production of immunoglobulins and their concentration in blood of sows and consequently also concentration of immunoglobulins in sows colostrum.

  2. Evaluation of six immunoassays for detection of dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin M and G antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); P. Koraka (Penelope); J. Velzing (Jans); C. Copra (Cederick); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe performance of six commercially available immunoassay systems for the detection of dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies in serum was evaluated. These included two IgM and IgG enzyme immunoassays (EIA) from MRL Laboratories and PanBio, a rapid

  3. Nuclear positioning rather than contraction controls ordered rearrangements of immunoglobulin loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B. Rother (Magdalena); R.-J.T.S. Palstra (Robert-Jan); S. Jhunjhunwala (Suchit); K.A.M. Van Kester (Kevin A. M.); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); R.W. Hendriks (Rudi); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); C. Murre (Cornelis); M.C. van Zelm (Menno)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractProgenitor-B cells recombine their immunoglobulin (Ig) loci to create unique antigen receptors. Despite a common recombination machinery, the Ig heavy and Ig light chain loci rearrange in a stepwise manner. We studied pre-pro-B cells and Rag-/- progenitor-B cells to determine whether Ig

  4. Signals sustaining human immunoglobulin V gene hypermutation in isolated germinal centre B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dahlenborg; J.D. Pound (J.); J. Gordon (Jocelynne); C.A.K. Borrebaeck (C. A K); R. Carlsson (R.)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAffinity maturation of antibody responses depends on somatic hypermutation of the immunoglobulin V genes. Hypermutation is initiated specifically in proliferating B cells in lymphoid germinal centres but the signals driving this process remain unknown. This study identifies signals that

  5. A 70-year-old male with peripheral neuropathy, ataxia and antigliadin antibodies shows improvement in neuropathy, but not ataxia, after intravenous immunoglobulin and gluten-free diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharshan Anandacoomaraswamy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Dharshan Anandacoomaraswamy1, Jagdeesh Ullal2, Aaron I Vinik21Department of Internal Medicine, Coney Island Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, USA; 2Strelitz Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USAAbstract: This is a case of a 70-year-old man with severe peripheral neuropathy, type 2 diabetes and progressively worsening cerebellar ataxia. He was found to have circulating antigliadin and antireticulin antibodies compatible with celiac disease in the absence of intestinal pathology. The peripheral neuropathy improved with a gluten-free diet, antioxidants and intravenous immunoglobulin, whereas the ataxia did not. This case illustrates the need to test for celiac disease in patients with idiopathic ataxia and peripheral neuropathy and the need for alternative therapies for ataxia. Keywords: celiac disease, peripheral neuropathy, autoimmune disease, cerebellar ataxia, type 2 diabetes

  6. Development of analog watch with minute repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigami, Tomio; Aoyama, Shigeru; Osa, Takashi; Igarashi, Kiyotaka; Ikegami, Tomomi

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor with large scale integration was developed for an electronic minute repeater. It is equipped with the synthetic struck sound circuit to generate natural struck sound necessary for the minute repeater. This circuit consists of an envelope curve drawing circuit, frequency mixer, polyphonic mixer, and booster circuit made by using analog circuit technology. This large scale integration is a single chip microcomputer with motor drivers and input ports in addition to the synthetic struck sound circuit, and it is possible to make an electronic system of minute repeater at a very low cost in comparison with the conventional type.

  7. Targeting of T Lymphocytes to Melanoma Cells Through Chimeric Anti-GD3 Immunoglobulin T-Cell Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Yun

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin T-cell receptors (IgTCRs combine the specificity of antibodies with the potency of cellular killing by grafting antibody recognition domains onto TCR signaling chains. IgTCR-modified T cells are thus redirected to kill tumor cells based on their expression of intact antigen on cell surfaces, bypassing the normal mechanism of activation through TCR—peptide—major histocompatibility complex (MHC recognition. Melanoma is one of the most immunoresponsive of human cancers and has served as a prototype for the development of a number of immunotherapies. The target antigen for this study is the ganglioside GD3, which is highly expressed on metastatic melanoma with only minor immunologic cross-reaction with normal tissues. To determine an optimal configuration for therapy, four combinations of IgTCRs were prepared and studied: sFv-ɛ, sFv-ζ, Fab-ɛ, Fab-ζ. These were expressed on the surface of human T cells by retroviral transduction. IgTCR successfully redirected T-cell effectors in an MHC-unrestricted manner, in this case against a non—T-dependent antigen, with specific binding, activation, and cytotoxicity against GD3+ melanoma cells. Soluble GD3 in concentrations up to 100 μg/ml did not interfere with recognition and binding of membrane-bound antigen. Based on the outcomes of these structural and functional tests, the sFv-ζ construct was selected for clinical development. These results demonstrate key features that emphasize the potential of anti-GD3 IgTCR-modified autologous T cells for melanoma therapies.

  8. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.

  9. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  10. Lack of immunoglobulin M suppression by immunoglobulin G antibody in thymectomized, irradiated, and bone marrow-reconstituted mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    OpenAIRE

    Aryanpour, J; Hafizi, A; Modabber, F

    1980-01-01

    Thymectomized, irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (T-deprived) mie infected with an avirulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii produced antibody titers comparable to those produced in intact syngeneic mice. Both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were produced in T-deprived animals; however, the IgM antibody remained constant in the presence of increasing amounts of IgG. In the intact animals, IgM became undetectable by day 50 postinfection as expected. Feedback inhibition of IgM by IgG ...

  11. Lack of immunoglobulin M suppression by immunoglobulin G antibody in thymectomized, irradiated, and bone marrow-reconstituted mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, J; Hafizi, A; Modabber, F

    1980-03-01

    Thymectomized, irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (T-deprived) mie infected with an avirulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii produced antibody titers comparable to those produced in intact syngeneic mice. Both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were produced in T-deprived animals; however, the IgM antibody remained constant in the presence of increasing amounts of IgG. In the intact animals, IgM became undetectable by day 50 postinfection as expected. Feedback inhibition of IgM by IgG seems to be dependent upon T-cells in Toxoplasma-infected mice.

  12. Impaired intracortical transmission in G2019S leucine rich-repeat kinase Parkinson patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzo, Viviana; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Brusa, Livia; Schirinzi, Tommaso; Battistini, Stefania; Ricci, Claudia; Sambucci, Manolo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Koch, Giacomo

    2017-05-01

    A mutation in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 is the most common cause of hereditary Parkinson's disease (PD), yet the neural mechanisms and the circuitry potentially involved are poorly understood. We used different transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols to explore in the primary motor cortex the activity of intracortical circuits and cortical plasticity (long-term potentiation) in patients with the G2019S leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene mutation when compared with idiopathic PD patients and age-matched healthy subjects. Paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to investigate short intracortical inhibition and facilitation and short afferent inhibition. Intermittent theta burst stimulation, a form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, was used to test long-term potentiation-like cortical plasticity. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 and idiopathic PD were tested both in ON and in OFF l-dopa therapy. When compared with idiopathic PD and healthy subjects, leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 PD patients showed a remarkable reduction of short intracortical inhibition in both ON and in OFF l-dopa therapy. This reduction was paralleled by an increase of intracortical facilitation in OFF l-dopa therapy. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 PD showed abnormal long-term potentiation-like cortical plasticity in ON l-dopa therapy. The motor cortex in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutated PD patients is strongly disinhibited and hyperexcitable. These abnormalities could be a result of an impairment of inhibitory (gamma-Aminobutyric acid) transmission eventually related to altered neurotransmitter release. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. TALEN-Induced Double-Strand Break Repair of CTG Trinucleotide Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Mosbach

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Trinucleotide repeat expansions involving CTG/CAG triplets are responsible for several neurodegenerative disorders, including myotonic dystrophy and Huntington’s disease. Because expansions trigger the disease, contracting repeat length could be a possible approach to gene therapy for these disorders. Here, we show that a TALEN-induced double-strand break was very efficient at contracting expanded CTG repeats in yeast. We show that RAD51, POL32, and DNL4 are dispensable for double-strand break repair within CTG repeats, the only required genes being RAD50, SAE2, and RAD52. Resection was totally abolished in the absence of RAD50 on both sides of the break, whereas it was reduced in a sae2Δ mutant on the side of the break containing the longest repeat tract, suggesting that secondary structures at double-strand break ends must be removed by the Mre11-Rad50 complex and Sae2. Following the TALEN double-strand break, single-strand annealing occurred between both sides of the repeat tract, leading to repeat contraction.

  14. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  15. Improve T Cell Therapy in Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Savoldo B, Vigouroux S et al. T lymphocytes redirected against the kappa light chain of human immunoglobulin efficiently kill mature B lymphocyte...Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(suppl 2):14622–14626. 8. Eghtesad S, Morel PA, Clemens PR. The companions : regulatory T cells and gene therapy...were euthanized and examined for NKT cell localiza- tion to the tumor tissues. Animals treated with anti-CCL2 or anti- CCL20 mAb had lower frequency

  16. Limited diagnostic capacities of two commercial assays for the detection of Leptospira immunoglobulin M antibodies in Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacksell, Stuart D.; Smythe, Lee; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Dohnt, Michael; Hartskeerl, Rudy; SymondS, Meegan; Slack, Andrew; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Davong, Viengmone; Lattana, Olay; Phongmany, Simmaly; Keolouangkot, Valy; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Newton, Paul N.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnostic utility of immunochromatographic (Leptotek) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Panbio) tests for the detection of Leptospira immunoglobulin M antibodies was assessed in febrile adults admitted in Vientiane, Laos. Both tests demonstrated poor diagnostic accuracy using

  17. Detection and purification of rat and goat immunoglobulin G antibodies using protein G-based solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, B.; Aakerstroem, B.; Bjoerck, L.

    1986-01-01

    Using the newly described streptococcal surface protein, protein G, which has powerful immunoglobulin G binding properties, solid-phase radioimmunoassays were developed for the quantitation of goat and rat immunoglobulin G bound to the plastic surface of microtiter plates. The binding of goat immunoglobulin G to the surface via a specific antigen (guinea pig alpha 1 -microglobulin) permitted the determination of antigen-specific antibodies with a detection limit of 50-100 ng. Optimum assay conditions were established and the whole assay procedure could be brought to completion at room temperature in less than a working day. The value of the assays was illustrated by monitoring rat and goat immunoglobulin G antibodies during their purification from whole sera by classical chromatographic procedures. (Auth.)

  18. Fc-receptors and surface immunoglobulins in cells of the hairy cell leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieber, E P; Linke, R P; Riethmueller, G [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Experimentelle Chirurgie und Immunologie; Heyden, H.W. von; Waller, H D [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Innere Medizin 2

    1976-01-01

    Using /sup 125/I-labelled aggregated IgG in a quantitative assay a strong expression of Fc-receptors was found on the leukemic cells of a patient with hairy cell leukemia. The Fc-receptor activity on these cells was much higher than that on monocytes and B-lymphocytes from normal blood. Surface immunoglobulins were detected by radioautography using radioactively labelled (Fab')/sub 2/-fragments of monospecific antibodies directed against immunoglobulin heavy chains. Prior to radioautography the cells were stained for the tartrate resistant acid phosphatase. It is found that all cells containing this enzyme bore delta-chains on their surface. On more than 90% of these cells a simultaneous expression of ..mu..-chains was detected. ..gamma..-chains could only be demonstrated on cells which were negative for the tartrate resistant acid phosphatase; part of these cells, however, were hairy cells by morphological criteria.

  19. Grasping the nettle: A bacterial invasin that targets immunoglobulin variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul

    2018-06-01

    In a new paper, the protein InvD from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis , a zoonotic pathogen, is shown to assist late-stage invasion of intestinal epithelia. Remarkably, InvD acts by binding the Fab region of IgG or IgA. It straddles adjacent light-chain and heavy-chain variable domains, but its binding is different from that of antigens in that complementarity-determining regions do not participate. Structure determination revealed that its Fab-interacting domain adopts an immunoglobulin-like fold, fused to the preceding immunoglobulin-like domain and carried on a long stalk anchored to the bacterial outer membrane. Possible roles of this unusual host-pathogen interaction include avoidance of clearance from the intestine by secretory IgA. © 2018 Barlow.

  20. Overview of the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with intravenous immunoglobulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahdi-Rogers

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Mahdi-Rogers, Yusuf A RajaballyNeuromuscular Clinic, Department of Neurology, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, UKAbstract: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP is an acquired heterogeneous disorder of immune origin affecting the peripheral nerves, causing motor weakness and sensory symptoms and signs. The precise pathophysiology of CIDP remains uncertain although B and T cell mechanisms are believed to be implicated. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg have been shown in a number of trials to be an effective treatment for CIDP. IVIg is thought to exert its immunomodulatory effects by affecting several components of the immune system including B-cells, T-cells, macrophages and complement. This article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of CIDP and of its treatment with IVIg.Keywords: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, intravenous immunoglobulin, pathogenesis, treatment

  1. Fc-receptors and surface immunoglobulins in cells of the hairy cell leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieber, E.P.; Linke, R.P.; Riethmueller, G.; Heyden, H.W. von; Waller, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    Using 125 I-labelled aggregated IgG in a quantitative assay a strong expression of Fc-receptors was found on the leukemic cells of a patient with hairy cell leukemia. The Fc-receptor activity on these cells was much higher than that on monocytes and B-lymphocytes from normal blood. Surface immunoglobulins were detected by radioautography using radioactively labelled (Fab') 2 -fragments of monospecific antibodies directed against immunoglobulin heavy chains. Prior to radioautography the cells were stained for the tartrate resistant acid phosphatase. It is found that all cells containing this enzyme bore delta-chains on their surface. On more than 90% of these cells a simultaneous expression of μ-chains was detected. γ-chains could only be demonstrated on cells which were negative for the tartrate resistant acid phosphatase; part of these cells, however, were hairy cells by morphological criteria. (orig.) [de

  2. Injecting rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) into wounds only: A significant saving of lives and costly RIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Omesh Kumar; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Wilde, Henry

    2017-04-03

    An increasing number of dog bite victims were being presented to public hospitals in Himachal Pradesh in 2014 amidst virtual non availability of any rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). Only a small quantity of equine rabies immunoglobulin (eRIG) was available from the government owned Central Research Institute (CRI) Kasauli. This available eRIG was used in 269 patients as an emergency response and only for local infiltration of severe bite wounds by suspected rabid dogs. This was followed by rabies vaccination, using the WHO approved intra-dermal Thai Red Cross Society vaccination schedule. A subgroup of 26 patients were later identified who had been severely bitten by laboratory confirmed rabid dogs. They were followed for more than one year and all were found to be alive.

  3. Further studies of immunoglobulin synthesis by guinea-pig leukaemic lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, D W; Chapple, J C; Stevenson, F K; Stevenson, G T [Southampton General Hospital (UK)

    1978-05-01

    The L/sub 2/C leukemia is a B-lymphocytic neoplasm of strain 2 guinea pigs maintained by passaging in vivo. It synthesizes ..mu.. and lambda immunoglobulin chains. These combine to form monomeric (7S) IgM molecules which are inserted into the plasma membrane. From here they are shed as monomeric IgM and as a species of higher molecular weight which has not been further defined. The synthesis of lambda chain is in excess of that required for the IgM molecule, the surplus being exported directly from the cell without any intervening phase in the plasma membrane. Quantitative estimates of synthetic rates and pool sizes for these immunoglobulin species are presented.

  4. Induction of Regulatory T Cells by Intravenous Immunoglobulin: A Bridge between Adaptive and Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Gabriel N; Massoud, Amir H; Dembele, Marieme; Yona, Madelaine; Piccirillo, Ciriaco A; Mazer, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is a polyclonal immunoglobulin G preparation with potent immunomodulatory properties. The mode of action of IVIg has been investigated in multiple disease states, with various mechanisms described to account for its benefits. Recent data indicate that IVIg increases both the number and the suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells, a subpopulation of T cells that are essential for immune homeostasis. IVIg alters dendritic cell function, cytokine and chemokine networks, and T lymphocytes, leading to development of regulatory T cells. The ability of IVIg to influence Treg induction has been shown both in animal models and in human diseases. In this review, we discuss data on the potential mechanisms contributing to the interaction between IVIg and the regulatory T-cell compartment.

  5. Detection of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surinder Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae causes up to 40% of community-acquired pneumonia in children. It is impossible to identify M. pneumoniae infection on the basis of clinical signs, symptoms, and radiological features. Therefore, correct etiological diagnosis strongly depends on laboratory diagnosis. Aims: This study aims to investigate the role of M. pneumonia e in pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA and particle agglutination (PA test. Settings and Design: Two hundred and eighty children, age 6 months to 12 years with community-acquired LRTIs were investigated for M. pneumoniae etiology. Materials and Methods: We investigated 280 children hospitalized for community-acquired LRTIs, using ELISA and PA test for detecting M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M (IgM and immunoglobulin G antibodies. Statistical Analysis Used: The difference of proportion between the qualitative variables was tested using the Chi-square test and Fischer exact test. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Kappa value was used to assess agreement between ELISA and PA test. Results: M. pneumoniae was positive in 51 (23.2% 5 years of age.

  6. Role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kraus, B.; Briegel, H.-J.; Duer, W.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory and (ii) introducing two operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e., without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an order of magnitude with reasonable overhead in physical resources. We outline the architecture of a quantum repeater that can possibly ensure intercontinental quantum communication

  7. Mutation Pattern of Paired Immunoglobulin Heavy and Light Variable Domains in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiotto, Fabio; Marcatili, Paolo; Tenca, Claudya; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Albesiano, Emilia; Bagnara, Davide; Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Chu, Charles C; Morabito, Fortunato; Bruno, Silvia; Ferrarini, Manlio; Tramontano, Anna; Fais, Franco; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV–diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation analysis. Replacement (R) mutation frequency within IGK/LV chain CDRs correlated significantly with mutation frequency of paired IGHV CDRs in λ but not κ isotype CLL clones. CDRs of IGKV-J rearrangements displayed a lower percentage of R mutations than IGHVs. The frequency/pattern of mutations in kappa CLL Igs differed also from that in κ-expressing normal B cells described in the literature. Instead, the mutation frequency within the FRs of IGHV and either IGKV or IGLV was correlated. Notably, the amount of diversity introduced by replaced amino acids was comparable between IGHVs and IGKVs. The data indicate a different mutation pattern between κ and λ isotype CLL clones and suggest an antigenic selection that, in κ samples, operates against CDR variation. PMID:21785810

  8. Mutation Pattern of Paired Immunoglobulin Heavy and Light Variable Domains in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ghiotto, Fabio; Marcatili, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients display leukemic clones bearing either germline or somatically mutated immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV ) genes. Most information on CLL immunoglobulins (Igs), such as the definition of stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCRs), was derived from germline unmutated Igs. In particular, detailed studies on the distribution and nature of mutations in paired heavy- and light-chain domains of CLL clones bearing mutated Igs are lacking. To address the somatic hyper-mutation dynamics of CLL Igs, we analyzed the mutation pattern of paired IGHV-diversity-joining (IGHV-D-J ) and immunoglobulin kappa/lambda variable-joining (IGK/LV-J ) rearrangements of 193 leukemic clones that displayed ≥ 2% mutations in at least one of the two immunoglobulin variable (IGV ) genes (IGHV and/or IGK/LV ). The relationship between the mutation frequency in IGHV and IGK/LV complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and framework regions (FRs) was evaluated by correlation analysis. Replacement (R) mutation frequency within IGK/LV chain CDRs correlated significantly with mutation frequency of paired IGHV CDRs in λ but not κ isotype CLL clones. CDRs of IGKV-J rearrangements displayed a lower percentage of R mutations than IGHVs. The frequency/pattern of mutations in kappa CLL Igs differed also from that in κ-expressing normal B cells described in the literature. Instead, the mutation frequency within the FRs of IGHV and either IGKV or IGLV was correlated. Notably, the amount of diversity introduced by replaced amino acids was comparable between IGHVs and IGKVs. The data indicate a different mutation pattern between κ and λ isotype CLL clones and suggest an antigenic selection that, in κ samples, operates against CDR variation.

  9. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against F(ab')2 fragment of human immunoglobulin G

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiri, Hadi; Valedkarimi, Zahra; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Kazemi, Tohid; Esparvarinha, Mojghan; Majidi, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies are essential tools of biomedical and biochemical researches. Polyclonal antibodies are produced against different epitopes of antigens. Purified F(ab')2 can be used for animal’s immunization to produce polyclonal antibodies. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified by ion exchange chromatography method. In all stages verification method of the purified antibodies was sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Purified IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme a...

  10. Improved detection of a staphylococcal infection by monomeric and protein A-purified polyclonal human immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calame, W.

    1993-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the technetium-99m labelled non-specific polyclonal human immunoglobulin (Ig) with 99m Tc-labelled monomeric human immunoglobulin (m-Ig), 99m Tc-labelled, protein A-purified, human immunoglobulin (A-IG) and 99m Tc-labelled monomeric, protein A-purified, human immunoglobulin (mA-Ig) as tracer agents for the detection of a thigh infection with Staphylococcus aureus. In vitro the binding of the various tracer agents to bacteria at various intervals was determined. For the in vivo evaluation, mice were infected and received one of the various labelled proteins. Scintigrams were made 0.25, 1, 4 and 24 h later. All 99m Tc-labelled Igs bound to bacteria in vitro: The percentages of binding for the m-Ig (from 1 h onwards) and A-Ig and mA-Ig (from 3 h onwards) were significantly higher than that for Ig. The in vivo target-to-non-target (T/NT) ratios were significantly higher from 4 h onwards for all purified Igs than for Ig. Protein A-purified Ig yielded higher T/NT ratios than m-Ig. Furthermore, the amount of activity in the liver was significantly lower 24 h after administration of m-Ig, A-Ig and mA-Ig than after administration of Ig. It is concluded that in this experimental infection 99m Tc-labelled monomeric Ig localizes a staphylococcal thigh infection better and faster than 99m Tc-labelled unpurified Ig. However, the accumulation obtained with protein A-purified Ig or protein A-purified monomeric Ig was the highest of all tracer agents tested. (orig.)

  11. [Comparative study of immunoglobulins and specific antibodies in the sera of chronic brucellosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichieva, B N; Chernysheva, M I; Zheludkov, M M; Musaeva, N B

    1982-04-01

    The data on the IgA, IgM and IgG levels in the sera of 89 patients with chronic brucellosis lasting for 1-10 years and longer are presented. The chronic form of brucellosis is characterized by the normal or low level of immunoglobulins. No correlation between the levels of IgG, IgM and the titer of specific antibodies has been established.

  12. Saccharomyces boulardii Stimulates Intestinal Immunoglobulin A Immune Response to Clostridium difficile Toxin A in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Amir; Aboudola, Samer; Warny, Michel; Michetti, Pierre; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; LaMont, J. Thomas; Kelly, Ciarán P.

    2001-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a nonpathogenic yeast that protects against antibiotic-associated diarrhea and recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. The administration of C. difficile toxoid A by gavage to S. boulardii-fed BALB/c mice caused a 1.8-fold increase in total small intestinal immunoglobulin A levels (P = 0.003) and a 4.4-fold increase in specific intestinal anti-toxin A levels (P boulardii-mediated protection against diarrheal illnesses. PMID:11254650

  13. Seronegative Celiac Disease and Immunoglobulin Deficiency: Where to Look in the Submerged Iceberg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present narrative review, we analyzed the relationship between seronegative celiac disease (SNCD and immunoglobulin deficiencies. For this purpose, we conducted a literature search on the main medical databases. SNCD poses a diagnostic dilemma. Villous blunting, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs count and gluten “challenge” are the most reliable markers. Immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence tissue transglutaminase (tTG-targeted mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA immune complexes in the intestinal mucosa of SNCD patients may be useful. In our experience, tTG-mRNA was similarly increased in seropositive celiac disease (CD and suspected SNCD, and strongly correlated with the IELs count. This increase is found even in the IELs’ range of 15–25/100 enterocytes, suggesting that there may be a “grey zone” of gluten-related disorders. An immune deregulation (severely lacking B-cell differentiation underlies the association of SNCD with immunoglobulin deficiencies. Therefore, CD may be linked to autoimmune disorders and immune deficits (common variable immunodeficiency (CVID/IgA selective deficiency. CVID is a heterogeneous group of antibodies dysfunction, whose association with CD is demonstrated only by the response to a gluten-free diet (GFD. We hypothesized a familial inheritance between CD and CVID. Selective IgA deficiency, commonly associated with CD, accounts for IgA-tTG seronegativity. Selective IgM deficiency (sIgMD is rare (<300 cases and associated to CD in 5% of cases. We diagnosed SNCD in a patient affected by sIgMD using the tTG-mRNA assay. One-year GFD induced IgM restoration. This evidence, supporting a link between SNCD and immunoglobulin deficiencies, suggests that we should take a closer look at this association.

  14. Utilization of newly developed immobilized enzyme reactors for preparation and study of immunoglobulin G fragments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korecká, L.; Bílková, Z.; Holčapek, M.; Královský, J.; Beneš, Milan J.; Lenfeld, Jiří; Minc, N.; Cecal, R.; Viovy, J.-L.; Przybylski, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 808, č. 1 (2004), s. 15-24 ISSN 1570-0232. [International Symposium on Polymer Design for BioSeparation and Nanobiotechnology /8./. Compiegne, 27.11.2003-29.11.2003] Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0023 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : immobilized enzyme reactors * immunoglobulin G Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.176, year: 2004

  15. Grave′s disease associated with immunoglobulin A nephropathy: A rare association

    OpenAIRE

    I Khan; R A Bhat; I Khan; I Hameed

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A (Ig A) nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis. The association of Ig A nephropathy with Grave's disease has not been reported so far. We report a case of 20-year-old female with Grave's disease who presented with edema, facial puffiness, and decreased urine output. She was found to be hypertensive with renal failure and nephrotic range proteinuria. Renal biopsy revealed features of Ig A nephropathy. The patient was treated with oral corticosteroids ...

  16. A case of coombs-positive severe late anemia without hyperbilirubinemia, refractory to blood transfusion, improved with immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Kushwah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhesus hemolytic disease of newborn is a well-known disease with early and late complications mainly manifesting as severe hyperbilirubinemia requiring prompt treatment such as exchange transfusion and immunoglobulins. We report a case of Coombs-positive severe late anemia without hyperbilirubinemia which presented with features such as sepsis and failure to gain weight. Baby was refractory to blood transfusion initially, but later on successfully improved with immunoglobulins.

  17. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND IMMUNE-BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ROYAL BENGAL TIGER ( PANTHERA TIGRIS TIGRIS SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekantika Mandal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Immunoglobulin G was purified from serum of Royal Bengal Tiger by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the molecular weight of purified tiger IgG was 170.52 kDa. The purified Immunoglobulin has been found to be immunereactive by DID test and Western Blot analysis when treated against hyperimmune sera which was raised in rabbit.

  18. A Killer Immunoglobulin - Like Receptor Gene - Content Haplotype and A Cognate Human Leukocyte Antigen Ligand are Associated with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Anthony; Westover, Jonna; Benson, Michael; Johnson, Randall; Dykes, Annelise

    2016-01-01

    The killing activity of natural killer cells is largely regulated by the binding of class I human leukocyte antigen cognate ligands to killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor proteins. The killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor gene - complex contains genes that activate and others that inhibit the killing state of natural killer cells depending on the binding of specific human leukocyte antigen cognate ligands. It has been suggested in previous publications that activating human leuko...

  19. Importance of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Santana Alessio Franceschi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for many hematologic diseases, such as multiple myeloma, bone marrow aplasia and leukemia. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA compatibility is an important tool to prevent post-transplant complications such as graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease, but the high rates of relapse limit the survival of transplant patients. Natural Killer cells, a type of lymphocyte that is a key element in the defense against tumor cells, cells infected with viruses and intracellular microbes, have different receptors on their surfaces that regulate their cytotoxicity. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors are the most important, interacting consistently with human leukocyte antigen class I molecules present in other cells and thus controlling the activation of natural killer cells. Several studies have shown that certain combinations of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens (in both donors and recipients can affect the chances of survival of transplant patients, particularly in relation to the graft-versusleukemia effect, which may be associated to decreased relapse rates in certain groups. This review aims to shed light on the mechanisms and effects of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors - human leukocyte antigen associations and their implications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and to critically analyze the results obtained by the studies presented herein.

  20. Characterisation of up-regulated immunoglobulins in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, S.A.; Hashemi, S.A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the role of immunoglobulins in patients of chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods: Patients were recruited from the Ear, Nose, Throat, Head And Neck Surgery section of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, from December 2011 to August 2012. Immunoglobulin G, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 were evaluated. Salivary IgA was assessed by direct immunoenzymatic determination. The quantifications of serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and salivary IgA was performed through nephelometric procedure. Serum IgE was measured by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 50 patients, 22 (44%) were males and 28(56%) were females. The overall age ranged from 1 to 67 years with a mean of 28.06+-15.49. There was significant changes in levels of IgG, IgG1, salivary IgA and IgE (p=0.001). Significant difference was noted for IgG2 (p=0.03) and in IgG4 (p=0.01). There was no significant alteration in IgG3 level (p=0.3). Conclusion: There was high prevalence of humoral immune alterations both in local and systemic response to chronic inflammation in the patients, which suggests that assessment of immunoglobulin before clinical evaluation and management could be important. (author)

  1. Serum immunoglobulin from Nellore cattle produced by in vitro fertilization and treated for umbilical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Antonio Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to measure serum immunoglobulin concentrations of Nellore cattle produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF with umbilical diseases and to evaluate surgical excision as a method of treatment. Sixteen cattle with ages ranging from 1 to 15 months, males and females, affected by umbilical diseases were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected for cell counts and the determination of immunoglobulin concentrations by electrophoresis and zinc sulphate turbidimetry (ZST. Four calves were presented with umbilical herniation, two with an umbilical herniation associated with a persistent urachus, two with an umbilical herniation with a persistent urachus and omphaloarteritis, three with an umbilical herniation and an urachal diverticulum, three with a persistent urachus, one with an urachal diverticulum, and one with omphalitis. The blood cell counts pre- and post-surgical revealed differences in cell volume and the number of leukocytes. The immunoglobulin values measured by electrophoresis values were below normal in most animals, whereas the ZST showed normal levels in most of them. Most of the calves affected by umbilical diseases and produced by IVF presented hypoglobulinaemia. Correlations between umbilical diseases, failure of passive transfer of immunity and IVF could not be demonstrated.

  2. Generation and Characterization of Polyclonal Antibody Against Part of Immunoglobulin Constant Heavy υ Chain of Goose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Yongli; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (abbreviated as IgY) is a type of immunoglobulin that is the major antibody in bird, reptile, and lungfish blood. IgY consists of two light (λ) and two heavy (υ) chains. In the present study, polyclonal antibody against IgYFc was generated and evaluated. rIgYCυ3/Cυ4 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and utilized to raise polyclonal antibody in rabbit. High affinity antisera were obtained, which successfully detected the antigen at a dilution of 1:204,800 for ELISA assay. The antibody can specifically recognize both rIgYCυ3/Cυ4 and native IgY by Western bolt analysis. Furthermore, the serum of Grus japonensis or immunoglobulin of chicken, duck, turkey, and silkie samples and dynamic changes of serum GoIgY after immunogenicity with GPV-VP3-virus-like particles (GPV-VP3-VLPs) can be detected with the anti-GoIgYFc polyclonal antibody. These results suggested that the antibody is valuable for the investigation of biochemical properties and biological functions of GoIgY. PMID:25171010

  3. Production of immunoglobulins in gingival tissue explant cultures from juvenile periodontitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.R.; Falkler, W.A. Jr.; Suzuki, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    B lymphocytes and plasma cells are histologically observed in granulomatous periodontal tissues of juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients. Local immune processes may participate in protective or immunopathologic roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. An in vitro explant culture system was utilized to demonstrate the production of immunoglobulins by diseased JP tissues. Immunodiffusion studies using goat anti-human gamma, alpha, or mu chain serum revealed IgG to be the major immunoglobulin present in 92% of the day 1 supernatant fluids (SF) of the 47 JP gingival tissue explant cultures. IgA was present in 15% of the SF; however, no IgM was detected. Staph Protein A isolated 14C-labeled IgG from the SF, when allowed to react with goat anti-human gamma chain serum, formed lines of precipitation. Positive autoradiographs confirmed the biosynthesis of IgG by the explant cultures. The in vitro gingival tissue explant culture system described provides a useful model for the study of localized immunoglobulins produced by diseased tissues of JP patients

  4. Constant region of a kappa III immunoglobulin light chain as a major AL-amyloid protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvig, J P; Olsen, K E; Gislefoss, R E

    1998-01-01

    AL-amyloidoses are generally described as a group of disorders in which N-terminal fragments of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains are transferred into amyloid fibrils. We have, by amino acid sequence analyses and immunological methods, characterized the Bence-Jones protein and the correspond......AL-amyloidoses are generally described as a group of disorders in which N-terminal fragments of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains are transferred into amyloid fibrils. We have, by amino acid sequence analyses and immunological methods, characterized the Bence-Jones protein...... and the corresponding AL protein as a kappa III immunoglobulin light chain from material of a patient with systemic AL-amyloidosis presenting as a local inguinal tumour. The two proteins showed some unique features. The major part of the AL amyloid fibril protein consisted of C-terminal fragments of the Bence......-Jones protein. Furthermore, both the Bence-Jones protein and the AL protein were glycosylated, with possibly a glycosylation in the constant part of the light chain....

  5. Serum immunoglobulin levels in humans exposed to therapeutic total-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaskes, S.; Kingdon, G.C.; Balish, E.

    1975-01-01

    Reduced serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) levels developed in the majority of 27 patients with hematologic disorders after treatment with 100 to 350 R total-body gamma-ray exposures at a dose rate of either 1.5 R/min to 1.5 R/hr. A reduction in IgA of 20 percent or more was found in 66 percent of the cases, while 56 percent showed an IgM decrease, and 49 percent an IgG decrease of 20 percent. The severity of immunoglobulin depression was influenced by the total radiation dose and the patient's primary disease. The occurrence of IgG and IgM depression was greater when the radiation was given at 1.5 R/hr than when the dose rate was 1.5 R/min. Substantial but incomplete recovery toward preirradiation immunoglobulin levels was found for most patients by 7 wk after total-body irradiation (TBI). (U.S.)

  6. Influence of column type and chromatographic conditions on the ion-exchange chromatography of immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y B; Harrison, K

    1996-08-30

    Immunoglobulins are often purified by affinity chromatography. However, this technique is costly, can result in poor resolution for subclasses (or is only group specific), and leads to possible leaching of contaminants into the purified products. Ion-exchange chromatography has shown great potential and has found an increased usage in the purification of immunoglobulins. The aim of this study is to further understand the separation mechanism with emphasis on the influence of column type and chromatographic conditions on the peak shape, selectivity and changes in the elution patterns. Included are strong cation-exchange, strong anion-exchange and weak anion-exchange columns. Five immunoglobulin G antibodies were used as test probes. Some sera and ascites were also used in the study. Among the chromatographic conditions examined were mobile phase pH, buffer type, buffer concentration, gradient rate, and column temperature. Significant differences in the chromatographic behavior (elution pattern, peak shape and selectivity) of the test samples are discussed in regard to the column type and the chromatographic conditions.

  7. Limited number of immunoglobulin VH regions expressed in the mutant rabbit "Alicia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, L A; Short, J A; Zhai, S K; Kelus, A S; Meier, D; Knight, K L

    1990-06-01

    A unique feature of rabbit Ig is the presence of VH region allotypic specificities. In normal rabbits, more than 80% of circulating immunoglobulin molecules bear the VHa allotypic specificities, al, a2 or a3; the remaining 10% to 20% of immunoglobulin molecules lack VHa allotypic specificities and are designated VHa-. A mutant rabbit designated Alicia, in contrast, has predominantly serum immunoglobulin molecules that lack the VHa allotypic specificities (Kelus and Weiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1986. 83: 4883). To study the nature and molecular complexity of VHa- molecules, we cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of seven cDNA prepared from splenic RNA of an Alicia rabbit. Six of the clones appeared to encode VHa- molecules; the framework regions encoded by these clones were remarkably similar to each other, each having an unusual insertion of four amino acids at position 10. This insertion of four amino acids has been seen in only 2 of 54 sequenced rabbit VH genes. The similarity of the sequences of the six VHa- clones to each other and their dissimilarity to most other VH genes leads us to suggest that the VHa- molecules in Alicia rabbits are derived predominantly from one or a small number of very similar VH genes. Such preferential utilization of a small number of VH genes may explain the allelic inheritance of VH allotypes.

  8. The pH of chemistry assays plays an important role in monoclonal immunoglobulin interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Michael O; Drake, Thomas A; Song, Lu

    2015-12-01

    Immunoglobulin paraproteins can interfere with multiple chemistry assays. We want to investigate the mechanisms of immunoglobulin interference. Serum samples containing paraproteins from the index patient and eight additional patients were used to investigate the interference with the creatinine and total protein assays on the Beckman Coulter AU5400/2700 analyzer, and to determine the effects of pH and ionic strength on the precipitation of different immunoglobulins in these patient samples. The paraprotein interference with the creatinine and total protein assays was caused by the precipitation of IgM paraprotein in the index patient's samples under alkaline assay conditions. At extremely high pH (12-13) and extremely low pH (1-2) and low ionic strength, paraprotein formed large aggregates in samples from the index patient but not from other patients. The pH and ionic strength are the key factors that contribute to protein aggregation and precipitation which interfere with the creatinine and total protein measurements on AU5400/2700. The different amino acid sequence of each monoclonal paraprotein will determine the pH and ionic strength at which the paraprotein will precipitate.

  9. Production of immunoglobulins in gingival tissue explant cultures from juvenile periodontitis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.R.; Falkler, W.A. Jr.; Suzuki, J.B. (Univ. of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-10-01

    B lymphocytes and plasma cells are histologically observed in granulomatous periodontal tissues of juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients. Local immune processes may participate in protective or immunopathologic roles in the pathogenesis of this disease. An in vitro explant culture system was utilized to demonstrate the production of immunoglobulins by diseased JP tissues. Immunodiffusion studies using goat anti-human gamma, alpha, or mu chain serum revealed IgG to be the major immunoglobulin present in 92% of the day 1 supernatant fluids (SF) of the 47 JP gingival tissue explant cultures. IgA was present in 15% of the SF; however, no IgM was detected. Staph Protein A isolated 14C-labeled IgG from the SF, when allowed to react with goat anti-human gamma chain serum, formed lines of precipitation. Positive autoradiographs confirmed the biosynthesis of IgG by the explant cultures. The in vitro gingival tissue explant culture system described provides a useful model for the study of localized immunoglobulins produced by diseased tissues of JP patients.

  10. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver’s cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51–71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction

  11. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubuchon, Adam C.; Chan, Michael D.; Lovato, James F.; Balamucki, Christopher J.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80–90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60–90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  12. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  13. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  14. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi; Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

  15. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author).

  16. Physiological level production of antigen-specific human immunoglobulin in cloned transchromosomic cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Sano

    Full Text Available Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (hIGH and kappa-chain (hIGK germline loci (named as κHAC are capable of producing functional hpAbs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, are homozygously inactivated (double knockouts or DKO. However, B lymphocyte development in these Tc cattle is compromised, and the overall production of hpAbs is low. Here, we report the construction of an improved HAC, designated as cKSL-HACΔ, by incorporating all of the human immunoglobulin germline loci into the HAC. Furthermore, for avoiding the possible human-bovine interspecies incompatibility between the human immunoglobulin mu chain protein (hIgM and bovine transmembrane α and β immunoglobulins (bIgα and bIgβ in the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR complex, we partially replaced (bovinized the hIgM constant domain with the counterpart of bovine IgM (bIgM that is involved in the interaction between bIgM and bIgα/Igβ; human IgM bovinization would also improve the functionality of hIgM in supporting B cell activation and proliferation. We also report the successful production of DKO Tc cattle carrying the cKSL-HACΔ (cKSL-HACΔ/DKO, the dramatic improvement of B cell development in these cattle and the high level production of hpAbs (as measured for the human IgG isotype in the plasma. We further demonstrate that, upon immunization by tumor immunogens, high titer tumor immunogen-specific human IgG (hIgG can be produced from such Tc cattle.

  17. HETEROGENEITY OF POLYCLONAL IMMUNOGLOBULINS NUCLEASE ACTIVITY IN RHEUMATOID AND REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Volkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic properties of immunoglobulins are widely studied within recent years. It was found that nuclease activity of immunoglobulins is increased in systemic autoimmune diseases. Given some pathogenetic features of rheumatoid arthritis and reactive arthritis, it is appropriate to clarify the nature of nuclease activity in these diseases. Determination of DNAse activity of immunoglobulins with different DNA substrates, and search for specific substrates for distinct clinical entities could serve these purposes. The aim of present work is to determine DNase activity of the polyclonal class G immunoglobulins in rheumatoid and reactive arthritis using various methods.Different methods are used to evaluate nuclease activity. In this paper we present newly developed and modified techniques for determination of DNAse activity of polyclonal IgGs. Particular attention was paid to the electrophoretic method of DNase activity assessment. Polyclonal IgG isolated from blood serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and reactive arthritis were used for assays. In this study, we demonstrated the presence of an inhomogeneous DNase activity of immunoglobulins in relation to different substrates.Along with calf thymus DNA, we used bacterial plasmid DNA and PCR products based on bacterial gene sequences. Levels of DNase activity by rivanol clot method with calf thymus DNA as substrate proved to be higher in patients with rheumatoid arthritis than the control values (p < 0.01. DNase abzyme activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was elevated, as compared to the patients with reactive arthritis (p < 0.01.When examining ability of the IgG to hydrolyze procaryotic DNA (bacterial plasmid DNA and PCR products, based on bacterial genes, we obtained heterogeneous results. Different Ig samples showed varying degrees of DNA hydrolysis. Abzyme hydrolysis of DNA substrates longer than 700 bp was more pronounced, as compared to short DNA substrates (100 base pairs

  18. Ectopic lymphoid tissues support local immunoglobulin production in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Ya-Na; Cao, Ping-Ping; Liao, Bo; Wang, Zhe-Zheng; Shi, Li-Li; Yao, Yin; Zhai, Guan-Ting; Wang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Li-Meng; Zeng, Ming; Lu, Xiang; Wang, Heng; Yang, Xiang-Ping; Yu, Di; Bachert, Claus; Liu, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    The contribution of ectopic lymphoid tissues (eLTs) to local immunoglobulin hyperproduction in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is unclear. We sought to explore the cellular basis, formation mechanisms, and function of eLTs in patients with CRSwNP. We graded lymphoid aggregations in sinonasal mucosa and histologically studied their structures. The expression of lymphorganogenic factors and molecules required for immunoglobulin production was measured by using real-time PCR, and their localization was analyzed by means of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The phenotype of follicular helper T cells was analyzed by performing flow cytometry. Immunoglobulin levels were quantified by using the Bio-Plex assay or ImmunoCAP system. Nasal tissue explants were challenged ex vivo with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 1 (Der p 1), and the expression of Iε-Cμ and Iε-Cγ circle transcripts was detected by using seminested PCR. Increased formation of eLTs with germinal center-like structures was discovered in patients with eosinophilic (20.69%) and noneosinophilic (17.31%) CRSwNP compared with that in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (5.66%) and control subjects (3.70%). The presence of eLTs was associated with increased expression of lymphorganogenic and inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, as well as their receptors. The expression of molecules required for immunoglobulin production, generation of follicular helper T cells, and production of IgE in eosinophilic polyps and IgG and IgA in both eosinophilic and noneosinophilic polyps were predominantly upregulated in patients with eLTs. After Der p 1 challenge ex vivo, Iε-Cμ transcript was detected only in eosinophilic polyps with eLTs but not in polyps without eLTs and noneosinophilic polyps. eLTs might support local immunoglobulin production and therefore significantly contribute to the development of CRSwNP. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of

  19. Prenatal and newborn immunoglobulin levels from mother-child pairs and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Croen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. An etiological role for immune factors operating during early brain development in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD has not yet been established. A major obstacle has been the lack of early biologic specimens that can be linked to later diagnosis. In a prior study, we found lower risk of ASD associated with higher levels of maternally-derived total IgG and Toxoplasmosis gondii (Toxo IgG in newborn blood spot specimens from children later diagnosed with ASD compared to population controls.Methods. We obtained maternal mid-gestational serum specimens and newborn screening blood spots from the California Genetics Disease Screening Program (GDSP for linked mother-baby pairs for 84 children with ASD and 49 children with developmental delay but not ASD (DD identified from California Department of Developmental Services records and for 159 population controls sampled from birth certificates. Immunoglobulin levels in maternal and newborn specimens were measured by solid phase immunoassays and analyzed in logistic regression models for total IgG, total IgM, and Toxo IgG, and, for maternal specimens only, Toxo IgM. Correlations between maternal and newborn ranked values were evaluated.Results. In both maternal and newborn specimens, we found significantly lower risk of ASD associated with higher levels of Toxo IgG. In addition, point estimates for all comparisons were <1.0 suggesting an overall pattern of lower immunoglobulin levels associated with higher ASD risk but most did not reach statistical significance. We did not find differences in maternal or newborn specimens comparing children with DD to controls. Discussion. These results are consistent with evidence from our prior study and other published reports indicating that immune factors during early neurodevelopment may be etiologically relevant to ASD. Lowered immunoglobulin levels may represent suboptimal function of the maternal immune system or reduced maternal exposure

  20. Evaluation of transcatheter therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Toshihiko

    1990-01-01

    The author proposed improvement of the criteria for the effects of transcatheter therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. 104 patients were treated by transcatheter therapy. Their responses were determined by the usual criteria. Next, they were classified and evaluated in 3 groups, with the area of lipiodol deposition on CT for over 4 weeks regarded as nacrosis. The result was determined, and its relationship to prognosis was studied in light of the repeated therapy. By the usual criteria, only 10% of patients were judged as PR, and there were no differences between therapies. Many of the NC cases had low AFP levels with therapy. At the initial therapy, the ratio of cases with low AFP levels was higher and the survival time was longer in the A group. So the A group was judged as most effective. Clinically, 10 patients were considered most benefitted by therapy. They were considered the A group, but all were judged as NC. Considering the effects of repeated therapy, 10 patients with NC were judged as the A-max group. Prognosis was poor in patients of the B-max and C-max groups. These results indicate that judgement by the usual criteria was inconsistent with clinical condition. It was improved by regarding the area of lipiodol deposition on CT for over 4 weeks as necrosis. Estimations of effects and prognosis were made more accurate by considering repeated therapy. Thus, the proposed improvement of the criteria by CT is more useful to estimate transcatheter therapy of the hepatocellular carcinoma. (author)

  1. Cis-acting regulatory sequences promote high-frequency gene conversion between repeated sequences in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynard, Steven J; Baker, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    In mammalian cells, little is known about the nature of recombination-prone regions of the genome. Previously, we reported that the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) mu locus behaved as a hotspot for mitotic, intrachromosomal gene conversion (GC) between repeated mu constant (Cmu) regions in mouse hybridoma cells. To investigate whether elements within the mu gene regulatory region were required for hotspot activity, gene targeting was used to delete a 9.1 kb segment encompassing the mu gene promoter (Pmu), enhancer (Emu) and switch region (Smu) from the locus. In these cell lines, GC between the Cmu repeats was significantly reduced, indicating that this 'recombination-enhancing sequence' (RES) is necessary for GC hotspot activity at the IgH locus. Importantly, the RES fragment stimulated GC when appended to the same Cmu repeats integrated at ectopic genomic sites. We also show that deletion of Emu and flanking matrix attachment regions (MARs) from the RES abolishes GC hotspot activity at the IgH locus. However, no stimulation of ectopic GC was observed with the Emu/MARs fragment alone. Finally, we provide evidence that no correlation exists between the level of transcription and GC promoted by the RES. We suggest a model whereby Emu/MARS enhances mitotic GC at the endogenous IgH mu locus by effecting chromatin modifications in adjacent DNA.

  2. Repeating and non-repeating fast radio bursts from binary neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shotaro; Totani, Tomonori; Kiuchi, Kenta

    2018-04-01

    Most fast radio bursts (FRB) do not show evidence of repetition, and such non-repeating FRBs may be produced at the time of a merger of binary neutron stars (BNS), provided that the BNS merger rate is close to the high end of the currently possible range. However, the merger environment is polluted by dynamical ejecta, which may prohibit the radio signal from propagating. We examine this by using a general-relativistic simulation of a BNS merger, and show that the ejecta appears about 1 ms after the rotation speed of the merged star becomes the maximum. Therefore there is a time window in which an FRB signal can reach outside, and the short duration of non-repeating FRBs can be explained by screening after ejecta formation. A fraction of BNS mergers may leave a rapidly rotating and stable neutron star, and such objects may be the origin of repeating FRBs like FRB 121102. We show that a merger remnant would appear as a repeating FRB on a time scale of ˜1-10 yr, and expected properties are consistent with the observations of FRB 121102. We construct an FRB rate evolution model that includes these two populations of repeating and non-repeating FRBs from BNS mergers, and show that the detection rate of repeating FRBs relative to non-repeating ones rapidly increases with improving search sensitivity. This may explain why only the repeating FRB 121102 was discovered by the most sensitive FRB search with Arecibo. Several predictions are made, including the appearance of a repeating FRB 1-10 yr after a BNS merger that is localized by gravitational waves and subsequent electromagnetic radiation.

  3. Treatment response in Kawasaki disease is associated with sialylation levels of endogenous but not therapeutic intravenous immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Shohei; Shimizu, Chisato; Franco, Alessandra; Touma, Ranim; Kanegaye, John T; Choudhury, Biswa P; Naidu, Natasha N; Kanda, Yutaka; Hoang, Long T; Hibberd, Martin L; Tremoulet, Adriana H; Varki, Ajit; Burns, Jane C

    2013-01-01

    Although intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is highly effective in Kawasaki disease (KD), mechanisms are not understood and 10-20% of patients are treatment-resistant, manifesting a higher rate of coronary artery aneurysms. Murine models suggest that α2-6-linked sialic acid (α2-6Sia) content of IVIG is critical for suppressing inflammation. However, pro-inflammatory states also up-regulate endogenous levels of β-galactoside:α2-6 sialyltransferase-I (ST6Gal-I), the enzyme that catalyzes addition of α2-6Sias to N-glycans. We asked whether IVIG failures correlated with levels of α2-6Sia on infused IVIG or on the patient's own endogenous IgG. We quantified levels of α2-6Sia in infused IVIG and endogenous IgG from 10 IVIG-responsive and 10 resistant KD subjects using multiple approaches. Transcript levels of ST6GAL1, in patient whole blood and B cell lines were evaluated by RT-PCR. Plasma soluble (s)ST6Gal-I levels were measured by ELISA. There was no consistent difference in median sialylation levels of infused IVIG between groups. However, α2-6Sia levels in endogenous IgG, ST6GAL1 transcript levels, and ST6Gal-I protein in serum from IVIG-resistant KD subjects were lower than in responsive subjects at both pre-treatment and one-year time points (p treatment response in KD. Rather, lower sialylation of endogenous IgG and lower blood levels of ST6GALI mRNA and ST6Gal-I enzyme predict therapy resistance. These differences were stable over time, suggesting a genetic basis. Because IVIG-resistance increases risk of coronary artery aneurysms, our findings have important implications for the identification and treatment of such individuals.

  4. Ecological Panel Inference from Repeated Cross Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelzer, Ben; Eisinga, Rob; Franses, Philip Hans

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents a Markov chain model for the estimation of individual-level binary transitions from a time series of independent repeated cross-sectional (RCS) samples. Although RCS samples lack direct information on individual turnover, it is demonstrated here that it is possible with these

  5. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  6. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  7. On Solving Intransitivities in Repeated Pairwise Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Maas (Arne); Th.G.G. Bezembinder (Thom); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAn operational method is presented for deriving a linear ranking of alternatives from repeated paired comparisons of the alternatives. Intransitivities in the observed preferences are cleared away by the introduction of decision errors of varying importance. An observed preference

  8. Repeated checking induces uncertainty about future threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; Damstra, Marianne; Douma, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that obsessive-compulsive (OC) -like repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study tested if checking also induces uncertainty about future threat by impairing the distinction between danger and safety cues. Participants (n = 54) engaged in a simulated

  9. FRB 121102: A Starquake-induced Repeater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyang; Luo, Rui; Yue, Han; Chen, Xuelei; Lee, Kejia; Xu, Renxin

    2018-01-01

    Since its initial discovery, the fast radio burst (FRB) FRB 121102 has been found to be repeating with millisecond-duration pulses. Very recently, 14 new bursts were detected by the Green Bank Telescope during its continuous monitoring observations. In this paper, we show that the burst energy distribution has a power-law form which is very similar to the Gutenberg–Richter law of earthquakes. In addition, the distribution of burst waiting time can be described as a Poissonian or Gaussian distribution, which is consistent with earthquakes, while the aftershock sequence exhibits some local correlations. These findings suggest that the repeating FRB pulses may originate from the starquakes of a pulsar. Noting that the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) also exhibit such distributions, the FRB could be powered by some starquake mechanisms associated with the SGRs, including the crustal activity of a magnetar or solidification-induced stress of a newborn strangeon star. These conjectures could be tested with more repeating samples.

  10. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  11. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  12. Changes in left ventricular filling patterns after repeated injection of autologous bone marrow cells in heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Møller, Jacob E; Thayssen, Per

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. We have previously shown that repeated intracoronary infusion of bone marrow cells (BMSC) did not improve left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction in patients with chronic ischemic heart failure. However, the impact of BMSC therapy on LV diastolic filling has remained uncertain....... Conclusion. In this non-randomised study repeated intracoronary BMSC infusions had a beneficial effect on LV filling in patients with chronic ischemic heart failure. Randomised studies are warranted....

  13. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  14. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family therapy Overview Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided by a psychologist, ...

  15. Hotspots for Vitamin-Steroid-Thyroid Hormone Response Elements Within Switch Regions of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Loci Predict a Direct Influence of Vitamins and Hormones on B Cell Class Switch Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Julia L; Penkert, Rhiannon R; Xu, Beisi; Fan, Yiping; Partridge, Janet F; Maul, Robert W; Gearhart, Patricia J

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiencies are common throughout the world and have a significant negative influence on immune protection against viral infections. Mouse models demonstrate that the production of IgA, a first line of defense against viruses at mucosal sites, is inhibited in the context of vitamin A deficiency. In vitro, the addition of vitamin A to activated B cells can enhance IgA expression, but downregulate IgE. Previous reports have demonstrated that vitamin A modifies cytokine patterns, and in so doing may influence antibody isotype expression by an indirect mechanism. However, we have now discovered hundreds of potential response elements among Sμ, Sɛ, and Sα switch sites within immunoglobulin heavy chain loci. These hotspots appear in both mouse and human loci and include targets for vitamin receptors and related proteins (e.g., estrogen receptors) in the nuclear receptor superfamily. Full response elements with direct repeats are relatively infrequent or absent in Sγ regions although half-sites are present. Based on these results, we pose a hypothesis that nuclear receptors have a direct effect on the immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination event. We propose that vitamin A may alter S site accessibility to activation-induced deaminase and nonhomologous end-joining machinery, thereby influencing the isotype switch, antibody production, and protection against viral infections at mucosal sites.

  16. Changes in B and T-cell subsets and NMO-IgG levels after immunoglobulins and rituximab treatment for an acute attack of neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés, C; Teijeiro, R; Saiz, A; Fernández, P; Sánchez-Ramón, S

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence supporting that neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory humoral mediated disorder associated with NMO-IgG/AQP-4 antibodies. However, little is known about the subsets of B cells and T cells that contribute to the pathogenesis or therapy response. To describe the clinical and immunological changes associated with intravenous immunoglobulins (IV-Igs) plus rituximab (RTX) in a patient with a severe acute attack of NMO and intrathecal synthesis of NMO-IgG/AQP-4, who previously did not respond to intravenous methylprednisolone and plasma exchange. We sequentially analysed the levels of NMO-IgG/AQP-4 by immunohistochemistry, and B and T cells subsets by multiparametric flow-cytometry, in the CSF and peripheral blood (PB), before and alter IV-Igs plus RTX therapy. In the CSF before treatment, and compared with PB, there was a higher percentage of CD4(+) T cells and a lower percentage of CD8(+) T cells and CD19(+) B cells. After therapy, the percentage of CD4(+) T cells remained high, and that of CD8(+) T cells increased. The observed decrease in the percentage of CD19(+) B cells was lower than in the PB. When the CSF was compared, it was found that the percentage of effector-memory and effector CD8(+) T cells had increased after therapy, and that of IgM memory B cells and switched-memory B cells decreased. The observed changes paralleled the decrease of NMO-IgG/AQP-4 results to negative and the clinical improvement. Our findings confirm that, besides intrathecal humoral immune response against AQP4, B and T cell subsets are involved in the modulation of inflammation within and outside the central nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  18. Deception and Retribution in Repeated Ultimatum Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles; Croson; Murnighan

    2000-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated ultimatum bargaining. Anonymous dyads exchanged messages and offers in a series of four ultimatum bargaining games that had prospects for relatively large monetary outcomes. Variations in each party's knowledge of the other's resources and alternatives created opportunities for deception. Revelation of prior unknowns exposed deceptions and created opportunities for retribution in subsequent interactions. Results showed that although proposers and responders chose deceptive strategies almost equally, proposers told more outright lies. Both were more deceptive when their private information was never revealed, and proposers were most deceptive when their potential profits were largest. Revelation of proposers' lies had little effect on their subsequent behavior even though responders rejected their offers more than similar offers from truthful proposers or proposers whose prior deceit was never revealed. The discussion and conclusions address the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated bargaining interactions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  20. Governing conditions of repeatable Barkhausen noise response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, O.; Pal'a, J.; Takagi, T.; Uchimoto, T.

    2009-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the establishment of experimental conditions, which ensure the repeatability of magnetic Barkhausen noise testing in practice. For this task, the measurements were performed on open flat samples using different experimental configurations, including: different magnetization frequencies, sampling rates, and filter cut-off frequencies; using a sample-wrapped coil and using attached pick-up coils of various dimensions, with different lift-offs of a single yoke magnet and of the attached coil. The sample magnetization was controlled by a vertical array of three Hall sensors; their readings were extrapolated to the sample surface to precisely define its field. After analysis of the results, a scheme for an optimized sensor with a controlled field waveform was suggested to improve the measurement repeatability. The important issues of signal processing and parameter applicability were also discussed in detail.