Sample records for repeat donor status

  1. Serial follow-up of repeat voluntary blood donors reactive for anti-HCV ELISA

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    Choudhury N


    Full Text Available Background : Voluntary non-remunerated repeat blood donors are perceived to be safer than the first time blood donors. This study was planned for follow-up of previous hepatitis C virus (HCV test results of anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA reactive repeat blood donors. The aim was to suggest a protocol for re-entry of the blood donors who are confirmed HCV negative by nucleic acid test (NAT and recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA. A group of repeat voluntary donors were followed retrospectively who became reactive on a cross sectional study and showed HCV reactivity while donating blood regularly. Material and Methods: A total of 51,023 voluntary non remunerated blood donors were screened for anti-HCV ELISA routinely. If anybody showed positivity, they were tested by two ELISA kits (screening and confirmatory and then confirmed infection status by NAT and or RIBA. The previous HCV test results of repeat donors reactive by anti-HCV ELISA were looked back from the records. Data of donors who were repeat reactive with single ELISA kit (in the present study were analyzed separately from those reactive with two ELISA kits (in the present study. Results: In this study, 140 (0.27% donors who were reactive by anti HCV ELISA were included. Out of them, 35 were repeat voluntary donors and 16 (11.43% were reactive with single ELISA kit. All 16 donors were reactive by single ELISA kit occasionally in previous donations. Their present ELISA positive donations were negative for HCV NAT and RIBA. A total of 19 (13.57% donors were reactive with two ELISA kits. In their previous donations, the donors who were reactive even once with two ELISA kits were consistently reactive by the same two ELISA kits in their next donations also. Conclusion: Donor sample reactive by only single ELISA kit may not be considered as infectious for disposal as they were negative by NAT and or RIBA. One time ELISA positivity was found probably due to ELISA kit

  2. Monitoring of residual disease and guided donor leucocyte infusion after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by chimaerism analysis with short tandem repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weger, RA; Tilanus, MGJ; Scheidel, KC; van den Tweel, JG; Verdonck, LF


    In this study, we analysed the chimaeric status of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) in recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with the use of short tandem repeat (STR) microsatellite markers for monitoring the efficacy of BMT and donor leucocyte infusions (DLIs). A set of four

  3. Risk factors for complications in donors at first and repeat whole blood donation: a cohort study with assessment of the impact on donor return. (United States)

    Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; Marijt-van der Kreek, Tanneke; Brand, Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van der Bom, Johanna G; de Kort, Wim


    First-time donation is among recognised risk factors for vasovagal reactions to blood donation and reactions are known to reduce donor return. We assessed associations between potential risk factors and vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in first-time whole blood donation in comparison to repeat donation and analysed the impact of complications on donor return. We performed a cohort study on whole blood donations in The Netherlands from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2010 using data extracted from the blood service information system. Donation data up to 31/12/2011 were used to ascertain donor return. In 2010 28,786 donors made first whole blood donations and there were 522,958 repeat donations. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 3.9% of first donations by males and 3.5% of first donations by females compared to in 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively, of repeat donations. Associations of vasovagal reactions with other factors including age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar in first-time and repeat donors. Needle-related complications occurred in 0.2% of male and 0.5% of female first-time donations and in 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, of repeat donations. Among first-time donors, the return rate within 1 year was 82% following an uncomplicated first donation, but 55% and 61% following vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications, respectively; the corresponding percentages among repeat donors were 86%, 58% and 82%. Among first-time donors, females suffered less than males from vasovagal reactions. Other risk factors had similar associations among first-time and repeat donors. Vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in both first-time and repeat donors are followed by reduced donor return.

  4. Possibility of enhanced risk of retinal neovascularization in repeated blood donors: blood donation and retinal alteration

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    Rastmanesh R


    Full Text Available Reza RastmaneshDepartment of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: Repeated blood donors manifest clinical, subclinical, and biochemical signs of iron deficiency anemia, have significantly higher erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF concentrations, and decreased tissue oxygen saturation, oxygenated tissue hemoglobin, and regional cerebral oxygen saturation. Erythropoietin and VEGF are potent retinal angiogenic factors which may initiate and promote the retinal angiogenesis process independently or simultaneously. Increases in circulating levels of erythropoietin and VEGF are proportionate to the levels of hematocrit, hypoxemia, and tissue hypoxia. It is suggested that higher erythropoietin production following iron deficiency anemia-induced chronic hypoxemia/hypoxia may, hypothetically, enhance the risk of retinal angiogenesis and/or neovascularization, possibly by inducing hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha, which consequently upregulates genes stimulating angiogenesis, resulting in formation of a new vasculature, possibly by modulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling in the retina. Implications of this hypothesis cover erythropoietin doping, chronic hypoxia, and hypoxemic situations, such as angiogenesis-related cardiac and pulmonary diseases.Keywords: repeated blood donation, erythropoietin, retinal neovascularization, vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia

  5. Quantification of print, radio and television exposure among previous blood donors in Kenya: an opportunity for encouraging repeat donation in a resource-limited setting? (United States)

    Basavaraju, S V; Mwangi, J; Kellogg, T A; Odawo, L; Marum, L H


    Blood services in sub-Saharan Africa experience blood shortages and low retention of voluntary, non-remunerated donors. To boost collections by encouraging repeat donations, the Kenya National Blood Transfusion Service is exploring the likelihood of reaching previous donors through targeted print, radio and television advertising. We analysed data from a national AIDS Indicator Survey to determine whether previous donors have significant exposure to media. Respondents reporting history of blood donation had significantly higher exposure to print, radio and television media than those without history of blood donation. Targeted media campaigns encouraging repeat donation are likely to reach previous donors even in resource-limited settings.

  6. A pool of repeat blood donors can be generated with little expense to the blood center in sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Sarkodie, Francis; Boateng, Peter; Asenso, Kwame; Kyeremateng, Ernest; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley


    In sub-Saharan Africa, most collected blood originates from accessible and cheaper replacement donors while recruiting and retaining volunteers requires considerable costs not all countries can afford. The Kumasi Teaching Hospital Blood Center and a local FM radio station developed a partnership calling three times a year for donation at the radio station where music, entertainment, and token gifts were available. To assess the program's impact, attendance, deferral, age, sex, identification, and viral test results of donors attending 12 consecutive sessions in 2003 through 2006 were analyzed, and this donor population was compared to other types of donors in Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 3801 donors attended the program and 92 percent of the potential FM donors were eligible to donate compared to 85.5 and 70.3 percent of other volunteer and replacement donors, respectively. Ninety percent of donors were male (median, 25 years) and 4.9 percent were hepatitis B surface antigen-positive compared to 11 and 15 percent in other volunteer and replacement donors. This reflected 63.6 percent spontaneous repeat donations from donors responding to the radio appeal compared to 15 to 30 percent in other volunteer donors. It has been demonstrated that the use of a culturally and socially adapted environment to make the gift of blood a pleasurable and festive experience generated a new pool of blood donors spontaneously repeating donations. This program indicates that retaining Ghanaian blood donors is possible at little extra cost to the blood center and that such an approach may represent a substantial help in the efforts of sub-Saharan Africa to collect volunteer blood.

  7. 互助与志愿献机采血小板者再次献血意愿的比较%Comparison of repeated donation wills for apheresis platelet between mutual donors from the relatives and voluntary donors

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    吴次宁; 曹英; 席光湘; 田浩; 李书平


    目的 比较亲友互助献机采血小板者与志愿无偿献机采血小板者再次献血的意愿,分析两者是否存在差异.方法 自行设计调查表,对两类人群进行调查询问.调查内容包括献血者的一般情况,如性别、年龄、职业、文化程度、是否愿意再次献血等.共发出调查表4131份,收回3981份,有效调查表3820份,有效率95.95%.将调查结果录入电子表格进行统计分析.结果 亲友互助献机采血小板者再次献机采血小板的意愿低于志愿无偿献血小板者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 志愿无偿献血小板者为献血的主要人群,亲友互助献机采血小板者可作为血源不足时的补充,部分亲友互助献机采血小板者可通过招募再次献机采血小板.%Objective To compare the repeated donation wills for apheresis platelet between mutual donors from the relatives and voluntary donors and analyze the causes of the difference.Methods A self-designed questionnaire was used.The questions included the repeated donation will and the general situations,such as gender,age,occupation and education.A total of 4,131 questionnaires were sent out and 3981 returned,among which 3820 (95.95%) were valid.The results of questionnaire were statistically analyzed.Results There was a significant difference in repeated donation wills for apheresis platelet between mutual donors from relatives and voluntary donors.The repeated platelet donation wills in the voluntary donors were higher than that in the mutual donors.Conclusions The voluntary donors are the major population in the donation of apheresis platelet.Under the condition of platelet shortage,some mutual platelet donors may be recruited as repeated donor source.

  8. Longitudinal study of repeated sprint performance in youth soccer players of contrasting skeletal maturity status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Severino, Vitor; Duarte, Joao; Martins, Raul S.; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Seabra, Andre T.; Philippaerts, Renaat M.; Cumming, Sean P.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Malina, Robert M.

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the developmental changes in performance in a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test in young soccer players of contrasting maturity status. A total of 83 regional level Portuguese youth soccer players, aged 11-13 years at baseline was assessed annually. Stature,

  9. Longitudinal study of repeated sprint performance in youth soccer players of contrasting maturity status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Duarte; A. Seabra; A. Figueiredo; S. Cumming; R. Martins; R. Philippaerts; M. Coelho e Silva; J. Valente dos Santos; V. Severino; Marije Elferink-Gemser


    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the developmental changes in performance in a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test in young soccer players of contrasting maturity status. A total of 83 regional level Portuguese youth soccer players, aged 11- 13 years at baseline was assessed annually.

  10. Who donates their bodies to science? The combined role of gender and migration status among California whole-body donors. (United States)

    Asad, Asad L; Anteby, Michel; Garip, Filiz


    The number of human cadavers available for medical research and training, as well as organ transplantation, is limited. Researchers disagree about how to increase the number of whole-body bequeathals, citing a shortage of donations from the one group perceived as most likely to donate from attitudinal survey data - educated white males over 65. This focus on survey data, however, suffers from two main limitations: First, it reveals little about individuals' actual registration or donation behavior. Second, past studies' reliance on average survey measures may have concealed variation within the donor population. To address these shortcomings, we employ cluster analysis on all whole-body donors' data from the Universities of California at Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Two donor groups emerge from the analyses: One is made of slightly younger, educated, married individuals, an overwhelming portion of whom are U.S.-born and have U.S.-born parents, while the second includes mostly older, separated women with some college education, a relatively higher share of whom are foreign-born and have foreign-born parents. Our results demonstrate the presence of additional donor groups within and beyond the group of educated and elderly white males previously assumed to be most likely to donate. More broadly, our results suggest how the intersectional nature of donors' demographics - in particular, gender and migration status - shapes the configuration of the donor pool, signaling new ways to possibly increase donations.

  11. Video Teleconference Administration of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (United States)

    Galusha-Glasscock, Jeanine M.; Horton, Daniel K.; Weiner, Myron F.; Cullum, C. Munro


    Teleneuropsychology applications are growing, but a limited number of assessment tools have been studied in this context. The present investigation was designed to determine the feasibility and reliability of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) administration by comparing video teleconference (VTC) with face-to-face (FF) test conditions. Eighteen adult subjects over age 55 with and without cognitive impairment were administered Forms A and B of the RBANS in VTC and FF settings in counterbalanced fashion. Similar RBANS scores were obtained in both test conditions, with generally high correlations between administration methods. Results support the feasibility and reliability of remote administration of the RBANS via VTC. PMID:26446834

  12. Current status of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation: surgical techniques and innovations

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    YAN Lü-nan; WU Hong; CHEN Zhe-yu; LIN Yi-xin


    @@ In response to critical organ shortage, transplant surgeons have utilized living donors in an attempt to decrease the mortality rate associated with waiting on the liver transplant list. Although the surgical techniques were first utilized clinically 15 years ago, the application of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been somewhat limited by the steep learning curve associated with developing a program.

  13. Applicability of available methods for incidence estimation among blood donors

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    Shtmian Zou; Edward P.Notari IV; Roger Y.Dodd


    @@ Abstract Incidence rates of major transfusion transmissible viral infections have been estimated threugh widely used sereconversion approaches and recently developed methods.A quality database for blood donors and donations with the capacity to track donation history of each donor is the basis for incidence estimation and many other epidemiological studies.Depending on available data,difierent ways have been used to determine incidence rates based on conversion from uninfected to infected status among repeat donors.

  14. Absence, extended absence, and repeat tardiness related to asthma status among elementary school children. (United States)

    Mizan, Samina S; Shendell, Derek G; Rhoads, George G


    The purpose of this analysis was to examine potential associations between absence, extended (repeated) absence, tardiness, and repeated tardiness from school and doctor-diagnosed asthma. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data collected in fall 2007 on 914 4th and 5th grade school children from seven randomly selected participating schools in DeKalb County, GA. ANOVA was used to compare attendance metrics for race, gender, and asthma status groups. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests were also done because distributions of attendance metrics were skewed. We tallied daily absence data during the study period and examined absence by day of week. We also compared the variation of the weekly rate of absence and tardiness for students with asthma versus students without asthma over the study period. The mean days of absence in 86 students with asthma was 2.73 days compared with 1.89 days for 828 children without asthma (p = .004). There was no significant difference in mean days of tardiness by asthma status. The difference in the number of instances of 2+ consecutive days of absence (extended absence) by asthma status was not significant. Students with asthma were more likely to be absent on Mondays (p = .005), Tuesdays (p = .001), and Fridays (p = .02) than students without asthma. The weekly rate of tardiness for students with asthma trended with the general student study population over the study period, whereas the weekly rate of absence did not. Asthma was associated with increased 1-day absences but not longer absences or tardiness.

  15. Superovulatory responses in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) depend on the interaction between donor status and superovulation method used (United States)

    KIM, Ji-Su; YOON, Seung-Bin; JEONG, Kang-Jin; SIM, Bo-Woong; CHOI, Seon-A; LEE, Sang-Il; JIN, Yeung Bae; SONG, Bong-Seok; LEE, Sang-Rae; KIM, Sun-Uk; CHANG, Kyu-Tae


    The current study was performed to investigate the effect of oocyte donor status, including age and body weight, on metaphase II (MII) oocyte recovery using two superovulation methods in cynomolgus monkeys. The use of Method A [recombinant gonadotrophin (75 IU/kg, 3 ×, 3-day intervals) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)] led to great increases in ovary size and the mean number of MII oocytes retrieved in age- and body-weight-dependent manner; in contrast, both the parameters were similar in Method B [recombinant gonadotrophin (60 IU, twice daily, 6 days), recombinant gonadotropin and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (rhLH) (60 IU, twice daily, 3 days), and hCG]. Importantly, Method A showed maximal MII oocyte recovery rate in > 60-month-old or 4.5–5.0-kg female monkeys, whereas Method B was equally effective regardless of the donor age and body weight. These results indicate that superovulatory responses depend on the interaction between oocyte donor status and the superovulation method used in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:28070055

  16. Optimal pig donor selection in islet xenotransplantation: current status and future perspectives. (United States)

    Zhu, Hai-tao; Yu, Liang; Lyu, Yi; Wang, Bo


    Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Xenotransplantation, using the pig as a donor, offers the possibility of an unlimited supply of islet grafts. Published studies demonstrated that pig islets could function in diabetic primates for a long time (>6 months). However, pig-islet xenotransplantation must overcome the selection of an optimal pig donor to obtain an adequate supply of islets with high-quality, to reduce xeno-antigenicity of islet and prolong xenograft survival, and to translate experimental findings into clinical application. This review discusses the suitable pig donor for islet xenotransplantation in terms of pig age, strain, structure/function of islet, and genetically modified pig.

  17. Effect of collection-maturation interval time and pregnancy status of donor mares on oocyte developmental competence in horse cloning. (United States)

    Gambini, A; Andrés, G; Jarazo, J; Javier, J; Karlanian, F; Florencia, K; De Stéfano, A; Salamone, D F


    The current limitations for obtaining ovaries from slaughterhouses and the low efficiency of in vivo follicular aspiration necessitate a complete understanding of the variables that affect oocyte developmental competence in the equine. For this reason, we assessed the effect on equine oocyte meiotic competence and the subsequent in vitro cloned embryo development of 1) the time interval between ovary collection and the onset of oocyte in vitro maturation (collection-maturation interval time) and 2) the pregnancy status of the donor mares. To define the collection-maturation interval time, collected oocytes were classified according to the slaughtering time and the pregnancy status of the mare. Maturation rate was recorded and some matured oocytes of each group were used to reconstruct zona free cloned embryos. Nuclear maturation rates were lower when the collection-maturation interval time exceeded 10 h as compared to 4 h (32/83 vs. 76/136, respectively; P = 0.0128) and when the donor mare was pregnant as compared to nonpregnant (53/146 vs. 177/329, respectively; P = 0.0004). Low rates of cleaved embryos were observed when the collection-maturation interval time exceeded 10 h as compared to 6 to 10 h (11/27 vs. 33/44, respectively; P = 0.0056), but the pregnancy status of donor mares did not affect cloned equine blastocyst development (3/49 vs. 1/27 for blastocyst rates of nonpregnant and pregnant groups, respectively; P = 1.00). These results indicate that, to apply assisted reproductive technologies in horses, oocytes should be harvested within approximately 10 h after ovary collection. Also, even though ovaries from pregnant mares are a potential source of oocytes, they should be processed at the end of the collection routine due to the lower collection and maturation rate in this group.

  18. The Kansas case of K.M.H. US law concerning the legal status of known sperm donors

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    Nancy G. Maxwell


    Full Text Available This article examines the Kansas Supreme Court case of K.M.H., 169 P.3d 1025 (Kan. 2007 within the context of an increasing body of US case law that addresses the legal status of known sperm donors vis-à-vis their biological children born to women who are not in heterosexual marriages. The article begins with an explanation of US parentage law and then reviews and synthesizes the cases leading up to the K.M.H. decision. The article then details the four different opinions in the K.M.H. case, and, in particular, lays out the discussion of the constitutional challenges to the Kansas sperm donor statute. Next the article discusses how the previous known sperm donor cases impacted the sperm donor’s arguments in K.M.H., and how these cases failed to support his claim for parental rights. The article continues with a review of two more decisions, issued after the K.M.H. case, incorporating these cases into the evolving trends discerned in the recent court decisions. The article concludes by summarizing K.M.H.’s position within that evolution.

  19. Plasma selenium status in a group of Australian blood donors and fresh blood components. (United States)

    McDonald, Charles; Colebourne, Kathryn; Faddy, Helen M; Flower, Robert; Fraser, John F


    The purpose of this study was to assess plasma selenium levels in an Australian blood donor population and measure extra-cellular selenium levels in fresh manufactured blood components. Selenium levels were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. The mean plasma selenium level in healthy plasmapharesis donors was 85.6±0.5 μg/L and a regional difference was observed between donors in South East Queensland and Far North Queensland. Although participants had selenium levels within the normal range (55.3-110.5 μg/L), 88.5% had levels below 100 μg/L, a level that has been associated with sub-optimal activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Extra-cellular selenium levels in clinical fresh frozen plasma (cFFP) and apheresis-derived platelets (APH Plt) were within the normal range. Packed red blood cells (PRBC) and pooled buffy coat-derived platelets (BC Plt) had levels at the lower limit of detection, which may have clinical implications to the massively transfused patient.

  20. Status of Scar in Repeat Cesarean Section in a Tertiary Hospital

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    Subha Shrestha


    Full Text Available Introduction: In modern Obstetrics, with rising trends of primary Cesarean section (CS for fetal and maternal interests, pregnancy over the scarred uterus is a challenge to all treating obstetricians. How better the cesarean scar is sutured, its exact fate in next pregnancy is still not measurable. Objective of this study was to evaluate the status of previous cesarean scar during repeat cesarean section (RCS and calculate the maternal morbidity in those cases in a tertiary hospital.   Methods: It was a descriptive, retrospective study conducted at department of Obstetrics of Lumbini Medical College Teaching Hospital. The study was conducted from 15th July 2014 to 14th July 2015. The data were retrieved from the department of Medical Records. Women undergoing RCS were enrolled. The status of scar was evaluated in terms of intact scar, scar rupture, scar dehiscence, thin lower uterine segment, scar placenta previa, and adhesions as indicator of scar integrity.   Results: There were 534 (25.4% CS among 2,098 deliveries during the study period. Ninety one (17.04% of them were RCS. Elective RCS were 73.6% (n=67, and emergency RCS were 26.4% (n=24. Eighty two (90.1% women had RCS once and 9 (9.9% had RCS for second time. Scar was intact in 22 (91.6%, scar dehiscence in 1 (8.3%, scar with adhesions in 1 (8.3% among  emergency RCS and intact in 53 (91.3% and scar with adhesions in 5 (8.7% among elective RCS. Among nine women of two RCS, three (37.5% had thin scar, five (62.5% had well formed scar,  seven (87.5% had intact scar, and one (12.5% had scar with adhesion. There was no scar dehiscence and no scar rupture in two RCS women.  Adhesions were documented twice higher in women whose primary CS was undertaken outside our hospital. Placenta previa and placenta accreta each were found in two cases.   Conclusion: Most of the scars of repeat Cesarean section were healthy with no scar rupture. We can consider trial of labor for scarred uterus with


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    João Valente-dos-Santos


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the developmental changes in performance in a repeated-sprint ability (RSA test in young soccer players of contrasting maturity status. A total of 83 regional level Portuguese youth soccer players, aged 11- 13 years at baseline was assessed annually. Stature, body mass, 7x34.2-m sprint protocol (25-s active recovery, 20-m multi-stage continuous shuttle endurance run and counter-movement jump (CMJ without the use of the arms were measured. Fat-free mass (FFM was determined by age and gender- specific formulas. Developmental changes in total sprint time across ages were predicted using multilevel modeling. Corresponding measurements were performed on an independent cross-sectional subsample of 52 youth soccer players 11-17 years to evaluate the predictive model. CA, CA2, maturational status (SA-CA, body size (mass and stature, FFM, aerobic endurance, lower limb explosive strength and annual volume training significantly improved the statistical fit of the RSA multilevel model. In 'late' maturing athletes, the best model for predicting change in RSA was expressed by the following equation: 86.54 - 2.87 x CA + 0.05 x CA2 - 0.25 x FFM + 0.15 x body mass + 0.05 x stature - 0.05 x aerobic endurance - 0.09 x lower limb explosive strength - 0.01 x annual volume training. The best fitting models for players who were 'on time' and 'early' maturing were identical to the best model for late maturing players, less 0.64 seconds and 1.74 seconds, respectively. Multilevel modeling provided performance curves that permitted the prediction of individual RSA performance across adolescent years in regional level soccer players

  2. Normative data for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status in elderly Chinese. (United States)

    Collinson, Simon Lowes; Fang, Sam Hui; Lim, May-Li; Feng, Lei; Ng, Tze-Pin


    Asia will experience a surge in dementia prevalence within the next 20-40 years, but there is a dearth of well-normed neuropsychological tests that could assist with dementia diagnosis. Here, we report normative data for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in Elderly ethnic Chinese Singaporeans aged 55-91 years of age. A total of 1,165 male and female community-dwelling, cognitively normal elderly Chinese persons in Singapore, with varying levels of education and range of languages, were tested with the RBANS version A. The effects of age, education, language and gender on RBANS performance were examined. Negative effects of increased age and positive effects of education on the RBANS subtests, Index and Total Scale scores were found suggesting differential associations between age-related cognitive decline and education that vary according to the specific cognitive ability measured. The findings indicate that unique cultural and educational profile of elderly Chinese should be considered when applying the RBANS in this population.

  3. Present status and recent advances in living donor liver transplantation for malignant hepatic tumors

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    Jian-Min Qin; Yasutsugu Takada; Shinji Uemoto; Koichi Tanaka


    BACKGROUND:Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been increasingly used to treat hepatic tumors worldwide in recent years, and is currently the most effective alternative to deceased donor liver transplantation to overcome the problem of organ shortage. LDLT has played an enormous role in treating early malignant hepatic tumors. But the indication of LDLT for malignant hepatic tumors is based on indeifnite criteria. This review summarizes the recent studies in LDLT for treating malignant hepatic tumors. DATA SOURCES:A literature research of the PubMed database was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS:The current data on LDLT for malignant hepatic tumors, combined with our hospital experience, indicated that if a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who meets with the conventional Milan criteria cannot undergo tumor resection because of poorly preserved liver function, and a cadaveric graft is dififcult to obtain within six months, LDLT may be selected. In a patient with recurrence of HCC after conventional therapies, feasibility, optimal timing, and efifcacy of LDLT as a second-line treatment should be determined. CONCLUSIONS:Tumor recurrence is related to the biological behavior and staging of the tumor. New immunosuppressors which have anti-tumor effects and inhibit the immune system need to be developed. The indications of LDLT for hepatic malignant tumors should be selected meticulously.

  4. In vitro adherence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius to canine corneocytes is influenced by colonization status of corneocyte donors. (United States)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Latronico, Francesca; Moodley, Arshnee; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Damborg, Peter; Guardabassi, Luca


    The current knowledge of in vitro adherence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius to canine corneocytes is limited to comparative analyses between strains, staphylococcal species or corneocytes collected from different breeds, body sites and hosts. However, the role played by colonization status of corneocyte donors remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence properties of commensal S. pseudintermedius strains to corneocytes collected from dogs with different colonization status. For this purpose, corneocytes were collected from five dogs that were classified as persistently colonized (D1 and D2), intermittently colonized (D3 and D4) or non-colonized (D5) on the basis of the results of a previous longitudinal study. Adherence to corneocytes originating from each of the five dogs was assessed by an in vitro adhesion assay using four genetically unrelated strains isolated from the colonized dogs (S1 to S4). Irrespective of their host of origin, all strains adhered significantly better to corneocytes from D1 and D2 than to corneocytes from D3, D4 and D5 (Ppseudintermedius adherence to corneocytes is driven by host factors and only marginally influenced by strain factors. This finding has important implications for understanding and preventing S. pseudintermedius skin colonization and infection.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Blood Donor’s Status of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis in this Region of Marathwada, India

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    Rangrao H. Deshpande


    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Blood transfusion can cause the transmission of infections to recipients. This is an important mode of infection. The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of such type of infections among blood donors and to compare the seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in voluntary donors and replacement donors. Retrospective study of five years from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2011 was done. This study was conducted at Blood bank, MIMSR Medical College Latur, Govt. Medical College, Latur and Bhalchandra Blood bank, Latur. Material & Methods: Total 10, 4925 donors were tested. Donors were screened for seroprevalence of HIV, HBC, HCV and Syphilis. Screening of HIV, HBV & HCV was done by ELISA method & Syphilis was screened by RPR type. Results: The comparison of seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & Syphilis in voluntary donors and replacement donors showed significant difference only for HIV in the years 2007, 2010, and 2011. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in the study is very low or negligible in voluntary donors as compared to replacement donors. There was a declining trend of seroprevalence for all the disease screened. But in our study the difference is not significant, which indicates that the selection of donors is of low quality. The selection of high quality voluntary donors should be achieved by creation of awareness by education of the prospective donor populations.

  6. Status of a UAV SAR Designed for Repeat Pass Interferometry for Deformation Measurements (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Wheeler, Kevin; Hoffman, Jim; Miller, Tim; Lou, Yunling; Muellerschoen, Ron; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren; Rosen, Paul


    Under the NASA ESTO sponsored Instrument Incubator Program we have designed a lightweight, reconfigurable polarimetric L-band SAR designed for repeat pass deformation measurements of rapidly deforming surfaces of geophysical interest such as volcanoes or earthquakes. This radar will be installed on an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) or a lightweight, high-altitude, and long endurance platform such as the Proteus. After a study of suitable available platforms we selected the Proteus for initial development and testing of the system. We want to control the repeat track capability of the aircraft to be within a 10 m tube to support the repeat deformation capability. We conducted tests with the Proteus using real-time GPS with sub-meter accuracy to see if pilots could fly the aircraft within the desired tube. Our results show that pilots are unable to fly the aircraft with the desired accuracy and therefore an augmented autopilot will be required to meet these objectives. Based on the Proteus flying altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft), we are designing a fully polarimetric L-band radar with 80 MHz bandwidth and 16 km range swath. This radar will have an active electronic beam steering antenna to achieve Doppler centroid stability that is necessary for repeat-pass interferometry (RPI). This paper will present are design criteria, current design and expected science applications.

  7. Environmental heat stress modulates thyroid status and its response to repeated endotoxin (LPS) challenge in steers (United States)

    Thyroid hormones are important in the adaptation to heat stress, allowing the adjustment of metabolic rates in favor of decreased energy utilization and heat production. Thyroid status is compromised in a variety of acute and chronic infections and toxin-mediated disease states. Our objective was to...

  8. Ten Repeat Collections for Urinary Iodine from Spot Samples or 24-Hour Samples Are Needed to Reliably Estimate Individual Iodine Status in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konig, F.; Andersson, M.; Hotz, K.; Aeberli, I.; Zimmermann, M.B.


    Although the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is a good indicator of iodine status in populations, there is no established biomarker for individual iodine status. If the UIC were to be used to assess individuals, it is unclear how many repeat urine collections would be needed and if the col

  9. Are diagnostic criteria for acute malnutrition affected by hydration status in hospitalized children? A repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fegan Gregory


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dehydration and malnutrition commonly occur together among ill children in developing countries. Dehydration (change in total body water is known to alter weight. Although muscle tissue has high water content, it is not known whether mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC may be altered by changes in tissue hydration. We aimed to determine whether rehydration alters MUAC, MUAC Z score (MUACz, weight-for-length Z-score (WFLz and classification of nutritional status among hospitalised Kenyan children admitted with signs of dehydration. Study procedure We enrolled children aged from 3 months to 5 years admitted to a rural Kenyan district hospital with clinical signs compatible with dehydration, and without kwashiorkor. Anthropometric measurements were taken at admission and repeated after 48 hours of treatment, which included rehydration by WHO protocols. Changes in weight observed during this period were considered to be due to changes in hydration status. Results Among 325 children (median age 11 months the median weight gain (rehydration after 48 hours was 0.21 kg, (an increase of 2.9% of admission body weight. Each 1% change in weight was associated with a 0.40 mm (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.44 mm, p Conclusion MUAC is less affected by dehydration than WFLz and is therefore more suitable for nutritional assessment of ill children. However, both WFLz and MUAC misclassify SAM among dehydrated children. Nutritional status should be re-evaluated following rehydration, and management adjusted accordingly.

  10. Status of a UAVSAR designed for repeat pass interferometry for deformation measurements (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Wheeler, Kevin; Sadowy, Greg; Miller, Tim; Shaffer, Scott; Muellerschoen, Ron; Jones, Cathleen; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren; Paul, Rose


    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently implementing a reconfigurable polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track interferometric (RTI) SAR data, also known as differential interferometric measurements. Differential interferometry can provide key deformation measurements, important for the scientific studies of Earthquakes and volcanoes. Using precision real-time GPS and a sensor controlled flight management system, the system will be able to fly predefined paths with great precision. The expected performance of the flight control system will constrain the flight path to be within a 10 m diameter tube about the desired flight track. The radar wilI be designed to operate on a UAV (Unpiloted Aria1 Vehicle) but will initially be demonstrated on a minimally piloted vehicle (MPV), such as the Proteus buitt by Scaled Composites or on a NASA Gulfstream III. The radar design is a fully polarimetric with an 80 MHz bandwidth (2 m range resolution) and 16 km range swath. The antenna is an electronically steered along track to assure that the actual antenna pointing can be controlled independent of the wind direction and speed. Other features supported by the antenna include an elevation monopulse option and a pulse-to-pulse resteering capability that will enable some novel modes of operation. The system will nominally operate at 45,000 ft (13800 m). The program began out as an Instrument Incubator Project (IIP) funded by NASA Earth Science and Technology Office (ESTO).

  11. Relationships between repeated instruction on inhalation therapy, medication adherence, and health status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Takemura


    therapeutic regimens, which relates to better health status in COPD.Keywords: COPD, adherence, quality of life, repeated instruction

  12. Comparison of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Effort Scale and Effort Index in a Dementia Sample† (United States)

    Dunham, Kathryn J.; Shadi, Sarah; Sofko, Channing A.; Denney, Robert L.; Calloway, Jordan


    The aim of the current study was to compare two embedded measures of effort for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Sensitivity and specificity of the Effort Index (EI) and Effort Scale (ES) were compared in a sample of individuals with genuine memory impairment (MI) and individuals coached to simulate MI. Overall, the EI yielded a sensitivity of 0.89 and specificity of 0.41, while the ES yielded a sensitivity of 0.88 and specificity of 0.81. When those in the MI group were separated by level of impairment, the EI was more specific when RBANS Total Scores were in the average or mildly impaired range, and the ES had greater specificity when RBANS Total Scores were in the severely impaired range. These results suggest that the embedded measure should be selected based on the level of impairment on the RBANS. PMID:25236719

  13. Regression-Based Normative Formulae for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status for Older Adults. (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; Ramezani, Amir


    The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) has become a popular cognitive screening instrument, particularly in elderly patients. Prior studies presented lookup tables for RBANS normative data based on age, gender, education, and race using a group of 718 community-dwelling older adults. However, regression-based normative formulae that simultaneously correct for all demographic variables may be more sensitive for detecting late life cognitive decline. Using data from the prior studies, linear regression was used to generate such formulae in the Indexes and subtests of the RBANS. Results indicated that ∼11% of the variance of Index scores was accounted for by these demographic variables, and 13% of variance in subtest scores. Although some differences were present between the lookup and regression-based norms, it is expected that these current results will present more accurate demographic corrections that allow clinicians and researchers to better interpret individual performances on the RBANS.

  14. Cognitive change in patients with Huntington disease on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. (United States)

    Beglinger, Leigh J; Duff, Kevin; Allison, Jessica; Theriault, Danielle; O'Rourke, Justin J F; Leserman, Anne; Paulsen, Jane S


    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with cognitive, motor, and psychiatric deterioration over time. Although there is currently no cure for HD, there has been a surge of clinical trials available to patients with HD over the past 5 years. However, cognitive measures have generally been lacking from these trials. A brief, repeatable neuropsychological battery is needed to assess cognitive endpoints. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) may be useful for assessing change in interventional studies or for clinical monitoring. A total of 38 patients with HD were assessed using the RBANS, other cognitive tests, and the standardized HD battery (Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, UHDRS) at two clinic visits approximately 16 months apart. The RBANS Attention Index, as well as individual subtest scores on Coding, Digit Span, List Recognition, Figure Copy, and Figure Recall all declined significantly over this interval. Performance on the UHDRS cognitive tests (Symbol Digit Modalities; Stroop Color, and Stroop Word) also declined, as did functional capacity. Results suggest that cognitive changes were detected both on established cognitive tasks used in HD research and on the RBANS in patients with measurable functional decline. The RBANS provided additional information about other cognitive domains affected (e.g., memory) and may be a useful measure for tracking longitudinal change.

  15. Prevention of Simian Virus 40 Tumors by Hamster Fetal Tissue: Influence of Parity Status of Donor Females on Immunogenicity of Fetal Tissue and on Immune Cell Cytotoxicity (United States)

    Girardi, Anthony J.; Reppucci, Phyllis; Dierlam, Peggy; Rutala, William; Coggin, Joseph H.


    Fetal tissue from primiparous hamsters prevented simian virus 40 (SV40) tumorigenesis in male hamsters, whereas fetal tissue from multiparous hamsters did not. The parity status of normal (uninoculated) hamsters also influenced the cytotoxicity of their lymphoid cells against tumor cells. Lymph node cells from nonpregnant primiparous and multiparous animals were cytotoxic in microcytotoxicity tests against SV40, polyoma, and adenovirus 7 tumor cells, but were not active against control BHK cells. Lymph node cells from virgin female donors were inactive. Peritoneal exudate cells from these donors reacted in similar fashion against SV40 tumor cells in vitro and in adoptive transfer tests in vivo. However, the cytotoxicity of peritoneal exudate cells from multiparous hamsters was greatly reduced during pregnancy, a time when noncytotoxic humoral antibody reactive with surface antigen of SV40 tumor cells is present. This humoral antibody is not detected during first pregnancy, and peritoneal exudate cells obtained from pregnant primiparous hamsters demonstrated a high degree of cytotoxicity. PMID:4346032

  16. Environmental heat stress modulates thyroid status and its response to repeated endotoxin challenge in steers. (United States)

    Kahl, S; Elsasser, T H; Rhoads, R P; Collier, R J; Baumgard, L H


    The objective of this study was to evaluate in cattle, the effects of acute exposure to a heat stress (HS) environment on the status of the pituitary (thyrotropin, TSH)-thyroid (thyroxine, T4)-peripheral tissue T4 deiodination (type 1 5'-deiodinase [D1]; triiodothyronine [T3]; reverse-triiodothyronine [rT3]) axis, and the further response of this pituitary-thyroid-peripheral tissue axis (PTTA) to perturbation caused by the induction of the proinflammatory innate immune state provoked by the administration of gram-negative bacteria endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). Ten steers (318 ± 49 kg body weight) housed in controlled environment chambers were subjected to either a thermoneutral (TN: constant 19°C) or HS temperature conditions (cyclical daily temperatures: 32.2°C-40.0°C) for a total period of 9 d. To minimize the effects of altered plane of nutrition due to HS, steers in TN were pair-fed to animals in HS conditions. Steers received 2 LPS challenges 3 d apart (LPS1 and LPS2; 0.2 μg/kg body weight, intravenously, Escherichia coli 055:B5) with the first challenge administered on day 4 relative to the start of the environmental conditioning. Jugular blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 24 h relative to the start of each LPS challenge. Plasma TSH, T4, T3, and rT3 were measured by radioimmunoassay. Liver D1 activity was measured in biopsy samples collected before the LPS1 (0 h) and 24 h after LPS2. Before the start of LPS1, HS decreased (P thyroid components of the PTTA, whereas a normal capacity to generate T3 from T4 in the liver is preserved. The data also suggest that LPS challenge further suppresses all components of the PTTA including liver T3 generation, and these PTTA perturbations are more pronounced in steers that encounter a HS exposure. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Donor human milk bank data collection in north america: an assessment of current status and future needs. (United States)

    Brownell, Elizabeth A; Lussier, Mary M; Herson, Victor C; Hagadorn, James I; Marinelli, Kathleen A


    The Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA) is a nonprofit association that standardizes and facilitates the establishment and operation of donor human milk (DHM) banks in North America. Each HMBANA milk bank in the network collects data on the DHM it receives and distributes, but a centralized data repository does not yet exist. In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration recognized the need to collect and disseminate systematic, standardized DHM bank data and suggested that HMBANA develop a DHM data repository. This study aimed to describe data currently collected by HMBANA DHM banks and evaluate feasibility and interest in participating in a centralized data repository. We conducted phone interviews with individuals in different HMBANA milk banks and summarized descriptive statistics. Eight of 13 (61.5%) sites consented to participate. All respondents collected donor demographics, and half (50%; n = 4) rescreened donors after 6 months of continued donation. The definition of preterm milk varied between DHM banks (≤ 32 to ≤ 40 weeks). The specific computer program used to house the data also differed. Half (50%; n = 4) indicated that they would consider participation in a centralized repository. Without standardized data across all HMBANA sites, the creation of a centralized data repository is not yet feasible. Lack of standardization and transparency may deter implementation of donor milk programs in the neonatal intensive care unit setting and hinder benchmarking, research, and quality improvement initiatives.

  18. In vitro adherence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius to canine corneocytes is influenced by colonization status of corneocyte donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Latronico, Francesca; Moodley, Arshnee;


    The current knowledge of in vitro adherence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius to canine corneocytes is limited to comparative analyses between strains, staphylococcal species or corneocytes collected from different breeds, body sites and hosts. However, the role played by colonization status...... of corneocyte donors remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence properties of commensal S. pseudintermedius strains to corneocytes collected from dogs with different colonization status. For this purpose, corneocytes were collected from five dogs that were classified as persistently...... colonized (D1 and D2), intermittently colonized (D3 and D4) or non-colonized (D5) on the basis of the results of a previous longitudinal study. Adherence to corneocytes originating from each of the five dogs was assessed by an in vitro adhesion assay using four genetically unrelated strains isolated from...

  19. Altering histone acetylation status in donor cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid does not affect dog cloning efficiency. (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Geon A; Suh, Han Na; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Yoo Bin; Kim, Dong Hoon; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, Byeong Chun


    Although dog cloning technology has been applied to conservation of endangered canids, propagation of elite dogs, and production of transgenic dogs, the efficiency of cloning is still very low. To help overcome this problem, we evaluated the effect of treating donor cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on dog cloning efficiency. Relative messenger RNA expressions of the bax1/bcl2 ratio and Dnmt1 in fibroblasts treated with different concentrations (0, 1, 10, 50 μM) of SAHA and durations (0, 20, 44 hours) were compared. Treatment with 1 μM for 20 hours showed significantly lower bax1/bcl2 and Dnmt1 transcript abundance. Acetylation of H3K9 was significantly increased after SAHA treatment, but H4K5, H4K8 and H4K16 were not changed. After SCNT using control or donor cells treated with SAHA, a total of 76 and 64 cloned embryos were transferred to seven and five recipients, respectively. Three fetuses were diagnosed in both control and SAHA-treated groups by ultrasonography 29 days after the embryo transfer, but there was no significant difference in the pregnancy rate (4.2% vs. 4.3%). In conclusion, although SAHA treatment as used in this study significantly decreased bax1/bcl2 and Dnmt1 transcripts of donor nuclei, as well as increased H3 acetylation, it was not enough to increase in vivo developmental competence of cloned dog embryos.

  20. Brief Report: The Temporal Stability of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Effort Index in Geriatric Samples (United States)

    O'Mahar, Kerry M.; Duff, Kevin; Scott, James G.; Linck, John F.; Adams, Russell L.; Mold, James W.


    The Effort Index (EI) of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) was developed to identify inadequate effort. Although researchers have examined its validity, the reliability of the EI has not been evaluated. The current study examined the temporal stability of the EI across 1 year in two independent samples of older adults. One sample consisted of 445 cognitively intact older adults (mean age = 72.89; 59% having 12–15 years of education) and the second sample consisted of 51 individuals diagnosed with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (mean age = 82.41; 41% having 12–15 years of education). For both samples, the EI was found to have low stability (Spearman's ρ = .32–.36). When participants were divided into those whose EI stayed stable or improved versus those whose EI worsened (i.e., declining effort) on retesting, it was observed that individuals with lower baseline RBANS Total scores tended to worsen on the EI across time. Overall, the findings suggest low temporal stability of the EI in two geriatric samples. In particular, individuals with poorer cognition at baseline could present with poorer effort across time. These findings also suggest the need to further examine the temporal stability of other effort measures. PMID:22075575

  1. Native Mannose-Dominant Extraction by Pyridine-Phenol Alternating Oligomers Having an Extremely Efficient Repeating Motif of Hydrogen-Bonding Acceptors and Donors. (United States)

    Ohishi, Yuki; Abe, Hajime; Inouye, Masahiko


    Pyridine-phenol alternating oligomers in which pyridine and phenol moieties are alternatingly linked through acetylene bonds at the 2,6-positions of the aromatic rings were designed and synthesized. The pyridine nitrogen atom and the neighboring phenolic hydroxyl group were oriented so that they do not form an intramolecular hydrogen bond but cooperatively act as hydrogen-bonding acceptor and donor in a push-pull fashion for the hydroxyl group of saccharides. The longer oligomer strongly bound to lipophilic glycosides in 1,2-dichloroethane, and association constants approached 10(8)  M(-1) . Moreover, the oligomer extracted native saccharides from a solid phase to apolar organic solvents up to the extent of an equal amount of the oligomer and showed mannose-dominant extraction among naturally abundant hexoses. The oligomer bound to native saccharides even in 20 % DMSO-containing 1,2-dichloroethane and exhibited association constants of greater than 10 M(-1) for D-mannose and D-glucose.

  2. National Marrow Donor Program (United States)


    Disease Marker screen and Cord Information (Detailed and Summary) and Cord Lab Summary Reports o The Chagas EIA test text was changed to Chagas (screening...ID field. • Per FDA regulations, CORD Link was modified to include CMS laboratory certification status on the (Infectious Disease Marker) IDM...Communications Period 2 Activity: SEARCH Link™ application upgrades • Donor Information Infectious Disease Markers (IDMs) screen and Donor

  3. No association between iron status and self-reported health-related quality of life in 16,375 Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, Andreas S; Pedersen, Ole B; Sørensen, Cecilie J


    BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) represents people's subjective assessment of their mental and physical well-being. HRQL is highly predictive of future health. The effect of iron deficiency without anemia induced by blood donation on HRQL is presently unknown. The aim...... used to assess the relationship between iron deficiency (ferritin RESULTS: There was no significant relationship between iron deficiency and self-reported mental or physical health. CONCLUSION: This study...... was to explore the relationship between iron status and self-reported mental component score (MCS; SF-12) and physical component score (PCS; SF-12) in Danish blood donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Complete relevant data, including the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12), plasma ferritin levels, age, body...

  4. Diurnal variations of plasma homocysteine, total antioxidant status, and biological markers of muscle injury during repeated sprint: effect on performance and muscle fatigue--a pilot study. (United States)

    Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chahed, Henda; Ferchichi, Salyma; Kallel, Choumous; Miled, Abdelhedi; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar


    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate whether homocysteine (Hcy), total antioxidant status (TAS), and biological markers of muscle injury would be affected by time of day (TOD) in football players and (ii) to establish a relationship between diurnal variation of these biomarkers and the daytime rhythm of power and muscle fatigue during repeated sprint ability (RSA) exercise. In counterbalanced order, 12 football (soccer) players performed an RSA test (5 x[6 s of maximal cycling sprint + 24 s of rest]) on two different occasions: 07:00-08:30 h and 17:00-18:30 h. Fasting blood samples were collected from a forearm vein before and 3-5 min after each RSA test. Core temperature, rating of perceived exertion, and performances (i.e., Sprint 1, Sprint 2, and power decrease) during the RSA test were significantly higher at 17:00 than 07:00 h (p RSA test. However, biomarkers of antioxidant status' resting levels (i.e., total antioxidant status, uric acid, and total bilirubin) were higher in the morning. This TOD effect was suppressed after exercise for TAS and uric acid. In conclusion, the present study confirms diurnal variation of Hcy, selected biological markers of cellular damage, and antioxidant status in young football players. Also, the higher performances and muscle fatigue showed in the evening during RSA exercise might be due to higher levels of biological markers of muscle injury and lower antioxidant status at this TOD.

  5. Parasites and personality in periwinkles (Littorina littorea): Infection status is associated with mean-level boldness but not repeatability. (United States)

    Seaman, Ben; Briffa, Mark


    We demonstrate the presence of animal personality in an inter-tidal gastropod, Littorina littorea, both in a sample of individuals infected by the trematode Cryptocotyle lingua and in an uninfected sample. On average infected individuals behaved more cautiously than individuals free of infection, but the parasite did not affect repeatability. Although the parasite is not associated with greater diversity of behaviour amongst infected individuals, infection might be associated with state-dependent personality differences between infected and non-infected individuals.

  6. A Large-Scale Donor Attempt to Improve Educational Status of the Poor and Household Income Distribution: The Experience of PEDC in Vietnam (United States)

    Carr-Hill, Roy A.


    In 2003, donors combined together in Vietnam to support the provision of quality primary schooling for 226 disadvantaged districts (about a third of the country). US $160 million was invested in infrastructure, materials and training across the 226 districts. The programme has been commended by donors and received good press inside Vietnam.…

  7. Gadolinium deposition within the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus after repeated administrations of gadolinium-based contrast agents - current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanov, Dragan [University of Nis, Faculty of Medicine, Nis (Serbia); Center for Radiology, Nis (Serbia); Aracki-Trenkic, Aleksandra [Center for Radiology, Nis (Serbia); Benedeto-Stojanov, Daniela [University of Nis, Faculty of Medicine, Nis (Serbia)


    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been used clinically since 1988 for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI). Generally, GBCAs are considered to have an excellent safety profile. However, GBCA administration has been associated with increased occurrence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with severely compromised renal function, and several studies have shown evidence of gadolinium deposition in specific brain structures, the globus pallidus and dentate nucleus, in patients with normal renal function. Gadolinium deposition in the brain following repeated CE-MRI scans has been demonstrated in patients using T1-weighted unenhanced MRI and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Additionally, rodent studies with controlled GBCA administration also resulted in neural gadolinium deposits. Repeated GBCA use is associated with gadolinium deposition in the brain. This is especially true with the use of less-stable, linear GBCAs. In spite of increasing evidence of gadolinium deposits in the brains of patients after multiple GBCA administrations, the clinical significance of these deposits continues to be unclear. Here, we discuss the current state of scientific evidence surrounding gadolinium deposition in the brain following GBCA use, and the potential clinical significance of gadolinium deposition. There is considerable need for further research, both to understand the mechanism by which gadolinium deposition in the brain occurs and how it affects the patients in which it occurs. (orig.)

  8. Donor Tag Game (United States)

    ... Donor Community > Games > Donor Tag Game Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... of Needles LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Make a ...

  9. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés


    Full Text Available Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors. Design: From march 20 to April 5, 2004, three hundred potential blood donors from Hemocentro del Café y Tolima Grande were studied. Diagnostic tests: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum ferritin (RIA, ANNAR and the hemoglobin pre and post-donation (HEMOCUE Vital technology medical . Results: The frequency of iron deficiency in potential blood donors was 5%, and blood donors accepted was 5.1%; in blood donors rejected for low hemoglobin the frequency of iron deficiency was 3.7% and accepted blood donors was 1.7% in male and 12.6% in female. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, but not stadistic significative. Increase nivel accepted hemoglobina in 1 g/dl no incidence in male; in female increase of 0.5 g/dl low in 25% blood donors accepted with iron deficiency, but increased rejected innecesary in 16.6% and increased is 1 g/dl low blood donors female accepted in 58% (7/12, but increased the rejected innecesary in 35.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that blood donation not is a important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia, and ajustes hacia

  10. Short (GT)n microsatellite repeats in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter are associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status in Mexican pediatric patients with sepsis. (United States)

    Vázquez-Armenta, Gabriela; González-Leal, Natalia; J Vázquez-de la Torre, Mayra; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Ramos-Márquez, Martha E; Hernández-Cañaveral, Iván; Plascencia-Hernández, Arturo; Siller-López, Fernando


    An adequate immune and antioxidant response is a key to the resolution of sepsis. Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) is a stress protein with a polymorphic (GT)n repeat in its gene promoter that regulates its expression in response to oxidative injury, such as that present in sepsis. HMOX1 is the rate-limiting enzyme of heme degradation, and the heme breakdown products, CO, Fe, and bilirubin, are considered to be biologically active metabolites with direct or indirect antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory and antioxidant response and the relationship with the HMOX1 levels and HMOX1 polymorphism in Mexican septic pediatric patients. In a case-control pilot study, we enrolled 64 septic patients and 72 hospitalized control patients without a diagnosis of sepsis. DNA extracted from buffy coat was genotyped for HMOX1 (GT)n polymorphism by PCR and markers of antioxidant and inflammatory status were quantified in plasma by analysis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), protein carbonyl (PC), interleukin (IL) 6, IL10, and HMOX1 levels. In septic children, oxidative and inflammatory markers were elevated, and HMOX1 levels were positively correlated with IL10 levels. Genotypic and allelic distribution of HMOX1 polymorphism showed no difference between groups. HMOX1 short-allele septic carriers (< 25 GT repeats) presented favorable ORAC, PC and IL10 levels. This study confirms that an active response against pediatric sepsis involves the expression of HMOX1 and IL10, suggesting that the high antioxidant status associated with HMOX1 short-allele septic carriers might provide a beneficial environment for sepsis resolution.

  11. Role of Donor Activating KIR-HLA Ligand-Mediated NK Cell Education Status in Control of Malignancy in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients. (United States)

    Nowak, Jacek; Kościńska, Katarzyna; Mika-Witkowska, Renata; Rogatko-Koroś, Marta; Mizia, Sylwia; Jaskuła, Emilia; Polak, Małgorzata; Mordak-Domagała, Monika; Lange, Janusz; Gronkowska, Anna; Jędrzejczak, Wiesław Wiktor; Kyrcz-Krzemień, Sławomira; Markiewicz, Mirosław; Dzierżak-Mietła, Monika; Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Nasiłowska-Adamska, Barbara; Szczepiński, Andrzej; Hałaburda, Kazimierz; Hellmann, Andrzej; Czyż, Anna; Gil, Lidia; Komarnicki, Mieczysław; Wachowiak, Jacek; Barańska, Małgorzata; Kowalczyk, Jerzy; Drabko, Katarzyna; Goździk, Jolanta; Wysoczańska, Barbara; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Graczyk-Pol, Elżbieta; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Marosz-Rudnicka, Anna; Nestorowicz, Klaudia; Dziopa, Joanna; Szlendak, Urszula; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Lange, Andrzej


    Some cancers treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are sensitive to natural killer cell (NK) reactivity. NK function depends on activating and inhibitory receptors and is modified by NK education/licensing effect and mediated by coexpression of inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and its corresponding HLA I ligand. We assessed activating KIR (aKIR)-based HLA I-dependent education capacity in donor NKs in 285 patients with hematological malignancies after HSCT from unrelated donors. We found significantly adverse progression-free survival (PFS) and time to progression (TTP) in patients who received transplant from donors with NKs educated by C1:KIR2DS2/3, C2:KIR2DS1, or Bw4:KIR3DS1 pairs (for PFS: hazard ratio [HR], 1.70; P = .0020, Pcorr = .0039; HR, 1.54; P = .020, Pcorr = .039; HR, 1.51; P = .020, Pcorr = .040; and for TTP: HR, 1.82; P = .049, Pcorr = .096; HR, 1.72; P = .096, Pcorr = .18; and HR, 1.65; P = .11, Pcorr = .20, respectively). Reduced PFS and TTP were significantly dependent on the number of aKIR-based education systems in donors (HR, 1.36; P = .00031, Pcorr = .00062; and HR, 1.43; P = .019, Pcorr = .038). Furthermore, the PFS and TTP were strongly adverse in patients with missing HLA ligand cognate with educating aKIR-HLA pair in donor (HR, 3.25; P = .00022, Pcorr = .00045; and HR, 3.82; P = .027, Pcorr = .054). Together, these data suggest important qualitative and quantitative role of donor NK education via aKIR-cognate HLA ligand pairs in the outcome of HSCT. Avoiding the selection of transplant donors with high numbers of aKIR-HLA-based education systems, especially for recipients with missing cognate ligand, is advisable.

  12. Effects of ambient air pollution on functional status in patients with chronic congestive heart failure: a repeated-measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Russell S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using administrative data report a positive association between ambient air pollution and the risk of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (HF. Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP are directly associated with cardiac hemodynamics and symptom severity in patients with HF and, therefore, serves as a marker of functional status. We tested the hypothesis that BNP levels would be positively associated with short-term changes in ambient pollution levels among 28 patients with chronic stable HF and impaired systolic function. Methods BNP was measured in whole blood at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. We used linear mixed models to evaluate the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon and log(BNP. Lags of 0 to 3 days were considered in separate models. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient and within-subject coefficient of variation as measures of reproducibility. Results We found no association between any pollutant and measures of BNP at any lag. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.8% (95% CI: -16.4, 21.5; p = 0.94 increase in BNP on the same day. The within-subject coefficient of variation was 45% on the natural scale and 9% on the log scale. Conclusion These results suggest that serial BNP measurements are unlikely to be useful in a longitudinal study of air pollution-related acute health effects. The magnitude of expected ambient air pollution health effects appears small in relation to the considerable within-person variability in BNP levels in this population.

  13. Cross-national comparisons of time trends in overweight inequality by socioeconomic status among women using repeated cross-sectional surveys from 37 developing countries, 1989-2007. (United States)

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Popkin, Barry M


    Chronic diseases are now among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in lower income countries. Although traditionally related to higher individual socioeconomic status (SES) in these contexts, the associations between SES and chronic disease may be actively changing. Furthermore, country-level contextual factors, such as economic development and income inequality, may influence the distribution of chronic disease by SES as well as how this distribution has changed over time. Using overweight status as a health indicator, the authors studied repeated cross-sectional data from women aged 18-49 years in 37 developing countries to assess within-country trends in overweight inequalities by SES between 1989 and 2007 (n=405,550). Meta-regression was used to examine the associations between gross domestic product and disproportionate increases in overweight prevalence by SES, with additional testing for modification by country-level income inequality. In 27 of 37 countries, higher SES (vs. lower) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence; in the remaining 10 countries, lower SES (vs. higher) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence. Gross domestic product was positively related to faster increase in overweight prevalence among the lower wealth groups. Among countries with a higher gross domestic product, lower income inequality was associated with faster overweight growth among the poor.

  14. Employment status and the prevalence of poor self-rated health. Findings from UK individual-level repeated cross-sectional data from 1978 to 2004 (United States)

    Popham, Frank; Gray, Linsay; Bambra, Clare


    Objectives To assess, using individual level data, how the proportion of people in different employment statuses may have played a role in the prevalence of poor self-rated health from 1978 to 2004 as there have been major changes in employment patterns in advanced market democracies and employment is an important correlate of health. Design Individual-level analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys. Setting UK. Participants 125 125 men and 139 535 women of working age (25–59). Outcome measure Self-rated general health. Results Compared to 1978 there was evidence of higher levels of poor health in the subsequent years. For example, in 2004, the prevalence of poor health was 2.8 (95% CI 1.7 to 3.9) and 1.3 (0.1 to 2.5) percentage points higher than 1978 for men and women, respectively, after adjusting for age. After additional adjustment for socio-economic characteristics, annual differences compared to 1978 increased (5.4 (4.2 to 6.5) and 4.4 (3.2 to 5.6) for men and women in 2004). Further adjustment for employment status, however, attenuated the annual differences in poor health (0.7 (−0.3 to 1.7) for men and 1.5 (0.3 to 2.6) for women in 2004). Conclusions These results suggest that the proportion of people in different employment statuses, particularly the proportion in sickness- or disability-related economic inactivity, could play an important role in the prevalence of poor self-rated health in the UK. Whether decreasing economic inactivity would enhance population health is an open question that needs further investigation. Trial registration This observational study was not registered. PMID:23212993

  15. The Impact of Donor Type on Long-Term Health Status and Quality of Life after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Childhood Acute Leukemia: A Leucémie de l'Enfant et de L'Adolescent Study. (United States)

    Visentin, Sandrine; Auquier, Pascal; Bertrand, Yves; Baruchel, André; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Pochon, Cécile; Jubert, Charlotte; Poirée, Maryline; Gandemer, Virginie; Sirvent, Anne; Bonneau, Jacinthe; Paillard, Catherine; Freycon, Claire; Kanold, Justyna; Villes, Virginie; Berbis, Julie; Oudin, Claire; Galambrun, Claire; Pellier, Isabelle; Plat, Geneviève; Chambost, Hervé; Leverger, Guy; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Michel, Gérard


    We compared the long-term impact of donor type (sibling donor [SD] versus matched unrelated donor [MUD] or umbilical cord blood [UCB]) on late side effects and quality of life (QoL) in childhood acute leukemia survivors treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We included 314 patients who underwent transplantation from 1997 to 2012 and were enrolled in the multicenter French Leucémie de l'Enfant et de L'Adolescent ("Leukemia in Children and Adolescents") cohort. More than one-third of the patients were adults at last visit; mean follow-up duration was 6.2 years. At least 1 late effect was observed in 284 of 314 patients (90.4%). The average number of adverse late effects was 2.1 ± .1, 2.4 ± .2, and 2.4 ± .2 after SD, MUD, and UCB transplantation, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, considering the SD group as the reference, we did not detect an impact of donor type for most sequelae, with the exception of increased risk of major growth failure after MUD transplantation (odds ratio [OR], 2.42) and elevated risk of osteonecrosis after UCB transplantation (OR, 4.15). The adults and children's parents reported comparable QoL among the 3 groups. Adult patient QoL scores were lower than age- and sex-matched French reference scores for almost all dimensions. We conclude that although these patients are heavily burdened by long-term complications, donor type had a very limited impact on their long-term health status and QoL. Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Empirical Comparison of Competing Factor Structures for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: A Project FRONTIER Study† (United States)

    Torrence, Nicole D.; John, Samantha E.; Gavett, Brandon E.; O'Bryant, Sid E.


    The original factor structure of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) has received little empirical support, but at least eight alternative factor structures have been identified in the literature. The current study used confirmatory factor analysis to compare the original RBANS model with eight alternatives, which were adjusted to include a general factor. Participant data were obtained from Project FRONTIER, an epidemiological study of rural health, and comprised 341 adults (229 women, 112 men) with mean age of 61.2 years (SD = 12.1) and mean education of 12.4 years (SD = 3.3). A bifactor version of the model proposed by Duff and colleagues provided the best fit to the data (CFI = 0.98; root-mean-squared error of approximation = 0.07), but required further modification to produce appropriate factor loadings. The results support the inclusion of a general factor and provide partial replication of the Duff and colleagues RBANS model. PMID:26429558

  17. Variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene IL-1RN: a novel association with the athlete status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryckman Kelli K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interleukin-1 (IL-1 family of cytokines is involved in the inflammatory and repair reactions of skeletal muscle during and after exercise. Specifically, plasma levels of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra increase dramatically after intense exercise, and accumulating evidence points to an effect of genetic polymorphisms on athletic phenotypes. Therefore, the IL-1 family cytokine genes are plausible candidate genes for athleticism. We explored whether IL-1 polymorphisms are associated with athlete status in European subjects. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from 205 (53 professional and 152 competitive non-professional Italian athletes and 458 non-athlete controls. Two diallelic polymorphisms in the IL-1β gene (IL-1B at -511 and +3954 positions, and a variable number tandem repeats (VNTR in intron 2 of the IL-1ra gene (IL-1RN were assessed. Results We found a 2-fold higher frequency of the IL-1RN 1/2 genotype in athletes compared to non-athlete controls (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.37-2.74, 41.0% vs. 26.4%, and a lower frequency of the 1/1 genotype (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40-0.77, 43.9% vs. 58.5%. Frequency of the IL-1RN 2/2 genotype did not differ between groups. No significant differences between athletes and controls were found for either -511 or +3954 IL-1B polymorphisms. However, the haplotype (-511C-(+3954T-(VNTR2 was 3-fold more frequent in athletes than in non-athletes (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.16-7.87. Interestingly, the IL-1RN 1/2 genotype was more frequent in professional than in non-professional athletes (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.02-3.61, 52.8% vs. 36.8%. Conclusions Our study found that variants at the IL-1ra gene associate with athletic status. This confirms the crucial role that cytokine IL-1ra plays in human physical exercise. The VNTR IL-1RN polymorphism may have implications for muscle health, performance, and/or recovery capacities. Further studies are needed to assess these specific issues. As VNTR IL-1RN

  18. Serum ferritin in plateletpheresis and whole blood donors. (United States)

    Duggan, Frances; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Power, Joan P; Healy, Michael; Murphy, William G


    We performed a prospective analysis of iron status in plateletpheresis donors, using whole blood donors as a control group, to assess the haematinic effects of regular anti-coagulated extracorporeal circulation and platelet collection. Ferritin levels were measured in samples from 31 regular male plateletpheresis donors and from 14 first time male whole blood donors, immediately before and immediately after donation, and immediately before the next donation. An additional 33 regular male plateletpheresis donors and 17 first time male whole blood donors had serum ferritin levels checked predonation. Male plateletpheresis donors had a statistically significant fall in serum ferritin after donation (P = 0.005)*. In addition, male platelet donors had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than first time male blood donors: ferritin serum ferritin measurement in apheresis donor management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunity Status of Blood Donors Regarding Toxoplasma gondii Infection in a Low-Income District of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Siransy


    Full Text Available Background. Toxoplasmosis is a widespread cosmopolitan anthropozoonosis, which affects more than a third of the world population. Except the modes of transmission well known, Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted during transplantation or blood transfusion. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM Toxoplasma gondii and to estimate the potential risk by blood products. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study on the research for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG and IgM blood donors performed by ELISA. Results. An overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among blood donors recruited was 67.92% (n=72. Among these, 68 have Toxoplasma gondii IgG (64.15%, 12 Toxoplasma gondii IgM (11.32%, and 4 (3.77% both. The risk varies between 8 for 100000 and 172 for 100000 donations. Conclusion. The need to strengthen security measures for people multitransfused, immunocompromised, and pregnant women to reduce the transmission of toxoplasmosis is important.

  20. 滨州市无偿献血者人类免疫缺陷病毒感染情况调查分析%Investigation and analysis of human immunodeficiency virus infection status of unpaid blood donors in Binzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪波; 王静; 孙春莲


    Objective To analyze the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status of unpaid blood donors in Binzhou City Shandong Province,and to discuss the development trend of HIV infection rate of Binzhou City's unpaid donors,and thus putting forward corresponding countermeasures.Methods From January 2004 to December 2013,a total of 346 424 unpaid blood donors who donated blood in Binzhou Blood Center were chosen as research objects.Among them,there were 226 215 cases of men blood donors and 120 209 cases of women blood donors.The age was ranged from 18 to 55 years old,and the average age was 32.5 years old.All blood donors met the requirement of the Health Inspection Requirements of Blood Donors.Informed consent was obtained from all blood donors before blood collection,and they all signed in the column of informed consent.In order to guarantee the authenticity of the inspection findings,enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests were conducted to test blood samples twice.The results were tested and verified again by testing blood in the same test tube and blood in the blood bag if there was one reagent positive reaction in the first test.It was positive if one of two holes showed positive reaction in two-hole experiment,and then the blood samples were sent to Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention for HIV confirmation experiment.HIV positive incidence,patient occupation,educational level,age and gender ratio were analyzed by statistical methods.Results The infection rate of HIV in unpaid blood donors in Binzhou from 2004 to 2013 was 6.35/100 000 which was in low infective trend,but it was in a rising trend year by year.Among all the umpaid blood donors,the infection rate of HIV in peasant and unemployed were much higher than those of other occupations,the lower education level,the higher infection rate of HIV,the infection rate of HIV in unpaid blood donors of ≤ 35 years old was higher than those of > 35 years old,and the infection rate of HIV

  1. Th2 polarization by Der p 1--pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells is due to the allergic status of the donors. (United States)

    Hammad, H; Charbonnier, A S; Duez, C; Jacquet, A; Stewart, G A; Tonnel, A B; Pestel, J


    The polarization of the immune response toward a Th2 or a Th1 profile can be mediated by dendritic cells (DCs) following antigen presentation and interaction with T cells. Costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 expressed by DCs, the polarizing cytokine environment during DC--T-cell interaction, and also the nature of the antigen are critical in the orientation of the immune response. In this study, the effect of the cysteine protease Der p 1, one of the major allergens of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, on these different parameters was evaluated comparatively on monocyte-derived DCs obtained from healthy donors, from pollen-sensitive patients, or from patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Results showed that Der p 1 induced an increase in CD86 expression only on DCs from house dust mite--sensitive patients. This was also associated with a higher capacity to induce T-cell proliferation, a rapid increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor--alpha and interleukin (IL)-1 beta, and the type 2 cytokine IL-10. No changes in the release of IL-12 p70 were induced by Der p 1. Finally, purified T cells from house dust mite-sensitive patients stimulated by autologous Der p 1--pulsed DCs preferentially produced IL-4 rather than interferon-gamma. These effects were abolished in the presence of the inactive precursor of Der p 1 (ProDer p 1). Taken together, these data suggest that DCs from house dust mite--sensitive patients, in contrast to DCs from healthy donors and from pollen-sensitive patients, exposed to Der p 1 play a pivotal role in the enhancement of the Th2 response associated with the allergic reaction developed in response to house dust mite exposure. (Blood. 2001;98:1135-1141)

  2. Predicting a donor's likelihood of donating within a preselected time interval. (United States)

    Flegel, W A; Besenfelder, W; Wagner, F F


    The procurement of some advanced blood components, like quarantined plasma units, depends critically on retesting the donor within a fixed time frame. For health care systems, such as that in Germany, with mandatory retesting of donors before plasma release, the reliable identification of donors who are more likely to return in time has an immense practical implication, because their blood components could be preferably selected for quarantine purposes. The donation histories of about 760 000 donors with 4910 000 donation attempts were analysed. We developed a logistic regression model to calculate a probability of donation, p(Dts-te), within a preselected time frame (ts-te). The donation history was compounded in a score and shown to be very useful for determining p(Dts-te). A logistic regression model was developed with score and donor status as parameters; different regression coefficients applied to first-time-donors (ftd) and to repeat donors (intercept, int, and score factor, scf ). This model allowed us to determine the probability of donation, p(Dts-te), within a preselected time interval, e.g. 6-9 months after an index donation. The p(Dts-te) can be calculated for any donor of blood services. The p(D170-275 days) ranged from about 22% to 86% for any index donation in 1996/97. First-time donors had a p(D170-275 days) of 33% and were more likely to return within the time interval than certain subsets of repeat donors who can be defined by our model. We provided a technical procedure to increase the rate of plasma unit release after quarantine storage and showed the usefulness of our procedure for blood component management, if quarantine storage is required. By applying the model to our current plasma quarantine programme we could retrieve about 30% more units, which would represent about 30 000 units per year, without incurring additional costs. General implications for blood collection, like planning blood drives, were discussed. The whole demand of a

  3. New primer for specific amplification of the CAG repeat in Huntington disease alleles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, C.E.; Hodes, M.E. [Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis (United States)


    Huntington disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat near the 5{prime} end of the gene for Huntington disease (IT15). The CAG repeat is flanked by a variable-length CCG repeat that is included in the amplification product obtained with most currently used primer sets and PCR protocols. Inclusion of this adjacent CCG repeat complicates the accurate assessment of CAG repeat length and interferes with the genotype determination of those individuals carrying alleles in the intermediate range between normal and expanded sized. Due to the GC-rich nature of this region, attempts at designing a protocol for amplification of only the CAG repeat have proved unreliable and difficult to execute. We report here the development of a compatible primer set and PCR protocol that yields consistent amplification of the CAG-repeat region. PCR products can be visualized in ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels for rapid screening or in 6% polyacrylamide gels for determination of exact repeat length. This assay produces bands that can be sized accurately, while eliminating most nonspecific products. Fifty-five specimens examined showed consistency with another well-known method, but one that amplifies the CCG repeats as well. The results we obtained also matched the known carrier status of the donors.

  4. 年轻女性重复人工流产生殖健康状况及心理行为调查研究%Reproductive health status in adolescents underwent repeated abortion and their psychosocial behavioral status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建梅; 杨华; 张钰; 李奕; 魏振河


    Objective To study the reproductive health status in adolescents underwent repeated abortion and their psychosocial behavioral status and to understand their demanding on the knowledge of contraception, so as to provide suggestions on post abortion care. Methods From July ,2007 to May,2008,400 unmarried adolescents who visited doctors and met the following criteria were recruited in the study:①Younger than 24 years old;②Had artificial abortion at least once;③Have been pregnant for 5-10 weeks and asked for artificial abortion. Data were collected through symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90)and anonymous reproductive health questionnaire. The situation of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) were detected through gynecological examination and laboratory tests.The data was analyzed by SPSS 11.5 statistical software. Results The mean age of the subjects was 21. 18 ±2. 46 years. The mean time of previous artificial abortion was 1.96 ± 1.44,with 52% of ≥2 times. Aged less than 20 years old at the first abortion,having sex more than 3 times per week,more than 2 sex partners,and history of painless abortion were associated with repeated abortion in unmarried adolescents. The SCL-90 scores showed that the subjects had higher score of depression, terror, psychiatric symptoms, somatization, interpersonal sensitivity,anxiety and hostility factors than normal population (P 3次/周、性伴侣数2个以上以及前次人工流产选择无痛人工流产是未婚年轻女性重复多次妊娠的影响因素.心理健康状况分析:研究组抑郁、恐怖、精神病性、躯体化、人际关系、焦虑和敌对性的因子分值均高于全国常模,差异均有统计学意义(P均2次、首次性行为年龄≤18岁、既往有生殖道感染病史、性生活频率多于3次/周、多性伴特别是同时多性伴、性生活卫生差为生殖道感染的危险因素.结论 重复人工流产年轻女性存在心理、生理多方面生殖健康问题,生殖避孕知

  5. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads;


    and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health effect.......BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation...

  6. Deployment Repeatability (United States)


    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  7. Recruitment of prospective donors: what do they expect from a homepage of a blood transfusion service? (United States)

    Moog, R; Fourné, K


    In times of shrinking donor population, the recruitment of donors is of utmost importance. Recruitment can be done by personal communication, advertisement/information, classical mass media (newspaper, radio, TV) or new computerized media. The aim of this study was to gain information about the donors' demands of an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Between October and December 2004 inclusive, prospective donors were asked to complete a survey about the impact of Internet information for blood donors. The survey contained questions measuring demographics, education and motivation for blood donation. In addition, the survey included questions that measured Internet access, duration of online time and donors' demands for an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Donors were asked to tick a box with predefined answers. In cases where no options were applied, donors were requested to specify their answers. One hundred and fourteen prospective donors (71 female, 43 male) with a median age of 25 years (range 18-57 years) completed the survey. Most donors (57.9%) were 18-30 years old. Forty-two (36.8%) of the surveyed donors were repeat donors, whereas 72 (63.2%) were first-time donors. The majority of donors were informed about blood donation from relatives or friends (70.7% repeat donors and 67.7% first-time donors). Most of them had Internet access (85.7% repeat donors and 90.3% first-time donors). Exclusive use of private access was more often reported in repeat donors (77.8%), whereas both private and professional access was more frequently used in first-time donors (32.3%). Most donors used the Internet access daily, followed by weekly and monthly use. Multiple answers were given about the importance of desired information about the topic 'blood donation'. Both first-time and repeat donors wanted to be informed about organizational details of blood donation such as opening times, eligibility criteria, donation process and the kind

  8. The characteristics of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Chinese blood donors: a follow-up study of donors tested negative for HBsAg and reactive for simultaneous nucleic acid testing of HBV, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. (United States)

    Guo, Zhaofu; Fu, Ping; Yin, Yijin; Wang, Funeng; Yin, Yiqing; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Yu


    The real infection status of hepatitis B virus (HBV) of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative yet nucleic acid test (NAT)-positive blood donors is difficult to clarify. Detailed follow-up study is needed for analyzing the infectivity of these blood donors. Blood donors who screened negative for HBsAg and reactive for simultaneous NAT of HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were included in a follow-up epidemiologic questionnaire survey and contributed follow-up samples for further testing. The follow-up samples were tested repeatedly for the serologic markers and HBV DNA. The genotypes and sequence mutations of HBV infected by 11 HBV DNA-positive donors were analyzed through the amplification and sequencing of HBV S region. Of the 46 donors included in this study, 89.1% were infected with HBV (41/46), including one (2.2%) window period infection, three (6.5%) recovered infections, and 37 (80.4%) occult HBV infections (OBIs). The S region of HBV was successfully amplified and sequenced for seven donors, five infected with Genotype B (71.4%), one with Genotype C (14.3%), and one with Genotype D (14.3%). Mutations in the S region were detected in four donors (57.1%) CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed study with multiple follow-up testing of the HBV infection status among blood donors who were tested negative for HBsAg and reactive for simultaneous NAT of HBV, HCV, and HIV. Most of these donors were infected with HBV with very low viral load. Our findings indicate that it is important to improve the sensitivity of NAT so as to decrease the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HBV infection. © 2017 AABB.

  9. Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors in Benin City Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde


    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia among blood donors in a private medical laboratory in Benin City, Nigeria.Venous blood was collected from a total of 247 blood donors. Malaria status, ABO, Rhesus blood groups and hemoglobin concentration of all participants were determined using standard methods.The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection was higher among commercial blood donors than volunteer group (commercial vs volunteer donor: 27.5 %vs. 13.8%; OR = 2.373, 95% CI = 0.793, 7.107, P = 0.174. Asymptomatic malaria was not significantly affected by gender (P = 0.733, age (P = 0.581, ABO (P = 0.433 and rhesus blood groups (P = 0.806 of blood donors. Age was observed to significantly (P = 0.015 affect malaria parasite density with donors within the age group of 21-26 years having the highest risk. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher among commercial donors (commercial vs volunteer donors: 23.4% vs 3.4%: OR = 8.551, 95% CI = 1.135, 64.437, P = 0.013 and donors of blood group O type (P = < 0.0001.Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia was higher among commercial donors than voluntary donors. Mandatory screening of blood donors for malaria parasite is advocated to curb transfusion transmitted malaria and associated sequelae.

  10. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nitin


    Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

  11. Brain death causes structural and inflammatory changes in donor intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudstaal, L.G.; 't Hart, Marieke; van den Berg, Anke; Olinga, Peter; van Goor, Harry; Ploeg, R.J; Leuvenink, H.G.


    Brain death donors are frequently used for transplantation. Previous studies showed that brain death (BD) negatively affects the immunological and inflammatory status of both liver and kidney. Objective. Therefore we studied the inflammatory and morphological changes in donor small intestine after

  12. Living Donor Liver Transplantation (United States)

    ... be a husband or wife. What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the ... Not have a selfish motive for donating. Paid donation is illegal in the ... leave for being organ donors. Other employers have similar programs, so check ...

  13. National Marrow Donor Program (United States)


    Collection and Apheresis Centers Closed 7 IIC. Immunogenetic Studies 8 IIC.1 Objective 1 – Influence of HLA Mismatches 8 Task 1 – Donor Recipient... Apheresis Centers – This task is closed. National Marrow Donor Program® N000014-11-1-0339 QUARTER PROGRESS REPORT Development of Medical Technology

  14. Donor Telomere Length SAA (United States)

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  15. Reduced-intensity bone marrow transplantation from an alternative unrelated donor for myelodysplastic syndrome of first-donor origin. (United States)

    Komeno, Yukiko; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Kandabashi, Koji; Kawazu, Masahito; Goyama, Susumu; Takeshita, Masataka; Nannya, Yasuhito; Niino, Miyuki; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Kurokawa, Mineo; Tsujino, Shiho; Ogawa, Seishi; Aoki, Katsunori; Chiba, Shigeru; Motokura, Toru; Hirai, Hisamaru


    A male patient had a relapse of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) 2 years after BMT from a female matched unrelated donor. Conventional cytogenetics, FISH, and short-tandem repeat chimerism analysis proved a relapse of donor origin. He underwent reduced-intensity BMT after a conditioning with fludarabine and busulfan, since he had impaired renal, liver, and pulmonary functions. Chimerism analysis on day 28 after the second BMT showed mixed chimerism of the first and the second donors, which later turned to full second-donor chimerism on day 60. He developed grade II acute GVHD of the skin and cytomegalovirus reactivation, but both were improved with methylprednisolone and ganciclovir, respectively. He remains in complete remission 6 months after the second BMT. Reduced-intensity second BMT from an alternative donor appeared to be a tolerable treatment option for donor-derived leukemia/MDS after the first conventional transplantation.

  16. Does socioeconomic status in adolescence predict low back pain in adulthood? A repeated cross-sectional study of 4,771 Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Korsholm, Lars; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte


    Social and economic disadvantage is associated with general poor physical health. This relationship has been recognised for centuries, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic factors have a specific influence on low back pain (LBP). Furthermore, it is unknown how social and economic disadvantages...... in youth affect adult health. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are to explore (1) the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic status (SES) and LBP in adolescence and (2) the longitudinal association between SES in adolescence and LBP in early adulthood. A database containing LBP...... as well as at follow-up. Finally, the influence of a variable combining the different socioeconomic parameters was established. All estimates were controlled for smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index at baseline. In the logistic regression models, only three of the 32 estimates were...

  17. Repeat, Low Altitude Measurements of Vegetation Status and Biomass Using Manned Aerial and UAS Imagery in a Piñon-Juniper Woodland (United States)

    Krofcheck, D. J.; Lippitt, C.; Loerch, A.; Litvak, M. E.


    Measuring the above ground biomass of vegetation is a critical component of any ecological monitoring campaign. Traditionally, biomass of vegetation was measured with allometric-based approach. However, it is also time-consuming, labor-intensive, and extremely expensive to conduct over large scales and consequently is cost-prohibitive at the landscape scale. Furthermore, in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by vegetation with inconsistent growth morphologies (e.g., piñon-juniper woodlands), even ground-based conventional allometric approaches are often challenging to execute consistently across individuals and through time, increasing the difficulty of the required measurements and consequently the accuracy of the resulting products. To constrain the uncertainty associated with these campaigns, and to expand the extent of our measurement capability, we made repeat measurements of vegetation biomass in a semi-arid piñon-juniper woodland using structure-from-motion (SfM) techniques. We used high-spatial resolution overlapping aerial images and high-accuracy ground control points collected from both manned aircraft and multi-rotor UAS platforms, to generate digital surface model (DSM) for our experimental region. We extracted high-precision canopy volumes from the DSM and compared these to the vegetation allometric data, s to generate high precision canopy volume models. We used these models to predict the drivers of allometric equations for Pinus edulis and Juniperous monosperma (canopy height, diameter at breast height, and root collar diameter). Using this approach, we successfully accounted for the carbon stocks in standing live and standing dead vegetation across a 9 ha region, which contained 12.6 Mg / ha of standing dead biomass, with good agreement to our field plots. Here we present the initial results from an object oriented workflow which aims to automate the biomass estimation process of tree crown delineation and volume calculation, and partition

  18. Handling low hemoglobin and iron deficiency in a blood donor population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Karin; Ladelund, Steen


    for donor Hb and iron. An algorithm was created based on Hb and F levels, which drove decisions on outreach by the donor Hb and iron resource team to the donor, including whether to provide iron supplementation or, on rare occasions, a referral to the donor's general practitioner. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS......BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency and blood donors with low hemoglobin (Hb) concentration are well-known challenges in any blood bank setting. In the Capital Region of Denmark, a new approach was adopted that centralized measurement of Hb, initiated ferritin (F) measurement, and established a center......: The change in Hb for repeat donors was followed during the first 2 years of the intervention strategy, which included measurements of F and offering intermittent iron supplementation to some of the donors. RESULTS: In 2 years, 62,663 blood donors donated 193,288 units of blood and 318 donors gave 754...

  19. An apparent case of undiagnosed donor Kawasaki disease manifesting as coronary artery aneurysm in a pediatric heart transplant recipient. (United States)

    Friedland-Little, Joshua; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Gajarski, Robert J; Schumacher, Kurt R


    We present a case of coronary ectasia and LAD coronary artery aneurysm with angiographic characteristics of Kawasaki disease in a three-yr-old girl two-yr status post-orthotopic heart transplant. Coronary anomalies were noted during initial screening coronary angiography two yr after transplant. Subsequent review of the donor echocardiogram revealed that the LMCA had been mildly dilated prior to transplant. In the absence of any symptoms consistent with Kawasaki disease in the transplant recipient, this appears to be a case of Kawasaki disease in the organ donor manifesting with coronary anomalies in the transplant recipient. The patient has done well clinically, and repeat coronary angiography has revealed partial regression of coronary anomalies. Given multiple reports in the literature of persistent abnormalities of coronary artery morphology and function after Kawasaki disease, close monitoring is warranted, with consideration of potential coronary protective medical therapies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Effectiveness of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines in blood donors: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petry Andrea


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although various studies have demonstrated efficacy of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines, their effectiveness in health care settings has not been researched adequately. This gap is particularly visible for blood donors, a group of significant importance in the reduction of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B. Methods This is a double cohort study of 1411 repeat blood donors during the period 1998–2002, involving a vaccinated and an unvaccinated cohort, with matching of the two in terms of sex, age and residence. Average follow-up was 3.17 person-years. The outcome measure was infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, defined by testing positive on serologic markers HBsAg or anti-HBC. All blood donors were from the blood bank in Joaçaba, federal state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Results The cohorts did not differ significantly regarding sex, age and marital status but the vaccinated cohort had higher mean number of blood donations and higher proportion of those residing in the county capital Joaçaba. Hepatitis B incidences per 1000 person-years were zero among vaccinated and 2,33 among non-vaccinated, resulting in 100% vaccine effectiveness with 95% confidence interval from 30,1% to 100%. The number of vaccinated persons necessary to avoid one HBV infection in blood donors was estimated at 429 with 95% confidence interval from 217 to 21422. Conclusion The results showed very high effectiveness of DNA-recombinant anti-HBV vaccines in blood donors. Its considerable variation in this study is likely due to the limited follow-up and the influence of confounding factors normally balanced out in efficacy clinical trials.

  1. Cadaveric donor selection and management. (United States)

    Studer, Sean M; Orens, Jonathan B


    While there is little doubt that proper donor selection is extremely important to achieve good outcomes from transplantation, there are only limited data regarding the current criteria utilized to select the "ideal donor". Importantly, there are not enough donor lungs available for all of those in need. Until an adequate supply of donor organs exists, lives will be lost on the transplant waiting list. While efforts have been made to increase donor awareness, additional transplants can be realized by improving donor utilization. This can be achieved by active participation of transplant teams in donor management and by utilizing "extended criteria" organs. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of using "extended criteria" donors, as this practice could result in increased posttransplant morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes the approach to identification of potential lung donors, optimal donor management, and the clinical importance of various donor factors upon recipient outcomes.

  2. Can egg donor selection be improved? - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weghofer Andrea


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessments of ovarian reserve (OR in egg donor candidates are crucial for maximal donor selection. This study assesses whether recently reported new methods of OR assessment by age-specific (as-, rather than non-as (nas- hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH, and triple nucleotide (CGG repeats on the FMR1 (fragile X gene have the potential of improving egg donor selection. Methods Seventy-three consecutive egg donor candidates (candidates, amongst those 21 who reached egg retrieval (donors, were prospectively investigated for as-FSH, as-AMH and number of CGG repeats. Abnormal findings were assessed in candidates and donors and oocyte yields in the latter were statistically associated with abnormal FSH and AMH (>/ Results Amongst candidates mean as-AMH was 3.8 +/- 2.8 ng/mL (37.0% normal, 3.0 +/- 0.7 ng/mL; 26.6% low, 1.5 +/- 0.5 ng/mL; and 37.0% high, 5.8 +/- 2.2 ng/mL. AMH among donors was 4.2 +/- 1.7 ng/mL (33.3% normal, 14.3% low, and 52.4% high, yielding 17.8 +/- 7.2 oocytes, 42.9% in normal range (10-15, 9.5% in low (less than or equal to 9 and 47.6.% in high range (16-32. Candidates in 41.9% and donors in 38.1% demonstrated normal CGG counts; the remained were mostly heterozygous abnormal. Discussion Prospective assessment of even carefully prescreened candidates and donors still demonstrates shortcomings on both ends of the OR spectrum. Utilization of ovarian reserve testing methods, like as-hormones and CGG repeats on the FMR1 gene have potential of improving candidate selections.

  3. Systems of donor transfer. (United States)

    de Charro, F T; Akveld, H E; Hessing, D J


    The development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in which market forces are relied on, is not acceptable from an ethical and legal point of view in most western European countries. Especially at the demand side of the exchange of donor organs, commercialism is to be opposed. We judge the use of commercial incentives at the supply side less unacceptable in theory but not feasible in western European countries. Since market forces are deemed unacceptable as instruments for coordinating demand and supply of donor organs, donor procurement has to be considered as a collective good, and therefore governments are faced with the responsibility of making sure that alternative interaction and distribution mechanisms function. The role of organ procurement agencies (OPAs) in societal interaction concerning postmortem organ donation is described using a two-dimensional conceptualisation scheme. Medical aspects of living organ donation are described. An international comparative description of legal systems to regulate living organ donation in western European countries completes this survey.

  4. Too Many Blood Donors – Response Bias in the Swiss Health Survey 2012 (United States)

    Volken, Thomas; Bänziger, Andreas; Buser, Andreas; Castelli, Damiano; Fontana, Stefano; Frey, Beat M.; Sarraj, Amira; Sigle, Jörg; Thierbach, Jutta; Weingand, Tina; Mansouri-Taleghani, Behrouz


    Background Data on blood donor status obtained from general surveys and health interview surveys have been widely used. However, the integrity of data on self-reported blood donor status from surveys may be threatened by sampling and non-sampling error. Our study aimed to compare self-reported blood donors (including one-time as well as regular donors) from the Swiss Health Survey 2012 (SHS) with register-based blood donors recorded by blood establishments and evaluate the direction and magnitude of bias in the SHS. Methods We compared population-weighted SHS point estimates of the number of blood donors with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals to the respective figures from blood donor registries (birth cohorts 1978-1993) and estimates of donors based on period donor tables derived from blood donor registries (birth cohorts 1920-1993). Results In the birth cohorts 1978-1993, the SHS-predicted number of donors was 1.8 times higher than the respective number of donors based on registry data. Adjusting for foreign and naturalized Swiss nationals that immigrated after their 18th birthday, the SHS overall predicted number of donors was 1.6 times higher. Similarly, SHS estimates for the 1920-1993 birth cohorts were 2.4 and 2.1 times higher as compared to register-based estimates. Generally, the differences between SHS and register-based donors were more pronounced in men than in women. Conclusion Self-reported blood donor status in the SHS is biased. Estimates of blood donors are substantially higher than respective estimates based on blood donor registries. PMID:27994526

  5. Repeated fecal microbiota transplantation in a child with ulcerative colitis. (United States)

    Shimizu, Hirotaka; Arai, Katsuhiro; Abe, Jun; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Yoshioka, Takako; Hosoi, Kenji; Kuroda, Makoto


    We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional therapy, who was subsequently treated successfully with repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The patient was steroid dependent despite several infliximab treatments, and colectomy was proposed to improve quality of life. After repeated FMT, she was able to maintain remission with on minimal dose of steroid. Although her fecal microbiota was dysbiotic before FMT, it was restored to a similar pattern as the donor after repeated FMT.

  6. Retroperitoneal less donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Van Der Merwe


    Full Text Available Donor nephrectomy with laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS surgery has been reported via the transperitoneal approach. We describe a novel technique of retroperitoneal donor nephrectomy using a single surgical incision in the groin, below the abdominal skin crease or "bikini line". The LESS groin incision offers superior cosmesis, while the retroperitoneal approach has distinct advantages, such as the ability to identify the renal vessels early. The new procedure has been performed in two obese patients (body mass index 32 and 33 kg/m2, respectively. The operative times were 4 and 5 hours, warm ischemic times 135 and 315 seconds, blood loss 100 and 250 mL, and hospitalization 3 and 2 days, respectively. Retroperitoneal LESS donor nephrectomy through a single, inconspicuous groin incision is feasible and safe. Further evaluation of the technique in a larger patient cohort is indicated.

  7. Determine The Factors Affecting The Blood Donors Of Selecting Blood Donor Program Me In Western Province Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera D. A. K.


    Full Text Available Abstract Blood and blood component transfusion is one of the major therapeutic practices throughout the world. National Blood Transfusion Service NBTS in Sri Lanka requires approximately 300000 blood units annually. After initiating mobile donor programme there have been two types of blood donation programs in Sri Lanka since 1980. Since second half of first decade of 21st century Sri Lanka shifted to 100 non-replacement blood transfusion policy. That means whole blood and blood component requirement of NBTS has to be collected through mobile blood donor program and voluntary In-house blood donor program. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting the blood donors of selecting blood donor program in Western province Sri Lanka. Methodology This was a cross sectional descriptive study. The study composed of two components. .First the factors that cause the blood donor to select a blood donor programme second the facility survey of blood banks In-house donation. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 410 Mobile blood donors. Facility survey was done using a checklist. The dependant variables were the attendance of the blood donors to Mobile blood donation and In-house blood donation. Independent variables included were the factors related to socio demography service quality accessibility availability and intrinsic extrinsic motivation. The analytical statistics applied for testing the association of factors with the blood donor programme was chi-square test. The study has shown some important findings. There was significant association between income level and donating blood. Only 3.3 of In-house blood donor population was female. Majority of In-house population belonged to 30-41 age group. A statistically significant association exists between age and repeat blood donation. The female blood donors tendency of becoming repeat donors was very low. Distance problem and non


    CERN Multimedia


    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.


    CERN Multimedia


    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.


    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service


    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.


    CERN Document Server


    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.


    CERN Document Server


    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  13. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F


    with only few complications. The long-term outcome for kidney donors is good without increase in mortality or risk for development of hypertension and renal failure; proteinuria may be seen. Living kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment of end-stage renal disease with better graft survival than...

  14. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut


    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  15. Living Kidney Donors and ESRD


    Ross, Lainie Friedman


    There are over 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These two locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry s...

  16. An analysis of status and influence factors for repeated induced abortion among young females%年轻女性重复人工流产状况及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the situation and the influence factors of repeated induced abortion among young female . Methods A survey was carried out among young female conducted induced abortion in Dongcheng Street Family Planning Service Station during 2011 to 2013, the questionnaire included age , education, marriage, occupation, age of first sexual behavior , contraception cognitive , primary contraception , history of induced abortion , contraception services after abortion , et al.Related factors of repeated induced abortion were analyzed by logistic regression .Results Among 1 089 young females of induced abortion , 338 cases (31.1%) were repeated induced abortion.There were 254 cases (75.1%) were of abortion twice, 61 cases (18.1%) were of three times abortions and 23 cases (6.8%) were of four times or more abortions .Marriage was a protective factor of repeated induced abortion in young females [OR=0.43 (95%CI:0.25~0.75)].Early age of first sexual behavior (<18 years) [OR=2.13 (95%CI:1.32~3.44)], low contraception cognitive [OR=3.02 (95%CI:1.75~5.20)], private enterprise employee [OR=2.81 (95%CI:1.65~2.99)] , student or unemployed [OR=5.16 (95%CI: 2.88 ~9.21)] were risk factors of repeated induced abortion.Conclusion The repeated induced abortion rate in young females is high , which is related to marital status, occupation, the age of first sex and contraception cognitive .%目的:分析年轻女性重复人工流产状况及其影响因素。方法采用现场调查方式对2011~2013年东营市东营区东城街道计生服务站进行人工流产的部分年轻女性进行问卷调查,内容主要包括年龄、文化程度、婚姻状况、职业、首次性行为年龄、避孕认知及主要避孕措施、既往人工流产及流产后避孕服务情况等,并采用Logistic回归分析探讨其中重复人工流产的相关影响因素。结果1089例人工流产的年轻女性中,重复人工流产338例(31.1%);在重

  17. Prevalence of HIV and VDRL seropositivity in blood donors of Delhi. (United States)

    Singh, Bharat; Verma, Monika; Kotru, Mrinalini; Verma, Karttikaye; Batra, Madhu


    Blood transfusion has been the transmission mechanism in 15 per cent of total patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A few reports are available regarding the trend of HIV seropositivity in northern India. Prevalence of VDRL (venereal disease research laboratory) reactivity varies from 0.8-15 per cent in blood donors. We present data on the prevalence and trends of infection with HIV 1 and 2 and VDRL reactivity in blood donors in Delhi. Between 2000-2002, a total of 76089 (voluntary and replacement) donors were screened. Majority (82.4%) were replacement donors. Seropositivity for HIV and VDRL was seen in 0.54 and 2.6 per cent of donors respectively. The percentage of seropositivity for HIV and VDRL was significantly higher in replacement donors (P<0.001). It is suggested that extensive donor selection and a voluntary donor service would reduce the number of infectious donors significantly. Non-renumerated repeat voluntary donor services are urgently required to lower the prevalence of transmissible infections. While the need to change to a voluntary donor service and devising effective donor screening cannot be over emphasized, there is also a need to mandate HIV antigen detection in India.

  18. Evaluation of 100 patients for living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Trotter, J F; Wachs, M; Trouillot, T; Steinberg, T; Bak, T; Everson, G T; Kam, I


    The initial success of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in the United States has resulted in a growing interest in this procedure. The impact of LDLT on liver transplantation will depend in part on the proportion of patients considered medically suitable for LDLT and the identification of suitable donors. We report the outcome of our evaluation of the first 100 potential transplant recipients for LDLT at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (Denver, CO). All patients considered for LDLT had first been approved for conventional liver transplantation by the Liver Transplant Selection Committee and met the listing criteria of United Network for Organ Sharing status 1, 2A, or 2B. Once listed, those patients deemed suitable for LDLT were given the option to consider LDLT and approach potential donors. Donors were evaluated with a preliminary screening questionnaire, followed by formal evaluation. Of the 100 potential transplant recipients evaluated, 51 were initially rejected based on recipient characteristics that included imminent cadaveric transplantation (8 patients), refusal of evaluation (4 patients), lack of financial approval (6 patients), and medical, psychosocial, or surgical problems (33 patients). Of the remaining 49 patients, considered ideal candidates for LDLT, 24 patients were unable to identify a suitable donor for evaluation. Twenty-six donors were evaluated for the remaining 25 potential transplant recipients. Eleven donors were rejected: 9 donors for medical reasons and 2 donors who refused donation after being medically approved. The remaining 15 donor-recipient pairs underwent LDLT. Using our criteria for the selection of recipients and donors for LDLT gave the following results: (1) 51 of 100 potential transplant recipients (51%) were rejected for recipient issues, (2) only 15 of the remaining 49 potential transplant recipients (30%) were able to identify an acceptable donor, and (3) 15 of 100 potential living donor

  19. Humoral and cellular CMV responses in healthy donors; identification of a frequent population of CMV-specific, CD4+ T cells in seronegative donors. (United States)

    Loeth, Nina; Assing, Kristian; Madsen, Hans O; Vindeløv, Lars; Buus, Soren; Stryhn, Anette


    CMV status is an important risk factor in immune compromised patients. In hematopoeitic cell transplantations (HCT), both donor and recipient are tested routinely for CMV status by serological assays; however, one might argue that it might also be of relevance to examine CMV status by cellular (i.e., T lymphocyte) assays. Here, we have analyzed the CMV status of 100 healthy blood bank donors using both serology and cellular assays. About half (56%) were found to be CMV seropositive, and they all mounted strong CD8+ and/or moderate CD4+ T cell responses ex vivo against the immunodominant CMV protein, pp65. Of the 44 seronegative donors, only five (11%) mounted ex vivo T cell responses; surprisingly, 33 (75%) mounted strong CD4+ T cell responses after a brief in vitro peptide stimulation culture. This may have significant implications for the analysis and selection of HCT donors.

  20. National Marrow Donor Program (United States)


    this quarter. for Selected Donors er P iod 4 Activity: IIB 1 Task 6: Maintain a Quality Control Program – This task is closed. National Marrow...interpret incoming SBT typings and process version 3 nomenclature on incoming typings. • Code moved to production on March 30th, 2011. IIB. DRB3/4/5 typing intent is known. • Calculated 6-locus A~C~B~DRB3/4/5~DRB1~DQB1 haplotype frequencies for HapLogic III evaluation. In contrast

  1. Whole blood donor deferral analysis at Genera l hospital blood bank – A retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinal Gajjar


    Full Text Available Background: A blood transfusion is a life saving procedure in many instances and it requir es an adequate supply of safe blood. The most important is the selection of blood donors by donor selection criteria. A large number of blood donors are deferred from donating blood for several reasons either temporarily or permanently. A shortage of safe blood donor is frequent and it is important to understand the causes of deferral of potential donors. Aims: 1. Primary objective of this study was to record and document the current rate and reasons for donor deferred in our blood bank. 2. Apply relevant findings to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors. Materials and methods: Data for WBD presenting for blood donation in a blood bank V S General Hospital and outdoor camps over two and half years from January 2011 to June 2013 were analysed retrospectively. National Guidelines were used for selection & deferral of WBD. Results: 3836 (11.16% WBD were deferred out of 34373 registered donors during the study period. Donor deferrals were tabulated into temporary and permanent reasons. Temporary deferrals were 3113 (81.15% and permanent deferrals were 723 (18.85%. The most common reasons were low haemoglobin (48.33%, high blood pressure (11.94%, underweight donors (7.95% and history of medication use (6.13% among total deferral donors. Majority of donors (47.16% deferred were between 18 -30 years. Females were found to have higher deferral rate (25.48% than males (10.76%. Discussion and conclusion: A deferral study in blood donors may shed light on the health status of general population which may affect the present and future blood supply. It is important to provide donors with a clear message on their deferral status so that most of temporary deferral donors will return for donation in future.

  2. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of single donor platelet yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun


    Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.160.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.

  3. Transmission of Donor-Derived Trypanosoma cruzi and Subsequent Development of Chagas Disease in a Lung Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Corey


    Full Text Available Donor infection status should be considered when accepting an organ for transplant. Here we present a case of Chagas disease developing after a lung transplant where the donor was known to be Trypanosoma cruzi antibody positive. The recipient developed acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection with reactivation after treatment. Chagas disease-positive donors are likely to be encountered in the United States; donor targeted screening is needed to guide decisions regarding organ transplant and posttransplant monitoring.

  4. 异种胰岛移植中供体猪的筛选:现状与进展%Optimal pig donor selection in islet xenotransplantation:current status and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-tao ZHU; Liang YU; Yi LYU; Bo WANG


    猪胰岛细胞异种移植是一种极具潜力治疗糖尿病的方法。其临床应用主要面临两大挑战:高质量的活性胰岛短缺与异种免疫排斥反应。合适的猪供体筛选(年龄、性别、品系、基因表型)是获取充足的高性能胰岛移植物的重要前提,并可有效地减轻胰岛异种抗原性及体内异种排斥反应,进而延长移植物的功能存活时间。在文中,我们总结了异种移植中猪胰岛的相关研究进展,为供体猪的筛选提供了依据;同时表明了无特殊病原体的成年转基因猪可能是目前最佳的异种胰岛供体,有望在未来的临床研究中大规模应用。%Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment of type 1 diabetes mel itus. Xenotransplantation, using the pig as a donor, offers the possibility of an unlimited supply of islet grafts. Published studies demonstrated that pig islets could function in diabetic primates for a long time (>6 months). However, pig-islet xenotransplantation must overcome the selection of an optimal pig donor to obtain an adequate supply of islets with high-quality, to reduce xeno-antigenicity of islet and prolong xenograft survival, and to translate experimental findings into clinical application. This review discusses the suitable pig donor for islet xenotransplantation in terms of pig age, strain, structure/function of islet, and genetical y modified pig.

  5. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S


    is a population-based study and biobank. We performed multivariable linear regression analysis to assess the effects of donation activity, physiologic and lifestyle factors, and diet on Hb levels among 15,197 donors. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of these factors...... on the risk of having low Hb (defined as Hb below the 10th percentile among men and women, respectively) and of a decrease in Hb greater than 0.5 mmol/L (0.8 g/dL) between successive donations. All analyses were performed stratified for sex and smoking status. We also tested a previously used model...

  6. Algorithm for recall of HIV reactive Indian blood donors by sequential immunoassays enables selective donor referral for counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakral B


    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS pandemic brought into focus the importance of safe blood donor pool. Aims: To analyze true seroprevalence of HIV infection in our blood donors and devise an algorithm for donor recall avoiding unnecessary referrals to voluntary counseling and testing centre (VCTC. Materials and Methods: 39,784 blood units were screened for anti-HIV 1/2 using ELISA immunoassay (IA-1. Samples which were repeat reactive on IA-1 were further tested using two different immunoassays (IA-2 and IA-3 and Western blot (WB. Based on results of these sequential IAs and WB, an algorithm for recall of true HIV seroreactive blood donors is suggested for countries like India where nucleic acid testing or p24 antigen assays are not mandatory and given the limited resources may not be feasible. Results: The anti-HIV seroreactivity by repeat IA-1, IA-2, IA-3 and WB were 0.16%, 0.11%, 0.098% and 0.07% respectively. Of the 44 IA-1 reactive samples, 95.2% (20/21 of the seroreactive samples by both IA-2 and IA-3 were also WB positive and 100% (6/6 of the non-reactive samples by these IAs were WB negative. IA signal/cutoff ratio was significantly low in biological false reactive donors. WB indeterminate results were largely due to non-specific reactivity to gag protein (p55. Conclusions: HIV seroreactivity by sequential immunoassays (IA-1, IA-2 and IA-3; comparable to WHO Strategy-III prior to donor recall results in decreased referral to VCTC as compared to single IA (WHO Strategy-I being followed currently in India. Moreover, this strategy will repose donor confidence in our blood transfusion services and strengthen voluntary blood donation program.

  7. Mixed chimerism renders residual host dendritic cells incapable of alloimmunization of the marrow donor in the canine model of allogeneic marrow transplantation. (United States)

    Rosinski, Steven L; Graves, Scott S; Higginbotham, Deborah A; Storb, Rainer


    This study tested whether an alloimmune response can occur in the marrow donor when infused or injected with leukocytes from their mixed chimeric transplant recipient. Two mixed chimeras were produced after conditioning with three Gray total body irradiation, donor marrow infusion, and post-grafting immunosuppression. The marrow donors were then repeatedly infused and injected with leukocytes from their respective chimeric recipient. A donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) into their mixed chimeras had no effect, even after the experiments were repeated. The presence of blood dendritic cells (DCs) of recipient origin was confirmed in chimeric recipients, as well as the presence of microchimerism in the marrow donors. Donor sensitization did occur following placement of a recipient skin graft that was confirmed following DLI into recipients that changed the mixed chimeras into full donor chimeras. These observations suggest that mixed chimerism renders recipient peripheral blood DCs incapable of inducing a donor T cell response.

  8. The risk for hepatitis C infection in blood donors in Cluj County, Romania. (United States)

    Hâţu, G; Brumboiu, M I; Czernichow, P; Bocşan, I S


    Blood products safety is based on different criteria including the selection of blood donors. Blood donors referred to Cluj County (Romania) Blood Transfusion Centre in January-March 2012 completed a self-administered questionnaire and were examined by a physician. Data collected from first-time and repeat donors were compared for possible risk factors for hepatitis C infection. In total, 1100 donors were selected. In first-time donors, most frequent factors were age<26 years, female gender and history of health care procedures. Behavioural risk factors (e.g. drug use, sexual promiscuity) may not be properly filtered out in blood donors, suggesting the necessity of improving the health screening process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr


    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  10. Heart transplantation from older donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov


    Full Text Available In the current situation of the shortage of suitable donor organs, heart transplantation from older donors is one of the ways to increase the performance of more heart transplants, particularly, in patients with urgent need of transplantation. While planning a heart transplantation from older donor one should consider increased risk of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, preexisting coronary artery disease, accelerated transplant vasculopathy which may adversely affect early and long-term survival of recipients. Subject to careful selection of donor–recipient pairs, effective prevention and treatment of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, pre-existing atherosclerosis and transplant vasculopathy the early and long-term survival of heart transplant recipients from older donors is comparable to heart transplantation from young donors.

  11. Donor-derived mycosis fungoides following reduced intensity haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a matched unrelated donor (United States)

    Kinsella, Francesca A M; Amel Kashipaz, Mohammad Rasoul; Scarisbrick, Julia; Malladi, Ram


    A 46-year-old woman with a history of dasatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukaemia, clonal evolution and monosomy 7 underwent reduced intensity conditioned in vivo T-cell-depleted allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a matched unrelated donor. Following the transplantation, she developed recurrent cutaneous graft versus host disease (GvHD), which required treatment with systemic immunosuppression and electrocorporeal photophoresis. Concurrently, she developed a lichenoid rash with granulomatous features suggestive of cutaneous sarcoidosis. Additional treatment with hydroxychloroquine was initially successful, but 2 months later, she developed erythroderma with palpable lymphadenopathy. Repeated histological analysis established a diagnosis of folliculotropic mycosis fungoides stage IVA2, and the malignant clone was confirmed to be of donor origin. A positive response to brentuximab has been shown. This is the first reported case of primary mycosis fungoides after matched unrelated donor HSCT, and in a patient still undergoing treatment for GvHD. PMID:28073814

  12. The retrieval of thoracic organs: donor assessment and management. (United States)

    MacLean, A; Dunning, J


    The optimal management of the multi-organ donor is critical to the successful outcome of transplantation. It is a complex challenge demanding careful attention to detail, and requiring a shift in emphasis, since the pathophysiological processes have far reaching effects which many clinicians do not see on a day-to-day basis. The optimal management of haemodynamic and respiratory status is essential in order to maximise the yield of suitable thoracic donor organs, yet this process will also improve the condition of other organs at the time of procurement and thus enable prompt recovery of function following hepatic and renal transplantation. The process commences when a potential donor is identified, and is only complete after successful transplantation of all possible organs. In order to achieve this end, a dedicated, multi-disciplinary team is necessary, consisting not only of medical staff, but also support workers who organise logistics, and who play their own part in vital areas, such as transport of the donor team and organs. The co-ordinator's role is pivotal in bringing together, in harmony, teams from different centres. It is important to remember that the effort of every person involved in the management and procurement of donor organs is primarily directed towards maximisation of the donor pool, and that our main responsibility is to the recipients on our waiting lists.

  13. Keeping mum about dad: "contracts" to protect gamete donor anonymity. (United States)

    Rees, Anne


    This article considers the legal status of so-called contracts for anonymity between fertility clinics and donors of gametes that were made in the period before legislation authorising disclosure. It notes that while clinics frequently cite the existence of these "contracts" to argue against retrospective legislation authorising disclosure of the donor's identity, they may be nothing more than one-sided statements of informed consent. However, the article notes that even if an agreement between a donor and a clinic is not contractual, it does not follow that a person conceived through assisted reproductive technology has any right of access to the identity of the donor. The writer has not been able to locate examples of written promises by the clinics promising anonymity. There are written promises by the donors not to seek the identity of the recipients. These promises do not bind the resulting offspring nor do they appear to be supported by consideration. The article suggests that the basis for any individual donor to restrain a clinic from revealing their identity may be found in promissory estoppel. Nevertheless, there is no real issue in Australia concerning clinics revealing these details absent legislative authority. The issue is whether parliaments will legislate to authorise the disclosure. The article notes that it would be rare for parliaments to legislate to overturn existing legal contracts but suggests that the contract argument may not be as strong as has been thought.

  14. Awareness of Cornea Donation of Registered Tissue Donors in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Chu; Lin-nong Wang; Hao Yu; Ru-yang Zhang


    legislation of cornea donation and free donation protocol. For the factors influencing the willingness to donate corneas,population was the most relevant factor (P<0.001),since tissue donors were more willing to donate corneas than residents. Other significantly related factor were age,gender,occupation,and education level (P<0.001),while political status or religion were not significant. For the factors related to becoming a tissue donor,older age,male,white-collars (including white-collar,civil servant,teacher,soldier,lawyer,salesman,healthcare provider),higher education level,party members (including the Chinese Communist Party members,democratic party members,and the Communist Youth League members) (P<0.05). Conclusions The registered tissue donors have better understanding and more positive attitude to-wards cornea donation than control residents do. They approve of the legislation of cornea donation and free donation protocol. It may be more effective to target the population of over 58 years old,male,white-collars,well-educated people,and party members in the promotion of cornea donation.

  15. Bone density in apheresis donors and whole blood donors. (United States)

    Boot, C L; Luken, J S; van den Burg, P J M; de Kort, W L A M; Koopman, M M W; Vrielink, H; van Schoor, N M; den Heijer, M; Lips, P


    Apheresis donation using citrate causes acute decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum parathyroid hormone. Long-term consequences, such as decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), are not known. In this study, we compared the BMD of 20 postmenopausal apheresis donors (mean donation number 115 times in up to 15 years) with that of 20 whole blood donors (for 15 years or more) aged 55-70. BMD in the lumbar spine was not lower in apheresis donors than in blood donors (mean ± SD 1.00 ± 0.18 vs. 0.92 ± 0.12, P = 0.09). In the hip, BMD was not different between the groups.

  16. Living unrelated donor kidney transplantation: A fourteen-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Background. In countries without a national organization for retrieval and distribution of organs of the deceased donors, problem of organ shortage is still not resolved. In order to increase the number of kidney transplantations we started with the program of living unrelated - spousal donors. The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcome and renal graft function in patients receiving the graft from spousal and those receiving ghe graft from living related donors. Method. We retrospectively identified 14 patients who received renal allograft from spousal donors between 1996 and 2009 (group I. The control group consisted of 14 patients who got graft from related donor retrieved from the database and matched than with respect to sex, age, kidney disease, immunological and viral pretransplant status, the initial method of the end stage renal disease treatment and ABO compatibility. In the follow-up period of 41 ± 38 months we recorded immunosuppressive therapy, surgical complications, episodes of acute rejection, CMV infection and graft function, assessed by serum creatinine levels at the beginning and in the end of the follow-up period. All patients had pretransplant negative cross-match. In ABO incompatible patients pretransplant isoagglutinine titer was zero. Results. The patients with a spousal donor had worse HLA matching. There were no significant differences between the groups in surgical, infective, immunological complications and graft function. Two patients from the group I returned to hemodialysis after 82 and 22 months due to serious comorbidities. Conclusion. In spite of the worse HLA matching, graft survival and function of renal grafts from spousal donors were as good as those retrieved from related donors.

  17. How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Godin


    Full Text Available This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI. Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3% new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P<.001; the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps<.001 gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d=.26; SPI: d=.32; the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P<.05 the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation.

  18. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio


    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  19. Revisiting the TALE repeat. (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng


    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  20. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F


    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  1. An update of blood donor recruitment and retention in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C


    Full Text Available A healthy blood donor pool has to be well maintained in order to achieve self sufficiency in blood supply. Not only should new and young donors should be attracted and recruited into the pool so as to compensate the loss from drop out and deferred donors. At the same time, previous donors should be also actively retained to ensure they can come regularly. The status of donor recruitment and retention in Hong Kong is reviewed here to highlight the current difficulties in coping with increasing blood demand from an ageing population, stringent donor eligibility criteria and quality requirement in the blood collection. With a systemic analysis of the donation pattern, proposal is put forward to tackle the challenging problems.

  2. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare


    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  3. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.


    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  4. Repeating the Past (United States)

    Moore, John W.


    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  5. Living donor liver transplantation from a donor previously treated with interferon for hepatitis C virus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao Kazuhiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Selecting a marginal donor in liver transplantation (LT remains controversial but is necessary because of the small number of available donors. Case presentation A 46-year-old Japanese woman was a candidate to donate her liver to her brother, who had decompensated liver cirrhosis of unknown origin. Eight years before the donation, she had a mild liver dysfunction that was diagnosed as a hepatitis C virus (HCV infection (serotype 2. She had received anti-viral therapy with interferon α-2b three times weekly for 24 weeks and had a sustained viral response (SVR. A biopsy of her liver before the donation showed normal findings without any active hepatitis, and her serum was negative for HCV-RNA. Only 67 patients have undergone LT from a cadaveric donor in Japan. The family in this case decided to have living donor LT. A careful selection for the liver graft donation was made; however, since she was the only candidate, we approved her as a living donor. She was discharged nine days after the liver donation. Her liver function recovered immediately. A computed tomography scan showed sufficient liver regeneration one year later. Her brother also had good liver function after LT and had no HCV infection 48 months after surgery and no de novo malignancy. Neither of the siblings has developed an HCV infection. Conclusions A patient with SVR status after interferon therapy might be considered a candidate for living donor LT but only if there are no other possibilities of LT for the recipient. A careful follow-up of the donor after donation is needed. The recipient also must have a very close follow-up because it is difficult to predict what might happen to the graft with post-transplant immunosuppression.

  6. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications]. (United States)

    Karam, Georges


    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications.

  7. Pre-donation cognitions of potential living organ donors: the development of the Donation Cognition Instrument in potential kidney donors. (United States)

    Wirken, Lieke; van Middendorp, Henriët; Hooghof, Christina W; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F; Dam, Ruth E; van der Pant, Karlijn A M I; Berendsen, Elsbeth C M; Wellink, Hiske; Dackus, Henricus J A; Hoitsma, Andries J; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Evers, Andrea W M


    Cognitions surrounding living organ donation, including the motivation to donate, expectations of donation and worries about donation, are relevant themes during living donor evaluation. However, there is no reliable psychometric instrument assessing all these different cognitions. This study developed and validated a questionnaire to assess pre-donation motivations, expectations and worries regarding donation, entitled the Donation Cognition Instrument (DCI). Psychometric properties of the DCI were examined using exploratory factor analysis for scale structure and associations with validated questionnaires for construct validity assessment. From seven Dutch transplantation centres, 719 potential living kidney donors were included. The DCI distinguishes cognitions about donor benefits, recipient benefits, idealistic incentives, gratitude and worries about donation (Cronbach's alpha 0.76-0.81). Scores on pre-donation cognitions differed with regard to gender, age, marital status, religion and donation type. With regard to construct validity, the DCI was moderately correlated with expectations regarding donor's personal well-being and slightly to moderately to health-related quality of life. The DCI is found to be a reliable instrument assessing cognitions surrounding living organ donation, which might add to pre-donation quality of life measures in facilitating psychosocial donor evaluation by healthcare professionals.

  8. All-optical repeater. (United States)

    Silberberg, Y


    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  9. Bidirectional Manchester repeater (United States)

    Ferguson, J.


    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  10. Seroprevalence of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 in Blood Donors in Northern Pakistan: Implications for Blood Donor Screening. (United States)

    Niazi, Saifullah Khan; Bhatti, Farhat Abbas; Salamat, Nuzhat


    To determine the seroprevalence of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors in Northern Pakistan. Descriptive study. Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion, Rawalpindi, from July to August 2013. A total of 2100 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies during the study period, in a pool of six, on a highly sensitive, Chemiluminiscent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) based system. The screening test-reactive donors were recalled, counseled and interviewed, and a fresh sample was obtained for confirmatory testing. Confirmation was performed using additional immunoassays including Line Immunoassay (LIA); with additional testing for HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. Frequency and percentages were determined. Four donors (0.19%) were repeatedly screening test-reactive and were subsequently confirmed to be HTLV-1 infected by line immunoassay and HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. All four donors were male with mean age of 27 ± 6.27 years. Two (50%) of the positive donors gave history of Multiple Sexual Partners (MSP). HTLV-1 seroprevalence in Northern Pakistan blood donors was determined to be 0.19%. Large scale studies, including the cost effectiveness of screening blood donations for anti-HTLV-1/2 in Pakistan, are recommended.

  11. DBCD 供体状态与器官移植受者术后器官功能恢复的相关性分析%Correlation analysis between the status of DBCD donors and postoperative recovery of organ function in organ transplant recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王镪; 杨洪吉; 黄晓波; 邓小凡; 张晓勤; 张宇; 冉清; 狄文佳; 朱世凯; 赵冀


    Objective To analyze the correlation between the status of the donation after brain and cardiac death (DBCD)donors and postoperative recovery of the organ function in the liver and renal transplant recipients.Methods The assessment data and organ protection measures of 12 DBCD donors admitted to the Organ Transplantation Center in Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital from August 2011 to November 2013 were retrospectively analyzed.The parameters of postoperative recovery of 12 liver and 22 renal transplant recipients were also assessed.The correlation between the parameters of the donors and postoperative recovery of the liver and renal transplant recipients was statistically analyzed.Results Among 12 liver transplant recipients,1 patient had primary non-function (PNF)(1 /12,8%)and 11 cases developed delayed graft function (DGF) after renal transplantation (11 /22,50%).Intensive care unit (ICU)period,liver function,maintaining systolic blood pressure (SBP),blood coagulation function,blood glucose level and electrolyte (Na +/K +) were significantly correlated with postoperative recovery of the liver and kidney function in the recipients (all in P <0.05 ).Age,cause of brain death,maintaining diastolic blood pressure (DBP),activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)and pH of arterial blood gas (ABG)were associated with postoperative recovery of the liver function.Total bilirubin and white blood cell count (WBC)were correlated with postoperative recovery of kidney function.Conclusions DBCD donors cater to the specific conditions in China.The incidence of postoperative PNF in liver recipients is relatively low whereas and the incidence of DGF after renal transplantation is relatively high.Assessment of the DBCD donors and organ protection measures should be specifically taken to enhance the clinical efficacy of liver and renal transplantation from DBCD donors.%目的:探讨脑-心双死亡器官捐献(DBCD)供体状态与其肝、肾移植受者术后器官功

  12. Short-term effect of acute and repeated urinary bladder inflammation on thigmotactic behaviour in the laboratory rat [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary H Morland


    Full Text Available Understanding the non-sensory components of the pain experience is crucial to developing effective treatments for pain conditions. Chronic pain is associated with increased incidence of anxio-depressive disorders, and patients often report feelings of vulnerability which can decrease quality of life. In animal models of pain, observation of behaviours such as thigmotaxis can be used to detect such affective disturbances by exploiting the influence of nociceptive stimuli on the innate behavioural conflict between exploration of a novel space and predator avoidance behaviour. This study investigates whether acute and repeated bladder inflammation in adult female Wistar rats increases thigmotactic behaviour in the open field paradigm, and aims to determine whether this correlates with activation in the central amygdala, as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity. Additionally, up-regulation of inflammatory mediators in the urinary bladder was measured using RT-qPCR array featuring 92 transcripts to examine how local mediators change under experimental conditions. We found acute but not repeated turpentine inflammation of the bladder increased thigmotactic behaviour (decreased frequency of entry to the inner zone in the open field paradigm, a result that was also observed in the catheter-only instrumentation group. Decreases in locomotor activity were also observed in both models in turpentine and instrumentation groups. No differences were observed in c-Fos activation, although a general increased in activation along the rostro-caudal axis was seen. Inflammatory mediator up-regulation was greatest following acute inflammation, with CCL12, CCL7, and IL-1β significantly up-regulated in both conditions when compared to naïve tissue. These results suggest that acute catheterisation, with or without turpentine inflammation, induces affective alterations detectable in the open field paradigm accompanied by up-regulation of multiple inflammatory mediators.

  13. Epidemiological profile of hepatitis C in blood donors at the Uberaba Regional Blood Center Perfil epidemiológico para hepatite C em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bernadelli Garcia


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to outline the serological profile of hepatitis C among blood donors seen at the Uberaba Regional Blood Center, Hemominas Foundation, over the last 14 years. The frequency of hepatitis C was compared between first-time and repeat donors and the epidemiological characteristics of those with positive and indeterminate ELISA anti-HCV (third and fourth generation were analyzed based on the donor histories kept in the archives of the Uberaba Regional Blood Center. The serological ineligibility rate was 0.3%, with higher prevalence in the group of first-time donors. We did not find any significant differences regarding age, skin color, marital status or place of residence between eligible and ineligible donors; however, the frequency of positive serology was higher among men. The lower (0.3% rate of ineligibility due to hepatitis C that was observed at the Uberaba Regional Blood Center, in relation to most Brazilian blood centers, is probably due to the large number of repeat donors (83.3%. This reinforces the importance of achieving donor commitment for increasing transfusion safety.O objetivo deste estudo foi traçar o perfil sorológico para a hepatite C nos doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberaba/Fundação Hemominas nos últimos 14 anos, comparando a sua ocorrência em doadores iniciais e de retorno e analisando as características epidemiológicas daqueles com ELISA anti-HCV (terceira e quarta geração positivo e indeterminado, a partir dos históricos dos doadores nos arquivos do Hemocentro Regional de Uberaba. A inaptidão sorológica encontrada foi de 0,3%, com maior ocorrência no grupo de doadores iniciais. Não encontramos diferenças significativas quanto à idade, cor da pele, estado civil e local de residência entre os aptos e os inaptos, porém a ocorrência de sorologia positiva foi maior nos homens. A menor prevalência de inaptidão para hepatite C (0,3% no Hemocentro Regional de

  14. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  15. Transcription of a donor enhances its use during double-strand break-induced gene conversion in human cells. (United States)

    Schildkraut, Ezra; Miller, Cheryl A; Nickoloff, Jac A


    Homologous recombination (HR) mediates accurate repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) but carries the risk of large-scale genetic change, including loss of heterozygosity, deletions, inversions, and translocations. Nearly one-third of the human genome consists of repetitive sequences, and DSB repair by HR often requires choices among several homologous repair templates, including homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids, and linked or unlinked repeats. Donor preference during DSB-induced gene conversion was analyzed by using several HR substrates with three copies of neo targeted to a human chromosome. Repair of I-SceI nuclease-induced DSBs in one neo (the recipient) required a choice between two donor neo genes. When both donors were downstream, there was no significant bias for proximal or distal donors. When donors flanked the recipient, we observed a marked (85%) preference for the downstream donor. Reversing the HR substrate in the chromosome eliminated this preference, indicating that donor choice is influenced by factors extrinsic to the HR substrate. Prior indirect evidence suggested that transcription might increase donor use. We tested this question directly and found that increased transcription of a donor enhances its use during gene conversion. A preference for transcribed donors would minimize the use of nontranscribed (i.e., pseudogene) templates during repair and thus help maintain genome stability.

  16. An HLA matched donor! An HLA matched donor? What do you mean by: HLA matched donor? (United States)

    van Rood, J J; Oudshoorn, M


    The term 'an HLA matched donor' is in general used without giving exact information on the level of resolution of the HLA typing. This can lead to misunderstandings. A proposal is formulated to agree on using six match categories according to the HLA typing technique used to indicate the level of confidence of the matching.

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  18. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor (United States)

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  20. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Marrow Donor Program® (NMDP), a federally funded nonprofit organization that maintains an international registry of volunteers willing ... her German stem cell donor for the first time in Germany. #priceless - Duration: 1:04. Jacque Brohawn ...

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  3. Mood disorders in oocyte donor candidates: brief report and implications for future research. (United States)

    Williams, Katherine E; Stemmle, Pascale G; Westphal, Lynn M; Rasgon, Natalie L


    BACKGROUND IVF, using donor oocytes, has become increasingly common. The donation procedure carries psychiatric risks, including depression, anxiety and rarely, psychosis, and this risk increases when there is a past history of psychiatric illness. We report on the psychiatric status, at intake assessment, of a group of candidate oocyte donors. METHODS The authors reviewed clinical records of 63 women continuously presenting to a University medical center for psychiatric evaluation as part of the screening process for oocyte donation. A board certified psychiatrist administered a structured clinical interview to candidate donors, and self-report measures were obtained from 28 women. RESULTS There was a significant discrepancy between psychiatric history of depression and current mood status, as measured by both clinical interview and psychometric self-report data. Nearly one-quarter of candidate donors (22%) reported a history of major depressive disorder; however, all candidate donors denied current mood disturbance on clinical interview, and mean Beck depression inventory and profile of mood states scores were lower than expected compared with psychometric norms (P mood symptoms, and the moderate heritability of mood disorders, careful evaluation of candidate donor affective disorder history is recommended. This evaluation should focus on sensitivity to mood destabilization during times of hormonal change. Measures that examine whether a candidate donor may have a tendency to present herself in an overly favorable manner, and/or a tendency to minimize symptoms, are recommended.

  4. Current status of pulmonary metastasectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbech, Kåre; Ravn, Jesper; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas


    for unresected patients. In this article, we discuss the current status on pulmonary metastasectomy. Preoperative assessment and selection of surgical candidates is covered. The different surgical strategies including surgical approach, unilateral versus bilateral exploration, lymph node dissection, and repeat...

  5. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donor notification. 630.6 Section 630.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an...

  6. Blood donor: nursing care plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Zapata Sampedro


    Full Text Available The standardized nursing care plan can be used as a means through which the nurse will assess and identify the particular needs of the blood donor.To draw up the care plan, we have conducted the evaluation on the basis of the Marjory Gordon’s functional health patterns.The more prevailing diagnosis according to the NANDA taxonomy have been identified, results have been established according to the NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification taxonomy, and nursing interventions have been suggested according to the NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification taxonomy. Also, certain potential complications, which are infrequent, must be observed and controlled in the blood donation process. Our main aim with this article has been to offer to professionals resources that grant to the caring activity scientific rigor, professional recognition and an unique and valid tool to evaluate the assistance with the best levels of quality for the blood donor.

  7. Amphiphilic NO-donor antioxidants. (United States)

    Chegaev, Konstantin; Lazzarato, Loretta; Rolando, Barbara; Marini, Elisabetta; Lopez, Gloria V; Bertinaria, Massimo; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto


    Models of amphiphilic NO-donor antioxidants 24-26 were designed and synthesized. The products were obtained by linking a lipophilic tail (C(6), C(8), C(10)) with a polar head constituted by the 2,6-dimethoxyphenol antioxidant joined to the NO-donor 3-furoxancarboxamide substructure through a bridge containing a quaternary ammonium group. Compound 23, containing the shortest C(2)-alkyl chain, was also studied as a reference. The antioxidant properties (TBARS and LDL oxidation assays) and the vasodilator properties of the compounds were studied in vitro. The ability of these products to interact with phospholipid vesicles was also investigated by NMR techniques. The results indicate that both activities are modulated by the ability of the compounds to accumulate on phospholipid layers.

  8. Donor conversion rates depend on the assessment tools used in the evaluation of potential organ donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick); E.F.M. Wijdicks (Eelco); M. van der Jagt (Mathieu); J. Bakker (Jan); B. Roozenbeek (Bob); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin)


    textabstractPurpose: It is desirable to identify a potential organ donor (POD) as early as possible to achieve a donor conversion rate (DCR) as high as possible which is defined as the actual number of organ donors divided by the number of patients who are regarded as a potential organ donor. The DC

  9. Dexmedetomidine for an awake fiber-optic intubation of a parturient with Klippel-Feil syndrome, Type I Arnold Chiari malformation and status post released tethered spinal cord presenting for repeat cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay H. Shah


    Full Text Available Patients with Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS have congenital fusion of their cervical vertebrae due to a failure in the normal segmentation of the cervical vertebrae during the early weeks of gestation and also have myriad of other associated anomalies. Because of limited neck mobility, airway management in these patients can be a challenge for the anesthesiologist. We describe a unique case in which a dexmedetomidine infusion was used as sedation for an awake fiber-optic intubation in a parturient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome, who presented for elective cesarean delivery. A 36-yearold female, G2P1A0 with KFS (fusion of cervical vertebrae who had prior cesarean section for breech presentation with difficult airway management was scheduled for repeat cesarean delivery. After obtaining an informed consent, patient was taken in the operating room and non-invasive monitors were applied. Dexmedetomidine infusion was started and after adequate sedation, an awake fiberoptic intubation was performed. General anesthetic was administered after intubation and dexmedetomidine infusion was continued on maintenance dose until extubation. Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS is a rare congenital disorder for which the true incidence is unknown, which makes it even rare to see a parturient with this disease. Patients with KFS usually have other congenital abnormalities as well, sometimes including the whole thoraco-lumbar spine (Type III precluding the use of neuraxial anesthesia for these patients. Obstetric patients with KFS can present unique challenges in administering anesthesia and analgesia, primarily as it relates to the airway and dexmedetomidine infusion has shown promising result to manage the airway through awake fiberoptic intubation without any adverse effects on mother and fetus.

  10. Designing shallow donors in diamond (United States)

    Moussa, Jonathan


    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Veena


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert′s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert′s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.

  12. Public and private donor financing for health in developing countries. (United States)

    Howard, L M


    Among the many variables that influence the outcome of national health status in both developed and developing countries, the availability and efficiency of financing is critical. For 148 developing countries, annual public and private expenditures from domestic sources (1983) were estimated to be approximately $100 billion. For the United States alone, annual public and private costs for medical care are almost five times larger ($478 billion, 1988). In contrast to domestic expenditures, the total flow of donor assistance for health in 1986 was estimated to be $4 billion, approximately 5% of total current domestic expenditures by developing countries. Direct donor assistance for development purposes by the United States Government approximates 0.5% of the US federal budget (1988). Approximately 10% of all United States development assistance is allocated for health, nutrition, and population planning purposes. While the total health sector contribution is on the order of $500 million annually, the US contribution represents about 13% of health contributions by all external donors. In sub-Saharan Africa, all donor health allocations only reach 3.4% of total development assistance. While available data suggest that private and voluntary organizations contribute approximately 20% of total global health assistance, data reporting methods from private agencies are not sufficiently specific to provide accurate global estimates. Clearly, developing countries as a whole are dependent on the efficient use of their own resources because external financing remains a small fraction of total domestic financing. Nevertheless, improvement in health sector performance often depends on the sharing of western experience and technology, services available through external donor cooperation. In this effort, the available supply of donor financing for health is not restricted entirely by donor policy, but also by the official demand for external financing as submitted by developing

  13. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.


    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  14. Assessment of the degree of satisfaction among living kidney donors. (United States)

    Oliveira, B; Mascarenhas, C; Cardoso, G; Sá, J; Casal, M


    Organ donation during life is an act of great altruism, with unique family, social, economic, and psychological impacts. The group of anesthesiologists involved in this program sought to assess the degree of satisfaction among kidney donors between 2007 and 2008 and, in particular, with the anesthetic approach. A telephone survey of kidney donors in 2007 and 2008 complemented a retrospective evaluation of the records of the Acute Pain Unit. Among 32 kidney donors, 2 were excluded as impossible to contact. Their mean age was 44.33 years including 60% women. The degree of relationship was fathers (43.3%), siblings (50%) or spouses (6.7%). Donors who underwent outpatient anesthesia were satisfied (40%) or very satisfied (60%) with the information received, all willing to repeat the experience of kidney donation. The positive aspects were: good reception (83.4%), help to a family member (30%), good information (13.3%), and confidence in the team (6.6%). No downside was mentioned by 50% of donors. Postoperative analgesia was performed using an epidural catheter (93.3%) or patient-controlled analgesia with morphine (6.7%) associated with intravenous paracetamol in all cases. With regard to analgesia using an epidural catheter, the mean total dose of morphine was 7.7 mg and 27.4 mg for 0.2% ropivacaine over an average of 3.32 days. Pain was assessed in the first 24 hours postoperatively using a scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 4 (unbearable pain): 30% reported 0; 60% 1; and 10% 2. The complaints were pruritus (40%), nausea/vomiting (16.7%), constipation (6.7%) and/or urinary retention (3.3%). No donor showed an altered state of consciousness, motor block, or paresthesias. Living kidney donors showed a high degree of overall satisfaction. The anesthesia consultation was extremely helpful with a positive impact on kidney donation. An epidural catheter for analgesia after surgery proved to be effective and appropriate for this type of procedure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  15. Heteroaromatic donors in donor-acceptor-donor based fluorophores facilitate zinc ion sensing and cell imaging. (United States)

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Divya, Kizhumuri P; Jayamurthy, Purushothaman; Mathew, Jomon; Anupama, V N; Philips, Divya Susan; Anees, Palappuravan; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai


    The excited state intra molecular charge transfer (ICT) property of fluorophores has been extensively used for the design of fluorescent chemosensors. Herein, we report the synthesis and properties of three donor–π-acceptor–π-donor (D–π-A–π-D) based molecular probes BP, BT and BA. Two heteroaromatic rings, pyrrole (BP), and thiophene (BT) and a non-heteroaromatic ring N-alkoxy aniline (BA) were selected as donor moieties which were linked to a bipyridine binding site through a vinylic linkage. The heteroaromatic systems BP and BT perform selective and ratiometric emission signalling for zinc ions whereas the non-heteroaromatic probe BA does not. The advantages of the D–π-A–π-D design strategy in the design of ICT based probes for the selective fluorescent ratiometric signalling of zinc ions in biological media is discussed. Further, the use of BP, BT and BA for imaging Zn(2+) ions from MCF-7 cell lines is demonstrated.

  16. Renal Transplantation from Elderly Living Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Akoh


    Full Text Available Acceptance of elderly living kidney donors remains controversial due to the higher incidence of comorbidity and greater risk of postoperative complications. This is a review of publications in the English language between 2000 and 2013 about renal transplantation from elderly living donors to determine trends and effects of donation, and the outcomes of such transplantation. The last decade witnessed a 50% increase in living kidney donor transplants, with a disproportionate increase in donors >60 years. There is no accelerated loss of kidney function following donation, and the incidence of established renal failure (ERF and hypertension among donors is similar to that of the general population. The overall incidence of ERF in living donors is about 0.134 per 1000 years. Elderly donors require rigorous assessment and should have a predicted glomerular filtration rate of at least 37.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the age of 80. Though elderly donors had lower glomerular filtration rate before donation, proportionate decline after donation was similar in both young and elderly groups. The risks of delayed graft function, acute rejection, and graft failure in transplants from living donors >65 years are significantly higher than transplants from younger donors. A multicentred, long-term, and prospective database addressing the outcomes of kidneys from elderly living donors is recommended.

  17. The identification of potential cadaveric organ donors. (United States)

    Thompson, J F; McCosker, C J; Hibberd, A D; Chapman, J R; Compton, J S; Mahony, J F; Mohacsi, P J; MacDonald, G J; Spratt, P M


    Most Australian transplantation programs are severely restricted in their activities by a limited availability of cadaveric donor organs. To investigate possible reasons for this problem, an audit was undertaken over three 12-month periods of all deaths in 13 hospitals in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. From 7406 deaths, 271 patients were classified as having been realistic, medically suitable potential donors. Of these, only 60 (22%) became actual donors. In the other 211 patients, donation did not occur because of unsuccessful resuscitation (30%), permission refusal by relatives (34%), and failure to identify or support the potential donors (36%). If the impediments to organ donation which were identified in this study could be overcome, allowing a greater number of potential donors to become actual donors, the chronic shortage of cadaveric donor organs for transplantation could be at least partly relieved.

  18. Humoral and cellular CMV responses in healthy donors; identification of a frequent population of CMV-specific, CD4+ T cells in seronegative donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeth, Nina; Assing, Kristian; Madsen, Hans O;


    .e., T lymphocyte) assays. Here, we have analyzed the CMV status of 100 healthy blood bank donors using both serology and cellular assays. About half (56%) were found to be CMV seropositive, and they all mounted strong CD8+ and/or moderate CD4+ T cell responses ex vivo against the immunodominant CMV...

  19. Blood donor notification and counseling: Our experience from a tertiary care hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvershi Kotwal


    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the response rate of transfusion-transmissible infection (TTI-reactive donors after notification of their abnormal test results for the year 2012. Materials and Methods: This study is an observational descriptive study performed in our department over a period of 1 year. We evaluated the response rate of TTI-reactive donors after notification of their abnormal test results over 1 year as per the existing strategy (three telephonic and two postal communications. Results: During the study period, among the annual donation of 15,322 units, 464 blood donors were found to be seroreactive. Of these 464 seroreactive cases, 47 were HIV positive, 284 were reactive for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, 49 were Hepatitis C (HCV positive and 84 were VDRL reactive. The TTI-reactive donors (464 for various markers were contacted: 229 (49.4% telephonically and the remaining 235 (50.6% not contacted on phone were informed by post. Of the 229 contacted donors, the response rate was 98.2% as only 225 donors reported (221 on the first, three on second and one on the third call for one to one counseling. The remaining four non-responders were - one HIV and three HBsAg reactive. The remaining 235 (50.6% reactive donors did not respond to any communication. Conclusion: Donor notification and post-donation counseling are an essential aspect of the blood bank that entails provision of information on serological status, assess the impact of test results on the donor and finally referral for medical care. As in our data only 49.4% of the blood donors could be contacted successfully, incomplete demographic details was the major limiting factor in communicating with rest. Of the 229 contacted donors, the response rate was 98.2%. A large majority (94.75% of the notified donors in our study contacted their health care provider when given clear instructions to do so. These results are encouraging because they indicate that a major element of the

  20. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior? (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José


    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB.

  1. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre Anuar I.


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  2. Donor Considerations in Fecal Microbiota Transplantation. (United States)

    Barnes, Danielle; Park, K T


    Tremendous acceleration has been made in understanding the gut microbiota in the past decade and, with it, further understanding of the pathologic role of dysbiosis and the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as therapy. FMT has been studied in many disease states including the most common indication of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), though many questions regarding stool donor selection remain. Though traditionally, one donor has provided stool for one patient, research is underway to explore many donor selection considerations from the use of pooled donor stool to selection of a high diversity donor. It is well-known that dietary intake shapes the gut microbiota and the potential implications of this on FMT donor selection are being explored. Though further high-quality research is needed, optimizing the fecal microbiota inoculum holds great promise.

  3. Presymptomatic testing for adult onset polycystic kidney disease in at-risk kidney transplant donors. (United States)

    Hannig, V L; Hopkins, J R; Johnson, H K; Phillips, J A; Reeders, S T


    Autosomal dominant adult-onset polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is estimated to have an incidence of 1/1,000 and accounts for approximately 10% of all end-stage renal disease in the United States. While relatives are attractive as renal donors due to their availability and the improved transplant success associated with living-related donors, they may coincidentally be at risk for ADPKD. Accurate presymptomatic testing for at-risk potential donors is critical for both the donor and the recipient. We report here 2 families in which presymptomatic testing for ADPKD was accomplished by DNA linkage analysis on several potential renal donors prior to transplant. This resulted in the protection of both donors and recipients by preventing the transplantation of a kidney affected by ADPKD. Thorough counseling prior to DNA analysis (including discussion of accuracy and possible testing outcomes of presymptomatic diagnosis of ADPKD, diagnosis of noncarrier status, false paternity, and non-informative study) was essential to provide informed consent and preserve confidentiality within the family. Confidentiality for potential donors found presymptomatically to be affected (with a 94% or greater probability) was especially difficult to maintain.

  4. Opting out: confidentiality and availability of an 'alibi' for potential living kidney donors in the USA. (United States)

    Thiessen, Carrie; Kim, Yunsoo A; Formica, Richard; Bia, Margaret; Kulkarni, Sanjay


    Ethicists and guidelines have suggested that potential living kidney donors who withdraw from evaluation be offered an 'alibi.' We sought to determine what potential living kidney donors are told about their ability to opt out, alibi availability and postwithdrawal confidentiality. We reviewed 148 consent forms for living kidney donor evaluation from US transplant centres that performed >5 living kidney transplants in 2010-2011 (response rate 87%). We found that while 98% of centres used evaluation consent forms that indicated that the donor could withdraw, only 21% of these documents offered an alibi. Another 23% of centres' consent forms indicated that the transplant team would be willing to inform the intended recipient that an individual was not a potential donor. Relatively few consent documents explicitly addressed the confidentiality of the donor's health information (31%), candidacy status (18%), decision (24%) or reasons (23%) following withdrawal. To preserve potential donors' autonomy and relationships, we advocate that all transplant centres offer general alibis in their evaluation consent forms. We conclude by offering recommendations for evaluation consent discussions of opting out, alibis and postwithdrawal confidentiality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  5. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann


    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation. PMID:27801820

  6. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque Nodal Arruebarrena


    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management. It has been defined as the patient in Glasgow coma with scale higher or equal to 8 who doesn´t present contradictions for transplant (possible donor and who has been diagnosed of encephalic death. This document reviews and updates concepts, lists indications and contraindications for different organs donation, clinical assessment of the donor and its treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  7. Donor Centers in a Gaussian Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang


    We study a neutral donor center (D0) and a negatively charged donor center (D-) trapped by a quantum dot, which is subjected to a Gaussian potential confinement. Calculations are made by using the method of numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonian within the effective-mass approximation. The dependence of the ground state of the neutral shallow donor and the negatively charged donor on the dot size and the potential depth is investigated. The same calculations performed with the parabolic approximation of the Gaussian potential lead to the results that are qualitatively and quantitatively different from each other.

  8. Gamete donation: ethical implications for donors. (United States)

    Shenfield, Francoise


    The interests of gamete donors have only recently been recognized in assisted reproduction; traditionally, the interests of the patients (typically a couple) and the prospective child are paramount. However, assisted reproduction would not be possible without donors, and the simple utilitarian view would be to place their interests first to maximize the availability of the practice. There are several ethical issues on both sides of the donor--recipient equation, some of which are mutual and others are in conflict. For example, the word 'donation' implies there is no payment. Informed consent for donation is essential if the autonomy of the donor is to be respected, and includes information about the results of screening. This is a sensitive issue, especially when pathology is found in a donor who is not being screened for his or her own immediate benefit. Counselling may result in donors refusing to take part, but may also lead to selection by the person recruiting the donors, sometimes as a consequence of examining the motivation of the donor. In this case, the main problem is the ethical basis of the selection process. Other aspects of gamete donation may lead to a conflict of interests between the donor, the recipients and even the prospective child, particularly in terms of anonymity and the information that is made available about the specific circumstances of donation. Implications and support counselling are essential tools in achieving an acceptable balance for all parties involved.

  9. [Living donor liver transplantation in adults]. (United States)

    Neumann, U P; Neuhaus, P; Schmeding, M


    The worldwide shortage of adequate donor organs implies that living donor liver transplantation represents a valuable alternative to cadaveric transplantation. In addition to the complex surgical procedure the correct identification of eligible donors and recipients plays a decisive role in living donor liver transplantation. Donor safety must be of ultimate priority and overrules all other aspects involved. In contrast to the slightly receding numbers in Europe and North America, in recent years Asian programs have enjoyed constantly increasing living donor activity. The experience of the past 15 years has clearly demonstrated that technical challenges of both bile duct anastomosis and venous outflow of the graft significantly influence postoperative outcome. While short-term in-hospital morbidity remains increased compared to cadaveric transplantation, long-term survival of both graft and patient are comparable or even better than in deceased donor transplantation. Especially for patients expecting long waiting times under the MELD allocation system, living donor liver transplantation offers an excellent therapeutic alternative. Expanding the so-called "Milan criteria" for HCC patients with the option for living donor liver transplantation is currently being controversially debated.

  10. Historical perspective of living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Sheung Tat Fan


    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has gone through its formative years and established as a legitimate treatment when a deceased donor liver graft is not timely or simply not available at all. Nevertheless,LDLT is characterized by its technical complexity and ethical controversy. These are the consequences of a single organ having to serve two subjects, the donor and the recipient, instantaneously. The transplant community has a common ground on assuring donor safety while achieving predictable recipient success. With this background, a reflection of the development of LDLT may be appropriate to direct future research and patient- care efforts on this life-saving treatment alternative.

  11. Donor Characteristics of Pancreas Transplantation in Australia and New Zealand: A Cohort Study 1984-2014 (United States)

    Peng, Xi (Alex); Kelly, Patrick J.; Mulley, William R.; Pleass, Henry; Pilmore, Helen; Webster, Angela C.


    Background The aim of this study was to audit the characteristics of pancreas donors over time in Australia and New Zealand. Pancreas transplantation was introduced in Australian and New Zealand in 1984. Methods We analyzed data from the Australia and New Zealand Islet and Pancreas Transplant Registry, 1984 to 2014. We investigated the variation of donor characteristics of sex, age, body mass index, smoking status, blood group, multiple organ donation, cytomegalovirus status, terminal creatinine, hypertension, and cause of death for pancreas transplantation over time. We used χ2 test (Fisher test when necessary) or analysis of variance to test difference for categorical or continuous characteristics, respectively. Results There were 628 pancreas donors from 1984 to 2014. Donor body mass index (from 21.9 to 24.0, P < 0.001) and age (from 23.9 to 28.5, P = 0.02) have both increased while terminal creatinine has decreased (86.3 to 73.3, P = 0.01) from 1995 to 2014. In the meantime, the proportions of donors with hypertension (from 19% to 1%, P < 0.001) and who were smokers (from 54% to 15%, P < 0.001) have decreased. Profile of cause of donor death has also changed over time (P = 0.06) with increase in cerebral hypoxia/ischemia (from 3% to 17%) and reductions in intracranial hemorrhage (27% to 13%). Conclusions Many donor characteristics have changed over time. The most significant changes appear to reflect changes in the general population, rather than changes in donor selection. PMID:27795991

  12. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund


    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  13. ConA 重复给药建立 ACLF 免疫状态动态转变的小鼠模型%Establishment of Model of Dynamic Change of Immune Status of ACLF Induced by ConA Repeated Administration in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠楠; 杨淑殷; 陈柳莹; 尹珊; 王十锦; 刘三海; 王蓓蓓; 汪铮; 李海


    背景:慢加急性肝衰竭(ACLF)是我国常见的肝衰竭类型,目前尚缺乏能有效模拟 ACLF 免疫状态动态转变的动物模型。目的:通过刀豆球蛋白 A(ConA)重复给药,建立模拟 ACLF 免疫状态动态转变的动物模型。方法:小鼠随机分为对照组和 ConA 重复给药组,ConA 重复给药组小鼠给予球后内眦静脉丛注射 ConA 15 mg/ kg,每隔48 h 一次,共5次,对照组给予等体积0.9% NaCl 溶液。CBA 法检测外周血 IL-6、IL-10、IL-12、TNF-α、IFN-γ、MCP-1水平,并测定 IL-10/ TNF-α比值;流式细胞术检测外周血中单核细胞 HLA-DR 表达、CD4+ T 细胞数量及其比例以及 PD-1表达。结果:随着给药次数增加,ConA 重复给药组小鼠外周血细胞因子从促炎细胞因子为主转变成抗炎细胞因子为主。与对照组相比,ConA 重复给药组外周血中单核细胞 HLA-DR 表达下降(P <0.05);CD4+ T 细胞数量和比例下降(P <0.05),PD-1表达上调(P <0.05)。结论:本研究通过 ConA 重复刺激成功建立了模拟 ACLF 免疫状态从全身炎症反应综合征(SIRS)到代偿性抗炎反应综合征(CARS)动态转变的动物模型。%Background:Acute-on-chronic liver failure( ACLF)is a commonly seen liver failure in China,and lacking an animal model that can effectively simulate the dynamic change of immune status of ACLF. Aims:To establish an animal model that can simulate dynamic change of immune status of ACLF by repeated administration of concanavalin A(ConA). Methods:Mice were randomly divided into normal control group and ConA repeated administration group. Mice in ConA repeated administration group were injected with ConA 15 mg/ kg through retrobulbar angular vein every 48 hours for 5 times,and mice in control group were injected with same volume of 0. 9% NaCl solution. Serum levels of IL-6,IL-10,IL- 12,TNF-α,IFN-γ,MCP-1 in peripheral blood were assessed by CBA assay,and the

  14. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, G. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)], E-mail:; Wiebe, E. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada); Walji, A.H. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta (Canada); Bigam, D.L. [Department of Surgery, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)


    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.

  15. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison. (United States)

    Weeber, Stan


    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  16. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.


    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  17. Absence or presence? Complexities in the donor narratives of single mothers using sperm donation (United States)

    Zadeh, S.; Freeman, T.; Golombok, S.


    research on donor conception. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The study offers greater insight into the factors influencing the donor narratives produced in single-mother families. It has implications for the counselling and treatment of single women seeking fertility treatment with donor gametes in both anonymous and identity-release programmes. Given that the number of clinics offering identity-release programmes worldwide seems to be increasing, the finding that single women may have varying preferences with regard to donor type, and varying interest levels with regard to donor information, is important. It is recommended that clinicians and other fertility clinic staff guard against making assumptions about such preferences and any thoughts and feelings about the donor or donor information on the basis of marital status. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was funded by the Wellcome Trust [097857/Z/11/Z]. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. PMID:26545622

  18. Human artificial insemination by donor and the Australian community. (United States)

    Rawson, G


    Findings from a national sample of 989 persons and an 'Opinion Leader' survey of 279 executive and ordinary members of 40 organizations identified as having an interest in AID showed that Australians overall approved of the procedure for helping infertile married couples, only 17% of the national sample unequivocally disapproving. Key variables in determining opinions on AID included age, education, country of origin, family status, religion and exposure to infertility. However only 15% of national respondents accepted that AID should be made available to any unmarried women on request although opinions were more evenly spread on its provision to unmarried women in a long-term relationship with a man. Over one-third of 'Opinion Leaders' believed that children should never be told of their AID conception, 13% that they should be given identifying and one third non-identifying information on the donor. A majority believed that AID should be directly carried out or supervised by doctors in hospital clinics. There was strong opposition to business or voluntary organization involvement. Suggestions for changes in the law, while emphasizing protection of donors, recipients, children, persons who ran AID programs and control over futuristic research activities, often showed a misunderstanding of the legal process. The major reasons for exclusion of donors were genetic defects and medical problems although many behavioural characteristics were mentioned. Views on recipients' rights to choose the sex of the AID child were marginally against the proposition.

  19. Predictors of iron levels in 14,737 Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, Andreas Stribolt; Sørensen, Cecilie Juul; Pedersen, Ole Birger


    BACKGROUND: Dietary studies show a relationship between the intake of iron enhancers and inhibitors and iron stores in the general population. However, the impact of dietary factors on the iron stores of blood donors, whose iron status is affected by blood donations, is incompletely understood...

  20. Comparison of nutritional parameters after abo incompatible living donor renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Seok Oh


    By the end of the first year, serum hemoglobin, calcium, albumin, HDL, bilirubin, AST, ALT were increased statistically. But serum phosphate, globulin were decreased statistically. In conclusion, successful ABO incompatible living donor kidney transplantation would restore a normal nutritional status even though the patients were performed plasmapheresis during the pre-transplant period.

  1. Medical Students' Perceptions of the Body Donor as a "First Patient" or "Teacher": A Pilot Study (United States)

    Bohl, Michael; Bosch, Peter; Hildebrandt, Sabine


    University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) students attending a seminar on the history and ethics of anatomical dissection were fascinated by a report on the dissection room experience in Thailand that relates the body donor's status as a teacher. The students felt that they had naturally adopted the "body as teacher" approach in their…

  2. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy to optimize live donors' comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warle, M.C.; Berkers, A.W.; Langenhuijsen, J.F.; Jagt, M.F.P. van der; Dooper, P.M.M.; Kloke, H.J.; Pilzecker, D.; Renes, S.H.; Wever, K.E.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; D'Ancona, F.C.H.


    Nowadays, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the gold standard to procure live donor kidneys. As the relationship between donor and recipient loosens, it becomes of even greater importance to optimize safety and comfort of the surgical procedure. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum has been s

  3. Focus on the donor : aspects of stem cell donation and the donor search process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, Suzanna Maria van


    This thesis focuses on the experience of haematopoietic stem cell donation by unrelated and related donors (minors and adults), aspects of donor care management, and the process of the unrelated donor search. The theme linking these topics is providing patients in need of haematopoietic stem cell

  4. Prevalence of Syphilis among Blood and Stem Cell Donors in Saudi Arabia: An Institutional Experience (United States)

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Al amro, Mohamed; Pereira, Winston Costa; Alsuhaibani, Omar


    Introduction Syphilis is one of the known transfusion-transmissible infections and causes 100,000 deaths yearly, with around 90% of these deaths occurring in the developing world. Little data is available regarding the prevalence of syphilis among Saudi blood and stem cell donors. We conducted a survey on the incidence of syphilis among all blood and stem cell donors. Methods This study was conducted at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in the 10 years period data during 2006–2015. Data were analyzed about full history, physical examination, age, sex, weight, profession, marital status, number of the donations, data of last donation, having a relation who received blood transfusion, as well as the screening test results of the donated blood. We determined the seroprevalence of infection and compared by sex and other variable through frequency analysis, Chi square, Fisher, and prevalence ratios. Results Approximately 240,000 blood donors were screened and studied in the period of study. Most of the blood donors were male (98.3%) and 89% of them were citizens of Saudi Arabia. According to our findings, we estimated that, in the last 10 years, approximately 0.044% of all the blood donors were syphilis positive cases. No cases were detected as positive for syphilis among stem cell donors. Only 60 blood donors tested positive for syphilis. In addition, we studied 202 stem cell transplant donors during the same period, of which 59% were male and none texted positive for syphilis. Conclusions A concerted effort between the government, health care providers, regulatory bodies and accreditation agencies have all contributed in eliminating the risk of spreading syphilis among blood donors.

  5. Role of basic studies in expanding the donor pool for liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Chen; Ying Zhang; Lin Zhou; Hai-Yang Xie; Shu-Sen Zheng


    BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is an effective treatment for end-stage liver disease, but a huge gap remains between the number of people who need a liver transplant and the number of organs available. In order to maximize donor organ access for adult and pediatric recipients, novel surgical and liver replacement procedures have evolved. Newer surgical techniques include split cadaveric liver transplantation and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). With marginal and abnormal donor livers, despite tremendous advances in surgical technology, individual surgical procedure can not be completely brought into play unless effective measurements and basal studies are undertaken. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of MEDLINE and the Web of Science database using "liver transplantation" and"expanding donor pool"was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS: Therapies directed toward scavenging O2-, inhibiting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and/or immuno-neutralizing tumor necrosis factor-alpha may prove useful in limiting the liver injury induced by surgical procedures such as split liver transplantation or LDLT. Improved donor organ perfusion and preservation methods, modulation of inlfammatory cytokines, energy status enhancement, microcirculation amelioration, and antioxidant usage can improve non-heart beating donor liver transplantation. Effective measures have been taken to improve the local conditions of donor cells with steatosis, including usage of fat-derived hormone and inlfammatory mediators, ischemic preconditioning, depletion of Kupffer cells, and cytokine antibody and gene therapy. Double-ifltration plasmapheresis can effectively reduce HCV viremia and prevent HCV recurrence in patient with high HCV RNA levels after LDLT. CONCLUSIONS: Shortage of grafts and poor function of marginal and abnormal donor grafts put many patients at risk of death in waiting for liver transplantation. Advances in surgical

  6. Behavior assessment of blood donors facing the risk of HIV infection, Abidjan, Cotê D'Ivoire, 2001-2002. (United States)

    Minga, Albert K; Huët, Charlotte; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Bonard, Dominique; Gourvellec, G; Coulibaly, Ali; Konaté, Seidou; Dabis, Francois; Salamon, Roger


    Despite precautions taken to guarantee blood safety, in the National Blood Transfusion Center (CNTS) of Abidjan, about 30 regular blood donors are detected with HIV seroconversion each year, two-thirds of them men. A survey through face-to-face interviews was carried out at the CNTS of Abidjan from September 2001 to March 2002 among HIV-positive and HIV-negative regular blood donors, informed about their serologic status. HIV-negative regular blood donors informed about their serologic status since a median time of 67 months (n = 50) disclosed more risky behaviors such as multiple sexual partners (68%) than HIV-positive blood donors informed about their status (n = 112) since a median time of 35 months (41%) (P < 0.001). Condoms were systematically used by 17% of HIV-negative blood donors and 55% of HIV-positive blood donors (P < 0.001). Enhanced counseling and awareness could reduce in the future the number of cases of seroconversion among regular blood donors and improve their subsequent behavior. Blood donors who have unprotected sex with partners of unknown HIV serologic status and especially with casual partners are strongly exposed to HIV transmission and should be discouraged to continue giving blood, after adequate counseling.

  7. Fecal microbiota transplantation and donor standardization. (United States)

    Owens, Casey; Broussard, Elizabeth; Surawicz, Christina


    Clostridium difficile diarrhea is a common and severe infectious disease. Antibiotics, which are standard initial treatment, are less effective for treating refractory or recurrent infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation, where healthy donor stool is transplanted into a patient, is an alternative to antibiotic therapy that requires standardization for donors and patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars


    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...

  9. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons. (United States)

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L


    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors.

  10. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.


    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  11. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.


    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  12. All-photonic quantum repeaters (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong


    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  13. Electrical properties of donors in gallium phosphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poedoer, B. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Research Lab. for Inorganic Chemistry); Pfeiffer, J.; Csontos, L.; Nador, N. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Research Inst. for Technical Physics); Deak, F. (Eoetvoes Lorand Tudomanyegyetem, Budapest (Hungary). Atomfizikai Tanszek)


    The thermal ionization energies of S, Te, and Si donors in GaP and their dependences on impurity concentration are determined from an anlysis of Hall effect data. An ellipsoidal six-valley model is used incorporating the effects of valley-orbit splitting of the ground state of the P-site donors. A careful characterization of the samples ensures that results are obtained on samples containing only one type of dominant donor. The thermal ionization energies of the above donors extrapolated to infinite dilution are (105.0 +- 5.7), (94.1 +- 2.6), and (83.5 +- 1.7) meV, respectively. The valley-orbit splitting energies of S and Te donors are also obtained, amounting to (34 +- 9) and (23.5 +- 9) meV, respectively.

  14. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M


    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev


    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  16. Enhanced CRISPR/Cas9-mediated biallelic genome targeting with dual surrogate reporter-integrated donors. (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Xu, Kun; Ren, Chonghua; Li, Xinyi; Lv, Huijiao; Han, Furong; Wei, Zehui; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Zhiying


    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system has recently emerged as a simple, yet powerful genome engineering tool, which has been widely used for genome modification in various organisms and cell types. However, screening biallelic genome-modified cells is often time-consuming and technically challenging. In this study, we incorporated two different surrogate reporter cassettes into paired donor plasmids, which were used as both the surrogate reporters and the knock-in donors. By applying our dual surrogate reporter-integrated donor system, we demonstrate high frequency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated biallelic genome integration in both human HEK293T and porcine PK15 cells (34.09% and 18.18%, respectively). Our work provides a powerful genetic tool for assisting the selection and enrichment of cells with targeted biallelic genome modification. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  17. Donor Conception and "Passing," or; Why Australian Parents of Donor-Conceived Children Want Donors Who Look Like Them. (United States)

    Wong, Karen-Anne


    This article explores the processes through which Australian recipients select unknown donors for use in assisted reproductive technologies and speculates on how those processes may affect the future life of the donor-conceived person. I will suggest that trust is an integral part of the exchange between donors, recipients, and gamete agencies in donor conception and heavily informs concepts of relatedness, race, ethnicity, kinship, class, and visibility. The decision to be transparent (or not) about a child's genetic parentage affects recipient parents' choices of donor, about who is allowed to "know" children's genetic backgrounds, and how important it is to be able to "pass" as an unassisted conception. In this way, recipients must trust the process, institutions, and individuals involved in their treatment, as well as place trust in the future they imagine for their child. The current market for donor gametes reproduces normative conceptions of the nuclear family, kinship, and relatedness by facilitating "matching" donors to recipients by phenotype and cultural affinities. Recipient parents who choose not to prioritize "matching," and actively disclose the process of children's conceptions, may embark on a project of queering heteronormative family structures and place great trust in both their own children and changing social attitudes to reduce stigma and generate acceptance for non-traditional families.

  18. 1000例献血者献血前健康检查结果的分析%The analysis of health examination results of 1000 cases of blood donors before donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To study the health examination results of 1000 donors before blood donation.Methods The health examination results of 1000 donors who donate blood from June to December 2014 were analyzed.Results Voluntary, unpaid blood donors for 850 cases, family mutual blood donation or replacement donations are for 150 cases, the first-time blood donors in 250 cases, 750 cases of again or repeated blood donors, and for the first time in blood donors in the passing rate of 30%(228/760) was significantly lower than 60%of 144/240 again in blood donors in, significant difference has statistical significance (P<0.05), blood before the elimination rate was 16%(160/1000). Conclusion In the blood before, on all blood donors give health examination can keep abreast of blood donors health status, disease and potentially dangerous, to keep the donors health, choose the safety and health of blood donors blood donation, to ensure the blood quality and blood of security, which is helpful to improve the quality of blood.%目的:对1000例献血者献血前健康检查结果给予探讨。方法:随机对本站献血屋2014年6月至12月1000例献血者献血前健康检查结果给予分析。结果:自愿无偿献血者为850例,家庭互助献血或替代献血者为150例,其中首次献血者250例,再次或多次献血者750例,且首次献血人群的合格率30%(228/760)为明显低于再次献血人群的60%(144/240),差异显著,具有统计学意义(P<0.05),献血前淘汰率为16%(160/1000)。结论:在献血前,对所有献血者给予健康检查,可以及时了解献血者的健康状态,发现相关疾病及潜在危险,保障献血者的身体健康,选择健康安全的献血者献血,确保血液质量和受血者的安全,有助于提高血液质量。

  19. Positive serology for viral hepatitis and donor self-exclusion in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia De Luca Maccarini


    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the great advances in serological testing for transfusion-transmitted infections, the selection of blood donors by blood bank operators remains the only way to avoid transmission within the testing window period. Part of this selection is the self-exclusion form, on which the donors can exclude their blood from donation without any explanation. This study assessed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to positivity for viral hepatitis and to the use of the confidential self-exclusion (CSE form. Methods This transversal study analyzed the data collected from blood donors' files in a hospital in Southern Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the clinical and epidemiological variables related to positive serologies of viral hepatitis and to whether the donor was self-excluded. Results Of the 3,180 donors included in this study, 0.1% tested positive for HBsAg, 2.1% for anti-HBc, and 0.9% for anti-HCV. When the 93 donors with positive serologies for viral hepatitis were compared with those who were negative, a greater proportion of the positive serology group was found to have had a history of blood transfusions (OR=4.908; 95%CI=1.628 - 14.799; p<0.01, had repeatedly donated (OR=2.147; 95%CI=1.236 - 3.729; p<0.01, and used the CSE form for self-exclusion (OR=7.139; 95%CI=2.045 - 24.923; p<0.01. No variables were independently associated with self-exclusion. Conclusions A history of blood transfusion, repeated donations, and self-exclusion are factors that should be considered during viral hepatitis screenings in blood banks.

  20. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking. (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter


    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  1. Adverse events and retention of donors of double red cell units by apheresis (United States)

    Keshelashvili, Ketevan; O’Meara, Alix; Stern, Martin; Jirout, Zuzana; Pehlic, Vildana; Holbro, Andreas; Buser, Andreas; Sigle, Jörg; Infanti, Laura


    Background Safety of double-erythrocyte (2RBC) collection and reasons for ceasing 2RBC donation were retrospectively analysed in the blood donor population of Basel, Switzerland. Methods Donors with at least 1 2RBC apheresis were included in the study. Minimal requirements were Hb ≥140 g/L and body weight ≥70 kg; serum ferritin (SF) values were measured routinely, but were not part of the selection criteria. 2RBC collections were performed with ALYX devices at 6-month intervals. Adverse events (AEs) were systematically recorded and classified according to the ISBT EHN 2008 criteria. Data of procedures were retrieved from the ALYX software. Demographics, apheresis data and AEs were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results Data of 4,377 2RBC aphereses performed in 793 donors (779 males) between 1st January 2003 and 31st May 2015 were evaluated. Mean donor age at first 2RBC donation was 44 years (standard deviation [SD] 21), median number of donations was 4 (interquartile range [IQR] 8); 32% of the donors underwent a single procedure. There were 161 AEs, mostly local haematomas (55%) and vasovagal reactions (20%); fatigue was reported in 6% of the cases and was more frequent than citrate toxicity. Two severe AEs were observed. The most frequent reasons for abandoning 2RBC donation were low SF levels and donor choice (both 11%), but most donors simply did not reply to invitations (16%). Overall, procedure-related causes (AEs, low SF levels, no time for apheresis, inadequate venous access) were observed in 14% of the cases. At the end of the observation period, 40% of the donors were still active blood donors, but only 20% were donating 2RBC. Discussion 2RBC donation is overall safe. Donor retention was low over a period of 11 years. An important reason for abandoning 2RBC was the detection of low SF levels. The impact of fatigue on donor retention and the course of iron stores after repeated 6-monthly 2RBC apheresis require further investigation. PMID:27136442

  2. Donor deactivation in silicon nanostructures (United States)

    Björk, Mikael T.; Schmid, Heinz; Knoch, Joachim; Riel, Heike; Riess, Walter


    The operation of electronic devices relies on the density of free charge carriers available in the semiconductor; in most semiconductor devices this density is controlled by the addition of doping atoms. As dimensions are scaled down to achieve economic and performance benefits, the presence of interfaces and materials adjacent to the semiconductor will become more important and will eventually completely determine the electronic properties of the device. To sustain further improvements in performance, novel field-effect transistor architectures, such as FinFETs and nanowire field-effect transistors, have been proposed as replacements for the planar devices used today, and also for applications in biosensing and power generation. The successful operation of such devices will depend on our ability to precisely control the location and number of active impurity atoms in the host semiconductor during the fabrication process. Here, we demonstrate that the free carrier density in semiconductor nanowires is dependent on the size of the nanowires. By measuring the electrical conduction of doped silicon nanowires as a function of nanowire radius, temperature and dielectric surrounding, we show that the donor ionization energy increases with decreasing nanowire radius, and that it profoundly modifies the attainable free carrier density at values of the radius much larger than those at which quantum and dopant surface segregation effects set in. At a nanowire radius of 15 nm the carrier density is already 50% lower than in bulk silicon due to the dielectric mismatch between the conducting channel and its surroundings.

  3. Hemochromatosis: the new blood donor. (United States)

    Leitman, Susan F


    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) due to homozygosity for the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene is a common inherited iron overload disorder in whites of northern European descent. Hepcidin deficiency, the hallmark of the disorder, leads to dysregulated intestinal iron absorption and progressive iron deposition in the liver, heart, skin, endocrine glands, and joints. Survival is normal if organ damage is prevented by early institution of phlebotomy therapy. HH arthropathy is the symptom most affecting quality of life and can be debilitating. Genotype screening in large population studies has shown that the clinical penetrance of C282Y homozygosity is highly variable and can be very low, with up to 50% of women and 20% of men showing a silent phenotype. Targeted population screening for the HFE C282Y mutation is not recommended at present, but might be reconsidered as a cost-effective approach to management if counseling and care were better organized and standardized. Referral of patients to the blood center for phlebotomy therapy and use of HH donor blood for transfusion standardizes treatment, minimizes treatment costs, and may benefit society as a whole. Physician practices should be amended such that HH subjects are more frequently referred to the blood center for therapy.

  4. Beyond sperm cells: a qualitative study on constructed meanings of the sperm donor in lesbian families. (United States)

    Wyverkens, E; Provoost, V; Ravelingien, A; De Sutter, P; Pennings, G; Buysse, A


    What meanings do lesbian couples construct regarding their sperm donor? For some parents, the donor was increasingly presented as a person, whereas for other parents, the donor was seen as an instrument from the moment they received the sperm donation. Few studies specifically focus on how lesbian couples deal with the issue of third-party anonymous gamete donation. It is often assumed that they have fewer difficulties than heterosexual couples with the involvement of a male procreator, since their status as a donor conception family is 'socially visible' and there is no social father who fears exclusion. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 lesbian couples (20 participants), recruited via the Ghent University Hospital. All couples had at least one child, conceived through anonymous donor insemination, between 7 and 10 years old. Within the data corpus, a particular data set was analyzed where couples referred to their donor and his position in their family. Step-by-step inductive thematic analysis was performed resulting in themes that are grounded in the data. All phases of the analysis were followed by team discussion. This study reveals different donor constructs, indicating different ways of dealing with the third-party involvement in the family. Some parents diminish the role of the donor throughout family life and continue to present him as an instrument: something they needed in order to become parents. Others show an increasing interest in the donor as the children mature, which results in a more personalized account of the donor. In our qualitative cross-sectional study, we collected retrospectively constructed stories. Longitudinal qualitative and quantitative research is required to allow for an extrapolation of the conclusions made. This study shows how the concept of the donor is constructed within lesbian families and how it is challenged by the child's developing personality and features. When counseling prospective parents, it could

  5. hiv prevalence and demographic risk factors in blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 2, 2002 ... blood donors were pre-test counselled and 90% were post test counselled in 200Ö. Conclusions: HIV ... Counselling and serological methods: All potential donors ..... counselling blood donors adds an important advantage in.

  6. Our experience with deceased organ donor maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Meena


    Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.

  7. Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimul A Shah


    Full Text Available The present review outlines the principles of living donor liver transplantation, donor workup, procedure and outcomes. Living donation offers a solution to the growing gap between the need for liver transplants and the limited availability of deceased donor organs. With a multidisciplinary team focused on donor safety and experienced surgeons capable of performing complex resection/reconstruction procedures, donor morbidity is low and recipient outcomes are comparable with results of deceased donor transplantation.

  8. The JAK2V617F tyrosine kinase mutation in blood donors with upper-limit haematocrit levels (United States)

    Tagariello, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Rosanna; Sartori, Roberto; Zanotto, Daniela; Belvini, Donata; Radossi, Paolo; Risato, Renzo; Roveroni, Giovanni; Salviato, Roberta; Tassinari, Cristina; Toffano, Nunzio


    Background It is not rare to observe in blood donors a level of haematocrit (Hct) above or close to the highest normal limit. In the case of blood donors the diagnosis and clinical evaluation of this alteration may be complicated by regular blood donations that can mask an underlying disease such as polycythaemia vera. Recently a single acquired mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) on chromosome 9 was identified and it was found that the incidence of this mutation was high in patients with polycythaemia vera. Material and Methods From the January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006 all consecutive donors with a Hct above 50% if males (n=84) and 46% if females (n=19) underwent JAK2 mutation analysis. Seventy-nine donors (59 males and 20 females) whose Hct was normal at their last blood donation were randomly selected and used as controls. Results Among the group of blood donors with a high Hct, we identified one donor who was positive for the JAK2 mutation. This man had a Hct of 50.6% at his last donation, while his average Hct in the preceding year was 51.7%. The prevalence of the JAK2 mutation could be estimated to be 1%, 0.6% or 0.02% in the three different populations considered: donors with a Hct level above the upper limit of normal, all tested donors or the entire donor cohort attending our transfusion service, respectively. Conclusions The present study suggests that apparently healthy subjects with repeatedly high levels of Hct may have the acquired mutation in JAK2. Laboratory screening tests for JAK2 may be offered to blood donors at transfusion services with expertise in molecular genetics. PMID:19503632

  9. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul


    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  10. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of (United States)

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure


    Online crowdfunding platforms like and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations.

  11. Responses to recipient and donor B cells by genetically donor T cells from human haploidentical chimeras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, S.; Sampson, H.; Buckley, R.


    Following administration of haploidentical stem cells to infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), mature T cells of donor karyotype appear later in the recipient without causing graft-versus-host disease. To investigate the effect of the host environment on the responsiveness of these genetically donor T cells, blood B and T lymphocytes from 6 SCID recipients, their parental donors and unrelated controls were purified by double SRBC rosetting. T cells were stimulated by irradiated B cells at a 1:1 ratio in 6 day cultures. Engrafted T cells of donor karyotype gave much smaller responses to irradiated genetically recipient B cells than did fresh donor T cells. Moreover, engrafted T cells of donor karyotype from two of the three SCIDs who are longest post-transplantation responded more vigorously (14,685 and 31,623 cpm) than fresh donor T cells (5141 and 22,709 cpm) to donor B cells. These data indicate that T lymphocytes which have matured from donor stem cells in the recipient microenvironment behave differently from those that have matured in the donor.

  12. Role of signal-to-cut-off ratios of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody by enzyme immunoassays along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Arora


    Full Text Available Background: The use of elevated signal-to-cut off ratios (S/CO as an alternate to further supplemental testing (i.e., RIBA has been included in the guidelines provided by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention for HCV diagnostic purposes since 2003. With availability of screening by NAT and non availability of RIBA, further confirmation of HCV infection has been possible at the molecular level (RNA. Aims: To study the role of S/CO ratios of anti hepatitis C virus antibody detection by enzyme immunoassays (EIA along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors. Methods: In this study we reviewed the donor screening status for anti HCV from January 2013 to May 2014. All the donations were screened for anti HCV with fourth generation ELISA (BioRad Monolisa Ag-Ab Ultra as well as with ID NAT (Procleix Ultrio. The S/CO ratio of all the anti-HCV reactive samples were analysed for their presence of HCV RNA. Results: On screening 21,115 donors for HCV, 83 donors (0.39% were found reactive on pilot tube and repeat plasma bag testing (S/Co ratio ≥1 by ELISA. 41 donors were HCV RNA reactive with ID-NAT. 4 samples out of 41 were NAT yields and 37 were concordant reactive with ELISA. The S/Co ratio of anti-HCV reactive samples ranged from 0.9-11.1 [mean = 5.1; SD ΁ 2.9] whereas S/Co ratio of anti HCV and NAT reactive samples (concordant positives ranged from 4.1-11.1 [mean 7.3]. In our analysis we found that S/CO ratio of 4 showed positive predictive value (PPV and sensitivity of 100%. Summary/Conclusions: Our study showed that S/CO of 4 for anti HCV on ELISA would have maximum positive predictive value of having donor with HCV RNA. S/CO ratio of 4 is very close to 3.8 which was the CDC guideline. The presence of anti-HCV does not distinguish between current or past infections but a confirmed anti-HCV-positive result indicates the need for counseling and medical evaluation for HCV infection.

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the use of BMT and PBSCT, see If you are ... registry of volunteers willing to be donors at . Category Science & Technology License Standard ...

  14. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  15. A Time for Flexible Donor Agreements. (United States)

    Fischer, Gerald B.


    Discusses why volatile markets and new donor expectations make now a good time to rework payout rates and gift agreements to bolster financial and strategic performance. Suggests seven options for action. (EV)

  16. Management of the multiple organ donor. (United States)

    Grebenik, C R; Hinds, C J


    The need for cadaveric organs for transplantation is increasing. This article provides guidelines for the identification of potential organ donors and suggests suitable principles of management. The physiological changes after brain death are briefly reviewed.

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on Jul 19, ... her German stem cell donor for the first time in Germany. #priceless - Duration: 1:04. Jacque Brohawn ...

  18. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

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    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.


    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the use of BMT and PBSCT, see If you are ... registry of volunteers willing to be donors at . Category Science & Technology License Standard ...

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License ... - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 33,509 views 49:19 Stem Cell Fraud: ...

  3. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amudha Palanisamy


    Full Text Available We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  4. Donor Transmission of Melanoma Following Renal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn T. Chen


    Full Text Available Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  5. Donor transmission of melanoma following renal transplant. (United States)

    Chen, Kathryn T; Olszanski, Anthony; Farma, Jeffrey M


    Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  6. Increasing demands on today's blood donors


    McClelland, W. M.


    Recently in Northern Ireland there has been a rapid increase in demand for a variety of blood components. To meet this need a large proportion of routine blood donations must be processed at the Transfusion Centre. In addition, several blood components are collected direct from donors by apheresis techniques. Apheresis is currently restricted to the collection of components from highly selected donors, but in future this method is likely to be employed for collection of some routine component...

  7. Stimulated emission from donor transitions in silicon (United States)

    Pavlov; Zhukavin; Orlova; Shastin; Kirsanov; Hubers; Auen; Riemann


    The observation of far-infrared stimulated emission from shallow donor transitions in silicon is reported. Lasing with a wavelength of 59 &mgr;m due to the neutral donor intracenter 2p(0)-->1s(E) transition in Si:P pumped by CO2 laser radiation is obtained. Populations of D0 and D- center states and the balance of the radiation absorption and amplification are theoretically analyzed.

  8. Increasing demands on today's blood donors


    McClelland, W. M.


    Recently in Northern Ireland there has been a rapid increase in demand for a variety of blood components. To meet this need a large proportion of routine blood donations must be processed at the Transfusion Centre. In addition, several blood components are collected direct from donors by apheresis techniques. Apheresis is currently restricted to the collection of components from highly selected donors, but in future this method is likely to be employed for collection of some routine component...

  9. Donor preoperative oxygen delivery and post-extubation hypoxia impact donation after circulatory death hypoxic cholangiopathy (United States)

    Chirichella, Thomas J; Dunham, C Michael; Zimmerman, Michael A; Phelan, Elise M; Mandell, M Susan; Conzen, Kendra D; Kelley, Stephen E; Nydam, Trevor L; Bak, Thomas E; Kam, Igal; Wachs, Michael E


    AIM: To evaluate donation after circulatory death (DCD) orthotopic liver transplant outcomes [hypoxic cholangiopathy (HC) and patient/graft survival] and donor risk-conditions. METHODS: From 2003-2013, 45 DCD donor transplants were performed. Predonation physiologic data from UNOS DonorNet included preoperative systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, pH, SpO2, PaO2, FiO2, and hemoglobin. Mean arterial blood pressure was computed from the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Donor preoperative arterial O2 content was computed as [hemoglobin (gm/dL) × 1.37 (mL O2/gm) × SpO2%) + (0.003 × PaO2)]. The amount of preoperative donor red blood cell transfusions given and vasopressor use during the intensive care unit stay were documented. Donors who were transfused ≥ 1 unit of red-cells or received ≥ 2 vasopressors in the preoperative period were categorized as the red-cell/multi-pressor group. Following withdrawal of life support, donor ischemia time was computed as the number-of-minutes from onset of diastolic blood pressure 2.0 (69.6% vs 25.0%, P = 0.006), and increased preoperative mean arterial pressure (92.7 ± 16.2 mmHg vs 83.8 ± 18.5 mmHg, P = 0.10). HC was independently associated with age, multi-pressor/red-cell transfusion status, arterial oxygen content, hypoxia score, and mean arterial pressure (r2 = 0.6197). The transplantation rate was greater for the later period with more liberal donor selection [era 2 (7.1/year)], compared to our early experience [era 1 (2.5/year)]. HC occurred in 63.0% during era 2 and in 29.4% during era 1 (P = 0.03). Era 2 donors had longer times for extubation-to-asystole (14.4 ± 4.7 m vs 9.3 ± 4.5 m, P = 0.001), ischemia (13.9 ± 5.9 m vs 9.7 ± 5.6 m, P = 0.03), and hypoxemia (16.0 ± 5.1 m vs 11.1 ± 6.7 m, P = 0.013) and a higher hypoxia score > 2.0 rate (73.1% vs 28.6%, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Easily measured donor indices, including a hypoxia score, provide an objective measure of DCD liver transplantation

  10. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs. (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios


    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  11. Outcomes of shipped live donor kidney transplants compared with traditional living donor kidney transplants. (United States)

    Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L


    The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants.

  12. Pulmonary artery patch for an inadequate donor atrial cuff in the absence of donor pericardium in lung transplantation. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Yamane, Masaomi; Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Kurosaki, Takeshi; Otani, Shinji; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Oto, Takahiro


    In cadaveric lung transplantation (LTx), a donor lung with an inadequate donor left atrial cuff is considered a "surgically marginal donor lung". The donor pericardium is commonly applied to reconstruct the inadequate donor left atrial cuff; however, in some cases, the donor pericardium is inadvertently removed during the lung procurement. We devised an alternative technique for reconstruction to overcome the absence of pericardium in a donor lung with an inadequate atrial cuff, using a patch of the donor pulmonary artery (PA) in single lung transplantation. In a recent case of lung transplantation in which the donor pericardium had been removed, we harvested a segment of the right PA distal to the main PA of the donor and used a PA patch to repair the inadequate donor left atrial cuff. No vascular complications were encountered in the recipient, who remains in good health after the transplantation.

  13. Limitations on quantum key repeaters. (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas


    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  14. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)


    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  15. Donor-to-Donor vs Donor-to-Acceptor Interfacial Charge Transfer States in the Phthalocyanine-Fullerene Organic Photovoltaic System. (United States)

    Lee, Myeong H; Dunietz, Barry D; Geva, Eitan


    Charge transfer (CT) states formed at the donor/acceptor heterointerface are key for photocurrent generation in organic photovoltaics (OPV). Our calculations show that interfacial donor-to-donor CT states in the phthalocyanine-fullerene OPV system may be more stable than donor-to-acceptor CT states and that they may rapidly recombine, thereby constituting a potentially critical and thus far overlooked loss mechanism. Our results provide new insight into processes that may compete with charge separation, and suggest that the efficiency for charge separation may be improved by destabilizing donor-to-donor CT states or decoupling them from other states.

  16. Prevalence of seroreactivity among blood donors in rural population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonwane B


    Full Text Available The seroreactivity pattern amongst blood donors in rural population was studied at S.R.T. Rural Medical College and Hospital, Ambajogai (M. S.. The study period was from January 1996 to December 2001. A total number of 12,240 blood donors were screened. The voluntary donation was 36.98% and replacement donors were 63.02%. No professional donor is bled in our blood bank. The HIV seroreactivity among voluntary donors was 1.56% and 2.11% in replacement donors. The HBsAg seroreactivity was 2.78% in voluntary donors and 4.84% in replacement donors. VDRL seroreactivity is 1.12% in replacement donors. No malarial parasite and HCV seroreactive donor was found in our study period. We have found the magnitude of hepatitis to be far more than that of HIV. Hence testing for HCV routinely is mandatory, besides HBsAg.

  17. Donor-transmitted, donor-derived, and de novo cancer after liver transplant. (United States)

    Chapman, Jeremy R; Lynch, Stephen V


    Cancer is the third most common cause of death (after cardiovascular disease and infection) for patients who have a functioning kidney allograft. Kidney and liver transplant recipients have similar cancer risks because of immunosuppression but different risks because of differences in primary diseases that cause renal and hepatic failure and the inherent behavior of cancers in the liver. There are 4 types of cancer that may develop in liver allograft recipients: (1) recurrent cancer, (2) donor-transmitted cancer, (3) donor-derived cancer, and (4) de novo cancer. Identification of potential donor cancer transmission may occur at postmortem examination of a deceased donor or when a probable donor-transmitted cancer is identified in another recipient. Donor-transmitted cancer after liver transplant is rare in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Aging of the donor pool may increase the risk of subclinical cancer in donors. Liver transplant recipients have a greater risk of de novo cancer than the general population, and risk factors for de novo cancer in liver transplant recipients include primary sclerosing cholangitis, alcoholic liver disease, smoking, and increased age. Liver transplant recipients may benefit from cancer screening because they have a high risk, are clearly identifiable, and are under continuous medical supervision.

  18. Reimbursement for Living Kidney Donor Follow-Up Care: How Often Does Donor Insurance Pay? (United States)

    Kher, Ajay; Rodrigue, James; Ajaimy, Maria; Wasilewski, Marcy; Ladin, Keren; Mandelbrot, Didier


    Background Currently, many transplantation centers do not follow former living kidney donors on a long-term basis. Several potential barriers have been identified to provide this follow-up of former living kidney donors, including concerns that donor insurance will not reimburse transplantation centers or primary care physicians for this care. Here, we report the rates at which different insurance companies reimbursed our transplantation center for follow-up visits of living donors. Methods We collected data on all yearly follow-up visits of living donors billed from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010, representing 82 different donors. Concurrent visits of their recipients were available for 47 recipients and were used as a control group. Results We find that most bills for follow-up visits of living kidney donors were paid by insurance companies, at a rate similar to the reimbursement for recipient follow-up care. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, for former donors with insurance, inadequate reimbursement should not be a barrier in providing follow-up care. PMID:23060280

  19. Reimbursement for living kidney donor follow-up care: how often does donor insurance pay? (United States)

    Kher, Ajay; Rodrigue, James; Ajaimy, Maria; Wasilewski, Marcy; Ladin, Keren; Mandelbrot, Didier


    Currently, many transplantation centers do not follow former living kidney donors on a long-term basis. Several potential barriers have been identified to provide this follow-up of former living kidney donors, including concerns that donor insurance will not reimburse transplantation centers or primary care physicians for this care. Here, we report the rates at which different insurance companies reimbursed our transplantation center for follow-up visits of living donors. We collected data on all yearly follow-up visits of living donors billed from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010, representing 82 different donors. Concurrent visits of their recipients were available for 47 recipients and were used as a control group. We find that most bills for follow-up visits of living kidney donors were paid by insurance companies, at a rate similar to the reimbursement for recipient follow-up care. Our findings suggest that, for former donors with insurance, inadequate reimbursement should not be a barrier in providing follow-up care.

  20. Fear, fascination and the sperm donor as 'abjection' in interviews with heterosexual recipients of donor insemination. (United States)

    Burr, Jennifer


    The background to this article is the medical regulation of sperm donation in the UK and the recent policy change so that children born from sperm, eggs or embryos donated after April 2005 have the right to know their donor's identity. I draw upon data from interviews with ten women and seven joint interviews with couples who received donor insemination from an anonymous sperm donor and were the parents of donor insemination children. I explore the symbolic presence of the donor and his potential to disrupt social and physical boundaries using the theoretical conceptions of boundaries and pollution as articulated by Mary Douglas and Julia Kristeva. I present data to argue that the anonymous donor manifests in various figures; the shadowy and ambiguous figure of 'another man'; the intelligent medical student; the donor as a family man, with children of his own who wants to help infertile men father children. In addition participants perceive the donor's physical characteristics, but also see their husband's physical characteristics, in their children. In conclusion I argue that anonymisation preserves features of conventional family life, maintains the idea of exclusivity within the heterosexual relationship and affirms the legal father's insecurity about his infertility.

  1. Effect of low dose dopamine on early graft function in living unrelated kidney donors. (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hamzeh; Golzari, Samad E J; Golzari, Samad; Abravesh, Mohammad; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Aghamohammadi, Davood; Zomorrodi, Afshar; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa


    To evaluate the effect of low-dose dopamine administration on the early function of the kidney in unrelated kidney donors after transplantation. In this double-blinded clinical trial, 60 adult kidney donors and 60 recipients, younger than 50 years old, were studied. Donors and recipients were randomly divided into two groups; group 1 received dopamine 3 µ/kg/min and group 2 received similar regimen of placebo. During the first 3 days postoperatively, serum levels of urea and creatinine as well as urine output and early kidney function were compared between two groups. Serum levels of creatinine and urea and urine output during the first three days after the operation did not differ statistically significantly between two groups (P = .549, P = .306, and P = .375, respectively). Early kidney function was better significantly in group 1 (5.3 ± 3.2 versus 8.6 ± 8.0 hours; P = .048). Premedication of the kidney transplant donors with low-dose dopamine accelerates early kidney function after transplantation, but has no effect on the hemodynamic status and serum levels of creatinine and urea in the donors.

  2. [Surgical complications of nephrectomy in living donors]. (United States)

    Rabii, R; Joual, A; Fekak, H; Moufid, K; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S; Khaleq, K; Idali, B; Harti, A; Barrou, L; Fatihi, M; Benghanem, M; Hachim, J; Ramdani, B; Zaid, D


    Renal transplantation from a living donor is now considered the best treatment for chronic renal failure. We reviewed the operative complications in 38 living related donor nephrectomies performed at our institution over the past 14 years. The mean age of our donors was 30 years old with age range between 18 and 58 years old and female predominance (55.2%). These swabs were realized by a posterolateral lumbar lombotomy with resection of the 11 third. The left kidney was removed in 34 donors (90%), surgical complications were noted in 39.4% of the cases: one case of wound of inferior vena cava (2.6%), one case of release of the renal artery clamp (2.6%), four cases of pleural grap (10.5%), one case of pneumothorax (2.6%), one case of pleurisy (2.6%), three cases of urinary infection (7.8%), three cases of parietal infection (7.8%) and one case of patient pain at the level of the wound (2.6%). There were no mortalities. We conclude that the morbidity of living donor nephrectomy is negligible compared with the advantages for the recipient.

  3. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues... (United States)


    ... Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products for Infection With... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and... ``Guidance for Industry: Eligibility Determination for Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and...

  4. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  5. Ex-vivo partial nephrectomy after living donor nephrectomy: Surgical technique for expanding kidney donor pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A Nyame


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation has profound improvements in mortality, morbidity, and overall quality of life compared to renal replacement therapy. This report aims to illustrate the use of ex-vivo partial nephrectomy in a patient with a renal angiomyolipoma prior to living donor transplantation. The surgical outcomes of the donor nephrectomy and recipient transplantation are reported with 2 years of follow-up. Both the donor and recipient are healthy and without any significant comorbidities. In conclusion, urologic techniques such as partial nephrectomy can be used to expand the living donor pool in carefully selected and well informed transplant recipients. Our experience demonstrated a safe and positive outcome for both the recipient and donor, and is consistent with other reported outcomes in the literature.

  6. [Clinical analysis of donor hepatectomy in living donor liver transplantation: report of 74 cases]. (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-min; Zhu, Zhi-jun; Jiang, Wen-tao; Cai, Jin-zhen; Hou, Jian-cun; Wei, Lin; Zhang, Hai-ming; Wang, Jin-shan; Shen, Zhong-yang


    To evaluate the living donor selection, donor hepatectomy technique, and surgical complication in living donor liver transplantation. From June 2007 to July 2008, 74 consecutive cases living donor hepatectomy were performed by the same surgical team. Seventy-four donors (64 males and 10 females) with a mean age of 29.2 years old passed the donor liver assessment and evaluation program successfully. The hepatectomy procedure types contained right liver resection (n = 72), of which 27 cases harvested the middle hepatic vein and 45 cases not, left liver resection contain middle hepatic vein (n = 1) and left lateral resection (n = 1). Of all the donors, operation time was (6.5 +/- 6.2) hours, the mean blood loss was 300 ml (100 - 500 ml) and didn't accept foreign blood transfusion. The maximum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was (229.5 +/- 108.6) U/L, the ALT returned to normal time was (12.7 +/- 4.8) d, the maximum total bilirubin (TB) level was (78.7 +/- 44.3) micromol/L, the TB returned to normal time was (8.8 +/- 2.7) d, and the mean hospital stay time was 14 days (7 - 28 d). The complications included bile leak (n = 1), cut surface hemorrhage (n = 1) and anaphylactoid purpura (n = 1). All the donors returned to normal work and life finally. Precisely evaluating donor blood vascular and biliary anatomy before operation, keeping the blood vascular and bile duct integrity during operation and monitoring complication to solve it immediately after operation is crucial to ensure donor safety and recovering successfully.

  7. Measures for increasing the safety of donors in living donor liver transplantation using right lobe grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Fu Wen; Ming-Qing Xu; Jiang-Wen Liu; Zhi-Gang Deng; Hong Wu; Zhe-Yu Chen; Lu-Nan Yan; Bo Li; Yong Zeng; Ji-Chun Zhao; Wen-Tao Wang; Jia-Yin Yang; Yu-Kui Ma


    BACKGROUND:The safety of donors in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) should be the primary consideration. The aim of this study was to report our experience in increasing the safety of donors in LDLTs using right lobe grafts. METHODS:We retrospectively studied 37 living donors of right lobe grafts from January 2002 to March 2006. The measures for increasing the safety of donors in LDLT included carefully selected donors, preoperative evaluation by ultrasonography, angiography and computed tomography; and necessary intraoperative cholangiography and ultrasonography. Right lobe grafts were obtained using an ultrasonic dissector without inlfow vascular occlusion on the right side of the middle hepatic vein. The standard liver volume and the ratio of left lobe volume to standard liver volume were calculated. RESULTS:There was no donor mortality in our group. Postoperative complications only included bile leakage (1 donor), biliary stricture (1) and portal vein thrombosis (1). All donors recovered well and resumed their previous occupations. In recipients, complications included acute rejection (2 patients), hepatic artery thrombosis (1), bile leakage (1), intestinal bleeding (1), left subphrenic abscess (1) and pulmonary infection (1). The mortality rate of recipients was 5.4% (2/37); one recipient with pulmonary infection died from multiple organ failure and another from occurrence of primary disease. CONCLUSIONS:The ifrst consideration in adult-to-adult LDLT is the safety of donors. The donation of a right lobe graft is safe for adults if the remnant hepatic vasculature and bile duct are ensured, and the volume of the remnant liver exceeds 35% of the total liver volume.

  8. Isolation Enhancement between Indoor Repeater Antennas with Chip Resistor Embedded FSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yeong Lee


    Full Text Available The isolation enhancement between the donor antenna and the service antenna for indoor repeater systems is presented by using a frequency-selective surface (FSS. A unit cell of the proposed FSS consists of a quarter-wavelength resonator, a chip resistor, an FR4 substrate, and a ground plane. Applying the unit cells of the proposed FSS embedded a chip resistor on the side walls of each reflector for indoor WCDMA repeater antennas and aligning them along with the cross-polarization of each antenna, the isolation is improved by about 13 dB at the WCDMA band.

  9. A new strategy for sperm isolation and STR typing from multi-donor sperm mixtures. (United States)

    Han, Jun-Ping; Yang, Fan; Xu, Cheng; Wei, Yi-Liang; Zhao, Xing-Chun; Hu, Lan; Ye, Jian; Li, Cai-Xia


    Mixed semen stains from multiple contributors are challenging samples in sexual assault casework, and it is crucial to obtain the DNA profiles of different donors to allow the evidence to play an important role in investigations and judicial proceedings. Current standard procedures, including preferential lysis, are incapable of separating single-source sperm from multiple male donors. Mixed profiles are often obtained and may not directly exclude or identify suspects. In this case, computational methods for mixture interpretation are often used, which rely on different types of calculation models. Here, we explored a new strategy for sperm cell isolation and detection from mixtures. It is a direct way to obtain genotypes of different sperm donors compared to computation-based mixture interpretation. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) and low volume-PCR (LV-PCR) were used for single sperm isolation and detection. The platform was sensitive; profiling of a single sperm cell generated a minimum of 13-16 loci in 73.1% of Y short tandem repeat (Y-STR) assays. A new Y-STR and autosomal STR multiplex system (YA-STR) were optimized by the combination of the Y-STR locus and 10 autosomal STR (auto STR) loci. The Y-STR locus acted as a tag to discriminate profile groups from different donors. Subsequently, consensus auto STR profiles of various persons could be received. The accuracy and availability of this method were evaluated on a three-donor semen mixture and found to be effective for the resolution of a multi-donor sperm mixture.

  10. Compensatory Hypertrophy After Living Donor Nephrectomy. (United States)

    Chen, K W; Wu, M W F; Chen, Z; Tai, B C; Goh, Y S B; Lata, R; Vathsala, A; Tiong, H Y


    Previous studies have shown that kidney volume enhances the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in kidney donors. This study aimed to describe the phenomenon of compensatory hypertrophy after donor nephrectomy as measured on computerized tomographic (CT) scans. An institutional Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB)-approved study involved approaching kidney donors to have a follow up CT scan from 6 months to 1 year after surgery; 29 patients participated; 55% were female. Clinical chart review was performed, and the patient's remaining kidney volume was measured before and after surgery based on CT scans. eGFR was determined with the use of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Mean parenchymal volume of the remaining kidney for this population (mean age, 44.3 ± 8.5 y) was 204.7 ± 82.5 cc before surgery and 250.5 ± 113.3 cc after donor nephrectomy. Compensatory hypertrophy occurred in 79.3% of patients (n = 23). Mean increase in remaining kidney volume was 22.4 ± 23.2% after donor nephrectomy in healthy individuals. Over a median follow-up of 52.9 ± 19.8 months, mean eGFR was 68.9 ± 12.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), with 24.1% of patients (n = 7) in chronic kidney disease grade 3. Absolute and relative change in kidney volume was not associated with sex, race, surgical approach, or background of hypertension (P = NS). There was a trend of decreased hypertrophy with increasing age (P = .5; Spearman correlation, -0.12). In healthy kidney donors, compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining kidney occurs in 79.3% of the patients, with an average increment of about 22.4%. Older patients may have a blunted compensatory hypertrophy response after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Liver regeneration after living donor transplantation: adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation cohort study. (United States)

    Olthoff, Kim M; Emond, Jean C; Shearon, Tempie H; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B; Fisher, Robert A; Freise, Chris E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Everhart, James E


    Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Three hundred and fifty donors and 353 recipients in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) receiving transplants between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV and SLV), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (in recipients), the remnant and graft size, remnant-to-donor and graft-to-recipient weight ratios (RDWR and GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676 ± 251 g (mean ± SD), and percentage reconstitution was 80% ± 13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3% ± 0.4% (8 Graft weight was 60% ± 13% of SLV. Three-month absolute growth was 549 ± 267 g, and percentage reconstitution was 93% ± 18%. Predictors of greater 3-month liver volume included larger patient size (donors and recipients), larger graft volume (recipients), and larger TLV (donors). Donors with the smallest remnant/TLV ratios had larger than expected growth but also had higher postoperative bilirubin and international normalized ratio at 7 and 30 days. In a combined donor-recipient analysis, donors had smaller 3-month liver volumes than recipients adjusted for patient size, remnant or graft volume, and TLV or SLV (P = 0.004). Recipient graft failure in the first 90 days was predicted by poor graft function at day 7 (HR = 4.50, P = 0.001) but not by GRWR or graft fraction (P > 0.90 for each). Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, and this confirmed previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3-month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a critical predictor

  12. Risks for donors in uterus transplantation. (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke


    Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus.

  13. Analysis of repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status in major depression patients with suicide ideation%伴自杀意念重性抑郁障碍患者重复性成套神经心理状态测验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任燕; 杨红; 孙宁; 周子璇; 张克让; 黄悦勤


    Objective To analyze of the characteristics of cognitive function in major depressive disorder patients with suicidal ideation using repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status ( RBANS),and to explore the risk factors of suicidal ideation Methods 132 depressive patients with suicidal ideation and 162 depressive patients without suicidal ideation were evaluated by RBANS,Using SPSS13.0 to statistic the results,including t test,chi-square test and multiple logistic analysis.Results 1.There were no significant differences in age,gender,education level,marital status,total disease duration,whether for the first time episodes of depression,whether a positive family history of depression between the two groups (P > 0.05 ).The HAMD and HAMA total score were greater in patients with suicide ideation than that without suicidal ideation(P < 0.01 ).2.The score of attention was lower in patients with suicide ideation (98.56 ± 17.80) than in patients without suicide ideation (105.06 ± 14.34) (P =0.001 ).The score of delay memory was lower in patients with suicide ideation (80.39 ± 15.36) than in patients without suicide ideation (85.96 ± 12.55) (P=0.001 ).3.Logistic regression analysis showed that attention deficit and HAMD total score were the risk factor of suicide ideation in major depressive patients.Conclusion Attention deficit may exist in major depressive patients with suicide ideation,and attention deficit maybe one of the risk factor of suicide ideation.%目的 用重复性成套神经心理状态测验(RBANS)分析伴自杀意念重性抑郁障碍患者认知功能损害特点,探讨自杀意念影响因素.方法 对132例伴自杀意念的重性抑郁障碍患者和162例不伴自杀意念的重性抑郁障碍患者用RBANS进行检测.结果 1.有无自杀意念重性抑郁障碍患者两组间一般资料比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),伴自杀意念组汉密顿抑郁量表( HAMD)、汉密顿焦虑量表HAMA总分均大于

  14. Evaluation of renal donors and recipients using intravenous digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Deuk Lin; Kim, Ki Jeung [Soonchunhyang Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Renal IV DSA was applied to evaluate 15 potential renal donors and 14 examinations of 12 renal allograft recipients. We evaluate the angiographic acute or chronic rejection, alteration of renal size after transplantation, excretion time of the contrast media and pre, post DSA serum creatinine level. DSA is a safe, easily performed, outpatient procedure and useful in evaluation and distinguishing status of surgical anastomosis, intrarenal vasculatures, arterial exception time and rejection phenomenon.

  15. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo


    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  16. Significance of isolated hepatitis B core antibody in blood donors from São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMEIDA NETO Cesar de


    Full Text Available The clinical significance of isolated anti-HBc is still a challenge. To elucidate the real importance of this finding in our blood donors, an investigation algorithm was tested. One hundred and twelve isolated anti-HBc seropositive blood donors underwent clinical evaluation and retesting of HBV markers. Those who presented repeatedly reactive isolated anti-HBc, received a single dose of hepatitis B recombinant vaccine to verify anti-HBs early response. A HBV-DNA determination by PCR was done for those who did not test positive to anti-HBs after vaccine. The level of anti-HBc was recorded as a ratio of the sample-to-cut-off values (S:C ratio in 57 candidates at donation. Comparing true and false-positive anti-HBc results, the different S:C ratios of them were statistically significant and when less than 2, implying in a false-positive result probability over 80%. A high percent of false-positive results (16.07% was verified after anti-HBc retesting. HBV immunity was characterized in 49.11%, either by anti-HBs detection in retesting (15.18%, or after a single dose HBV vaccination (33.93%. HBV-DNA was negative in all tested donors. In conclusion, this algorithm was useful to clarify the meaning of isolated anti-HBc in most of our blood donors.

  17. Donor HLA-specific Abs: to BMT or not to BMT? (United States)

    Leffell, M S; Jones, R J; Gladstone, D E


    The engraftment failure associated with Abs to donor-specific HLA (DSA) limits options for sensitized BMT candidates. Fourteen of fifteen patients with no other viable donor options were desensitized and transplanted using a regimen of plasmapheresis and low-dose i.v. Ig modified to accommodate pre-BMT conditioning. DSA levels were assessed by solid-phase immunoassays and cell-based crossmatch tests. DSA levels were monitored throughout desensitization and on day -1 to determine if there was any DSA rebound that would require additional treatment. A mean reduction in DSA level of 64.4% was achieved at the end of desensitization, with a subsequent reduction of 85.5% after transplantation. DSA in 11 patients was reduced to levels considered negative post-BMT, whereas DSA in three patients remained at low levels. All 14 patients achieved donor engraftment by day +60; however, seven patients suffered disease relapses. Four patients experienced mild, grade 1 GVHD. Factors influencing the response to desensitization include initial DSA strength, number, specificity, DSA rebound and a mismatch repeated from a prior transplant. While desensitization should be reserved for patients with limited donor options, careful DSA assessment and monitoring can facilitate successful engraftment after BMT.

  18. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J


    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  19. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W


    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  20. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili


    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  1. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA. (United States)

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D


    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 3, 2005 ... (p<0.001) higher Hb, MCV and MCH values while the red blood cell counts and MCHC values were ... a personal medical history and physical examination. In Kenya ... determined and that a donor must be healthy, between.

  3. Syntheses of donor-acceptor-functionalized dihydroazulenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Jevric, Martyn; Bond, Andrew


    The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has been of interest for use in molecular electronics and advanced materials. The switching between the two isomers has previously been found to depend strongly on the presence of donor and acceptor groups. The fine-tuning of opt...

  4. The Dutch Living Donor Kidney Exchange Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Klerk (Marry)


    textabstractKidney transplantation is the optimal option for patients with an end-stage renal disease. The first successful transplantation with a living genetically related donor has been performed since 26 October 1954, when an identical twin transplant was performed in Boston. In the years that f

  5. South Korea as an emerging donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Hong-Min; Munyi, Elijah Nyaga; Lee, Heejin


    South Korea's official development assistance (ODA) has been increasing rapidly and will continue to do so. Korea is one of the few countries which have successfully transitioned from a recipient to a donor. It became a member of DAC (development assistance committee), OECD in November 2009. Korea...

  6. Antibody titers in Group O platelet donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Amar Tendulkar


    Conclusion: Microplate can be used to perform titers in resource-constrained settings. Screening for critical titers in O group donors is essential as they are more implicated in hemolytic transfusion reactions. In the absence of a global consensus on this topic, institutes may need to formulate their own guidelines on handling ABO plasma-incompatible PLT transfusions.

  7. Donor human milk for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido


    The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge a...

  8. Organ Donor Recognition: Practical and Ethical Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick)


    textabstractThe brain dead patient is the ideal multiorgan donor. Conditions that can lead to the state of brain death are limited. A subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury precede in 83% of the cases the state of brain death. Because of better prevention and

  9. The Dutch Living Donor Kidney Exchange Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Klerk (Marry)


    textabstractKidney transplantation is the optimal option for patients with an end-stage renal disease. The first successful transplantation with a living genetically related donor has been performed since 26 October 1954, when an identical twin transplant was performed in Boston. In the years that

  10. Criteria for selecting organ donors and recipients. (United States)

    Michielsen, P


    As there is a world-wide shortage of organs for transplantation, the selection of the patients is more defined by the availability of transplantable organs than by the medical condition of the potential recipient. This shortage of cadaveric organs is mainly responsible for the use of living donors. With HLA identical sibling donors the results are better than with cadaveric organs, but the ethical problems are usually underestimated. For the parent-to-child donation, the HLA compatibility is less than what could be achieved with well-matched cadaveric donors. The use of genetically unrelated donors is unacceptable from the ethical as well as from the medical point of view. The short- and long-term risk of donation has been insufficiently documented. The experience with the introduction of an opting-out legislation in Belgium in 1987 demonstrates that the shortage of cadaveric organs can be overcome. Harmonization of the legislation is, however, necessary so as to achieve comparable organ retrieval rates between countries participating in organ-exchange organisations.

  11. Laparoscopic versus open living donor nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.Y. Smits-Lind (May)


    textabstractRenal transplantation was fi rst performed in 1936 by Voronoy 1. The kidney was harvested in a patient who had died from a head injury 6 hours earlier. The blood group of the donor was incompatible with that of the recipient. The renal graft did not function and the recipient died two

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Marrow Donor Program® (NMDP), a federally funded nonprofit organization that maintains an international registry of volunteers willing ... Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign in to ...

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Marrow Donor Program® (NMDP), a federally funded nonprofit organization that maintains an international registry of volunteers willing ... views 1:47 Mike G's Stem Cell Donation Experience - Duration: 4:17. Mike G 5,064 views ...

  14. Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.


    Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is o...

  15. Organ Donor Recognition: Practical and Ethical Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick)


    textabstractThe brain dead patient is the ideal multiorgan donor. Conditions that can lead to the state of brain death are limited. A subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury precede in 83% of the cases the state of brain death. Because of better prevention and t

  16. [Presence of Australia antigen in blood donors]. (United States)

    Gota, F


    The differential diagnosis of type A and B viral hepatitis is discussed and guidelines for the prevention of post-transfusional hospital hepatitis are proposed. Methods for the immunological demonstration of HBs antigen are illustrated, together with the respective positivity percentages in blood donors.

  17. Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  18. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail:; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)


    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  19. Donation frequency, iron loss, and risk of cancer among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Reilly, Marie; Hjalgrim, Henrik


    for cancers of the liver, lung, colon, stomach, and esophagus, which are thought to be promoted by iron overload (combined odds ratio [OR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58 to 0.84), but only among men and only with a latency of 3-7 years. The risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma was higher among frequent......BACKGROUND: Long-term deleterious effects of repeated blood donations may be masked by the donors' healthy lifestyle. To investigate possible effects of blood donation and iron loss through blood donation on cancer incidence while minimizing "healthy donor effects," we made dose...... = 107140) were individually matched on sex, age, and county of residence. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated relative risks of cancer according to number of blood donations made or estimated iron loss 3-12 years before a case patient was diagnosed with cancer. All statistical tests were...

  20. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria. (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E


    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  1. Acute Myeloid Leukaemia of Donor Cell Origin Developing 17 Years after Allogenic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia (United States)

    Jiménez, Pilar; Alvarez, J. Carlos; Garrido, Pilar; Lorente, J. Antonio; Palacios, Jorge; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco


    Donor cell leukaemia (DCL) is a rare complication of allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We report the case of a female patient with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), FAB type M3, who developed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) type M5 of donor origin 17 years after allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from her HLA-matched sister. Morphology and immunophenotyping showed differences with the initial leukaemia, and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis confirmed donor-type haematopoiesis. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) showed an 11q23 deletion. Given that the latency period between transplant and development of leukaemia was the longest reported to date, we discuss the mechanisms underlying delayed leukaemia onset. PMID:23675279

  2. Gendering gametes: The unequal contributions of sperm and egg donors. (United States)

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy


    This paper compares three groups of gestational mothers who relied on gametes from donors they did not know. The three groups are women who have conceived with donor sperm and their own eggs, women who have conceived with donor eggs and a partner's sperm, and women who have conceived with embryos composed of both donor eggs and donor sperm. The paper explores three issues. First, it considers whether intending parents select sperm and egg donors for different attributes both when they are chosen as the only donor and when they are chosen as donors contributing to an entire embryo. Second, it examines how women imagine the donor. Finally, it looks at how women conceptualize the donor as an individual who contributes to their child's characteristics. Two significant findings emerged in this analysis of survey data. First, the data show that gametes are gendered with different attributes both when those gametes are separate and even more so when seen as complementary parts of a whole. Second, the data show that women minimize the impact of the egg donor (both when a sole contribution and especially when part of the complementary whole) and thus ignore the influence or impact of the egg donor relative to how they make sense of the influence or impact of the sperm donor. The data for this study comes from an online survey developed by the authors.

  3. Donor safety and remnant liver volume in living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Rong Shi; Lu-Nan Yan; Cheng-You Du


    AIM:To evaluate the relationship between donor safety and remnant liver volume in right lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).METHODS:From July 2001 to January 2009,our liver transplant centers carried out 197 LDLTs.The clinical data from 151 cases of adult right lobe living donors (not including the middle hepatic vein) were analyzed.The conditions of the three groups of donors were well matched in terms of the studied parameters.The donors' preoperative data,intraoperative and postoperative data were calculated for the three groups:Group 1 remnant liver volume (RLV) < 35%,group 2 RLV 36%-40%,and group 3 RLV > 40%.Comparisons included the different remnant liver volumes on postoperative liver function recovery and the impact of systemic conditions.Correlations between remnant liver volume and post-operative complications were also analyzed.RESULTS:The donors' anthroposomatology data,operation time,and preoperative donor blood test indicators were calculated for the three groups.No significant differences were observed between the donors' gender,age,height,weight,and operation time.According to the Chengdu standard liver volume formula,the total liver volume of group 1 was 1072.88 ± 131.06 mL,group 2 was 1043.84 ± 97.11 mL,and group 3 was 1065.33 ± 136.02 mL.The three groups showed no statistically significant differences.When the volume of the remnant liver was less than 35% of the total liver volume,the volume of the remnant had a significant effect on the recovery of liver function and intensive care unit time.In addition,the occurrence of complications was closely related to the remnant liver volume.When the volume of the remnant liver was more than 35% of the total liver volume,the remnant volume change had no significant effect on donor recovery.CONCLUSION:To ensure donor safety,the remnant liver volume should be greater than the standard liver volume (35%) in right lobe living donor liver transplantation.

  4. ِAnalysis of donor motivations in living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham eAbdeldayem


    Full Text Available Objectives: The introduction of the living donor liver transplantation (LDLT in Egypt as in elsewhere, has raised important psychological conflicts and ethical questions. The objective of this study was to get better understanding of the potential donors’ motives towards LDLT.Methods:This study was conducted on consecutive 193 living –liver donors who underwent partial hepatectomy as donors for LDLT during the period between April 2003 and January 2013, at the National Liver Institute Menoufeyia University, Egypt. Potential donors were thoroughly evaluated preoperatively through a screening questionnaire and interviews as regard their demographic data, relationship to the potential recipient and motives towards proceeding to surgery. They were assured that the information shared between them and the transplant centre is confidential. Results.The donors’ mean age was 25.53± 6.39 years with a range of 18-45 years. Males represented 64.7 % and females were 35.3%. The most common donors (32.1%, n_62, were sons and daughters to their parents (sons: n_43, daughters: n_19 while parents to their offsprings represent 15% (mothers: n_21, fathers: n_8. Brothers and sisters represent 16.5 % (brothers: n_22, sisters: n_10. Nephews & nieces giving their uncles or aunts were 14%. The number of wives donating to their husbands was 11 (5.7%. Interestingly, there was no single husband who donated his wife. Among the remaining donors, there were 11 cousins & one uncle. Unrelated donors were 20 (10.4%. Several factors seemed to contribute to motivation for donation: the seriousness of the potential recipient condition, the relationship and personal history of the donor to the potential recipient, the religious beliefs, the trust in the health care system, and family dynamics and obligations.Conclusions. Absolute absence of coercion on the living-liver donor’s motives may not be realistic because of the serious condition of the potential recipient. It is

  5. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy


    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz


    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; Rosman, C; Kooi, K; Wubbels, GH; Bleichrodt, RP


    Objective: To determine if bacterial translocation and endotoxin absorption occur in organ donors with an anatomically intact gastrointestinal tract. Design: Case series. Setting: Intensive care units in general and university hospitals. Patients: Twenty-one (multiple) organ donors. Intervention: No

  8. Computer algorithms in the search for unrelated stem cell donors. (United States)

    Steiner, David


    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology, most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow. A lot of patients have no suitable HLA-matched donor within their family, so physicians must activate a "donor search process" by interacting with national and international donor registries who will search their databases for adult unrelated donors or cord blood units (CBU). Information and communication technologies play a key role in the donor search process in donor registries both nationally and internationaly. One of the major challenges for donor registry computer systems is the development of a reliable search algorithm. This work discusses the top-down design of such algorithms and current practice. Based on our experience with systems used by several stem cell donor registries, we highlight typical pitfalls in the implementation of an algorithm and underlying data structure.

  9. Computer Algorithms in the Search for Unrelated Stem Cell Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Steiner


    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology, most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow. A lot of patients have no suitable HLA-matched donor within their family, so physicians must activate a “donor search process” by interacting with national and international donor registries who will search their databases for adult unrelated donors or cord blood units (CBU. Information and communication technologies play a key role in the donor search process in donor registries both nationally and internationaly. One of the major challenges for donor registry computer systems is the development of a reliable search algorithm. This work discusses the top-down design of such algorithms and current practice. Based on our experience with systems used by several stem cell donor registries, we highlight typical pitfalls in the implementation of an algorithm and underlying data structure.

  10. Eligibility and Exclusion of Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Levstik


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis patients are excluded in many countries as voluntary blood donors. In 1991, changes in the Canadian Red Cross policy allowed healthy hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary donors.

  11. Roller coaster marathon: being a live liver donor. (United States)

    Cabello, Charlotte C; Smolowitz, Janice


    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the meaning of being a live liver donor. Six people between ages 27 and 53 years participated. A qualitative, in-depth, semistructured interview format was used to explore donors' thoughts and feelings about being an organ donor. Five themes were identified: (1) no turning back--how do I live without you? (2) roller coaster marathon, (3) donor network, (4) the scar, and (5) reflections--time to think. At the center of the experience was the donor's commitment to the recipient. Once donors began the process, they were determined to see it through. The process was complex, and donors received various levels of support from family, friends, health care professionals, and others. After donation, as donors recovered and were able to resume their usual daily responsibilities, they reflected on the impact of the experience and how it changed their view of life.

  12. Laparoendoscopic single-site donor nephrectomy (LESS-DN) versus standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. (United States)

    Gupta, Ameet; Ahmed, Kamran; Kynaston, Howard G; Dasgupta, Prokar; Chlosta, Piotr L; Aboumarzouk, Omar M


    Advances in minimally invasive surgery for live kidney donors have led to the development of laparoendoscopic single site donor nephrectomy (LESS-DN). At present, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is the technique of choice for donor nephrectomy globally. Compared with open surgical approaches, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is associated with decreased morbidity, faster recovery times and return to normal activity, and shorter hospital stays. LESS-DN differs from standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy; LESS-DN requires a single incision through which the procedure is performed and donor kidney is removed. Previous studies have hypothesised that LESS-DN may provide additional benefits for kidney donors and stimulate increased donor rates. This review looked at the benefits and harms of LESS-DN compared with standard laparoscopic nephrectomy for live kidney donors. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant's Specialised Register to 28 January 2016 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared LESS-DN with laparoscopic donor nephrectomy in adults. Three authors independently assessed studies for eligibility and conducted risk of bias evaluation. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model and results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) or risk difference (RD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous outcomes. We included three studies (179 participants) comparing LESS-DN with laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. There were no significant differences between LESS-DN and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy for mean operative time (2 studies, 79 participants: MD 6.36 min, 95% CI -11.85 to 24.57), intra-operative blood loss (2 studies, 79 participants: MD -8.31 mL, 95% CI -23.70 to 7.09), or complication rates (3 studies, 179 participants: RD 0.05, 95% CI -0.04 to 0

  13. Impact of Donor Age on Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty Outcome: Evaluation of Donors Aged 17-55 Years. (United States)

    Schaub, Friederike; Enders, Philip; Zachewicz, Jonas; Heindl, Ludwig M; Stanzel, Tisha P; Cursiefen, Claus; Bachmann, Björn O


    To investigate whether the impression held by Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) surgeons that young donors are less suitable for DMEK is reflected in 1-year postoperative results. Retrospective, comparative, interventional case series. Records of 1084 consecutive DMEKs were reviewed and matched with corresponding donor tissue data. Young donors (aged ≤55 years; subgroups: 10-40, 41-55) were compared with old donors (>55 years; subgroups: 56-65, >65). Outcome measures in DMEK recipients included best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), endothelial cell density (ECD), central corneal thickness (CCT) at 6 and 12 months, and rebubbling rate. Out of 529 included DMEKs, 94 (17.8%) were performed with young donor lamellae (mean donor age 49.31 ± 6.35 years; range: 17-55 years) and 435 (82.2%) with older donor tissue (mean age 70.68 ± 7.77 years; range: 56-90 years). Postoperative BSCVA, ECD, and CCT results were comparable in both groups at 6 and 12 months without statistically significant differences. Overall rebubbling rate in the young donor group was 42.6% and in the old donors was 53.3% (P = .058). Complication rates also did not differ significantly. Younger donor age seems not to affect the clinical outcome of DMEK surgery negatively within the first postoperative year, suggesting donor corneas with donor age down to 17 years as safe donor tissue for DMEK surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of complications in hepatic right lobe living donors


    Azzam, Ayman; Uryuhara, Kinji; Taka, Ito; Takada, Yasutsugu; Egawa, Hiroto; TANAKA, Koichi


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been expanding to adult recipients by using right lobe grafts. However, the incidence of complications is more frequent than that involving left lobe grafts. Hence, we aimed to analyze postoperative complications in right lobe liver donors as a step to improve the results in the donors. METHODS: Three hundred and eleven right lobe liver donors were retrospectively reviewed between February 1998 and December 2003. RESULTS...

  15. Imaging in Lung Transplantation: Surgical Considerations of Donor and Recipient. (United States)

    Backhus, Leah M; Mulligan, Michael S; Ha, Richard; Shriki, Jabi E; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H


    Modifications in recipient and donor criteria and innovations in donor management hold promise for increasing rates of lung transplantation, yet availability of donors remains a limiting resource. Imaging is critical in the work-up of donor and recipient including identification of conditions that may portend to poor posttransplant outcomes or necessitate modifications in surgical technique. This article describes the radiologic principles that guide selection of patients and surgical procedures in lung transplantation.

  16. Spectral engineering in π-conjugated polymers with intramolecular donor-acceptor interactions. (United States)

    Beaujuge, Pierre M; Amb, Chad M; Reynolds, John R


    With the development of light-harvesting organic materials for solar cell applications and molecular systems with fine-tuned colors for nonemissive electrochromic devices (e.g., smart windows, e-papers), a number of technical challenges remain to be overcome. Over the years, the concept of "spectral engineering" (tailoring the complex interplay between molecular physics and the various optical phenomena occurring across the electromagnetic spectrum) has become increasingly relevant in the field of π-conjugated organic polymers. Within the spectral engineering toolbox, the "donor-acceptor" approach uses alternating electron-rich and electron-deficient moieties along a π-conjugated backbone. This approach has proved especially valuable in the synthesis of dual-band and broadly absorbing chromophores with useful photovoltaic and electrochromic properties. In this Account, we highlight and provide insight into a present controversy surrounding the origin of the dual band of absorption sometimes encountered in semiconducting polymers structured using the "donor-acceptor" approach. Based on empirical evidence, we provide some schematic representations to describe the possible mechanisms governing the evolution of the two-band spectral absorption observed on varying the relative composition of electron-rich and electron-deficient substituents along the π-conjugated backbone. In parallel, we draw attention to the choice of the method employed to estimate and compare the absorption coefficients of polymer chromophores exhibiting distinct repeat unit lengths, and containing various extents of solubilizing side-chains along their backbone. Finally, we discuss the common assumption that "donor-acceptor" systems should have systematically lower absorption coefficients than their "all-donor" counterparts. The proposed models point toward important theoretical parameters which could be further explored at the macromolecular level to help researchers take full advantage of the

  17. Crowding by a repeating pattern. (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G


    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  18. Quality of life and psychological outcome of donors after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Guang Jin; Bo Xiang; Lu-Nan Yan; Zhe-Yu Chen; Jia-Ying Yang; Ming-Qing Xu; Wen-Tao Wang


    AIM: To investigate the health related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological outcome of donors after living donor liver transplantation. METHODS: Participants were 92 consecutive liver transplant donors who underwent hepatectomy without middle hepatic vein at West China Hospital of Sichuan University between January 2007 and September 2010. HRQoL was measured using the Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), and psychological symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Data collected from donors were compared to previously published data from the general population. Clinical and demographic data were collected from medical records and questionnaires. RESULTS: The general health score of the SF-36 was significantly lower in females (59.78 ± 12.25) than in males (75.83 ± 22.09). Donors more than 40 years old scored higher in social functioning (85.71 ± 14.59) and mental health (82.61 ± 20.00) than those younger than 40 (75.00 ± 12.13, 68.89 ± 12.98; social functioning and mental health, respectively). Donors who had surgery more than two years prior to the study scored highest in physical functioning (P = 0.001) and bodily pain (P = 0.042) while those less than one year from surgery scored lowest. The health of the liver recipient significantly influenced the general health (P = 0.042), social functioning (P = 0.010), and roleemotional (P = 0.028) of donors. Donors with full-time employment scored highest in role-physical (P = 0.005), vitality (P = 0.001), social functioning (P = 0.016), mental health (P < 0.001), the physical component summary scale (P < 0.001), and the mental component summary scale (MCS) (P < 0.001). Psychological measures indicated that donors were healthier than the general population in obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation. The MCS of the SF-36 was significantly correlated with most symptom scores of the SCL-90-R

  19. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.


    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  1. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna


    Background: Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denm...

  2. When disaster strikes: death of a living organ donor. (United States)

    Ratner, L E; Sandoval, P R


    Donor safety is of paramount importance in living donor transplantation. Yet, living donor deaths occur. We believe that problems exist in our system of live donor transplantation that can be summarized in a series of simple statements: (1) Donor mortality can never be completely eliminated; (2) Live donor risk has not been mitigated so that it is as low as possible; (3) After a donor death, systematic reviews are not routinely performed to identify correctable causes; (4) The lessons learned from any donor death are not adequately communicated to other programs and (5) The administrative mechanisms and resources are not universally available at all transplant centers to implement lessons learned. To rectify these problems, we propose the following: (1) A national living donor death task force be established with the purpose of performing systematic reviews of any donor death. (2) Findings of these reviews be disseminated to all institutions performing live donor transplants on a secure, password-protected website. (3) A no-fault donor death indemnity fund be established to provide a financial imperative for institutions to cooperate with this external peer-review. These measures will serve the best interests of the involved institutions, the transplant community, and most importantly, the patients and their families.

  3. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.


    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even thoug

  4. Donors and archives a guidebook for successful programs

    CERN Document Server

    Purcell, Aaron D


    Donors and Archives: A Guidebook for Successful Programs highlights the importance of development and fundraising for archives, while focusing on the donor and potential donor. Their interest, their support, their enthusiasm, and their stuff are vital to the success of archival programs.

  5. [Donors' personal profile in Tuscany's network of milk banks]. (United States)

    Strambi, M; Anselmi, A; Coppi, S


    An investigation on human milk donors among the milk banks of Tuscany's network was carried out. Milk banks select, collect, check, process, store and deliver human milk, whose donors should have certain physical and psychological well-being features. The aim of the study was to describe a personal and social profile of milk donors. The study included a sample of 100 milk donors and a sample of 100 non-milk donor mothers; a questionnaire that collected data about mothers' general information, clinical history, pregnancy and delivery, weight variations, state of health, lifestyle, breastfeeding and knowledge about milk banks was administered to all of them. Then information about food history of mothers has also been collected. First the samples of donors were analysed for all variables considered. Subsequently the samples of donors were compared with the samples of non-donors: statistical analysis was carried out with χ2 test and documented significant differences between donors and non-donors for the majority of variables considered in the questionnaire and for food history. Milk donors have a good state of health, and the integration in milk donation initiative headed towards a healthier lifestyle. It is necessary to promote an advertising campaign to integrate social and sanitary politics, fitting to local socio-economical contest. Furthermore, the improvement of milk banks of public hospitals is necessary, as hospitals are places of major stream both of potential donors and newborns.

  6. Exploring the Mental Health of Living Kidney Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Timmerman (Lotte)


    markdownabstractAbstract Living donor kidney transplantation is the best option for extending and improving the lives of patients with end-stage renal disease. The benefits for the donor are less straightforward: a donor is a healthy person who undergoes a surgery in the first place for the benef

  7. The evaluation of blood donor deferral causes in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, N.; Khoza, S.; Van Hulst, M.; Postma, M.J.; Mvere, D.A.


    Background: Donor selection is one of the first steps in blood donation aimed at improving the safety of blood and blood products. It is the only line of protection for donors and against certain infections for which testing is not performed. There is paucity of published data on reasons for donor d

  8. [Towards the development of living donor kidney transplantation]. (United States)

    Macher, Marie-Alice


    Living donor kidney transplantation has been increasing since 2008. Living donors represent a significant potential for organ transplants, in a context where the needs outstrip the availability of organs from deceased donors. However, patients are still poorly informed regarding the conditions in which these transplants are possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the Mental Health of Living Kidney Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Timmerman (Lotte)


    markdownabstractAbstract Living donor kidney transplantation is the best option for extending and improving the lives of patients with end-stage renal disease. The benefits for the donor are less straightforward: a donor is a healthy person who undergoes a surgery in the first place for the

  10. Risk factors from HBV infection among blood donors:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe La Torre; Rosella Saulle


    Objective:To perform a systematic review of the scientific literature to identify risk factors associated with hepatitis B viruses(HBV) infection among blood donors.Methods:The literature search was carried out on Pub Med and Scopus databases using the keywords "risk factors" "HBV infection" and "blood donors".No date or language restrictions were applied to the search.This literature review was completed in March2014.The selection process and the reporting of the review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement.The Newcastle Ottawa scale was using to evaluate the quality of each single primary study.Results:Out of 172 records resulted in the search,5 papers were included in the final analysis because they are within acceptance criteria.Two of the selected studies were cross-sectional and three of them were case-control studies.Significant association resulted with some demographic and behavioral risk factors,such as marital status,dental treatment/procedure history,no stable relationship or multiple partners and family history of HBV infection.Conclusions:The systematic review performed encourages to conduct further research among blood donors in order to fully understand risk factors among donors in more extensive thus to provide valuable information about surveillance.

  11. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocimara Costa Mazzola


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil.METHODS: The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region.RESULTS: The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024 with a higher incidence (74.7% in 18- to 24-year-old donors.CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population.

  12. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases


    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.


    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  13. [Ethics and kidney transplants with living donors]. (United States)

    Mamzer Bruneel, Marie-France


    The ethical debate surrounding transplant practices questions our societies. International recommendations set out numerous precautions which must be taken to ensure that donors act with their free will. While in most countries, including France, organ donation is a voluntary and non-commercial act, a black market exists in the world resulting in the trafficking of organs and tragic transplant tourism. Copyright © 2016. Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Living Donor Hepatectomy: Is it Safe? (United States)

    Weiss, Anna; Tapia, Viridiana; Parina, Ralitza; Berumen, Jennifer; Hemming, Alan; Mekeel, Kristin


    Living donor hepatectomy (LDH) is high risk to a healthy donor and remains controversial. Living donor nephrectomy (LDN), conversely, is a common practice. The objective is to examine the outcomes of LDH and compare this risk profile to LDN. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for hepatectomies and nephrectomies from 1998 to 2011. LDH or LDN were identified by donor ICD-9 codes. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality and complications. Bivariate analysis compared nondonor hepatectomy or nondonor nephrectomy (NDN). Multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline organ disease, malignancy, or benign lesions. There were 430 LDH and 9211 nondonor hepatectomy. In-hospital mortality was 0 and 6 per cent, respectively (P < 0.001); complications 4 and 33 per cent (P < 0.001). LDH had fewer complications [odds ratio (OR) 0.15 (0.08-0.26)]. There were 15,631 LDN and 117,966 NDN. Mortality rates were 0.8 per cent LDN and 1.8 per cent NDN (P < 0.001). Complications were 1 and 21 per cent (P < 0.001). LDN had fewer complications [OR 0.06 (0.05-0.08)] and better survival [OR 0.32 (0.18-0.58)]. Complication rates were higher in LDH than LDN (4% vs 1%, P < 0.001), but survival was similar (0% vs 0.8% mortality, P = 0.06). In conclusion, morbidity and mortality rates of LDH are significantly lower than hepatectomy for other disease. This study suggests that the risk profile of LDH is comparable with the widely accepted LDN.

  15. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  16. The effect of World Blood Donor Day on digital information seeking and donor recruitment. (United States)

    Kranenburg, Floris J; Kreuger, Aukje L; Arbous, M Sesmu; Laeijendecker, Daphne; van Kraaij, Marian G J


    The purpose of World Blood Donor Day (WBDD) is to raise awareness for the importance of blood donation. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of WBDD on digital information seeking and donor recruitment. Google Trends data were used to quantify seeking behavior on "blood donation" and "blood donor." Differences in relative search volume (RSV) between the 3 weeks surrounding WBDD and the rest of the year were calculated. Second, mean differences in RSV were compared to assess the additional effect of hosting using translated search terms. Third, we compared the period around WBDD with the control period regarding page views of the Sanquin website and Facebook likes and number of newly registered donors in 2016. The mean RSV for "blood donation" in the period of interest was 78.6, compared to 72.1 in the control period (difference, 6.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2-11.8). For "blood donor" this was 78.9 compared to 65.9 (difference, 12.9; 95% CI, 8.1-17.8). We found no additional effect of hosting. In the period of interest, the website of Sanquin was visited 6862 times a day and 4293 times in the control period (difference, 2569; 95% CI, 1687-3451). In June 2016, 54.6% (95% CI, 53.0-56.2) more new donors were registered compared to the control period. An international campaign like WBDD raises the awareness of blood donation and is effective in convincing people to register as blood donors. © 2017 AABB.

  17. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy to optimize live donors' comfort. (United States)

    Warlé, M C; Berkers, A W; Langenhuijsen, J F; van der Jagt, M F; Dooper, Ph M; Kloke, H J; Pilzecker, D; Renes, S H; Wever, K E; Hoitsma, A J; van der Vliet, J A; D'Ancona, F C H


    Nowadays, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the gold standard to procure live donor kidneys. As the relationship between donor and recipient loosens, it becomes of even greater importance to optimize safety and comfort of the surgical procedure. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum has been shown to reduce pain scores after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Live kidney donors may also benefit from the use of low pressure during LDN. To evaluate feasibility and efficacy to reduce post-operative pain, we performed a randomized blinded study. Twenty donors were randomly assigned to standard (14 mmHg) or low (7 mmHg) pressure during LDN. One conversion from low to standard pressure was indicated by protocol due to lack of progression. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that low pressure resulted in a significantly longer skin-to-skin time (149 ± 86 vs. 111 ± 19 min), higher urine output during pneumoperitoneum (23 ± 35 vs. 11 ± 20 mL/h), lower cumulative overall pain score after 72 h (9.4 ± 3.2 vs. 13.5 ± 4.5), lower deep intra-abdominal pain score (11 ± 3.3 vs. 7.5 ± 3.1), and a lower cumulative overall referred pain score (1.8 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 3). Donor serum creatinine levels, complications, and quality of life dimensions were not significantly different. Our data show that low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during LDN is feasible and may contribute to increase live donors' comfort during the early post-operative phase.

  18. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  19. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  20. [The protocol for multi organ donor management]. (United States)

    Kucewicz, Ewa; Wojarski, Jacek; Zegleń, Sławomir; Saucha, Wojciech; Maciejewski, Tomasz; Pacholewicz, Jerzy; Przybylski, Roman; Knapik, Piotr; Zembala, Marian


    Identification and preparation of a potential organ donor requires careful and meticulous intensive care, so that the organs may be harvested in the best possible condition for transplantation. The protocol consists of three key elements: (1) monitoring and haemodynamicstabilisation, (2) hormonal therapy, and (3) adequate mechanical ventilation and nosocomial pneumonia prophylaxis. Standard haemodynamic monitoring should consist of a 12 lead EGG, and direct monitoring of arterial and central venous pressures. Pulmonary artery catheterisation is indicated in donors with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) below 45%. PCWP should be kept at around 12 mm Hg, Cl at greater than 2.4 L m(-2), and SVR between 800 and 1200 dyn s(-1) cm(-5). When a vasopressor is necessary, vasopressin should be used as the drug of choice. If vasopressin is not available, noradrenaline or adrenaline may be used. Haemoglobin concentration should be maintained between 5.5-6.2 mmol L(-1). In a potential heart donor, troponin concentration should be checked daily. Neutral thermal conditions should be maintained using a warm air blower. A brain dead patient cannot maintain adequate pituitary function, therefore hormone replacement therapy with methylprednisolone, thyroxin and desmopressin is indicated. Glucose concentrations should be kept within the normal range, using insulin if necessary. The lung harvesting protocol should be similarto ARDS treatment guidelines (optimal PEEP, low tidal volumes). Lung recruitment manoeuvres, and aggressive prevention and treatment of nosocomial infection are essential.

  1. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  2. Status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensiek, AE; Absalom, Anthony


    Status epilepticus is defined as epileptic activity that continues for more than 30 minutes as a single seizure or as recurrent seizures without inter-ictal return of consciousness. The seizure activity is usually classified as partial or generalized. Although status epilepticus is an uncommon admis

  3. Status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensiek, AE; Absalom, Anthony


    Status epilepticus is defined as epileptic activity that continues for more than 30 minutes as a single seizure or as recurrent seizures without inter-ictal return of consciousness. The seizure activity is usually classified as partial or generalized. Although status epilepticus is an uncommon admis

  4. Living donor liver hilar variations:surgical approaches and implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onur Yaprak; Tolga Demirbas; Cihan Duran; Murat Dayangac; Murat Akyildiz; Yaman Tokat; Yildiray Yuzer


    BACKGROUND: Varied vascular and biliary anatomies are common in the liver. Living donor hepatectomy requires precise recognition of the hilar anatomy. This study was undertaken to study donor vascular and biliary tract variations, surgical approaches and implications in living liver transplant patients. METHODS: Two hundred living donor liver transplantations were performed at our institution between 2004 and 2009. All donors were evaluated by volumetric computerized tomography (CT), CT angiography and magnetic resonance cholangiography in the preoperative period. Intraoperative ultrasonography and cholangiography were carried out. Arterial, portal and biliary anatomies were classified according to the Michels, Cheng and Huang criteria. RESULTS: Classical hepatic arterial anatomy was observed in 129 (64.5%) of the 200 donors. Fifteen percent of the donors had variation in the portal vein. Normal biliary anatomy was found in 126 (63%) donors, and biliary tract variation in 70% of donors with portal vein variations. In recipients with single duct biliary anastomosis, 16 (14.4%) developed biliary leak, and 9 (8.1%) developed biliary stricture; however more than one biliary anastomosis increased recipient biliary complications. Donor vascular variations did not increase recipient vascular complications. Variant anatomy was not associated with an increase in donor morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Living donor liver transplantation provides information about variant hilar anatomy. The success of the procedure depends on a careful approach to anatomical variations. When the deceased donor supply is inadequate, living donor transplantation is a life-saving alternative and is safe for the donor and recipient, even if the donor has variant hilar anatomy.

  5. Male rats play a repeated donation game. (United States)

    Li, Grace; Wood, Ruth I


    While previous studies have demonstrated direct and generalized reciprocity in female Norway rats [26], the present study determined if unrelated male laboratory rats respond on behalf of a partner in an iterated sequential game. Pairs of rats worked for food reward in an operant chamber, where participants alternated as Donor and Responder in successive trials. In each trial, the Donor chose between variable and constant reward levers, where the constant reward lever delivered 1 pellet, and the variable reward lever triggered insertion of Responder lever(s); the Donor received 2 pellets when the Responder made any response. In forced-choice constant (FC) trials, the Responder also received 1 pellet for responding on the constant reward lever. In forced-choice variable (FV) trials, the Responder received no pellets for responding on the variable reward lever. In free-choice (FR) trials, the Responder chose between constant (1 pellet) and variable reward levers (0 pellets). With their cagemate, rats earned 61.4±2.0 pellets (64.0±2.1% of 96 possible pellets). As Donor in FC trials, rats preferred the variable reward lever, and the Responder responded frequently. In FV trials, Donor preference for the variable reward lever declined as Responder lever responses decreased. In FR trials, rats alternated responding on variable and constant reward levers as Donor and Responder, respectively. When paired with a new partner, there was no effect on Donor responses, but responses by the Responder decreased in the FV block. Similar effects were observed when paired with a maximally-cooperative stooge. Importantly, rats did not adjust their behavior as Donor to receive more pellets. Results suggest that unrelated male rats will work on behalf of a partner, and that their behavior is sensitive to familiarity, and to cooperative responses by their partner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical outcomes of and patient satisfaction with different incision methods for donor hepatectomy in living donor liver transplantation. (United States)

    Suh, Suk-Won; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Choi, YoungRok; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk


    With the decrease in the average donor age and the increase in the proportion of female donors, both donor safety and cosmetic appearance are major concerns for some living donors in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) because a large abdominal incision is needed that may influence the donor's quality of life. In all, 429 donors who underwent donor hepatectomy for LDLT from April 2010 to February 2013 were included in the study. Donors were divided into 3 groups based on the type of incision: conventional inverted L incision (n = 268; the C group), upper midline incision (n = 147; the M group), and transverse incision with laparoscopy (n = 14; the T group). Demographics, perioperative outcomes, postoperative complications for donors and recipients, and questionnaire-derived donor satisfaction with cosmetic appearance were compared. The mean age was lower (P self-confidence were noted in the M and T groups versus the C group. In conclusion, the use of a minimal incision is technically feasible for some donor hepatectomy cases with a favorable safety profile. The patient satisfaction levels were greater with improved cosmetic outcomes in cases of minimal incision versus cases of conventional incision.

  7. HTLV-I/II and blood donors: determinants associated with seropositivity in a low risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Catalan Soares


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blood donors in Brazil have been routinely screened for HTLV-I/II since 1993. A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HTLV-I/II infection in a low risk population and to better understand determinants associated with seropositivity. METHODS: HTLV-I/II seropositive (n=135, indeterminate (n=167 and seronegative blood donors (n=116 were enrolled in an open prevalence prospective cohort study. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of positive, indeterminate and seronegative HTLV-I/II subjects was conducted to assess behavioral and environmental risk factors for seropositivity. HTLV-I/II serological status was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA and Western blot (WB. RESULTS: The three groups were not homogeneous. HTLV-I/II seropositivity was associated to past blood transfusion and years of schooling, a marker of socioeconomic status, and use of non-intravenous illegal drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The study results reinforce the importance of continuous monitoring and improvement of blood donor selection process.

  8. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants. (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian


    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets.

  9. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.


    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  10. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano


    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  11. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács


    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  12. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.


    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  13. Guidelines for establishing a donor human milk depot. (United States)

    Geraghty, Sheela R; List, Betsy A; Morrow, Georgia B


    Human milk is the preferred choice for infant feeding. When a sick or premature infant's own mother's milk is unavailable, donor human milk is becoming more widely used. Many potential milk donors do not live within close proximity to the 10 North American not-for-profit milk banks. Transporting milk via commercial carriers can be inconvenient and costly for recipient banks. A network of donor human milk depots is one practical way to increase the quantity of available donor human milk. This article provides guidelines and practical suggestions for establishing a donor human milk depot.

  14. Accepting Hearts From Hepatitis C-Positive Donor: Can We Expand the Donor Pool? (United States)

    Grinstein, Jonathan; Lourenco, Laura M; Te, Helen S; Renz, John F; Jeevanandam, Valluvan; Uriel, Nir


    Until recently, transplantation from hepatitis C-positive donors was relatively contraindicated as eradication of active hepatitis C previously required an interferon-based regimen that has been associated with rejection in solid organ transplantation. New interferon-free treatment regimens for hepatitis C have fewer adverse events and higher cure rates than interferon-based regimens. Interferon-free regimens have been shown to be safe in the liver transplantation literature, but little is known about the safety and efficacy of treatment in heart transplantation. Here we report a case of successful eradication of hepatitis C with a non-interferon-based regimen using ledipasvir-sofosbuvir following combined orthotopic heart and liver transplantation. Based on the prevalence of hepatitis C in the general population, inclusion of hepatitis C-positive donors for heart transplantation can expand this component of the donor pool 3- to 6-fold. In carefully selected patients and recipients, inclusion of hepatitis C-positive donors may allow for expansion of the donor pool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved Outcome of Alternative Donor Transplantations in Patients with Myelofibrosis: From Unrelated to Haploidentical Family Donors. (United States)

    Bregante, Stefania; Dominietto, Alida; Ghiso, Anna; Raiola, Anna Maria; Gualandi, Francesca; Varaldo, Riccardo; Di Grazia, Carmen; Lamparelli, Teresa; Luchetti, Silvia; Geroldi, Simona; Casarino, Lucia; Pozzi, Sarah; Tedone, Elisabetta; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Galaverna, Federica; Barosi, Giovanni; Bacigalupo, Andrea


    This is a retrospective analysis of 95 patients with myelofibrosis who were allografted between 2001 and 2014. The aims of the study were to assess whether the outcome of alternative donor grafts has improved with time and how this compares with the outcome of identical sibling grafts. Patients were studied in 2 time intervals: 2000 to 2010 (n = 58) and 2011 to 2014 (n = 37). The Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System score was comparable in the 2 time periods, but differences in the most recent group included older age (58 versus 53 years, P = .004), more family haploidentical donors (54% versus 5%, P < .0001), and the introduction of the thiotepa-fludarabine-busulfan conditioning regimen (70% of patients versus 2%, P < .0001). Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were comparable in the 2 time periods. The 3-year transplantation-related mortality (TRM) in the 2011 to 2014 period versus the 2000 to 2010 period is 16% versus 32% (P = .10), the relapse rate 16% versus 40% (P = .06), and actuarial survival 70% versus 39% (P = .08). Improved survival was most pronounced in alternative donor grafts (69% versus 21%, P = .02), compared with matched sibling grafts (72% versus 45%, P = .40). In conclusion, the outcome of allografts in patients with myelofibrosis has improved in recent years because of a reduction of both TRM and relapse. Improvement is most significant in alternative donor transplantations, with modifications in donor type and conditioning regimen.

  16. Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics (United States)

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Simon, Christoph; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Gisin, Nicolas


    The distribution of quantum states over long distances is limited by photon loss. Straightforward amplification as in classical telecommunications is not an option in quantum communication because of the no-cloning theorem. This problem could be overcome by implementing quantum repeater protocols, which create long-distance entanglement from shorter-distance entanglement via entanglement swapping. Such protocols require the capacity to create entanglement in a heralded fashion, to store it in quantum memories, and to swap it. One attractive general strategy for realizing quantum repeaters is based on the use of atomic ensembles as quantum memories, in combination with linear optical techniques and photon counting to perform all required operations. Here the theoretical and experimental status quo of this very active field are reviewed. The potentials of different approaches are compared quantitatively, with a focus on the most immediate goal of outperforming the direct transmission of photons.

  17. Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Gisin, Nicolas


    The distribution of quantum states over long distances is limited by photon loss. Straightforward amplification as in classical telecommunications is not an option in quantum communication because of the no-cloning theorem. This problem could be overcome by implementing quantum repeater protocols, which create long-distance entanglement from shorter-distance entanglement via entanglement swapping. Such protocols require the capacity to create entanglement in a heralded fashion, to store it in quantum memories, and to swap it. One attractive general strategy for realizing quantum repeaters is based on the use of atomic ensembles as quantum memories, in combination with linear optical techniques and photon counting to perform all required operations. Here we review the theoretical and experimental status quo of this very active field. We compare the potential of different approaches quantitatively, with a focus on the most immediate goal of outperforming the direct transmission of photons.

  18. Insurability of living organ donors: a systematic review. (United States)

    Yang, R C; Thiessen-Philbrook, H; Klarenbach, S; Vlaicu, S; Garg, A X


    Being an organ donor may affect one's ability to obtain life, disability and health insurance. We conducted a systematic review to determine if insurability is affected by living organ donation, and if concern about insurability affects donor decision making. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCI, EconLit and Cochrane databases for articles in any language, and reviewed reference lists from 1966 until June 2006. All studies discussing the insurability of living organ donors or its impact on donor decision making were included. Data were independently abstracted by two authors, and the methodological quality appraised. Twenty-three studies, from 1972 to 2006, provided data on 2067 living organ donors, 385 potential donors and 239 responses from insurance companies. Almost all companies would provide life and health insurance to living organ donors, usually with no higher premiums. However, concern about insurability was still expressed by 2%-14% of living organ donors in follow-up studies, and 3%-11% of donors actually encountered difficulties with their insurance. In one study, donors whose insurance premiums increased were less likely to reaffirm their decision to donate. Based on available evidence, some living organ donors had difficulties with insurance despite companies reporting otherwise. If better understood, this potential barrier to donation could be corrected through fair health and underwriting policies.

  19. Transplanting Kidneys from Deceased Donors With Severe Acute Kidney Injury. (United States)

    Heilman, R L; Smith, M L; Kurian, S M; Huskey, J; Batra, R K; Chakkera, H A; Katariya, N N; Khamash, H; Moss, A; Salomon, D R; Reddy, K S


    Our aim was to determine outcomes with transplanting kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury, defined as a donor with terminal serum creatinine ≥2.0 mg/dL, or a donor requiring acute renal replacement therapy. We included all patients who received deceased donor kidney transplant from June 2004 to October 2013. There were 162 AKI donor transplant recipients (21% of deceased donor transplants): 139 in the standard criteria donor (SCD) and 23 in the expanded criteria donor (ECD) cohort. 71% of the AKI donors had stage 3 (severe AKI), based on acute kidney injury network (AKIN) staging. Protocol biopsies were done at 1, 4, and 12 months posttransplant. One and four month formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) biopsies from 48 patients (24 AKI donors, 24 non-AKI) underwent global gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays (96 arrays). DGF was more common in the AKI group but eGFR, graft survival at 1 year and proportion with IF/TA>2 at 1 year were similar for the two groups. At 1 month, there were 898 differentially expressed genes in the AKI group (p-value kidneys from deceased donors with AKI is safe and has excellent outcomes.

  20. Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors. (United States)

    Müller, Carlheinz R


    The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web.

  1. The effect of donor age on survival after lung transplantation. (United States)

    Izbicki, Gabriel; Shitrit, David; Aravot, Dan; Fink, Gershon; Saute, Milton; Idelman, Leonid; Bakal, Ilana; Sulkes, Jaqueline; Kramer, Mordechai R


    Historically, donor age above 55 years has been considered to be a relative contraindication for organ transplantation. The shortage of organs for transplantation has led to the expansion of the donor pool by accepling older donors. To compare the 1 year follow-up in patients after lung transplantation from older donors (> 50 years old) and in patients after transplantation from younger donors ( 50 years (n = 9). Survival, number and total days of hospitalization, development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and pulmonary function tests, were examined 1 year after transplantation. We performed 29 lung transplantations in our center during the observed period. Donor age had no statistically significant impact on 1 year survival after lung transplantation. There was no statistically significant effect on lung function parameters, the incidence of hospitalization or the incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans between both donor age groups at 1 year after transplantation. Donor age did not influence survival or important secondary end-points 1 year after lung transplantation By liberalizing donor criteria of age up to 65 years, we can expand the donor pool, while assessing other possible mechanisms to increase donor availability.

  2. [Evaluation and follow-up of living kidney donors]. (United States)

    Giessing, M; Schönberger, B; Fritsche, L; Budde, K


    An increase in waiting time for a cadaveric organs and a better graft-function, graft- and patient-survival with kidneys from a living donors have lead to an increase in living-donor renal transplantation in the therapy of end-stage renal disease. In Germany, with the implementation of a transplantation law in 1997 and due to improved surgical techniques (laparoscopy) the proportion of living renal donors has almost tripled during the last five years. The transplantation law also names the potential donors, including not only genetically related but also emotionally related donors. Inclusion criteria for living donation are age > 18 years, mental ability to give consent and an altruistic motivation (exclusion of financial benefits for the donor). If ABO blood group compatibility between donor and recipient is given and a cross match does not reveal immunologic obstacles a thorough medical and psychological examination must be performed with the potential donor. All risk factors for the donor beyond the actual operation must be excluded. Therefore all organ-systems have to be evaluated and risks for the donor as well as transferable pathologies and infections must be ruled out. International guidelines help to perform an efficient evaluation. Following organ donation the donor should be medically controlled as requested by law. Also, psychological counselling should be offered. The aim is to minimize risks for the single kidney and to recognize early potentially kidney damaging affections.

  3. Overextended Criteria Donors: Experience of an Italian Transplantation Center. (United States)

    Nure, E; Lirosi, M C; Frongillo, F; Bianco, G; Silvestrini, N; Fiorillo, C; Sganga, G; Agnes, S


    The increasing gap between the number of patients who could benefit from liver transplantation and the number of available donors has fueled efforts to maximize the donor pool using marginal grafts that usually were discarded for transplantation. This study included data of all patients who received decreased donor liver grafts between January 2004 and January 2013 (n = 218) with the use of a prospectively collected database. Patients with acute liver failure, retransplantation, pediatric transplantation, and split liver transplantation were excluded. Donors were classified as standard donor (SD), extended criteria donor (ECD), and overextended criteria donor (OECD). The primary endpoints of the study were early allograft primary dysfunction (PDF), primary nonfunction (PNF), and patient survival (PS), whereas incidence of major postoperative complications was the secondary endpoint. In our series we demonstrated that OECD have similar outcome in terms of survival and incidence of complication after liver transplantation as ideal grafts.

  4. Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Interaction of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Arrays Based on Anthracene Bisimide. (United States)

    Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Marina; Yamauchi, Tomokazu; Toyota, Shinji


    We designed anthracene bisimide (ABI) derivatives having two triphenylamine (TPA) groups as donor units at the 9,10-positions to form a novel π-conjugated donor-acceptor system. These compounds and their analogues with ethynylene linkers were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira coupling reactions, respectively. In UV-vis spectra, the linker-free derivatives showed broad absorption bands arising from intramolecular charge-transfer interactions. Introducing ethynylene linkers resulted in a considerable red shift of the absorption bands. In fluorescence spectra, the ethynylene derivatives showed intense emission bands at 600-650 nm. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were compared with those of the corresponding mono TPA derivatives on the basis of theoretical calculations and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate the intramolecular electronic interactions between the donor and acceptor units.

  5. Oligomeric Dithienopyrrole-Thienopyrrolodione (DTP-TPD) Donor-Acceptor Copolymer for Organic Photovoltaics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, S. R.; Braunecker, W.; Garcia, A.; Larsen, R.; Owczarczyk, Z.; Olson, D.; Ginley, D.


    A new donor-acceptor copolymer system based upon a dithienopyrrole (DTP) donor moiety and a thienopyrrolodione (TPD) accepting moiety has been designed and synthesized for organic photovoltaic (OPV) applications. The TPD accepting moiety has recently gained significant attention in the OPV community and is being incorporated into a number of different polymer systems. In contrast, the DTP donor moiety has received only limited attention, likely due in part to synthetic difficulties relating to the monomer. In our hands, the bis(trimethyltin)-DTP monomer was indelibly contaminated with ~5% of the mono-destannylated DTP, which limited the Stille polymerization with the dibromo-TPD monomer (>99% pure) to produce material with Mn ~ 4130 g/mol (PDI = 1.10), corresponding to around eight repeat units. Despite this limitation, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy demonstrates strong absorption for this material with a band gap of ~1.6 eV. Cyclic voltammetry indicates a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of -5.3 eV, which is much lower than calculations predicted. Initial bulk heterojunction OPV devices fabricated with the fullerene acceptor phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) exhibit Voc ~ 700 mV, which supports the deep HOMO value obtained from CV. These results suggest the promise of this copolymer system.

  6. CT Angiography for Living Kidney Donors: Accuracy, Cause of Misinterpretation and Prevalence of Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Jee Won; Lee, Whal; Yin, Yong Hu; Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Hoe [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the accuracy of the use of multi-detector row CT (MDCT) to predict vascular anatomy in living kidney donors and to reveal the prevalence of vascular variations in a Korean population. A total of 153 living kidney donors that had undergone preoperative CT and nephrectomy, either with open or laparoscopic surgery, were selected retrospectively. The initial CT results were compared with the surgical findings and repeated review sessions of CT scans were performed to determine the causes of mismatches in discordant cases. The accuracy of CT angiography was 95% to predict the number of renal vessels. Four arteries and two veins were missed during the initial CT interpretation due to perception errors (for two arteries and two veins) and technical limitations (two arteries). The prevalence of multiple renal arteries and veins, early branching of a renal artery and late confluence of a renal vein were 31%, 5%, 12%, 17%, respectively. The circumaortic renal vein and the bilateral inferior vena cava were found in two cases each (1.3%). One case (0.7%) each of a retroaortic renal vein and a supradiaphragmatic originated renal artery were found. MDCT provides a reliable method to evaluate the vascular anatomy and variations of living kidney donors.

  7. Stock Status (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data inform the public of the most recent stock status for all stocks (FSSI and non-FSSI) in the fishery management unit contained in a fishery managment plan....

  8. Effect of donor age on graft function and long-term survival of recipients undergoing living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Wang; Wen-Tao Jiang; Yong-Lin Deng; Cheng Pan; Zhong-Yang Shen


    BACKGROUND: Donor shortage is the biggest obstacle in organ transplantation. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been considered as a valuable approach to short-ening waiting time. The objectives of this study were to inves-tigate the feasibility of utilizing donors older than 50 years in LDLT and to evaluate the graft function and recipient survival. METHODS: All LDLT cases (n=159) were divided into the older (donor age ≥50 years, n=10) and younger (donor age RESULTS: The median donor age was 58.5 (52.5-60.0) years in the older donor group and 25.0 (23.0-32.0) in the younger do-nor group. There was no significant difference in cold ischemic time, anhepatic phase and operation time between the older and younger donor groups (P>0.05). However, the volume of red blood cell transfused in operation was greater in the older donor group than in the younger donor group (1900 vs 1200 mL, P=0.023). The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates were 90%, 80% and 80% for the older donor group, and 92%, 87%and 87% for the younger donor group, respectively (P=0.459). The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 100%, 90% and 90%for recipients with older grafts, and 93%, 87% and 87% for those with younger grafts, respectively (P=0.811). CONCLUSION: It is safe for a LDLT recipient to receive liver from donors older than 50 years, and there is no significant adverse effect on graft function and long-term patients' survival.

  9. Liver transplantation in children using organs from young paediatric donors. (United States)

    Herden, Uta; Ganschow, Rainer; Briem-Richter, Andrea; Helmke, Knut; Nashan, Bjoern; Fischer, Lutz


    Nowadays, most paediatric liver transplant recipients receive a split or other technical variant graft from adult deceased or live donors, because of a lack of available age- and size matched paediatric donors. Few data are available, especially for liver grafts obtained from very young children (transplantations between 1989 and 2009. Recipients were divided into five groups (1-5) depending on donor age (transplantations from deceased donors were performed; 1- and 5-year graft survival rates were 75%, 80%, 78%, 81%, 74% and 75%, 64%, 70%, 67%, 46%, and 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 88%, 91%, 90%, 89%, 78% and 88%, 84%, 84%, 83%, 63% for groups 1-5, respectively, without significant difference. Eight children received organs from donors younger than 1 year and 45 children received organs from donors between 1 and 6 years of age. Overall, vascular complications occurred in 13.2% of patients receiving organs from donors younger than 6 years. Analysis of our data revealed that the usage of liver grafts from donors younger than 6 years is a safe procedure. The outcome was comparable with grafts from older donors with excellent graft and patient survival, even for donors younger than 1 year.

  10. A comparison of donor and control group quality of life. (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Abdul Talib Abdul Mutalib, Muzalwana; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Abdullah, Nawi; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Ng, Kok-Peng; Lim, Soo-Kun


    Informed consent of prospective donors should include information about the quality of life (QoL) of existing donors, especially those within the relevant country. This study aimed to provide information on Malaysian organ donors' QoL relative to a control group. Using a shorter version of the SF-36, QoL of 80 donors from the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Malaysia was surveyed and compared to QoL of 80 selected healthy individuals. ANOVA and General Linear Model (GLM) procedure were each applied for the QoL comparison, which was based on gender and age. Donors recorded a better QoL relative to the control group. Comparison across gender revealed that differences are more obvious for males than females. Donor/control comparison across age groups reveals that donors aged 56 and above reported significantly better QoL in most domains relative to other age groups. Information on donor QoL should be made available to the public to present a comprehensive picture of the consequences of organ donation. Nonetheless, we also argue that, despite the merits of organ donation, caution is required before concluding that donors have better QoL because the present research outcomes may reflect a self-selection bias in which respondents only included donors engaging in regular follow-ups.

  11. Health-related quality of life among blood donors with hepatitis B and hepatitis C: longitudinal study before and after diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Augusto Porto Ferreira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: There is evidence that patients suffering from chronic hepatic diseases, including chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C, have a reduced health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the notification of test results for hepatitis B and hepatitis C on the quality of life of blood donors. Methods: Over a 29-month period, this study assessed the quality of life of 105 blood donors with positive serological screening tests for hepatitis B and hepatitis C and donors who presented false-positive test results. The Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire was applied at three time points: (1 when an additional blood sample was collected for confirmatory tests; (2 when donors were notified about their serological status; and (3 when donors, positive for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, started clinical follow- up. Quality of life scores for the confirmed hepatitis B and hepatitis C groups were compared to the false-positive control group. Results: The domains bodily pain, general health perception, social function, and mental health and the physical component improved significantly in donors with hepatitis C from Time Point 1 to Time Point 3. Health-related quality of life scores of donors diagnosed with hepatitis B and hepatitis C were significantly lower in six and four of the eight domains, respectively, compared to the false-positive control group. Conclusion: A decreased quality of life was detected before and after diagnosis in blood donors with hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Contrary to hepatitis B positive donors, the pos- sibility of medical care may have improved the quality of life among hepatitis C positive donors.

  12. Long CAG repeat sequence and protein expression of androgen receptor considered as prognostic indicators in male breast carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ni Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR expression and the CAG repeat length within the AR gene appear to be involved in the carcinogenesis of male breast carcinoma (MBC. Although phenotypic differences have been observed between MBC and normal control group in AR gene, there is lack of correlation analysis between AR expression and CAG repeat length in MBC. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prognostic value of CAG repeat lengths and AR protein expression. METHODS: 81 tumor tissues were used for immunostaining for AR expression and CAG repeat length determination and 80 normal controls were analyzed with CAG repeat length in AR gene. The CAG repeat length and AR expression were analyzed in relation to clinicopathological factors and prognostic indicators. RESULTS: AR gene in many MBCs has long CAG repeat sequence compared with that in control group (P = 0.001 and controls are more likely to exhibit short CAG repeat sequence than MBCs. There was statistically significant difference in long CAG repeat sequence between AR status for MBC patients (P = 0.004. The presence of long CAG repeat sequence and AR-positive expression were associated with shorter survival of MBC patients (CAG repeat: P = 0.050 for 5y-OS; P = 0.035 for 5y-DFS AR status: P = 0.048 for 5y-OS; P = 0.029 for 5y-DFS, respectively. CONCLUSION: The CAG repeat length within the AR gene might be one useful molecular biomarker to identify males at increased risk of breast cancer development. The presence of long CAG repeat sequence and AR protein expression were in relation to survival of MBC patients. The CAG repeat length and AR expression were two independent prognostic indicators in MBC patients.

  13. Isolation Improvement of a Microstrip Patch Array Antenna for WCDMA Indoor Repeater Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmin Lee


    Full Text Available This paper presents the isolation improvement techniques of a microstrip patch array antenna for the indoor wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA repeater applications. One approach is to construct the single-feed switchable feed network structure with an MS/NRI coupled-line coupler in order to reduce the mutual coupling level between antennas. Another approach is to insert the soft surface unit cells near the edges of the microstrip patch elements in order to reduce backward radiation waves. In order to further improve the isolation level, the server antenna and donor antenna are installedinorthogonal direction. The fabricated antenna exhibits a gain over 7 dBi and higher isolation level between server and donor antennas below −70 dB at WCDMA band.

  14. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing. (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars


    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  15. New normal values not related to age and sex, of glomerular filtration rate by (99m)Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, for the evaluation of living kidney graft donors. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuyi; Shao, Yahui; Wang, Yanming; Tian, Jun; Sun, Ben; Ru, Yanhui; Zhang, Aimin; Hao, Junwen


    The aim of this study was to investigate the normal values of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by technetium-99m diaethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) renal dynamic imaging for living kidney graft donors. In a total of 212 candidate donors, GFR was examined using (99m)Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging. Donors with GFR≥80mL/(min×1.73m(2)) and as low as with GFR≥70mL/(min×1.73m(2)) but a normal endogenous creatinine clearance rate (CCr) were quantified for living kidney donation. Differences in GFR levels based on sex and age were analyzed using rank correlation coefficient. Out of the 212 candidates, 161 were finally selected as kidney graft donors. The double kidney total GFR between the male and female donor groups, the GFR levels among differently-aged donor groups, and the GFR levels between the elderly (>55 years) and young- and middle-aged (≤55 years) donor groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05). After kidney donation, renal function measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine of all donors returned to normal within one week, and no serious complications were noticed. In conclusion, renal dynamic imaging by (99m)Tc-DTPA had a good accuracy and repeatability in GFR evaluation for living kidney donors. Candidate donors with GFR between 70mL/(min×1.73m(2)) and 80mL/(min×1.73m(2)) can be selected as kidney donors after strict screening. In living kidney donors GFR is not significantly correlated with age or sex.

  16. Similar liver transplantation survival with selected cardiac death donors and brain death donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Farid, W.; Ringers, J.; Porte, R. J.; Metselaar, H. J.; Baranski, A. G.; Kazemier, G.; van den Bere, A. P.; van Hoek, B.


    Background: The outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) with controlled graft donation after cardiac death (DCD) is usually inferior to that with graft donation after brain death (DBD). This study compared outcomes from OLT with DBD versus controlled DCD donors with predefined restrictive

  17. Tuning the Rainbow: Systematic Modulation of Donor-Acceptor Systems through Donor Substituents and Solvent. (United States)

    Larsen, Christopher B; van der Salm, Holly; Shillito, Georgina E; Lucas, Nigel T; Gordon, Keith C


    A series of donor-acceptor compounds is reported in which the energy of the triarylamine donor is systematically tuned through para substitution with electron-donating methoxy and electron-withdrawing cyano groups. The acceptor units investigated are benzothiadiazole (btd), dipyridophenazine (dppz), and its [ReCl(CO)3(dppz)] complex. The effect of modulating donor energy on the electronic and photophysical properties is investigated using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, DFT calculations, electrochemistry, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, ground state and resonance Raman spectroscopy, and transient absorption spectroscopy. Qualitative correlations between the donor energy and the properties of interest are obtained using Hammett σ(+) constants. Methoxy and cyano groups are shown to destabilize and stabilize, respectively, the frontier molecular orbitals, with the HOMO affected more significantly than the LUMO, narrowing the HOMO-LUMO band gap as the substituent becomes more electron-donating-observable as a bathochromic shift in low-energy charge-transfer absorption bands. Charge-transfer emission bands are also dependent on the electron-donating/withdrawing nature of the substituent, and in combination with the highly solvatochromic nature of charge-transfer states, emission can be tuned to span the entire visible region.

  18. Similar liver transplantation survival with selected cardiac death donors and brain death donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Farid, W.; Ringers, J.; Porte, R. J.; Metselaar, H. J.; Baranski, A. G.; Kazemier, G.; van den Bere, A. P.; van Hoek, B.

    Background: The outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) with controlled graft donation after cardiac death (DCD) is usually inferior to that with graft donation after brain death (DBD). This study compared outcomes from OLT with DBD versus controlled DCD donors with predefined restrictive

  19. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Donor Management Research: Improvements in... management practices, but further investigation is needed. Upon review of research possibilities being... management study to be accomplished by contract or targeted research questions that will be incorporated into...

  20. Repeat concussions in the national football league. (United States)

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J


    Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Case control. From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods.

  1. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing.


    Rogers, Jeremy E; Wroe, Christopher J; Roberts, Angus; Swallow, Angela; Stables, David; Cantrill, Judith A; Rector, Alan L.


    BACKGROUND: Good clinical practice in primary care includes periodic review of repeat prescriptions. Markers of prescriptions that may need review have been described, but manually checking all repeat prescriptions against the markers would be impractical. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of computerising the application of repeat prescribing quality checks to electronic patient records in United Kingdom (UK) primary care. DESIGN OF STUDY: Software performance test against benchmark manual...

  2. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (United States)

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  3. Q-FISH measurement of hepatocyte telomere lengths in donor liver and graft after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: donor age affects telomere length sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Kawano

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing need for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT, the issue of organ shortage has become a serious problem. Therefore, the use of organs from elderly donors has been increasing. While the short-term results of LDLT have greatly improved, problems affecting the long-term outcome of transplant patients remain unsolved. Furthermore, since contradictory data have been reported with regard to the relationship between donor age and LT/LDLT outcome, the question of whether the use of elderly donors influences the long-term outcome of a graft after LT/LDLT remains unsettled. To address whether hepatocyte telomere length reflects the outcome of LDLT, we analyzed the telomere lengths of hepatocytes in informative biopsy samples from 12 paired donors and recipients (grafts of pediatric LDLT more than 5 years after adult-to-child LDLT because of primary biliary atresia, using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH. The telomere lengths in the paired samples showed a robust relationship between the donor and grafted hepatocytes (r = 0.765, p = 0.0038, demonstrating the feasibility of our Q-FISH method for cell-specific evaluation. While 8 pairs showed no significant difference between the telomere lengths for the donor and the recipient, the other 4 pairs showed significantly shorter telomeres in the recipient than in the donor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the donors in the latter group were older than those in the former (p = 0.001. Despite the small number of subjects, this pilot study indicates that donor age is a crucial factor affecting telomere length sustainability in hepatocytes after pediatric LDLT, and that the telomeres in grafted livers may be elongated somewhat longer when the grafts are immunologically well controlled.

  4. Effects of adoptive status on evaluations of children. (United States)

    Mulcare, S L; Aguinis, H


    The authors examined whether being adopted or semi-adopted (born of artificial insemination with donor sperm and genetically linked to the mother but not to the social father) is a stigmatizing attribute affecting evaluations made of a child, and whether the gender of the rater moderates the effects of adoptive status on evaluations of children. Participants included 129 undergraduate students from the United States who were presented with written scenarios describing a child's adoptive status. They were asked to evaluate the child on a number of attributes. Results showed that adoptive status did not affect evaluations of children, although rater gender moderated the effects of adoptive status.

  5. Molecular designing of novel ternary copolymers of donor-acceptor polymers using genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Vinita [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Bakhshi, A.K., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)


    Graphical abstract: Alternate arrangement of donor acceptor moieties in the carbon backbone chain of an organic conjugated polymer is capable of inducing charge transfer and affects the electronic properties of the copolymer. Genetic algorithm along with simple NFC (negative factor counting) and IIM (inverse iteration method) has been used to optimize the properties of novel ternary copolymers based on polypyrrole PPy, polythiophene PTh and polyfuran PFu (as donor moieties) and containing >C=O and >C=CF{sub 2} bridging units as acceptor moieties. - Abstract: An efficient designing route to novel ternary copolymers consisting of polypyrrole (PPy), polythiophene (PTh) and polyfuran (PFu) is developed with the help of genetic algorithm. Using the band structure results obtained from ab initio crystal orbital (CO) calculations, the electronic structures and conduction properties of real ternary copolymers based on donor acceptor type polymers are investigated. The electron rich heterocyclic rings in the backbone chain of the copolymer are joined together by electron withdrawing groups Y, carbonyl group (>C=O) and difluoromethylene group (>C=CF{sub 2}) in an attempt to design the conducting polymer with lowest band gap. A comparative study of various electronic properties is presented. The effects of substitution on the behaviour and properties of the copolymers as well as on the density of states (DOS) are discussed. Band gap decreases as a result of substitution on the polymer backbone chain due to decrease in ionization potential and increase in electron affinity values. This is expected to enhance the intrinsic conductivity of the resulting copolymer. Use of alternate donor acceptor moieties within the repeat units should maximize the extended {pi} conjugation.

  6. Current outcome of HLA identical sibling versus unrelated donor transplants in severe aplastic anemia: an EBMT analysis. (United States)

    Bacigalupo, Andrea; Socié, Gerard; Hamladji, Rose Marie; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Maschan, Alexei; Kyrcz-Krzemien, Slawomira; Cybicka, Alicja; Sengelov, Henrik; Unal, Ali; Beelen, Dietrich; Locasciulli, Anna; Dufour, Carlo; Passweg, Jakob R; Oneto, Rosi; Signori, Alessio; Marsh, Judith C W


    We have analyzed 1448 patients with acquired aplastic anemia grafted between 2005 and 2009, and compared outcome of identical sibling (n=940) versus unrelated donor (n=508) transplants. When compared to the latter, sibling transplants were less likely to be performed beyond 180 days from diagnosis (39% vs. 85%), to have a cytomegalovirus negative donor/recipient status (15% vs. 23%), to receive antithymocyte globulin in the conditioning (52% vs. 61%), and more frequently received marrow as a stem cell source (60% vs. 52%). Unrelated donor grafts had significantly more acute grade II-IV (25% vs. 13%) and significantly more chronic graft-versus-host disease (26% vs. 14%). In multivariate analysis, the risk of death of unrelated donor grafts was higher, but not significantly higher, compared to a sibling donor (P=0.16). The strongest negative predictor of survival was the use of peripheral blood as a stem cell source (Paplastic anemia, is currently not statistically inferior when compared to sibling transplants, although patients are at greater risk of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The use of peripheral blood grafts remains the strongest negative predictor of survival.

  7. Improving Photoconductance of Fluorinated Donors with Fluorinated Acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Logan E.; Larson, Bryon; Oosterhout, Stefan; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw; Olson, Dana C.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Boltalina, Olga V.; Strauss, Steven H.; Braunecker, Wade A.


    This work investigates the influence of fluorination of both donor and acceptor materials on the generation of free charge carriers in small molecule donor/fullerene acceptor BHJ OPV active layers. A fluorinated and non-fluorinated small molecule analogue were synthesized and their optoelectronic properties characterized. The intrinsic photoconductance of blends of these small molecule donors was investigated using time-resolved microwave conductivity. Blends of the two donor molecules with a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene (PC70BM) as well as a fluorinated fullerene (C60(CF3)2-1) were investigated using 5% and 50% fullerene loading. We demonstrate for the first time that photoconductance in a 50:50 donor:acceptor BHJ blend using a fluorinated fullerene can actually be improved relative to a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene by fluorinating the donor molecule as well.

  8. Renal transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients justified. (United States)

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir


    HIV infection was previously an absolute contraindication to renal transplantation. However, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), renal transplantation using HIV-negative donor kidneys has successfully been employed for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal failure. In resource-limited countries, places on dialysis programmes are severely restricted; HIV-infected patients, like many others with co-morbidity, are often denied treatment. Kidneys (and other organs) from HIV-infected deceased donors are discarded. The transplantation of HIV-positive donor kidneys to HIV-infected recipients is now a viable alternative to chronic dialysis or transplantation of HIV-negative donor kidneys. This significantly increases the pool of donor kidneys to the advantage of HIV-positive and -negative patients. Arguments are presented that led to our initiation of renal transplantation from HIV-positive deceased donors to HIV-positive recipients at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town.

  9. Adequacy of the ELISA test for screening corneal transplant donors. (United States)

    Goode, S M; Hertzmark, E; Steinert, R F


    Using a simple mathematical model, we calculated the risk for a patient undergoing penetrating keratoplasty to receive a cornea from a human immunodeficiency virus-infected donor despite negative results on serologic testing of donor serum. This error in serologic testing occurred when false-negative results were obtained from the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to screen donor corneas for human immunodeficiency virus exposure. The average risk of transplanting an infected cornea was low, 0.03%, but increased by a factor of ten when donor tissue from donors at high risk for AIDS was used. Current screening procedures are probably adequate to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, but increased vigilance for high-risk donor populations may be appropriate.

  10. Addressing the Donor Liver Shortage with EX VIVO Machine Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Louisa Izamis


    Full Text Available Despite a critical shortage of viable donor livers for transplantation, only a fraction of the available organs are used. Donor organ defects, which in the majority of cases are caused by extensive exposure to ischemia, cannot be reversed by static cold storage, the current gold standard of organ preservation. In this review, the role of machine perfusion (MP in the recovery of non-transplantable ischemic donor organs is discussed. Though still in the experimental phase, various models of MP have consistently demonstrated that ischemic donor organs can be recovered to a transplantable state through continuous perfusion. MP can also provide dynamic quantitative assessments of the extent of ischemia, in addition to predicting the likelihood of organ recovery. Continued endeavors to translate MP into clinical use and eventually incorporate it into routine donor organ care will have a significant impact on the quality and availability of transplantable donor organs.

  11. Mini-donor nephrectomy: A viable and effective alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Guleria


    Full Text Available Live kidney donation is an excellent way of increasing the donor pool. The introduction of the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has resulted in an increase in live organ donation in the western hemisphere. There is no data on its impact on organ donation in India. However attractive as it may seem, the procedure is associated with a definite learning curve and does compromise donor safety. The procedure is also expensive in terms of the equipment required. The mini-donor nephrectomy is an excellent alternative, has no learning curve and is ideally suited for donors in India who have a low BMI. The procedure is also relatively inexpensive. We are in need of a donor registry rather than reports from single institutions to fully evaluate the risks and benefits of both procedures.

  12. "Just" blood donors? A study on the multi-affiliations of blood donors. (United States)

    Alfieri, Sara; Pozzi, Maura; Marta, Elena; Saturni, Vincenzo; Aresi, Giovanni; Guiddi, Paolo


    The present work proposes to explore a phenomenon well known in the world of blood donation, but little explored by literature: multi-affiliations. By that term, in this paper we mean blood donors' engagement in multiple associations of various natures (donation, recreation, sports, etc.) simultaneously. The first objective proposes to explore the phenomenon of multi-affiliations in descriptive terms; the second is to look into the differences-in terms of motivations, family-work-volunteerism reconciliation, life satisfaction, and membership satisfaction-between those who "only" carry out blood donation activity and those who instead participate in multiple associative realities concurrently. Participating in the research were 2674 donors from the Italian Association of Blood Donors (AVIS) (age range 18-65; 66.6% male) to which a self-report questionnaire was administered in the waiting rooms of numerous blood donation centers. Regarding the first objective, it emerged that only 35.9% of the participants "only" donate blood, while a good 64.1% is engaged also in other associations. Regarding the second objective, statistically significant differences emerge regarding many of the variables considered: social, values, ego-protection, and career motivation; capacity to reconcile family-volunteering and work-volunteering; life satisfaction; and membership satisfaction. The study offers precious information to the agencies that handle recruiting and retaining of donors. The agencies in fact can take away information on how to improve the multi-affiliations of their donors, an aspect that can facilitate their long-term retention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving HSDPA Indoor Coverage and Throughput by Repeater and Dedicated Indoor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The target of the paper is to provide guidelines for indoor planning and optimization using an outdoor-to-indoor repeater or a dedicated indoor system. The paper provides practical information for enhancing the performance of high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA in an indoor environment. The capabilities of an outdoor-to-indoor analog WCDMA repeater are set against a dedicated indoor system and, furthermore, compared to indoor coverage of a nearby macrocellular base station. An extensive measurement campaign with varying system configurations was arranged in different indoor environments. The results show that compared to dedicated indoor systems, similar HSDPA performance can be provided by extending macrocellular coverage inside buildings using an outdoor-to-indoor repeater. According to the measurements, the pilot coverage planning threshold of about −80 dBm ensures a 2500 kbps throughput for shared HSDPA connections. Improving the coverage above −80 dBm seems to provide only small advantage in HSDPA throughput. Of course, the pilot planning thresholds may change if different channel power allocations are used. In addition, network performance can be further improved by increasing the antenna density in the serving distributed antenna system. Finally, good performance of repeater implementation needs careful repeater gain setting and donor antenna siting.

  14. Improving HSDPA Indoor Coverage and Throughput by Repeater and Dedicated Indoor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isotalo Tero


    Full Text Available Abstract The target of the paper is to provide guidelines for indoor planning and optimization using an outdoor-to-indoor repeater or a dedicated indoor system. The paper provides practical information for enhancing the performance of high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA in an indoor environment. The capabilities of an outdoor-to-indoor analog WCDMA repeater are set against a dedicated indoor system and, furthermore, compared to indoor coverage of a nearby macrocellular base station. An extensive measurement campaign with varying system configurations was arranged in different indoor environments. The results show that compared to dedicated indoor systems, similar HSDPA performance can be provided by extending macrocellular coverage inside buildings using an outdoor-to-indoor repeater. According to the measurements, the pilot coverage planning threshold of about −80 dBm ensures a 2500 kbps throughput for shared HSDPA connections. Improving the coverage above −80 dBm seems to provide only small advantage in HSDPA throughput. Of course, the pilot planning thresholds may change if different channel power allocations are used. In addition, network performance can be further improved by increasing the antenna density in the serving distributed antenna system. Finally, good performance of repeater implementation needs careful repeater gain setting and donor antenna siting.

  15. Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Reikvam


    Full Text Available Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the blood bank will be less motivated to return for donation, it is important to reduce the number of deferrals. The aims of the present study were to investigate the reasons for deferral of registered donors coming to the blood bank for donation, in order to identify areas of importance for donor education—as these deferrals potentially could be avoided by better donor comprehension. Deferral related to testing of donors is not included in this study as these deferrals are dependent on laboratory results and cannot be indentified by questionnaire or interview. Data were collected from all blood donors in a period for 18 months who came for blood donation at a large university hospital in Norway. 1 163 of the 29 787 regular donors, who showed up for donation, were deferred (3.9%. The main reasons were intercurrent illness (n=182 (15.6%, skin ulcers (n=170 (14.6%, and risk behaviour (n=127 (10.9%. In a community, intercurrent illnesses, skin ulcers, and potential risk behavior are the most frequent reasons for deferral of regular donors. Strategized effort on donor education is needed, as “failure to donate” reduces donor motivation.

  16. Biotechnological aspects of sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor


    Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P. N L


    Biological sulfate reduction can be used for the removal and recovery of oxidized sulfur compounds and metals from waste streams. However, the costs of conventional electron donors, like hydrogen and ethanol, limit the application possibilities. Methane from natural gas or biogas would be a more attractive electron donor. Sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor prevails in marine sediments. Recently, several authors succeeded in cultivating the responsible microorganisms in vitro. In...

  17. A donor-nanotube paradigm for nonlinear optical materials. (United States)

    Xiao, Dequan; Bulat, Felipe A; Yang, Weitao; Beratan, David N


    Studies of the nonlinear electronic response of donor/acceptor substituted nanotubes suggest a behavior that is both surprising and qualitatively distinct from that in conventional conjugated organic species. We find that the carbon nanotubes serve as both electronic bridges and acceptors, leading to a donor-nanotube paradigm for the effective design of large first hyperpolarizabilities. We also find that tuning the donor orientation, relative to the nanotube, can significantly enhance the first hyperpolarizability.

  18. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors


    Manit Nuinoon; Kwanta Kruachan; Warachaya Sengking; Dararat Horpet; Ubol Sungyuan


    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...

  19. Leukemia in donor cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant



    The development of leukemia in donor cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant is an extremely rare event. We report here the case of a patient who developed myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia, in cells of donor origin 3.5 years after related donor HSCT for refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia and therapy-induced myelodysplastic syndrome. The origin of the leukemia was determined by analysis of minisatillite polymorphism tested on CD34(+) cells.

  20. Reducing the risk of transfusion-transmissible viral infection through blood donor selection: the Australian experience 2000 through 2006. (United States)

    Polizzotto, Mark N; Wood, Erica M; Ingham, Helen; Keller, Anthony J


    Selection of voluntary donors who are at low risk of transfusion-transmissible viral infection (TTVI) is central in maintaining the safety of the blood supply. Evaluation of its effectiveness and the dynamics of the process may offer opportunities to further improve transfusion safety. The impact of donor selection on prevalence of TTVI was analyzed in all allogeneic donations in Australia between July 2000 and June 2006 by interviewing donors found to have a TTVI. The presence and disclosure of infective risks was reassessed. A total of 6.3 million donations were tested; of these, 1,449 (0.02%) were repeat-reactive for a TTVI and were discarded. This comprised 605 (42%) positive for the presence of hepatitis B, 818 (56%) positive for the presence of hepatitis C, 18 (1%) positive for the presence of human immunodeficiency virus, and 20 (1%) positive for the presence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I and/or -II (HTLV-I/II). This prevalence was 50 to 350 times lower than in the Australian population. In 1,158 cases (80%), an infective risk was identified; 509 donors (44%) had more than one. The most common identified were country of birth and parental ethnicity (n = 682, 26% of risks), tattoos and/or piercings (n = 448, 18%), and intravenous drug use (n = 302, 12%). In 302 cases (21%) disclosure at predonation screening would have resulted in deferral. Factors influencing nondisclosure included temporal remoteness and perceptions that laboratory testing rendered disclosure unnecessary. These findings affirm the effectiveness of current stringent donor selection criteria in reducing the residual risk of TTVI. Ongoing donor education regarding the importance of risk disclosure is required.

  1. Improving the organ donor card system in Switzerland. (United States)

    Shaw, David


    This paper analyses the current organ donor card system in Switzerland and identifies five problems that may be partially responsible for the country's low deceased organ donation rates. There are two minor issues concerning the process of obtaining a donor card: the Swisstransplant website understates the prospective benefits of donation, and the ease with which donor cards can be obtained raises questions regarding whether any consent to donation provided is truly informed. Furthermore, there are two major practical problems that might affect those who carry an organ donor card: the lack of a central donor registry increases the likelihood that donors' wishes will be "lost", and there is a high probability that family members will veto organ donation. The fact that these two practical problems are not mentioned to potential donors by Swisstransplant constitutes the fifth problem. Donation rates would probably improve if more accurate information about the benefits of donation were provided to potential donors, a central donor registry were created, and families were not permitted to veto donation from those on the registry.

  2. Transplantation With Livers From Deceased Donors Older Than 75 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Trygve; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Bennet, William


    BACKGROUND: The availability of donor organs limits the number of patients in need who are offered liver transplantation. Measures to expand the donor pool are crucial to prevent on-list mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of livers from deceased donors who were older than 75...... years. METHODS: Fifty-four patients who received a first liver transplant (D75 group) from 2001 to 2011 were included. Donor and recipient data were collected from the Nordic Liver Transplant Registry and medical records. The outcome was compared with a control group of 54 patients who received a liver...

  3. Digital questionnaire platform in the Danish Blood Donor Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, K S; Felsted, N; Mikkelsen, S


    OBJECTIVES: The Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) is a prospective, population-based study and biobank. Since 2010, 100,000 Danish blood donors have been included in the study. Prior to July 2015 all participating donors had to complete a paper-based questionnaire. Here we describe the establishment...... with the questionnaire data in the DBDS database. RESULTS: The digital platform enables personalized questionnaires, presenting only questions relevant to the specific donor by hiding unneeded follow-up questions on screening question results. New versions of questionnaires are immediately available at all blood...

  4. Indirect Interactions Between Proton Donors Separated by Several Hydrogen Bonds

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, Takaya; Tamaki, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Takeo


    We expand the definition of our recently proposed proton conduction mechanism, the packed-acid mechanism, which occurs under conditions of concentrated proton donors. The original definition stated that acid-acid interactions, which help overcome the barrier of the rate-determining step, occur only when a hydrogen bond is formed directly between proton donors. Here, it is shown that proton donors can interact with each other even when the donors are separated via several H-bonds. The effect of these interactions on proton diffusivity is confirmed by ab initio calculations.

  5. Paid Living Donation and Growth of Deceased Donor Programs. (United States)

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah


    Limited organ availability in all countries has stimulated discussion about incentives to increase donation. Since 1988, Iran has operated the only government-sponsored paid living donor (LD) kidney transplant program. This article reviews aspects of the Living Unrelated Donor program and development of deceased donation in Iran. Available evidence indicates that in the partially regulated Iranian Model, the direct negotiation between donors and recipients fosters direct monetary relationship with no safeguards against mutual exploitation. Brokers, the black market and transplant tourism exist, and the waiting list has not been eliminated. Through comparison between the large deceased donor program in Shiraz and other centers in Iran, this article explores the association between paid donation and the development of a deceased donor program. Shiraz progressively eliminated paid donor transplants such that by 2011, 85% of kidney transplants in Shiraz compared with 27% across the rest of Iran's other centers were from deceased donors. Among 26 centers, Shiraz undertakes the largest number of deceased donor kidney transplants, most liver transplants, and all pancreas transplants. In conclusion, although many patients with end stage renal disease have received transplants through the paid living donation, the Iranian Model now has serious flaws and is potentially inhibiting substantial growth in deceased donor organ transplants in Iran.

  6. Why prevention of repeat abortion is so challenging: psychosocial characteristics of women at risk. (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Bieli, Simone; Huang, Dorothy; Tschudin, Sibil


    Abortion rates have declined in recent decades; however, the rate of repeat abortion remains high. In order to identify keys to making efficient interventions against repeat abortion, our objectives were: to assess the percentage of repeat abortions in women opting for termination of pregnancy over a period of 1 year; to identify the risk factors for repeat abortion; and to assess the characteristics of women who opted for a further pregnancy termination despite having received standard post-abortion care. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was carried out among 362 women who underwent pregnancy termination during a 1-year period. Women with and without repeat abortion were compared with regard to age, nationality, marital status, parity and use of contraception. In a subsample of 160 women who were available for follow-up over 4 years, those who underwent a further pregnancy termination during the observation period were also analysed qualitatively. The rate of repeat abortion was 30.1% in the survey population. Age and immigrant status were identified as risk factors. The use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) was significantly higher after repeat abortion than after a first termination of pregnancy. Among women with repeat abortion in the follow-up group, those with psychological problems tended to discontinue contraception and those with partnership conflicts were prone to using unreliable contraceptive methods. Aside from promoting LARC methods, strategies to reduce repeat abortion should consider the psychosocial risk factors and characteristics of women at risk identified in this study. An interdisciplinary approach including social care and counselling would be the most appropriate means to enable this.

  7. Characterization of conservative somatic instability of the CAG repeat region in Huntington`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, F.V.; Calikoglu, A.S.; Whetsell, L.H. [H.A. Chapman Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)


    Instability and enlargement of a CAG repeat region at the beginning of the huntingtin gene (IT-15) has been linked with Huntington`s disease. The CAG repeat size shows a highly significant correlation with age-of-onset of clinicial features in individuals with 40 or more repeats who have Huntington disease. The clinical status of nonsymptomatic individuals with 30 to 39 CAG repeats is considered ambiguous. In order to define more carefully the nature of the HD expansion instability, we examined patients in our HD population using a discriminating fluorescence-based PCR approach. The degree of somatic mutation increases with both earlier age of onset and the size of the inherited allele. A single prominent band one repeat larger than the index peak was typical in individuals with 40-41 CAG repeats. Three to four larger bands are typically discerned in individuals with 50 or more repeats. In an extreme example, an individual with approximately 95 repeats had at least 8 prominent bands. Plotting the degree of somatic mutation relative to the size of the HD allele shows somatic mutation activity increases with size. By this approach 40-60% of the alleles in a 40-41 CAG repeat HD loci is represented in the primary allele. In contrast, the primary allele represents a relatively minor proportion of the total alleles for expansions greater than 50 CAG repeats (10-20%). The limited range of somatic mutation suggest that the instability is restricted to very early stages of embryogenesis before tissue development diverges or that persistent somatic instability occurs at a slow rate. Therefore, the properties of somatic instability in Huntington`s disease have aspects that are both in common but also different from that found in other trinucleotide repeat expanding diseases such as myotonic muscular dystrophy and fragile X syndrome.

  8. Discontinuation of living donor liver transplantation for PSC due to histological abnormalities in intraoperative donor liver biopsy. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Y; Kawachi, S; Shimazu, M; Hoshino, K; Tanabe, M; Fuchimoto, Y; Obara, H; Shinoda, M; Shimizu, H; Yamada, Y; Akatsu, T; Irie, R; Sakamoto, M; Morikawa, Y; Kitajima, M


    Liver transplantation is the only curative treatment known to date for end-stage liver disease occurring as a result of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Here, we report a case in which living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for PSC was cancelled because of histological abnormalities in intraoperative biopsy of the donor liver. The donor was the mother of the recipient, and her preoperative evaluation revealed no abnormalities. In the donor operation, the donor liver biopsy revealed expansion of the portal zone with lymphocytic infiltration and dense concentric fibrosis developed around a bile duct. These histological findings were identical to those of early-stage PSC; therefore, the LDLT was called off. The experience in this case suggests that preoperative liver biopsy may be useful to exclude first-degree relative donors with potential PSC prior to LDLT for PSC.

  9. A Conserved DNA Repeat Promotes Selection of a Diverse Repertoire of Trypanosoma brucei Surface Antigens from the Genomic Archive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galadriel Hovel-Miner


    Full Text Available African trypanosomes are mammalian pathogens that must regularly change their protein coat to survive in the host bloodstream. Chronic trypanosome infections are potentiated by their ability to access a deep genomic repertoire of Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG genes and switch from the expression of one VSG to another. Switching VSG expression is largely based in DNA recombination events that result in chromosome translocations between an acceptor site, which houses the actively transcribed VSG, and a donor gene, drawn from an archive of more than 2,000 silent VSGs. One element implicated in these duplicative gene conversion events is a DNA repeat of approximately 70 bp that is found in long regions within each BES and short iterations proximal to VSGs within the silent archive. Early observations showing that 70-bp repeats can be recombination boundaries during VSG switching led to the prediction that VSG-proximal 70-bp repeats provide recombinatorial homology. Yet, this long held assumption had not been tested and no specific function for the conserved 70-bp repeats had been demonstrated. In the present study, the 70-bp repeats were genetically manipulated under conditions that induce gene conversion. In this manner, we demonstrated that 70-bp repeats promote access to archival VSGs. Synthetic repeat DNA sequences were then employed to identify the length, sequence, and directionality of repeat regions required for this activity. In addition, manipulation of the 70-bp repeats allowed us to observe a link between VSG switching and the cell cycle that had not been appreciated. Together these data provide definitive support for the long-standing hypothesis that 70-bp repeats provide recombinatorial homology during switching. Yet, the fact that silent archival VSGs are selected under these conditions suggests the 70-bp repeats also direct DNA pairing and recombination machinery away from the closest homologs (silent BESs and toward the rest of

  10. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan


    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  11. Who requests their sperm donor's identity? The first ten years of information releases to adults with open-identity donors. (United States)

    Scheib, Joanna E; Ruby, Alice; Benward, Jean


    To report findings from 10 years of requests from adults eligible to obtain their open-identity sperm donor's information. Analysis of archived family and donor data. Semistructured interviews at information releases. Not applicable. A total of 85 DI adults requesting 43 donor identities; program data on 256 DI families. None. We identified [1] demographic predictors of requesting donor identities, [2] information release timing and length, and [3] request motives. Just >35% of eligible DI adults requested their donor's identity. Adults ranged from 18-27 years, requesting at median age 18 years. More women than men requested. Proportionally fewer adults requested when they had heterosexual-couple parents, and proportionally more when they had one rather than two parents. In interviews, the common theme was wanting to know more about the donor, especially about shared characteristics. Most adults planned to contact their donor. More than 94% of adults had donors who were open to contact; adults expressed modest expectations about this contact. In 2001, the first adults became eligible to obtain their open-identity sperm donor's information. Ten years of identity requests at one program indicates that information about one's donor is important to a significant proportion of these DI adults. Most requested their donor's identity soon after becoming eligible, suggesting some urgency to wanting the information. Interview data highlighted the role of donor information in helping adults better understand themselves and their ancestry. Findings hold important implications for practice and policy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Compliance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  13. Reward modulation of contextual cueing: Repeated context overshadows repeated target location. (United States)

    Sharifian, Fariba; Contier, Oliver; Preuschhof, Claudia; Pollmann, Stefan


    Contextual cueing can be enhanced by reward. However, there is a debate if reward is associated with the repeated target-distractor configurations or with the repeated target locations that occur in both repeated and new displays. Based on neuroimaging evidence, we hypothesized that reward becomes associated with the target location only in new displays, but not in repeated displays, where the repeated target location is overshadowed by the more salient repeated target-distractor configuration. To test this hypothesis, we varied the reward value associated with the same target location in repeated and new displays. The results confirmed the overshadowing hypothesis in that search facilitation in repeated target-distractor configurations was modulated by the variable value associated with the target location. This effect was observed mainly in early learning.

  14. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P


    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... suicidal behavior. The results showed that three fourths of the patients attempted suicide more than once (62% nonfatal and 14% fatal outcome). The sex distribution was about the same among the first-evers as among the repeaters. Most repeaters were younger people in their twenties and thirties......, and the first-evers on average were past the age of 40. Somewhat unexpectedly, significantly more repeaters than first-evers had grown up with both their parents. However, the results also showed that significantly more repeaters than first-evers had had an unhappy childhood. This indicates...

  15. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan


    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  16. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran (United States)



    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Results Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P 0.05). Conclusion Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low. PMID:25909065

  17. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mohammadali


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC, and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011.This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program.Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P 0.05.Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low.

  18. Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family: a systematic review. (United States)

    Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle


    Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies addressing the psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation in recipients, donors, and the family. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched the databases Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, and Google Scholar. We identified 23 studies that satisfied our inclusion criteria. Recipients had improved coping skills and satisfactory peer relationships, but also reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, worried about the future, and had a negative body image. Similarly, donors experienced increased self-esteem, empowerment, and community awareness, but also complained of postoperative pain and a lack of emotional support. With respect to family impact, transplantation generated a special bond between the donor and the recipient, characterized by gratitude and admiration, but also raised new expectations concerning the recipient's lifestyle. As psychological problems in recipients were sometimes induced by feelings of guilt and indebtedness toward the donor, we recommend more research on how gift exchange dynamics function within donor-recipient relationships, enrolling donors and recipients within the same study.

  19. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation. (United States)

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok


    Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support the use of

  20. Donor safety in adult living donor liver transplantation using the right lobe:Single center experience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Gui Li; Lu-Nan Yan; Yong Zeng; Jia-Yin Yang; Qi-Yuan Lin; Xiao-Zhong Jiang; Bin Liu


    AIM: To evaluate the safety of donors in adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using the right lobe in a single liver transplantation center in China.METHODS: We investigated retrospectively 52 living donor liver resections performed from October 2003 to July 2006. All patients were evaluated by blood tests and abdominal CT. The mean donor age was 28.2±7.4years. Residual liver volume was 42.1%±4.7%. Mean operative time was 420±76.2 min; mean ICU stay, less than 36 h; mean hospital stay, 16.4±8.6 d; and mean follow-up period, 6 mo.RESULTS: There was no mortality. The overall complication rate was 40% (21 donors). Major complications included biliary leak in two, and pneumonia in 2 donors. Minor complications included mild pleural effusion in 12 donors, transient ascites in 6, mild depression in 4, intra-abdominal collections in 2,and wound infections in 1 donor. Residual liver volume did not affect the complication rate. None required reoperation. Return to pre-donation activity occurred within 5-8 wk.CONCLUSION: Right hemi-hepatectomy can be performed safely with minimal risk in cases of careful donor selection. Major complications occurred in only 7.7% of our series.

  1. The Outcomes of Living Kidney Donation from Medically Complex Donors: Implications for the Donor and the Recipient. (United States)

    Niemi, Matthew; Mandelbrot, Didier A


    Living kidney donation is an important option for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and has improved life expectancy and quality for patients otherwise requiring maintenance dialysis or deceased-donor transplantation. Given the favorable outcomes of live donation and the shortage of organs to transplant, individuals with potentially unfavorable demographic and clinical characteristics are increasingly being permitted to donate kidneys. While this trend has successfully expanded the live donor pool, it has raised concerns as to which acceptance criteria are safe. This review aims to summarize the existing literature on the outcomes of transplantation from medically complex, living kidney donors, including both donor and recipient outcomes when available.

  2. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  3. Reduced reactivation from dormancy but maintained lineage choice of human mesenchymal stem cells with donor age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Dexheimer

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are promising for cell-based regeneration therapies but up to date it is still controversial whether their function is maintained throughout ageing. Aim of this study was to address whether frequency, activation in vitro, replicative function, and in vitro lineage choice of MSC is maintained throughout ageing to answer the question whether MSC-based regeneration strategies should be restricted to younger individuals. MSC from bone marrow aspirates of 28 donors (5-80 years were characterized regarding colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F numbers, single cell cloning efficiency (SSCE, osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation capacity in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, mineralization, Oil Red O content, proteoglycan- and collagen type II deposition were quantified. While CFU-F frequency was maintained, SSCE and early proliferation rate decreased significantly with advanced donor age. MSC with higher proliferation rate before start of induction showed stronger osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. MSC with high osteogenic capacity underwent better chondrogenesis and showed a trend to better adipogenesis. Lineage choice was, however, unaltered with age. CONCLUSION: Ageing influenced activation from dormancy and replicative function of MSC in a way that it may be more demanding to mobilize MSC to fast cell growth at advanced age. Since fast proliferation came along with high multilineage capacity, the proliferation status of expanded MSC rather than donor age may provide an argument to restrict MSC-based therapies to certain individuals.

  4. Clinical experience in the use of marginal donor hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ai-ni; DONG Nian-guo; ZHANG Kai-lun; XIA Jia-hong; XIAO Shi-liang; SUN Zong-quan


    Background Although heart transplantation has become a standard therapy for end-stage heart disease, there are few published studies regarding the use of transplant organs from marginal donors. Here we describe the clinical outcome we have obtained using marginal donor hearts.Methods We analyzed 21 cases of orthotropic heart transplantation for end-stage heart disease performed in our department between September 2008 and July 2010. Of these patients, six received hearts from marginal donors and the remainder received standard-donor hearts. The two groups were compared in terms of both mortality and the incidence of perioperative complications such as infection, acute rejection, and right heart insufficiency.Results The 1-year survival rate of both groups was 100%. Only one death was recorded in standard-donor group during follow-up. Patients who received marginal donor hearts (83%) experienced more early complications than did the standard-donor-heart group (13%), but the mortality of the two groups was the same. The duration of post-ICU stay was greater in the marginal donor group than in the standard-donor group, (35.5±17.4) days and (21.7±2.6) days, respectively (P <0.05).Conclusions The use of marginal donor hearts increases the number of patients who can receive and benefit from transplants. However, it may introduce an increased risk of early complications, thus care should be taken both in the choice of patients who will receive marginal donor hearts and in the perioperative treatment of those for whom the procedure is performed.

  5. Nuclear transfer and donor cells%核移植与供体细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林江维; 李劲松


    Dolly, the first cloned animal from cultured adult cell, proved that differentiated somatic cell can be reprogrammed to totipotent status in oocyte and reconstructed embryo can develop to adult. However, the donor cell origin of Dolly remained a complete mystery. Because of the low efficiency of somatic cloning and more than one type of cell involved in donor cell suspension, it is difficult to confirm which kind of donor cells developed to cloned animals after nuclear transfer (NT). The uncertainty of the donor origin of cloned animals brings difficulties to the research of somatic reprogramming mechanism after NT. Therefore, the study of donor cell is an important subject of nuclear transfer, which includes whether all kinds of cells can be used for nuclear transfer, whether terminally differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed after NT, whether differentiated status of donor cells is related to the efficiency of NT, whether nonviable donor cells can be used for nuclear transfer and so on. This review discusses the recent advances of donor cells used in mammalian somatic nuclear transfer.%"多莉"羊的诞生是生物界的一个里程碑,它之所以引起如此大的轰动主要是因为它来源于培养的成年绵羊乳腺上皮细胞,这是人类第一次证明分化的体细胞可以被重编程后恢复全能性并最终分化发育成一个动物个体.这说明哺乳动物分化的体细胞核仍具有全套的遗传物质并能够被卵母细胞逆转恢复全能性.然而,关于多莉的供体细胞来源却一直是克隆领域的一个谜.由于体细胞克隆的效率非常低,而用于核移植的供体细胞悬液中往往含有多种类型的细胞,这使得我们很难确切地知道最终获得的克隆动物是来源于哪一种细胞.这种不确定性给我们研究核移植诱导体细胞重编程的机制带来了很大的困难,因此,对供体细胞的研究也是核移植研究领域的一个重要课题,这包括各种组织

  6. Photoinduced Intramolecular Charge Transfer in Donor-acceptor Dyad and Donor-bridge-acceptor Triad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Ding; Yuan-zuo Li; Feng-cai Ma


    The ground and excited state properties of the [60]fullerene,diphenylbenzothiadiazole-triphenylamine (PBTDP-TPA) dyad and fullerene-diphenylbenzothiadiazole-triphenylamine (fullerene-PBTDP-TPA) triad were investigated theoretically using density functional theory with B3LYP functional and 3-21G basis set and time-dependent density functional theory with B3LYP functional and STO-3G basis set as well as 2D and 3D real space analysis methods.The 2D site representation reveals the electron-hole coherence on exci- tation.The 3D transition density shows the orientation and strength of the transition dipole moment,and the 3D charge difference density gives the orientation and result of the intramolecular charge transfer.Also, photoinduced intermolecular charge transfer (ICT) in PBTDP-TPA-fullerene triad are identified with 2D and 3D representations,which reveals the mechanisms of ICT in donor-bridge-acceptor triad on excitation. Besides that we also found that the direct superexchange ICT from donor to acceptor (tunneling through the bridge) strongly promotes the ICT in the donor-bridge-acceptor triad.

  7. Utilization of kidneys with similar kidney donor risk index values from standard versus expanded criteria donors. (United States)

    Woodside, K J; Merion, R M; Leichtman, A B; de los Santos, R; Arrington, C J; Rao, P S; Sung, R S


    With the shortage of standard criteria donor (SCD) kidneys, efficient expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidney utilization has become more vital. We investigated the effects of the ECD label on kidney recovery, utilization and outcomes. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients from November 2002 to May 2010, we determined recovery and transplant rates, and modeled discard risk, for kidneys within a range of kidney donor risk index (KDRI) 1.4-2.1 that included both SCD and ECD kidneys. To further compare similar quality kidneys, these kidneys were again divided into three KDRI intervals. Overall, ECD kidneys had higher recovery rates, but lower transplant rates. However, within each KDRI interval, SCD and ECD kidneys were transplanted at similar rates. Overall, there was increased risk for discard for biopsied kidneys. SCD kidneys in the lower two KDRI intervals had the highest risk of discard if biopsied. Pumped kidneys had a lower risk of discard, which was modulated by KDRI for SCD kidneys but not ECD kidneys. Although overall ECD graft survival was worse than SCD, there were no differences within individual KDRI intervals. Thus, ECD designation adversely affects neither utilization nor outcomes beyond that predicted by KDRI.

  8. Donor-Appended N,C-Chelate Organoboron Compounds: Influence of Donor Strength on Photochromic Behaviour. (United States)

    Mellerup, Soren K; Yuan, Kang; Nguyen, Carmen; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Wang, Suning


    Recently, four-coordinated N,C-chelate organoboron compounds have been found to show many interesting photochemical transformations depending on the nature of their chelating framework. As such, the effect of substitution on the chelate ligand has been well-established and understood, but the impact of the aryl groups attached to the boron atom remains less clear. To investigate the effect of enhanced charge-transfer character, a series of new N,C-chelate organoboron compounds with donor-functionalized aryl groups have been synthesized and characterized using NMR, UV/Vis, and electrochemical methods. These compounds were found to possess bright and tunable charge-transfer luminescence which is dependent on the donor strength of the amino substituent. In addition, some of these compounds undergo photochromic switching, producing dark isomers of various colors. This work establishes that donor-functionalization of the aryl groups in N,C-chelate boron compounds is an effective strategy for tuning both the photophysical and photochemical properties of such systems. The new findings also help elucidate the influence of electronic structure on the photoreactivity of N,C-chelate organoboron compounds which appears to be as important as steric crowding around the boron atom.

  9. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  10. EGFR CA repeat polymorphism predict clinical outcome in EGFR mutation positive NSCLC patients treated with erlotinib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther Larsen, Anne; Nissen, Peter Henrik; Meldgaard, Peter;


    OBJECTIVES: Somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are predictors of efficacy for treatment with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A CA repeat polymorphism in intron 1 of the EGFR gene influences the transcription...... of the EGFR gene. This study evaluates the association between the CA repeat polymorphism and outcome in NSCLC patients treated with erlotinib.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Number of CA repeats in the EGFR gene was evaluated with PCR-fragment length analysis by capillary electrophoresis in 432 advanced NSCLC...... patients treated with erlotinib irrespective of EGFR mutation status. Patients were dichotomized into harboring short allele (CA≤16 in any allele) or long alleles (CA>16 in both alleles). Number of repeats was correlated with clinical characteristic and outcome. A subgroup analysis was performed based...

  11. Semantic relations cause interference in spoken language comprehension when using repeated definite references, not pronouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ePeters


    Full Text Available The choice and processing of referential expressions depend on the referents’ status within the discourse, such that pronouns are generally preferred over full repetitive references when the referent is salient. Here we report two visual-world experiments showing that: (1 in spoken language comprehension, this preference is reflected in delayed fixations to referents mentioned after repeated definite references compared with after pronouns; (2 repeated references are processed differently than new references; (3 long-term semantic memory representations affect the processing of pronouns and repeated names differently. Overall, these results support the role of semantic discourse representation in referential processing and reveal important details about how pronouns and full repeated references are processed in the context of these representations. The results suggest the need for modifications to current theoretical accounts of reference processing such as Discourse Prominence Theory and the Informational Load Hypothesis.

  12. Semantic Relations Cause Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension When Using Repeated Definite References, Not Pronouns. (United States)

    Peters, Sara A; Boiteau, Timothy W; Almor, Amit


    The choice and processing of referential expressions depend on the referents' status within the discourse, such that pronouns are generally preferred over full repetitive references when the referent is salient. Here we report two visual-world experiments showing that: (1) in spoken language comprehension, this preference is reflected in delayed fixations to referents mentioned after repeated definite references compared with after pronouns; (2) repeated references are processed differently than new references; (3) long-term semantic memory representations affect the processing of pronouns and repeated names differently. Overall, these results support the role of semantic discourse representation in referential processing and reveal important details about how pronouns and full repeated references are processed in the context of these representations. The results suggest the need for modifications to current theoretical accounts of reference processing such as Discourse Prominence Theory and the Informational Load Hypothesis.

  13. Lipid peroxidation products in machine perfusion of older donor kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelschmidt, Manfred; Minor, Thomas; Gallinat, Anja; Moers, Cyril; Jochmans, Ina; Pirenne, Jacques; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Paul, Andreas; Treckmann, Juergen


    Background: Owing to the shortage of donors, organs with an increased risk potential such as grafts recovered from expanded criteria donors are increasingly being used in transplants. Machine perfusion (MP) technology offers the possibility of determining the biomarkers in the perfusion solution so

  14. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.3 Section 640.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of medical history, a test...

  15. Potential use and perspectives of nitric oxide donors in agriculture. (United States)

    Marvasi, Massimiliano


    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged in the last 30 years as a key molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants, animals and bacteria. Current research has shown that NO can be delivered via donor molecules. In such cases, the NO release rate is dependent on the chemical structure of the donor itself and on the chemical environment. Despite NO's powerful signaling effect in plants and animals, the application of NO donors in agriculture is currently not implemented and research remains mainly at the experimental level. Technological development in the field of NO donors is rapidly expanding in scope to include controlling seed germination, plant development, ripening and increasing shelf-life of produce. Potential applications in animal production have also been identified. This concise review focuses on the use of donors that have shown potential biotechnological applications in agriculture. Insights are provided into (i) the role of donors in plant production, (ii) the potential use of donors in animal production and (iii) future approaches to explore the use and applications of donors for the benefit of agriculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Digging up Classroom Dollars on DonorsChoose (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2006


    Back in 2000, Charles Best was teaching at Wings Academy, an alternative high school in the Bronx, when he got the idea for a Web site where teachers could solicit donations for class projects. With help from his students, soon was born. Last year, the site won's Nonprofit Innovation Award. So far, DonorsChoose has…

  17. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding (United States)

    Jarrell, Andrea


    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  18. Hyperfine Stark effect of shallow donors in silicon (United States)

    Pica, Giuseppe; Wolfowicz, Gary; Urdampilleta, Matias; Thewalt, Mike L. W.; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolai V.; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Morton, John J. L.; Bhatt, R. N.; Lyon, S. A.; Lovett, Brendon W.


    We present a complete theoretical treatment of Stark effects in bulk doped silicon, whose predictions are supported by experimental measurements. A multivalley effective mass theory, dealing nonperturbatively with valley-orbit interactions induced by a donor-dependent central cell potential, allows us to obtain a very reliable picture of the donor wave function within a relatively simple framework. Variational optimization of the 1 s donor binding energies calculated with a new trial wave function, in a pseudopotential with two fitting parameters, allows an accurate match of the experimentally determined donor energy levels, while the correct limiting behavior for the electronic density, both close to and far from each impurity nucleus, is captured by fitting the measured contact hyperfine coupling between the donor nuclear and electron spin. We go on to include an external uniform electric field in order to model Stark physics: with no extra ad hoc parameters, variational minimization of the complete donor ground energy allows a quantitative description of the field-induced reduction of electronic density at each impurity nucleus. Detailed comparisons with experimental values for the shifts of the contact hyperfine coupling reveal very close agreement for all the donors measured (P, As, Sb, and Bi). Finally, we estimate field ionization thresholds for the donor ground states, thus setting upper limits to the gate manipulation times for single qubit operations in Kane-like architectures: the Si:Bi system is shown to allow for A gates as fast as ≈10 MHz.

  19. Lipid peroxidation products in machine perfusion of older donor kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelschmidt, Manfred; Minor, Thomas; Gallinat, Anja; Moers, Cyril; Jochmans, Ina; Pirenne, Jacques; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Paul, Andreas; Treckmann, Juergen

    Background: Owing to the shortage of donors, organs with an increased risk potential such as grafts recovered from expanded criteria donors are increasingly being used in transplants. Machine perfusion (MP) technology offers the possibility of determining the biomarkers in the perfusion solution so

  20. Effects of methyl donor diets on incisional pain in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary supplementation with methyl donors can influence the programming of epigenetic patterns resulting in persistent alterations in disease susceptibility and behavior. However, the dietary effects of methyl donors on pain have not been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary methyl donor content on pain responses in mice. METHODS: Male and female C57BL/6J mice were treated with high or low methyl donor diets either in the perinatal period or after weaning. Mechanical and thermal nociceptive sensitivity were measured before and after incision. RESULTS: Mice fed high or low methyl donor diets displayed equal weight gain over the course of the experiments. When exposed to these dietary manipulations in the perinatal period, only male offspring of dams fed a high methyl donor diet displayed increased mechanical allodynia. Hindpaw incision in these animals caused enhanced nociceptive sensitization, but dietary history did not affect the duration of sensitization. For mice exposed to high or low methyl donor diets after weaning, no significant differences were observed in mechanical or thermal nociceptive sensitivity either at baseline or in response to hindpaw incision. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal dietary factors such as methyl donor content may impact pain experiences in later life. These effects, however, may be specific to sex and pain modality.

  1. Infection Rates among Acute Leukemia Patients Receiving Alternative Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. (United States)

    Ballen, Karen; Woo Ahn, Kwang; Chen, Min; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Ahmed, Ibrahim; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Antin, Joseph; Bhatt, Ami S; Boeckh, Michael; Chen, George; Dandoy, Christopher; George, Biju; Laughlin, Mary J; Lazarus, Hillard M; MacMillan, Margaret L; Margolis, David A; Marks, David I; Norkin, Maxim; Rosenthal, Joseph; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin; Schouten, Harry C; Storek, Jan; Szabolcs, Paul; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R; Waller, Edmund K; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Williams, Kirsten M; Wingard, John R; Wirk, Baldeep; Wolfs, Tom; Young, Jo-Anne H; Auletta, Jeffrey; Komanduri, Krishna V; Lindemans, Caroline; Riches, Marcie L


    Alternative graft sources (umbilical cord blood [UCB], matched unrelated donors [MUD], or mismatched unrelated donors [MMUD]) enable patients without a matched sibling donor to receive potentially curative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Retrospective studies demonstrate comparable outcomes among different graft sources. However, the risk and types of infections have not been compared among graft sources. Such information may influence the choice of a particular graft source. We compared the incidence of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in 1781 adults with acute leukemia who received alternative donor HCT (UCB, n= 568; MUD, n = 930; MMUD, n = 283) between 2008 and 2011. The incidences of bacterial infection at 1 year were 72%, 59%, and 65% (P < .0001) for UCB, MUD, and MMUD, respectively. Incidences of viral infection at 1 year were 68%, 45%, and 53% (P < .0001) for UCB, MUD, and MMUD, respectively. In multivariable analysis, bacterial, fungal, and viral infections were more common after either UCB or MMUD than after MUD (P < .0001). Bacterial and viral but not fungal infections were more common after UCB than MMUD (P = .0009 and <.0001, respectively). The presence of viral infection was not associated with an increased mortality. Overall survival (OS) was comparable among UCB and MMUD patients with Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥ 90% but was inferior for UCB for patients with KPS < 90%. Bacterial and fungal infections were associated with poorer OS. Future strategies focusing on infection prevention and treatment are indicated to improve HCT outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. How deceased donor transplantation is impacting a decline in commercial transplantation-the Tamil Nadu experience. (United States)

    Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram N V; Amalorpavanathan, Joseph; Daniel, Dolly; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Shroff, Sunil; Reddy, Yogesh


    India with a population of 1.2 billion has a renal transplantation rate of 3.25 per million population. The major cause of chronic kidney disease is hypertension and diabetes. The crude and age-adjusted incidence rates of end-stage renal disease are estimated to be 151 and 232 per million population, respectively, in India. There was a remarkable lack of knowledge in the public about deceased organ donation until a decade ago. However, the role played by the media and nongovernmental organizations in partnership with the government has emphasized and implemented deceased donor transplantation in certain states in India-to mention particularly, the Tamil Nadu model. In the last 2 years, deceased organ donation has reached 1.3 per million population in Tamil Nadu, thereby effectively eliminating commercial transplantation. There is no religious bar for organ donation. A central transplant coordinator appointed by the government oversees legitimate and transparent allocation of deceased organs both in the public and private facilities as per the transplant waiting list. This model also takes care of the poor sections of society by conducting donation and transplantation through government-run public facilities free of cost. In the last 2 years, deceased donor transplantation has been performed through this network procuring organs such as the heart, heart valves, lung, liver, kidneys, cornea, and skin. The infrastructural lack of immunological surveillance-including donor-specific antibody monitoring, human leukocyte antigen typing, and panel reactive antibody except in a few tertiary care centers-prevents allocation according to the immunological status of the recipient. This private-public partnership promoting deceased donor transplantation has effectively eliminated commercialization in transplantation in the state of Tamil Nadu with a population of 72 million which is a model for other regions of South Asia and developing countries.

  3. Using fertile couples as embryo donors: An ethical dilemma. (United States)

    Alizadeh, Leila; Omani Samani, Reza


    The use of donated embryos has offered hope for infertile couples who have no other means to have children. In Iran, fertility centers use fertile couples as embryo donors. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this procedure will be discussed. We conclude that embryo-donation should be performed with frozen embryos thus preventing healthy donors from being harmed by fertility drugs. There must be guidelines for choosing the appropriate donor families. In countries where commercial egg donation is acceptable, fertile couples can be procured as embryo donors thus fulfilling the possible shortage of good quality embryos. Using frozen embryos seems to have less ethical, religious and legal problems when compared to the use of fertile embryo donors.

  4. Accumulation of GC donor splice signals in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V


    Full Text Available Abstract The GT dinucleotide in the first two intron positions is the most conserved element of the U2 donor splice signals. However, in a small fraction of donor sites, GT is replaced by GC. A substantial enrichment of GC in donor sites of alternatively spliced genes has been observed previously in human, nematode and Arabidopsis, suggesting that GC signals are important for regulation of alternative splicing. We used parsimony analysis to reconstruct evolution of donor splice sites and inferred 298 GT > GC conversion events compared to 40 GC > GT conversion events in primate and rodent genomes. Thus, there was substantive accumulation of GC donor splice sites during the evolution of mammals. Accumulation of GC sites might have been driven by selection for alternative splicing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka and Anton Nekrutenko. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  5. Quality of life after liver transplantation with old donor graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Nascimento Flor


    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the quality of life of liver transplant patients who received liver from donor aged ≤60 or >60 years old. Methods: a prospective study with a sample of 141 recipients from liver donors aged equal to or less than 60 years and recipients of elderly donor liver, in a reference center. Authors used a tool for identification and the Short Form-36. The Student-t and Mann-Whitney tests were applied for comparison between groups. Results: there were higher levels of quality of life with a statistically significant difference: Group A in social aspect (p=0.02 and Group B >50 months of transplantation (p=0.05 in physical component summary. Conclusion: the quality of life of liver receptors from older donor livers was similar to those who received a graft from younger donors in most dimensions. Transplanting time had a positive impact on the quality of life of elderly recipients.

  6. Evaluation of high-risk living kidney donors. (United States)

    Tangdhanakanond, Kawin; Mandelbrot, Didier


    Careful evaluation of potential living kidney donors is crucial to assure the well being of the donors, especially because they do not gain any direct medical benefit from donation. This process also helps assess the quality and safety of the organs donated to the recipients. While all programs share these goals, donor selection criteria vary significantly among U.S. transplant centers. In part, this is due to the limited data that exists as to long-term outcomes among donors who are medically complex, or at higher risk for complications, such as those with hypertension, obesity, or lower kidney function. This article reviews available evidence regarding outcomes after living donation and current trends in U.S. practices, and seeks to provide practical guidance in evaluating high-risk potential living kidney donors.

  7. The child accident repeater: a review. (United States)

    Jones, J G


    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  8. Medical and psychologic outcome of living lobar lung transplant donors. (United States)

    Prager, Laura M; Wain, John C; Roberts, David H; Ginns, Leo C


    Living donor lobar lung transplantation is a viable therapy for carefully selected patients with end-stage pulmonary disease. Its success is largely dependent upon donor outcome, including both physical and emotional factors. To date, there has been little focus on psychosocial outcomes of lobar lung donors. Retrospective evaluation of 15 of 20 living lobar lung transplant donors was performed. Donors underwent evaluation of pulmonary function after recovery from donor lobectomy. Participants completed two self-report questionnaires, the SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), as well as an open-ended psychiatric interview. After lobar donation, mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) decreased by 21 +/- 2%, forced vital capacity (FVC) decreased by 16 +/- 3%, total lung capacity (TLC) decreased by 15 +/- 3%, and single-breath diffusing capacity (DLCO) decreased by 14 +/- 4%. All subjects scored higher than the national average on both the physical and mental health components of the SF-36. The BDI scores showed no evidence of clinical depression. However, the subjective interviews elicited two common complaints: (1) a decline in exercise performance, not accounted for by resting lung function measurements; and (2) a dissatisfaction with the degree of acknowledgment of their donation. Living lobar lung transplant donors enjoy generally satisfactory physical and emotional health. Donors report positive feelings about donation, but wish to be recognized and valued by the transplant team and by the recipient. Despite preservation of lung function within the normal range, some donors also experience a subjective decline in exercise tolerance. Long-term medical and psychologic follow-up appears warranted to monitor symptoms of exercise impairment and to enhance the donor experience.

  9. Segregation distortion of the CTG repeats at the myotonic dystrophy locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Stivers, D.N. [Univ. of Texas Houston Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States); Deka, R.; Yu, Ling M.; Shriver, M.D.; Ferrell, R.E. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Myotonic dystrophy (DM), an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disease, is caused by a CTG-repeat expansion, with affected individuals having {ge}50 repeats of this trinucleotide, at the DMPK locus of human chromosome 19q13.3. Severely affected individuals die early in life; the milder form of this disease reduces reproductive ability. Alleles in the normal range of CTG repeats are not as unstable as the (CTG){sub {ge}50} alleles. In the DM families, anticipation and parental bias of allelic expansions have been noted. However, data on mechanism of maintenance of DM in populations are conflicting. We present a maximum-likelihood model for examining segregation distortion of CTG-repeat alleles in normal families. Analyzing 726 meiotic events in 95 nuclear families from the CEPH panel pedigrees, we find evidence of preferential transmission of larger alleles (of size {le}29 repeats) from females (the probability of transmission of larger alleles is .565 {plus_minus} 0.03, different from .5 at P {approx} .028). There is no evidence of segregation distortion during male meiosis. We propose a hypothesis that preferential transmission of larger CTG-repeat alleles during female meiosis can compensate for mutational contraction of repeats within the normal allelic size range, and reduced viability and fertility of affected individuals. Thus, the pool of premutant alleles at the DM locus can be maintained in populations, which can subsequently mutate to the full mutation status to give rise to DM. 31 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. Diphtheria toxin IgG levels in military and civilian blood donors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.B. Speranza


    Full Text Available Serologic data on diseases that are preventable by vaccines are necessary to evaluate the success of immunization programs and to identify susceptible subgroups. In the present study, we determined serum IgG levels against diphtheria toxin of military and civilian blood donors (N = 75; 69.3% males and 30.7% females aged 18-64 years, from the Brazilian Army Biology Institute, Rio de Janeiro, using a commercial diphtheria kit (Diphtheria IgG ELISA; IBL, Germany. Most (63% unprotected military donors were from the older age group of 41 to 64 years. In contrast, the majority (71% of young military donors (18 to 30 years were fully protected. About half of the military donors aged 31 to 40 years were protected against diphtheria. Among the civilians, about 50% of persons aged 18 to 30 years and 31 to 40 years had protective antibody levels against diphtheria as also did 64% of individuals aged 41 to 64 years. All civilians had a similar antibody response (geometric mean = 0.55 IU/mL independent of age group. Military donors aged 18-30 years had higher IgG levels (geometric mean = 0.82 IU/mL than military donors of 41-64 years (geometric mean = 0.51 IU/mL; P > 0.05. In conclusion, the existence of a considerable proportion of susceptible adults supports the position that reliable data on the immune status of the population should be maintained routinely and emphasizes the importance of adequate immunization during adulthood.

  11. Diphtheria toxin IgG levels in military and civilian blood donors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (United States)

    Speranza, F A B; Ishii, S K; Hirata, R; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L; Milagres, L G


    Serologic data on diseases that are preventable by vaccines are necessary to evaluate the success of immunization programs and to identify susceptible subgroups. In the present study, we determined serum IgG levels against diphtheria toxin of military and civilian blood donors (N = 75; 69.3% males and 30.7% females) aged 18-64 years, from the Brazilian Army Biology Institute, Rio de Janeiro, using a commercial diphtheria kit (Diphtheria IgG ELISA; IBL, Germany). Most (63%) unprotected military donors were from the older age group of 41 to 64 years. In contrast, the majority (71%) of young military donors (18 to 30 years) were fully protected. About half of the military donors aged 31 to 40 years were protected against diphtheria. Among the civilians, about 50% of persons aged 18 to 30 years and 31 to 40 years had protective antibody levels against diphtheria as also did 64% of individuals aged 41 to 64 years. All civilians had a similar antibody response (geometric mean = 0.55 IU/mL) independent of age group. Military donors aged 18-30 years had higher IgG levels (geometric mean = 0.82 IU/mL) than military donors of 41-64 years (geometric mean = 0.51 IU/mL; P > 0.05). In conclusion, the existence of a considerable proportion of susceptible adults supports the position that reliable data on the immune status of the population should be maintained routinely and emphasizes the importance of adequate immunization during adulthood.

  12. Unrelated adult stem cell donor medical suitability: recommendations from the World Marrow Donor Association Clinical Working Group Committee. (United States)

    Lown, R N; Philippe, J; Navarro, W; van Walraven, S M; Philips-Johnson, L; Fechter, M; Pawson, R; Bengtsson, M; Beksac, M; Field, S; Yang, H; Shaw, B E


    The World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) fosters collaboration between international registries to facilitate the exchange of hematopoietic stem cell products for unrelated stem cell donor transplantation. As indications for hematopoietic SCT grow, the movement of products across the world will increase. Although competent authorities may regulate products within their country, there is a need to protect the best interests of donors and recipients by identifying universal donor medical suitability criteria. Within this report the WMDA provides a background to unrelated adult donor and recipient safety, recommends a common framework for assessing the health of unrelated adult donors at each stage of the donation pathway and presents a novel mechanism for sharing international consensus criteria for individual medical and lifestyle conditions. Wherever possible, these criteria are evidence-based. By establishing a donor medical suitability working group, the WMDA has developed a process through which donor centers and registries may request a consensus opinion on conditions not already listed, as well as challenge existing criteria. Guidance from the WMDA is intended to complement, not supersede, guidance from national competent authorities and international regulatory bodies.

  13. Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle


    Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies addr

  14. Donor Heart Utilization following Cardiopulmonary Arrest and Resuscitation: Influence of Donor Characteristics and Wait Times in Transplant Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Quader


    Full Text Available Background. Procurement of hearts from cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitated (CPR donors for transplantation is suboptimal. We studied the influences of donor factors and regional wait times on CPR donor heart utilization. Methods. From UNOS database (1998 to 2012, we identified 44,744 heart donors, of which 4,964 (11% received CPR. Based on procurement of heart for transplantation, CPR donors were divided into hearts procured (HP and hearts not procured (HNP groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of heart procurement. Results. Of the 4,964 CPR donors, 1,427 (28.8% were in the HP group. Donor characteristics that favored heart procurement include younger age (25.5 ± 15 yrs versus 39 ± 18 yrs, P≤0.0001, male gender (34% versus 23%, P≤0.0001, shorter CPR duration (30 min, P≤0.0001, and head trauma (60% versus 15%. Among the 11 UNOS regions, the highest procurement was in Region 1 (37% and the lowest in Region 3 (24%. Regional transplant volumes and median waiting times did not influence heart procurement rates. Conclusions. Only 28.8% of CPR donor hearts were procured for transplantation. Factors favoring heart procurement include younger age, male gender, short CPR duration, and traumatic head injury. Heart procurement varied by region but not by transplant volumes or wait times.

  15. Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle

    Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies

  16. Diaphragmatic hernia after right donor and hepatectomy:a rare donor complication of partial hepatectomy for transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan M. Hawxby; David P. Mason; Andrew S. Klein


    BACKGROUND: Because of the critical worldwide shortage of cadaveric organ donors, transplant professionals have increasingly turned to living donors. Partial hepatectomy for adult living donor liver transplantation has been performed since the late 1990s. Most often, the complications of living donor hepatectomy have been related to the biliary tract, speciifcally biliary leaks. METHODS: A 54-year-old man underwent donor right hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation. Three years after liver donation he presented with upper abdominal pain and fullness. Radiographic workup revealed a diaphragmatic hernia of the right hemithorax. RESULTS: After thoracoscopic evaluation of the right hemithorax, diaphragmatic hernia was repaired. Currently the patient remains well several months after the repair with complete resolution of abdominal pain, normal chest X-ray examination demonstrating no recurrence of diaphragmatic hernia, and normal liver functions tests. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple complications of living donor liver transplantation have been described the transplant literature. Diaphragmatic hernia is a formerly-undescribed complication of right donor hepatectomy for transplantation.

  17. "Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibodies among Volunteer Blood Donors "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Moniri


    Full Text Available The transfusion transmitted infections are potentially dangerous complications of transfusion therapy in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of transmissible infections in blood donor population in Kashan, Iran. A total of 600 consecutive sera were tested for CMV-IgM antibody, HBsAg, hepatitis B core (HBc antibody, hepatitis C (HCV antibody, and HIV antibody with standard methods. Of the sera tested, 14 specimens (2.3% were CMV-IgM positive. The frequency of seropositive revealed no significant differences between male and female donors. The frequency rates of CMV-IgM seropositive tests tend to decline with increasing the age. There was no relation between the frequency rates of CMV-IgM seropositive with the educational level, socioeconomic status, marital status, urban dweller and rural resident patients. The prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV antibody was 0.5%, 0.5%, and 0%, respectively. These findings implied important clinical applications because detection of CMV positive sera may reduce the risk for transmission of CMV in blood transfusion and thereby decrease the risk on CMV-induced complications.

  18. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents. (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.


    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  19. A simplified method for screening siblings for HLA identity using short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms. (United States)

    Schiller, Jennifer J; Hopp, Kathleen A; Pietz, Bradley C; Bick, David P; Lau, Eduardo C; Ellis, Thomas M


    Identifying an HLA-matched sibling donor for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is time-consuming and expensive, and often limited by reimbursement caps imposed by insurance providers. To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening for HLA-matched siblings, we developed an assay for determining HLA identity using a panel of nine informative short tandem repeat (STR) loci located throughout the HLA complex. The STR panel was assessed for accuracy in identifying HLA-matched siblings in 88 family workups comprising a total of 132 related donor and recipient typing comparisons. All sibling pairs with identical STR alleles were also HLA identical. Of the 48 pairs mismatched at one or more STR alleles, all were genotypically HLA non-identical at one or more loci. The sensitivity and specificity of STR analysis for identifying HLA-matched siblings were 91% and 100%, respectively. Three false negatives occurred due to an STR mutation or possible HLA-DPB1/DQB1 recombination. Additionally, STR genotyping provided additional information allowing determination of the extent of HLA identity in families where HLA haplotype inheritance was ambiguous, due to extensive homozygosity or shared parental haplotypes. The HLA STR assay is a reliable and rapid test that can be used to inexpensively screen potential sibling donors for HLA identity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe


    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  1. Star repeaters for fiber optic links. (United States)

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L


    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier


    Full Text Available Aim of study. The demonstration of our own experience in heart transplantation after valve reconstruction. Methods and results. From May 2012 to March 2013 3 mitral valve annuloplasties were performed to recipi- ents, requiring urgent HT and having extremely unfavorable prognosis of survival without HT. The recipients were classified as United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS IB, and all of them were on inotropic support. In one case, HT was performed after reconstruction of rheumatic mitral stenosis, in two other cases – after dege- nerative mitral regurgitation. The technical aspects are reviewed of ex-vivo mitral and tricuspid valves repair with concomitant heart transplantation. All patients were discharged from the hospital having excellent postope- rative recovery. Conclusion. Taking into consideration the demonstrated satisfactory result of surveillance and presence of significant experience in performing of reconstructive valve surgery among no-HT cardiosurgical patients, an increase in the pool of suitable donor organs is expected due to the liberalization of the selection criteria and the possibility of the innovative valve reconstruction procedures ex vivo. 

  3. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation. (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J


    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  4. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Majedi, A Hamed


    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases of with and without a repeater node. We find the cross-over distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the non-repeater one. That provides us with the optimum inter-node distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal exci...

  5. Remarkable selective constraints on exonic dinucleotide repeats. (United States)

    Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A


    Long dinucleotide repeats found in exons present a substantial mutational hazard: mutations at these loci occur often and generate frameshifts. Here, we provide clear and compelling evidence that exonic dinucleotides experience strong selective constraint. In humans, only 18 exonic dinucleotides have repeat lengths greater than six, which contrasts sharply with the genome-wide distribution of dinucleotides. We genotyped each of these dinucleotides in 200 humans from eight 1000 Genomes Project populations and found a near-absence of polymorphism. More remarkably, divergence data demonstrate that repeat lengths have been conserved across the primate phylogeny in spite of what is likely considerable mutational pressure. Coalescent simulations show that even a very low mutation rate at these loci fails to explain the anomalous patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Our data support two related selective constraints on the evolution of exonic dinucleotides: a short-term intolerance for any change to repeat length and a long-term prevention of increases to repeat length. In general, our results implicate purifying selection as the force that eliminates new, deleterious mutants at exonic dinucleotides. We briefly discuss the evolution of the longest exonic dinucleotide in the human genome--a 10 x CA repeat in fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1)--that should possess a considerably greater mutation rate than any other exonic dinucleotide and therefore generate a large number of deleterious variants. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins. (United States)

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen


    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  7. Racial differences in seroprevalence of HAV and HEV in blood donors in the Western Cape, South Africa: a clue to the predominant HEV genotype? (United States)

    Lopes, T; Cable, R; Pistorius, C; Maponga, T; Ijaz, S; Preiser, W; Tedder, R; Andersson, M I


    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. This infection causes major water-borne outbreaks in low- and middle-income countries, whilst in industrialised countries this infection is zoonotic. These differences in epidemiology are related to different HEV genotypes. HEV genotype 3 is a zoonotic infection, whilst genotype 2 causes large outbreaks. This study determined the seroprevalence of HEV in blood donors from the Western Cape. Anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) antibody was detected in 184/300 (61%) donors. Antibody to HEV (anti-HEV) was detected in 78 of 300 donors (26%). It was highest in mixed race donors (62/100), followed by white donors (23/100) and lowest in black donors (19/100) P = 0.019. Since it is thought that genotypes 1 and 2 predominate both viruses would be acquired by the oro-faecal route, it is surprising that HEV seroprevalence does not mirror that of HAV. We postulate that this may reflect differences in socio-economic status and consumption of dietary meat. So the marked divergence between HEV and HAV seroprevalence may be the result of different routes of transmission. Further data are needed to explore the risk factors associated with HEV infection.

  8. The “House Calls” Trial: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Racial Disparities in Live Donor Kidney Transplantation: Rationale and Design (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R.; Pavlakis, Martha; Egbuna, Ogo; Paek, Mathew; Waterman, Amy D.; Mandelbrot, Didier A.


    Despite a substantially lower rate of live donor kidney transplantation among Black Americans compared to White Americans, there are few systematic efforts to reduce this racial disparity. This paper describes the rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial aims evaluating the comparative effectiveness of three different educational interventions for increasing live donor kidney transplantation in Black Americans. This trial is a single-site, urn-randomized controlled trial with a planned enrollment of 180 Black Americans awaiting kidney transplantation. Patients are randomized to receive transplant education in one of three education conditions: through group education at their homes (e.g., House Calls), or through group (Group-Based) or individual education (Individual Counseling) in the transplant.. The primary outcome of the trial is the occurrence of a live donor kidney transplant, with secondary outcomes including living donor inquiries and evaluations as well as changes in patient live donor kidney transplantation readiness, willingness, knowledge, and concerns. Sex, gender, dialysis status, and quality of life are evaluated as moderating factors. Findings from this clinical trial have the potential to inform strategies for reducing racial disparities in live donor kidney transplantation. Similar trials have been developed recently to broaden the evaluation of House Calls as an innovative disparity-reducing intervention in kidney transplantation. Trial Registration: NCT00785265 PMID:22510472

  9. Infection Rates among Acute Leukemia Patients Receiving Alternative Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballen, Karen; Woo Ahn, Kwang; Chen, Min; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Ahmed, Ibrahim; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Antin, Joseph; Bhatt, Ami S; Boeckh, Michael; Chen, George; Dandoy, Christopher; George, Biju; Laughlin, Mary J; Lazarus, Hillard M; MacMillan, Margaret L; Margolis, David A; Marks, David I; Norkin, Maxim; Rosenthal, Joseph; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin; Schouten, Harry C; Storek, Jan; Szabolcs, Paul; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R; Waller, Edmund K; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Williams, Kirsten M; Wingard, John R; Wirk, Baldeep; Wolfs, Tom; Young, Jo-Anne H; Auletta, Jeffrey; Komanduri, Krishna V; Lindemans, Caroline; Riches, Marcie L

    Alternative graft sources (umbilical cord blood [UCB], matched unrelated donors [MUD], or mismatched unrelated donors [MMUD]) enable patients without a matched sibling donor to receive potentially curative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Retrospective studies demonstrate comparable

  10. 76 FR 44013 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Full-Length and Abbreviated Donor... (United States)


    .... The Plasma Protein Therapeutics Association (PPTA) Source Plasma donor history questionnaires and... Full- Length and Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaires and Accompanying Materials for Use in... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Full-Length and Abbreviated Donor History...

  11. Infection Rates among Acute Leukemia Patients Receiving Alternative Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballen, Karen; Woo Ahn, Kwang; Chen, Min; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Ahmed, Ibrahim; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Antin, Joseph; Bhatt, Ami S; Boeckh, Michael; Chen, George; Dandoy, Christopher; George, Biju; Laughlin, Mary J; Lazarus, Hillard M; MacMillan, Margaret L; Margolis, David A; Marks, David I; Norkin, Maxim; Rosenthal, Joseph; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin; Schouten, Harry C; Storek, Jan; Szabolcs, Paul; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R; Waller, Edmund K; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Williams, Kirsten M; Wingard, John R; Wirk, Baldeep; Wolfs, Tom; Young, Jo-Anne H; Auletta, Jeffrey; Komanduri, Krishna V; Lindemans, Caroline; Riches, Marcie L


    Alternative graft sources (umbilical cord blood [UCB], matched unrelated donors [MUD], or mismatched unrelated donors [MMUD]) enable patients without a matched sibling donor to receive potentially curative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Retrospective studies demonstrate comparable outcome

  12. Living donor kidney transplantation: "beauty and the beast"! (United States)

    Danovitch, Gabriel M


    The report by Terasaki and colleagues in 1995 that the outcomes of spousal and biologically unrelated transplants were essentially the same as for 1-haplotype matched living related transplants changed the course of clinical transplantation. This article, entitled metaphorically "Beauty and the Beast", describes the dramatic change in the practice of living donor transplantation that followed. In the ensuing two decades, biologically unrelated living donor transplantation became commonplace in the developed world and reached its apotheosis in cross-country living donor paired exchange programs that have made transplantation accessible to many whose donors were deemed "incompatible". Such exchanges can indeed be thought of as a "thing of beauty". Sadly, the same observation was abused to exploit vulnerable donors, and the "beast" in the form of transplant tourism became a feature of transplantation in the developing world. The responsibility of the transplant community to protect the welfare of living donors and their recipients and the key role of trust in the evaluation of living donors is discussed.

  13. Charge switching of donor ensembles in a semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, Karen; Wenderoth, Martin; Loth, Sebastian; Ulbrich, Rainer G. [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Garleff, Jens K.; Wijnheijmer, A.P.; Koenraad, Paul M. [PSN, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)


    We investigated the charge state switching behaviour of interacting donors near the GaAs (110) surface, by Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM). Silicon doped (n{approx}6.10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) GaAs is cleaved in UHV to obtain a clean and atomically flat surface, directly afterwards the sample is transferred into a home build STM, working at 5 Kelvin. Using the STM tip as a movable gate the charge state of each donor can be switched from the neutral to the ionized state. The charge configuration of a single isolated donor is unambiguously determined by the position of the tip and the applied voltage. In contrast, even a two donor system with inter donor distances smaller than 5 nm shows a more complex behavior. The electrostatic interaction of two donors close together can result in ionization gaps. In certain geometrical configurations the modified electronic properties of donors close to the surface can result in bistable and time dependent charge switching behavior.

  14. Alternative donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies. (United States)

    Alfraih, Feras; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Kassim, Adetola A


    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a curative therapy for patients with hemoglobinopathies, mainly severe sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia (TM). However, the applicability of HSCT has been limited mainly by donor availability, with a less than 25%-30% of eligible patients having human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors. Previous outcomes using alternate donor options have been markedly inferior due to increased regimen-related toxicity, transplant-related mortality, graft failure, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Advances in transplant technology, including high-resolution HLA typing, improved GVHD prophylactic approaches with tolerance induction, and better supportive care over the last decade, are addressing these historical challenges, resulting in increasing donor options. Herein, we review alternate donor HSCT approaches for severe SCD and TM using unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood units, or related haploidentical donors. Though this is an emerging field, early results are promising and in selected patients, this may be the preferred option to mitigate against the age-related morbidity and early mortality associated with these disorders.

  15. Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Lourençon


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. METHODS: The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. RESULTS: Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates.

  16. How membrane permeation is affected by donor delivery solvent. (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Elliott, Russell P


    We investigate theoretically and experimentally how the rate and extent of membrane permeation is affected by switching the donor delivery solvent from water to squalane for different permeants and membranes. In a model based on rate-limiting membrane diffusion, we derive explicit equations showing how the permeation extent and rate depend mainly on the membrane-donor and membrane-receiver partition coefficients of the permeant. Permeation results for systems containing all combinations of hydrophilic or hydrophobic donor solvents (aqueous solution or squalane), permeants (caffeine or testosterone) and polymer membranes (cellulose or polydimethylsiloxane) have been measured using a cell with stirred donor and re-circulating receiver compartments and continuous monitoring of the permeant concentration in the receiver phase. Relevant partition coefficients are also determined. Quantitative comparison of model and experimental results for the widely-differing permeation systems successfully enables the systematic elucidation of all possible donor solvent effects in membrane permeation. For the experimental conditions used here, most of the permeation systems are in agreement with the model, demonstrating that the model assumptions are valid. In these cases, the dominant donor solvent effects arise from changes in the relative affinities of the permeant for the donor and receiver solvents and the membrane and are quantitatively predicted using the separately measured partition coefficients. We also show how additional donor solvent effects can arise when switching the donor solvent causes one or more of the model assumptions to be invalid. These effects include a change in rate-limiting step, permeant solution non-ideality and others.

  17. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi


    Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  18. Organ transplantation from deceased donors with cancer: is it safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalesnik MA


    Full Text Available Michael A Nalesnik1, Michael G Ison21Division of Transplantation and Hepatic Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburg, PA, USA; 2Divisions of Infectious Diseases and Organ Transplantation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The availability of donor organs continues to be insufficient to meet the needs of patients actively waiting for transplant. Consequently, there is continuing pressure to increase the donor organ pool while simultaneously assuring safety for the recipient population. The complication of donor malignancy transmission has been documented almost from the beginning of transplantation, and continues to be a concern today. The anecdotal nature of case reports and compiled series ensures that clinical decisions related to organ use from donors with malignancy will of necessity continue to be made on the basis of low-level evidence. Despite this limitation, the literature indicates that not all donor neoplasms have the same risk for transmission to the recipient, and it is necessary to consider the specific malignancy affecting the donor, as well as the condition of the recipient, before a decision is made to transplant or discard a given organ. Published cases suggest that certain forms of neoplasia, such as melanoma, choriocarcinoma, sarcoma, small cell carcinoma, or metastatic carcinomas serve as strong contraindications to organ donation. In contrast, considerable experience exists to suggest that certain tumors of the central nervous system, small subclinical prostate carcinomas, or small renal cell carcinomas resected prior to transplant, among other tumors, should not in themselves disqualify an individual from donating organs in the appropriate circumstance. This review presents the case for considering organ transplantation in the setting of certain donor malignancies and discusses factors to be weighed in such decisions. Additionally

  19. Perioperative bacterial infections in deceased donor and living donor liver transplant recipients. (United States)

    Varghese, Joy; Gomathy, Narasimhan; Rajashekhar, Perumalla; Venugopal, Kota; Olithselvan, Arikichenin; Vivekanandan, Shanmugam; Naresh, Shanmugam; Sujatha, Chandrasekaran; Vijaya, Srinivasan; Jayanthi, Venkataraman; Rela, Mohamed


    Deceased donor (DDLT) and living donor (LDLT) liver transplant (LT) is in vogue in several centers in India. Most centers are resorting to LDLT as a preferred surgery due to shortage of deceased donor liver. The risk of infection and its effect on survival in both groups of recipients from the Indian subcontinent are not known. The study was conducted to compare the bacterial infection rates among LDLT and DDLT recipients and their impact on survival at a tertiary referral center. Retrospective data on 67 LT recipients were reviewed. Data on pre-, per-, and postoperative bacterial infection rates and the common isolates were obtained. Thirty-five patients had LDLT and 32 had DDLT. The prevalence of pre-operative bacterial infection and the isolates was similar in both groups. The perioperative bacterial infection rates were significantly higher in DDLT recipients (P urinary tract followed by bloodstream infection. The common bacterial isolates in either transplant were Klebsiella followed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria. Six patients (four LDLT; two DDLT) were treated for tuberculosis. Among the risk factors, cold ischemic time, and duration of stay in the intensive care unit was significantly higher for DDLT (p < 0.01). The death rates were not significantly different in the two groups. However, the odds for death were significantly high at 26.8 (p < 0.05) for postoperative bacterial infection and 1.8 (p < 0.001) for past alcohol. Liver transplant recipients are at high-risk for bacterial infection irrespective of type of transplant, more so in DDLT.

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen & its subtypes in high risk group subjects & voluntary blood donors in Bombay. (United States)

    Elavia, A J; Banker, D D


    HBsAg positive subjects belonging to high risk groups and voluntary blood donors were analysed for prevalence of HBsAg among various groups of subjects for ascertaining the carrier status among the voluntary blood donors, HBsAg subtype distribution, and association of HBsAg with blood groups and caste or religion. The prevalence of HBsAg varied from 2.02 per cent in voluntary blood donors to 58.38 per cent in patients of acute viral hepatitis. 70.5 per cent subjects had subtype 'ay' while 23.9 per cent of the subjects had subtype 'ad'. We also found compound 'ady' subtype in 5.6 per cent of our subjects. HBsAg/adr, a subtype not usually prevalent in India, was found in 30 of the 90 'ad' sera. Co-occurrence of HBsAg and anti-HBs was noted in 9 subjects. Homotypic anti-HBs was found to occur together mainly in voluntary blood donors, while heterotypic anti-HBs was found to occur together mainly multi-transfused patients. There was no significant correlation between HBsAg and blood group antigens and a relatively higher incidence of HBsAg among the Jain community was observed.

  1. Study of living kidney donor-recipient relationships: variation with socioeconomic deprivation in the white population of England. (United States)

    Bailey, Phillippa K; Tomson, Charles Rv; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav


    Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher renal replacement therapy acceptance rates in the UK but lower rates of living kidney transplantation. This study examines donor-recipient relationship patterns with socioeconomic deprivation in the white population of England. Demographic characteristics of all white live renal transplant donors and recipients between 2001 and 2010 in England were analyzed. Patterns of donor-recipient relationship were analyzed to see whether they differed according to an ecological measure of socioeconomic status (Index of Multiple Deprivation). Group comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Sources of living kidney transplants differed with deprivation (p relative" donor and less likely from spouses/partners. Logistic regression suggested differences seen with spouse/partner donations with deprivation were explained by differences in the age and gender of the recipients. The source of living kidneys differs by level of area deprivation. Given the disparity in rates of living kidney transplants between the most and least socioeconomically deprived, there is a need to understand the reasons behind these observed relationship differences, with the aim of increasing transplantation rates in the most deprived. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Predictors of Diarrhea after Hepatectomy and Its Impact on Gastrointestinal Quality of Life in Living Donors


    Wang, Szu-Han; Ming, Ying-Zi; Lin, Ping-Yi; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Lin, Hui-Chuan; Hsieh, Chia-En; Hsu, Ya-Lan; Chen, Yao-Li


    Background Donor safety and preservation of donor health after living liver donation are of paramount importance. Diarrhea has a significant influence on gastrointestinal quality of life among donors who have undergone living donor hepatectomy. Thus, we aimed to investigate predictors of diarrhea after hepatectomy and its impact on gastrointestinal quality of life in living donors. Methods We retrospectively examined the medical records of 204 living liver donors who underwent hepatectomy dur...

  3. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H;


    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  4. Two successful lung transplantations from a dialysis-dependent donor. (United States)

    Shlomi, Dekel; Shitrit, David; Bendayan, Daniele; Sahar, Gidon; Saute, Milton; Kramer, Mordechai R


    The shortage of organs for lung transplantation has led to the growing use of "marginal" donors. Although patients on hemodialysis are still excluded as lung transplant donors because of the possible effects of renal failure on the lungs, recent data suggest that they may be suitable in selected cases. This article describes the successful transplantation of two lungs from a single donor who had been receiving long-term hemodialysis treatment. In the absence of other causes of pulmonary diseases, such as smoking or lung infection, lungs from dialysis-dependent patients may be acceptable for lung transplantation.

  5. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs. (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo


    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer produced an almost identical genome. The whole genome sequence data of donor and cloned dogs can provide a resource for further investigations on epigenetic contributions in phenotypic differences.

  6. Photoluminescence study of hydrogen donors in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herklotz, F., E-mail: frank.herklotz@physik.tu-dresden.d [Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lavrov, E.V., E-mail: edward.lavrov@physik.tu-dresden.d [Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Weber, J. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)


    A photoluminescence study of hydrogenated ZnO bulk crystals is presented. Two excitonic recombination lines at 3362.8 and 3360.1 meV are assigned to hydrogen shallow donors. Experimental evidence is presented that the corresponding donor to the line at 3362.8 meV, previously labeled I{sub 4}, originates from hydrogen trapped within the oxygen vacancy, H{sub O}. The line at 3360.1 meV was found to be due to hydrogen located at the bond-centered lattice site, H{sub BC}. The corresponding shallow donor has an ionization energy of 53 meV.

  7. Binding energy of donors in symmetric triangular quantum wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-ye; LIANG Xi-xia


    Hydrogen-like donor impurity states in symmetric triangular quantum wells are investigated by using a variational method.Both the effects of the variable effective mass of electrons and the spatially dependent dielectric constant are considered in the calculation.The numerical results show that the binding energy depends on not only the effective mass and dielectric constant but also the spatial distribution of electron probability density.The binding energies of donor states get the maximums at the well-center.The results are also compared with those obtained in parabolic and square wells.It is seen that the triangular well support the highest binding energies for donor states.

  8. Donor lymphocyte infusion after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (United States)

    Castagna, Luca; Sarina, Barbara; Bramanti, Stefania; Perseghin, Paolo; Mariotti, Jacopo; Morabito, Lucio


    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is considered the cornerstone in the treatment of several malignant and not malignant hematological diseases. However, relapse of hematological disease after allo-SCT is considered the most challenging point in the field. The risk can be reduced through optimal patients, donor and disease selection before allo-SCT, but harnessing donor immune system is an appealing way to treat or avoid disease relapse. Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is a simple and effective therapy after allo-SCT. In this paper, the efficacy of DLI will be analyzed in different hematological diseases, focusing also on their therapeutic or pre-emptive use.

  9. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing. (United States)

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T


    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments.

  10. New potential uroselective NO-donor alpha1-antagonists. (United States)

    Boschi, Donatella; Tron, Gian Cesare; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Poggesi, Elena; Motta, Gianni; Leonardi, Amedeo


    A recent uroselective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, REC15/2739, has been joined with nitrooxy and furoxan NO-donor moieties to give new NO-donor alpha(1)-antagonists. All the compounds studied proved to be potent and selective ligands of human cloned alpha(1a)-receptor subtype. Derivatives 6 and 7 were able to relax the prostatic portion of rat vas deferens contracted by (-)-noradrenaline because of both their alpha(1A)-antagonist and their NO-donor properties.

  11. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica. (United States)

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M


    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America.

  12. Donor plasmid design for codon and single base genome editing using zinc finger nucleases. (United States)

    Pruett-Miller, Shondra M; Davis, Gregory D


    In recent years, CompoZr zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology has matured to the point that a user-defined double strand break (DSB) can be placed at virtually any location in the human genome within 50 bp of a desired site. Such high resolution ZFN engineering is well within the conversion tract limitations demarcated by the mammalian DNA repair machinery, resulting in a nearly universal ability to create point mutations throughout the human genome. Additionally, new architectures for targeted nuclease engineering have been rapidly developed, namely transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas systems, further expanding options for placement of DSBs. This new capability has created a need to explore the practical limitations of delivering plasmid-based information to the sites of chromosomal double strand breaks so that nuclease-donor methods can be widely deployed in fundamental and therapeutic research. In this chapter, we explore a ZFN-compatible donor design in the context of codon changes at an endogenous locus encoding the human RSK2 kinase.

  13. Molecular designing of novel ternary copolymers of donor-acceptor polymers using genetic algorithm (United States)

    Arora, Vinita; Bakhshi, A. K.


    An efficient designing route to novel ternary copolymers consisting of polypyrrole (PPy), polythiophene (PTh) and polyfuran (PFu) is developed with the help of genetic algorithm. Using the band structure results obtained from ab initio crystal orbital (CO) calculations, the electronic structures and conduction properties of real ternary copolymers based on donor acceptor type polymers are investigated. The electron rich heterocyclic rings in the backbone chain of the copolymer are joined together by electron withdrawing groups Y, carbonyl group (>C dbnd O) and difluoromethylene group (>C dbnd CF 2) in an attempt to design the conducting polymer with lowest band gap. A comparative study of various electronic properties is presented. The effects of substitution on the behaviour and properties of the copolymers as well as on the density of states (DOS) are discussed. Band gap decreases as a result of substitution on the polymer backbone chain due to decrease in ionization potential and increase in electron affinity values. This is expected to enhance the intrinsic conductivity of the resulting copolymer. Use of alternate donor acceptor moieties within the repeat units should maximize the extended π conjugation.

  14. Development, identification and utilization of introgression lines using Chinese endemic and synthetic wheat as donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqing Gu; Bo Wei; Renchun Fan; Xu Jia; Xianping Wang; Xiangqi Zhang


    Chromosome segmental introgression lines (ILs) are an effective way to utilize germplasm resources in crops. To improve agronomic traits of wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum) Shi 4185, four sets of ILs were developed. The donors were Chinese endemic subspecies accessions Yunnan wheat (T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense) YN3, Tibetan semi-wild wheat (T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum) XZ-ZM19450, and Xinjiang wheat (T. aestivum ssp. petropavlovskyi) XJ5, and synthetic wheat HC-XM1620 derived from a cross between T. durum acc. D67.2/P66.270 with Aegilops tauschii acc. 218. Totals of 356, 366, 445 and 457 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were polymorphic between Shi 4185 and YN3, XZ-ZM19450, XJ5 and HC-XM1620, respectively. In total, 991 ILs were identified, including 300 derived from YN3, covering 95%of the genome of Shi 4185, 218 from XZ-ZM19450 (79%), 279 from XJ5 (97%), and 194 from HC-ZX1620 (84%). The sizes and locations of each introgression were determined from a consensus SSR linkage map. Using the ILs, 11 putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for plant height (PH), spike length (SL) and grain number per spike (GNS). Comparative analyses of 24 elite ILs with the parents revealed that the four donor parents could be important resources to improve wheat SL and GNS. Our work offers a case for utilizing endemic landraces for QTL mapping and improvement of wheat cultivars using introgression lines.

  15. Cyclosporine nephrotoxicity and early posttransplant hyperkalemia in living-donor renal recipients: report of 4 cases. (United States)

    Pavleska-Kuzmanovska, Svetlana; Popov, Zivko; Ivanovski, Ognen; Ristovska, Vesna; Masin-Spasovska, Jelka; Rambabova-Busljetic, Irena; Ivanovski, Ninoslav


    Hyperkalemia is an electrolyte disorder that may occur during the first few months after a renal transplant, in patients undergoing cyclosporine immunosuppression. We present our experience with cyclosporine-associated hyperkalemia in living-donor renal transplant recipients, with isolated clinically relevant hyperkalemia soon after surgery. We report 4 living-donor renal recipients with hyperkalemia soon after transplant. Severe unexpected hyperkalemia (7.5- 9.4 mmol/L) was noted in our patients 12, 20, 22, and 34 days after transplant. The C2 cyclosporine concentration was within recommended range or slightly greater than 1200 ng/mL. The hypertonic glucose/insulin treatment along with potassium diet was without results. A reduction in daily cyclosporine dosages, along with 1- to 2-week administration of fludrocortisone was effective. The patients became normokalemic taking a standard, triple-drug immunosuppression protocol, and were discharged home with normal renal function. There were no repeat episodes of hyperkalemia in any of the patients during 12 months of follow-up. Cyclosporine should be considered a cause of hyperkalemia in renal transplant recipients. Successful treatment with fludrocortisone confirms that transitional pseudohypoaldosteronism has a potential nephrotoxic effect of cyclosporine. We recommend close monitoring of the cyclosporine concentration and administering fludrocortisone when treating hyperkalemia in renal transplant recipients.

  16. Strong Coupling of a Donor Spin Ensemble to a Volume Microwave Resonator (United States)

    Rose, Brendon; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Lyon, Stephen

    We achieve the strong coupling regime between an ensemble of phosphorus donor spins (5e13 total donors) in highly enriched 28-Si (50 ppm 29-Si) and a standard dielectric resonator. Spins were polarized beyond Boltzmann equilibrium to a combined electron and nuclear polarization of 120 percent using spin selective optical excitation of the no-phonon bound exciton transition. We observed a spin ensemble-resonator splitting of 580 kHz (2g) in a cavity with a Q factor of 75,000 (κ loss rates respectively). The spin ensemble has a long dephasing time (9 μs) providing a wide window for viewing the time evolution of the coupled spin ensemble-cavity system described by the Tavis-Cummings model The free induction decay shows repeated collapses and revivals revealing a coherent and complete exchange of excitations between the superradiant state of the spin ensemble and the cavity (about 10 cycles are resolved). This exchange can be viewed as a swap of information between a long lived spin ensemble memory qubit (T2 ~ 2 ms) and a cavity

  17. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  18. Analysis of the long-term results of living donor liver transplantation in adults. (United States)

    Sánchez Cabús, Santiago; Estalella, Laia; Pavel, Mihai; Calatayud, David; Molina, Víctor; Ferrer, Joana; Fondevila, Constantino; Fuster, Josep; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is an alternative to conventional transplantation given its excellent results. The aim of this study is to evaluate long-term outcomes in LDLT recipients. 100 consecutive THDV recipients from the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona from March 2000 to October 2015 were included. The main indication for transplantation was end-stage liver disease (58%) followed by hepatocellular carcinoma (41%). 95% of grafts consisted of the right liver of the donor and the 5% of the left liver. After a median follow-up of 65.5 months, patient and graft survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 93%, 80% and 74% and 90%, 76%, and 71%, respectively. The overall re-transplant rate was 9%. The most common long-term complication was biliary stenosis (40%) with an average time of onset of 13.5±12 months, with repeated admissions and an average of 1.9±2 endoscopic procedures and 3.5±3 Radiological procedures per patient. The definitive treatment was radiological dilation in 40% of cases, surgical intervention in 22.5% and re-transplantation in 7.5%. Given the long-term results, LDLT is confirmed as an alternative to conventional transplantation. However, the high rate of late biliary complications involves repeated admissions and invasive treatments that, while not compromising survival, can affect the patient's quality of life. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-transplant prognostic factors of long-term survival after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with matched related/unrelated donors. (United States)

    Servais, Sophie; Porcher, Raphaël; Xhaard, Alienor; Robin, Marie; Masson, Emeline; Larghero, Jerome; Ribaud, Patricia; Dhedin, Nathalie; Abbes, Sarah; Sicre, Flore; Socié, Gérard; Peffault de Latour, Regis


    Mobilized peripheral blood has become the predominant stem cell source for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. In this retrospective single center study of 442 patients with hematologic malignancies, we analyzed prognostic factors for long-term survival after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from HLA-matched related or unrelated donors. To account for disease/status heterogeneity, patients were risk-stratified according to the Disease Risk Index. Five-year overall survival was similar after transplants with matched related and unrelated donors (45% and 46%, respectively; P=0.49). Because donor age ≥60 years impacted outcome during model building, we further considered 3 groups of donors: matched unrelated (aged <60 years by definition), matched related aged <60 years and matched related aged ≥60 years. In multivariate analysis, the donor type/age group and the graft CD34(+) and CD3(+) cell doses impacted long-term survival. Compared with matched unrelated donor transplant, transplant from matched related donor <60 years resulted in similar long-term survival (P=0.67) while transplant from matched related donor ≥60 years was associated with higher risks for late mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 4.41; P=0.006) and treatment failure (HR: 6.33; P=0.009). Lower mortality risks were observed after transplant with CD34(+) cell dose more than 4.5×10(6)/kg (HR: 0.56; P=0.002) and CD3(+) cell dose more than 3×10(8)/kg (HR: 0.61; P=0.01). The Disease Risk Index failed to predict survival. We built an "adapted Disease Risk Index" by modifying risks for myeloproliferative neoplasms and multiple myeloma that improved stratification ability for progression-free survival (P=0.04) but not for overall survival (P=0.82).

  20. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin P Ghonge


    Full Text Available As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know.

  1. HLA polymorphism in Sudanese renal donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer M Dafalla


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to provide a database for renal transplantation in Sudan and to determine the HLA antigens and haplotype frequencies (HFs in the study subjects. HLA typing was performed using the complement-dependant lymphocytotoxicity test in 250 unrelated healthy individuals selected as donors in the Sudanese Renal Transplantation Program. Considerable polymorphism was observed at each locus; A2 (0.28, A30 (0.12, A3 (0.09, A24 (0.09, A1 (0.09, and A68 (0.06 were the most frequent antigens in the A locus, while B51 (0.092, B41 (0.081, B39 (0.078, B57 (0.060, B35 (0.068, B 50 (0.053 and B 52 (0.051 were the most common B locus antigens. DR13 (0.444 and DR15 (0.160 showed the highest antigen frequencies (AFs in the DR locus. In the DQ locus, DQ1 showed the highest gene frequency (0.498, while DQ2 and DQ3 AFs were (0.185 and (0.238, respectively. The most common HLA-A and -B haplotypes in positive linkage disequilibrium were A24, B38; A1, B7; and A3, B52. The common HLA-A and -B HFs in positive linkage disequilibrium in the main three tribe-stocks of the study subjects (Gaalia, Nile Nubian and Johyna were A24, B38 for Gaalia; A24, B38 and A2, B7 for Johyna; and A2, B64 and A3, B53 for Nile Nubian. These results suggest that both class I and class II polymorphisms of the study subjects depict considerable heterogeneity, which reflects recent admixture of this group with neighboring Arabs and African populations.

  2. A unified rapid PCR method for detection of normal and expanded trinucleotide alleles of CAG repeats in huntington chorea and CGG repeats in fragile X syndrome. (United States)

    Todorov, Tihomir; Todorova, Albena; Georgieva, Bilyana; Mitev, Vanyo


    We report on a unified rapid betaine-based-PCR protocol for amplification of the (CAG)n region in Huntington disease (HD) and the (CGG)n region in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), followed by an electrophoretic separation on automated sequencer for precise determination of the triplet numbers. The high betaine concentration (2.5 M betaine) permits precise amplification of the CAG and CGG repeats. Ten HD affected patients and 10 healthy individuals from HD families were re-evaluated. For FXS the CGG region in normal individuals and premutations of about 100 repeats were precisely amplified by this protocol. Ten unrelated FXS premutation carriers and 24 mentally retarded non-FXS affected boys were re-examined by this method. The results totally coincided with the previous ones. This protocol is a good choice as a fast screening test. Within 24 h we can have preliminary information on the patient's genetic status. Normal individuals, CGG premutation carriers up to 100 repeats, as well as HD patients carrying an expansion up to 50 CAG repeats can be easily clarified. This accounts for a relatively large proportion (about 90%) of the suspected HD and FXS patients, referred to our laboratory for genetic analysis. The calculation of the repeat's number is more accurate for the correct interpretation of the results, screening tests and genetic counselling.

  3. Partial siamese twin as potential organ donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kapoor


    Full Text Available During evaluation of a partial Siamese twin for removal of nonviable parasitic part in an 8-year-old male child, a fully functional kidney was found. The functional status of the extra kidney was found to be within acceptable limits for the purpose of transplant, which was subsequently done in a 24-year-old patient with end-stage renal disease. The recipient is healthy 19 months after the surgery. The possibility of using organs from a partial Siamese twin makes this a unique case report.

  4. Social Media Use Among Living Kidney Donors and Recipients: Survey on Current Practice and Potential. (United States)

    Kazley, Abby Swanson; Hamidi, Bashir; Balliet, Wendy; Baliga, Prabhakar


    In the United States, there is a national shortage of organs donated for transplant. Among the solid organs, most often kidneys are donated by living donors, but the lack of information and complicated processes limit the number of individuals who serve as living kidney donors. Social media can be a tool for advocacy, educating the public about the need, process, and outcomes of live kidney donors, yet little is known about social media use by kidney transplant patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the social media use of potential kidney transplant patients and their willingness to use social media and their networks to advocate and educate about living kidney donation. Using a validated survey, we modified the instrument to apply to the patient population of interest attending the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. The questions on the survey inquired about current social media use, sites visited, frequency and duration of social media use, and willingness to use social media to share the need for living kidney donors. We asked patients who had received a transplant and those awaiting a transplant to complete the survey during an office visit. Participation was voluntary. A total of 199 patients completed the survey. Approximately half of all kidney transplant patients surveyed used social media (104/199, 52.3%), and approximately one-third (66/199, 33.2%) had more than 100 friends in their social media network. Facebook was the most popular site, and 51% (102/199) reported that they would be willing to post information about living kidney donation on their social networks. More than a quarter of the sample (75/199, 37.7%) had posted about their health status in the past. Social media holds great promise for health-related education and awareness. Our study shows the current social media use of kidney transplant patients. In turn, such information can be used to design interventions to ensure appropriate decision making about

  5. Living-donor vs deceased-donor liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa; Akamatsu; Yasuhiko; Sugawara; Norihiro; Kokudo


    With the increasing prevalence of living-donor liver transplantation(LDLT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC),some authors have reported a potential increase in the HCC recurrence rates among LDLT recipients compared to deceased-donor liver transplantation(DDLT) recipients.The aim of this review is to encompass current opinions and clinical reports regarding differences in the outcome,especially the recurrence of HCC,between LDLT and DDLT.While some studies report impaired recurrence- free survival and increased recurrence rates among LDLT recipients,others,including large database studies,report comparable recurrence- free survival and recurrence rates between LDLT and DDLT.Studies supporting the increased recurrence in LDLT have linked graft regeneration to tumor progression,but we found no association between graft regeneration/initial graft volume and tumor recurrence among our 125 consecutive LDLTs for HCC cases.In the absence of a prospective study regarding the use of LDLT vs DDLT for HCC patients,there is no evidence to support the higher HCC recurrence after LDLT than DDLT,and LDLT remains a reasonable treatment option for HCC patients with cirrhosis.

  6. Dithienosilolothiophene: A New Polyfused Donor for Organic Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Schroeder, Bob C.


    We report the synthesis of a novel pentacyclic donor moiety, dithienosilolothiophene, and its incorporation into low bandgap semiconducting polymers. The unique geometry of this new donor allowed attaching four solubilizing side chains on the same side of the fused ring system, thus ensuring sufficient solubility when incorporated into conjugated polymers while simultaneously reducing the steric hindrance between adjacent polymer chains. The optoelectronic properties of three new polymers comprising the novel pentacyclic donor were investigated and compared to structurally similar thieno[3,2-b]thienobis(silolothiophene) polymers. Organic solar cells were fabricated in order to evaluate the new materials’ potential as donor polymers in bulk heterojunction solar cells and gain further insight into how the single-sided side-chain arrangement affects the active layer blend morphology.

  7. Application of CART Algorithm in Blood Donors Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Santhanam


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study used data mining modeling techniques to examine the blood donor classification. The availability of blood in blood banks is a critical and important aspect in a healthcare system. Blood banks (in the developing countries context are typically based on a healthy person voluntarily donating blood and is used for transfusions or made into medications. The ability to identify regular blood donors will enable blood banks and voluntary organizations to plan systematically for organizing blood donation camps in an effective manner. Approach: Identify the blood donation behavior using the classification algorithms of data mining. The analysis had been carried out using a standard blood transfusion dataset and using the CART decision tree algorithm implemented in Weka. Results: Numerical experimental results on the UCI ML blood transfusion data with the enhancements helped to identify donor classification. Conclusion: The CART derived model along with the extended definition for identifying regular voluntary donors provided a good classification accuracy based model.

  8. Vascular Variations and Anastomosis Techniques in Renal Transplant Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilker Murat Arer


    Conclusion: Preoperative evaluation of renal vasculature of transplant donors is an important issue in means of decreasing peroperative vascular complications and decision for nephrectomy site. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 542-546

  9. Detection of occult disease in tissue donors by routine autopsy. (United States)

    Otero, J; Fresno, M F; Escudero, D; Seco, M; González, M; Peces, R


    The transmission of infectious and neoplastic diseases is a potential risk of tissue allografting. In this study, we analyzed the occurrence of occult disease in tissue donors as detected by standard screening and autopsy. Whereas 18% of the potential donors initially evaluated were eliminated on the basis of their medical and social histories, laboratory screening and autopsy revealed that an additional 9% of tissue donors had undetected, transmissible disease that prohibited tissue donation. This report emphasizes once again the risk of occult disease being transplanted with grafts and the need for autopsy to reduce the likelihood of this occurring. If donor selection, appropriate screening tests, and autopsy are carefully carried out, the risk of transmitting diseases from tissue allografts can be kept to a minimum.

  10. Operative technique and pitfalls in donor heart procurement. (United States)

    Shudo, Yasuhiro; Hiesinger, William; Oyer, Philip E; Woo, Y Joseph


    We describe a simple and reproducible donor heart procurement technique in sequential steps. A detailed understanding of procurement and organ preservation techniques should be an essential part of a heart transplant training program.

  11. Used Safely, Donor Breast Milk Can Help Preemie Babies (United States)

    ... Spatz said. Hospitals get donor milk from various human milk "banks." Right now, there are 20 nonprofit banks across the United States that are part of the Human Milk Banking Association of North America. Others are in ...

  12. Adiabatic Charge Control in a Single Donor Atom Transistor

    CERN Document Server

    Prati, Enrico; Cocco, Simone; Petretto, Guido; Fanciulli, Marco


    A Silicon quantum device containing a single Arsenic donor and an electrostatic quantum dot in parallel is realized in a nanometric field effect transistor. The different coupling capacitances of the donor and the quantum dot with the control and the back gates determine a relative rigid shift of their energy spectrum as a function of the back gate voltage, causing the crossing of the energy levels. We observe the sequential tunneling through the $D^{2-}$ and the $D^{3-}$ energy levels of the donor at 4.2 K, ordinarily hidden at high temperature as they lie above the conduction band edge of Silicon. The exchange coupling of the localized electrons is controlled in the anticrossing region by moving one electron from the donor to the quantum dot site and \\textit{viceversa}, in order to realize physical qubits for quantum information processing.

  13. Laboratory identification of donor-derived coxsackievirus b3 transmission. (United States)

    Abbott, I J; Papadakis, G; Kaye, M; Opdam, H; Hutton, H; Angus, P W; Johnson, P D R; Kanellis, J; Westall, G; Druce, J; Catton, M


    Unexpected donor-to-recipient infectious disease transmission is an important, albeit rare, complication of solid organ transplantation. Greater work and understanding about the epidemiology of these donor-derived transmissions is continually required to further mitigate this risk. Herein we present the first reported case of proven donor-derived transmission of coxsackievirus serogroup-3, an enterovirus, following solid organ transplant. Swift and effective communication between the organ donation agency, treating physicians, laboratory testing and notification ensured a coordinated approach. The resulting clinical syndromes in the organ recipients were mild. This case highlights the requirement for ongoing surveillance over a broad range of infecting pathogens that may present as a donor-derived infection.

  14. Effective use of kidneys for transplantation from asystolic donors. (United States)

    Gerstenkorn, Clemens; Papalois, Vassilios E; Hakim, Nadey


    Severe organ shortage for transplantation is an increasing problem because the number of traditional heart-beating cadaveric donors is declining. Ways need to be found to expand the donor pool without commercializing organ transplantation, especially from unrelated live donors, and to maintain high medical standards of these procedures and their follow-up. Kidneys from asystolic or nonheart-beating donors (NHBDs) are a valuable source of organs, which can be of excellent quality, with good long-term function after transplantation. This organ source is widely underused at the moment; even so, there is increased popularity during the last few years in different countries. In addition, the rate of discarding viable kidneys from these NHBDs is still too high. Logistical and legal aspects are other important issues that need to be addressed to promote these NHBD programs more effectively. Waiting lists for renal transplantation could be significantly reduced in the future.

  15. Pressure dependence of donor excitation spectra in AlSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, L.; McCluskey, M.D.; Haller, E.E.


    We have investigated the behavior of ground to bound excited-state electronic transitions of Se and Te donors in AlSb as a function of hydrostatic pressure. Using broadband far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, we observe qualitatively different behaviors of the electronic transition energies of the two donors. While the pressure derivative of the Te transition energy is small and constant, as might be expected for a shallow donor, the pressure derivatives of the Se transition energies are quadratic and large at low pressures, indicating that Se is actually a deep donor. In addition, at pressures between 30 and 50 kbar, we observe evidence of an anti-crossing between one of the selenium electronic transitions and a two-phonon mode.

  16. The living kidney donor evaluation: focus on renal issues. (United States)

    Kher, Ajay; Mandelbrot, Didier A


    Living kidney donor evaluations and follow-up have previously been addressed mostly by transplant physicians and surgeons. However, this area is significantly informed by basic principles of renal physiology and is of increasing clinical interest to general nephrologists. The general nephrology community is increasingly involved in evaluating the suitability of potential donors and in following them after donation when questions are raised about low GFR, hypertension, and other renal concerns. This article focuses on some of the most central and common issues that arise in evaluating potential donors and attempts to provide guidance on the basis of our review of the living donor literature, extrapolations from the general nephrology literature, and our own clinical experience.

  17. Mining of simple sequence repeats in the Genome of Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sathishkumar


    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs or short tandem repeats are short repeat motifs that show high level of length polymorphism due to insertion or deletion mutations of one or more repeat types. Here, we present the detection and abundance of microsatellites or SSRs in nucleotide sequences of Gentianaceae family. A total of 545 SSRs were mined in 4698 nucleotide sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. Among the SSR sequences, the frequency of repeat type was about 429 -mono repeats, 99 -di repeats, 15 -tri repeats, and 2 --hexa repeats. Mononucleotide repeats were found to be abundant repeat types, about 78%, followed by dinucleotide repeats (18.16% among the SSR sequences. An attempt was made to design primer pairs for 545 identified SSRs but these were found only for 169 sequences.

  18. PolyQ repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are CAA interrupted repeats.

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    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ repeats of 27-33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2, encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ≥ 34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1-3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT, while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC. Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2.

  19. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs


    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo


    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic ...

  20. Rapid donor liver procurement with only aortic perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Yuan Lin; KK Chui; AR-Nitin Rao


    ATM: to describe a rapid technique for procurement of donor liver with aortic perfusion only (APO). METHODS: Only the aorta is cannulated and perfused with chilled preservation solution. RESULTS: The quality of donor liver can ensure the grafted liver functions. CONCLUSION: The method of APO can simplify the operative procedure, compared with the dual cannulation. It also can minimize the danger of injuring vascular structures and involve less dissection.