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Sample records for repassivation potentials increased

  1. Effect of Nitrate on the Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Chloride Containing Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ilevbare; K. King; S. Gordon; H. Elayat; G. Gdowski; T. Summers

    2004-09-21

    The study of Alloy 22 was undertaken in several selected nitrate/chloride (NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -}) electrolytes with chloride concentrations [Cl{sup -}] of 1.0, 3.5 and 6.0 molal with [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] ratios of 0.05, 0.15 and 0.5 at temperatures up to 100 C. The repassivation potentials increased with increase in [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] ratio and decreased with increase in temperature. The absolute [Cl{sup -}] was found to have less of an effect on the repassivation potential compared with temperature and the [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}]. Regression analyses were carried out to describe the relationship between the repassivation potential, temperature, [Cl{sup -}] and [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] for the conditions tested.

  2. Effect of Nitrate on the Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Chloride Containing Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ilevbare; K. King; S. Gordon; H. Elayat; G. Gdowski; T. Summers

    2004-09-21

    The study of Alloy 22 was undertaken in several selected nitrate/chloride (NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -}) electrolytes with chloride concentrations [Cl{sup -}] of 1.0, 3.5 and 6.0 molal with [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] ratios of 0.05, 0.15 and 0.5 at temperatures up to 100 C. The repassivation potentials increased with increase in [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] ratio and decreased with increase in temperature. The absolute [Cl{sup -}] was found to have less of an effect on the repassivation potential compared with temperature and the [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}]. Regression analyses were carried out to describe the relationship between the repassivation potential, temperature, [Cl{sup -}] and [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] for the conditions tested.

  3. EFFECT OF NITRATE ON THE REPASSIVATION POTENTIAL OF ALLOY 22 IN CHLORIDE CONTAINING ENVIRONMENTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilevbare, G; King, K; Gordon, S; Elayat, H; Gdowski, G; Summers, T

    2004-08-16

    The study of Alloy 22 was undertaken in several selected nitrate/chloride (NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -}) electrolytes with chloride concentrations [Cl{sup -}] of 1.0, 3.5 and 6.0 molal with [NO{sub 3} {sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] ratios of 0.05, 0.15 and 0.5 at temperatures up to 100 C. Results showed that the repassivation potentials increased with increase in [NO{sub 3} {sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] ratio and decreased with increase in temperature. The absolute [Cl{sup -}] was found to have less of an effect on the repassivation potential compared with temperature and the NO{sub 3} {sup -}/Cl{sup -}. Regression analyses were carried out and expressions were derived to describe the relationship between the repassivation potential, temperature, [Cl{sup -}] and [NO{sub 3} {sup -}] for the conditions tested.

  4. Measuring the Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 Using the Potentiodynamic - Galvanostatic - Potentiostatic Method

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    Evans, K J; Rebak, R B

    2007-04-27

    Traditionally, the susceptibility of Alloy 22 (N06022) to suffer crevice corrosion has been measured using the Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization (CPP) technique (ASTM G 61). When the alloy is not very susceptible to crevice corrosion, the values of repassivation potential obtained using the CPP technique are not highly reproducible. To circumvent the large uncertainty in the values of the repassivation potential by the CPP method, the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 may be measured using a slower method that combines sequentially potentiodynamic, galvanostatic and potentiostatic treatments (this method is called the Tsujikawa-Hisamatsu Electrochemical or THE method). In the THE method the anodic charge is applied to the specimen in a more controlled manner, which avoids driving the alloy to transpassivity and therefore results in more reproducible repassivation potential values. Results using THE method under various testing conditions are presented. A new standard has been prepared for ASTM balloting for the THE method. The round robin matrix results are also discussed.

  5. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  6. Determination of the Crevice Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 By a Potentiodynamic-Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Evans; L. Wong; R. Rebak

    2004-06-01

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is a nickel-based alloy highly resistant to corrosion. In some aggressive conditions of high chloride concentration, temperature and applied potential, Alloy 22 may suffer crevice corrosion, a form of localized corrosion. There are several electrochemical methods that can be used to determine localized corrosion in metallic alloys. One of the most popular for rapid screening is the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP). This work compares the results obtained by measuring the localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 using both CPP and the more cumbersome Tsujikawa-Hisamatsu Electrochemical (THE) method. The electrolytes used were 1 M NaCl and 5 M CaCl{sub 2}, both at 90 C. Results show that similar repassivation potentials were obtained for Alloy 22 using both methods. That is, in cases where localized corrosion is observed using the fast CPP method, there is no need to use THE method since it takes ten times longer to obtain comparable results in spite of the mode of corrosion attack is different in the tested specimens.

  7. A study of the potentials achieved during mechanical abrasion and the repassivation rate of titanium and Ti6A14V in inorganic buffer solutions and bovine serum

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    Contu, F. [University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Elsener, B. [University of Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Inorganic and Anlaytical Chemistry; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Institute of Materials Chemistry; Boehni, H. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Institute of Materials Chemistry

    2004-11-15

    Titanium alloys in orthopaedic implants are susceptible to mechanical disruption of the passive film (fretting corrosion). To study this effect, open-circuit potential (ocp) measurements before, during and after mechanical disruption of the passive film in a tribo-electrochemical cell on commercial pure titanium, and Ti6Al4V alloy in inorganic buffer solutions in the pH range from 2.0 to 12.0 and calf bovine serum at pH 4.0 and 7.0 are reported. Additionally, the effect of pH, electrolyte and sample composition on the repassivation rate has been investigated. The potentials achieved during the abrasion of Ti6Al4V are the same as those characterizing pure titanium, which indicates that the corrosion current of both materials in the active state is due to the oxidation of titanium. However, commercial pure titanium displays a tendency to repassivate faster than Ti6Al4V in inorganic buffer solutions thanks to the lower critical current density and the higher catalytic activity towards the hydrogen evolution reaction observed on the pure metal in comparison with the alloy. Proteinaceous solutions like bovine serum, significantly slow down the anodic dissolution and the cathodic reactions both on titanium and the alloy. However, the repassivation rate of the Ti6Al4V is not affected by serum, while that of cp titanium significantly decreases both at pH 4.0 and 7.0. (author)

  8. Crevice Repassivation Potentials for Alloy 22 in Simulated Concentrated Ground Waters

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    Rebak, R B; Evans, K J; Ilevbare, G O

    2006-11-08

    The resistance of Alloy 22 (N06022) to localized corrosion, mainly crevice corrosion, has been extensively investigated in the last few years. However, the behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated aqueous solutions that may simulate concentrated ground waters was not fully understood. Systematic electrochemical tests using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization as well as the Tsujikawa-Hisamatsu electrochemical method were performed to determine the crevice corrosion susceptibility of Alloy 22 in simulated concentrated water (SCW), simulated acidified water (SAW) and basic saturated water (BSW). Results show that Alloy 22 is immune to crevice corrosion in SCW and SAW but may suffer crevice corrosion initiation in BSW. Results also show that in a naturally aerated environment, the corrosion potential would never reach the critical potential for crevice corrosion initiation.

  9. Repassivation behavior of titanium in artificial saliva investigated with a photon rupture method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakairi, Masatoshi, E-mail: msakairi@eng.hokudai.ac.j [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 080-8628 (Japan); Kinjyo, Misaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 080-8628 (Japan); Kikuchi, Tatsuya [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 080-8628 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Repassivation kinetics of titanium were investigated in artificial saliva by the photon rupture method, PRM, combined with anodizing. PRM uses focused pulsed Nd-YAG laser beam irradiation to remove oxide film and metal. The effects of the applied potential and F{sup -} ions on the repassivation kinetics of titanium were examined electrochemically. All conditions in this study use specimens that were repassivated within about 100 ms after the laser beam irradiation. The current transients after the laser beam irradiation showed a rapid increase, followed by a decrease with a slope of the log i vs. log t plots of about -1.5. The measured slope is steeper than what would be expected with the high field oxide film formation theory. This result suggests that the oxidation of titanium takes place through a combination of electrochemical and chemical reactions. More NaF results in a higher peak current density and amount of charge after laser beam irradiation. The influence of F{sup -} ions on the repassivation kinetics may be explained by localized pH changes caused by dissolution of titanium immediately after the laser beam irradiation.

  10. The Effect of Temperature on the Breakdown and Repassivation Potentials of Welded Alloy 22 In 5 M CACI2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.O. IIevbare

    2006-07-05

    The study of the electrochemical behavior of wrought and welded Alloy 22 was carried out in 5 M CaCl{sub 2} as a function of temperatures between 45 and 120 C with Multiple Crevice Assembly (MCA) specimens. The susceptibility to corrosion was found to increase with increase in electrolyte temperature in both the wrought (in the mill annealed condition) and the welded forms of the alloy. The weld metal was found to be less susceptible to localized corrosion under the conditions tested.

  11. The Kinetics of Anodic Dissolution and Repassivation on 316L Stainless Steel in Borate Buffer Solution Studied by Abrading Electrode Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H. S.; Sun, D. B.; Yu, H. Y.; Meng, H. M. [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2015-12-15

    The capacity of passive metal to repassivate after film damage determines the development of local corrosion and the resistance to corrosion failures. In this work, the repassivation kinetics of 316L stainless steel (316L SS) was investigated in borate buffer solution (pH 9.1) using a novel abrading electrode technique. The repassivation kinetics was analyzed in terms of the current density flowing from freshly bare 316L SS surface as measured by a potentiostatic method. During the early phase of decay (t < 2 s), according to the Avrami kinetics-based film growth model, the transient current was separated into anodic dissolution (i{sub diss}) and film formation (i{sub film}) components and analyzed individually. The film reformation rate and thickness were compared according to applied potential. Anodic dissolution initially dominated the repassivation for a short time, and the amount of dissolution increased with increasing applied potential in the passive region. Film growth at higher potentials occurred more rapidly compared to at lower potentials. Increasing the applied potential from 0 V{sub SCE} to 0.8 V{sub SCE} resulted in a thicker passive film (0.12 to 0.52 nm). If the oxide monolayer covered the entire bare surface (θ=1), the electric field strength through the thin passive film reached 1.6 x 10{sup 7} V/cm.

  12. Repassivation Investigations on Aluminium: Physical Chemistry of the Passive State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Tristan Oliver; Weimerskirch, Morris Jhängi Joseph; Pacher, Ulrich; Kautek, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    We show the temporal change in repassivation mechanism as a time-dependent linear combination of a high-field model of oxide growth (HFM) and the point defect model (PDM). The observed switch in transient repassivation current-decrease under potentiostatic control occurs independently of the active electrode size and effective repassivation time for all applied overpotentials. For that, in situ depassivation of plasma electrolytically oxidized (PEO) coatings on aluminium was performed with nanosecond laser pulses at 266 nm and the repassivation current transients were recorded as a function of pulse number. A mathematical model combines the well established theories of oxide-film formation and growth kinetics, giving insight in the non linear transient behaviour of micro-defect passivation. According to our findings, the repassivation process can be described as a charge consumption via two concurrent channels. While the major current-decay at the very beginning of the fast healing oxide follows a point-defect type exponential damping, the HFM mechanism supersedes gradually, the longer the repassivation evolves. Furthermore, the material seems to reminisce former laser treatments via defects built-in during depassivation, leading to a higher charge contribution of the PDM mechanism at higher pulse numbers.

  13. Effect of sigma phase in the repassivation potential of austenitic-ferritic stainless steel SEW 410 Nr. 14517; Efeito da fase sigma no potencial de repassivacao do aco inoxidavel austeno-ferritico SEW 410 Nr. 14517

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    Itman Filho, A.; Pimenta, C.C.; Santos, C.M.L. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria (Brazil)], e-mail: andrei@ifes.edu.br; Casteletti, L.C. [Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos - EESC/USP, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The austenitic-ferritic stainless steels, due to the optimum compromise between mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, are being used in many applications, as chemical and oil industries. In the oil exploitation, the effect of erosion-corrosion in acid environment is responsible for the increment in the equipment maintenance costs. Regarding the interest in researches of deep water oil exploitation, the proposal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the heat treatment at 850 degree C of the austenitic-ferritic stainless steel SEW 410 Nr.14517. Microstructural characterizations, microhardness measurements of the phases and corrosion tests were accomplished to evaluate the samples. The pitting potential values were obtained by galvanostatic tests in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} acid solution. The results showed that the volumetric percentages of sigma phase increased while the ferritic phase percentages decreased, when the heat treatment time increased. The sigma phase promoted hardness increase with little corrosion resistance decrease in the austenitic-ferritic stainless steel, too. (author)

  14. THE EFFECT OF W ON THE REPASSIVATION BEHAVIOR OF Ni-ADDED STAINLESS STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.X. Pan; K. Y. Kim

    2005-01-01

    The effect of W on the repassivation behavior of Ni-added stainless steels was investigated with respect to the repassivation rate and the SCC susceptibility. It was found that more stable passive film was formed on the W-modified stainless steels than that of steels without W-modification, and the repassivation rate was faster for W-modified stainless steels in acidic chloride solution (0.5M H2SO4+3.5% Cl-). In neutral chloride solution (1M MgCl2), there were no significant differences on both passivation properties and the repassivation rates for duplex stainless steels,while W-modified austenite stainless steel showed faster repassivation rate. The SCC tests verified that W-modified Ni-added stainless steels exhibited better SCC resistance than steels without W in chloride solution. Moreover, W-modification in higher Ni-added stainless steels exhibited more remarkable SCC resistance than steels with lower Ni content in chloride solution.

  15. Considerations on the repassivation of corroded reinforced concrete structures; Consideraciones sobre la repasivacion de las estructuras corroidas de hormigon armado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobo, A.; Gonzalez, M. N. [Escuela Universitaria de Arquitectura Tecnica de Madrid. Madrid (Spain); Otero, E.; Gonzalez, J. A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. CENIM. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    An analysis is made of the responses of clean and precorroded steel electrodes in Ca(OH){sub 2} saturated solutions and in cement mortar, using gravimetric, metallographic and electrochemical techniques, essentially polarisation resistance measurements. The paper aims to answer some important questions about the corrosion of reinforced concrete structures (RCS) which, though seemingly elementary, continue to arouse controversy in scientific, technical and economical circles, such as the following: What corrosion rates are dangerous in RCS? What concrete resistivities guarantee sufficient durability of RCS?. Is it possible to detain corrosion once it has begun?. Can corroded RCS be repassivated? Are electrochemical RCS rehabilitation methods efficient, and if so, when? The results obtained indicate that electrochemical chloride removal and realkalisation cannot repassive heavily corroded steel surfaces, however they can be effective methods to prevent corrosion provided they are used before the transition from the passive state to the active one occurs. If applied to late, are useless for this purpose. (Author) 25 refs.

  16. Cellular traction stresses increase with increasing metastatic potential.

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    Casey M Kraning-Rush

    Full Text Available Cancer cells exist in a mechanically and chemically heterogeneous microenvironment which undergoes dynamic changes throughout neoplastic progression. During metastasis, cells from a primary tumor acquire characteristics that enable them to escape from the primary tumor and migrate through the heterogeneous stromal environment to establish secondary tumors. Despite being linked to poor prognosis, there are no direct clinical tests available to diagnose the likelihood of metastasis. Moreover, the physical mechanisms employed by metastatic cancer cells to migrate are poorly understood. Because metastasis of most solid tumors requires cells to exert force to reorganize and navigate through dense stroma, we investigated differences in cellular force generation between metastatic and non-metastatic cells. Using traction force microscopy, we found that in human metastatic breast, prostate and lung cancer cell lines, traction stresses were significantly increased compared to non-metastatic counterparts. This trend was recapitulated in the isogenic MCF10AT series of breast cancer cells. Our data also indicate that increased matrix stiffness and collagen density promote increased traction forces, and that metastatic cells generate higher forces than non-metastatic cells across all matrix properties studied. Additionally, we found that cell spreading for these cell lines has a direct relationship with collagen density, but a biphasic relationship with substrate stiffness, indicating that cell area alone does not dictate the magnitude of traction stress generation. Together, these data suggest that cellular contractile force may play an important role in metastasis, and that the physical properties of the stromal environment may regulate cellular force generation. These findings are critical for understanding the physical mechanisms of metastasis and the role of the extracellular microenvironment in metastatic progression.

  17. Effects of Organic Corrosion Inhibitor and Chloride Ion Concentration on Steel Depassivation and Repassivation in Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zixiao; YU Lei; LIU Zhiyong; SONG Ning

    2015-01-01

    Effect of an organic corrosion inhibitor (OCI) named PCI-2014 added in chloride solution on the critical chlo-ride concentration of mild steel depassivation and the critical OCI concentrations for repairing the steel in different chlo-ride solution were investigated. The results show that the critical chloride concentration increases exponentially with raises of PCI-2014 concentration in the solution. Within a certain chloride ion concentration range, the critical PCI-2014 concentration for repairing the corroded steel is also increases exponentially with enhancement of chloride content in the solution. Atomic force microscopy images display the molecular particles of inhibitor are adsorbed on the steel surface and formed a protective layer. Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chloride ions at the surface of steel are displaced by atoms or molecules of the inhibitor in chloride condition.

  18. Effects of Organic Corrosion Inhibitor and Chloride Ion Concentration on Steel Depassivation and Repassivation in Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zixiao; YU; Lei; LIU; Zhiyong; SONG; Ning

    2015-01-01

    Effect of an organic corrosion inhibitor(OCI) named PCI-2014 added in chloride solution on the critical chloride concentration of mild steel depassivation and the critical OCI concentrations for repairing the steel in different chloride solution were investigated.The results show that the critical chloride concentration increases exponentially with raises of PCI-2014 concentration in the solution.Within a certain chloride ion concentration range,the critical PCI-2014 concentration for repairing the corroded steel is also increases exponentially with enhancement of chloride content in the solution.Atomic force microscopy images display the molecular particles of inhibitor are adsorbed on the steel surface and formed a protective layer.Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chloride ions at the surface of steel are displaced by atoms or molecules of the inhibitor in chloride condition.

  19. Increasing yield potential of hybrid rice through molecular breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Qiyun; Yuan Longping; Liang Fengshan; Zhuang Wen; Li Jiming; Wang Yueguang; Duan Meijuan; Xiong Yuedong; Wang Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world population. The utilization of the wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in 1970s has significantly raised rice yield potential. But the world's annual rice production will have to increase 70 percent over the next 30 years, to keep up with the demends of the growing population.

  20. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  1. Influence of temperature and applied potential on the electrochemical behaviour of nickel in LiBr solutions by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinon-Pina, V.; Igual-Munoz, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Anton, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jgarciaa@iqn.upv.es

    2009-10-15

    The effects of temperature, applied potential and hydrogen generation on the passive behaviour of nickel were investigated in lithium bromide aqueous solution using different electrochemical techniques: open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic and potentiostatic measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the polarization curves, it is observed that localised corrosion resistance decreases with temperature, the repassivation of nickel is more difficult at 75 {sup o}C and the hydrogen evolution reaction is favoured with an increase in temperature. Impedance results showed that the most suitable corrosion mechanism of nickel in LiBr solutions includes the double layer and the passive film formed on the nickel surface. The passive film of nickel partially disappears when a low cathodic potential is applied.

  2. Potential Endophytic Bacteria for Increasing Paddy Var Rojolele Productivity

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    Desriani Desriani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paddy var Rojoleleis asuperior paddy come from Klaten that released by Department of Agriculture in 2003. Its superior properties are resistant to pests leaf hoppers, fluffier, and fragrant. To increase the productivity of paddy that are of ten used by farmers is to use chemical-based fertilizers. The use of these chemicals will effect to adisruption of ecosystem balancing, reduction the amount of soil microflora which essential forplants. Endophytic bacteria are symbiotic microorganisms living within plant tissues, and does not cause negative effects on the host plant. Endophytic bacteria have a capability increasing crop productivity by producing growth hormone, contributes to plant health, and as bio-control agents. Some endophytic bacteria which contribute to plant growth are: Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Azotobacter sp., And Azospirilum sp., Whereas endophytic bacteria that contribute to the health and plant protection several of them are: Pseudomonas sp., Serratia sp. ,Clavibacter sp., and Bacillus sp. This study was conducted to investigate potential of endophytic bacteria to increase Paddy var Rojolele productivity based on its ability to produce extracellular enzymes and resistance to multiple types of antibiotics. The method were endophytic bacteria isolation from three Paddy varRojolele plants, extracellular enzymes detection and antibiotic resistance testing to chloramfinekol, ampicillin and kanamycin. As the result, 43isolateswere isolated from Paddy var Rojolele. Four isolatesamong them havethe ability to produce extra cellular enzym esandresistant toampicillin, kanamycin, and chloramfinekol. Extra cellular enzyme production capability and resistance to antibiotics makes endophytic bacteria are potentialto improveplant health and also asbio-control agentwhich then willaffect to the productivity of rice. To further ensure its potential to plant, more research is needed.

  3. Potential for increased mercury accumulation in the estuary food web

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    Samuel N. Luoma

    2003-10-01

    term monitoring on local and regional scales, and careful evaluation of individual restoration projects with regard to potential increase of food web mercury.

  4. Potential environmental benefits from increased use of bioenergy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuyang; Freedman, Bill; Gao, Jixi

    2007-09-01

    Because of its large population and rapidly growing economy, China is confronting a serious energy shortage and daunting environmental problems. An increased use of fuels derived from biomass could relieve some demand for nonrenewable sources of energy while providing environmental benefits in terms of cleaner air and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. In 2003, China generated about 25.9 x 10(8) metric tons of industrial waste (liquid + solid), 14.7 x 10(8) metric tons/year (t/y) of manure (livestock + human), 7.1 x 10(8) t/y of crop residues and food-processing byproducts, 2 x 10(8) t/y of fuelwood and wood manufacturing residues, and 1.5 x 10(8) t/y of municipal waste. Biofuels derived from these materials could potentially displace the use of about 4.12 x 10(8) t/y of coal and 3.75 x 10(6) t/y of petroleum. An increased bioenergy use of this magnitude would help to reduce the emissions of key air pollutants: SO(2 )by 11.6 x 10(6) t/y, NO(X) by 1.48 x 10(6) t/y, CO2 by 1.07 x 10(9) t/y, and CH4 by 50 x 10(6) t/y. The reduced SO(2) emissions would be equivalent to 54% of the national emissions in 2003, whereas those for CO2 are 30%. It is important to recognize, however, that large increases in the use of biomass fuels also could result in socioeconomic and environmental problems such as less production of food and damage caused to natural habitats.

  5. Potentials of engineered nanoparticles as fertilizers for increasing agronomic productions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

    2015-05-01

    Development and application of new types of fertilizers using innovative nanotechnology are one of the potentially effective options of significantly enhancing the global agricultural productions needed to meet the future demands of the growing population. Indeed, the review of available literature indicates that some engineered nanomaterials can enhance plant-growth in certain concentration ranges and could be used as nanofertilizers in agriculture to increase agronomic yields of crops and/or minimize environmental pollution. This article summarizes this type of nanomaterials under four categories: macronutrient nanofertilizers, micronutrient nanofertilizers, nutrient-loaded nanofertilizers, and plant-growth-enhancing nanomaterials. Each category is discussed respectively with reference to nanomaterials' chemical composition, particle size, concentrations applied, benefited plant species, plant incubation methods, and plant-growth enhancement aspects and the rates. The importance, research directions, and research requirements of each nanofertilizer category for achieving sustainable agriculture are also specifically examined. Finally, this review suggests that development of N and P macronutrient nanofertilizers is a high research and development priority both for food production and environmental protection.

  6. Potential follow-up increases private contributions to public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Todd; Ternovski, John; Yoeli, Erez

    2016-05-10

    People contribute more to public goods when their contributions are made more observable to others. We report an intervention that subtly increases the observability of public goods contributions when people are solicited privately and impersonally (e.g., mail, email, social media). This intervention is tested in a large-scale field experiment (n = 770,946) in which people are encouraged to vote through get-out-the-vote letters. We vary whether the letters include the message, "We may call you after the election to ask about your voting experience." Increasing the perceived observability of whether people vote by including that message increased the impact of the get-out-the-vote letters by more than the entire effect of a typical get-out-the-vote letter. This technique for increasing perceived observability can be replicated whenever public goods solicitations are made in private.

  7. Potential of Flavobacterium as Biofertilizer to Increase Wheat Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asadi Rahmani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are a diverse group of bacteria consisting different species like Pseudomonas, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Flavobacterium, Bacillus and Serratia with ability of enhancing plant growth and yield by different mechanisms. Flavobacteria are aerobic, gram negative, rod shape bacteria with more than 100 species living in different habitats ranging from soil and water to the foods. There are reports indicating that Flavobacteria are of dominant rhizosphere bacteria with beneficial effects on agricultural crops. Studies in Iran showed that six species of Flavobacterium were isolated and identified from rhizosphere of wheat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four strains of Flavobacterium on growth and yield of wheat under field conditions. Materials and Methods: In this study four strains of Flavobacterium F9, F11, F21 and F40 were used. Bacterial strains were propagated in liquid NB growth medium and were used in field experiments. Fields were prepared in Khorasan Razavi, Khuzestan, Fars, Mazandran and Kermanshah and wheat seeds were inoculated with strains and sowed in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with five treatments (four strains and a un-inoculated control with four replications. Wheat varieties were Pishtaz in Khorasan and Fars, Marvdasht in Kermanshah, Chamran in Khuzestan and Milan in Mazandaran. Chemical fertilizers were used based on soil analysis. The rate of inoculation was 10 ml of bacteria per kg of seed. Plants were harvested at the end of the experiment and seed yield, total shoot biomass, 1000-seed weight, plant height, number of panicles per m2, number of seeds per panicle and panicle length were measured. Data analysis was performed by SPSS software, and the means were compared at α꞊5% by Duncan test. Results and discussion: Results of the study showed that bacterial strains increased growth and yield of wheat in all provinces. In Mazandaran, all

  8. Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Commercial Energy Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Cohan, David F.

    2016-08-22

    An important question for commercial energy code compliance is: “How much energy cost savings can better compliance achieve?” This question is in sharp contrast to prior efforts that used a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. A field investigation method is being developed that goes beyond the binary approach to determine how much energy cost savings is not realized. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance for newly constructed office buildings in climate zone 4C. Field data collected from actual buildings on specific conditions relative to code requirements was then applied to the simulation results to find the potential lost energy savings for a single building or for a sample of buildings. This new methodology was tested on nine office buildings in climate zone 4C. The amount of additional energy cost savings they could have achieved had they complied fully with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code is determined. This paper will present the results of the test, lessons learned, describe follow-on research that is needed to verify that the methodology is both accurate and practical, and discuss the benefits that might accrue if the method were widely adopted.

  9. Predicting Recovery Potential for Individual Stroke Patients Increases Rehabilitation Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinear, Cathy M; Byblow, Winston D; Ackerley, Suzanne J; Barber, P Alan; Smith, Marie-Claire

    2017-04-01

    Several clinical measures and biomarkers are associated with motor recovery after stroke, but none are used to guide rehabilitation for individual patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of upper limb predictions in stroke rehabilitation, by combining clinical measures and biomarkers using the Predict Recovery Potential (PREP) algorithm. Predictions were provided for patients in the implementation group (n=110) and withheld from the comparison group (n=82). Predictions guided rehabilitation therapy focus for patients in the implementation group. The effects of predictive information on clinical practice (length of stay, therapist confidence, therapy content, and dose) were evaluated. Clinical outcomes (upper limb function, impairment and use, independence, and quality of life) were measured 3 and 6 months poststroke. The primary clinical practice outcome was inpatient length of stay. The primary clinical outcome was Action Research Arm Test score 3 months poststroke. Length of stay was 1 week shorter for the implementation group (11 days; 95% confidence interval, 9-13 days) than the comparison group (17 days; 95% confidence interval, 14-21 days; P=0.001), controlling for upper limb impairment, age, sex, and comorbidities. Therapists were more confident (P=0.004) and modified therapy content according to predictions for the implementation group (Prehabilitation efficiency after stroke without compromising clinical outcome. URL: http://anzctr.org.au. Unique identifier: ACTRN12611000755932. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Increasing the potential for malaria elimination by targeting zoophilic vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Jessica L.; Swain, Sunita; Lynch, Penelope A.; Sharma, S. K.; Haque, Mohammed Asrarul; Montgomery, Jacqui; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2017-01-01

    Countries in the Asia Pacific region aim to eliminate malaria by 2030. A cornerstone of malaria elimination is the effective management of Anopheles mosquito vectors. Current control tools such as insecticide treated nets or indoor residual sprays target mosquitoes in human dwellings. We find in a high transmission region in India, malaria vector populations show a high propensity to feed on livestock (cattle) and rest in outdoor structures such as cattle shelters. We also find evidence for a shift in vector species complex towards increased zoophilic behavior in recent years. Using a malaria transmission model we demonstrate that in such regions dominated by zoophilic vectors, existing vector control tactics will be insufficient to achieve elimination, even if maximized. However, by increasing mortality in the zoophilic cycle, the elimination threshold can be reached. Current national vector control policy in India restricts use of residual insecticide sprays to domestic dwellings. Our study suggests substantial benefits of extending the approach to treatment of cattle sheds, or deploying other tactics that target zoophilic behavior. Optimizing use of existing tools will be essential to achieving the ambitious 2030 elimination target. PMID:28091570

  11. Clastogenic Factors as Potential Biomarkers of Increased Superoxide Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Emerit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of clastogenic factors (CF and their damaging effects are mediated by superoxide, since superoxide dismutase is regularly protective. CF are produced via superoxide and stimulate the production of superoxide by monocytes and neutrophils. This results in a selfsustaining and longlasting process of clastogenesis, which may exceed the DNA repair system and ultimately lead to cancer (Emerit, 1994. An increased cancer risk is indeed observed in conditions accompanied by CF formation. These include irradiated persons, patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, HIV-infected persons and the chromosomal breakage syndromes ataxia telangiectasia, Bloom’s syndrome and Fanconi’s anemia. Biochemical analysis has identifi ed lipid peroxidation products, arachidonic acid metabolites, nucleotides of inosine and cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor alpha, as the clastogenic and also superoxide stimulating components of CF. Due to their chromosome damaging effects, these oxidants can be detected with classical cytogenetic techniques. Their synergistic action renders the CF-test particularly sensitive for the detection of a pro-oxidant state. Correlations were observed between CF and other biomarkers of oxidative stress such as decreases in total plasma thiols or increases in TBARS or chemiluminescence. Correlations between CF and disease activity, between CF and radiation exposure, suggest the study of CF for monitoring these conditions. CF may also be useful as biochemical markers and intermediate endpoints for the evaluation of promising antioxidant drugs. CF formation represents a link between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Prophylactic use of superoxide scavengers as anticarcinogens is therefore suggested.

  12. Innovative strategy with potential to increase hemodialysis efficiency and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Mai, Fu-Der; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Chun-Mao; Chang, Chun-Chao; Tsai, Hui-Yen; Yang, Chih-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Uremic toxins are mainly represented by blood urine nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Crea) whose removal is critically important in hemodialysis (HD) for kidney disease. Patients undergoing HD have a complex illness, resulting from: inadequate removal of organic waste, dialysis-induced oxidative stress and membrane-induced inflammation. Here we report innovative breakthroughs for efficient and safe HD by using a plasmon-induced dialysate comprising Au nanoparticles (NPs)-treated (AuNT) water that is distinguishable from conventional deionized (DI) water. The diffusion coefficient of K3Fe(CN)6 in saline solution can be significantly increased from 2.76, to 4.62 × 10-6 cm s-1, by using AuNT water prepared under illumination by green light-emitting diodes (LED). In vitro HD experiments suggest that the treatment times for the removals of 70% BUN and Crea are reduced by 47 and 59%, respectively, using AuNT water instead of DI water in dialysate, while additionally suppressing NO release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cells.

  13. Potential increasing dominance of heterotrophy in the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, K. F.; Meissner, K. J.; Keller, D. P.

    2015-07-01

    Autotrophy is largely resource-limited in the modern ocean. Paleo evidence indicates this was not necessarily the case in warmer climates, and modern observations as well as standard metabolic theory suggest continued ocean warming could shift global ecology towards heterotrophy, thereby reducing autotrophic nutrient limitation. Such a shift would entail strong nutrient recycling in the upper ocean and high rates of net primary production (NPP), yet low carbon export to the deep ocean and sediments. We demonstrate transition towards such a state in the early 22nd century as a response to business-as-usual representative concentration pathway forcing (RCP8.5) in an intermediate complexity Earth system model in three configurations; with and without an explicit calcifier phytoplankton class and calcite ballast model. In all models nutrient regeneration in the near-surface becomes an increasingly important driver of primary production. The near-linear relationship between changes in NPP and global sea surface temperature (SST) found over the 21st century becomes exponential above a 2-4{ }\\circ {{C}} global mean SST change. This transition to a more heterotrophic ocean agrees roughly with metabolic theory.

  14. Osteoinductive potential of demineralized rat bone increases with increasing donor age from birth to adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Solheim, E

    1998-01-01

    quantitatively, by uptake of strontium 85, the osteoinductive effect of demineralized bone matrix from newborn, 8-week-old (adolescent), and 8-month-old (adult) male Wistar rats implanted in the abdominal muscles of 8-week-old male Wistar rats. The osteoinductive response increased significantly with increasing......Demineralized allogenic bone implanted in the subcutis or muscle of rodents causes formation of heterotopic bone by osteoinduction. The osteoinductive response may be weaker in primates than in rodents. It was suggested that the osteoinductive response of demineralized bone for clinical use could...

  15. Increased migration of monocytes in essential hypertension is associated with increased transient receptor potential channel canonical type 3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Ni, Yinxing; Chen, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Increased transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels have been observed in patients with essential hypertension. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that increased monocyte migration is associated with increased TRPC3 expression. Monocyte migration assay was performed...... of TRPC3 were investigated. We observed an increased fMLP-induced migration of monocytes from hypertensive patients compared with normotensive control subjects (246 ± 14% vs 151 ± 10%). The TNF-α-induced migration of monocytes in patients with essential hypertension was also significantly increased...... compared to normotensive control subjects (221 ± 20% vs 138 ± 18%). In the presence of 2-APB or after siRNA knockdown of TRPC3 the fMLP-induced monocyte migration was significantly blocked. The fMLP-induced changes of cytosolic calcium were significantly increased in monocytes from hypertensive patients...

  16. Methods for increasing the biogas potential from the recalcitrant organic matter contained in manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2000-01-01

    The biogas potential of manure could be significantly increased by treatment of the recalcitrant organic matter (biofibers) contained in the manure. Several treatment methods were tested. Mechanical maceration resulted in an average increase of the biogas potential of approximately 17% as shown...... difference of the biogas potential from fibers in the range 5–20 mm. Treatment of the fibers with hemicellulolytic or cellulolytic enzymes did not result in any significant increase of the methane potential. However, biological treatment of the fibers of the manure with the hemicellulose degrading bacterium...... 2 mm. Chemical treatment of the fibers with bases such as NaOH, NH4OH or a combination of bases also resulted in an increased methane potential. However, combination of maceration and chemical treatment did not result in a further increase of the methane potential. There was not any significant...

  17. The potential for using gamification in academic libraries in order to increase student engagement and achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential benefits of using gamification techniques to increase student engagement with library resources. It outlines the link between student use of library resources and academic achievement, and suggests that gamification has to potential to increase usage of resources, which may also increase academic achievement. Some early findings from an implementation of a gamification project, Lemontree, are also discussed in which students reported increased usage of libra...

  18. Applications of systems simulation for understanding and increasing yield potential of wheat and rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aggarwal, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding and increasing yield potential of cereals is essential to meet the growing food demand in Asia. A crop growth simulation model -WTGROWS- was developed to quantify the climatically determined potential grain yields and yield gaps in wheat in tropics and sub-tropics. The model

  19. Potential CO2 savings by increasing truck size: A Korean case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.; Wiegmans, B.; Bu, L.

    2016-01-01

    n this paper, we present a method to estimate CO2 reduction potential by increasing the truck size. Trucks are apparently the most preferred freight transport option for most shippers. Therefore, increasing the truck size may be a realizable and practical strategy, except when logistics companies

  20. A System Model of Increasing the Investment Potential of Technologically Unrelated Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Alexander G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a theoretical substantiation and the progress of practical application of the method for evaluating lagged effects of increasing the investment potential of interaction between industries in meso-level innovation systems on the example of the high-tech sector of Ukraine. The interaction data are considered in terms of their formation in such technologically unrelated sectors as the industrial sector and sector of education and sciences. It has been determined that the analytical basis to form the models of increasing the investment potential in innovation systems of meso-level should be presented by a comprehensive integrated assessment of all sectors involved in the reproduction process including technologically unrelated sectors of highly structured innovative systems. There has been proposed a system model of increasing the investment potential of the high-tech sector taking into account the optimization and synergy effects for system decisions concerning technologically unrelated sectors in economic systems of innovation type of reproduction.

  1. WAYS TO INCREASE LEVERAGE RURAL TOURISM POTENTIAL OF THE HISTORICAL REGIONS CRIŞANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBU IONEL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to identify some ways of increasing the recovery of the tourism potential of the historical region Crisan. Given the multitude of economic implications, socio-cultural and environmental impacts of rural tourism by increasing recovery tourist potential, the positive impact of this economic activity will be felt by all concerned: residents, entrepreneurs, tourists and local public administration. By the way, tourists will benefit a greater diversity of services for accommodation, dining and leisure, causing them to disseminate their opinions among other tourists and even return to those places.

  2. WAYS TO INCREASE LEVERAGE RURAL TOURISM POTENTIAL OF THE HISTORICAL REGIONS CRIŞANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBU IONEL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to identify some ways of increasing the recovery of the tourism potential of the historical region Crisan. Given the multitude of economic implications, socio-cultural and environmental impacts of rural tourism by increasing recovery tourist potential, the positive impact of this economic activity will be felt by all concerned: residents, entrepreneurs, tourists and local public administration. By the way, tourists will benefit a greater diversity of services for accommodation, dining and leisure, causing them to disseminate their opinions among other tourists and even return to those places.

  3. Haemophilus influenzae induces a potentiated increase in guinea-pig pulmonary resistance to histamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkerts, G.; Nijkamp, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    The human respiratory pathogen Haemophilus influenzae (H.i.) induced bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine (1.0–8.0 μg/100 g b.w. i.v.) in vivo in anaesthetized spontaneously breathing guinea-pigs. This hyperreactivity was caused by a potentiated increase in pulmonary resistance. Decreases in dynam

  4. Erythropoietin Increases Expression and Function of Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 5 Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Yunfei; Thilo, Florian;

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is a common complication in hemodialysis patients during erythropoietin (EPO) treatment. The underlying mechanisms of EPO-induced hypertension still remain to be determined. Increased transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels have been associated with hypertension. Now......, TRPC gene expression was investigated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting in cultured human endothelial cells and in monocytes from hemodialysis patients. EPO dose-dependently increased TRPC5 mRNA in endothelial cells. EPO increased TRPC5 mRNA stability, that is, EPO prolonged...

  5. TMS-induced cortical potentiation during wakefulness locally increases slow wave activity during sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Huber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep slow wave activity (SWA is thought to reflect sleep need, increasing in proportion to the length of prior wakefulness and decreasing during sleep. However, the process responsible for SWA regulation is not known. We showed recently that SWA increases locally after a learning task involving a circumscribed brain region, suggesting that SWA may reflect plastic changes triggered by learning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis directly, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in conjunction with high-density EEG in humans. We show that 5-Hz TMS applied to motor cortex induces a localized potentiation of TMS-evoked cortical EEG responses. We then show that, in the sleep episode following 5-Hz TMS, SWA increases markedly (+39.1+/-17.4%, p<0.01, n = 10. Electrode coregistration with magnetic resonance images localized the increase in SWA to the same premotor site as the maximum TMS-induced potentiation during wakefulness. Moreover, the magnitude of potentiation during wakefulness predicts the local increase in SWA during sleep. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide direct evidence for a link between plastic changes and the local regulation of sleep need.

  6. Increasing N200 Potentials Via Visual Stimulus Depicting Humanoid Robot Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengfan; Li, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2016-02-01

    Achieving recognizable visual event-related potentials plays an important role in improving the success rate in telepresence control of a humanoid robot via N200 or P300 potentials. The aim of this research is to intensively investigate ways to induce N200 potentials with obvious features by flashing robot images (images with meaningful information) and by flashing pictures containing only solid color squares (pictures with incomprehensible information). Comparative studies have shown that robot images evoke N200 potentials with recognizable negative peaks at approximately 260 ms in the frontal and central areas. The negative peak amplitudes increase, on average, from 1.2 μV, induced by flashing the squares, to 6.7 μV, induced by flashing the robot images. The data analyses support that the N200 potentials induced by the robot image stimuli exhibit recognizable features. Compared with the square stimuli, the robot image stimuli increase the average accuracy rate by 9.92%, from 83.33% to 93.25%, and the average information transfer rate by 24.56 bits/min, from 72.18 bits/min to 96.74 bits/min, in a single repetition. This finding implies that the robot images might provide the subjects with more information to understand the visual stimuli meanings and help them more effectively concentrate on their mental activities.

  7. Potentiation increases peak twitch torque by enhancing rates of torque development and relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando Gabe; Jensen, Jørgen; Noakes, Timothy David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the extent to which potentiation changes in response to an isometric maximal voluntary contraction. Eleven physically active subjects participated in two separate studies. Single stimulus of electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure torque at rest in unpotentiated quadriceps muscles (study 1 and 2), and potentiated quadriceps muscles torque in a 10 min period after a 5 s isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps muscles (study 1). Additionally, potentiated quadriceps muscles torque was measured every min after a further 10 maximal voluntary contractions repeated every min (study 2). Electrical stimulation repeated several times without previous maximal voluntary contraction showed similar peak twitch torque. Peak twitch torque 4 s after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction increased by 45±13% (study 1) and by 56±10% (study 2), the rate of torque development by 53±13% and 82±29%, and the rate of relaxation by 50±17% and 59±22%, respectively, but potentiation was lost already two min after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction. There was a tendency for peak twitch torque to increase for the first five repeated maximal voluntary contractions, suggesting increased potentiation with additional maximal voluntary contractions. Correlations for peak twitch torque vs the rate of torque development and for the rate of relaxation were r(2)= 0.94 and r(2)=0.97. The correlation between peak twitch torque, the rate of torque development and the rate of relaxation suggests that potentiation is due to instantaneous changes in skeletal muscle contractility and relaxation.

  8. Increased Paracrine Immunomodulatory Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Three-Dimensional Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Follin, Bjarke; Juhl, Morten; Cohen, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated extensively through the past years, proving to have great clinical therapeutic potential. In vitro cultivation of MSCs in three-dimensional (3D) culture systems, such as scaffolds, hydrogels, or spheroids, have recently gained attention...... for tissue engineering applications. Studies on MSC spheroids demonstrated that such cultivation increased the paracrine immunomodulatory potential of the MSCs, accompanied by phenotypic alterations. In this review, we gather results from recent experimental studies on the immunomodulatory abilities of MSCs...

  9. Density-functional errors in ionization potential with increasing system size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittleton, Sarah R.; Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A.; Isborn, Christine M., E-mail: cisborn@ucmerced.edu [Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States); Johnson, Erin R., E-mail: erin.johnson@dal.ca [Chemistry and Chemical Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, 6274 Coburg Road, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2015-05-14

    This work investigates the effects of molecular size on the accuracy of density-functional ionization potentials for a set of 28 hydrocarbons, including series of alkanes, alkenes, and oligoacenes. As the system size increases, delocalization error introduces a systematic underestimation of the ionization potential, which is rationalized by considering the fractional-charge behavior of the electronic energies. The computation of the ionization potential with many density-functional approximations is not size-extensive due to excessive delocalization of the incipient positive charge. While inclusion of exact exchange reduces the observed errors, system-specific tuning of long-range corrected functionals does not generally improve accuracy. These results emphasize that good performance of a functional for small molecules is not necessarily transferable to larger systems.

  10. Increased glycation of hemoglobin in chronic renal failure: [corrected] potential role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Nambiar; Bobby, Zachariah; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna

    2008-04-01

    Among the various mechanisms proposed, the process of non-enzymatic glycation of proteins is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic complications associated with renal failure. The two traditional factors found to modulate the early glycation of proteins are the prevailing concentration of glucose and half life of the protein. Among the various proteins that are known to undergo nonenzymatic glycation in vivo, hemoglobin has been the most thoroughly investigated. Determination of glycated hemoglobin in diabetic patients is currently acknowledged as the most reliable indicator for assessment of retrospective glycemic control and the planning of clinical management. The clinical utility of glycated hemoglobin measurements, however, in renal failure is controversial, given the numerous earlier studies showing no correlation between glycated hemoglobin and other indicators of blood glucose control in uremic subjects. With few exceptions, previous studies have suggested that the concentration of glycated hemoglobin was increased in uremic patients. There is documented evidence that increased glycated hemoglobin levels are found in certain non-diabetic states. So it stands to reason that hyperglycemia, although clearly being the culprit in diabetes, does not provide the complete answer to the etiology of increased early glycated products in non-diabetic conditions including chronic renal failure. This article reviews available evidence supporting increased glycation of hemoglobin in patients with chronic renal failure. Potential mechanisms for this increase are examined with special emphasis on the potential role of oxidative stress.

  11. Growth hormone transgenic salmon pay for growth potential with increased predation mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Sundström, L. Fredrik; Lõhmus, Mare; Johnsson, Jörgen I.; Devlin, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in gene technology have been applied to create fast-growing transgenic fish, which are of great commercial interest owing to their potential to shorten production cycles and increase food production. However, there is growing concern and speculation over the impact that escaped growth hormone (GH)-transgenic fish may have on the natural environment. To predict these risks it is crucial to obtain empirical data on the relative fitness of transgenic and non-transgenic fish under...

  12. Exploring the Potential for Increased Production from the Wave Energy Converter Lifesaver by Reactive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Molinas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fred Olsen is currently testing their latest wave energy converter (WEC, Lifesaver, outside of Falmouth Bay in England, preparing it for commercial operation at the Wavehub test site. Previous studies, mostly focusing on hydrodynamics and peak to average power reduction, have shown that this device has potential for increased power extraction using reactive control. This article extends those analyses, adding a detailed model of the all-electric power take-off (PTO system, consisting of a permanent magnet synchronous generator, inverter and DC-link. Time domain simulations are performed to evaluate the PTO capabilities of the modeled WEC. However, when tuned towards reactive control, the generator losses become large, giving a very low overall system efficiency. Optimal control with respect to electrical output power is found to occur with low added mass, and when compared to pure passive loading, a 1% increase in annual energy production is estimated. The main factor reducing the effect of reactive control is found to be the minimum load-force constraint of the device. These results suggest that the Lifesaver has limited potential for increased production by reactive control. This analysis is nevertheless valuable, as it demonstrates how a wave-to-wire model can be used for investigation of PTO potential, annual energy production estimations and evaluations of different control techniques for a given WEC device.

  13. ERBB2 increases metastatic potentials specifically in androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tome-Garcia

    Full Text Available Despite all the blood-based biomarkers used to monitor prostate cancer patients, prostate cancer remains as the second common cause of cancer mortality in men in the United States. This is largely due to a lack of understanding of the molecular pathways that are responsible for the aggressive forms of prostate cancers, the castrate-resistant prostate cancer and the metastatic prostate cancer. Cell signaling pathways activated by the ERBB2 oncogene or the RAS oncogene are frequently found to be altered in metastatic prostate cancers. To evaluate and define the role of the ERBB2/RAS pathway in prostate cancer metastasis, we have evaluated the impact of ERBB2- or RAS-overexpression on the metastatic potentials for four prostate cancer cell lines derived from tumors with different androgen sensitivities. To do so, we transfected the human DU145, LnCaP, and PC3 prostate cancer cells and the murine Myc-CaP prostate cancer cells with the activated form of ERBB2 or H-RAS and assessed their metastatic potentials by three complementary assays, a wound healing assay, a transwell motility assay, and a transwell invasion assay. We showed that while overexpression of ERBB2 increased the metastatic potential of the androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells (i.e. PC3 and DU145, it did not affect metastatic potentials of the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells (i.e. LnCaP and Myc-CaP. In contrast, overexpression of H-RAS only increased the cell motility of Myc-CaP cells, which overexpress the human c-MYC oncogene. Our data suggest that ERBB2 collaborates with androgen signaling to promote prostate cancer metastasis, and that although RAS is one of the critical downstream effectors of ERBB2, it does not phenocopy ERBB2 for its impact on the metastatic potentials of prostate cancer cell lines.

  14. Inclusion of Oat in Feeding Can Increase the Potential Probiotic Bifidobacteria in Sow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabin Gyawali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (i investigate the impact of feeding oat on the population of bifidobacteria and (ii evaluate their probiotic potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of supplementing sows’ gestation and lactation feed with 15% oat (prebiotic source on the levels of probiotic population in milk. We found that dietary inclusion of oat during lactation and gestation resulted in increased levels of bifidobacteria compared to lactobacilli in sow milk. Furthermore bifidobacteria within the sow milk samples were further evaluated for probiotic potential based on aggregating properties, and acid- and bile-tolerance after exposure to hydrochloric acid (pH 2.5 and bile salts (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.0% and 2.0%. All isolates survived under the condition of low pH and bile 2.0%. Autoaggregation ability ranged from 17.5% to 73%. These isolates also showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7.Together our results suggest that inclusion of oat in feeding systems could have the potential to improve the intestinal health of piglets by increasing the population of bifidobacteria.

  15. Inclusion of Oat in Feeding Can Increase the Potential Probiotic Bifidobacteria in Sow Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Rabin; Minor, Radiah C; Donovan, Barry; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) investigate the impact of feeding oat on the population of bifidobacteria and (ii) evaluate their probiotic potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of supplementing sows' gestation and lactation feed with 15% oat (prebiotic source) on the levels of probiotic population in milk. We found that dietary inclusion of oat during lactation and gestation resulted in increased levels of bifidobacteria compared to lactobacilli in sow milk. Furthermore bifidobacteria within the sow milk samples were further evaluated for probiotic potential based on aggregating properties, and acid- and bile-tolerance after exposure to hydrochloric acid (pH 2.5) and bile salts (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.0% and 2.0%). All isolates survived under the condition of low pH and bile 2.0%. Autoaggregation ability ranged from 17.5% to 73%. These isolates also showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7.Together our results suggest that inclusion of oat in feeding systems could have the potential to improve the intestinal health of piglets by increasing the population of bifidobacteria.

  16. Synchronization modulation increases transepithelial potentials in MDCK monolayers through Na/K pumps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Tran

    Full Text Available Transepithelial potential (TEP is the voltage across a polarized epithelium. In epithelia that have active transport functions, the force for transmembrane flux of an ion is dictated by the electrochemical gradient in which TEP plays an essential role. In epithelial injury, disruption of the epithelial barrier collapses the TEP at the wound edge, resulting in the establishment of an endogenous wound electric field (∼100 mV/mm that is directed towards the center of the wound. This endogenous electric field is implicated to enhance wound healing by guiding cell migration. We thus seek techniques to enhance the TEP, which may increase the wound electric fields and enhance wound healing. We report a novel technique, termed synchronization modulation (SM using a train of electric pulses to synchronize the Na/K pump activity, and then modulating the pumping cycles to increase the efficiency of the Na/K pumps. Kidney epithelial monolayers (MDCK cells maintain a stable TEP and transepithelial resistance (TER. SM significantly increased TEP over four fold. Either ouabain or digoxin, which block Na/K pump, abolished SM-induced TEP increases. In addition to the pump activity, basolateral distribution of Na/K pumps is essential for an increase in TEP. Our study for the first time developed an electrical approach to significantly increase the TEP. This technique targeting the Na/K pump may be used to modulate TEP, and may have implication in wound healing and in diseases where TEP needs to be modulated.

  17. Potential determinants of deductible uptake in health insurance: How to increase uptake in The Netherlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winssen, K P M; van Kleef, R C; van de Ven, W P M M

    2016-12-01

    In health insurance, voluntary deductibles are offered to the insured in return for a premium rebate. Previous research has shown that 11 % of the Dutch insured opted for a voluntary deductible (VD) in health insurance in 2014, while the highest VD level was financially profitable for almost 50 % of the population in retrospect. To explain this discrepancy, this paper identifies and discusses six potential determinants of the decision to opt for a VD from the behavioral economic literature: loss aversion, risk attitude, ambiguity aversion, debt aversion, omission bias, and liquidity constraints. Based on these determinants, five potential strategies are proposed to increase the number of insured opting for a VD. Presenting the VD as the default option and providing transparent information regarding the VD are the two most promising strategies. If, as a result of these strategies, more insured would opt for a VD, moral hazard would be reduced.

  18. POSSIBILITIES TO INCREASE THE LEVERAGE THE TOURISM POTENTIAL IN HISTORICAL REGIONS CRISANA

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    BARBU IONEL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to identify some possibilities of increasing the recovery of the tourism potential of the historical region Crisan. Given the multitude of economic implications, socio-cultural and environmental impacts of rural tourism by increasing recovery tourist potential, the positive impact of this economic activity will be felt by all concerned: residents, entrepreneurs, tourists and local public administration. We analyzed a set of the 26 factors were analyzed, ranking obtained from processing the responses provided by the 391 respondents. Based on this ranking, based on the average score obtained, calculated by coding the answers of respondents, we could say that all factors have an average score above the average of 3 points, contributed in a more visible to development of rural tourism from historical region Crisana. Any intervention or any project that aims to increase the influence of one or more of these factors can bring economic impacts, socio-cultural or ecological more important. On the contrary, all factors had a mean score less than 3 points can be considered difficulties for the development of this economic activity, and any projects developed that have targeted these factors, not have attained to the extent expected.

  19. Oyster reef restoration supports increased nekton biomass and potential commercial fishery value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T. Humphries

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Across the globe, discussions centered on the value of nature drive many conservation and restoration decisions. As a result, justification for management activities increasingly asks for two lines of evidence: (1 biological proof of augmented ecosystem function or service, and (2 monetary valuation of these services. For oyster reefs, which have seen significant global declines and increasing restoration work, the need to provide both biological and monetary evidence of reef services on a local-level has become more critical in a time of declining resources. Here, we quantified species biomass and potential commercial value of nekton collected from restored oyster (Crassostrea virginica reefs in coastal Louisiana over a 3-year period, providing multiple snapshots of biomass support over time. Overall, and with little change over time, fish and invertebrate biomass is 212% greater at restored oyster reefs than mud-bottom, or 0.12 kg m−2. The additional biomass of commercial species is equivalent to an increase of local fisheries value by 226%, or $0.09 m−2. Understanding the ecosystem value of restoration projects, and how they interact with regional management priorities, is critical to inform local decision-making and provide testable predictions. Quantitative estimates of potential commercial fisheries enhancement by oyster reef restoration such as this one can be used directly by local managers to determine the expected return on investment.

  20. Exploring the therapeutic potential of Ayahuasca: acute intake increases mindfulness-related capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Franquesa, Alba; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Pascual, Juan C; Riba, Jordi

    2016-03-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychotropic plant tea used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. In the last two decades, its use has expanded worldwide. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties. Acute administration induces an introspective dream-like experience characterized by visions and autobiographic and emotional memories. Studies of long-term users have suggested its therapeutic potential, reporting that its use has helped individuals abandon the consumption of addictive drugs. Furthermore, recent open-label studies in patients with treatment-resistant depression found that a single ayahuasca dose induced a rapid antidepressant effect that was maintained weeks after administration. Here, we conducted an exploratory study of the psychological mechanisms that could underlie the beneficial effects of ayahuasca. We assessed a group of 25 individuals before and 24 h after an ayahuasca session using two instruments designed to measure mindfulness capacities: The Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). Ayahuasca intake led to significant increases in two facets of the FFMQ indicating a reduction in judgmental processing of experiences and in inner reactivity. It also led to a significant increase in decentering ability as measured by the EQ. These changes are classic goals of conventional mindfulness training, and the scores obtained are in the range of those observed after extensive mindfulness practice. The present findings support the claim that ayahuasca has therapeutic potential and suggest that this potential is due to an increase in mindfulness capacities.

  1. Increasing potential of biomass burning over Sumatra, Indonesia induced by anthropogenic tropical warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartika Lestari, R.; Watanabe, Masahiro; Imada, Yukiko; Shiogama, Hideo; Field, Robert D.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Kimoto, Masahide

    2014-10-01

    Uncontrolled biomass burning in Indonesia during drought periods damages the landscape, degrades regional air quality, and acts as a disproportionately large source of greenhouse gas emissions. The expansion of forest fires is mostly observed in October in Sumatra favored by persistent droughts during the dry season from June to November. The contribution of anthropogenic warming to the probability of severe droughts is not yet clear. Here, we show evidence that past events in Sumatra were exacerbated by anthropogenic warming and that they will become more frequent under a future emissions scenario. By conducting two sets of atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments driven by observed sea surface temperature for 1960-2011, one with and one without an anthropogenic warming component, we found that a recent weakening of the Walker circulation associated with tropical ocean warming increased the probability of severe droughts in Sumatra, despite increasing tropical-mean precipitation. A future increase in the frequency of droughts is then suggested from our analyses of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model ensembles. Increasing precipitation to the north of the equator accompanies drier conditions over Indonesia, amplified by enhanced ocean surface warming in the central equatorial Pacific. The resultant precipitation decrease leads to a ˜25% increase in severe drought events from 1951-2000 to 2001-2050. Our results therefore indicate the global warming impact to a potential of wide-spreading forest fires over Indonesia, which requires mitigation policy for disaster prevention.

  2. Potential to increase active commuting level in university area (Case study: Universitas Gadjah Mada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    In order to alleviate the negative impacts of motorized vehicle use as well as create sustainable environment within campus area, it is pivotal to encourage mode shifting among university students. Active transport modes such as walking, cycling, and using public transport can be considered as alternative modes. This paper tried to identify the potential to increase active commuting in UGM by understanding student’s travel behavior. ANOVA test was employed to identify the perceptions between students across residential zones toward motivators and barriers to actively commute. The findings were used to propose strategies for increasing active commuting level in UGM, which are: reducing barriers to actively commute, improving public transport services, improving walking and cycling facilities, and introducing programs to discourage motorized vehicle use.

  3. The potential use of genetics to increase the effectiveness of treatment programs for criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M; Jackson, Dylan B; Flesher, Dillon

    2014-01-01

    During the past couple of decades, the amount of research examining the genetic underpinnings to antisocial behaviors, including crime, has exploded. Findings from this body of work have generated a great deal of information linking genetics to criminal involvement. As a partial result, there is now a considerable amount of interest in how these findings should be integrated into the criminal justice system. In the current paper, we outline the potential ways that genetic information can be used to increase the effectiveness of treatment programs designed to reduce recidivism among offenders. We conclude by drawing attention to how genetic information can be used by rehabilitation programs to increase program effectiveness, reduce offender recidivism rates, and enhance public safety.

  4. Resource potential methods using for efficiency of activities in the region increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vasiliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers impact methods on the economic results, the effectiveness of the regional economic complex should be based on a high quality of the basic characteristics classification of the region state. Application composition techniques to ensure a comprehensive impact on the achievement of this goal should in synthesized form to union, adopt a target orientation of development of the region with the parameters objectively revealing his condition. Ensuring organizational, economic, financial and investment techniques to achieve the planned targets and requires specifying align resource potential of the region with the available capacity of the regional economic complex to promote economic growth, improve the efficiency of operations. The main characteristics of the potential resource opportunities in the region are the skill level of workers, the degree of depreciation of fixed assets and their renewability, increased innovation in the region, its branches and facilities, strengthening of competitive advantages, the annual average number of employees, the cost of fixed and current assets, financial stability. In the region the opportunity to potentially affect the ability of its structural components to achieve the financial and economic performance targets acts as efficiency ability to provide stable dynamics of regional production efficiency, enhance the level of benefits to achieve the planned efficiency used (consumed resource. Applying of certain methods or their entire structure, created to provide a comprehensive impact on the goal achievement, in the synthesized form of target orientation combines regional development with the parameters most objectively revealing his condition. Achieving the appropriate organizational, economic, financial, investment or other measures to achieve planned targets that are expressed by the level of efficiency of activity in the conditions of the most complete involvement and intensity of use in

  5. Loss of Cell Adhesion Increases Tumorigenic Potential of Polarity Deficient Scribble Mutant Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrayani Waghmare

    Full Text Available Epithelial polarity genes are important for maintaining tissue architecture, and regulating growth. The Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor gene scribble (scrib belongs to the basolateral polarity complex. Loss of scrib results in disruption of its growth regulatory functions, and downregulation or mislocalization of Scrib is correlated to tumor growth. Somatic scribble mutant cells (scrib- surrounded by wild-type cells undergo apoptosis, which can be prevented by introduction of secondary mutations that provide a growth advantage. Using genetic tools in Drosophila, we analyzed the phenotypic effects of loss of scrib in different growth promoting backgrounds. We investigated if a central mechanism that regulates cell adhesion governs the growth and invasive potential of scrib mutant cells. Here we show that increased proliferation, and survival abilities of scrib- cells in different genetic backgrounds affect their differentiation, and intercellular adhesion. Further, loss of scrib is sufficient to cause reduced cell survival, activation of the JNK pathway and a mild reduction of cell adhesion. Our data show that for scrib cells to induce aggressive tumor growth characterized by loss of differentiation, cell adhesion, increased proliferation and invasion, cooperative interactions that derail signaling pathways play an essential role in the mechanisms leading to tumorigenesis. Thus, our study provides new insights on the effects of loss of scrib and the modification of these effects via cooperative interactions that enhance the overall tumorigenic potential of scrib deficient cells.

  6. Estimation of cancer risks and benefits associated with a potential increased consumption of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Richard; Johnston, Jason; Tucker, Kevin; DeSesso, John M; Keen, Carl L

    2012-12-01

    The current paper provides an analysis of the potential number of cancer cases that might be prevented if half the U.S. population increased its fruit and vegetable consumption by one serving each per day. This number is contrasted with an upper-bound estimate of concomitant cancer cases that might be theoretically attributed to the intake of pesticide residues arising from the same additional fruit and vegetable consumption. The cancer prevention estimates were derived using a published meta-analysis of nutritional epidemiology studies. The cancer risks were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods, cancer potency estimates from rodent bioassays, and pesticide residue sampling data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The resulting estimates are that approximately 20,000 cancer cases per year could be prevented by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, while up to 10 cancer cases per year could be caused by the added pesticide consumption. These estimates have significant uncertainties (e.g., potential residual confounding in the fruit and vegetable epidemiologic studies and reliance on rodent bioassays for cancer risk). However, the overwhelming difference between benefit and risk estimates provides confidence that consumers should not be concerned about cancer risks from consuming conventionally-grown fruits and vegetables.

  7. Arctic stratospheric ozone depletion and increased UVB radiation: potential impacts to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fabo, Edward C

    2005-12-01

    Contrary to popular belief, stratospheric ozone depletion, and the resultant increase in solar UV-B (280-320 nm), are unlikely to fully recover soon. Notwithstanding the success of the Montreal Protocol in reducing the amount of ozone destroying chemicals into the stratosphere, the life-times of these compounds are such that even with full compliance with the Protocol by all countries, it will be decades before stratospheric ozone could return to pre-1980 levels. This raises the question, therefore, of what will happen to biological processes essential to the maintenance of life on earth which are sensitive to damage by increased UV-B radiation, particularly those involved with human health? The polar regions, because of the vagaries of climate and weather, are the bellwether for stratospheric ozone depletion and will, therefore, be the first to experience impacts due to increases in solar UV-B radiation. The impacts of these are incompletely understood and cannot be predicted with certainty. While some UV-B impacts on human health are recognized, much is unknown, unclear and uncertain. Thus, this paper attempts, as a first approximation, to point out potential impacts to the health and welfare of human inhabitants of the Arctic due to increased solar UV-B radiation associated with stratospheric ozone depletion. As will be seen, much more data is critically needed before adequate risk assessment can occur.

  8. Raising potential yield of short-duration rice cultivars is possible by increasing harvest index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Further increases in rice yield potential are generally thought to require greater biomass assimilation. This study presents a new cultivar that draws greater yield from increased harvest index (HI. Objectives. Our objective was to identify the physiological traits that are critical to the high yield of a recently developed short-duration rice cultivar Guiliangyou 2 (GLY2. Method. GLY2 and a check cultivar Yuxiangyouzhan (YXYZ were grown in a field at the Experimental Farm of Guangxi University, Guangxi province, southern China in early and late rice-growing seasons in 2013. Grain yield, yield components, canopy characteristics including leaf area index (LAI, leaf N content (LNC, leaf area duration (LAD and assimilation rate (NAR, biomass accumulation, and harvest index were determined for each cultivar in each season. Results. GLY2 produced 17–38% higher grain yield than YXYZ with the same growth duration. Spikelets per m2 and grain weight were higher in GLY2 than in YXYZ by 11–13% and 6–17%, respectively. GLY2 had higher LAI and LAD but lower LNC and NAR than YXYZ. As a consequence of the compensation between the canopy characteristics, there was no significant difference in biomass accumulation between the two cultivars. Harvest index of GLY2 was 13–23% higher than that of YXYZ. Large sink size, high remobilization of stored reserves and maintained biomass production after heading were responsible for the high HI of GLY2. Conclusions. Our study suggests that it is possible to increase HI together with grain yield by improving the potential sink size and the remobilization of stored reserves while maintaining high LAI and LAD in short-duration rice.

  9. Potential impact of increased temperature and CO2 on particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the Southeastern Bering Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of elevated sea surface temperature (SST and pCO2 on algal community structure and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp concentrations in the southeastern Bering Sea was examined using a shipboard “Ecostat” continuous culture system. The ecostat system was used to mimic the conditions projected to exist in the world's oceans by the end of this century (i.e. elevated pCO2 (750 ppm and elevated SST (ambient + 4°C. Two experiments were conducted using natural phytoplankton assemblages from the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC central basin and from the middle domain of the southeastern continental shelf. At the HNLC site, the relative abundances of haptophytes and pelagophytes were higher and the relative abundance of diatoms lower under “greenhouse” conditions (i.e. combined 750 ppm CO2 and elevated temperature than control conditions (380 ppm CO2 and ambient temperature. This shift in algal community structure was accompanied by increases in DMSPp (2–3 fold, DMSPp:Chl a (2–3 fold and DMSP:PON (2 fold. At the continental shelf site, the changes in the relative abundances of haptophytes, pelagophytes and diatoms under “greenhouse” conditions were similar to those observed at the HNLC site, with 2.5 fold increases in DMSPp, 50–100% increases in DMSPp:Chl a and 1.8 fold increases in DMSP:PON. At both locations, changes in community structure and the DMSPp parameters were largely driven by increasing temperature. The observed changes were also consistent with the phytoplankton-DMS-albedo climate feedback mechanism proposed in the Charlson-Lovelock-Andreae-Warren (CLAW hypothesis.

  10. Increased urinary lysophosphatidic acid in mouse with subtotal nephrectomy: potential involvement in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoyan, Koryun; Baïotto, Anna; Dupuy, Aude; Marsal, Dimitri; Denis, Colette; Vinel, Claire; Sicard, Pierre; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P; Klein, Julie; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    Increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with consecutive progression to end-stage renal disease represents a significant burden to healthcare systems. Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a classical hallmark of CKD and is well correlated with the loss of renal function. The bioactive lysophospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acting through specific G-protein-coupled receptors, was previously shown to be involved in TIF development in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. Here, we study the role of LPA in a mouse subjected to subtotal nephrectomy (SNx), a more chronic and progressive model of CKD. Five months after surgical nephron reduction, SNx mice showed massive albuminuria, extensive TIF, and glomerular hypertrophy when compared to sham-operated animals. Urinary and plasma levels of LPA were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. LPA was significantly increased in SNx urine, not in plasma, and was significantly correlated with albuminuria and TIF. Moreover, SNx mice showed significant downregulation in the renal expression of lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPP1, 2, and 3) that might be involved in reduced LPA bioavailability through dephosphorylation. We concluded that SNx increases urinary LPA through a mechanism that could involve co-excretion of plasma LPA with albumin associated with a reduction of its catabolism in the kidney. Because of the previously demonstrated profibrotic activity of LPA, the association of urinary LPA with TIF suggests the potential involvement of LPA in the development of advanced CKD in the SNx mouse model. Targeting LPA metabolism might represent an interesting approach in CKD treatment.

  11. Bilingualism and increased attention to speech: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Jan Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    A number of studies have shown that from an early age, bilinguals outperform their monolingual peers on executive control tasks. We previously found that bilingual children and adults also display greater attention to unexpected language switches within speech. Here, we investigated the effect of a bilingual upbringing on speech perception in one language. We recorded monolingual and bilingual toddlers' event-related potentials (ERPs) to spoken words preceded by pictures. Words matching the picture prime elicited an early frontal positivity in bilingual participants only, whereas later ERP amplitudes associated with semantic processing did not differ between groups. These results add to the growing body of evidence that bilingualism increases overall attention during speech perception whilst semantic integration is unaffected.

  12. HARNESSING THE POTENTIAL OF SOCIAL CAPITAL FOR INCREASING INNOVATION CAPABILITY: BENEFIT FOR MAINTAINING SUPPLIERCUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAN PRIHADYANTI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Innovation has widely been regarded as one of the main drivers of economic growth in the knowledge economy. Therefore, it is important for firm to maintain its innovation capability by implementing various strategy. This paper analyze the role of social capital to absorptive capacity and innovation capability in Indonesia’sautomotive companies which have supplier-customer relations. It shows that the social capital between and within the supplier-customer firms has a role in increasing innovation capability. Social capital has a role in boosting potential and realized absorptive capacity and also direct impact on the innovation capability. The similarity of the model from both companies indicates that there is a mimetic isomorphism in the innovation capability building strategy. To build the strategy, there are some condition needed as requirements.

  13. Heterologous viral expression systems in fosmid vectors increase the functional analysis potential of metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrón-González, L; Medina, C; Limón-Mortés, M C; Santero, E

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinary potential of metagenomic functional analyses to identify activities of interest present in uncultured microorganisms has been limited by reduced gene expression in surrogate hosts. We have developed vectors and specialized E. coli strains as improved metagenomic DNA heterologous expression systems, taking advantage of viral components that prevent transcription termination at metagenomic terminators. One of the systems uses the phage T7 RNA-polymerase to drive metagenomic gene expression, while the other approach uses the lambda phage transcription anti-termination protein N to limit transcription termination. A metagenomic library was constructed and functionally screened to identify genes conferring carbenicillin resistance to E. coli. The use of these enhanced expression systems resulted in a 6-fold increase in the frequency of carbenicillin resistant clones. Subcloning and sequence analysis showed that, besides β-lactamases, efflux pumps are not only able contribute to carbenicillin resistance but may in fact be sufficient by themselves to convey carbenicillin resistance.

  14. Increased autophagy in fibroblast-like synoviocytes leads to immune enhancement potential in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ru; Zhang, Yingzi; Wang, Lin; Hu, Ji; Wen, Jian; Xue, Leixi; Tang, Mei; Liu, Zhichun; Fu, Jinxiang

    2017-02-28

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been reported to be correlated with a disorder of immunregulation. Rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLSs) play an important role in regulating the local immune microenvironment. However, the potential mechanism of RA-FLS in regulating the immnue response is not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of HIF-1α was significantly up-regulated in rheumatoid arthritis tissue which indicated that the hypoxia condition in the microenvironment. We also observed that RA-FLSs demonstrated the potential to up-regulate immune activation. Meanwhile, the level of autophagy increased in RA-FLSs compared with control group. Besides that, the expression of IL-6 was up-regulated not only in RA-FLSs but also in the fibroblasts that treated with hypoxia condition. Accordingly, we found that autophagy inhibitiors could effectively inhibit the immune activation function of RA-FLSs medicated by IL-6. Taken together, the results we demonstrated above indicated that the hypoxia microenvironment could effectively induce the incidence of autophagy and then lead to the immune activation function of RA-FLSs medicated by IL-6.

  15. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Two decades of warming increases diversity of a potentially lignolytic bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pold, Grace; Melillo, Jerry M; DeAngelis, Kristen M

    2015-01-01

    As Earth's climate warms, the massive stores of carbon found in soil are predicted to become depleted, and leave behind a smaller carbon pool that is less accessible to microbes. At a long-term forest soil-warming experiment in central Massachusetts, soil respiration and bacterial diversity have increased, while fungal biomass and microbially-accessible soil carbon have decreased. Here, we evaluate how warming has affected the microbial community's capability to degrade chemically-complex soil carbon using lignin-amended BioSep beads. We profiled the bacterial and fungal communities using PCR-based methods and completed extracellular enzyme assays as a proxy for potential community function. We found that lignin-amended beads selected for a distinct community containing bacterial taxa closely related to known lignin degraders, as well as members of many genera not previously noted as capable of degrading lignin. Warming tended to drive bacterial community structure more strongly in the lignin beads, while the effect on the fungal community was limited to unamended beads. Of those bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) enriched by the warming treatment, many were enriched uniquely on lignin-amended beads. These taxa may be contributing to enhanced soil respiration under warming despite reduced readily available C availability. In aggregate, these results suggest that there is genetic potential for chemically complex soil carbon degradation that may lead to extended elevated soil respiration with long-term warming.

  17. [A significant increase in intraoperative flash visual evoked potential amplitude during craniopharyngioma surgery-case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Fujiwara, Satoru; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-04-01

    The flash visual evoked potential (VEP) is a useful diagnostic modality for visual preservation during surgery. Decreased VEP amplitude is recognized to indicate visual deterioration;however, whether intraoperative VEP can detect visual improvement remains unclear. We describe a craniopharyngioma case with a significant increase in VEP amplitude during surgery. A 67-year-old woman presented with progressive gait disturbance and impaired consciousness. Head magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a sellar-suprasellar tumor compressing the optic chiasm upward with significant ventricular dilation. Her Glasgow Coma Scale was E3V3M5. Visual fields and acuity could not be examined because of impaired consciousness, and she could not see/recognize objects on a table. Preoperative VEP showed reproducible waveforms. Tumor removal by the extended transsphenoidal approach was performed with VEP monitoring. Increased VEP amplitude was observed after dural incision and persisted until the surgery ended. Postoperative VEP waveforms were also reproducible, but visual fields/acuity could not be examined because of cognitive dysfunction. Useful visual function was restored, and she became independent in daily life. The histological diagnosis was craniopharyngioma. The patient underwent ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for hydrocephalus 16 days after tumor removal. The postoperative course was uneventful and she was transferred to another hospital for rehabilitation. Intraoperative VEP may indicate visual improvement during surgery, which is a useful objective assessment for visual function in patients with impaired consciousness and cognitive dysfunction.

  18. Global potential to increase crop production through water management in rainfed agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rost, Stefanie; Gerten, Dieter; Hoff, Holger; Lucht, Wolfgang [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Research Domain of Climate Impacts and Vulnerabilities, Telegraphenberg A62, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Falkenmark, Malin [Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Rockstroem, Johan, E-mail: gerten@pik-potsdam.d [Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Kraeftriket 2B, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    This modeling study explores-spatially explicitly, for current and projected future climate, and for different management intensity levels-the potential for increasing global crop production through on-farm water management strategies: (a) reducing soil evaporation ('vapor shift') and (b) collecting runoff on cropland and using it during dry spells ('runoff harvesting'). A moderate scenario, implying both a 25% reduction in evaporation and a 25% collection of runoff, suggests that global crop production can be increased by 19%, which is comparable with the effect of current irrigation (17%). Climate change alone (three climate models, SRES A2r emissions and population, constant land use) will reduce global crop production by 9% by 2050, which could be buffered by a vapor shift level of 50% or a water harvesting level of 25%. Even if realization of the beneficial effects of rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration upon plants was ensured (by fertilizer use) in tandem with the above moderate water management scenario, the water available on current cropland will not meet the requirements of a world population of 9-10 billion.

  19. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, John B.; Jensen, Nicholas R.; Domke, Grant M.; D’Amato, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior National Forest, in northern Minnesota. Forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to characterize current forest age structure and quantify the relationship between age and carbon stocks for eight forest types. Using these findings, we simulated the impact of alternative management scenarios and natural disturbance rates on forest-wide terrestrial carbon stocks over a 100-year horizon. Under low natural mortality, forest-wide total ecosystem carbon stocks increased when 0% or 40% of planned harvests were implemented; however, the majority of forest-wide carbon stocks decreased with greater harvest levels and elevated disturbance rates. Our results suggest that natural disturbance has the potential to exert stronger influence on forest carbon stocks than timber harvesting activities and that maintaining carbon stocks over the long-term may prove difficult if disturbance frequency increases in response to climate change.

  20. Potential therapeutic significance of increased expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in human gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TieLi Peng; Jie Chen; Wei Mao; Xin Liu; Yu Tao; Lian-Zhou Chen; Min-Hu Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the functional significance of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in gastric carcinogenesis, and to explore the possible role of AhR in gastric cancer (GC) treatment. METHODS: RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and Western blotting were performed to detect AhR expression in 39 GC tissues and five GC cell lines. AhR protein was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 190 samples: 30 chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), 30 chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 30 intestinal metaplasia (IM), 30 atypical hyperplasia (AH), and 70 GC. The AhR agonist tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) was used to treat AGS cells. MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis were performed to measure the viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of AGS cells. RESULTS: AhR expression was significantly increased in GC tissues and GC cell lines. IHC results indicated that the levels of AhR expression gradually increased, with the lowest levels in CSG, followed by CAG, IM, AH and GC. AhR expression and nuclear translocation were significantly higher in GC than in precancerous tissues. TCDD inhibited proliferation of AGS cells via induction of growth arrest at the G1-S phase. CONCLUSION: AhR plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. AhR may be a potential therapeutic target for GC treatment.

  1. The potential role of omega-3 fatty acids supplements in increasing athletic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Șerban GLIGOR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the body itself and therefore must be provided through nutrition. Omega-6 and particularly omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in the organism, contributing to the maintenance and promotion of health. The optimal proportion of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is 2:1, or even better 1:1. They are involved in normal growth and development, play a role in the prevention of coronary and cardiovascular diseases, of diabetes mellitus, of arterial hypertension, arthritis and cancer. Omega-3 fatty acids mainly have an anti-inflammatory effect, but also act as hypolipidemic and antithrombotic agents. A potential role of omega-3 fatty acids is that of increasing physical performance. Their role in the physical activity refers on one side to the global health of athletes and on the other side to their anti-inflammatory effect, as high intensity physical exercise induces increased free-radical production and microtraumas, with the induction of an inflammatory status. The anti-inflammatory effect of these fatty acids manifests through an increased production of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, through decreasing the production of prostaglandins metabolites, decreasing the production of leukotriene B4, etc. They are also effective on reducing muscle pain post eccentric exercise and on decreasing the severity of bronchoconstriction induced by exercise, as well as improving pulmonary function variables. In conclusion it seems that supplementing diets with omega-3 fatty acids, apart from having benefic effects on health and on the prevention and management of certain affections, proves to be a beneficial for physical activity and athletic performance.

  2. Increased serum G72 protein levels in patients with schizophrenia: a potential candidate biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Esra Soydaş; Albayrak, Yakup; Aksoy, Nurkan; Şahin, Başak; Beyazyüz, Murat; Kuloğlu, Murat; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    The product of the G72 gene is an activator of d-amino acid oxidase and has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Increased G72 protein levels may be associated with disturbed glutamatergic transmission and increased reactive oxygen species. Only one pilot study by Lin et al. has investigated the potential role of serum G72 protein levels as a biomarker for schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to compare serum G72 protein levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and to retest the results of the previous pilot study. Materials and methods In total, 107 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and 60 age-sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The groups were compared regarding serum G72 protein levels. The mean serum G72 protein values were 495.90±152.03 pg/ml in the schizophrenia group and 346.10±102.08 pg/ml in the healthy control group. The mean serum G72 protein level was significantly increased in the schizophrenia group compared with the healthy control group (t=-3.89, pschizophrenia and healthy control groups. It was determined that the cut-off value was 141.51 pg/ml with a sensitivity of 0.991 and a specificity of 0.821. We suggest that serum G72 protein levels may represent a candidate biomarker for schizophrenia and have confirmed the results of the previous preliminary study. Additional studies with larger sample sizes and the inclusion of first episode schizophrenia patients are required to clarify the reliability and validity of serum G72 protein levels as a biomarker for schizophrenia.

  3. Increased Public Accountability for Hospital Nonprofit Status: Potential Impacts on Residency Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffoul, Melanie C; Phillips, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently called for greater graduate medical education (GME) accountability for meeting the workforce needs of the nation. The Affordable Care Act expanded community health needs assessment (CHNA) requirements for nonprofit and tax-exempt hospitals to include community assessment, intervention, and evaluation every 3 years but did not specify details about workforce. Texas receives relatively little federal GME funding but has used Medicaid waivers to support GME expansion. The objective of this article was to examine Texas CHNAs and regional health partnership (RHP) plans to determine to what extent they identify community workforce need or include targeted GME changes or expansion since the enactment of the Affordable Care Act and the revised Internal Revenue Service requirements for CHNAs. Texas hospitals (n = 61) received federal GME dollars during the study period. Most of these hospitals completed a CHNA; nearly all hospitals receiving federal GME dollars but not mandated to complete a CHNA participated in similar state-based RHP plans. The 20 RHPs included assessments and intervention proposals under a 1115 Medicaid waiver. Every CHNA and RHP was reviewed for any mention of GME-related needs or interventions. The latest available CHNAs and RHPs were reviewed in 2015. All CHNA and RHP plans were dated 2011 to 2015. Of the 38 hospital CHNAs, 26 identified a workforce need in primary care, 34 in mental health, and 17 in subspecialty care. A total of 36 CHNAs included implementation plans, of which 3 planned to address the primary care workforce need through an increase in GME funding, 1 planned to do so for psychiatry training, and 1 for subspecialty training. Of the 20 RHPs, 18 identified workforce needs in primary care, 20 in mental health, and 15 in subspecialty training. Five RHPs proposed to increase GME funding for primary care, 3 for psychiatry, and 1 for subspecialty care. Hospital CHNAs and other regional health assessments

  4. Potential confounding in the association between short birth intervals and increased neonatal, infant, and child mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Perin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent steep declines in child mortality have been attributed in part to increased use of contraceptives and the resulting change in fertility behaviour, including an increase in the time between births. Previous observational studies have documented strong associations between short birth spacing and an increase in the risk of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality, compared to births with longer preceding birth intervals. In this analysis, we compare two methods to estimate the association between short birth intervals and mortality risk to better inform modelling efforts linking family planning and mortality in children. Objectives: Our goal was to estimate the mortality risk for neonates, infants, and young children by preceding birth space using household survey data, controlling for mother-level factors and to compare the results to those from previous analyses with survey data. Design: We assessed the potential for confounding when estimating the relative mortality risk by preceding birth interval and estimated mortality risk by birth interval in four categories: less than 18 months, 18–23 months, 24–35 months, and 36 months or longer. We estimated the relative risks among women who were 35 and older at the time of the survey with two methods: in a Cox proportional hazards regression adjusting for potential confounders and also by stratifying Cox regression by mother, to control for all factors that remain constant over a woman's childbearing years. We estimated the overall effects for birth spacing in a meta-analysis with random survey effects. Results: We identified several factors known for their associations with neonatal, infant, and child mortality that are also associated with preceding birth interval. When estimating the effect of birth spacing on mortality, we found that regression adjustment for these factors does not substantially change the risk ratio for short birth intervals compared to an unadjusted

  5. The potential of agricultural practices to increase C storage in cropped soils: an assessment for France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Claire; Angers, Denis; Métay, Aurélie; Colnenne, Caroline; Klumpp, Katja; Bamière, Laure; Pardon, Lenaic; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Though large progress has been achieved in the last decades, net GHG emissions from the agricultural sector are still more poorly quantified than in other sectors. In this study, we examined i) technical mitigation options likely to store carbon in agricultural soils, ii) their potential of additional C storage per unit surface area and iii) applicable areas in mainland France. We considered only agricultural practices being technically feasible by farmers and involving no major change in either production systems or production levels. Moreover, only currently available techniques with validated efficiencies and presenting no major negative environmental impacts were taken into account. Four measures were expected to store additional C in agricultural soils: - Reducing tillage: either a switch to continuous direct seeding, direct seeding with occasional tillage once every five years, or continuous superficial (20yrs) C storage rates (MgC ha-1 y-1,) of cropping systems with and without the proposed practice. Then we analysed the conditions for potential application, in terms of feasibility, acceptance, limitation of yield losses and of other GHG emissions. According to the literature, additional C storage rates were 0.15 (0-0.3) MgC ha-1 y-1 for continuous direct seeding, 0.10 (0-0.2) MgC ha-1 y-1for occasional tillage one year in five, and 0.0 MgC ha-1 y-1 for superficial tillage. Cover crops were estimated to store 0.24 (0.13-0.37) MgC ha-1 y-1 between cash crops and 0.49 (0.23-0.72) MgC ha-1 y-1 when associated with vineyards. Hedges (i.e 60 m ha-1) stored 0.15 (0.05-0.26) Mg C ha-1 y-1. Very few estimates were available for temperate agroforestry system, and we proposed a value of 1.01 (0.11-1.36) Mg C ha-1 y-1for C stored in soil and in the tree biomass for systems comprising 30-50 trees ha-1. Increasing the life time of temporary sown grassland increased C stocls by 0.11 (0.07-0.22) Mg C ha-1 y-1. In general, practices with increased C inputs to soil through

  6. Increase of Exports as a Potential Factor for Sustainable Economic Development of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Myrvete Badivuku - Pantina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo as the newest state in the region, in the economic aspect represents an economic complex with considerable potential of human, economic and demographic resources, having an open economy and entirely Euro integrated, with the central position in Balkan Peninsula. As a new state Kosovo is going through a transition phase and is found in an unsatisfactory position, therefore a serious professional intervention by the competent mechanisms is necessary towards finding an adequate solution which enables a speedier economic, social and cultural development, thus accessing into economic and political integrations in the region and in Europe. Kosovo economy during 2012 was characterised by a positive norm of growth. The real norm of economic growth in the country reached the figure of 2.9 per cent. The slowest developments in the regional and European markets during this year appeared as a challenge for the general economic activity in the country. In 2012, a decrease was marked from several important sources of financing in the country, especially the foreign direct investments. A reduction was also characterised in export of goods, but, growth of export of the services neutralised the effect of decrease of goods export. Kosovo suffers from the negative trade balance, implying that Kosovo depends on imports, whereas its opportunities to export local products into foreign market are very low. With intention of improving the competitive position of Kosovar enterprises, and for increasing export into world market, the existing economic policies need to be amended and supplemented and the institutional functioning needs to be improved as well. The aim of this study is to provide a realistic overview of the economic situation of Kosovo through an overall analysis and to also give recommendations with intention of improving the trade balance in favour of increase of Kosovar export in the future.

  7. The effect of increased intracranial pressure on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in superior canal dehiscence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janky, Kristen L; Zuniga, M Geraldine; Schubert, Michael C; Carey, John P

    2015-04-01

    To determine if vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses change during inversion in patients with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) compared to controls. Sixteen subjects with SCDS (mean: 43, range 30-57 years) and 15 age-matched, healthy subjects (mean: 41, range 22-57 years) completed cervical VEMP (cVEMP) in response to air conduction click stimuli and ocular VEMP (oVEMP) in response to air conduction 500 Hz tone burst stimuli and midline tap stimulation. All VEMP testing was completed in semi-recumbent and inverted conditions. SCDS ears demonstrated significantly larger oVEMP peak-to-peak amplitudes in comparison to normal ears in semi-recumbency. While corrected cVEMP peak-to-peak amplitudes were larger in SCDS ears; this did not reach significance in our sample. Overall, there was not a differential change in o- or cVEMP amplitude with inversion between SCDS and normal subjects. Postural-induced changes in o- and cVEMP responses were measured in the steady state regardless of whether the labyrinth was intact or dehiscent. VEMP responses are blunted during inversion. Although steady-state measurements of VEMPs during inversion do not increase diagnostic accuracy for SCDS, the findings suggest that inversion may provide more general insights into the equilibration of pressures between intracranial and intralabyrinthine fluids. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low phytic acid lentils (Lens culinaris L.): a potential solution for increased micronutrient bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Thavarajah, Dil; Vandenberg, Albert

    2009-10-14

    Phytic acid is an antinutrient present mainly in seeds of grain crops such as legumes and cereals. It has the potential to bind mineral micronutrients in food and reduce their bioavailability. This study analyzed the phytic acid concentration in seeds of 19 lentil ( Lens culinaris L.) genotypes grown at two locations for two years in Saskatchewan, Canada. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the levels of phytic acid in commercial lentil genotypes and (2) the impact of postharvest processing and (3) the effect of boiling on the stability of phytic aid in selected lentil genotypes. The phytic acid was analyzed by high-performance anion exchange separation followed by conductivity detection. The Saskatchewan-grown lentils were naturally low in phytic acid (phytic acid = 2.5-4.4 mg g(-1); phytic acid phosphorus = 0.7-1.2 mg g(-1)), with concentrations lower than those reported for low phytic acid mutants of corn, wheat, common bean, and soybean. Decortication prior to cooking further reduced total phytic acid by >50%. As lowering phytic acid intake can lead to increased mineral bioavailability, dietary inclusion of Canadian lentils may have significant benefits in regions with widespread micronutrient malnutrition.

  9. Short-term food deprivation increases amplitudes of heartbeat-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, André; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Dierolf, Angelika M; Lutz, Annika; van Dyck, Zoé; Vögele, Claus; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional state (i.e., fasting or nonfasting) may affect the processing of interoceptive signals, but mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. We investigated 16 healthy women on two separate days: when satiated (standardized food intake) and after an 18-h food deprivation period. On both days, heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs) and cardiac and autonomic nervous system activation indices (heart rate, normalized low frequency heart rate variability [nLF HRV]) were assessed. The HEP is an EEG pattern that is considered an index of cortical representation of afferent cardiovascular signals. Average HEP activity (R wave +455-595 ms) was enhanced during food deprivation compared to normal food intake. Cardiac activation did not differ between nutritional conditions. Our results indicate that short-term food deprivation amplifies an electrophysiological correlate of the cortical representation of visceral-afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system. This effect could not be attributed to increased cardiac activation, as estimated by heart rate and nLF HRV, after food deprivation. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Potential To Increase Productivity And Sustainability In Argentinean Agriculture With Controlled Traffic Farming: A Short Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antille Diogenes L.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drivers for and potential barriers against adoption of controlled traffic farming (CTF systems in Argentina are reviewed. Traffic compaction is one of the main factors affecting crop productivity within Argentinean agriculture, and has significant although less quantified impacts on the whole-of-farm system. This suggests that the benefits of no-tillage (NT, which represents the dominant form of cropping in Argentina, are not fully realised. Conservative estimates indicate that crop yields could be improved by at least 15% if NT is used in conjunction with CTF. Cost-benefit analyses of available options for compaction management are required. Despite this, and based on reported evidence internationally, a shift toward increased uptake of CTF within Argentinean agriculture is likely to: (1 improve productivity and farm profitability, (2 enhance environmental performance, and (3 maintain competitiveness of the agricultural sector. Appropriate technical advice and support is a key requirement to drive adoption of CTF. Therefore, the adoption process will benefit from collaboration developed with well-established research and extension organisations in Australia and the United Kingdom, and active engagement of machinery manufacturers.

  11. Reclamation of coppice forests in order to increase the potential of woody biomass in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelanovic, I.; Krstic, M.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass makes 63% of the total renewable energy potential of Serbia. Here, the biomass from forests together with wood processing industry waste represent the second most important renewable source for energy production. The Action Plan for Biomass of Serbia (2010) shows that the technically exploitable biomass in the Republic of Serbia amounts annually 2.7 Mtoe. Here, the woody biomass (fuelwood, forest residue, wood processing industry residue, wood from trees outside the forest) accounts for 1.0 Mtoe while the rest originates from agricultural sources. According to the national forest inventory (2008), forest cover in Serbia accounts for 29% of the country area, having standing volume of 362.5 mil. m3 and annual increment of 9.1 mil. m3. More than half is state-owned and the rest 47% is in the private ownership. Coppice forests dominate in the forest stock (65%). According to Glavonjić (2010), northeastern and southwestern Serbia are the regions with greatest spatial forest distribution. The general forest condition is characterised by insufficient production volume, unsatisfactory stock density and forest cover, high percentage of degraded forests, unfavorable age structure, unfavorable health condition and weeded areas. Herewith, the basic measures for the improvement of forest fund (Forestry Development Strategy for Serbia, 2006) represent conversion of coppice forests, increase of forest cover and productivity of forest ecosystems by the ecologically, economically and socially acceptable methods. The actions include reclamation of degraded forests, re- and afforestation activities on abandoned agricultural, degraded and other treeless lands. The average standing volume of high forests is 254 m3·ha-1 with an annual increment of 5.5 m3·ha-1. On the contrary, coppice forests dispose 124 m3·ha-1 of standing volume, having an annual increment of 3.1 m3·ha-1. Here, estimated losses from coppice forests amount up to 3.5 mil. m3 wood annually. These data

  12. Investigation of wild species potential to increase genetic diversity useful for apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of testing new apple cultivars and the possibility to induce valuable traits is directly dependent on the availability of sufficient genetic diversity, while apple breeding has narrowed the genetic ground of commercial cultivars. Wild species were studied in regard to their influence upon progenies and their capacity to enlarge apple genetic diversity. The interspecific seedlings were framed in five biparental mating (paired crosses, in which Malus species were crossed with different cultivars, obtaining half-sib families. The number of F1 progenies per combination varied from 31 (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda up to 142 (Reinette Baumann × M. floribunda, with a total of 1650 hybrids F1. The influences upon vigour and juvenile period and possible correlation among fruit size and taste were analyzed. Juvenile period varied from 6.00 (M. zumi × Jonathan to 9.31 years (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda. Data based on correlation coefficient illustrated that the fructification year was not influenced by the vigour of trees. The highest value of correlation for fruit’s size and taste was obtained among M. coronaria hybrids. This result might suggest that once the fruit are larger, there is a high chance the taste is also more appreciative and fruit quality for mouth feels increase. Depending on the parental formula, additive effects may be inferior compared to genetic effects of dominance and epistasis. Although M. zumi and M. floribunda achieved the same genetic gain (0.31, M. zumi had a higher expected selection response for fruit size. The difficulty of obtaining seedlings with tasty and large fruit when wild Malus species are used as genitors is resulting from the values of expected selection response data, but in the same time results confirm that wild Malus species are suitable resources for genetic variability, both for dessert and ornamental apple cultivars.

  13. Increased amino acid supply potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion but does not increase β-cell mass in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhia, Monika M; Maliszewski, Anne M; O'Meara, Meghan C; Thorn, Stephanie R; Lavezzi, Jinny R; Limesand, Sean W; Hay, William W; Brown, Laura D; Rozance, Paul J

    2013-02-15

    Amino acids and glucose acutely stimulate fetal insulin secretion. In isolated adult pancreatic islets, amino acids potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but whether amino acids have this same effect in the fetus is unknown. Therefore, we tested the effects of increased fetal amino acid supply on GSIS and morphology of the pancreas. We hypothesized that increasing fetal amino acid supply would potentiate GSIS. Singleton fetal sheep received a direct intravenous infusion of an amino acid mixture (AA) or saline (CON) for 10-14 days during late gestation to target a 25-50% increase in fetal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). Early-phase GSIS increased 150% in the AA group (P < 0.01), and this difference was sustained for the duration of the hyperglycemic clamp (105 min) (P < 0.05). Glucose-potentiated arginine-stimulated insulin secretion (ASIS), pancreatic insulin content, and pancreatic glucagon content were similar between groups. β-Cell mass and area were unchanged between groups. Baseline and arginine-stimulated glucagon concentrations were increased in the AA group (P < 0.05). Pancreatic α-cell mass and area were unchanged. Fetal and pancreatic weights were similar. We conclude that a sustained increase of amino acid supply to the normally growing late-gestation fetus potentiated fetal GSIS but did not affect the morphology or insulin content of the pancreas. We speculate that increased β-cell responsiveness (insulin secretion) following increased amino acid supply may be due to increased generation of secondary messengers in the β-cell. This may be enhanced by the paracrine action of glucagon on the β-cell.

  14. Releasing Creativity in Teaching and Learning: The Potential Role of Organisational Legitimacy and Increased Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverell, Andrea; Moore, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects on the challenges of facilitating creativity in teaching and learning. The authors contend that if enabled, creativity has the potential to deliver substantive change to higher education but that its potential often remains unexploited. Our study suggests that creative practice is alive and well amongst teachers in higher…

  15. Increasing the Performance of a Sliding Discharge Actuator Through the Application of Multiple Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    0.5 mm burn through holes or shattering , when exposed to large applied potentials. The author also believes that there were large fluctuations in the...potential fluctuations to level out. Application of potentials in excess of 17 kV without a warm up period resulted in the shattering of the dielectric...suction cone can be seen as an outline. 118 Case 3: 9-6-0 Figure B.31: Case 3: U vs Height Figure B.32: Case 3: Discharge Plume 119 (a) Velocity Contours

  16. Increasing access to modern contraceptives: the potential role of community solidarity through altruistic contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwujekwe Obinna E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need for universal access to modern contraceptives in Nigeria, to facilitate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and other national goals. This study provides information on the potential role of community solidarity in increasing access to contraceptives for the most-poor people through exploration of the role of altruism by determining level of altruistic willingness to pay (WTP for modern contraceptives across different geographic contexts in Nigeria. Methods It was a cross-sectional national survey which took place in six states spread across the six-geopolitical zones of the country. In each state, an urban and a rural area were selected for the study, giving a total of 6 urban and 6 rural sites. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from at least 720 randomly selected householders from each state. The targeted respondent in a household was a female primary care giver of child bearing age (usually the wives, or in her absence, another female household member of child bearing age. A scenario on altruistic WTP was presented before the value was elicited using a binary with open-ended follow-up question format. Test of validity of elicited altruistic WTP was undertaken using Tobit regression. Findings More than 50 % of the respondents across all the states were willing to contribute some money so that the very poor would be provided with modern contraceptives. The average amount of money that people were willing to contribute annually was 650 Naira (US$4.5. Mean altruistic WTP differed across SES quintiles and urban-rural divide (p  Conclusion There is room for community solidarity to ensure that the very poor benefit from modern contraceptives and assure universal coverage with modern contraceptives. The factors that determine altruistic WTP should be harnessed to ensure that altruistic contributions are actually made. The challenge will

  17. Increased fatty acid synthase as a potential therapeutic target in multiple myeloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-qin WANG; Xiao-ying ZHAO; Hai-yan WANG; Yun LIANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression in human multiple myeloma and verify its potential as a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma. Methods: FAS expression was determined by immunohistochemistry, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot analysis in bone marrow samples obtained from 27 patients with multiple myeloma (MM patients) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 12 healthy donors. In parallel, additional analyses were performed on 2 human multiple myeloma cell lines, U266 and RPMI8226. U266 cells were treated with cerulenin at various concentrations (5 to 320μg/ml) for 24 h, and metabolic activity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Apoptosis was evaluated by dual Annexin V/PI (propidium iodide) labeling and flow cytometry (FCM) in U266 cells treated with 20μg/ml cerulenin for 12 h or 24 h. Results: By immunohistochemistry, we found that 19 of 27 bone marrow samples obtained from MM patients expressed significantly high levels of FAS. Similarly, by RT-PCR, 22 of 27 bone marrow samples obtained from MM patients, U266 and RPMI8226 showed FAS expression, whereas PBMC samples from 12 healthy donors did not express detectable level of FAS. FAS protein expression was confirmed by immunoblot analysis in 16 of 27 bone marrow samples obtained from MM patients, U266 and RPMI8226 cell lines, and no FAS protein expression was detected in PBMC samples from 12 healthy donors. U266 cells were highly sensitive to cerulenin treatment, with a dosage-related effect on metabolic activity, as a measure for cell proliferation. U266 cells treated with20 μg/ml cerulenin for 12 and 24h also showed early sign of apoptosis with 56.9% and 69.3% Annexin V+/PI+ cells, and late apoptotic and necrotic cells with 3.2% and 17.6% Annexin V+/PI+ cells. Conclusion: Increased FAS expression existed in multiple myeloma samples and human myeloma cell lines

  18. Potentiation Increases Peak Twitch Torque by Enhancing Rates of Torque Development and Relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando Gabe; Jensen, Jørgen; Noakes, Timothy David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the extent to which potentiation changes in response to an isometric maximal voluntary contraction. Eleven physically active subjects participated in two separate studies. Single stimulus of electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure torque at rest in unpotentiated quadriceps muscles (study 1 and 2), and potentiated quadriceps muscles torque in a 10 min period after a 5 s isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps muscle...

  19. High glucose-induced oxidative stress increases transient receptor potential channel expression in human monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wuensch, Tilo; Thilo, Florian; Krueger, Katharina;

    2010-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel-induced cation influx activates human monocytes, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of high glucose-induced oxidative stress on TRP channel expression in human monocytes....

  20. Potentially increased sensitivity of pregnant and lactating female rats to immunotoxic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, A.; Wolterbeek, A.; Snel, C.; Bruijntjes, J.; Groot, D.D.; Oostrum, L.V.; Waalkens, I.; Kuper, C.F.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristic susceptibility to environmental and pharmaceutical exposure may occur during periods in life of marked histophysiological changes of the immune system. Perinatal development is such a period; pregnancy followed by lactation is potentially another one. Here, we explored the influence o

  1. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 was enacted by Congress to move the nation toward increased energy independence by increasing the production of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law establishes a new renewable fuel standard (RFS) that requires the nation to use 36 billion gallons annually (2.3 million barrels per day) of renewable fuel in its vehicles by 2022. Ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the US, and its production has grown dramatically over the past decade. According to EISA and RFS, ethanol (produced from corn as well as cellulosic feedstocks) will make up the vast majority of the new renewable fuel requirements. However, ethanol use limited to E10 and E85 (in the case of flex fuel vehicles or FFVs) will not meet this target. Even if all of the E0 gasoline dispensers in the country were converted to E10, such sales would represent only about 15 billion gallons per year. If 15% ethanol, rather than 10% were used, the potential would be up to 22 billion gallons. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10, that is, gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85, a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in FFVs. Although DOE remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Given this reality, DOE and others have begun assessing the viability of using intermediate ethanol blends as one way to transition to higher volumes of ethanol. In October of 2010, the EPA granted a partial waiver to the Clean Air Act allowing the use of fuel that contains up to 15% ethanol for the model year 2007 and newer light-duty motor vehicles. This waiver represents the first of a number of actions that are needed to move toward the commercialization of E15 gasoline blends. On January 2011, this waiver was expanded to

  2. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 was enacted by Congress to move the nation toward increased energy independence by increasing the production of renewable fuels to meet its transportation energy needs. The law establishes a new renewable fuel standard (RFS) that requires the nation to use 36 billion gallons annually (2.3 million barrels per day) of renewable fuel in its vehicles by 2022. Ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the US, and its production has grown dramatically over the past decade. According to EISA and RFS, ethanol (produced from corn as well as cellulosic feedstocks) will make up the vast majority of the new renewable fuel requirements. However, ethanol use limited to E10 and E85 (in the case of flex fuel vehicles or FFVs) will not meet this target. Even if all of the E0 gasoline dispensers in the country were converted to E10, such sales would represent only about 15 billion gallons per year. If 15% ethanol, rather than 10% were used, the potential would be up to 22 billion gallons. The vast majority of ethanol used in the United States is blended with gasoline to create E10, that is, gasoline with up to 10% ethanol. The remaining ethanol is sold in the form of E85, a gasoline blend with as much as 85% ethanol that can only be used in FFVs. Although DOE remains committed to expanding the E85 infrastructure, that market will not be able to absorb projected volumes of ethanol in the near term. Given this reality, DOE and others have begun assessing the viability of using intermediate ethanol blends as one way to transition to higher volumes of ethanol. In October of 2010, the EPA granted a partial waiver to the Clean Air Act allowing the use of fuel that contains up to 15% ethanol for the model year 2007 and newer light-duty motor vehicles. This waiver represents the first of a number of actions that are needed to move toward the commercialization of E15 gasoline blends. On January 2011, this waiver was expanded to

  3. Valproic Acid Increases the Hepatic Differentiation Potential of Salivary Gland Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakova, O S; Ashapkin, V V; Shtratnikova, V Y; Kutueva, L I; Vorotelyak, E A; Borisov, M A; Terskikh, V V; Gvazava, I G; Vasiliev, A V

    2015-01-01

    The studies of cell plasticity and differentiation abilities are important problems in modern cellular biology. The use of histone deacetylase inhibitor - valproic acid is a promising approach to increasing the differentiation efficiency of various cell types. In this paper we investigate the ability of mouse submandibular salivary gland cells to differentiate into the hepatic direction and the effect of valproic acid on the efficiency of this differentiation. It was shown that the gene expression levels of hepatocyte markers (Aat, Afp, G6p, Pepck, Tat, Cyp3a13) and liver-enriched transcription factors (Hnf-3α, Hnf-3β, Hnf-4α, Hnf-6) were increased after differentiation in salivary gland cells. Valproic acid increases the specificity of hepatic differentiation, reducing the expression levels of the ductal (Krt19, Hhex1, Cyp7a1) and acinar (Ptf1a) markers. After valproic acid exposure, the efficiency of hepatic differentiation also increases, as evidenced by the increase in the gene expression level of Alb and Tdo, and increase in urea production by differentiated cells. No change was found in DNA methylation of the promoter regions of the genes; however, valproic acid treatment and subsequent hepatic differentiation largely affected the histone H3 methylation of liver-enriched genes. Thus, mouse submandibular salivary gland cells are capable of effective differentiation in the hepatic direction. Valproic acid increases the specificity and efficiency of the hepatic differentiation of these cells.

  4. Potential of gene drives with genome editing to increase genetic gain in livestock breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Serap; Jenko, Janez; Gorjanc, Gregor; Mileham, Alan J; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Hickey, John M

    2017-01-04

    This paper uses simulation to explore how gene drives can increase genetic gain in livestock breeding programs. Gene drives are naturally occurring phenomena that cause a mutation on one chromosome to copy itself onto its homologous chromosome. We simulated nine different breeding and editing scenarios with a common overall structure. Each scenario began with 21 generations of selection, followed by 20 generations of selection based on true breeding values where the breeder used selection alone, selection in combination with genome editing, or selection with genome editing and gene drives. In the scenarios that used gene drives, we varied the probability of successfully incorporating the gene drive. For each scenario, we evaluated genetic gain, genetic variance [Formula: see text], rate of change in inbreeding ([Formula: see text]), number of distinct quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) edited, rate of increase in favourable allele frequencies of edited QTN and the time to fix favourable alleles. Gene drives enhanced the benefits of genome editing in seven ways: (1) they amplified the increase in genetic gain brought about by genome editing; (2) they amplified the rate of increase in the frequency of favourable alleles and reduced the time it took to fix them; (3) they enabled more rapid targeting of QTN with lesser effect for genome editing; (4) they distributed fixed editing resources across a larger number of distinct QTN across generations; (5) they focussed editing on a smaller number of QTN within a given generation; (6) they reduced the level of inbreeding when editing a subset of the sires; and (7) they increased the efficiency of converting genetic variation into genetic gain. Genome editing in livestock breeding results in short-, medium- and long-term increases in genetic gain. The increase in genetic gain occurs because editing increases the frequency of favourable alleles in the population. Gene drives accelerate the increase in allele frequency

  5. Calculation of load increase factors for assessment of progressive collapse potential in framed steel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Ahmed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Progressive collapse of building structures is a relatively rare event. However, the consequences of progressive collapse may be catastrophic in terms of injuries and loss of lives. In addition, in many parts of the world including the United States of America, Europe, Asia, and recently, United Arab Emirates, there is a trend to build taller and more structurally complicated buildings with adventurous load paths. Therefore, structural design that takes into account the potential for progress...

  6. Priorities for realizing the potential to increase agricultural productivity and growth in Western and Central Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Nin-Pratt, Alejandro; Johnson, Michael; Magalhaes, Eduardo [UNIFESP; DIAO, Xinshen; You, Liang; Chamberlin, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    "We identify a set of development priorities for agriculture that cut across West Africa, at both the country and the regional level, to achieve economy-wide growth goals in the region. To do this, we adopt a modeling and analytical framework that involves the integration of spatial analysis to identify yield gaps determining growth potential of different agricultural activities for areas with similar conditions and an economy-wide multimarket model to simulate ex ante the economic effects of...

  7. Heterologous viral expression systems in fosmid vectors increase the functional analysis potential of metagenomic libraries

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinary potential of metagenomic functional analyses to identify activities of interest present in uncultured microorganisms has been limited by reduced gene expression in surrogate hosts. We have developed vectors and specialized E. coli strains as improved metagenomic DNA heterologous expression systems, taking advantage of viral components that prevent transcription termination at metagenomic terminators. One of the systems uses the phage T7 RNA-polymerase to drive metagenomic ge...

  8. Improved Criteria for Increasing CO2 Storage Potential with CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, J.; Pawar, R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years it has been found that deployment of CO2 capture and storage technology at large scales will be difficult without significant incentives. One of the technologies that has been a focus in recent years is CO2 enhanced oil/gas recovery, where additional hydrocarbon recovery provides an economic incentive for deployment. The way CO2 EOR is currently deployed, maximization of additional oil production does not necessarily lead to maximization of stored CO2, though significant amounts of CO2 are stored regardless of the objective. To determine the potential of large-scale CO2 storage through CO2 EOR, it is necessary to determine the feasibility of deploying this technology over a wide range of oil/gas field characteristics. In addition it is also necessary to accurately estimate the ultimate CO2 storage potential and develop approaches that optimize oil recovery along with long-term CO2 storage. This study uses compositional reservoir simulations to further develop technical screening criteria that not only improve oil recovery, but maximize CO2 storage during enhanced oil recovery operations. Minimum miscibility pressure, maximum oil/ CO2 contact without the need of significant waterflooding, and CO2 breakthrough prevention are a few key parameters specific to the technical aspects of CO2 enhanced oil recovery that maximize CO2 storage. We have developed reduced order models based on simulation results to determine the ultimate oil recovery and CO2 storage potential in these formations. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate a methodology that can be used to determine feasibility and long-term CO2 storage potential of CO2 EOR technology.

  9. WASmith The genetic potential of dairy cows has increased to such ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carbohydrates) may allow increased energy consumption .... supplemented diets for dairy cows should be 0,8 to 1,0% of diet DM and that the Ca should originate from more rumen- soluble calcium sources like calcium chloride (palmquist.

  10. Increased rhythmicity in hypertensive arterial smooth muscle is linked to transient receptor potential canonical channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Dachun; Ma, Shuangtao

    2010-01-01

    Vasomotion describes oscillations of arterial vascular tone due to synchronized changes of intracellular calcium concentrations. Since increased calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) has been associated with variances of transient receptor...

  11. Various emetogens increase the secretion of salivary amylase in rats: a potential model in emesis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hideo; Miwa, Eri; Iwachido, Takako; Kitaura, Harumi; Furukawa, Hatsue

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of various emetic agents: cisplatin, apomorphine, lithium chloride (LiCl), rolipram, sibutramine, and the beta(3)-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist CL316243 on salivary amylase secretion in rats. We also determined the inhibitory effect of granisetron, a 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonist, on cisplatin-induced increased salivary amylase activity and the inhibitory effect of bilateral abdominal vagotomy on increases in salivary amylase activity induced by cisplatin and LiCl. Granisetron was administered 15 min before and 1 h after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin (10 - 15 mg/kg, i.v.) increased salivary amylase activity dose-dependently and induced an acute increase from 1.5 h post-treatment with 15 mg/kg. Apomorphine (1 - 3 mg/kg, s.c.), LiCl (120 mg/kg, i.p.), rolipram (3 - 10 mg/kg, p.o.), and sibutramine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) induced significant increases in salivary amylase secretion. On the other hand, CL316243 did not stimulate salivary amylase secretion. The increased amylase activity induced by cisplatin (15 mg/kg, i.v.) was inhibited significantly by granisetron (1 or 3 mg/kg x 2, i.v.) or tended to be inhibited by bilateral abdominal vagotomy, whereas an increase in amylase activity produced by LiCl was not inhibited by abdominal visceral nerve section. These results suggest that salivary amylase activity is useful as a marker for emesis in rats, a species that does not exhibit vomiting.

  12. Ocean acidification increases cadmium accumulation in marine bivalves: a potential threat to seafood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Che, Zhumei; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-21

    To date, the effects of ocean acidification on toxic metals accumulation and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown in marine bivalve species. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills, mantle and adductor muscles of three bivalve species, Mytilus edulis, Tegillarca granosa, and Meretrix meretrix, were investigated. The results obtained suggested that all species tested accumulated significantly higher Cd (p ocean acidification-induced increase in Cd accumulation may have occurred due to (i) the ocean acidification increased the concentration of Cd and the Cd(2+)/Ca(2+) in the seawater, which in turn increased the Cd influx through Ca channel; (ii) the acidified seawater may have brought about epithelia damage, resulting in easier Cd penetration; and (iii) ocean acidification hampered Cd exclusion.

  13. Increasing innovation in home energy efficiency: Monte Carlo simulation of potential improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soratana, Kullapa; Marriott, Joe [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Pittsburgh, 949 Benedum Hall, 3700 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Despite the enormous potential for savings, there is little penetration of market-based solutions in the residential energy efficiency market. We hypothesize that there is a failure in the residential efficiency improvement market: due to lack of customer knowledge and capital to invest in improvements, there is unrecovered savings. In this paper, we model a means of extracting profit from those unrecovered energy savings with a market-based residential energy services company, or RESCO. We use a Monte Carlo simulation of the cost and performance of various improvements along with a hypothetical business model to derive general information about the financial viability of these companies. Despite the large amount of energy savings potential, we find that an average contract length with residential customers needs to be nearly 35 years to recoup the cost of the improvements. However, our modeling of an installer knowledge parameter indicates that experience plays a large part in minimizing the time to profitability for each home. Large numbers of inexperienced workers driven by government investment in this area could result in the installation of improvements with long payback periods, whereas a free market might eliminate companies making poor decisions. (author)

  14. Dysfunctional immunometabolic effects of vitamin D deficiency, increased cardiometabolic risk. Potential epidemiological alert in America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Peralta, Martin; Holick, Michael F; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Árias, Erick; Arizmendi-Uribe, Efrain

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a serious public health problem worldwide that affects not only skeletal health, but also a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, there is still skepticism because of the lack of randomized, controlled trials to support association studies on the benefits of vitamin D for non-skeletal health. This review was based on articles published during the 1980-2015 obtained from the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, MEDLINE and PubMed, and focuses on recent challenges with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and how to achieve optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels from dietary sources, supplements, and sun exposure. The effect of vitamin D on epigenetic fetal programming and regulation of genes that may potentially explain why vitamin D could have such lifelong comprehensive health benefits is reviewed. Optimization of vitamin D levels in children and adults around the world has potential benefits to improve skeletal health and to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, including some types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and severe cardiovascular disorders such as atherothrombosis, neurocognitive disorders, and mortality. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Type 1 copper site synthetic model complexes with increased redox potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Tolman, William B

    2012-02-01

    Reactions of NaSCPh(3) with (R(3)tacn)Cu(OTf)(2) (R is Me, iPr; tacn is 1,4,7-triazacyclononane; OTf is CF(3)SO(3)(-)) yield blue complexes identified as ((R(3)tacn)CuSCPh(3))(OTf) on the basis of UV-vis, resonance Raman, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These complexes exhibit spectroscopic properties typical of type 1 copper sites in proteins, including diagnostic Sπ → Cu(d(x(2)-y(2))) ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions at approximately 610-630 nm and small A(||) values in EPR spectra of less than 100 × 10(-4) cm(-1). Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed redox potentials for the complexes similar to those of several low-potential type 1 copper proteins (e.g., azurin, stellacyanin) and approximately 0.5 V higher than those of previously reported model compounds. Thus, the new complexes mimic key aspects of both the structure and the function of type 1 copper sites.

  16. Oxygen restriction increases the infection potential of Listeria monocytogenes - a transcriptional analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Bo; Bergström, Anders; Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard

    Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in several food borne outbreaks as well as sporadic cases of disease during the last two decades. Increased understanding of the biology of this organism is important in the prevention of food borne listeriosis. This is highly relevant for safety...

  17. Twelve years of stover removal increases soil erosion potential without impacting yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover (non-grain aboveground biomass) in the U.S. Corn Belt is used increasingly for livestock grazing and co-feed and also is the primary feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy production. Continuous stover removal, however, could alter long-term agricultural productivity by affect...

  18. Does Obesity Increase Risk for Iron Deficiency? A Review of the Literature and the Potential Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda-Lopez, A.C.; Aeberli, I.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing obesity is a major global health concern while at the same time iron-deficiency anemia remains common worldwide. Although these two conditions represent opposite ends of the spectrum of over- and under-nutrition, they appear to be linked: overweight individuals are at higher risk of iron

  19. Does Obesity Increase Risk for Iron Deficiency? A Review of the Literature and the Potential Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda-Lopez, A.C.; Aeberli, I.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing obesity is a major global health concern while at the same time iron-deficiency anemia remains common worldwide. Although these two conditions represent opposite ends of the spectrum of over- and under-nutrition, they appear to be linked: overweight individuals are at higher risk of iron

  20. Knockout maternal adiponectin increases fetal growth in mice: potential role for trophoblast IGFBP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liping; Wattez, Jean-Sebastien; Lee, Samuel; Guo, Zhuyu; Schaack, Jerome; Hay, William W; Zita, Matteo Moretto; Parast, Mana; Shao, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal adiponectin regulates fetal growth through the endocrine system in the fetal compartment. Adiponectin knockout (Adipoq (-/-) ) mice and in vivo adenovirus-mediated reconstitution were used to study the regulatory effect of maternal adiponectin on fetal growth. Primary human trophoblast cells were treated with adiponectin and a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist or antagonist to study the underlying mechanism through which adiponectin regulates fetal growth. The body weight of fetuses from Adipoq (-/-) dams was significantly greater than that of wild-type dams at both embryonic day (E)14.5 and E18.5. Adenoviral vector-mediated maternal adiponectin reconstitution attenuated the increased fetal body weight induced by maternal adiponectin deficiency. Significantly increased blood glucose, triacylglycerol and NEFA levels were observed in Adipoq (-/-) dams, suggesting that nutrient supply contributes to maternal adiponectin-regulated fetal growth. Although fetal blood IGF-1 concentrations were comparable in fetuses from Adipoq (-/-) and wild-type dams, remarkably low levels of IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) were observed in the serum of fetuses from Adipoq (-/-) dams. IGFBP-1 was identified in the trophoblast cells of human and mouse placentas. Maternal fasting robustly increased IGFBP-1 levels in mouse placentas, while reducing fetal weight. Significantly low IGFBP-1 levels were found in placentas of Adipoq (-/-) dams. Adiponectin treatment increased IGFBP-1 levels in primary cultured human trophoblast cells, while the PPARα antagonist, MK886, abolished this stimulatory effect. These results indicate that, in addition to nutrient supply, maternal adiponectin inhibits fetal growth by increasing IGFBP-1 expression in trophoblast cells.

  1. Increased learning and brain long-term potentiation in aged mice lacking DNA polymerase μ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lucas

    Full Text Available A definitive consequence of the aging process is the progressive deterioration of higher cognitive functions. Defects in DNA repair mechanisms mostly result in accelerated aging and reduced brain function. DNA polymerase µ is a novel accessory partner for the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair pathway for double-strand breaks, and its deficiency causes reduced DNA repair. Using associative learning and long-term potentiation experiments, we demonstrate that Polµ(-/- mice, however, maintain the ability to learn at ages when wild-type mice do not. Expression and biochemical analyses suggest that brain aging is delayed in Polµ(-/- mice, being associated with a reduced error-prone DNA oxidative repair activity and a more efficient mitochondrial function. This is the first example in which the genetic ablation of a DNA-repair function results in a substantially better maintenance of learning abilities, together with fewer signs of brain aging, in old mice.

  2. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas;

    a processing advantage for salient whole-object representations relative to configurations of local elements not inducing a global form. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of age-related decline in visual abilities, and specifically, distractibility by salient global objects in visual...... search. Older participants detected target stimuli slower and less accurate than younger participants did. ERPs indicated that the general performance decline originated at multiple stages within the information-processing stream, from sensory coding to spatial allocation of attention: The P1...... in global-local asymmetries originates from early processing stages, where the dissociation of hierarchical levels is less distinct, and inhibition of the salient irrelevant global object information is less effective...

  3. Increased cloud activation potential of secondary organic aerosol for atmospheric mass loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. King

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of organic particle mass loading from 1 to ≥100 μg m−3 on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN properties of mixed organic-sulfate particles was investigated in the Harvard Environmental Chamber. Mixed particles were produced by the condensation of organic molecules onto ammonium sulfate particles during the dark ozonolysis of α-pinene. A continuous-flow mode of the chamber provided stable conditions over long time periods, allowing for signal integration and hence increased measurement precision at low organic mass loadings representative of atmospheric conditions. CCN activity was measured at eight mass loadings for 80- and 100-nm particles grown on 50-nm sulfate seeds. A two-component (organic/sulfate Köhler model, which included the particle heterogeneity arising from DMA size selection and from organic volume fraction for the selected 80- and 100-nm particles, was used to predict CCN activity. For organic mass loadings of 2.9 μg m−3 and greater, the observed activation curves were well predicted using a single set of physicochemical parameters for the organic component. For mass loadings of 1.74 μg m−3 and less, the observed CCN activity increased beyond predicted values using the same parameters, implying changed physicochemical properties of the organic component. A sensitivity analysis suggests that a drop in surface tension must be invoked to explain quantitatively the CCN observations at low SOA particle mass loadings. Other factors, such as decreased molecular weight, increased density, or increased van't Hoff factor, can contribute to the explanation but are quantitatively insufficient as the full explanation.

  4. Potential problems with increasing serving sizes on the Nutrition Facts label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Steven K; Liu, Peggy J; Ubel, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently announced that the serving sizes on the Nutrition Facts labels for many products will be increased, but the effect of these increases remains unclear. The present research examined consumers' interpretation of the meaning of serving size information (study 1) and tested whether exposing consumers to the increased serving sizes of the proposed Nutrition Facts label leads consumers to serve and purchase more food for themselves and others (studies 2-4). Study 1 (N = 101; 44.7% female) tested what consumers believe the serving sizes on Nutrition Facts labels refer to, and the majority of participants (over 78%) incorrectly believed that the serving sizes refer to how much food can or should be consumed in one sitting as part of a healthy diet. Study 2 (N = 51; 41.2% female) tested how exposure to the current versus proposed Nutrition Facts label influences the amount of food that consumers serve themselves, and studies 3 (N = 60; 46.7% female) and 4 (N = 61; 48.2% female) assessed how exposure to the current versus proposed label influences the amount of food that people serve and purchase for others. In studies 2-4, the proposed label (vs. the current label) led consumers to serve themselves 41% more cookies (study 2); serve 27% more cheese crackers to another person (study 3); and buy 43% more lasagnas for others and divide a lasagna into 22% larger slices (study 4). The results suggest that the proposed Nutrition Facts label's increased serving sizes may lead people who use this information as a reference to serve more food to themselves and others.

  5. Potential increase in floods in California's Sierra Nevada under future climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Hidalgo, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    California's mountainous topography, exposure to occasional heavily moisture-laden storm systems, and varied communities and infrastructures in low lying areas make it highly vulnerable to floods. An important question facing the state-in terms of protecting the public and formulating water management responses to climate change-is "how might future climate changes affect flood characteristics in California?" To help address this, we simulate floods on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the state's primary catchment, based on downscaled daily precipitation and temperature projections from three General Circulation Models (GCMs). These climate projections are fed into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, and the VIC-simulated streamflows and hydrologic conditions, from historical and from projected climate change runs, allow us to evaluate possible changes in annual maximum 3-day flood magnitudes and frequencies of floods. By the end of the 21st Century, all projections yield larger-than-historical floods, for both the Northern Sierra Nevada (NSN) and for the Southern Sierra Nevada (SSN). The increases in flood magnitude are statistically significant (at p rain and less as snow. Increases in antecedent winter soil moisture also play a role in some areas. Thus, a complex, as-yet unpredictable interplay of several different climatic influences threatens to cause increased flood hazards in California's complex western Sierra landscapes. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, A.; Aparicio, T.; Rodríguez, M.J.; Pérez de la Vega, M.; Caminero, C.

    2016-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing) on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta) was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7 populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines) and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines), was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08) and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions), winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m). Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall. (Author)

  7. Is it really possible to increase J{sub c} by reducing the pinning potential?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Gandini, Alberto; Mayes, Bill; Parks, Drew [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, Department of Physics, and Texas Center for Superconductivity at UH, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    We discuss an experiment on large-grain YBCO, the intent of which is to compare the effectiveness of continuous columnar pinning centres (CCPC) to that of discontinuous aligned pinning centres, in their ability to increase J{sub c}. We find that discontinuous pinning is far superior. The motivation and design of the experiment are reviewed. High-energy heavy ions were utilized to produce pinning damage of controlled morphology. The resulting increase in J{sub c} is presented as a function of the variable S{sub e}, which is closely related to the discontinuity and diameter of the damage. The dependence of J{sub c} on magnetic field, temperature, and F{sub i} (the number of ion tracks per cm{sup 2}) is presented and discussed. The dependence of H{sub irr} on S{sub e} and F{sub i}, and the temperature and fluence dependence of a J{sub c} fishtail effect, are presented. The experimental results indicate that multiple-in-line-damage (MILD), despite its discontinuities, is far more effective in increasing J{sub c} than CCPCs are.

  8. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  9. Child as change agent. The potential of children to increase healthy food purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingert, Katherine; Zachary, Drew A; Fox, Monica; Gittelsohn, Joel; Surkan, Pamela J

    2014-10-01

    Shoppers make many food choices while buying groceries. Children frequently accompany caregivers, giving them the potential to influence these choices. We aimed to understand low-income shoppers' perceptions of how children influence caregivers' purchasing decisions and how the supermarket environment could be manipulated to allow children to serve as change agents for healthy food purchasing in a primarily African-American community. We conducted thirty in-depth interviews, five follow-up interviews, one supermarket walk-through interview, and four focus groups with adult supermarket shoppers who were regular caregivers for children under age 16. We conducted one focus group with supermarket employees and one in-depth interview with a supermarket manager. Qualitative data were analyzed using iterative thematic coding and memo writing. Caregivers approached grocery shopping with efforts to save money, prevent waste and purchase healthy food for their families, but described children as promoting unplanned, unhealthy food purchases. This influence was exacerbated by the supermarket environment, which participants found to promote unhealthy options and provide limited opportunities for children to interact with healthier foods. Caregivers' suggestions for promoting healthy purchasing for shoppers with children included manipulating the placement of healthy and unhealthy foods and offering opportunities for children to taste and interact with healthy options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increasing medical students' engagement in public health: case studies illustrating the potential role of online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheringham, J; Lyon, A; Jones, A; Strobl, J; Barratt, H

    2016-09-01

    The value of e-learning in medical education is widely recognized but there is little evidence of its value in teaching medical students about public health. Such evidence is needed because medical students' engagement with public health has been low. We present three recent case studies from UK medical schools to illustrate diverse ways in which online approaches can increase medical students' engagement with learning public health. A comparative case study approach was used applying quantitative and qualitative data to examine engagement in terms of uptake/use amongst eligible students, acceptability and perceived effectiveness using an analytic framework based on Seven Principles of Effective Teaching. Across the three case studies, most (67-85%) eligible students accessed online materials, and rated them more favourably than live lectures. Students particularly valued opportunities to use e-learning flexibly in terms of time and place. Online technologies offered new ways to consolidate learning of key public health concepts. Although students found contributing to online discussions challenging, it provided opportunities for students to explore concepts in depth and enabled students that were uncomfortable speaking in face-to-face discussions to participate. E-learning can be applied in diverse ways that increase medical student engagement with public health teaching. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. GM trees with increased resistance to herbivores: trait efficiency and their potential to promote tree growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjältén, Joakim; Axelsson, E Petter

    2015-01-01

    Climate change, as well as a more intensive forestry, is expected to increase the risk of damage by pests and pathogens on trees, which can already be a severe problem in tree plantations. Recent development of biotechnology theoretically allows for resistance enhancement that could help reduce these risks but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of benefits and tradeoffs with pest resistant GM (genetically modified) trees. We synthesized the current knowledge on the effectiveness of GM forest trees with increased resistance to herbivores. There is ample evidence that induction of exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis genes reduce performance of target pests whereas upregulation of endogenous resistance traits e.g., phenolics, generates variable results. Our review identified very few studies estimating the realized benefits in tree growth of GM trees in the field. This is concerning as the realized benefit with insect resistant GM plants seems to be context-dependent and likely manifested only if herbivore pressure is sufficiently high. Future studies of secondary pest species and resistance evolution in pest to GM trees should be prioritized. But most importantly we need more long-term field tests to evaluate the benefits and risks with pest resistant GM trees.

  12. Prospective audit to evaluate the potential of the coronial system to increase solid organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twamley, Huw; Haigh, Andrew; Williment, Claire; Hudson, Cara; Whitney, Julie; Neuberger, James

    2016-07-08

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that organ donation from deceased donors referred to the Coroner/Procurator Fiscal (PF) could be increased if all followed best practice. The aim of this prospective audit was to establish how referrals affected organ donation and to develop evidence-based guidelines to ensure that organ donation can be facilitated safely without interfering in the Coroner/PF's investigative process. Prospective audit. All acute National Health Service Hospitals in the UK where deceased organ donation was considered. 1437 deceased patients who met the eligibility criteria for organ donation and were referred to Coroner/PF. Number of cases where permission for transplantation was given, number of organs where permission was refused and number of organs which might have been transplanted if all had followed best practice. Full permission for organ retrieval was given in 87% cases and partial permission in 9%. However, if full permission had been given where no autopsy was performed or restrictions seemed unjustified, up to 77 organs (22 lungs, 22 kidneys, 9 pancreases, 9 livers, 8 hearts and 7 small bowels) could have been available for transplant. Coroners/PFs and their officers show strong support for transplantation but improvement in practice could result in a small but significant increase in life-saving and life-enhancing transplants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Potential future scenarios for Australia's native biodiversity given on-going increases in human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, D A; Lada, Hania; Thomson, James R; Bakar, K Shuvo; Lake, P S; Mac Nally, Ralph

    2017-01-15

    Most natural assets, including native biodiversity (our focus), are under increasing threat from direct (loss of habitat, hunting) and indirect (climate change) human actions. Most human impacts arise from increasing human populations coupled with rises in per capita resource use. The rates of change of human actions generally outpace those to which the biota can respond or adapt. If we are to maintain native biodiversity, then we must develop ways to envisage how the biota may be affected over the next several decades to guide management and policy responses. We consider the future for Australia's native biodiversity in the context of two assumptions. First, the human population in Australia will be 40million by 2050, which has been mooted by federal government agencies. Second, greenhouse gas emissions will track the highest rates considered by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The scenarios are based on major drivers of change, which were constructed from seven key drivers of change pertinent to native biodiversity. Five scenarios deal with differing distributions of the human population driven by uncertainties in climate change and in the human responses to climate change. Other scenarios are governed largely by global change and explore different rates of resource use, unprecedented rates of technological change, capabilities and societal values. A narrative for each scenario is provided. The set of scenarios spans a wide range of possible future paths for Australia, with different implications for the future of native biodiversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Increase in action potential duration and inhibition of the delayed rectifier outward current IK by berberine in cat ventricular myocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Chapula, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. In the present work, the effects of the antiarrhythmic drug, berberine, on action potential and ionic currents of cat ventricular myocytes were studied. 2. Berberine prolonged action potential duration in cat ventricular myocytes without altering other variables of the action potential. 3. The drug at concentrations of 0.3-30 microM blocked only the delayed rectifier (IK) current with an IC50 = 4.1 microM. Berberine produced a tonic block and a phasic block that was increased with the dura...

  15. The potential for using wildflower species to increase natural habitat in contour surface mine reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, J.R.; Sabre, M.; Cairns, J. Jr. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Holl, K.D. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While non-native herbaceous species are commonly used for mine reclamation, these species have low wildlife and aesthetic value and may inhibit long-term succession. The goal of this study was to determine the suitability of wildflowers for surface mine reclamation in the Appalachian mountains. A seed mixture composed of native and naturalized wildflower species was compared to the standard revegetation mixture by testing greenhouse germination rates of all species in both mine spoils and potting soil and establishing field plots at reclamation sites in southwestern Virginia. In May 1993, two 9-m{sup 2} (97-ft{sup 2}) plots were seeded with each revegetation mixture on four slopes with different aspects. Vegetation cover and composition were recorded in all plots during the 1993 and 1994 field seasons. Wildflower species had germination rates ranging from 0-52%. In field studies, all but 2 of the 14 species of wildflowers seeded became established in study plots, while only 4 of the 8 species in the standard mixture were recorded. Cover was highly variable among plots on different aspects seeded with the same mixture. In most cases, total vegetative cover did not differ significantly between plots seeded with different mixtures. Some native and naturalized wildflower species appear to have potential for use in mine reclamation and could be included with standard revegetation mixtures in order to provide more native diversity. However, further research is necessary due to a number of factors confounding these results, including the low seeding rates used, drought conditions during the 1993 field season, and problems with regrowth of previous vegetation.

  16. Long- term manure exposure increases soil bacterial community potential for plasmid uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musovic, Sanin; Klümper, Uli; Dechesne, Arnaud;

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities derived from soils subject to different agronomic treatments were challenged with three broad host range plasmids, RP4, pIPO2tet and pRO101, via solid surface filter matings to assess their permissiveness. Approximately 1 in 10 000 soil bacterial cells could receive and main......Microbial communities derived from soils subject to different agronomic treatments were challenged with three broad host range plasmids, RP4, pIPO2tet and pRO101, via solid surface filter matings to assess their permissiveness. Approximately 1 in 10 000 soil bacterial cells could receive...... and maintain the plasmids. The community permissiveness increased up to 100% in communities derived from manured soil. While the plasmid transfer frequency was significantly influenced by both the type of plasmid and the agronomic treatment, the diversity of the transconjugal pools was purely plasmid dependent...

  17. Potential host number in cuckoo bees (Psithyrus subgen. increases toward higher elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Nicolas Pradervand

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In severe and variable conditions, specialized resource selection strategies should be less frequent because extinction risks increase for species that depend on a single and unstable resource. Psithyrus (Bombus subgenus Psithyrus are bumblebee parasites that usurp Bombus nests and display inter‐specific variation in the number of hosts they parasitize. Using a phylogenetic comparative framework, we show that Psithyrus species at higher elevations display a higher number of hosts species compared with species restricted to lower elevations. Species inhabiting high elevations also cover a larger temperature range, suggesting that species able to occur in colder conditions may benefit from recruitment from populations occurring in warmer conditions. Our results provide evidence for an ‘altitudinal niche breadth hypothesis’ in parasitic species, showing a decrease in the parasites’ specialization along the elevational gradient, and also suggesting that Rapoport’s rule might apply to Psithyrus. 

  18. Using organic matter to increase soil fertility in Burundi: potentials and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboneka, Salvator

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture production in Burundi is dominated by small scale farmers (0.5 ha/household) who have only very limited access to mineral inputs. In the past, farmers have relied on fallow practices combined with farm yard manures to maintain and improve soil fertility. However, due to the high population growth and high population density (370/km²), fallow practices are nowadays no longer feasible, animal manures cannot be produced in sufficient quantities to maintain soil productivity and food insecurity has become a quasi permanent reality. Most Burundian soils are characterized by 1:1 types of clay minerals (kaolinite) and are acidic in nature. Such soils are of very low cation exchange capacity (CEC). To compare the effect of % clays and % organic matter (% C), correlations tests have been conducted between the two parameters and the CEC. It was found that in high altitude kaolinitic and acidic soils, CEC was highly correlated to % C and less correlated to % clay, suggesting that organic matter could play an important role in improving fertility and productivity of these soils. Based on these findings, additional studies have been conducted to evaluate the fertilizer and soil amendment values of animal manures (cattle, goat, chicken), and leguminous (Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Senna simea, Senna spectabilis) and non-leguminous (Tithonia diversifolia) foliar biomass. It was observed that chicken manure significantly reduces Al3+ levels in acidic soils, while Tithonia diversifolia outperforms in nutrient releases compared to the commonly known leguminous agroforestry shrubs and trees indicated above. Although the above mentioned organic sources can contribute to the soil nutrients supply, the quantities potentially available on farm are generally small. The only solution is to supplement these organic sources with other organic sources (compost, organic household waste), chemical fertilizers and mineral amendments (lime) to achieve Integrated Soil

  19. A mechanically-induced colon cancer cell population shows increased metastatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Li, Qian; Ali, Shahjahan; Lezmi, Stephane; Chen, Hong; Pires-Alves, Melissa; Laegreid, William W; Saif, Taher A; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S

    2014-05-29

    Metastasis accounts for the majority of deaths from cancer. Although tumor microenvironment has been shown to have a significant impact on the initiation and/or promotion of metastasis, the mechanism remains elusive. We previously reported that HCT-8 colon cancer cells underwent a phenotypic transition from an adhesive epithelial type (E-cell) to a rounded dissociated type (R-cell) via soft substrate culture, which resembled the initiation of metastasis. The objective of current study was to investigate the molecular and metabolic mechanisms of the E-R transition. Global gene expressions of HCT-8 E and R cells were measured by RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq); and the results were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), anoikis resistance, enzyme activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 (ALDH3A1), and in vitro invasion assay were tested on both E and R cells. The deformability of HCT-8 E and R cells was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To study the in vivo invasiveness of two cell types, athymic nude mice were intra-splenically injected with HCT-8 E or R cells and sacrificed after 9 weeks. Incidences of tumor development and metastasis were histologically evaluated and analyzed with Fisher's exact test. Besides HCT-8, E-R transition on soft substrates was also seen in three other cancer cell lines (HCT116, SW480 colon and DU145 prostate cancer). The expression of some genes, such as ALDH3A1, TNS4, CLDN2, and AKR1B10, which are known to play important roles in cancer cell migration, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis, were increased in HCT-8 R cells. R cells also showed higher ALDH3A1 enzyme activity, higher ROS, higher anoikis resistance, and higher softness than E cells. More importantly, in vitro assay and in vivo animal models revealed that HCT-8 R cells were more invasive than E cells. Our comprehensive comparison of HCT-8 E and R cells revealed differences of molecular, phenotypical, and mechanical signatures

  20. A mechanically-induced colon cancer cell population shows increased metastatic potential

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xin

    2014-05-29

    Background: Metastasis accounts for the majority of deaths from cancer. Although tumor microenvironment has been shown to have a significant impact on the initiation and/or promotion of metastasis, the mechanism remains elusive. We previously reported that HCT-8 colon cancer cells underwent a phenotypic transition from an adhesive epithelial type (E-cell) to a rounded dissociated type (R-cell) via soft substrate culture, which resembled the initiation of metastasis. The objective of current study was to investigate the molecular and metabolic mechanisms of the E-R transition.Methods: Global gene expressions of HCT-8 E and R cells were measured by RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq); and the results were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), anoikis resistance, enzyme activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 (ALDH3A1), and in vitro invasion assay were tested on both E and R cells. The deformability of HCT-8 E and R cells was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To study the in vivo invasiveness of two cell types, athymic nude mice were intra-splenically injected with HCT-8 E or R cells and sacrificed after 9 weeks. Incidences of tumor development and metastasis were histologically evaluated and analyzed with Fisher\\'s exact test.Results: Besides HCT-8, E-R transition on soft substrates was also seen in three other cancer cell lines (HCT116, SW480 colon and DU145 prostate cancer). The expression of some genes, such as ALDH3A1, TNS4, CLDN2, and AKR1B10, which are known to play important roles in cancer cell migration, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis, were increased in HCT-8 R cells. R cells also showed higher ALDH3A1 enzyme activity, higher ROS, higher anoikis resistance, and higher softness than E cells. More importantly, in vitro assay and in vivo animal models revealed that HCT-8 R cells were more invasive than E cells.Conclusions: Our comprehensive comparison of HCT-8 E and R cells revealed differences of molecular

  1. Potential of marker selection to increase prediction accuracy of genomic selection in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yansong; Reif, Jochen C; Jiang, Yong; Wen, Zixiang; Wang, Dechun; Liu, Zhangxiong; Guo, Yong; Wei, Shuhong; Wang, Shuming; Yang, Chunming; Wang, Huicai; Yang, Chunyan; Lu, Weiguo; Xu, Ran; Zhou, Rong; Wang, Ruizhen; Sun, Zudong; Chen, Huaizhu; Zhang, Wanhai; Wu, Jian; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Luan, Xiaoyan; Fu, Yashu; Guo, Tai; Han, Tianfu; Zhang, Mengchen; Sun, Bincheng; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Weiyuan; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Yuan, Baojun; Zhou, Xinan; Han, Dezhi; Yan, Hongrui; Li, Wenbin; Qiu, Lijuan

    Genomic selection is a promising molecular breeding strategy enhancing genetic gain per unit time. The objectives of our study were to (1) explore the prediction accuracy of genomic selection for plant height and yield per plant in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], (2) discuss the relationship between prediction accuracy and numbers of markers, and (3) evaluate the effect of marker preselection based on different methods on the prediction accuracy. Our study is based on a population of 235 soybean varieties which were evaluated for plant height and yield per plant at multiple locations and genotyped by 5361 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. We applied ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction coupled with fivefold cross-validations and evaluated three strategies of marker preselection. For plant height, marker density and marker preselection procedure impacted prediction accuracy only marginally. In contrast, for grain yield, prediction accuracy based on markers selected with a haplotype block analyses-based approach increased by approximately 4 % compared with random or equidistant marker sampling. Thus, applying marker preselection based on haplotype blocks is an interesting option for a cost-efficient implementation of genomic selection for grain yield in soybean breeding.

  2. Adrenergic deficiency leads to impaired electrical conduction and increased arrhythmic potential in the embryonic mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Candice; Taylor, David G; Osuala, Kingsley; Natarajan, Anupama; Molnar, Peter J; Hickman, James; Alam, Sabikha; Moscato, Brittany; Weinshenker, David; Ebert, Steven N

    2012-07-01

    To determine if adrenergic hormones play a critical role in the functional development of the cardiac pacemaking and conduction system, we employed a mouse model where adrenergic hormone production was blocked due to targeted disruption of the dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene. Immunofluorescent histochemical evaluation of the major gap junction protein, connexin 43, revealed that its expression was substantially decreased in adrenergic-deficient (Dbh-/-) relative to adrenergic-competent (Dbh+/+ and Dbh+/-) mouse hearts at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5), whereas pacemaker and structural protein staining appeared similar. To evaluate cardiac electrical conduction in these hearts, we cultured them on microelectrode arrays (8×8, 200 μm apart). Our results show a significant slowing of atrioventricular conduction in adrenergic-deficient hearts compared to controls (31.4±6.4 vs. 15.4±1.7 ms, respectively, pheart rate and rhythm, mouse hearts from adrenergic-competent and deficient embryos were cultured ex vivo at E10.5, and heart rates were measured before and after challenge with the β-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol (0.5 μM). On average, all hearts showed increased heart rate responses following isoproterenol challenge, but a significant (phearts. These results show that adrenergic hormones may influence heart development by stimulating connexin 43 expression, facilitating atrioventricular conduction, and helping to maintain cardiac rhythm during a critical phase of embryonic development.

  3. Investigating Potential Strategies for Increasing Tourism Competiveness at the Black Sea Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Roxana Munteanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2009-2011 the tourism industry at the Black Sea shore experienced a significant downturn as a direct result of the global economic crisis and a shy growth in 2012-2013 period. In this context of difficult macroeconomic conditions and a hardly predictable number of tourists, the suppliers of tourism services need a constant revision of strategy in order to increase their competitiveness and adapt to external market conditions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that hotels managers in Mamaia resort, Romania, could adopt considering customers` expectations and hospitality industry best practices. In order to achieve this, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed considering several locations on the seaside in France, Italy, Spain and Turkey. Following this analysis, several strategies are drafted, such as: use of social media, creation of packaged deals, targeting the business segment and advertising by using the cultural and historical context of the location. Moreover, a short survey among social media users revealed some of the tourists` expectations regarding their holidays at the Romanian Black Sea shore, such as quality of accommodation facilities, personalized services and entertainment possibilities.

  4. The remineralization potential of cocoa (Theobroma cacao bean extract to increase the enamel micro hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistianingsih Sulistianingsih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Remineralization is the process of returning mineral ions into a hydroxyapatite structure characterized by mineral deposition on the enamel surface. The presence of mineral deposition would affect the micro hardness of tooth enamel. The use of fluorine as remineralization agent with side effects such as fluorosis. Cocoa bean extract contains theobromin that can be used as an alternative remineralization ingredients. The objectives was to determine micro hardness email after remineralization using cocoa bean extract as natural material and to compare with fluorine use as synthetic material. Methods: Thirty-six maxillary first premolar tooth crown was cut and planted in the epoxy resin. Teeth were then immersed in demineralization solution at pH 4 for 6 hours. The sample were divided into 2 groups, 18 for the fluorine group and the remaining group of cocoa extract. Vickers microhardness test was used before treatment, after demineralized and after remineralization. Results: Enamel microhardness value before treatment in the fluorine group average value was 376.17 VHN and the cocoa extract group was 357.33 VHN. After demineralization in fluorine group was 268,13 VHN and cocoa extract group was 235,93 VHN. After remineralization in fluorine group was 321,08 VHN and cocoa extract group was 293,86 VHN. The results of the analysis showed that the level of micro hardness email after remineralization was not significantly different in two groups (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Cocoa extract is able to increase the microhardness of enamel so it can act as a substitution for fluorine remineralization.

  5. Potential of alfacalcidol for reducing increased risk of falls and fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, J D; Schacht, E

    2009-08-01

    observed the significantly highest lumbar spine and hip BMD increases in the combined treatment group (p vitamin D and 2 in the group receiving alendronate plus alfacalidol (p back pain in the patients treated with the active combination. This trial confirms the demonstrated highly significant advantages of this combined treatment regimen used in the pilote studies. Especially in patients with severe osteoporosis this interesting combination of two substances with complete different mechanisms of action should be taken into consideration.

  6. Heat shock induces production of reactive oxygen species and increases inner mitochondrial membrane potential in winter wheat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyaeva, A V; Stepanov, A V; Lyubushkina, I V; Pobezhimova, T P; Rikhvanov, E G

    2014-11-01

    Heat shock leads to oxidative stress. Excessive ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation could be responsible for expression of genes of heat-shock proteins or for cell death. It is known that in isolated mammalian mitochondria high protonic potential on the inner membrane actuates the production of ROS. Changes in viability, ROS content, and mitochondrial membrane potential value have been studied in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultured cells under heat treatment. Elevation of temperature to 37-50°C was found to induce elevated ROS generation and increased mitochondrial membrane potential, but it did not affect viability immediately after treatment. More severe heat exposure (55-60°C) was not accompanied by mitochondrial potential elevation and increased ROS production, but it led to instant cell death. A positive correlation between mitochondrial potential and ROS production was observed. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane by the protonophore CCCP inhibited ROS generation under the heating conditions. These data suggest that temperature elevation leads to mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization in winter wheat cultured cells, which in turn causes the increased ROS production.

  7. Cyclosporin A-induced oxidative stress is not the consequence of an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Marco; Kauffman, Henk F.; van der Deen, Margaretha; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Koeter, Gerard H.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2007-01-01

    Cyclosporin A induces closure of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. We aimed to investigate whether this closure results in concomitant increases in mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi(m)) and the production of reactive oxygen species. Fluorescent probes were used to assess Delt

  8. Increased levels of thioredoxin in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). A potential link of oxidative stress with AAA evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Pinna, R; Lindholt, Jes S.; Blanco-Colio, L M

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a main mechanism involved in vascular pathologies. Increased thioredoxin (TRX) levels have been observed in several oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases. We aim to test the potential role of TRX as a biomarker of oxidative stress in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)....

  9. High glucose modifies transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channels via increased oxidative stress and syndecan-4 in human podocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Lee, Marlene; Xia, Shengqiang

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels type 6 play an important role in the function of human podocytes. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by altered TRPC6 expression and functions of podocytes. Thus, we hypothesized that high glucose modifies TRPC6 channels via increased oxid...

  10. Cyclosporin A-induced oxidative stress is not the consequence of an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Marco; Kauffman, Henk F.; van der Deen, Margaretha; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Koeter, Gerard H.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2007-01-01

    Cyclosporin A induces closure of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. We aimed to investigate whether this closure results in concomitant increases in mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi(m)) and the production of reactive oxygen species. Fluorescent probes were used to assess Delt

  11. Critical points, phase transitions and water-like anomalies for an isotropic two length scale potential with increasing attractive well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, L.; Furlan, A. P.; Krott, L. B.; Diehl, A.; Barbosa, M. C.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular Dynamic and Monte Carlo studies are performed in a system of particles interacting through core-softened (CS) potential, composed by two length scales: a repulsive shoulder at short distances and the another a variable scale, that can be repulsive or strongly attractive depending on the parameters used. The system show water-like anomalous behavior. The density, diffusion and structural anomalous regions in the pressure versus temperature phase diagram shrink in pressure as the system becomes more attractive. The transition appears with the increase of the attraction well. We found that the liquid-gas phase transition is Ising-like for all the CS potentials and its critical temperature increases with the increase of the attraction. No Ising-like behavior for the liquid-liquid phase transition was detected in the Monte Carlo simulations what might be due to the presence of stable amorphous phases.

  12. Increasing the potential

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    Electrical quality assurance testing (ELQA) of the LHC’s superconducting circuits is currently underway in sector 3-4 of the machine. The rigorous examination by the ELQA team covers secondary circuits as well as the main magnets.   ELQA tests are performed in sector 4-5 of the LHC tunnel. The mobile platform (in the red cart) was developed in collaboration with IFJ-PAN to test the LHC magnet circuits; it has been upgraded at the Institute especially for LS1. The LHC’s superconducting magnets are connected in 1,612 electrical circuits, supplied from 52 electrical distribution feedboxes (DFBs) via no fewer than 3,286 current leads. Were you to add up the electrical currents fed into all the magnets through the current leads, in nominal accelerator operation, you would get 3.3 million amps. The LHC is, above all, a giant electrical installation. This is why quality assurance testing of the electrical systems is so important. The ELQA team has been operating in the tunnel s...

  13. Noradrenaline acting on alpha1-adrenoceptor mediates REM sleep deprivation-induced increased membrane potential in rat brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gitanjali; Mallick, Birendra Nath

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that one of the functions of REM sleep is to maintain brain excitability and therefore, REM sleep deprivation is likely to modulate neuronal transmembrane potential; however, so far there was no direct evidence to support the claim. In this study a cationic dye, 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide was used to estimate the potential in synaptosomal samples prepared from control and REM sleep deprived rat brains. The activity of Na-K-ATPase that maintains the transmembrane potential was also estimated in the same sample. Further, the roles of noradrenaline and alpha1-adrenoceptor in mediating the responses were studied both in vivo as well as in vitro. Rats were REM sleep deprived for 4 days by the classical flower-pot method; large platform and recovery controls were carried out in addition to free-moving control. The fluorescence intensity increased in samples prepared from REM sleep deprived rat brain as compared to control, which reflected synaptosomal depolarization after deprivation. The Na-K-ATPase activity also increased in the same deprived sample. Furthermore, both the effects were mediated by noradrenaline acting on alpha1-adrenoceptors in the brain. This is the first direct evidence showing that REM sleep deprivation indeed increased neuronal depolarization, which is the likely cause for increased brain excitability, thus supporting our hypothesis and the effect was mediated by noradrenaline acting through the alpha1-adrenoceptor.

  14. Ventricular filling slows epicardial conduction and increases action potential duration in an optical mapping study of the isolated rabbit heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Derrick; Mills, Robert W.; Schettler, Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M.; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; McCullough, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanical stimulation can induce electrophysiologic changes in cardiac myocytes, but how mechanoelectric feedback in the intact heart affects action potential propagation remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in action potential propagation and repolarization with increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 0 to 30 mmHg were investigated using optical mapping in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. With respect to 0 mmHg, epicardial strain at 30 mmHg in the anterior left ventricle averaged 0.040 +/- 0.004 in the muscle fiber direction and 0.032 +/- 0.006 in the cross-fiber direction. An increase in ventricular loading increased average epicardial activation time by 25%+/- 3% (P myocardial perfusion or the presence of an electromechanical decoupling agent (butanedione monoxime) during optical mapping. CONCLUSION: Acute loading of the left ventricle of the isolated rabbit heart decreased apparent epicardial conduction velocity and increased action potential duration by a load-dependent mechanism that may not involve stretch-activated channels.

  15. Potentials of energy conservation and increase in capacity of industrial sewage plantes; Energieeinspar- und Kapazitaetssteigerungspotenziale von Industrieklaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombeck, Markus; Rudolph, Karl-Ulrich [Universitaet Witten/Herdecke gGmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Management (IEEM); Mueller-Czygan, Guenter [HST Systemtechnik GmbH und Co. KG, Meschede (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    With respect to investigations on the potentials of energy conservation and the increase in capacity by means of in-situ generated pure oxygen within a pilot project energy conservations and increases in capacity can be attained if certain operating conditions are fulfilled. In most cases, the biggest advantages of in-situ generated pure oxygen exist in the case of waste water with sufficient buffering capacity, in the case of an operation of production plants preferably in full-load with the possibility of an adjustment to off-peak periods as well as in the case of an optimal input of pure oxygen into the waste water.

  16. Effects of stimulus intensity increase on short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials: application of polynomial curvature coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parain, D; Delapierre, G

    1991-01-01

    We assessed the influence of increasing stimulus intensity from motor threshold to pain threshold on short latency somatosensory evoked potentials recorded over the parietal and frontal scalp in 14 subjects during median nerve stimulation at the wrist. We used the curvature polynomial coefficient to evaluate alterations of the main components. The N20 and P27 curvature coefficients are not modified. The change of the N30 curvature coefficient is the result of shortened P45 latency. The increase of N60 curvature coefficient shows a great interindividual variability, probably due to a central amplification and synchronization or to involvement of nerve fibres with different excitability.

  17. Yes-mediated phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase at tyrosine 861 increases metastatic potential of prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Tanushree; Varkaris, Andreas S; Parikh, Nila U; Song, Jian H; Cheng, Chien-Jui; Schweppe, Rebecca E; Alexander, Stephanie; Davis, John W; Troncoso, Patricia; Friedl, Peter; Kuang, Jian; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Gallick, Gary E

    2015-04-30

    To study the role of FAK signaling complexes in promoting metastatic properties of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, we selected stable, highly migratory variants, termed PC3 Mig-3 and DU145 Mig-3, from two well-characterized PCa cell lines, PC3 and DU145. These variants were not only increased migration and invasion in vitro, but were also more metastatic to lymph nodes following intraprostatic injection into nude mice. Both PC3 Mig-3 and DU145 Mig-3 were specifically increased in phosphorylation of FAK Y861. We therefore examined potential alterations in Src family kinases responsible for FAK phosphorylation and determined only Yes expression was increased. Overexpression of Yes in PC3 parental cells and src-/-fyn-/-yes-/- fibroblasts selectively increased FAK Y861 phosphorylation, and increased migration. Knockdown of Yes in PC3 Mig-3 cells decreased migration and decreased lymph node metastasis following orthotopic implantation of into nude mice. In human specimens, Yes expression was increased in lymph node metastases relative to paired primary tumors from the same patient, and increased pFAK Y861 expression in lymph node metastases correlated with poor prognosis. These results demonstrate a unique role for Yes in phosphorylation of FAK and in promoting PCa metastasis. Therefore, phosphorylated FAK Y861 and increased Yes expression may be predictive markers for PCa metastasis.

  18. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda;

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxic...... (1% and 5% oxygen) culture and trypsinization would augment ASC expression of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines and increase the angiogenic potential of ASC-conditioned media....

  19. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.;

    2013-01-01

    AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning...... and accessible during subsequent anaerobic digestion. This finding has confirmed earlier experimental results, showing that delignification was not necessarily the limiting factor during conversion of manure fibers into methane while cellulose accessibility during digestion seemed more crucial....

  20. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxic...... (1% and 5% oxygen) culture and trypsinization would augment ASC expression of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines and increase the angiogenic potential of ASC-conditioned media....

  1. Nitric oxide induces tyrosine nitration and release of cytochrome c preceding an increase of mitochondrial transmembrane potential in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortelano, S; Alvarez, A M; Boscá, L

    1999-12-01

    Treatment of elicited peritoneal macrophages or the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 with high concentrations of nitric oxide donors is followed by apoptotic cell death. Analysis of the changes in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) with specific fluorescent probes showed a rapid and persistent increase of DeltaPsi(m), a potential that usually decreases in cells undergoing apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent mechanisms. Using confocal microscopy, the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol was characterized as an early event preceding the rise of DeltaPsi(m). The cytochrome c from cells treated with nitric oxide donors was modified chemically, probably through the formation of nitrotyrosine residues, suggesting the synthesis of peroxynitrite in the mitochondria. These results indicate that nitric oxide-dependent apoptosis in macrophages occurs in the presence of a sustained increase of DeltaPsi(m), and that the chemical modification and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria precede the changes of DeltaPsi(m).-Hortelano, S., Alvarez, A. M., Boscá, L. Nitric oxide induces tyrosine nitration and release of cytochrome c preceding an increase of mitochondrial transmembrane potential in macrophages.

  2. Long-Term Fructose Intake Increases Adipogenic Potential: Evidence of Direct Effects of Fructose on Adipocyte Precursor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guillermina Zubiría

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We have previously addressed that fructose rich diet (FRD intake for three weeks increases the adipogenic potential of stromal vascular fraction cells from the retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT. We have now evaluated the effect of prolonged FRD intake (eight weeks on metabolic parameters, number of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs and in vitro adipogenic potential from control (CTR and FRD adult male rats. Additionally, we have examined the direct fructose effects on the adipogenic capacity of normal APCs. FRD fed rats had increased plasma levels of insulin, triglyceride and leptin, and RPAT mass and adipocyte size. FACS studies showed higher APCs number and adipogenic potential in FRD RPAT pads; data is supported by high mRNA levels of competency markers: PPARγ2 and Zfp423. Complementary in vitro experiments indicate that fructose-exposed normal APCs displayed an overall increased adipogenic capacity. We conclude that the RPAT mass expansion observed in eight week-FRD fed rats depends on combined accelerated adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy, partially due to a direct effect of fructose on APCs.

  3. Increasing the sludge energy potential of wastewater treatment plants by introducing fine mesh sieves for primary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsrud, Bjarne; Rusten, Bjørn; Aas, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare some basic characteristics of sludge from fine mesh sieves (sieve sludge) with sludge from primary clarifiers (primary sludge) regarding their energy potential with a focus on anaerobic digestion and/or incineration. Nineteen samples of sludge from fine mesh sieve plants (most of them without fine screens and grit chambers as pre-treatment) and 10 samples of primary sludge were analysed for the content of dry solids (DS), volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), calorific value and methane potential. The results demonstrated that the sieve sludges have significantly higher VS content and higher methane potential than primary sludges, clearly indicating an increased sludge energy potential if fine mesh sieves are used for primary treatment instead of primary clarifiers at wastewater treatment plants with anaerobic digesters. If the sludges from primary treatment are to be incinerated or used as fuel in cement kilns, there is no significant difference in energy potential (given as calorific values) for the two types of primary treatment.

  4. Increased gain of vestibulospinal potentials evoked in neck and leg muscles when standing under height-induced postural threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, E N; Allum, J H J; Inglis, J T; Carpenter, M G

    2015-05-07

    To measure changes in amplitudes of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) elicited from neck, upper and lower limb muscles during a quiet standing task with increased postural threat achieved by manipulating surface height. Twenty eight subjects were tested while standing on a platform raised to 0.8 m and 3.2 m from the ground. Surface electromyography was recorded from the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid (SCM), biceps brachii (BB), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. Stimulation was with air-conducted short tone bursts (4 ms). After controlling for background muscle activity, VEMP amplitudes were compared between heights and correlated with changes in state anxiety, fear and arousal. VEMP amplitude significantly increased in SCM (9%) and SOL (12.7%) with increased surface height (pfear (Rho=0.36, p=0.037). Postural threat significantly increased vestibulospinal reflex (VSR) gains. Results demonstrate that VEMPs can be used to test different VSR pathways simultaneously during stance. Since fear and anxiety are prevalent with vestibular disorders, they should be considered as potential contributing factors for clinical vestibular outcome measures. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Older Age and Steroid Use Are Associated with Increasing Polypharmacy and Potential Medication Interactions Among Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parian, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity and polypharmacy, more prevalent among older persons, may impact the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aims of this study were to assess the frequency of polypharmacy and medication interactions within a cohort of older patients with IBD and describe IBD treatment patterns. Methods: Cohort study of 190 patients with IBD 65 years or older followed at a tertiary IBD referral center from 2006 to 2012. Data collected included demographics, IBD-specific characteristics including disease activity, and comorbidity. Medication histories were extracted from medical records, and data were used to classify polypharmacy, frequency, and severity of potential medication interactions and inappropriate medication use. Results: Older patients with IBD were prescribed an average of 9 routine medications. Severe polypharmacy (≥10 routine medications) was present in 43.2% of studied patients and associated with increasing age, greater comorbidity, and steroid use. Overall, 73.7% of patients had at least 1 potential medication interaction, including 40% of patients with potential IBD medication-associated interactions. Chronic steroids were prescribed to 40% of the older patients including 24% who were in remission or with mild disease activity. Only 39.5% of patients were on immunomodulators and 21.1% on biologics. Approximately, 35% of patients were given at least 1 Beers inappropriate medication and almost 10% were receiving chronic narcotics. Conclusions: Older patients with IBD are at increased risk for severe polypharmacy and potential major medication interactions especially with increasing comorbidity and chronic steroid use. Steroid-maintenance therapies are prevalent among the older patients with IBD with lower utilization of steroid-sparing regimens. PMID:25856768

  6. Increased risk of male cancer and identification of a potential prostate cancer cluster region in BRCA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed Nielsen, Henriette; Petersen, Janne; Therkildsen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of cancer in men from BRCA1 and BRCA2 families is relevant to define to motivate genetic testing and optimize recommendations for surveillance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We assessed the risk of cancer in male mutation carriers and their first-degree relatives in 290 BRCA1 and BRCA2...... families with comparison to matched controls with the aim to motivate genetic testing and optimize recommendations for surveillance. RESULTS: Mutation carriers in BRCA1 families were not at increased risk of cancer, whereas mutation carriers in BRCA2 families were at increased risk of male breast cancer...... with mutations outside of this region. CONCLUSIONS: Male mutation carriers and first-degree relatives in BRCA2 families are at an increased risk of breast cancer and prostate cancer with a potential prostate cancer cluster region within exon 11 of BRCA2....

  7. Identification of Potential Calorie Restriction-Mimicking Yeast Mutants with Increased Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain and Nitric Oxide Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR induces a metabolic shift towards mitochondrial respiration; however, molecular mechanisms underlying CR remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that CR-induced mitochondrial activity is associated with nitric oxide (NO production. To understand the role of mitochondria in CR, we identify and study Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with increased NO levels as potential CR mimics. Analysis of the top 17 mutants demonstrates a correlation between increased NO, mitochondrial respiration, and longevity. Interestingly, treating yeast with NO donors such as GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione is sufficient to partially mimic CR to extend lifespan. CR-increased NO is largely dependent on mitochondrial electron transport and cytochrome c oxidase (COX. Although COX normally produces NO under hypoxic conditions, CR-treated yeast cells are able to produce NO under normoxic conditions. Our results suggest that CR may derepress some hypoxic genes for mitochondrial proteins that function to promote the production of NO and the extension of lifespan.

  8. Imbalance in systemic inflammation and immune response following transarterial chemoembolization potentially increases metastatic risk in huge hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Tong-Chun; Jia, Qing-An; Ge, Ning-Ling; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Bo-Heng; Ye, Sheng-Long

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation plays a critical role in tumor metastasis. However, few inflammation-related biomarkers are currently available to predict the risk of metastasis for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using huge tumors (diameter >10 cm) as a model, we evaluated the potential risk of pre- and post-treatment inflammatory responses in the development of metastasis of HCC patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). A logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors. One hundred and sixty-five patients with huge HCC were enrolled in the study. Metastases were identified in 25.5% (42/165) patients by imaging evaluation post-TACE. Neutrophils increased, whereas lymphocytes decreased significantly post-TACE. Univariate analysis showed that high post-treatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; p = 0.003), low post-treatment lymphocyte count (p = 0.047), and high baseline NLR (p = 0.100) were potential risk factors for metastasis. Further, multivariate analysis showed that high post-treatment NLR, but not pre-treatment NLR, was an independent risk factor for metastasis; this was confirmed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Post-treatment NLR, however, had no correlation to tumor response and overall survival of patients. In conclusion, post-treatment NLR but not pre-treatment NLR independently increases the risk of metastasis in huge HCC. Our findings suggest the potential contribution of treatment-related inflammation to metastasis in advanced HCC.

  9. Physiological traits contributed to the recent increase in yield potential of winter wheat from Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangwei Zhou; lvaro Sanz-Sez; Abdelhalim Elazab; Tianmin Shen; Rut Snchez-Bragado; Jordi Bort; Maria Dolors Serret; Jos Luis Araus

    2014-01-01

    This experiment aims to test the traits responsible for the increase in yield potential of winter wheat released in Henan Province, China. Seven established cultivars released in the last 20 years and three advanced lines were assayed. The results showed that grain yield was positively correlated with harvest index (HI), kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. In addition, the HI and aboveground biomass showed an increasing trend with the year of release. Therefore, we can conclude that bread wheat breeding advances during recent decades in Henan Province, China, have been achieved through an increase in HI, kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. A higher d13C seems also to be involved in these advances, which suggests a progressive improvement in constitutive water use efficiency not associated with a trend towards lower stomatal conduc-tance in the most recent genotypes. However, genetic advance does not appear related to changes in photosynthesis rates on area basis when measured in the flag leaf or the spike, but only to a higher, whole-spike photosynthesis. Results also indirectly support the concept that under potential yield conditions, the spike contributed more than the flag leaf to kernel formation.

  10. Standardised extract of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) increases aphrodisiac potential besides being safe in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S; Singhal, S; Kumar, N; Rao, C M; Sumalatha, S; Dave, J; Dave, R; Nandakumar, K

    2016-12-01

    The standardised extract of root of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) was evaluated for its aphrodisiac potential and safety profile on reproductive system. Wistar albino rats were trained to provide sexual experience under a dim red light (10 W) in a glass tank. Male and female rats were placed periodically in the glass tank in a particular order, that is male followed by introduction of the receptive female. Dosing of extract was carried out for 54 days at 125 and 250 mg kg(-1) p.o to male rats. On 14th and 28th days, the animals were observed from the cage side for sexual behaviours. Safed musli at both dose levels enhanced sexual vigour and libido which might be useful for treatment of sexual dysfunction in male till 28th day. Safety profile was assessed after 54 days of drug treatment, where both doses showed an increase in sperm count and increase in sperm motility. Thus, it can be stated that both doses possessed the spermatogenic potential, which would be highly beneficial in treating oligospermia or low sperm count. After 54 days of study, there was increase in sperm abnormality (%) at both doses, but not more than 10%, which indicated that this formulation will not induce infertility.

  11. Variation among genotypes in responses to increasing temperature in a marine parasite: evolutionary potential in the face of global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Boris W; Lloyd, Melanie M; Poulin, Robert; Studer, Anja

    2014-11-01

    Climates are changing worldwide, and populations are under selection to adapt to these changes. Changing temperature, in particular, can directly impact ectotherms and their parasites, with potential consequences for whole ecosystems. The potential of parasite populations to adapt to climate change largely depends on the amount of genetic variation they possess in their responses to environmental fluctuations. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to look at differences among parasite genotypes in response to temperature, with the goal of quantifying the extent of variation among conspecifics in their responses to increasing temperature. Snails infected with single genotypes of the trematode Maritrema novaezealandensis were sequentially acclimatised to two different temperatures, 'current' (15°C) and 'elevated' (20°C), over long periods. These temperatures are based on current average field conditions in the natural habitat and those predicted to occur during the next few decades. The output and activity of cercariae (free-swimming infective stages emerging from snails) were assessed for each genotype at each temperature. The results indicate that, on average, both cercarial output and activity are higher at the elevated acclimation temperature. More importantly, the output and activity of cercariae are strongly influenced by a genotype-by-temperature interaction, such that different genotypes show different responses to increasing temperature. Both the magnitude and direction (increase or decrease) of responses to temperature varied widely among genotypes. Therefore, there is much potential for natural selection to act on this variation, and predicting how the trematode M. novaezealandensis will respond to the climate changes predicted for the next century will prove challenging.

  12. The effect of sea surface temperature increase on the potential habitat ofOmmastrephes bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jie; CHEN Xinjun; CHEN Yong; DING Qi; TIAN Siquan

    2016-01-01

    In the Northwest Pacific Ocean, the squid jigging fisheries from China, Japan and other countries and regions have targeted the west winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) from August to November since the 1970s. This squid is a short-lived ecological opportunist with a life-span of about one year, and its population is labile and recruitment variability is driven by the environment or climate change. This variability provides a challenge for ones to forecast the key habitats affected by climate change. The catch data of O. bartramii from Chinese squid jigging fishery and the satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data are used in the Northwest Pacific Ocean from August to November of 1998 to 2004, the SST preferences ofO. bartramiicorresponding to high values of catch per fishing day (CPUE) are determined and monthly potential habitats are predicted using a histogram analysis of the SST data. The possible changes in the potential habitats of O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean are estimated under four climate change scenarios based on the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, i.e., 0.5, 1, 2 and 4°C increases in the SST because of the climate change. The results reveal an obvious poleward shift of the potential habitats ofO. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

  13. PSGL-1-mediated activation of EphB4 increases the proangiogenic potential of endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, Philippe; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Souttou, Boussad; Barateau, Véronique; Martin, Coralie; Ebrahimian, Téni G; Leré-Déan, Carole; Contreres, Jean Olivier; Sulpice, Eric; Levy, Bernard I; Plouët, Jean; Tobelem, Gérard; Le Ricousse-Roussanne, Sophie

    2007-06-01

    Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) transplantation has beneficial effects for therapeutic neovascularization; however, only a small proportion of injected cells home to the lesion and incorporate into the neocapillaries. Consequently, this type of cell therapy requires substantial improvement to be of clinical value. Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors and their ephrin ligands are key regulators of vascular development. We postulated that activation of the EphB4/ephrin-B2 system may enhance EPC proangiogenic potential. In this report, we demonstrate in a nude mouse model of hind limb ischemia that EphB4 activation with an ephrin-B2-Fc chimeric protein increases the angiogenic potential of human EPCs. This effect was abolished by EphB4 siRNA, confirming that it is mediated by EphB4. EphB4 activation enhanced P selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) expression and EPC adhesion. Inhibition of PSGL-1 by siRNA reversed the proangiogenic and adhesive effects of EphB4 activation. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies to E selectin and P selectin blocked ephrin-B2-Fc-stimulated EPC adhesion properties. Thus, activation of EphB4 enhances EPC proangiogenic capacity through induction of PSGL-1 expression and adhesion to E selectin and P selectin. Therefore, activation of EphB4 is an innovative and potentially valuable therapeutic strategy for improving the recruitment of EPCs to sites of neovascularization and thereby the efficiency of cell-based proangiogenic therapy.

  14. Increasing the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bioscientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scita, Giorgio; Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Hemenway, David; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method.  Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries.  This survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists.  In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a "basic bibliography" for each new approved drug.

  15. Rye and Wheat Bran Extracts Isolated with Pressurized Solvents Increase Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Potential of Beef Meat Hamburgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-02-01

    Rye and wheat bran extracts containing phenolic compounds and demonstrating high DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(•+) (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacities (ORAC) were tested in beef hamburgers as possible functional ingredients. Bran extracts significantly increased the indicators of antioxidant potential of meat products and their global antioxidant response (GAR) during physiological in vitro digestion. The extracts also inhibited the formation of oxidation products, hexanal and malondialdehyde, of hamburgers during their storage; however, they did not have significant effect on the growth of microorganisms. Hamburgers with 0.8% wheat bran extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant potential. Some effects of bran extracts on other quality characteristics such as pH, color, formation of metmyoglobin were also observed, however, these effects did not have negative influence on the overall sensory evaluation score of hamburgers. Consequently, the use of bran extracts in meat products may be considered as promising means of increasing oxidative product stability and enriching with functional ingredients which might possess health benefits.

  16. The Infrapatellar Fat Pad as a Source of Perivascular Stem Cells with Increased Chondrogenic Potential for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Paul; Khan, Nusrat; Biant, Leela; Péault, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Perivascular stem cells (PSCs) are the natural ancestors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and are the stem cells responsible for homeostasis and repair in vivo. Prospectively identified and isolated PSCs have demonstrated increased plasticity and osteogenic potential. Cells from the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have demonstrated increased chondrogenic potential compared with those from subcutaneous fat. This research assessed the chondrogenic potential of IFP PSCs compared with MSCs from the IFP and bone marrow. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the location of perivascular markers (CD146, CD34, neural/glial antigen 2 [NG2], platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β [PDGFRβ], and α-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA]) in relation to endothelial markers (CD31, CD144, von Willebrand factor [vWF]). Pericytes and adventitial cells were isolated from the stromal vascular fraction (3.8% and 21.2%, respectively) using flow cytometry with a viability of 88%. The mean numbers of pericytes and adventitial cells isolated were 4.6 ± 2.2 × 10(4) and 16.2 ± 3.2 × 10(4) , respectively, equating to 7.9 ± 4.4 × 10(3) and 20.8 ± 4.3 × 10(3) cells per gram of harvested tissue. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting demonstrated that cultured PSCs were CD44+CD90+CD105+; polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that pericytes retained their CD146+ phenotype and expressed the pericyte markers PDGFRβ and NG2. Differentiation was confirmed using histochemical stains and genetic expression. Using a pellet model, the IFP PSCs and the MSCs generated significantly more extracellular matrix than bone marrow MSCs (p stem cells compared with bone marrow. PSCs generated significantly more extracellular matrix than culture-derived MSCs. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:77-87.

  17. Increasing the industrial potential of a region as a factor of improving the region’s competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Viktorovna Shamray

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the factors of increasing the region competitiveness by defining the industrial potential of its enterprises. Methods in the research the systemic structural functional situational economic analysis was widely used as well as modelling of the economic entities functioning. The main modeling method used in this work is the model of breakeven point widely known and tested in many enterprises. The dependence proposed by the author is of analytical character. Results the article considers different approaches to the definition of competitiveness the effect of the factors is described. The industrial potential of the enterprises is presented as one of the factors of regional competitiveness. The difference is described between the competitive advantage in commercial and production activities. The author suggests a methodology allowing to evaluate the competitiveness of industrial enterprises through the performance of production capacity the possibility of making managerial decisions based on the results of its application the results of the model testing are present. The possibility of applying the model at the regional level is shown. Scientific novelty the article presents the authorrsquos method allowing to calculate the potential growth of the enterprises competitiveness using the output capacities as the difference between the maximum and actual values of capacity. Practical significance the use of models in the practice of the company allows to evaluate the enterprise competitiveness identifying the marginal productivity of the equipment. Once it has been reached the questions arise how long the company will remain competitive in achieving 100 capacity utilization selection of areas of extensive growth due to the fact that the limits of intensive growth have been achieved. Testing of the model was carried out at the Volgograd baking enterprises it showed a high accuracy of the calculation the deviation of calculated

  18. Hydraulic conductance and water potential gradients in squash leaves showing mycorrhiza-induced increases in stomatal conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, Robert M; Toler, Heather D; Sams, Carl E; Nasim, Ghazala

    2008-03-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rates vary widely across plant species. Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) tends to change with g (s), to maintain hydraulic homeostasis and prevent wide and potentially harmful fluctuations in transpiration-induced water potential gradients across the leaf (Delta Psi leaf). Because arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis often increases gs in the plant host, we tested whether the symbiosis affects leaf hydraulic homeostasis. Specifically, we tested whether k leaf changes with gs to maintain Delta Psi leaf or whether Delta Psi leaf differs when gs differs in AM and non-AM plants. Colonization of squash plants with Glomus intraradices resulted in increased gs relative to non-AM controls, by an average of 27% under amply watered, unstressed conditions. Stomatal conductance was similar in AM and non-AM plants with exposure to NaCl stress. Across all AM and NaCl treatments, k leaf did change in synchrony with gs (positive correlation of gs and k leaf), corroborating leaf tendency toward hydraulic homeostasis under varying rates of transpirational water loss. However, k leaf did not increase in AM plants to compensate for the higher gs of unstressed AM plants relative to non-AM plants. Consequently, Delta Psi leaf did tend to be higher in AM leaves. A trend toward slightly higher Delta Psi leaf has been observed recently in more highly evolved plant taxa having higher productivity. Higher Delta Psi leaf in leaves of mycorrhizal plants would therefore be consistent with the higher rates of gas exchange that often accompany mycorrhizal symbiosis and that are presumed to be necessary to supply the carbon needs of the fungal symbiont.

  19. Heterosis in locally adapted sorghum genotypes and potential of hybrids for increased productivity in contrasting environments in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taye T. Mindaye; Emma S. Mace; Ian D. Godwin; David R. Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Increased productivity in sorghum has been achieved in the developed world using hybrids. Despite their yield advantage, introduced hybrids have not been adopted in Ethiopia due to the lack of adaptive traits, their short plant stature and small grain size. This study was conducted to investigate hybrid performance and the magnitude of heterosis of locally adapted genotypes in addition to introduced hybrids in three contrasting environments in Ethiopia. In total, 139 hybrids, derived from introduced seed parents crossed with locally adapted genotypes and introduced R lines, were evaluated. Overall, the hybrids matured earlier than the adapted parents, but had higher grain yield, plant height, grain number and grain weight in all environments. The lowland adapted hybrids displayed a mean better parent heterosis (BPH) of 19%, equating to 1160 kg ha−1 and a 29%mean increase in grain yield, in addition to increased plant height and grain weight, in comparison to the hybrids derived from the introduced R lines. The mean BPH for grain yield for the highland adapted hybrids was 16%in the highland and 52%in the intermediate environment equating to 698 kg ha−1 and 2031 kg ha−1, respectively, in addition to increased grain weight. The magnitude of heterosis observed for each hybrid group was related to the genetic distance between the parental lines. The majority of hybrids also showed superiority over the standard check varieties. In general, hybrids from locally adapted genotypes were superior in grain yield, plant height and grain weight compared to the high parents and introduced hybrids indicating the potential for hybrids to increase productivity while addressing farmers' required traits.

  20. Neural Consequences of Increasing Body Weight: Evidence from Somatosensory Evoked Potentials and the Frequency-Specificity of Brain Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomond, Olivia; Teasdale, Normand; Simoneau, Martin; Mouchnino, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the control of human balance suggested that increased pressure under the feet, leading to reduced plantar sole mechanoreceptors sensitivity, increases body sway. Although this suggestion is attracting, it is unclear whether increased plantar sole pressure simply reduces the transmission of plantar sole afferent to the cortex or also alters the sensorimotor integrative mechanisms. Here we used electrical stimulation applied under the sole of the foot to probe the sensorimotor mechanisms processing foot mechanoreceptors. Balance control of healthy individuals was assessed either when wearing a loaded vest or in normal-weight condition. In the Loaded condition, we observed decreased cortical activity over the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) for both an early P50-N90 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and for oscillatory brain activity within the gamma band (30–80 Hz). These reductions were interpreted as a disrupted early sensory transmission (i.e., decreased early SEP) leading to a decreased perception of plantar sole sensory information (i.e., decreased gamma band power). These early sensory mechanisms for the Loaded condition were associated with an increase in the late P170-N210 SEP and oscillatory brain activity within the beta band (19–24 Hz). These neural signatures involved areas which are engaged in sensorimotor integrative processes (secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) and right temporoparietal junction). Altered early and late sensory processes may result from the increase pressure on the mechanoreceptors of the foot sole and not from postural instability per se. Indeed, postural instability with normal weight condition did not lead to SEP changes. PMID:27445758

  1. Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Brain Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Dysfunction and Increases Oxidative Stress: A Potential Mechanism Involved in Cannabis-Related Stroke

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    Valérie Wolff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities Vmax (complexes I, III, and IV activities, Vsucc (complexes II, III, and IV activities, Vtmpd (complex IV activity, together with mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0, were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased Vmax (−71%; P<0.0001, Vsucc (−65%; P<0.0001, and Vtmpd (−3.5%; P<0.001. Mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0 was also significantly decreased after THC exposure (1.8±0.2 versus 6.3±0.7; P<0.001. Furthermore, THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; P<0.05 and mitochondrial free radical leak was increased from 0.01±0.01 to 0.10±0.01% (P<0.001. Thus, THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient’s vulnerability to stroke.

  2. Review on dry reforming of methane, a potentially more environmentally-friendly approach to the increasing natural gas exploitation

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    Jean-Michel eLavoie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the actual growth of the natural gas industry in the US as well as the potential and availability of this non-renewable carbon source worldwide, reforming of methane gas is getting increasing attention. Methane can be used for the production of heat or electricity, as well, it can be converted to syngas, a building block that could lead to the production of liquid fuels and chemical, a very promising pathway in light of the increasing price of oil. Amongst the different reforming techniques, dry reforming could represent a very interesting approach both to valorize a cheap source or carbon (CO2 as well as to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the increasing worldwide fossil-based methane consumption. In this short review, attention will be given on the thermodynamics of dry reforming followed by an investigation on dry reforming using heterogeneous catalyst by focusing on the mots popular elements used in literature for dry reforming. Attention will as well be given to different other emerging techniques that may allow countering at one point the high thermodynamic penalties that accompanies conversion of methane using carbon dioxide.

  3. PSGL-1–mediated activation of EphB4 increases the proangiogenic potential of endothelial progenitor cells

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    Foubert, Philippe; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Souttou, Boussad; Barateau, Véronique; Martin, Coralie; Ebrahimian, Téni G.; Leré-Déan, Carole; Contreres, Jean Olivier; Sulpice, Eric; Levy, Bernard I.; Plouët, Jean; Tobelem, Gérard; Le Ricousse-Roussanne, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) transplantation has beneficial effects for therapeutic neovascularization; however, only a small proportion of injected cells home to the lesion and incorporate into the neocapillaries. Consequently, this type of cell therapy requires substantial improvement to be of clinical value. Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors and their ephrin ligands are key regulators of vascular development. We postulated that activation of the EphB4/ephrin-B2 system may enhance EPC proangiogenic potential. In this report, we demonstrate in a nude mouse model of hind limb ischemia that EphB4 activation with an ephrin-B2–Fc chimeric protein increases the angiogenic potential of human EPCs. This effect was abolished by EphB4 siRNA, confirming that it is mediated by EphB4. EphB4 activation enhanced P selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) expression and EPC adhesion. Inhibition of PSGL-1 by siRNA reversed the proangiogenic and adhesive effects of EphB4 activation. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies to E selectin and P selectin blocked ephrin-B2–Fc–stimulated EPC adhesion properties. Thus, activation of EphB4 enhances EPC proangiogenic capacity through induction of PSGL-1 expression and adhesion to E selectin and P selectin. Therefore, activation of EphB4 is an innovative and potentially valuable therapeutic strategy for improving the recruitment of EPCs to sites of neovascularization and thereby the efficiency of cell-based proangiogenic therapy. PMID:17510705

  4. Reduced expression of the ROCK inhibitor Rnd3 is associated with increased invasiveness and metastatic potential in mesenchymal tumor cells.

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    Cristina Belgiovine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal and amoeboid movements are two important mechanisms adopted by cancer cells to invade the surrounding environment. Mesenchymal movement depends on extracellular matrix protease activity, amoeboid movement on the RhoA-dependent kinase ROCK. Cancer cells can switch from one mechanism to the other in response to different stimuli, limiting the efficacy of antimetastatic therapies. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the acquisition and molecular regulation of the invasion capacity of neoplastically transformed human fibroblasts, which were able to induce sarcomas and metastases when injected into immunocompromised mice. We found that neoplastic transformation was associated with a change in cell morphology (from fibroblastic to polygonal, a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, a decrease in the expression of several matrix metalloproteases and increases in cell motility and invasiveness. In a three-dimensional environment, sarcomagenic cells showed a spherical morphology with cortical actin rings, suggesting a switch from mesenchymal to amoeboid movement. Accordingly, cell invasion decreased after treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y27632, but not with the matrix protease inhibitor Ro 28-2653. The increased invasiveness of tumorigenic cells was associated with reduced expression of Rnd3 (also known as RhoE, a cellular inhibitor of ROCK. Indeed, ectopic Rnd3 expression reduced their invasive ability in vitro and their metastatic potential in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that, during neoplastic transformation, cells of mesenchymal origin can switch from a mesenchymal mode of movement to an amoeboid one. In addition, they point to Rnd3 as a possible regulator of mesenchymal tumor cell invasion and to ROCK as a potential therapeutic target for sarcomas.

  5. Reduced Expression of the ROCK Inhibitor Rnd3 Is Associated with Increased Invasiveness and Metastatic Potential in Mesenchymal Tumor Cells

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    Belgiovine, Cristina; Frapolli, Roberta; Bonezzi, Katiuscia; Chiodi, Ilaria; Favero, Francesco; Mello-Grand, Maurizia; Dei Tos, Angelo P.; Giulotto, Elena; Taraboletti, Giulia; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Mondello, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal and amoeboid movements are two important mechanisms adopted by cancer cells to invade the surrounding environment. Mesenchymal movement depends on extracellular matrix protease activity, amoeboid movement on the RhoA-dependent kinase ROCK. Cancer cells can switch from one mechanism to the other in response to different stimuli, limiting the efficacy of antimetastatic therapies. Methodology and Principal Findings We investigated the acquisition and molecular regulation of the invasion capacity of neoplastically transformed human fibroblasts, which were able to induce sarcomas and metastases when injected into immunocompromised mice. We found that neoplastic transformation was associated with a change in cell morphology (from fibroblastic to polygonal), a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, a decrease in the expression of several matrix metalloproteases and increases in cell motility and invasiveness. In a three-dimensional environment, sarcomagenic cells showed a spherical morphology with cortical actin rings, suggesting a switch from mesenchymal to amoeboid movement. Accordingly, cell invasion decreased after treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y27632, but not with the matrix protease inhibitor Ro 28-2653. The increased invasiveness of tumorigenic cells was associated with reduced expression of Rnd3 (also known as RhoE), a cellular inhibitor of ROCK. Indeed, ectopic Rnd3 expression reduced their invasive ability in vitro and their metastatic potential in vivo. Conclusions These results indicate that, during neoplastic transformation, cells of mesenchymal origin can switch from a mesenchymal mode of movement to an amoeboid one. In addition, they point to Rnd3 as a possible regulator of mesenchymal tumor cell invasion and to ROCK as a potential therapeutic target for sarcomas. PMID:21209796

  6. Spatial-temporal Variation Characteristics of Grain Yield per Unit Area and its Balanced Increasing Potential in China

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    Liu Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide assistance decision for grain yield in China, which can provide basis for reasonable layout of grain production project. Based on the statistical data of 2301 counties in China, using spatial autocorrelation analysis method, spatial changes of grain yield per unit area at county level in China during 1990-2010 were discussed and then the increase potential of grain yield per hectare and total yield at regional scale were calculated. The results showed that: (1 Grain yield per unit area at county level showed the evident pattern “High in the northern while low in the southern” and “High in the eastern and western while low in the middle”; The average grain yield per hectare increased by 1040.74 kg/hm2 during 1990-2010 and the increment of grain yield per unit area descended from North to South at county level. (2 Grain yield per unit area at county level in China had a strong spatial autocorrelation. The counties with "High-High" and "Low-Low" correlation were the majority. Counties with significant "High-High" correlation in 2010 were mostly located in plain area, while counties with significant "Low-Low" correlation were mainly distributed in Hengduan Mountainous Area, Inner Mongolia steppe Area, etc. (3 Two thousand three hundred and one counties were divided into 41 first-grade regions and 115 sec-grade regions according to the coupled conditions of cultivation system regionalization and LISA cluster map. The total potential output of China was 1.77×108 tons.

  7. Exposure to Kynurenic Acid during Adolescence Increases Sign-tracking and Impairs Long-term Potentiation in Adulthood

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    Nicole eDeAngeli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in brain reward systems are thought to contribute significantly to the cognitive and behavioral impairments of schizophrenia, as well as the propensity to develop co-occurring substance abuse disorders. Presently there are few treatments for persons with a dual-diagnosis and little is known about the neural substrates that underlie co-occurring schizophrenia and substance abuse. One goal of the present study was to determine if a change in the concentration of kynurenic acid (KYNA, a tryptophan metabolite that is increased in the brains of people with schizophrenia, affects reward-related behavior. KYNA is an endogenous antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, both of which are critically involved in neurodevelopment, plasticity, and behavior. In Experiment 1, rats were treated throughout adolescence with l-kynurenine (L-KYN, the precursor of KYNA. As adults, the rats were tested drug-free in an autoshaping procedure in which a lever was paired with food. Rats treated with L-KYN during adolescence exhibited increased sign-tracking behavior (lever pressing when they were tested as adults. Sign-tracking is thought to reflect the lever acquiring incentive salience (motivational value as a result of its pairing with reward. Thus, KYNA exposure may increase the incentive salience of cues associated with reward, perhaps contributing to an increase in sensitivity to drug-related cues in persons with schizophrenia. In Experiment 2, we tested the effects of exposure to KYNA during adolescence on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP. Rats treated with L-KYN exhibited no LTP after a burst of high frequency stimulation that was sufficient to produce robust LTP in vehicle-treated rats. This finding represents the first demonstrated consequence of elevated KYNA concentration during development and provides insight into the basis for cognitive and behavioral deficits that result from exposure to KYNA during

  8. The initiator methionine tRNA drives cell migration and invasion leading to increased metastatic potential in melanoma

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    Joanna Birch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell's repertoire of transfer RNAs (tRNAs has been linked to cancer. Recently, the level of the initiator methionine tRNA (tRNAiMet in stromal fibroblasts has been shown to influence extracellular matrix (ECM secretion to drive tumour growth and angiogenesis. Here we show that increased tRNAiMet within cancer cells does not influence tumour growth, but drives cell migration and invasion via a mechanism that is independent from ECM synthesis and dependent on α5β1 integrin and levels of the translation initiation ternary complex. In vivo and ex vivo migration (but not proliferation of melanoblasts is significantly enhanced in transgenic mice which express additional copies of the tRNAiMet gene. We show that increased tRNAiMet in melanoma drives migratory, invasive behaviour and metastatic potential without affecting cell proliferation and primary tumour growth, and that expression of RNA polymerase III-associated genes (which drive tRNA expression are elevated in metastases by comparison with primary tumours. Thus, specific alterations to the cancer cell tRNA repertoire drive a migration/invasion programme that may lead to metastasis.

  9. Potential of soil amendments (Biochar and Gypsum) in increasing water use efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Aniqa; Taj, Samia; Rashid, Audil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Saleem, Aansa R; Ghufran, Muhammad A

    2015-01-01

    Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants' resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady's Finger). A 6 weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after 30 days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance and WUE were determined weekly under stressed [60% field capacity (F.C.)] and non-stressed (100% F.C.) conditions. Stomatal conductance and Tr decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto 5 weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, WUE improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of A. esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum.

  10. Potential of Soil Amendments (Biochar and Gypsum in increasing Water Use Efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniqa eBatool

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants’ resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady’s Finger. A six weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after thirty days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were determined weekly under stressed (60% field capacity and non-stressed (100% field capacity conditions. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto five weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, water use efficiency improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of Abelmoschus esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum.

  11. The initiator methionine tRNA drives cell migration and invasion leading to increased metastatic potential in melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Joanna; Clarke, Cassie J.; Campbell, Andrew D.; Campbell, Kirsteen; Mitchell, Louise; Liko, Dritan; Kalna, Gabriela; Strathdee, Douglas; Sansom, Owen J.; Neilson, Matthew; Blyth, Karen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cell's repertoire of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) has been linked to cancer. Recently, the level of the initiator methionine tRNA (tRNAiMet) in stromal fibroblasts has been shown to influence extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion to drive tumour growth and angiogenesis. Here we show that increased tRNAiMet within cancer cells does not influence tumour growth, but drives cell migration and invasion via a mechanism that is independent from ECM synthesis and dependent on α5β1 integrin and levels of the translation initiation ternary complex. In vivo and ex vivo migration (but not proliferation) of melanoblasts is significantly enhanced in transgenic mice which express additional copies of the tRNAiMet gene. We show that increased tRNAiMet in melanoma drives migratory, invasive behaviour and metastatic potential without affecting cell proliferation and primary tumour growth, and that expression of RNA polymerase III-associated genes (which drive tRNA expression) are elevated in metastases by comparison with primary tumours. Thus, specific alterations to the cancer cell tRNA repertoire drive a migration/invasion programme that may lead to metastasis. PMID:27543055

  12. Increasing Scepticism Toward Potential Liars: Effects of Existential Threat on Veracity Judgments and the Moderating Role of Honesty Norm Activation

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    Simon eSchindler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the present research, we investigated effects of existential threat on veracity judgments. According to several meta-analyses, people judge potentially deceptive messages of other people as true rather than as false (so-called truth bias. This judgmental bias has been shown to depend on how people weigh the error of judging a true message as a lie (error 1 and the error of judging a lie as a true message (error 2. The weight of these errors has been further shown to be affected by situational variables. Given that research on terror management theory has found evidence that mortality salience increases the sensitivity toward the compliance of cultural norms, especially when they are of focal attention, we assumed that when the honesty norm is activated, mortality salience affects judgmental error weighing and, consequently, judgmental biases. Specifically, activating the norm of honesty should decrease the weight of error 1 (the error of judging a true message as a lie and increase the weight of error 2 (the error of judging a lie as a true message when mortality is salient. In a first, we found initial evidence for this assumption. Furthermore, the change in error weighing should reduce the truth bias, automatically resulting in better detection accuracy of actual lies and worse accuracy of actual true statements. In two further studies, we manipulated mortality salience and honesty norm activation before participants judged several videos containing actual truths or lies. Results revealed evidence for our prediction. Moreover, in Study 3, the truth bias was increased after mortality salience when group solidarity was previously emphasized.

  13. Increasing the rate of heating: a potential therapeutic approach for achieving synergistic tumour killing in combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy.

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    Tang, Yuan; McGoron, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    A synergistic cancer cell killing effect of sub-lethal hyperthermia and chemotherapy has been reported extensively. In this study, in vitro cell culture experiments with a uterine cancer cell line (MES-SA) and its multidrug resistant (MDR) variant MES-SA/Dx5 were conducted in order to investigate the role of heating rate in achieving a synergistic effect. The mode of cell death, induction of thermal tolerance and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated MDR following two different rates of heating were studied. Doxorubicin (DOX) was used as the chemotherapy drug. A rapid rate hyperthermia was achieved by near infrared laser (NIR) excited indocyanine green (ICG) dye (absorption maximum at 808 nm, ideal for tissue penetration). A slow rate hyperthermia was provided by a cell culture incubator. The potentiating effect of hyperthermia to chemotherapy can be maximised by increasing the rate of heating. When delivered at the same thermal dose, a rapid increase in temperature from 37°C to 43°C caused more cell membrane damage than gradually heating the cells from 37°C to 43°C and thus allowed for more intracellular accumulation of DOX. Meanwhile, the rapid rate laser-ICG hyperthermia at 43°C caused cell necrosis whereas the slow rate incubator hyperthermia at 43°C induced mild apoptosis. At 43°C a positive correlation between thermal tolerance and the length of hyperthermia exposure is identified. This study shows that by increasing the rate of heating, less thermal dose is needed in order to overcome P-gp mediated MDR.

  14. Application of lime (CaCO3) to promote forest recovery from severe acidification increases potential for earthworm invasion

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    Homan, Caitlin; Beirer, Colin M; McCay, Timothy S; Lawrence, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of lime (calcium carbonate) may be a cost-effective strategy to promote forest ecosystem recovery from acid impairment, under contemporary low levels of acidic deposition. However, liming acidified soils may create more suitable habitat for invasive earthworms that cause significant damage to forest floor communities and may disrupt ecosystem processes. We investigated the potential effects of liming in acidified soils where earthworms are rare in conjunction with a whole-ecosystem liming experiment in the chronically acidified forests of the western Adirondacks (USA). Using a microcosm experiment that replicated the whole-ecosystem treatment, we evaluated effects of soil liming on Lumbricus terrestris survivorship and biomass growth. We found that a moderate lime application (raising pH from 3.1 to 3.7) dramatically increased survival and biomass of L. terrestris, likely via increases in soil pH and associated reductions in inorganic aluminum, a known toxin. Very few L. terrestris individuals survived in unlimed soils, whereas earthworms in limed soils survived, grew, and rapidly consumed leaf litter. We supplemented this experiment with field surveys of extant earthworm communities along a gradient of soil pH in Adirondack hardwood forests, ranging from severely acidified (pH 5). In the field, no earthworms were observed where soil pH 4.4 and human dispersal vectors, including proximity to roads and public fishing access, were most prevalent. Overall our results suggest that moderate lime additions can be sufficient to increase earthworm invasion risk where dispersal vectors are present.

  15. Caffeine increases Nr1i3 expression and potentiates the effects of its ligand, TCPOBOP, in mice liver

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    Heidge Fukumasu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is one of the world's most consumed substances. It is present in coffee, green tea and guarana, among others. The xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (Nr1i3, also known as the Constitutive Androstane Receptor (Car is a key regulator of drug metabolism and excretion. No consistent description of caffeine effects on this receptor has been described. Thus, to unravel the effects of caffeine on this receptor, we performed experiments in mice. First, C57Bl/6 mice that were treated daily with caffeine (50 mg/kg for 15 days presented a slight but significant increase in Nr1i3 and Cyp2b10 gene expression. A second experiment was then performed to verify the effects of caffeine on TCPOBOP (1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy]benzene, 3,3′,5,5′-tetrachloro-1,4-bis(pyridyloxybenzene, the most potent agonist known for mice Nr1i3. Interestingly, caffeine potentiated TCPOBOP pleiotropic effects in mice liver, such as hepatomegaly, hepatotoxicity, hepatocyte proliferation and loss of cell-to-cell communication through gap junctions. In addition, caffeine plus TCPOBOP treatment increased liver gene expression of Nr1i3 and Cyp2b10 comparing with only caffeine or TCPOBOP treatments. Together, these results indicate that caffeine increases the expression of Nr1i3 in mice liver, although at this point it is not possible to determine if Nr1i3 directly or indirectly mediates this effect.

  16. Daily irrigation attenuates xylem abscisic acid concentration and increases leaf water potential of Pelargonium × hortorum compared with infrequent irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Richard K A; McAinsh, Martin; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-09-01

    The physiological response of plants to different irrigation frequencies may affect plant growth and water use efficiency (WUE; defined as shoot biomass/cumulative irrigation). Glasshouse-grown, containerized Pelargonium × hortorum BullsEye plants were irrigated either daily at 100% of plant evapotranspiration (ET) (well-watered; WW), or at 50% ET applied either daily [frequent deficit irrigation (FDI)] or cumulatively every 4 days [infrequent deficit irrigation (IDI)], for 24 days. Both FDI and IDI applied the same irrigation volume. Xylem sap was collected from the leaves, and stomatal conductance (gs ) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf ) measured every 2 days. As soil moisture decreased, gs decreased similarly under both FDI and IDI throughout the experiment. Ψleaf was maintained under IDI and increased under FDI. Leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations ([X-ABA]leaf ) increased as soil moisture decreased under both IDI and FDI, and was strongly correlated with decreased gs , but [X-ABA]leaf was attenuated under FDI throughout the experiment (at the same level of soil moisture as IDI plants). These physiological changes corresponded with differences in plant production. Both FDI and IDI decreased growth compared with WW plants, and by the end of the experiment, FDI plants also had a greater shoot fresh weight (18%) than IDI plants. Although both IDI and FDI had higher WUE than WW plants during the first 10 days of the experiment (when biomass did not differ between treatments), the deficit irrigation treatments had lower WUE than WW plants in the latter stages when growth was limited. Thus, ABA-induced stomatal closure may not always translate to increased WUE (at the whole plant level) if vegetative growth shows a similar sensitivity to soil drying, and growers must adapt their irrigation scheduling according to crop requirements.

  17. Using an Implementation Research Framework to Identify Potential Facilitators and Barriers of an Intervention to Increase HPV Vaccine Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selove, Rebecca; Foster, Maya; Mack, Raquel; Sanderson, Maureen; Hull, Pamela C

    Although the incidence of cervical cancer has been decreasing in the United States over the last decade, Hispanic and African American women have substantially higher rates than Caucasian women. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary, although insufficient, cause of cervical cancer. In the United States in 2013, only 37.6% of girls 13 to 17 years of age received the recommended 3 doses of a vaccine that is almost 100% efficacious for preventing infection with viruses that are responsible for 70% of cervical cancers. Implementation research has been underutilized in interventions for increasing vaccine uptake. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), an approach for designing effective implementation strategies, integrates 5 domains that may include barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination. These include the innovative practice (Intervention), communities where youth and parents live (Outer Setting), agencies offering vaccination (Inner Setting), health care staff (Providers), and planned execution and evaluation of intervention delivery (Implementation Process). Secondary qualitative analysis of transcripts of interviews with 30 community health care providers was conducted using the CFIR to code potential barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination implementation. All CFIR domains except Implementation Process were well represented in providers' statements about challenges and supports for HPV vaccination. A comprehensive implementation framework for promoting HPV vaccination may increase vaccination rates in ethnically diverse communities. This study suggests that the CFIR can be used to guide clinicians in planning implementation of new approaches to increasing HPV vaccine uptake in their settings. Further research is needed to determine whether identifying implementation barriers and facilitators in all 5 CFIR domains as part of developing an intervention contributes to improved HPV vaccination rates.

  18. Assessing the potential impact of increased participation in higher education on mortality: evidence from 21 European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhánová, Ivana; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Judge, Ken; Looman, Caspar W N; Eikemo, Terje A; Bopp, Matthias; Deboosere, Patrick; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Rychtaříková, Jitka; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Menvielle, Gwenn; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2014-09-01

    Although higher education has been associated with lower mortality rates in many studies, the effect of potential improvements in educational distribution on future mortality levels is unknown. We therefore estimated the impact of projected increases in higher education on mortality in European populations. We used mortality and population data according to educational level from 21 European populations and developed counterfactual scenarios. The first scenario represented the improvement in the future distribution of educational attainment as expected on the basis of an assumption of cohort replacement. We estimated the effect of this counterfactual scenario on mortality with a 10-15-year time horizon among men and women aged 30-79 years using a specially developed tool based on population attributable fractions (PAF). We compared this with a second, upward levelling scenario in which everyone has obtained tertiary education. The reduction of mortality in the cohort replacement scenario ranged from 1.9 to 10.1% for men and from 1.7 to 9.0% for women. The reduction of mortality in the upward levelling scenario ranged from 22.0 to 57.0% for men and from 9.6 to 50.0% for women. The cohort replacement scenario was estimated to achieve only part (4-25% (men) and 10-31% (women)) of the potential mortality decrease seen in the upward levelling scenario. We concluded that the effect of on-going improvements in educational attainment on average mortality in the population differs across Europe, and can be substantial. Further investments in education may have important positive side-effects on population health.

  19. Fibroblast activation protein increases metastatic potential of fibrosarcoma line HT1080 through upregulation of integrin-mediated signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Sarah K; Allan, Laura; Renner, Christoph; Scott, Fiona E; Scott, Andrew M

    2015-06-01

    The serine protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is selectively expressed on tumour-associated fibroblasts in most human epithelial tumours, as well as on some mesenchymal tumours such as sarcoma. High FAP expression is most often associated with poor outcome and increased metastasis. Here, we compare the in vitro metastatic potential of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells with and without FAP expression in order to elucidate the mechanism by which FAP may influence metastasis. In the presence of FAP, cells were more adhesive to extracellular matrix proteins and migrated and invaded through Matrigel to a greater degree. The anti-FAP antibody ESC11, which caused internalization of FAP, decreased adhesion and migration, but only when cells expressed FAP. It was also found that blocking activity of integrins β1 and αvβ3 reduced both cell adhesion and migration and this effect was much more marked in FAP-expressing HT1080 cells than mock-transfected HT1080 cells. The expression or activation of intracellular proteins that form part of the downstream signaling of integrins, including integrin-linked kinase, Rac1 and focal adhesion kinase, was also upregulated when FAP was expressed, suggesting that FAP not only upregulates metastatic-like cell behaviours through interaction with integrins, but also influences the intracellular signaling of integrins. This was confirmed using both PI3 kinase and Src kinase inhibitors, which decreased adhesion and migration in FAP-expressing cells, but did not affect mock-transfected HT1080 cells. FAP is therefore a useful target for anti-cancer therapy, as not only is its expression tumour-selective, but its downregulation has the potential to reduce incidence of metastasis.

  20. Gabapentin potentiates sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol and increases alcohol self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besheer, Joyce; Frisbee, Suzanne; Randall, Patrick A; Jaramillo, Anel A; Masciello, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Gabapentin, a drug used in the treatment of epileptic seizures and neuropathic pain, has shown efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Moreover, given that gabapentin is used in the general population (e.g., non-dependent individuals, social drinkers), we sought to utilize preclinical assessments to examine the effects of gabapentin on sensitivity to moderate alcohol doses and alcohol self-administration in rats with a history of moderate drinking. To this end, we assessed whether gabapentin (0, 10, 30, 120 mg/kg, IG) pretreatment alters sensitivity to experimenter- and self-administered alcohol, and whether gabapentin alone has alcohol-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats trained to discriminate alcohol dose (1 g/kg, IG) vs. water. Second, we assessed whether gabapentin (0, 10, 30, 60 mg/kg, IG) would alter alcohol self-administration. Gabapentin pretreatment potentiated the interoceptive effects of both experimenter-administered and self-administered alcohol in discrimination-trained rats. Additionally, the highest gabapentin doses tested (30 and 120 mg/kg) were found to have partial alcohol-like discriminative stimulus effects when administered alone (e.g., without alcohol). In the self-administration trained rats, gabapentin pretreatment (60 mg/kg) resulted in an escalation in alcohol self-administration. Given the importance of interoceptive drug cues in priming and maintaining self-administration, these data define a specific behavioral mechanism (i.e., potentiation of alcohol effects) by which gabapentin may increase alcohol self-administration in non-dependent populations.

  1. Corrosion behaviour of sintered Ti–Ni–Cu–Nb in 0.9% NaCl environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moipone Linda Lethabane

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The uniform and localized corrosion behaviour of sintered Ti–Ni containing niobium and copper additions were studied using potentiodynamic and cyclic polarization measurements in 0.9% sodium chloride. Results indicated that copper and niobium addition did not have significant effects on the uniform corrosion characteristics, but significantly improved the pitting corrosion resistance. Both copper and niobium additions significantly increased the re-passivation potentials, while copper was observed to reduce the pitting hysteresis loop area. Alloys containing 15% copper and 2% niobium additions depicted the most improved pitting corrosion resistance, and increased the re-passivation value from −315.60 mV to a high re-passivation potential of 840.68 mV.

  2. Hyperthermic potentiation of cisplatin by magnetic nanoparticle heaters is correlated with an increase in cell membrane fluidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez-Berrios MP

    2013-03-01

    acridine orange and measured by flow cytometry. These studies indicated that magnetic fluid hyperthermia significantly increases cell membrane fluidity relative to hot water hyperthermia and untreated cells, and hence this could be a factor contributing to the increase of cDDP uptake in magnetic fluid hyperthermia-treated cells. Overall, our data provide convincing evidence that cell membrane permeability induced by magnetic fluid hyperthermia is significantly greater than that induced by hot water hyperthermia under similar temperature conditions, and is at least one of the mechanisms responsible for potentiation of cDDP by magnetic fluid hyperthermia in Caco-2 cells.Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synergistic effect, hot water hyperthermia, surviving fraction, viability ratio

  3. A SQSTM1/p62 mutation linked to Paget’s disease increases the osteoclastogenic potential of the bone microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Yuko; Kurihara, Noriyoshi; Subler, Mark A.; Zhou, Hua; Boykin, Christina S.; Zhang, Heju; Ishizuka, Seiichi; Dempster, David W.; Roodman, G. David; Windle, Jolene J.

    2008-01-01

    Paget’s disease of bone (PDB) is the second most common bone disease and is characterized by focal bone lesions which contain large numbers of abnormal osteoclasts (OCLs) and very active normal osteoblasts in a highly osteoclastogenic marrow microenvironment. The etiology of PDB is not well understood and both environmental and genetic causes have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Mutations in the SQSTM1/p62 gene have been identified in up to 30% of Paget’s patients. To determine if p62 mutation is sufficient to induce PDB, we generated mice harboring a mutation causing a P-to-L (proline-to-leucine) substitution at residue 394 (the murine equivalent of human p62P392L, the most common PDB-associated mutation). Bone marrow cultures from p62P394L mice formed increased numbers of OCLs in response to receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or 1α,25-(OH)2D3, similar to PDB patients. However, purified p62P394L OCL precursors depleted of stromal cells were no longer hyper-responsive to 1α,25-(OH)2D3, suggesting effects of the p62P394L mutation on the marrow microenvironment in addition to direct effects on OCLs. Co-cultures of purified p62P394L stromal cells with either wild-type (WT) or p62P394L OCL precursors formed more OCLs than co-cultures containing WT stromal cells due to increased RANKL production by the mutant stromal cells. However, despite the enhanced osteoclastogenic potential of both OCL precursors and marrow stromal cells, the p62P394L mice had histologically normal bones. These results indicate that this PDB-associated p62 mutation is not sufficient to induce PDB and suggest that additional factors acting together with p62 mutation are necessary for the development of PDB in vivo. PMID:18765443

  4. B7-H4-Ig treatment of normal mice changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases the potential of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nanna N; Schmidt, Esben G W; Rasmussen, Susanne; Balk-Møller, Emilie; Claesson, Mogens H

    2013-08-01

    Enteroantigens (eAgs) drive tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses in the gut and are of importance for sustained immune homeostasis in colonic mucosa. Decline of regulatory activity in the gut mucosa might result in chronic colitis. B7-H4 is a co-inhibitory receptor expressed by professional antigen-presenting cells. By delivering signal 2 during T cell activation, it inhibits T cell proliferation and inflammation. In this study, we have used a newly developed B7-H4-Ig fusion protein and evaluated its effect on eAg-activated effector and regulatory T cells (Treg) in vitro and in vivo. T cells were recovered from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of untreated or B7-H4-Ig-treated BALB/c mice. Treatment of cells in vitro did neither affect the proliferation of effector T cells nor the function of Tregs. In vivo, B7-H4 treatment increased the total number of MLN-derived CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cell subsets as well as the functional activity of MLN-derived Tregs, whereas the proliferative activity of eAg or alloantigen specific effector T cells was not influenced, although treatment resulted in less secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from these cells. B7-H4-Ig treatment of severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice undergoing T cell transfer colitis did not influence the course of disease probably reflecting the lack of Tregs in this model of chronic colitis. In conclusion, we show that treatment with B7-H4-Ig in vivo changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases the regulatory potential in normal mice, but does not affect the course of disease development in SCID mice undergoing T cell transfer colitis.

  5. Increased levels of p21((CIP1/WAF1)) correlate with decreased chondrogenic differentiation potential in synovial membrane progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Anand Oliveira; Hess, Ricarda; O'Brien, Kate; Bertram, Karri L; Tailor, Pankaj; Irvine, Edward; Ren, Guomin; Krawetz, Roman J

    2015-07-01

    Cartilage injuries are a major concern in the field of orthopedics. They occur following trauma, as well as from a variety of pathological conditions including Osteoarthritis (OA). Although cartilage does not exhibit robust endogenous repair, it has been demonstrated that modulating the activity of p21 can increase the regenerative abilities of cartilage in vitro and in vivo. Since the synovial membrane is abundant with mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) capable of differentiating into cartilage both in vitro and in vivo, we examined if p21 expression levels varied between MPCs derived from normal vs. OA knee joints. Analysis of p21 at the mRNA and protein levels within normal and OA MPCs demonstrated differential levels of expression between these two groups, with OA MPCs having higher p21 expression levels. The higher levels of p21 in OA MPCs are also correlated with a decreased chondrogenic differentiation capacity and synovial inflammation, however, there was no evidence of senescence in the OA cells. The results of this study suggest that cell cycle regulation in MPCs may be altered in OA and that modulation of this pathway may have therapeutic potential once the mechanism by which this regulates stem/progenitor cells is better understood.

  6. Toxicity of terpenes on fibroblast cells compared to their hemolytic potential and increase in erythrocyte membrane fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendanha, Sebastião A; Moura, Soraia S; Anjos, Jorge L V; Valadares, Marize C; Alonso, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Terpenes are considered potent skin permeation enhancers with low toxicity. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the spin label 5-doxyl stearic acid (5-DSA) was used to monitor the effect of sesquiterpene nerolidol and various monoterpenes on membrane fluidity in erythrocyte and fibroblast cells. In addition, the hemolytic levels and cytotoxic effects on cultured fibroblast cells were also measured to investigate possible relationships between the cellular irritation potentials of terpenes and the ability to modify membrane fluidity. All terpenes increased cell membrane fluidity with no significant differences between the monoterpenes, but the effect of sesquiterpene was significantly greater than that of the monoterpenes. The IC(50) values for the terpenes in the cytotoxicity assay indicated that 1,8-cineole showed lower cytotoxicity and α-terpineol and nerolidol showed higher cytotoxicity. The correlation between the hemolytic effect and the IC(50) values for fibroblast viability was low (R=0.61); however, in both tests, nerolidol was among the most aggressive of terpenes and 1,8-cineole was among the least aggressive. Obtaining information concerning the toxicity and potency of terpenes could aid in the design of topical formulations optimized to facilitate drug absorption for the treatment of many skin diseases.

  7. Enhanced early-life nutrition of Holstein bulls increases sperm production potential without decreasing postpubertal semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2016-08-01

    three levels of nutrition from ages 2 to 31 weeks. However, bulls fed high-nutrition early in life had potential to produce more sperm that could be harvested and sold, which would increase profitability, thereby supporting enhanced early-life nutrition as a management tool to improve reproductive potential of dairy bulls.

  8. Changes in dry state hemoglobin over time do not increase the potential for oxidative DNA damage in dried blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Marrone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin (Hb is the iron-containing oxygen transport protein present in the red blood cells of vertebrates. Ancient DNA and forensic scientists are particularly interested in Hb reactions in the dry state because both regularly encounter aged, dried bloodstains. The DNA in such stains may be oxidatively damaged and, in theory, may be deteriorated by the presence of Hb. To understand the nature of the oxidative systems potentially available to degrade DNA in the presence of dried Hb, we need to determine what molecular species Hb forms over time. These species will determine what type of iron (i.e. Fe(2+/Fe(3+/Fe(4+ is available to participate in further chemical reactions. The availability of "free" iron will affect the ability of the system to undergo Fenton-type reactions which generate the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (OH*. The OH* can directly damage DNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Oxygenated Hb (oxyHb converts over time to oxidized Hb (metHb, but this happens more quickly in the dry state than in the hydrated state, as shown by monitoring stabilized oxyHb. In addition, dry state oxyHb converts into at least one other unknown species other than metHb. Although "free" iron was detectable as both Fe(2+ and Fe(3+ in dry and hydrated oxyHb and metHb, the amount of ions detected did not increase over time. There was no evidence that Hb becomes more prone to generating OH* as it ages in either the hydrated or dry states. CONCLUSIONS: The Hb molecule in the dried state undergoes oxidative changes and releases reactive Fe(II cations. These changes, however, do not appear to increase the ability of Hb to act as a more aggressive Fenton reagent over time. Nevertheless, the presence of Hb in the vicinity of DNA in dried bloodstains creates the opportunity for OH*-induced oxidative damage to the deoxyribose sugar and the DNA nucleobases.

  9. Therapeutic concentrations of varenicline in the presence of nicotine increase action potential firing in human adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Arik J; Michael McIntosh, J; Rueda-Ruzafa, Lola; Passas, Juan; de Castro-Guerín, Cristina; Blázquez, Jesús; González-Enguita, Carmen; Albillos, Almudena

    2017-01-01

    Varenicline is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist used to treat nicotine addiction, but a live debate persists concerning its mechanism of action in reducing nicotine consumption. Although initially reported as α4β2 selective, varenicline was subsequently shown to activate other nAChR subtypes implicated in nicotine addiction including α3β4. However, it remains unclear whether activation of α3β4 nAChRs by therapeutically relevant concentrations of varenicline is sufficient to affect the behavior of cells that express this subtype. We used patch-clamp electrophysiology to assess the effects of varenicline on native α3β4* nAChRs (asterisk denotes the possible presence of other subunits) expressed in human adrenal chromaffin cells and compared its effects to those of nicotine. Varenicline and nicotine activated α3β4* nAChRs with EC50 values of 1.8 (1.2-2.7) μM and 19.4 (11.1-33.9) μM, respectively. Stimulation of adrenal chromaffin cells with 10 ms pulses of 300 μM acetylcholine (ACh) in current-clamp mode evoked sodium channel-dependent action potentials (APs). Under these conditions, perfusion of 50 or 100 nM varenicline showed very little effect on AP firing compared to control conditions (ACh stimulation alone), but at higher concentrations (250 nM) varenicline increased the number of APs fired up to 436 ± 150%. These results demonstrate that therapeutic concentrations of varenicline are unlikely to alter AP firing in chromaffin cells. In contrast, nicotine showed no effect on AP firing at any of the concentrations tested (50, 100, 250, and 500 nM). However, perfusion of 50 nM nicotine simultaneously with 100 nM varenicline increased AP firing by 290 ± 104% indicating that exposure to varenicline and nicotine concurrently may alter cellular behavior such as excitability and neurotransmitter release.

  10. Increasing microbial diversity and nitrogen cycling potential of burnt forest soil in Spain through post-fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg, Lily; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; McMillan, Mary; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2016-04-01

    Microbial diversity and function in soils are increasingly assessed by the application of molecular methods such as sequencing and PCR technology. We applied these techniques to study microbial recovery in post-fire forest soils. The recovery of forest ecosystems following severe fire is influenced by post-fire management. The removal of burnt tree stumps (salvage logging) is a common practice in Spain following fire. In some cases, the use of heavy machinery in addition to the vulnerability of soils to erosion and degradation make this management potentially damaging to soil, and therefore to the ecosystem. We hypothesized that tree removal slows down the recovery of soil biological communities including microbial and plant communities and contributes to soil degradation in the burnt affected area. The study area is located in "Sierra de Mariola Natural Park" in Alcoi, Alicante (E Spain). A big forest fire (>500 has) occurred in July 2012. The forest is composed mainly of Pinus halepensis trees with an understory of typical Mediterranean shrubs species such as Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Brachypodium retusum, etc. Soil is classified as a Typic Xerorthent (Soil Survey Staff, 2014) developed over marls. In February 2013, salvage logging (SL) treatment, with a complete extraction of the burned wood using heavy machinery, was applied to a part of the affected forest. Plots for monitoring the effects of SL were installed in this area and in a similar nearby control (C) area, where no SL treatment was done. The recovery of soil bacterial and fungal communities post-fire with and without tree removal was analysed by using Next-Generation sequencing and the abundance of functional genes, related to nitrogen cycling, in the soil was estimated using quantitative PCR (qPCR). We will present the methods used and the results of our study in this PICO presentation.

  11. Development of territorial marketing complex for industrial cities of old industrial regions social and economic potential increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Dubnitsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Role of territorial marketing in the innovation development process and in the improving of important components of social and economic potential possibilities efficiency of industrial cities regional economic complex is discovered in this article.

  12. Posttraining Increases in REM Sleep Intensity Implicate REM Sleep in Memory Processing and Provide a Biological Marker of Learning Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Rebecca S.; Smith, Carlyle T.; Nixon, Margaret R.

    2004-01-01

    Posttraining rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been reported to be important for efficient memory consolidation. The present results demonstrate increases in the intensity of REM sleep during the night of sleep following cognitive procedural/implicit task acquisition. These REM increases manifest as increases in total number of rapid eye…

  13. Biomass production and potential water stress increase with planting density in four highly productive clonal Eucalyptus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Hakamada; Robert M. Hubbard; Silvio Ferraz; Jose Luiz Stape; Cristiane Lemos

    2017-01-01

    The choice of planting density and tree genotype are basic decisions when establishing a forest stand. Understanding the interaction between planting density and genotype, and their relationship with biomass production and potential water stress, is crucial as forest managers are faced with a changing climate. However, few studies have investigated this relationship,...

  14. Hydroxylation increases the neurotoxic potential of BDE-47 to affect exocytosis and calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, M.M.L.; de Groot, A.; van Kleef, R.G.; Bergman, A.; van den Berg, M.; Vijverberg, H.P.M.; Westerink, R.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative metabolism, resulting in the formation of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) metabolites, may enhance the neurotoxic potential of brominated flame retardants. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effects of a hydroxylated metabolite of 2,2',4,4'-tetra-

  15. Increasing potential risk of a global aquatic invader in Europe in contrast to other continents under future climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anthropogenically-induced climate change can alter the current climatic habitat of non-native species and can have complex effects on potentially invasive species. Predictions of the potential distributions of invasive species under climate change will provide critical information for future conservation and management strategies. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to invasive species and climate change, but the effect of climate change on invasive species distributions has been rather neglected, especially for notorious global invaders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used ecological niche models (ENMs to assess the risks and opportunities that climate change presents for the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, which is a worldwide aquatic invasive species. Linking the factors of climate, topography, habitat and human influence, we developed predictive models incorporating both native and non-native distribution data of the crayfish to identify present areas of potential distribution and project the effects of future climate change based on a consensus-forecast approach combining the CCCMA and HADCM3 climate models under two emission scenarios (A2a and B2a by 2050. The minimum temperature from the coldest month, the human footprint and precipitation of the driest quarter contributed most to the species distribution models. Under both the A2a and B2a scenarios, P. clarkii shifted to higher latitudes in continents of both the northern and southern hemispheres. However, the effect of climate change varied considerately among continents with an expanding potential in Europe and contracting changes in others. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are the first to predict the impact of climate change on the future distribution of a globally invasive aquatic species. We confirmed the complexities of the likely effects of climate change on the potential distribution of globally invasive species, and it is extremely

  16. Increased installation in existing hydro power plants. Potentials and costs; Oekt installasjon i eksisterende kraftverk. Potensial og kostnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, Kjell Erik (ed.)

    2011-06-15

    This report seeks to highlight the costs associated with increased installed capacity of existing hydropower plants. Five selected power plant is further studied. Furthermore, given an overview of the technical possibilities of power expansions in Norway. (AG)

  17. Potential changes in bacterial metabolism associated with increased water temperature and nutrient inputs in tropical humic lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Vinicius; Jacques, Saulo M S; Guimarães, Jean R D; Farjalla, Vinicius F

    2015-01-01

    Temperature and nutrient concentrations regulate aquatic bacterial metabolism. However, few studies have focused on the effect of the interaction between these factors on bacterial processes, and none have been performed in tropical aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the main and interactive effects of changes in water temperature and N and P concentrations on bacterioplankton production (BP), bacterioplankton respiration (BR) and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) in tropical coastal lagoons. We used a factorial design with three levels of water temperature (25, 30, and 35°C) and four levels of N and/or P additions (Control, N, P, and NP additions) in five tropical humic lagoons. When data for all lagoons were pooled together, a weak interaction was observed between the increase in water temperature and the addition of nutrients. Water temperature alone had the greatest impact on bacterial metabolism by increasing BR, decreasing BP, and decreasing BGE. An increase of 1°C lead to an increase of ~4% in BR, a decrease of ~0.9% in BP, and a decrease of ~4% in BGE. When data were analyzed separately, lagoons responded differently to nutrient additions depending on Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentration. Lagoons with lowest DOC concentrations showed the strongest responses to nutrient additions: BP increased in response to N, P, and their interaction, BR increased in response to N and the interaction between N and P, and BGE was negatively affected, mainly by the interaction between N and P additions. Lagoons with the highest DOC concentrations showed almost no significant relationship with nutrient additions. Taken together, these results show that different environmental drivers impact bacterial processes at different scales. Changes of bacterial metabolism related to the increase of water temperature are consistent between lagoons, therefore their consequences can be predicted at a regional scale, while the effect of nutrient inputs is specific to different

  18. Fever as a risk factor for increased response to vitamin K antagonists: a review of the evidence and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Timothy H; Oliphant, Carrie S; Reaves, Anne B; Richardson, Amy M; Sands, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    Numerous factors affect the response to vitamin K antagonists (VKA) including age, dietary vitamin K, other drugs, pharmacogenetics, and disease states. In antithrombotic guidelines, fever is mentioned as a factor that may increase response to VKA. The purpose of this article is to review the available evidence regarding the effect of fever on response to VKA, and to discuss possible mechanisms of this effect. We performed a search of the English literature from 1943 to June 2014, using the key words fever AND warfarin, acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon, coumarin anticoagulants and VKA; fever AND vitamin K dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X. One animal investigation and 6 studies in humans suggest fever increases response to VKA, but one study did not find a significant effect. The magnitude of this effect is variable. Possible mechanisms for the increased effect of VKA associated with fever are increased catabolism of vitamin K dependent clotting factors, decreased vitamin K intake, and inhibition of VKA metabolism. More rigorous studies are needed to confirm that fever increases response to warfarin and other VKA.

  19. Assessment of Potential Capacity Increases at Combined Heat and Power Facilities Based on Available Corn Stover and Forest Logging Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Grebner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Combined Heat and Power (CHP production using renewable energy sources is gaining importance because of its flexibility and high-energy efficiency. Biomass materials, such as corn stover and forestry residues, are potential sources for renewable energy for CHP production. In Mississippi, approximately 4.0 MT dry tons of woody biomass is available annually for energy production. In this study, we collected and analyzed 10 years of corn stover data (2001–2010 and three years of forest logging residue data (1995, 1999, and 2002 in each county in Mississippi to determine the potential of these feed stocks for sustainable CHP energy production. We identified six counties, namely Amite, Copiah, Clarke, Wayne, Wilkinson and Rankin, that have forest logging residue feedstocks to sustain a CHP facility with a range of capacity between 8.0 and 9.8 MW. Using corn stover alone, Yazoo and Washington counties can produce 13.4 MW and 13.5 MW of energy, respectively. Considering both feedstocks and based on a conservative amount of 30% available forest logging residue and 33% corn stover, we found that 20 counties have adequate supply for a CHP facility with a capacity of 8.3 MW to 19.6 MW.

  20. Conjugation of cholesterol to HIV-1 fusion inhibitor C34 increases peptide-membrane interactions potentiating its action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Hollmann

    Full Text Available Recently, the covalent binding of a cholesterol moiety to a classical HIV-1 fusion inhibitor peptide, C34, was shown to potentiate its antiviral activity. Our purpose was to evaluate the interaction of cholesterol-conjugated and native C34 with membrane model systems and human blood cells to understand the effects of this derivatization. Lipid vesicles and monolayers with defined compositions were used as model membranes. C34-cholesterol partitions more to fluid phase membranes that mimic biological membranes. Importantly, there is a preference of the conjugate for liquid ordered membranes, rich in cholesterol and/or sphingomyelin, as observed both from partition and surface pressure studies. In human erythrocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, C34-cholesterol significantly decreases the membrane dipole potential. In PBMC, the conjugate was 14- and 115-fold more membranotropic than T-1249 and enfuvirtide, respectively. C34 or cholesterol alone did not show significant membrane activity. The enhanced interaction of C34-cholesterol with biological membranes correlates with its higher antiviral potency. Higher partitions for lipid-raft like compositions direct the drug to the receptor-rich domains where membrane fusion is likely to occur. This intermediary membrane binding step may facilitate the drug delivery to gp41 in its pre-fusion state.

  1. Not Just a Drop in the Bucket-Inversion of Oxymetazoline Nasal Decongestant Container Increases Potential for Severe Pediatric Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Sean Patrick; Vivero, Lisa E; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-01-01

    Oxymetazoline is an over-the-counter nasal decongestant with potent alpha agonist properties. In overdoses as small as 1-2 mL, toxicity can be seen including bradycardia and respiratory depression. We demonstrated that inverting the container increased the volume delivered 20- to 30-fold compared with holding it upright in an in vitro model.

  2. A proposed potential role for increasing atmospheric CO2 as a promoter of weight gain and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Astrup, A

    2012-01-01

    , which in turn spills over to cerebrospinal fluids. Nerve cells in the hypothalamus that regulate appetite and wakefulness have been shown to be extremely sensitive to pH, doubling their activity if pH decreases by 0.1 units. We hypothesize that an increased acidic load from atmospheric CO2 may...

  3. Mechanical wounding under field conditions: A potential tool to increase the allelopathic inhibitory effect of cover crops on weeds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Dam, van N.M.; Ritz, C.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Kropff, M.J.; Bastiaans, L.

    2014-01-01

    To increase the inhibitory effect of soil-incorporated cover crop residues on germination and early growth of weeds, the allelochemical content of the cover crop at the time of soil incorporation should be maximal. We investigated whether mechanical damaging in spring induced the production of allel

  4. Iron availability increases the pathogenic potential of Salmonella typhimurium and other enteric pathogens at the intestinal epithelial interface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortman, G.A.M.; Boleij, A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Tjalsma, H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent trials have questioned the safety of untargeted oral iron supplementation in developing regions. Excess of luminal iron could select for enteric pathogens at the expense of beneficial commensals in the human gut microflora, thereby increasing the incidence of infectious diseases. The objectiv

  5. Yes-mediated phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase at tyrosine 861 increases metastatic potential of prostate cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterji, T.; Varkaris, A.S.; Parikh, N.U.; Song, J.H.; Cheng, C.J.; Schweppe, R.E.; Alexander, S.; Davis, J.W.; Troncoso, P.; Friedl, P.H.; Kuang, J.; Lin, S.H.; Gallick, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    To study the role of FAK signaling complexes in promoting metastatic properties of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, we selected stable, highly migratory variants, termed PC3 Mig-3 and DU145 Mig-3, from two well-characterized PCa cell lines, PC3 and DU145. These variants were not only increased migration

  6. Increased Visceral Adipose Tissue as a Potential Risk Factor in Patients with Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (ESUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuronen, Antti T.; Taina, Mikko; Hedman, Marja; Marttila, Jarkko; Kuusisto, Johanna; Onatsu, Juha; Vanninen, Ritva; Jäkälä, Pekka; Sipola, Petri; Mustonen, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The etiology of an ischemic stroke remains undetermined in 20–35% of cases and many patients do not have any of the conventional risk factors. Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a suggested new risk factor for both carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAA) and atrial fibrillation (AF), but its role in the remaining stroke population is unknown. We assessed the amount of VAT in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) after excluding major-risk cardioembolic sources, occlusive atherosclerosis, and lacunar stroke. Methods Altogether 58 patients (mean age 57.7±10.2 years, 44 men) with ischemic stroke of unknown etiology but without CAA, known AF or small vessel disease underwent computed tomography angiography and assessment of VAT. For comparison VAT values from three different reference populations were used. Conventional risk factors (smoking, hypertension, diabetes, increased total and LDL-cholesterol, decreased HDL-cholesterol) were also registered. Results Mean VAT area was significantly higher in stroke patients (205±103 cm2 for men and 168±99 cm2 for women) compared to all reference populations (P<0.01). 50% of male and 57% of female patients had an increased VAT area. In male patients, VAT was significantly higher despite similar body mass index (BMI). Increased VAT was more common than any of the conventional risk factors. Conclusion Increased VAT was found in over half of our patients with ESUS suggesting it may have a role in the pathogenesis of thromboembolism in this selected group of patients. PMID:25756793

  7. Chemical inhibition of autophagy: Examining its potential to increase the specific productivity of recombinant CHO cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eric; Kim, Che Lin; Kim, Mi Gyeom; Lee, Jae Seong; Lee, Gyun Min

    2016-09-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells activate and undergo apoptosis and autophagy for various environmental stresses. Unlike apoptosis, studies on increasing the production of therapeutic proteins in CHO cells by targeting the autophagy pathway are limited. In order to identify the effects of chemical autophagy inhibitors on the specific productivity (qp ), nine chemical inhibitors that had been reported to target three different phases of autophagy (metformin, dorsomorphin, resveratrol, and SP600125 against initiation and nucleation; 3-MA, wortmannin, and LY294002 against elongation, and chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 against autophagosome fusion) were used to treat three recombinant CHO (rCHO) cell lines: the Fc-fusion protein-producing DG44 (DG44-Fc) and DUKX-B11 (DUKX-Fc) and antibody-producing DG44 (DG44-Ab) cell lines. Among the nine chemical inhibitors tested, 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125 significantly increased the qp of DG44-Fc and DUKX-Fc. In contrast, for DG44-Ab, only 3-MA significantly increased the qp . The autophagy-inhibiting activity of the nine chemical inhibitors on the rCHO cell lines was evaluated through Western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Unexpectedly, some chemical inhibitors did not exhibit any apparent inhibition activity on autophagy. The chemical inhibitors that enhanced the qp , 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125, exhibited instead an increased autophagic flux. Taken all together, the chemical inhibition of autophagy was not effective in increasing the qp in rCHO cell lines and the positive effect of 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125 on the qp was not due to the inhibition of autophagy. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1953-1961. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Increased visceral adipose tissue as a potential risk factor in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS.

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    Antti T Muuronen

    Full Text Available The etiology of an ischemic stroke remains undetermined in 20-35% of cases and many patients do not have any of the conventional risk factors. Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT is a suggested new risk factor for both carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAA and atrial fibrillation (AF, but its role in the remaining stroke population is unknown. We assessed the amount of VAT in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS after excluding major-risk cardioembolic sources, occlusive atherosclerosis, and lacunar stroke.Altogether 58 patients (mean age 57.7 ± 10.2 years, 44 men with ischemic stroke of unknown etiology but without CAA, known AF or small vessel disease underwent computed tomography angiography and assessment of VAT. For comparison VAT values from three different reference populations were used. Conventional risk factors (smoking, hypertension, diabetes, increased total and LDL-cholesterol, decreased HDL-cholesterol were also registered.Mean VAT area was significantly higher in stroke patients (205 ± 103 cm2 for men and 168 ± 99 cm2 for women compared to all reference populations (P < 0.01. 50% of male and 57% of female patients had an increased VAT area. In male patients, VAT was significantly higher despite similar body mass index (BMI. Increased VAT was more common than any of the conventional risk factors.Increased VAT was found in over half of our patients with ESUS suggesting it may have a role in the pathogenesis of thromboembolism in this selected group of patients.

  9. Repetitive Hops Induce Postactivation Potentiation in Triceps Surae as well as an Increase in the Jump Height of Subsequent Maximal Drop Jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Bergmann; Andreas Kramer; Markus Gruber

    2013-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) has been defined as the increase in twitch torque after a conditioning contraction. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hops as conditioning contractions to induce PAP and increase performance in subsequent maximal drop jumps. In addition, we wanted to test if and how PAP can contribute to increases in drop jump rebound height. Twelve participants performed 10 maximal two-legged hops as conditioning contractions. Twitch peak torques of...

  10. Extracellular alkaline pH leads to increased metastatic potential of estrogen receptor silenced endocrine resistant breast cancer cells.

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    Maitham A Khajah

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Endocrine resistance in breast cancer is associated with enhanced metastatic potential and poor clinical outcome, presenting a significant therapeutic challenge. We have established several endocrine insensitive breast cancer lines by shRNA induced depletion of estrogen receptor (ER by transfection of MCF-7 cells which all exhibit enhanced expression profile of mesenchymal markers with reduction of epithelial markers, indicating an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. In this study we describe their behaviour in response to change in extracellular pH, an important factor controlling cell motility and metastasis. METHODS: Morphological changes associated with cell exposure to extracellular alkaline pH were assessed by live cell microscopy and the effect of various ion pumps on this behavior was investigated by pretreatment with chemical inhibitors. The activity and expression profile of key signaling molecules was assessed by western blotting. Cell motility and invasion were examined by scratch and under-agarose assays respectively. Total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity and specifically of MMP2/9 was assessed in conditioned medium in response to brief alkaline pH exposure. RESULTS: Exposure of ER -ve but not ER +ve breast cancer cells to extracellular alkaline pH resulted in cell shrinkage and spherical appearance (termed contractolation; this was reversed by returning the pH back to 7.4. Contractolation was blocked by targeting the Na(+/K(+ and Na(+/H(+ pumps with specific chemical inhibitors. The activity and expression profile of key signaling molecules critical for cell adhesion were modulated by the exposure to alkaline pH. Brief exposure to alkaline pH enhanced MMP2/9 activity and the invasive potential of ER -ve cells in response to serum components and epithelial growth factor stimulation without affecting unhindered motility. CONCLUSIONS: Endocrine resistant breast cancer cells behave very differently to estrogen

  11. Increased left ventricular ejection fraction after a meal: potential source of error in performance of radionuclide angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.M.; White, C.J.; Sobol, S.M.; Lull, R.J.

    1983-06-01

    The effect of a standardized meal on left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) was determined by equilibrium radionuclide angiography in 16 patients with stable congestive heart failure but without pulmonary or valvular heart disease. LVEF was determined in the fasting state and 15, 30, and 45 minutes after a meal. Patients with moderately depressed fasting LVEF (30 to 50%), Group I, had a mean increase of 6.9 +/- 2.9% (p less than 0.005) in the LVEF at 45 minutes after the meal. Patients with severely depressed fasting LVEF (less than 30%), Group II, had no change after the meal. It is concluded that significant increases in LVEF may occur after meals in patients with moderate but not severe left ventricular dysfunction. Equilibrium radionuclide angiography studies that are not standardized for patients' mealtimes may introduce an important unmeasured variable that will affect the validity of data in serial studies of left ventricular function.

  12. Increased peritoneal permeability at peritoneal dialysis initiation is a potential cardiovascular risk in patients using biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solution

    OpenAIRE

    Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Doi, Kent; Tanaka, Mototsugu; Kume, Haruki; Ishibashi, Yoshitaka; Enomoto, Yutaka; Fujita, Toshiro; Homma, Yukio; Nangaku, Masaomi; Noiri, Eisei

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a frequent cause of death in peritoneal dialysis patients. Biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions with neutral pH have been anticipated to reduce cardiovascular disease more than conventional peritoneal dialysis solutions with low pH, but it remains unclear which factors at peritoneal dialysis initiation increase cardiovascular risk in patients using biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions. This study was undertaken to investigate which clinical f...

  13. Hippocampal Excitability Increases during the Estrous Cycle in the Rat: A Potential Role for Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    OpenAIRE

    SCHARFMAN, HELEN E.; Mercurio, Thomas C.; Goodman, Jeffrey H.; Wilson, Marlene A.; MacLusky, Neil J.

    2003-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that induction of BDNF may contribute to changes in hippocampal excitability occurring during the female reproductive cycle, we examined the distribution of BDNF immunoreactivity and changes in CA1 and CA3 electrophysiology across the estrous cycle in rats. Hippocampal BDNF immunoreactivity increased on the day of proestrus as well as on the following morning (estrus), relative to metestrus or ovariectomized animals. Changes in immunoreactivity were clearest in mossy fi...

  14. Hippocampal excitability increases during the estrous cycle in the rat: a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfman, Helen E; Mercurio, Thomas C; Goodman, Jeffrey H; Wilson, Marlene A; MacLusky, Neil J

    2003-12-17

    To test the hypothesis that induction of BDNF may contribute to changes in hippocampal excitability occurring during the female reproductive cycle, we examined the distribution of BDNF immunoreactivity and changes in CA1 and CA3 electrophysiology across the estrous cycle in rats. Hippocampal BDNF immunoreactivity increased on the day of proestrus as well as on the following morning (estrus), relative to metestrus or ovariectomized animals. Changes in immunoreactivity were clearest in mossy fiber axons of dentate gyrus granule cells, which contain the highest concentration of BDNF. Increased immunoreactivity was also apparent in the neuropil-containing dendrites of CA1 and CA3 neurons. Electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices showed robust cycle-dependent differences. Evoked responses of CA1 neurons to Schaffer collateral stimulation changed over the cycle, with larger maximum responses at both proestrus and estrus relative to metestrus. In area CA3, repetitive hilar stimuli frequently evoked multiple population spikes at proestrus and estrus but only rarely at other cycle stages, and never in slices of ovariectomized rats. Hyperexcitability in area CA3 at proestrus was blocked by exposure to the high-affinity neurotrophin receptor antagonist K252a, or an antagonist of the alpha7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor, whereas it was induced at metestrus by the addition of BDNF to hippocampal slices. These studies suggest that hippocampal BDNF levels change across the estrous cycle, accompanied by neurophysiological responses that resemble the effects of BDNF treatment. An estrogen-induced interaction of BDNF and alpha7 nicotinic receptors on mossy fibers seems responsible for estrous cycle changes in area CA3. Periovulatory changes in hippocampal function may, thus, involve estrogen-induced increases in BDNF expression.

  15. Placental-mediated increased cytokine response to lipopolysaccharides: a potential mechanism for enhanced inflammation susceptibility of the preterm fetus

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    Ross MG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Julie L Boles,1 Michael G Ross,1 Ron Beloosesky,2 Mina Desai,1 Louiza Belkacemi11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, Torrance, CA, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, IsraelBackground: Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive motor impairment syndrome that has no effective cure. The etiology of most cases of cerebral palsy remains unknown; however, recent epidemiologic data have demonstrated an association between fetal neurologic injury and infection/inflammation. Maternal infection/inflammation may be associated with the induction of placental cytokines that could result in increased fetal proinflammatory cytokine exposure, and development of neonatal neurologic injury. Therefore, we sought to explore the mechanism by which maternal infection may produce a placental inflammatory response. We specifically examined rat placental cytokine production and activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 pathway in response to lipopolysaccharide exposure at preterm and near-term gestational ages.Methods: Preterm (e16 or near-term (e20 placental explants from pregnant rats were treated with 0, 1, or 10 µg/mL lipopolysaccharide. Explant integrity was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis alpha levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. TLR4 and phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB protein expression levels were determined by Western blot analysis.Results: At both e16 and e20, lactate dehydrogenase levels were unchanged by treatment with lipopolysaccharide. After exposure to lipopolysaccharide, the release of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis alpha from e16 placental explants increased by 4-fold and 8–9-fold, respectively (P < 0.05 versus

  16. Increased Circulating MicroRNA-155 as a Potential Biomarker for Breast Cancer Screening: A Meta-Analysis

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    Faliang Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of circulating microRNA-155 (miR-155 for breast cancer (BC. PubMed, Embase, EBSCO (ASP/BSP, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI were searched up to 30 January 2014 for eligible studies. Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS was employed to assess the quality of the included studies. Meta-analysis were performed in Meta-Disc 1.4 and Stata 12.0. Three studies with total 184 BC patients and 75 control individuals were included in this meta-analysis. All of the included studies are of high quality (QUADAS scores 12 or 13. The summary estimates revealed that the pooled sensitivity is 79% (95% confidence interval (CI: 72%–84% and the specificity is 85% (95% CI: 75%–92%, for the diagnosis of breast cancer. In addition, the area under the summary ROC curve (AUC is 0.9217. The current evidence suggests that circulating miR-155 has the potential diagnostic value with a high sensitivity and specificity for BC. More prospective studies on the diagnostic value of circulating miR-155 for BC are needed in the future.

  17. Alpha 1,3-Galactosyltransferase Deficiency in Pigs Increases Sialyltransferase Activities That Potentially Raise Non-Gal Xenoantigenicity

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    Jong-Yi Park

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether deficiency of the GGTA1 gene in pigs altered the expression of several glycosyltransferase genes. Real-time RT-PCR and glycosyltransferase activity showed that 2 sialyltransferases [α2,3-sialyltransferase (α2,3ST and α2,6-sialyltransferase (α2,6ST] in the heterozygote GalT KO liver have higher expression levels and activities compared to controls. Enzyme-linked lectin assays indicated that there were also more sialic acid-containing glycoconjugate epitopes in GalT KO livers than in controls. The elevated level of sialic-acid-containing glycoconjugate epitopes was due to the low level of α-Gal in heterozygote GalT KO livers. Furthermore, proteomics analysis showed that heterozygote GalT KO pigs had a higher expression of NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, which is related to the CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH enzyme reaction. These findings suggest the deficiency of GGTA1 gene in pigs results in increased production of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc due to an increase of α2,6-sialyltransferase and a CMAH cofactor, NAD+-IDH. This indicates that Neu5Gc may be a critical xenoantigen. The deletion of the CMAH gene in the GalT KO background is expected to further prolong xenograft survival.

  18. Dissolution behaviour of ferric pyrophosphate and its mixtures with soluble pyrophosphates: Potential strategy for increasing iron bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Blanco, Elena; Smoukov, Stoyan K; Velev, Orlin D; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2016-10-01

    Ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) is a widely used iron source in food fortification and in nutritional supplements, due to its white colour, that is very uncommon for insoluble Fe salts. Although its dissolution is an important determinant of Fe adsorption in human body, the solubility characteristics of FePP are complex and not well understood. This report is a study on the solubility of FePP as a function of pH and excess of pyrophosphate ions. FePP powder is sparingly soluble in the pH range of 3-6 but slightly soluble at pH8. In the presence of pyrophosphate ions the solubility of FePP strongly increases at pH 5-8.5 due to formation a soluble complex between Fe(III) and pyrophosphate ions, which leads to an 8-10-fold increase in the total ionic iron concentration. This finding is beneficial for enhancing iron bioavailability, which important for the design of fortified food, beverages, and nutraceutical products.

  19. Identifying potential functional impact of mutations and polymorphisms: Linking heart failure, increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENOIT eJAGU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and clinicians have discovered several important concepts regarding the mechanisms responsible for increased risk of arrhythmias, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. One major step in defining the molecular basis of normal and abnormal cardiac electrical behaviour has been the identification of single mutations that greatly increase the risk for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by changing channel-gating characteristics. Indeed, mutations in several genes encoding ion channels, such as SCN5A, which encodes the major cardiac Na+ channel, have emerged as the basis for a variety of inherited cardiac arrhythmias such as long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disorder, sinus node dysfunction or sudden infant death syndrome. In addition, genes encoding ion channel accessory proteins, like anchoring or chaperone proteins, which modify the expression, the regulation of endocytosis and the degradation of ion channel α-subunits have also been reported as susceptibility genes for arrhythmic syndromes. The regulation of ion channel protein expression also depends on a fine-tuned balance among different other mechanisms, such as gene transcription, RNA processing, post-transcriptional control of gene expression by miRNA, protein synthesis, assembly and post-translational modification and trafficking.

  20. Increased RPA1 gene dosage affects genomic stability potentially contributing to 17p13.3 duplication syndrome.

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    Emily Outwin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel microduplication syndrome involving various-sized contiguous duplications in 17p13.3 has recently been described, suggesting that increased copy number of genes in 17p13.3, particularly PAFAH1B1, is associated with clinical features including facial dysmorphism, developmental delay, and autism spectrum disorder. We have previously shown that patient-derived cell lines from individuals with haploinsufficiency of RPA1, a gene within 17p13.3, exhibit an impaired ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR. Here, we show that cell lines from patients with duplications specifically incorporating RPA1 exhibit a different although characteristic spectrum of DDR defects including abnormal S phase distribution, attenuated DNA double strand break (DSB-induced RAD51 chromatin retention, elevated genomic instability, and increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. Using controlled conditional over-expression of RPA1 in a human model cell system, we also see attenuated DSB-induced RAD51 chromatin retention. Furthermore, we find that transient over-expression of RPA1 can impact on homologous recombination (HR pathways following DSB formation, favouring engagement in aberrant forms of recombination and repair. Our data identifies unanticipated defects in the DDR associated with duplications in 17p13.3 in humans involving modest RPA1 over-expression.

  1. Attenuation of PTEN increases p21 stability and cytosolic localization in kidney cancer cells: a potential mechanism of apoptosis resistance

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    Baksh Shairaz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin homolog deleted on chromosome Ten tumor suppressor gene is frequently mutated or deleted in a wide variety of solid tumors, and these cancers are generally more aggressive and difficult to treat than those possessing wild type PTEN. While PTEN lies upstream of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase signaling pathway, the mechanisms that mediate its effects on tumor survival remain incompletely understood. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is associated with frequent treatment failures (~90% in metastatic cases, and these tumors frequently contain PTEN abnormalities. Results Using the ACHN cell line containing wild type PTEN, we generated a stable PTEN knockdown RCC cell line using RNA interference. We then used this PTEN knockdown cell line to show that PTEN attenuation increases resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis, a finding associated with increased levels of the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21. Elevated levels of p21 result from stabilization of the protein, and they are dependent on the activities of phosphoinositide-3 kinase and Akt. More specifically, the accumulation of p21 occurs preferentially in the cytosolic compartment, which likely contributes to both cell cycle progression and resistance to apoptosis. Conclusion Since p21 regulates a decision point between repair and apoptosis after DNA damage, our data suggest that p21 plays a key role in mechanisms used by PTEN-deficient tumors to escape chemotherapy. This in turn raises the possibility to use p21 attenuators as chemotherapy sensitizers, an area under active continuing investigation in our laboratories.

  2. Activation of VCAM-1 and Its Associated Molecule CD44 Leads to Increased Malignant Potential of Breast Cancer Cells

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    Pei-Chen Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available VCAM-1 (CD106, a transmembrane glycoprotein, was first reported to play an important role in leukocyte adhesion, leukocyte transendothelial migration and cell activation by binding to integrin VLA-1 (α4β1. In the present study, we observed that VCAM-1 expression can be induced in many breast cancer epithelial cells by cytokine stimulation in vitro and its up-regulation directly correlated with advanced clinical breast cancer stage. We found that VCAM-1 over-expression in the NMuMG breast epithelial cells controls the epithelial and mesenchymal transition (EMT program to increase cell motility rates and promote chemoresistance to doxorubicin and cisplatin in vitro. Conversely, in the established MDAMB231 metastatic breast cancer cell line, we confirmed that knockdown of endogenous VCAM-1 expression reduced cell proliferation and inhibited TGFβ1 or IL-6 mediated cell migration, and increased chemosensitivity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that knockdown of endogenous VCAM-1 expression in MDAMB231 cells reduced tumor formation in a SCID xenograft mouse model. Signaling studies showed that VCAM-1 physically associates with CD44 and enhances CD44 and ABCG2 expression. Our findings uncover the possible mechanism of VCAM-1 activation facilitating breast cancer progression, and suggest that targeting VCAM-1 is an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Sewage sludge and wastewater fertilisation of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for increased bioenergy production - Biological and economic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, I. [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7043, SE 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Rosenqvist, H. [Department of Agriculture-Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 17, SE-261 21 Billeberga (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    Application of municipal residues, e.g. wastewater or sewage sludge, to Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) is among the most attractive methods for attaining environmental and energy goals set for Europe. At current woodchip prices in Sweden, the gross margin for SRC cultivation is positive only if biomass production is >9 t DM/ha yr. The gross profit margin increases (by 39 and 199 EUR/GJ, respectively) if sewage sludge and wastewater are applied to SRC. Application of residues to SRC has proved to be an acceptable alternative treatment method, and the farmer's profit can be markedly increased if compensation is paid for waste treatment. If all available sludge and wastewater were applied to SRC plantations, they could be grown on large agricultural areas in Europe, and c. 6000 PJ of renewable energy could be produced annually. However, a more economical landuse strategy, e.g. the use of more P-rich residues, appears more rational, and is biologically justifiable. (author)

  4. Increase in the potential predictability of the Arctic Oscillation via intensified teleconnection with ENSO after the mid-1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daehyun; Lee, Myong-In

    2017-09-01

    This study examines why the seasonal prediction skill of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) has increased significantly since the mid-1990s in state-of-the-art seasonal forecasting systems in operation. This skill increase is primarily attributed to variability over the North Atlantic with an enhanced connection between the AO and the El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The relationship between ENSO and AO depends primarily on low-frequency variability in the North Pacific driven by the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, as represented by the Hawaiian sea level pressure (SLPHI) index. When the sign of the SLPHI index and that of the NINO3.4 index are out-of-phase (in-phase) with the variability center of ENSO shifted to the central Pacific (eastern Pacific), more intense (weaker) ENSO-AO teleconnection results. Linear barotropic model experiments with prescribed ENSO forcing and differing phase and intensity of SLPHI support the observed relationship in La Niña years, highlighting the important and independent role of the SLPHI variability as a modulator of the ENSO teleconnection to higher latitudes.

  5. Genetic and potential non-genetic benefits increase offspring fitness of polyandrous females in non-resource based mating system

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    Peuhkuri Nina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adaptive significance of female polyandry is currently under considerable debate. In non-resource based mating systems, indirect, i.e. genetic benefits have been proposed to be responsible for the fitness gain from polyandry. We studied the benefits of polyandry in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus using an experimental design in which the material investments by the sires and maternal environmental effects were controlled. Results Embryonic mortality showed a strong paternal genetic component, and it was lower in polyandrously fertilized offspring (sperm competition of two males than in monandrous fertilizations. We also found that high sperm velocity was associated with low offspring mortality, but not with the size of the offspring or their yolk volume. Although no male effect was found on the size of the offspring yolk reserves, yolk volume was higher in offspring from polyandrous matings than offspring of the either of the two males when mated monandrously. Conclusions In support of the "good sperm hypothesis, we found that sperm velocity was positively associated with offspring fitness. In addition, our results suggest that polyandrous females gain genetic advantage (higher offspring survival from this behavior, but that some benefits of polyandry (larger yolk volume may not be explained solely by the additive genetic effects. This suggests that sperm competition environment may intensify the selection on genetically superior sperm which in turn may produce offspring that have superior yolk reserves. However, as high sperm velocity was not associated with larger yolk volume, it is possible that also some other non-genetic effects may contribute to offspring fitness. The potential role of polyandrous mating in inbreeding avoidance is discussed.

  6. Increasing obesity in treated female HIV patients from Sub-Saharan Africa: Potential causes and possible targets for intervention

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    Claire eMcCormick

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To investigate changing nutritional demographics of treated HIV-1-infected patients and explore causes of obesity, particularly in women of African origin.Methods We prospectively reviewed nutritional demographics of clinic attenders at an urban European HIV clinic during four one-month periods at 3-yearly intervals (2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010 and in two consecutive whole-year reviews (2010-11 and 2011-12. Risk-factors for obesity were assessed by multiple linear regression. A sub-study of 50 HIV-positive African female patients investigated body-size/shape perception using numerical, verbal and pictorial cues. Results We found a dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2, from 8.5% (2001 to 28% (2011-12 for all clinic attenders, of whom 86% were on antiretroviral treatment. Women of African origin were most affected, 49% being obese, with a further 32% overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2, in 2012. Clinical factors strongly associated with obesity included female gender, black African ethnicity, non-smoking, age and CD4 count (all P<0.001; greater duration of cART did not predict obesity. Individual weight-time trends mostly showed slow long-term progressive weight gain. Investigating body weight perception, we found that weight and adiposity were underestimated by obese subjects, who showed a greater disparity between perceived and actual adiposity (P<0.001. Obese subjects targeted more obese target ideal body shapes (P<0.01, but were less satisfied with their body shape overall (P=0.02. Conclusions Seropositive African women on antiretroviral treatment are at heightened risk of obesity. Although multifactorial, bodyweight perception represents a potential target for intervention.

  7. Potential increase in coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise suggested by considering hydrodynamic attenuation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José F.; Saco, Patricia M.; Sandi, Steven; Saintilan, Neil; Riccardi, Gerardo

    2017-07-01

    The future of coastal wetlands and their ecological value depend on their capacity to adapt to the interacting effects of human impacts and sea-level rise. Even though extensive wetland loss due to submergence is a possible scenario, its magnitude is highly uncertain due to limited understanding of hydrodynamic and bio-geomorphic interactions over time. In particular, the effect of man-made drainage modifications on hydrodynamic attenuation and consequent wetland evolution is poorly understood. Predictions are further complicated by the presence of a number of vegetation types that change over time and also contribute to flow attenuation. Here, we show that flow attenuation affects wetland vegetation by modifying its wetting-drying regime and inundation depth, increasing its vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our simulations for an Australian subtropical wetland predict much faster wetland loss than commonly used models that do not consider flow attenuation.

  8. Open public spaces and street furniture: the potential for increased use of photovoltaics in the built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbate-Gardner, C. [Officine di Architettura, Rome (Italy)

    1996-07-01

    The trend toward industrializing architectural components, the increasing complexity and multifunctional purpose of buildings and the concern for the CO{sub 2} emissions common to our cities is pushing design research to experiment with new environmentally friendly construction technology. Current experiments in integrating photovoltaic (PV) systems in buildings and the built environment have already been proven to offer numerous advantages. This article focuses on the notable flexibility and adaptability of PV integration in urban structures due to the features of its industrial components. To illustrate this point, I should like to offer a brief overview of some selected examples of the use of PV in public open spaces to demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a positive integration with its environmental context, while enhancing the architectural quality of the PV material and respecting its technological efficiency. (author)

  9. Photovoltaics as a renewable energy technology in Bangladesh and its potential for increasing welfare, gender equity, and environmental sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sarwat

    Situated in the northeast corner of the South Asian sub-continent, Bangladesh is a developing country with high population density, low life expectancy, low rate of literacy and extremely low access to modern energy sources. Lack of access to electrification remains a major constraint to the country's economic development. In this context, as in other countries, Bangladeshi development practitioners have tended to pursue outputs that rely on new technologies as a means to leapfrog to higher levels of development. However, independent analysis of such efforts, in terms of achieving sustainable development outcomes, remains lacking. The full potential of renewable energy technologies in Bangladesh has yet to attract widespread recognition from policy makers. In this thesis, I review solar PV technology since it has already been attempted as a rural off-grid electrification option in Bangladesh. I argue that the applications of technology should follow, and not precede, considerations for human well-being. It is also important to have a more holistic perspective on human welfare, which should include the basic dimensions of choice and opportunities, and not just income levels. The Government of Bangladesh and its development partners need to expand support to renewable energy technologies and so redirect the focus of policy formulation and implementation to sustainable human development. I emphasize that people-centered public policy has a key role to play in the introduction of a technology such as the solar photovoltaics pioneered by Grameen Shakti, a not-for-profit company in Bangladesh. While equity in terms of a fair distribution of wealth and income may continue to be an illusion, innovations such as solar PV are indeed promising with respect to opening up opportunities and possible benefits for women, the environment and---more generally---human well-being. This thesis is based on work in rural areas complementary to various professional responsibilities that I

  10. Molecular processes induced in primed seeds-increasing the potential to stabilize crop yields under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtyla, Łukasz; Lechowska, Katarzyna; Kubala, Szymon; Garnczarska, Małgorzata

    2016-09-20

    Environmental stress factors such as drought, salinity, temperature extremes and rising CO2 negatively affect crop growth and productivity. Faced with the scarcity of water resources, drought is the most critical threat to world food security. This is particularly important in the context of climate change and an increasing world population. Seed priming is a very promising strategy in modern crop production management. Although it has been known for several years that seed priming can enhance seed quality and the effectiveness of stress responses of germinating seeds and seedlings, the molecular mechanisms involved in the acquisition of stress tolerance by primed seeds in the germination process and subsequent plant growth remain poorly understood. This review provides an overview of the metabolic changes modulated by priming, such as the activation of DNA repair and the antioxidant system, accumulation of aquaporins and late embryogenesis abundant proteins that contribute to enhanced drought stress tolerance. Moreover, the phenomenon of "priming memory," which is established during priming and can be recruited later when seeds or plants are exposed to stress, is highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing the potential long-term increase of oceanic fossil fuel CO2 uptake due to CO2-calcification feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Lenton

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Plankton manipulation experiments exhibit a wide range of sensitivities of biogenic calcification to simulated anthropogenic acidification of the ocean, with the "lab rat" of planktic calcifiers, Emiliania huxleyi apparently not representative of calcification generally. We assess the implications of this observational uncertainty by creating an ensemble of realizations of an Earth system model that encapsulates a comparable range of uncertainty in calcification response to ocean acidification. We predict that a substantial reduction in marine carbonate production is possible in the future, with enhanced ocean CO2 sequestration across the model ensemble driving a 4–13% reduction in the year 3000 atmospheric fossil fuel CO2 burden. Concurrent changes in ocean circulation and surface temperatures in the model contribute about one third to the increase in CO2 uptake. We find that uncertainty in the predicted strength of CO2-calcification feedback seems to be dominated by the assumption as to which species of calcifier contribute most to carbonate production in the open ocean.

  12. Nanoparticle pollution and associated increasing potential risks on environment and human health: a case study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Yang, Tiantian; Jin, Jin

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are (1) to discuss the mechanism of nanoparticle lifecycle and estimate the impacts of its associated pollution on environment and human health; and (2) to provide recommendation to policy makers on how to leverage nanopollution and human health along with the rapid development of economics in China. Manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) could either directly or indirectly impair human health and the environment. Exposures to MNP include many ways, such as via inhalation, ingestion, direct contact, or the use of consumer products over the lifecycle of the product. In China, the number of people exposed to MNP has been increasing year by year. To better provide medical care to people exposed to MNP, the Chinese government has established many disease control and prevention centers over China. However, the existing facilities and resources for controlling MNP are still not enough considering the number of people impacted by MNP and the number of ordinary workers in the MNP related industry applying for their occupational identification through the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. China should assess the apparent risk environment and human health being exposed to MNP and develop action plans to reduce the possibility of direct contacts between human beings and the emerging nanomaterials. In addition, we suggest more comprehensive studies on the MNP behavior and the development of quantitative approaches to measure MNP transport, and persistence should be carried out.

  13. Potential for Increased Photosynthetic Performance and Crop Productivity in Response to Climate Change: role of CBFs and Gibberellic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Peter Andrew Huner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose that targeting the dwarf phenotype, enhanced photosynthetic performance typically associated with the cold acclimation of winter cultivars of rye (Secale cereale L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Brassica napus L. may provide a novel approach to improve crop yield and productivity under abiotic as well as biotic stress conditions. In support of this hypothesis, we provide the physiological, biochemical and molecular evidence that the dwarf phenotype induced by cold acclimation is coupled to significant enhancement in photosynthetic performance, resistance to photoinhibition and a decreased dependence on photoprotection through nonphotochemical quenching which result in enhanced biomass production and ultimately increased seed yield. These system-wide changes at the levels of phenotype, physiology and biochemistry appear to be governed by the family of C-repeat / dehydration-responsive family of transcription factors (CBF/DREB1. We relate this phenomenon to the semi-dwarf, gibberellic acid insensitive, cereal varieties developed during the green revolution of the early 1960s and 1970s. We suggest that genetic manipulation of the family of C-repeat / dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB1 may provide a novel approach for the maintenance and perhaps even the enhancement of plant productivity under conditions of sub-optimal growth conditions predicted for our future climate.

  14. Plasticizer contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing--a potential factor in increased health risks in firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Steven; Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exposures may be responsible for firefighters' elevated incidences of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This study characterized semivolatile chemical contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hood, and one coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile contaminants, including 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 phthalate diesters. Twenty-two of the chemicals of interest were found on at least one clothing swatch. Only di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer, added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to increase flexibility, was found on every swatch. DEHP concentrations were the highest of any chemical measured, and were 52 to 875 times higher than any PAH concentration measured. DEHP was also detected on most items of unused firefighter personal protective clothing, although at much lower levels. These findings suggest that firefighters are exposed to high levels of DEHP, a probable human carcinogen, and at levels much higher than PAHs, the semivolatile toxic combustion products most extensively studied historically. Firefighter exposure to DEHP and other phthalate diesters therefore merits further study.

  15. Stress-Induced Increase in Kynurenic Acid as a Potential Biomarker for Patients With Schizophrenia and Distress Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Joshua; Pocivavsek, Ana; Nugent, Katie L.; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M.; Schwarcz, Robert; Hong, L. Elliot

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Several lines of evidence have linked the endogenous neuromodulator kynurenic acid (KYNA) to schizophrenia. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is commonly associated with stress, and stress plays a key regulatory role in the first, rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway, which produces KYNA. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the level of KYNA changes following psychological stress and whether this change is associated with stress-related behavior. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The KYNA level was measured in saliva samples taken at baseline and at 2 times following a laboratory-based psychological stress challenge in 128 participants (64 patients with schizophrenia from outpatient clinics and 64 healthy controls from the community). EXPOSURE Laboratory-based psychological stress challenge. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Quitting the stressful task early was used as a behavioral marker of distress intolerance. RESULTS Patients with schizophrenia showed a significantly higher rate of distress intolerance compared with healthy controls (P = .003). Salivary KYNA levels increased significantly between baseline and 20 minutes following the stress task in both patients and controls (mean [SEM], 6.72 nM [0.65 nM] vs 8.43 nM [1.05 nM], respectively; P = .007). Patients who were unable to tolerate the stressful tasks and quit early showed significantly higher levels of KYNA than patients who tolerated the psychological stressor (P = .02) or healthy controls (P = .02). In patients with distress intolerance, KYNA elevation significantly correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms (ρ = 0.64; P = .008). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Distress intolerance is more common in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with this behavioral phenotype have elevated salivary KYNA levels. This stress response behavior–linked biomarker may aid heterogeneity reduction in schizophrenia and other stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:24806441

  16. Increased peritoneal permeability at peritoneal dialysis initiation is a potential cardiovascular risk in patients using biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Doi, Kent; Tanaka, Mototsugu; Kume, Haruki; Ishibashi, Yoshitaka; Enomoto, Yutaka; Fujita, Toshiro; Homma, Yukio; Nangaku, Masaomi; Noiri, Eisei

    2014-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a frequent cause of death in peritoneal dialysis patients. Biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions with neutral pH have been anticipated to reduce cardiovascular disease more than conventional peritoneal dialysis solutions with low pH, but it remains unclear which factors at peritoneal dialysis initiation increase cardiovascular risk in patients using biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions. This study was undertaken to investigate which clinical factors at peritoneal dialysis initiation, including peritoneal transport status, are associated with cardiovascular event in patients using biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solution. This retrospective cohort study of peritoneal dialysis patients using biocompatible solutions with neutral pH assessed relations of clinical parameters at peritoneal dialysis initiation to cardiovascular event during the subsequent five years. Of 102 patients who started peritoneal dialysis, cardiovascular event occurred in 18. Age, history of cardiovascular disease before peritoneal dialysis initiation, hemoglobin, serum albumin, C-reactive protein, peritoneal permeability defined by the ratio of dialysate to plasma creatinine concentration at 4 hr (D/Pcre) in peritoneal equilibration test (PET), number of patients in each PET category defined by D/Pcre, and peritoneal protein clearance significantly differed between patients with and without cardiovascular event. For patients divided according to PET category using Kaplan-Meier method, the group of high average to high peritoneal transporters exhibited significantly high incidence of cardiovascular event and mortality compared with the groups of low and low-average peritoneal transporters (Log rank; p=0.0003 and 0.005, respectively). A Cox proportional hazards model showed independent association of PET category classification with cardiovascular event. Peritoneal permeability expressed as PET category at peritoneal dialysis initiation is an independent

  17. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) demonstrate potential for use in soil bioremediation by increasing the degradation rates of heavy crude oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkosky, Luke; Barkley, Jaimie; Sabadell, Gabriel; Gough, Heidi; Davidson, Seana

    2017-02-15

    Crude oil contamination widely impacts soil as a result of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. Earthworms may enhance bioremediation by mixing and aerating the soil, and exposing soil microorganisms to conditions in the earthworm gut that lead to increased activity. In this study, the common composting earthworm Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to improve remediation of oil-impacted soil. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. Crude oil with a high fraction of light-weight hydrocarbons was more toxic to earthworms than the crude oil with a high proportion of heavy polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The heavier crude oil was added to soil to create a 30,000mg/kg crude oil impacted soil, and degradation in the presence of added earthworms and feed, feed alone, or no additions was monitored over time and compared. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Both treatments reached the same end point concentrations, and exhibited faster degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons C21, decreased. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. This study demonstrated that earthworms accelerate bioremediation of crude oil in soils, including the degradation of the heaviest polyaromatic fractions.

  18. Disruption of IGF-1R signaling increases TRAIL-induced apoptosis: A new potential therapy for the treatment of melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasic, Thomas B.; Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis is dependent on a balance of multiple genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, which up-regulate efficacy of the surviving growth factor-receptor signaling pathways and suppress death-receptor signaling pathways. The Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway is highly active in metastatic melanoma cells by mediating downstream activation of PI3K-AKT and MAPK pathways and controlling general cell survival and proliferation. In the present study, we used human melanoma lines with established genotypes that represented different phases of cancer development: radial-growth-phase WM35, vertical-growth-phase WM793, metastatic LU1205 and WM9 [1]. All these lines have normal NRAS. WM35, WM793, LU1205 and WM9 cells have mutated BRAF (V600E). WM35 and WM9 cells express normal PTEN, while in WM793 cells PTEN expression is down-regulated; finally, in LU1205 cells PTEN is inactivated by mutation. Cyclolignan picropodophyllin (PPP), a specific inhibitor of IGF-1R kinase activity, strongly down-regulated the basal levels of AKT activity in WM9 and in WM793 cells, modestly does so in LU1205, but has no effect on AKT activity in the early stage WM35 cells that are deficient in IGF-1R. In addition, PPP partially down-regulated the basal levels of active ERK1/2 in all lines used, highlighting the role of an alternative, non-BRAF pathway in MAPK activation. The final result of PPP treatment was an induction of apoptosis in WM793, WM9 and LU1205 melanoma cells. On the other hand, dose-dependent inhibition of IGF-1R kinase activity by PPP at a relatively narrow dose range (near 500 nM) has different effects on melanoma cells versus normal cells, inducing apoptosis in cancer cells and G2/M arrest of fibroblasts. To further enhance the pro-apoptotic effects of PPP on melanoma cells, we used a combined treatment of TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) and PPP. This combination substantially increased death by apoptosis for

  19. Stress-mediated increases in systemic and local epinephrine impair skin wound healing: potential new indication for beta blockers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja K Sivamani

    2009-01-01

    AR antagonists, is absent in murine keratinocytes that are genetically depleted of the beta2AR, and is reproduced by incubation of keratinocytes with other beta2AR-specific agonists. Activation of the beta2AR in cultured keratinocytes signals the down-regulation of the AKT pathway, accompanied by a stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton and an increase in focal adhesion formation, resulting in a nonmigratory phenotype. Burn wound injury in excised human skin also rapidly up-regulates the intra-epithelial expression of the epinephrine synthesizing enzyme phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase, and tissue levels of epinephrine rise dramatically (15-fold in the burn wounded tissue (values of epinephrine expressed as pg/ug protein +/- standard error of the mean: unburned control, 0.6 +/- 0.36; immediately postburn, 9.6 +/- 1.58; 2 h postburn, 3.1 +/- 1.08; 24 h post-burn, 6.7 +/- 0.94. Finally, using an animal burn wound model (20% body surface in mice, we found that systemic treatment with betaAR antagonists results in a significant increase (44%, 95% CI 27%-61%, p < 0.00000001 in the rate of burn wound re-epithelialization. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates an alternate pathway by which stress can impair healing: by stress-induced elevation of epinephrine levels resulting in activation of the keratinocyte beta2AR and the impairment of cell motility and wound re-epithelialization. Furthermore, since the burn wound locally generates epinephrine in response to wounding, epinephrine levels are locally, as well as systemically, elevated, and wound healing is impacted by these dual mechanisms. Treatment with beta adrenergic antagonists significantly improves the rate of burn wound re-epithelialization. This work suggests that specific beta2AR antagonists may be apt, near-term translational therapeutic targets for enhancing burn wound healing, and may provide a novel, low-cost, safe approach to improving skin wound repair in the stressed individual.

  20. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  1. A Diet High in Meat Protein and Potential Renal Acid Load Increases Absorption and Urinary Excretion of Calcium, As Well As Serum IGF-I in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of increasing protein and potential renal acid load (PRAL) on Ca retention and markers of bone metabolism. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, twenty postmenopausal women consumed two diets: one low protein, low PRAL (LPLP) and one high pr...

  2. Increased gene and protein expressions of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 4 following sustained pure mechanical pressure on rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhang; Juan Huai; Yonghui Wang; Yanqin Wang; Shouwei Yue

    2011-01-01

    Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from newborn Wistar rats cultured in vitro were pressurized with 20, 40, 80 or 120 mm Hg compressive loadings (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) for 12, 24, 48 or 72 hours, respectively. The 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test showed that pressures less than 80 mm Hg had no obvious impact on the activity of DRG neurons. The protein expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 4 (TRPV4), transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1, transient receptor potential channel of melastatin type 8, and transient receptor potential subtype ankyrin 1 were assessed by western blot analysis. The mRNA expression of TRPV4 was assessed by real-time PCR. The results showed that sustained mechanical compression up-regulated TRPV4 mRNA and protein expression in the rat DRG neurons, in a time-dependent fashion. Similar changes were not found in the protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1, transient receptor potential channel of melastatin type 8, and transient receptor potential subtype ankyrin 1. Images of cells using a laser scanning confocal microscope showed that the sustained mechanical pressure increased the number of responsive DRG neurons and was synergistic on the enhanced Ca2+ responses to the TRPV4 phorbol ester agonist 4a-phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate and hypotonic solutions. These findings demonstrate that sustained mechanical compressive loading in vitro increases the expression of TRPV4 mRNA and protein in DRG neurons and sensitizes TRPV4 Ca2+ signals. Mechanical compression does not impact other ion channels in thetransient receptor potential family.

  3. Numerical impact simulation of gradually increased kinetic energy transfer has the potential to break up folded protein structures resulting in cytotoxic brain tissue edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holst, Hans; Li, Xiaogai

    2013-07-01

    Although the consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its treatment have been improved, there is still a substantial lack of understanding the mechanisms. Numerical simulation of the impact can throw further lights on site and mechanism of action. A finite element model of the human head and brain tissue was used to simulate TBI. The consequences of gradually increased kinetic energy transfer was analyzed by evaluating the impact intracranial pressure (ICP), strain level, and their potential influences on binding forces in folded protein structures. The gradually increased kinetic energy was found to have the potential to break apart bonds of Van der Waals in all impacts and hydrogen bonds at simulated impacts from 6 m/s and higher, thereby superseding the energy in folded protein structures. Further, impacts below 6 m/s showed none or very slight increase in impact ICP and strain levels, whereas impacts of 6 m/s or higher showed a gradual increase of the impact ICP and strain levels reaching over 1000 KPa and over 30%, respectively. The present simulation study shows that the free kinetic energy transfer, impact ICP, and strain levels all have the potential to initiate cytotoxic brain tissue edema by unfolding protein structures. The definition of mild, moderate, and severe TBI should thus be looked upon as the same condition and separated only by a gradual severity of impact.

  4. Sustained increase of spontaneous input and spike transfer in the CA3-CA1 pathway following long term potentiation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar eHerreras

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Long term potentiation (LTP is commonly used to study synaptic plasticity but the associated changes in the spontaneous activity of individual neurons or the computational properties of neural networks in vivo remain largely unclear. The multisynaptic origin of spontaneous spikes makes difficult estimating the impact of a particular potentiated input. Accordingly, we adopted an approach that isolates pathway-specific postsynaptic activity from raw local field potentials (LFPs in the rat hippocampus in order to study the effects of LTP on ongoing spike transfer between cell pairs in the CA3-CA1 pathway. CA1 Schaffer-specific LFPs elicited by spontaneous clustered firing of CA3 pyramidal cells involved a regular succession of elementary micro-field-EPSPs (gamma-frequency that fired spikes in CA1 units. LTP increased the amplitude but not the frequency of these ongoing excitatory quanta. Also, the proportion of Schaffer-driven spikes in both CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons increased in a cell-specific manner only in previously connected CA3-CA1 cell pairs, i.e., when the CA3 pyramidal cell had shown pre-LTP significant correlation with firing of a CA1 unit and potentiated spike-triggered average of Schaffer LFPs following LTP. Moreover, LTP produced subtle reorganization of presynaptic CA3 cell assemblies. These findings show effective enhancement of pathway specific ongoing activity which leads to increased spike transfer in potentiated segments of a network. These indicate that plastic phenomena induced by external protocols may intensify spontaneous information flow across specific channels as proposed in transsynaptic propagation of plasticity and synfire chain hypotheses that may be the substrate for different types of memory involving multiple brain structures.

  5. Sustained increase of spontaneous input and spike transfer in the CA3-CA1 pathway following long-term potentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Antonio; Makarov, Valeri A; Herreras, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is commonly used to study synaptic plasticity but the associated changes in the spontaneous activity of individual neurons or the computational properties of neural networks in vivo remain largely unclear. The multisynaptic origin of spontaneous spikes makes it difficult to estimate the impact of a particular potentiated input. Accordingly, we adopted an approach that isolates pathway-specific postsynaptic activity from raw local field potentials (LFPs) in the rat hippocampus in order to study the effects of LTP on ongoing spike transfer between cell pairs in the CA3-CA1 pathway. CA1 Schaffer-specific LFPs elicited by spontaneous clustered firing of CA3 pyramidal cells involved a regular succession of elementary micro-field-EPSPs (gamma-frequency) that fired spikes in CA1 units. LTP increased the amplitude but not the frequency of these ongoing excitatory quanta. Also, the proportion of Schaffer-driven spikes in both CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons increased in a cell-specific manner only in previously connected CA3-CA1 cell pairs, i.e., when the CA3 pyramidal cell had shown pre-LTP significant correlation with firing of a CA1 unit and potentiated spike-triggered average (STA) of Schaffer LFPs following LTP. Moreover, LTP produced subtle reorganization of presynaptic CA3 cell assemblies. These findings show effective enhancement of pathway-specific ongoing activity which leads to increased spike transfer in potentiated segments of a network. They indicate that plastic phenomena induced by external protocols may intensify spontaneous information flow across specific channels as proposed in transsynaptic propagation of plasticity and synfire chain hypotheses that may be the substrate for different types of memory involving multiple brain structures.

  6. Determining the directions of increasing the innovative potential of the region by developing innovative technologies and competences when preparing and implementing large investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur V. Kramin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the directions of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects in the Republic of Tatarstan. Methods methodology of project management institutional approach. Results it is proved that the main largescale directions of innovative potential development in the Republic of Tatarstan as a result of preparation and implementing of Universiade 2013 in Kazan are knowledge management information technologies risk management. It is shown that in the framework of the considered innovative areas a complete system was formed of competences of employees and managers in the fields of education trade hospitality and service. Scientific novelty the key directions were defined of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects by the example of the World Summer Student Games in Kazan in 2013. Practical significance on the basis of specific examples the authors illustrate the practiceoriented mechanism of innovative potential development of a region as a result of implementation of large investment projects. nbsp

  7. Does chochos (L. mutabilis) production have the potential to increase farm revenues and contribute to food security if it replaces soybean or maize production in Ecuador?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Chochos (L. mutabilis) production does not satisfy Ecuador’s demand. Therefore, this paper intends to find if chochos production have the potential to increase farmers revenue and contribute to food security if it replaces maize and soybeans, while assuming three scenarios for chochos production that influence farmers revenue. If so, how would it affect the land use change in terms of food security? A gross margin calculation with three scenarios—current, double and triple revenue—for choc...

  8. Inhibition of p38-MAPK potentiates cisplatin-induced apoptosis via GSH depletion and increases intracellular drug accumulation in growth-arrested kidney tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Maria Elena; Quiroga, Adoración G; Castro, José; Ortiz, Alberto; Aller, Patricio; Mata, Felicísima

    2009-10-01

    We were interested in analyzing the regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) of cisplatin-provoked toxicity in epithelial renal tubule cell lines, when assayed under culture conditions (cell confluence plus serum deprivation), which mimic the characteristics of a nonproliferating epithelium. Under these restrictive growth conditions, cisplatin induced apoptosis with lower efficacy than in exponentially growing cells, and decreased p38-MAPK phosphorylation in NRK-52E and other (LLC-PK1, MDCK, HK2) cell lines. Moreover, cisplatin-provoked apoptosis was potentiated by cotreatment with p38-MAPK-specific inhibitors (SB203580, SB220025) or transfection with a kinase-negative mutant of MKK6, whereas c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase/MAPK and ERK Kinase inhibitors were ineffective. By contrast, when applied to exponentially growing cells, cisplatin stimulated p38-MAPK phosphorylation and apoptosis, was attenuated by kinase inhibitors. Treatment of confluent/serum-deprived cells with cisplatin caused mitochondrial transmembrane potential disruption and activated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as indicated by the decrease in Bcl-X(L) expression, increase in Bax expression and cytochrome c release, and these effects were potentiated by cotreatment with SB203580. Treatment of confluent/serum-deprived cells with cisplatin plus SB203580 decreased the intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and increased intracellular cisplatin accumulation as well as cisplatin binding to DNA. Cotreatment with the GSH-depleting agent D,L-buthionine-R,S-sulfoximine also potentiated cisplatin-provoked apoptosis. In summary, p38-MAPK inhibition potentiates cisplatin-provoked apoptosis in growth-arrested epithelial renal tubule cells, a result that may be explained at least in part by GSH depletion and drug transport alteration.

  9. Exogenous Oct4 in combination with valproic acid increased neural progenitor markers: an approach for enhancing the repair potential of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Samaneh; Asadi, Sareh; Hajikaram, Maryam; Soleimani, Masoud; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Javan, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    Attempts are aimed to introduce new approaches toward enhancing the brain's potential for repair in neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic injuries. Here we report an increased expression of pluripotency and progenitor markers within the brain following pretreatment with valproic acid (VPA) and in vivo transfection of inducible Oct4-expressing viral particles. Systemic administration of VPA was performed for one week prior to an intracerebroventricular injection of the Oct4-expressing vector into the right side of the brain. Oct4 expression was induced by doxycycline from day 1 post-transfection for an additional week. Real time-PCR and immunohistofluorescence were used for evaluation of marker expression. Real time-PCR analyses of samples collected from the area of transfection within the injected-lateral ventricle revealed increased expression of some stem cell and progenitor markers, which included endogenous Oct4, Nanog, Klf4, c-Myc, Pax6 and Sox1. Expressions of Oct4, SSEA1 and Nanog were further confirmed by immunohistofluorescence. The increased neural progenitor and pluripotency markers due to Oct4 overexpression did not lead to teratoma formation during a 100day follow-up. Our findings suggest that the application of Oct4 as a reprogramming factor in conjunction with VPA, an epigenetic modifier, might be a potential strategy for increasing the brain's capability to repair itself. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transformation of Lactuca sativa L. with rol C gene results in increased antioxidant potential and enhanced analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant activities in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hammad; Dilshad, Erum; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Sajid, Moniba; Kayani, Waqas Khan; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-12-01

    Lettuce is an important edible crop which possesses various medicinal properties. In this study Lactuca sativa L. (cv Grand Rapids) was transformed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with rol C gene. Transgene integration and expression was confirmed through PCR and semiquantitative RT-PCR. The transformed extracts were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and in vivo analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant activities in rats. The transformed plants showed 53-98 % increase in total phenolic and 45-58 % increase in total flavonoid contents compared with untransformed plants. Results of total reducing power and total antioxidant capacity exhibited 90-118 and 61-75 % increase in transformed plants, respectively. In contrast to control, DPPH, lipid peroxidation and DNA protection assay showed up to 37, 20 and 50 % enhancement in transformed plants, respectively. The extracts showed similar but significant enhancement behavior in hot plate analgesic and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test. The transformed extracts showed 72.1 and 78.5 % increase for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. The transformants of rol C gene exhibited prominent antidepressant activity with 64-73 % increase compared with untransformed plants. In conclusion, the present work suggests that transformation with rol C gene can be used to generate lettuce with enhanced medicinally important properties, such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant potential.

  11. Soybean extracts increase cell surface ZIP4 abundance and cellular zinc levels: a potential novel strategy to enhance zinc absorption by ZIP4 targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Ohkura, Katsuma; Takahashi, Masakazu; Kizu, Kumiko; Narita, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Irie, Kazuhiro; Ohigashi, Hajime; Andrews, Glen K; Kambe, Taiho

    2015-12-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency puts human health at risk, so we explored strategies for enhancing zinc absorption. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter ZIP4 functions as an essential component of zinc absorption. Overexpression of ZIP4 protein increases zinc uptake and thereby cellular zinc levels, suggesting that food components with the ability to increase ZIP4 could potentially enhance zinc absorption via the intestine. In the present study, we used mouse Hepa cells, which regulate mouse Zip4 (mZip4) in a manner indistinguishable from that in intestinal enterocytes, to screen for suitable food components that can increase the abundance of ZIP4. Using this ZIP4-targeting strategy, two such soybean extracts were identified that were specifically able to decrease mZip4 endocytosis in response to zinc. These soybean extracts also effectively increased the abundance of apically localized mZip4 in transfected polarized Caco2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and, moreover, two apically localized mZip4 acrodermatitis enteropathica mutants. Soybean components were purified from one extract and soyasaponin Bb was identified as an active component that increased both mZip4 protein abundance and zinc levels in Hepa cells. Finally, we confirmed that soyasaponin Bb is capable of enhancing cell surface endogenous human ZIP4 in human cells. Our results suggest that ZIP4 targeting may represent a new strategy to improve zinc absorption in humans.

  12. Half-cell potential mapping to assess repair work on RC structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsener, B. [Cagliari Univ., Dept. of Materials Science (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Results on the successful use and on the limitations of half-cell potential mapping as an assessment technique after completion of repair work on a concrete structure are reviewed. Examples of repair discussed include traditional repair, electrochemical chloride removal, electrochemical realkalization and the application of surface applied corrosion inhibitors. Results indicate that half-cell potential measurements after traditional repair work or electrochemical chloride removal provide direct evidence of repassivation of the rebars when performed several weeks after the repair work (readings during the first few days after repair tend to show very negative potentials). Special attention must be given to the use of polymer-modified mortars when used in surface treatment of rebars; half-cell potential could remain permanently negative due to restricted oxygen access. Half-cell potential measurements are not considered effective in measuring the efficiency and durability of surface applied corrosion inhibitors due to pore solution pH and composition, and the mostly unknown mechanism of action of inhibitor blends. 18 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Increased uptake of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnant women in Zambia(2006–2012):Potential determinants and highlight of lessons learnt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Freddie Masaninga; Mary Katepa Bwalya; Sarai Malumo; Busiku Hamainza; Peter Songolo; Mulakwa Kamuliwo; Martin Meremikwu; Lawrence Kazembe; Jacob Mufunda; Olusegun Ayorinde Babaniyi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess potential determinants of uptake and highlight lessons learnt from the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment(IPTp), given to pregnant women as early as possible during the second trimester in Zambia.Methods: Data from four national malaria surveys(2006, 2008, 2010, 2012) were reviewed, and proportions of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics(ANCs) who received two or more doses of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine(IPTp2) were compared by place of residence, education level, and wealth status. Malaria cases and deaths in pregnant women, from Health Information Management System 2011–2013, were analyzed to determine malaria burden in pregnancy in Zambia. A multiple logistic regression model was applied to identify potential determinants of IPTp uptake.Results: The proportion of pregnant women who took IPTp at ANCs increased from near zero at inception in 2001 to 61.9% in 2006; and to 72% by 2012(P < 0.001), and overall the uptake was 1.41 times higher in 2012 compared to 2006. From 2006 to 2012,IPTp2 uptake among women with no formal education increased from 51% to 68%(P < 0.1). Likewise, uptake among pregnant women with the lowest wealth index increased from 58.2% to 61.2%. By 2012, IPTp uptake among pregnant women within the lowest wealth index increased to a similar level as the women with high wealth index(P = 0.05). Incidence of malaria cases, hospital admissions and mortality during pregnancy decreased between 2011 and 2013. Overall, increased IPTp uptake was associated with being in urban areas(OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.39–1.74), having college(OR = 1.83,95% CI: 1.25–2.75) or secondary education(OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.44–1.96) or of being of higher wealth status(OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.60–2.17).Conclusions: Zambia has increased IPTp uptake through ANC for all women. The malaria control program has contributed to increasing access to health services and reducing demographic and socioeconomic disparities.

  14. Increased uptake of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnant women in Zambia (2006-2012):Potential determinants and highlight of lessons learnt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Freddie Masaninga; Olusegun Ayorinde Babaniyi; Mary Katepa Bwalya; Sarai Malumo; Busiku Hamainza; Peter Songolo; Mulakwa Kamuliwo; Martin Meremikwu; Lawrence Kazembe; Jacob Mufunda

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess potential determinants of uptake and highlight lessons learnt from the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), given to pregnant women as early as possible during the second trimester in Zambia. Methods: Data from four national malaria surveys (2006, 2008, 2010, 2012) were reviewed, and proportions of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) who received two or more doses of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (IPTp2) were compared by place of residence, education level, and wealth status. Malaria cases and deaths in pregnant women, from Health Information Management System 2011–2013, were analyzed to determine malaria burden in pregnancy in Zambia. A multiple logistic regression model was applied to identify potential determinants of IPTp uptake. Results: The proportion of pregnant women who took IPTp at ANCs increased from near zero at inception in 2001 to 61.9%in 2006;and to 72%by 2012 (P<0.001), and overall the uptake was 1.41 times higher in 2012 compared to 2006. From 2006 to 2012, IPTp2 uptake among women with no formal education increased from 51% to 68%(P < 0.1). Likewise, uptake among pregnant women with the lowest wealth index increased from 58.2%to 61.2%. By 2012, IPTp uptake among pregnant women within the lowest wealth index increased to a similar level as the women with high wealth index (P = 0.05). Incidence of malaria cases, hospital admissions and mortality during preg-nancy decreased between 2011 and 2013. Overall, increased IPTp uptake was associated with being in urban areas (OR=1.56, 95%CI:1.39–1.74), having college (OR=1.83, 95%CI:1.25–2.75) or secondary education (OR=1.68, 95%CI:1.44–1.96) or of being of higher wealth status (OR=1.86, 95%CI:1.60–2.17). Conclusions: Zambia has increased IPTp uptake through ANC for all women. The malaria control program has contributed to increasing access to health services and reducing demographic and socioeconomic disparities.

  15. Increased temperature, but not acidification, enhances fertilization and development in a tropical urchin: potential for adaptation to a tropicalized eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Shawna A; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Khatkar, Mehar S; Poore, Alistair G B; Byrne, Maria

    2014-01-01

    To predict the effects of global change on marine populations, it is important to measure the effects of climate stressors on performance and potential for adaptation. Adaptation depends on heritable genetic variance for stress tolerance being present in populations. We determined the effects of near-future ocean conditions on fertilization success of the sea urchin Pseudoboletia indiana. In 16 multiple dam-sire crosses, we quantified genetic variation in tolerance of warming (+3°C) and acidification (−0.3 to 0.5 pH units) at the gastrulation stage. Ocean acidification decreased fertilization across all dam-sire combinations with effects of pH significantly differing among the pairings. Decreased pH reduced the percentage of normal gastrulae with negative effects alleviated by increased temperature. Significant sire by environment interactions indicated the presence of heritable variation in tolerance of stressors at gastrulation and thus the potential for selection of resistant genotypes, which may enhance population persistence. A low genetic correlation indicated that genotypes that performed well at gastrulation in low pH did not necessarily perform well at higher temperatures. Furthermore, performance at fertilization was not necessarily a good predictor of performance at the later stage of gastrulation. Southern range edge populations of Pseudoboletia indiana may benefit from future warming with potential for extension of their distribution in south-east Australia. PMID:25558283

  16. Increased Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Detection in Women of Childbearing Age and Potential Risk for Vertical Transmission - United States and Kentucky, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Alaya; Nelson, Noele; Hariri, Susan; Canary, Lauren; Sanders, Kathy J; Maxwell, Justine F; Huang, Xiaohua; Leake, John A D; Ward, John W; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2016-07-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality (1). Transmission of HCV is primarily via parenteral blood exposure, and HCV can be transmitted vertically from mother to child. Vertical transmission occurs in 5.8% (95% confidence interval = 4.2%-7.8%) of infants born to women who are infected only with HCV and in up to twice as many infants born to women who are also infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (2) or who have high HCV viral loads (3,4); there is currently no recommended intervention to prevent transmission of infection from mother to child (3). Increased reported incidence of HCV infection among persons aged ≤30 years (5,6) with similar increases among women and men in this age group (6), raises concern about increases in the number of pregnant women with HCV infection, and in the number of infants who could be exposed to HCV at birth. Data from one large commercial laboratory and birth certificate data were used to investigate trends in HCV detection among women of childbearing age,* HCV testing among children aged ≤2 years, and the proportions of infants born to HCV-infected women nationally and in Kentucky, the state with the highest incidence of acute HCV infection during 2011-2014 (6). During 2011-2014, commercial laboratory data indicated that national rates of HCV detection (antibody or RNA positivity(†)) among women of childbearing age increased 22%, and HCV testing (antibody or RNA) among children aged ≤2 years increased 14%; birth certificate data indicated that the proportion of infants born to HCV-infected mothers increased 68%, from 0.19% to 0.32%. During the same time in Kentucky, the HCV detection rate among women of childbearing age increased >200%, HCV testing among children aged ≤2 years increased 151%, and the proportion of infants born to HCV-infected women increased 124%, from 0.71% to 1.59%. Increases in the rate of HCV detection among women of childbearing age

  17. Fluoxetine, but not tricyclic antidepressants, potentiates the 5-hydroxytryptophan-mediated increase in plasma cortisol and prolactin secretion in subjects with major depression or with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H; Bastani, B; Jayathilake, K; Maes, M

    1997-07-01

    It has been suggested that the clinical efficacy of chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine and perhaps all antidepressants is due to their ability to enhance serotonergic activity. The effects of chronic treatment with fluoxetine or tricyclic antidepressants on the L-5-hydroxytryptophan (200 mg, L-5-HTP; PO)-induced increases in plasma cortisol and prolactin (PRL) concentrations were studied in patients with major depression or obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Administration of L-5-HTP increased plasma cortisol and PRL levels in medicated and unmedicated patients with major depression or OCD. The L-5-HTP-induced cortisol and PRL responses were significantly higher in fluoxetine-treated than in tricyclic-treated or unmedicated major depressed patients. The latter two groups did not differ significantly in their cortisol or PRL responses to L-5-HTP. The L-5-HTP-induced increases in cortisol and PRL in fluoxetine-treated patients with major depression or OCD were not significantly different. The results suggest that fluoxetine, but not tricyclic antidepressants, potentiates 5-HT receptor-mediated stimulation of cortisol and PRL secretion in humans, consistent with available evidence that fluoxetine treatment, but not tricyclic antidepressants, increases central serotonergic activity in patients with MD or OCD by a presynaptic mechanism.

  18. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.

    1985-02-15

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction.

  19. Triptan-induced enhancement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in trigeminal ganglion dural afferents underlies increased responsiveness to potential migraine triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Milena; Ossipov, Michael H; Wang, Ruizhong; Dussor, Gregory; Lai, Josephine; Meng, Ian D; Chichorro, Juliana; Andrews, John S; Rakhit, Suman; Maddaford, Shawn; Dodick, David; Porreca, Frank

    2010-08-01

    Migraine is a common neurological disorder often treated with triptans. Triptan overuse can lead to increased frequency of headache in some patients, a phenomenon termed medication overuse headache. Previous preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated or sustained triptan administration for several days can elicit persistent neural adaptations in trigeminal ganglion cells innervating the dura, prominently characterized by increased labelling of neuronal profiles for calcitonin gene related peptide. Additionally, triptan administration elicited a behavioural syndrome of enhanced sensitivity to surrogate triggers of migraine that was maintained for weeks following discontinuation of drug, a phenomenon termed 'triptan-induced latent sensitization'. Here, we demonstrate that triptan administration elicits a long-lasting increase in identified rat trigeminal dural afferents labelled for neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the trigeminal ganglion. Cutaneous allodynia observed during the period of triptan administration was reversed by NXN-323, a selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Additionally, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition prevented environmental stress-induced hypersensitivity in the post-triptan administration period. Co-administration of NXN-323 with sumatriptan over several days prevented the expression of allodynia and enhanced sensitivity to stress observed following latent sensitization, but not the triptan-induced increased labelling of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in dural afferents. Triptan administration thus promotes increased expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in dural afferents, which is critical for enhanced sensitivity to environmental stress. These data provide a biological basis for increased frequency of headache following triptans and highlight the potential clinical utility of neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition in preventing or treating medication overuse headache.

  20. Climate change: potential effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, W J; V Tiedemann, A

    1995-01-01

    Continued world population growth results in increased emission of gases from agriculture, combustion of fossil fuels, and industrial processes. This causes changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Evidence is emerging that increased solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is reaching the earth's atmosphere, due to stratospheric ozone depletion. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), ozone (O(3)) and UV-B are individual climate change factors that have direct biological effects on plants. Such effects may directly or indirectly affect the incidence and severity of plant diseases, caused by biotic agents. Carbon dioxide may increase plant canopy size and density, resulting in a greater biomass of high nutritional quality, combined with a much higher microclimate relative humidity. This would be likely to promote plant diseases such as rusts, powdery mildews, leaf spots and blights. Inoculum potential from greater overwintering crop debris would also be increased. Ozone is likely to have adverse effects on plant growth. Necrotrophic pathogens may colonize plants weakened by O(3) at an accelerated rate, while obligate biotroph infections may be lessened. Ozone is unlikely to have direct adverse effects on fungal pathogens. Ozone effects on plant diseases are host plant mediated. The principal effects of increased UV-B on plant diseases would be via alterations in host plants. Increased flavonoids could lead to increased diseased resistance. Reduced net photosynthesis and premature ripening and senescence could result in a decrease in diseases caused by biotrophs and an increase in those caused by necrotrophs. Microbial plant pathogens are less likely to be adversely affected by CO(2), O(3) and UV-B than are their corresponding host plants. Changes in host plants may result in expectable alterations of disease incidence, depending on host plant growth stages and type of pathogen. Given the importance of plant diseases in world food and fiber production, it is essential to

  1. Viral infection increases glucocorticoid-induced interleukin-10 production through ERK-mediated phosphorylation of the glucocorticoid receptor in dendritic cells: potential clinical implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinnie Sin Man Ng

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis plays a central role in the adaptive response to stress including infection of pathogens through glucocorticoids. Physical and/or mental stress alter susceptibility to viral infection possibly by affecting this regulatory system, thus we explored potential cellular targets and mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon in key immune components dendritic cells (DCs. Dexamethasone (DEX treatment and subsequent Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection most significantly and cooperatively stimulated mRNA expression of the interleukin (IL-10 in murine bone marrow-derived DCs among 89 genes involved in the Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. NDV increased DEX-induced IL-10 mRNA and protein expression by 7- and 3-fold, respectively, which was observed from 3 hours after infection. Conventional DCs (cDCs, but not plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs were major sources of IL-10 in bone marrow-derived DCs treated with DEX and/or infected with NDV. Murine cytomegalovirus and DEX increased serum IL-10 cooperatively in female mice. Pre-treatment of DCs with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK inhibitor U0126 abolished cooperative induction of IL-10 by DEX and NDV. Further, ERK overexpression increased IL-10 promoter activity stimulated by wild-type human GR but not by its mutant defective in serine 203, whereas ERK knockdown abolished NDV/DEX cooperation on IL-10 mRNA and phosphorylation of the mouse GR at serine 213. NDV also increased DEX-induced mRNA expression of three known glucocorticoid-responsive genes unrelated to the Toll-like receptor signaling pathways in DCs. These results indicate that virus and glucocorticoids cooperatively increase production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by potentiating the transcriptional activity of GR in DCs, through which virus appears to facilitate its own propagation in infected hosts. The results may further underlie in part known exacerbation of IL-10/T helper-2-related

  2. Low-level laser (light) therapy increases mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis in C2C12 myotubes with a peak response at 3-6 hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Kaippert, Beatriz; Avci, Pinar; Huang, Ying-Ying; de Sousa, Marcelo Victor Pires; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Low level laser (light) therapy has been used before exercise to increase muscle performance in both experimental animals and in humans. However uncertainty exists concerning the optimum time to apply the light before exercise. The mechanism of action is thought to be stimulation of mitochondrial respiration in muscles, and to increase adenosine triphosphate (ATP) needed to perform exercise. The goal of this study was to investigate the time course of the increases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP in myotubes formed from C2C12 mouse muscle cells and exposed to light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT). LEDT employed a cluster of LEDs with 20 red (630 ± 10 nm, 25 mW) and 20 near-infrared (850 ± 10 nm, 50 mW) delivering 28 mW/cm2 for 90 sec (2.5 J/cm2) with analysis at 5 min, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h post-LEDT. LEDT-6h had the highest MMP, followed by LEDT-3h, LEDT-24h, LEDT-5min and Control with significant differences. The same order (6h>3h>24h>5min>Control) was found for ATP with significant differences. A good correlation was found (r=0.89) between MMP and ATP. These data suggest an optimum time window of 3-6 h for LEDT stimulate muscle cells. PMID:25443662

  3. Repetitive hops induce postactivation potentiation in triceps surae as well as an increase in the jump height of subsequent maximal drop jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Julian; Kramer, Andreas; Gruber, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) has been defined as the increase in twitch torque after a conditioning contraction. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hops as conditioning contractions to induce PAP and increase performance in subsequent maximal drop jumps. In addition, we wanted to test if and how PAP can contribute to increases in drop jump rebound height. Twelve participants performed 10 maximal two-legged hops as conditioning contractions. Twitch peak torques of triceps surae muscles were recorded before and after the conditioning hops. Then, subjects performed drop jumps with and without 10 conditioning hops before each drop jump. Recordings included ground reaction forces, ankle and knee angles and electromyographic activity in five leg muscles. In addition, efferent motoneuronal output during ground contact was estimated with V-wave stimulation. The analyses showed that after the conditioning hops, twitch peak torques of triceps surae muscles were 32% higher compared to baseline values (P triceps surae muscles induced by a bout of hops and indicate that PAP can contribute to the observed performance enhancements in subsequent drop jumps. The lack of change in EMG activity and V-wave amplitude suggests that the underlying mechanisms are more likely intramuscular than neural in origin.

  4. High-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not increase plasma anandamide levels or potentiate anandamide insulinotropic effect in isolated canine islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orison O Woolcott

    Full Text Available Obesity has been associated with elevated plasma anandamide levels. In addition, anandamide has been shown to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, suggesting that anandamide might be linked to hyperinsulinemia.To determine whether high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance increases anandamide levels and potentiates the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in isolated pancreatic islets.Dogs were fed a high-fat diet (n = 9 for 22 weeks. Abdominal fat depot was quantified by MRI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Fasting plasma endocannabinoid levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All metabolic assessments were performed before and after fat diet regimen. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated prior to euthanasia to test the in vitro effect of anandamide on islet hormones. mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined in intact islets. The findings in vitro were compared with those from animals fed a control diet (n = 7.Prolonged fat feeding increased abdominal fat content by 81.3±21.6% (mean±S.E.M, P<0.01. In vivo insulin sensitivity decreased by 31.3±12.1% (P<0.05, concomitant with a decrease in plasma 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (from 39.1±5.2 to 15.7±2.0 nmol/L but not anandamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, linoleoyl ethanolamide, or palmitoyl ethanolamide. In control-diet animals (body weight: 28.8±1.0 kg, islets incubated with anandamide had a higher basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with no treatment. Islets from fat-fed animals (34.5±1.3 kg; P<0.05 versus control did not exhibit further potentiation of anandamide-induced insulin secretion as compared with control-diet animals. Glucagon but not somatostatin secretion in vitro was also increased in response to anandamide, but there was no difference between groups (P = 0.705. No differences in gene expression of CB1R or CB2R between groups were found.In canines, high-fat diet

  5. The potential effects of concurrent increases in temperature, CO sub 2 and O sub 3 on net photosynthesis, as mediated by rubisCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology)

    1992-07-01

    At the leaf level, under light saturating and light limiting conditions, it is shown that elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration not only alters the scale of the response of carbon gain to rising temperature, but can alter the direction of response. These points bring into serious question the value of any predictions of plant production which ignore not only the direct effect Of C0{sub 2} on carbon gain, but also the basic interactions of temperature, C0{sub 2} and 0{sub 3}. Whilst many factors may potentially diminish the enhancement of lightsaturated leaf photosynthetic rates with increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, no mechanism has so far been identified which could remove the parallel stimulation of light-limited photosynthesis.

  6. The potential effects of concurrent increases in temperature, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on net photosynthesis, as mediated by rubisCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1992-07-01

    At the leaf level, under light saturating and light limiting conditions, it is shown that elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration not only alters the scale of the response of carbon gain to rising temperature, but can alter the direction of response. These points bring into serious question the value of any predictions of plant production which ignore not only the direct effect Of C0{sub 2} on carbon gain, but also the basic interactions of temperature, C0{sub 2} and 0{sub 3}. Whilst many factors may potentially diminish the enhancement of lightsaturated leaf photosynthetic rates with increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, no mechanism has so far been identified which could remove the parallel stimulation of light-limited photosynthesis.

  7. Oxygen restriction increases the infection potential of Listeria monocytogenes –verification of microarray chip data by quantitaive real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Andersen, Jens Bo; Christensen, Bjarke Bak

    assessment of this organism in food. We have previously shown (Andersen et al., BMC Microbiology; 2007, 7:55) that the environmental conditions to which L. monocytogenes is exposed prior to ingestion are decisive for its in vivo infective potential in the gastrointestinal tract after passage of the gastric...... the physiological condition of these bacteria is important for food safety. The in vitro and in vivo data suggest that an oxygen-restricted L. monocytogenes cell represents a significantly higher risk than a cell grown without oxygen restriction. In order to identify transcriptional differences contributing......Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in several food borne outbreaks as well as sporadic cases of disease during the last two decades. Increased understanding of the biology of this organism is important in the prevention of food borne listeriosis. This is highly relevant for safety...

  8. CARP Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Gastric Carcinoma and a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CARP Gene Might Increase the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-chang; Gan, Lu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Han-shuo; Wei, Yu-quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The caspase-associated recruitment domain-containing protein (CARP) is expressed in almost all tissues. Recently, the tumor-suppressive function of CARP was discovered and attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to investigate the role of CARP in the carcinogenesis of human gastric carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with normal gastric tissue, the downregulation of CARP expression was observed in gastric carcinoma tissue by cDNA array and tissue microarray assay. In vitro, the gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823) was stably transfected with pcDNA3.1B-CARP or plus CARP siRNA, and we used MTT, flow cytometry, cell migration on type I collagen, cell-matrix adhesion assay and western blot analysis to investigate the potential anti-tumor effects of CARP. The data showed that overexpressing CARP suppressed the malignancy of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell line, including significant increases in apoptosis, as well as obvious decreases in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion ability, and tumor growth. The tumor-suppressive effects of CARP were almost restored by siRNA-directed CARP silence. In addition, overexpression of CARP induced G1 arrest, decreased the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased the expressions of p27, p53 and p21. In vivo, the tumor-suppressive effect of CARP was also verified. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype of CARP (rs2297882) was located in the Kozak sequence of the CARP gene. The reporter gene assay showed that rs2297882 TT caused an obvious downregulation of activity of CARP gene promoter in BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, the association between rs2297882 and human gastric carcinoma susceptibility was analyzed in 352 cases and 889 controls. It displayed that the TT genotype of rs2297882 in the CARP gene was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Conclusions/Significance CARP is a potential tumor suppressor of gastric carcinoma and the rs2297882 C>T phenotype of CARP may

  9. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis dysregulation and double product increases potentiate ischemic heart disease risk in a Black male cohort: the SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Leoné; Schutte, Christiaan E; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2017-06-01

    Emotional distress has been associated with a poorer prognosis in myocardial infarction patients. Elevated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), lower cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and cortisol:DHEAS, as measures of emotional distress, might correlate with silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) and workload. Thus, we assessed the relationship between emotional distress, SMI and double product (systolic blood pressure (SBP) × heart rate). Cross-sectional South African biethnic single-set cohorts (N=378), aged 44.7±9.52 years, were investigated. Depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anthropometric, fasting blood, 24-h double product and 24-h 2-lead electrocardiogram (ST-segment depression) values were obtained. Blacks, mostly men, had increased depressive symptoms, hyperglycemia, SMI, double product, SBP hypertension and ACTH but lower cortisol, DHEAS and cortisol:DHEAS than their White counterparts. Black men had the highest combined SBP hypertension and below-median cortisol prevalence, 38%, compared with 5.9-13.8% in the other groups. Their SMI was associated with ACTH and cortisol:DHEAS (adj. R(2) 0.29; β 0.27-0.31 (0.12-0.64); P⩽0.05), double product (adj. R(2) 0.29; β 0.38 (0.18-0.57); P=0.050) and SBP hypertension (area under the curve: 0.68 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.80); P=0.042; sensitivity/specificity 49/85%). Double product was positively associated with central obesity in all sex groups and with cortisol in the Black men (PHPAA) showed signs of a hyporesponsive adrenal cortex, suggesting chronic emotional stress in the Black male cohort. In this cohort, HPAA dysregulation and compensatory increases in double product occur as a potential defense mechanism to alleviate perfusion deficits, thereby potentiating ischemic heart disease risk.

  10. Modeling potential hydrochemical responses to climate change and increasing CO2 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest using a dynamic biogeochemical model (PnET-BGC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmokhtarian, Afshin; Driscoll, Charles T.; Campbell, John L.; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2012-07-01

    Dynamic hydrochemical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting the interactive effects of climate change, atmospheric CO2, and atmospheric deposition on the hydrology and water quality of forested watersheds. We used the biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC, to evaluate the effects of potential future changes in temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, and atmospheric CO2on pools, concentrations, and fluxes of major elements at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, United States. Future climate projections used to run PnET-BGC were generated specifically for the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest with a statistical technique that downscales climate output (e.g., air temperature, precipitation, solar radiation) from atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) to a finer temporal and spatial resolution. These climate projections indicate that over the twenty-first century, average air temperature will increase at the site by 1.7°C to 6.5°C with simultaneous increases in annual average precipitation ranging from 4 to 32 cm above the long-term mean (1970-2000). PnET-BGC simulations under future climate change show a shift in hydrology characterized by later snowpack development, earlier spring discharge (snowmelt), greater evapotranspiration, and a slight increase in annual water yield (associated with CO2 effects on vegetation). Model results indicate that under elevated temperature, net soil nitrogen mineralization and nitrification markedly increase, resulting in acidification of soil and stream water, thereby altering the quality of water draining from forested watersheds. Invoking a CO2 fertilization effect on vegetation under climate change substantially mitigates watershed nitrogen loss, highlighting the need for a more thorough understanding of CO2 effects on forest vegetation.

  11. Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the beta-carotene content in Golden Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Babili, Salim; Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Schaub, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    To increase the beta-carotene (provitamin A) content and thus the nutritional value of Golden Rice, the optimization of the enzymes employed, phytoene synthase (PSY) and the Erwinia uredovora carotene desaturase (CrtI), must be considered. CrtI was chosen for this study because this bacterial enzyme, unlike phytoene synthase, was expressed at barely detectable levels in the endosperm of the Golden Rice events investigated. The low protein amounts observed may be caused by either weak cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter activity in the endosperm or by inappropriate codon usage. The protein level of CrtI was increased to explore its potential for enhancing the flux of metabolites through the pathway. For this purpose, a synthetic CrtI gene with a codon usage matching that of rice storage proteins was generated. Rice plants were transformed to express the synthetic gene under the control of the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter. In addition, transgenic plants expressing the original bacterial gene were generated, but the endosperm-specific glutelin B1 promoter was employed instead of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Independent of codon optimization, the use of the endosperm-specific promoter resulted in a large increase in bacterial desaturase production in the T(1) rice grains. However, this did not lead to a significant increase in the carotenoid content, suggesting that the bacterial enzyme is sufficiently active in rice endosperm even at very low levels and is not rate-limiting. The endosperm-specific expression of CrtI did not affect the carotenoid pattern in the leaves, which was observed upon its constitutive expression. Therefore, tissue-specific expression of CrtI represents the better option.

  12. Using aeroelastic structures with nonlinear switching electronics to increase potential energy yield in airflow: investigating analog control circuitry for automated peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Alexander G.; Drosinos, Jonathan G.; Grayson, Malika; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2015-03-01

    Bending piezoelectric transducers have the ability to harvest energy from aeroelastic vibrations induced by the ambient airflow. Such harvesters can have useful applications in the operation of low power devices, and their relatively small size makes them ideal for use in urban environments over civil infrastructure. One of the areas of focus regarding piezoelectric energy harvesting is the circuit topology used to store the harvested power. This study aims to further investigate the increase in potential energy yield from the piezoelectric harvester by optimizing the circuitry connecting the piezoelectric transducer and the power storage interface. When compared to an optimal resistive load case, it has been shown that certain circuit topologies, specifically synchronized switching and discharging to a storage capacitor through an inductor (SSDCI), can increase the charging power by as much as 400% if the circuit is completely lossless. This paper proposes a strategy for making a self-sufficient SSDCI circuit capable of peak detection for the synchronized switching using analog components. Using circuit simulation software, the performance of this proposed self-sufficient circuit is compared to an ideal case, and the effectiveness of the self-sufficient circuit strategy is discussed based on these simulation results. Further investigation of a physical working model of the new circuit proposal will be developed and experimental results of the circuit's performance obtained and compared to the estimated performance from the model.

  13. Molybdenum (Mo) increases endogenous phenolics, proline and photosynthetic pigments and the phytoremediation potential of the industrially important plant Ricinus communis L. for removal of cadmium from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir; Fuller, Michael Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in agricultural soil negatively affects crops yield and compromises food safety. Remediation of polluted soil is necessary for the re-establishment of sustainable agriculture and to prevent hazards to human health and environmental pollution. Phytoremediation is a promising technology for decontamination of polluted soil. The present study investigated the effect of molybdenum (Mo) (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ppm) on endogenous production of total phenolics and free proline, plant biomass and photosynthetic pigments in Ricinus communis plants grown in Cd (25, 50 and 100 ppm) contaminated soils and the potential for Cd phytoextraction. Mo was applied via seed soaking, soil addition and foliar spray. Foliar sprays significantly increased plant biomass, Cd accumulation and bioconcentration. Phenolic concentrations showed significantly positive correlations with Cd accumulation in roots (R (2) = 0.793, 0.807 and 0.739) and leaves (R (2) = 0.707, 721 and 0.866). Similarly, proline was significantly positively correlated with Cd accumulation in roots (R (2) = 0.668, 0.694 and 0.673) and leaves (R (2) = 0.831, 0.964 and 0.930). Foliar application was found to be the most effective way to deliver Mo in terms of increase in plant growth, Cd accumulation and production of phenolics and proline.

  14. Mechanical Stimulus-Induced Wthdrawal Behavior Increases Subsequent Pre-Stimulus Local Field Potential Power in the Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Unanesthetized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zui; Sun, Jing; Liu, Boyi; Jiang, Yongliang; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jialing; Shao, Xiaomei; Fang, Jianqiao

    2017-03-02

    BACKGROUND The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is important in pain expectation. Previous studies demonstrated that mechanical stimulus-induced withdrawal behaviors are spinally-mediated nocifensive reflexes in rats, but it is not known whether pain expectation is influenced by withdrawal behaviors. MATERIAL AND METHODS We reanalyzed previous mechanosensitivity measurements of 244 rats measured 5 times in succession. To study neural oscillation in the rACC, 1 recording microwire array was surgically implanted. Then, we simultaneously recorded the local field potential (LFP) of the rACC over the course of multiple withdrawal behaviors in unanesthetized rats. RESULTS From our previous withdrawal behavioral data in 244 rats, we observed that the distributions of paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were denser and more concentrated after the first withdrawal behavior. Compared to the first mechanical stimulus, increased neuronal synchrony and a stronger delta band component existed in each pre-stimulus LFP in the rACC during subsequent stimuli. CONCLUSIONS Pain expectation could be involved in withdrawal behaviors, which is related to increased total power and delta band power of the subsequent pre-stimulus LFPs in the rACC.

  15. Repetitive hops induce postactivation potentiation in triceps surae as well as an increase in the jump height of subsequent maximal drop jumps.

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    Julian Bergmann

    Full Text Available Postactivation potentiation (PAP has been defined as the increase in twitch torque after a conditioning contraction. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hops as conditioning contractions to induce PAP and increase performance in subsequent maximal drop jumps. In addition, we wanted to test if and how PAP can contribute to increases in drop jump rebound height. Twelve participants performed 10 maximal two-legged hops as conditioning contractions. Twitch peak torques of triceps surae muscles were recorded before and after the conditioning hops. Then, subjects performed drop jumps with and without 10 conditioning hops before each drop jump. Recordings included ground reaction forces, ankle and knee angles and electromyographic activity in five leg muscles. In addition, efferent motoneuronal output during ground contact was estimated with V-wave stimulation. The analyses showed that after the conditioning hops, twitch peak torques of triceps surae muscles were 32% higher compared to baseline values (P < 0.01. Drop jumps performed after conditioning hops were significantly higher (12%, P < 0.05, but V-waves and EMG activity remained unchanged. The amount of PAP and the change in drop jump rebound height were positively correlated (r(2 = 0.26, P < 0.05. These results provide evidence for PAP in triceps surae muscles induced by a bout of hops and indicate that PAP can contribute to the observed performance enhancements in subsequent drop jumps. The lack of change in EMG activity and V-wave amplitude suggests that the underlying mechanisms are more likely intramuscular than neural in origin.

  16. Conservation of body calcium by increased dietary intake of potassium: A potential measure to reduce the osteoporosis process during prolonged exposure to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechay, Bohdan R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1988 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, it was proposed that the loss of skeletal calcium upon prolonged exposure to microgravity could be explained, in part, by a renal maladjustment characterized by an increased urinary excretion of calcium. It was theorized that because the conservation of body fluids and electrolytes depends upon the energy of adenosine triphosphate and enzymes that control the use of its energy for renal ion transport, an induction of renal sodium and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na + K ATPase) by oral loading with potassium would increase the reabsorption of sodium directly and that of calcium indirectly, leading to improved hydration and to reduced calcium loss. Preliminary studies showed the following. Rats drinking water containing 0.2 M potassium chloride for six to 13 days excreted in urine 22 muEq of calcium and 135 muEq of sodium per 100 grams of body weight per day. The corresponding values for control rats drinking tap water were 43 muEq and 269 muEq respectively. Renal Na + K ATPase activity in potassium loaded rats was higher than in controls. Thus, oral potassium loading resulted in increased Na + K ATPase activity and diminished urinary excretion of calcium and of sodium as predicted by the hypothesis. An extension of these studies to humans has the potential of resulting in development of harmless, non-invasive, drug-free, convenient measures to reduce bone loss and other electrolyte and fluid problems in space travelers exposed to prolonged periods of microgravity.

  17. Small-fiber neuropathy Nav1.8 mutation shifts activation to hyperpolarized potentials and increases excitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianying; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Peng; Gerrits, Monique M; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Bekelaar, Kim; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Faber, Catharina G; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G

    2013-08-28

    Idiopathic small-fiber neuropathy (I-SFN), clinically characterized by burning pain in distal extremities and autonomic dysfunction, is a disorder of small-caliber nerve fibers of unknown etiology with limited treatment options. Functional variants of voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, encoded by SCN9A, have been identified in approximately one-third of I-SFN patients. These variants render dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons hyperexcitable. Sodium channel Nav1.8, encoded by SCN10A, is preferentially expressed in small-diameter DRG neurons, and produces most of the current underlying the upstroke of action potentials in these neurons. We previously demonstrated two functional variants of Nav1.8 that either enhance ramp current or shift activation in a hyperpolarizing direction, and render DRG neurons hyperexcitable, in I-SFN patients with no mutations of SCN9A. We have now evaluated additional I-SFN patients with no mutations in SCN9A, and report a novel I-SFN-related Nav1.8 mutation I1706V in a patient with painful I-SFN. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in small DRG neurons demonstrate that the mutation hyperpolarizes activation and the response to slow ramp depolarizations. However, it decreases fractional channels resistant to fast inactivation and reduces persistent currents. Current-clamp studies reveal that mutant channels decrease current threshold and increase the firing frequency of evoked action potentials within small DRG neurons. These observations suggest that the effects of this mutation on activation and ramp current are dominant over the reduced persistent current, and show that these pro-excitatory gating changes confer hyperexcitability on peripheral sensory neurons, which may contribute to pain in this individual with I-SFN.

  18. A potential benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish: downregulation of the oca2 gene increases tyrosine and catecholamine levels as an alternative to melanin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandžija, Helena; Ma, Li; Parkhurst, Amy; Jeffery, William R

    2013-01-01

    Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish) and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish), albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L-tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre-feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding is that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor for the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment.

  19. A potential benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish: downregulation of the oca2 gene increases tyrosine and catecholamine levels as an alternative to melanin synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bilandžija

    Full Text Available Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish, albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L-tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre-feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding is that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor for the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment.

  20. Combined impact of ultraviolet radiation and increased nutrients supply: A test of the potential anthropogenic impacts on the benthic amphipod Amphitoe valida from Patagonian waters (Argentina

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    Macarena S. Valiñas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted during the Austral Summer of 2014 to determine the effects of increased nutrient input and ultraviolet radiation (UVR on the food consumption rate (FCR and food preference in the amphipod Amphitoe valida. We collected specimens from the Patagonian coast (Argentina, from beaches close (Barrancas Blancas; BB and further away (Cangrejales; C from the Chubut River, which constitutes the potential source of eutrophication. Organisms were exposed to different radiation regimes (full radiation vs. PAR only and fed with different macroalgae diets (i.e., from different geographical location and with different quality in terms on nutrient content. Males collected from C showed food compensation, consuming more food under low-nutrient diets, while no compensation was observed in males from BB. Regardless of their origin, UVR decreased the FCR when males where fed on ambient nutrient diets, but not when males fed on high-quality diets indicating that in the former case, individuals were in worse physiological conditions to cope with UVR; food quality, however, significantly counteracted the deleterious effects of UVR on FCR. Females collected from the two beaches showed similar FCR under high-nutrient diet and had no food compensation when fed in low-nutrient diets. Females were more vulnerable to UVR, since their FCR were lower when exposed to UV radiation independent of the diet. Our results show that under anthropogenic eutrophication and high solar UVR levels an increase in the nutrient input could favor only males of A. valida, by reducing the negative effects of UVR on their FCR. Nevertheless, these nutrient inputs might cause additional problems like anoxia, as a result of an unusual macroalgal growth, thus affecting amphipod’s survival.

  1. Oxygen restriction increases the infective potential of Listeria monocytogenes in vitro in Caco-2 cells and in vivo in guinea pigs

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    Licht Tine

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in several food borne outbreaks as well as sporadic cases of disease. Increased understanding of the biology of this organism is important in the prevention of food borne listeriosis. The infectivity of Listeria monocytogenes ScottA, cultivated with and without oxygen restriction, was compared in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescent protein labels were applied to allow certain identification of Listeria cells from untagged bacteria in in vivo samples, and to distinguish between cells grown under different conditions in mixed infection experiments. Results Infection of Caco-2 cells revealed that Listeria cultivated under oxygen-restricted conditions were approximately 100 fold more invasive than similar cultures grown without oxygen restriction. This was observed for exponentially growing bacteria, as well as for stationary-phase cultures. Oral dosage of guinea pigs with Listeria resulted in a significantly higher prevalence (p Listeria in fecal samples was observed after dosage with oxygen-restricted bacteria. These differences were seen after challenge with single Listeria cultures, as well as with a mixture of two cultures grown with and without oxygen restriction. Conclusion Our results show for the first time that the environmental conditions to which L. monocytogenes is exposed prior to ingestion are decisive for its in vivo infective potential in the gastrointestinal tract after passage of the gastric barrier. This is highly relevant for safety assessment of this organism in food.

  2. DUF538 protein super family is predicted to be the potential homologue of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Ashraf; Kohnehrouz, Samira Baghban

    2013-03-01

    DUF538 protein super family includes a number of plant proteins that their role is not yet clear. These proteins have been frequently reported to be expressed in plants under various stressful stimuli such as bacteria and elicitors. In order to further understand about this protein family we utilized bioinformatics tools to analyze its structure in details. As a result, plants DUF538 was predicted to be the partial structural homologue of BPI (bactericidal/permeability increasing) proteins in mammalian innate immune system that provides the first line of defense against different pathogens including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. Moreover, on the base of the experimental data, it was identified that exogenously applied purified fused product of Celosia DUF538 affects the bacterial growth more possibly similar to BPI through the binding to the bacterial membranes. In conclusion, as the first ever time report, we nominated DUF538 protein family as the potential structural and functional homologue of BPI protein in plants, providing a basis to study the novel functions of this protein family in the biological systems in the future.

  3. IL-3 or IL-7 increases ex vivo gene transfer efficiency in ADA-SCID BM CD34+ cells while maintaining in vivo lymphoid potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficara, Francesca; Superchi, Daniela B; Hernández, Raisa Jofra; Mocchetti, Cristina; Carballido-Perrig, Nicole; Andolfi, Grazia; Deola, Sara; Colombo, Augusto; Bordignon, Claudio; Carballido, José M; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2004-12-01

    To improve maintenance and gene transfer of human lymphoid progenitors for clinical use in gene therapy of adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient SCID we investigated several gene transfer protocols using various stem cell-enriched sources. The lymphoid differentiation potential was measured by an in vitro clonal assay for B/NK cells and in the in vivo SCID-hu mouse model. Ex vivo culture with the cytokines TPO, FLT3-ligand, and SCF (T/F/S) plus IL-3 or IL-7 substantially increased the yield of transduced bone marrow (BM) CD34(+) cells purified from ADA-SCID patients or healthy donors, compared to T/F/S alone. Moreover, the use of IL-3 or IL-7 significantly improved the maintenance of in vitro B cell progenitors from ADA-SCID BM cells and allowed the efficient transduction of B and NK cell progenitors. Under these optimized conditions transduced CD34(+) cells were efficiently engrafted into SCID-hu mice and gave rise to B and T cell progeny, demonstrating the maintenance of in vivo lymphoid reconstitution capacity. The protocol based on the T/F/S + IL-3 combination was included in a gene therapy clinical trial for ADA-SCID, resulting in long-term engraftment of stem/progenitor cells. Remarkably, gene-corrected BM CD34(+) cells obtained from one patient 4 and 11 months after gene therapy were capable of repopulating the lymphoid compartment of SCID-hu hosts.

  4. Studies on the potential neurotoxic and convulsant effects of increased blood levels of quinolinic acid in rats with altered blood-brain barrier permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vezzani, A.; Stasi, M.A.; Wu, H.Q.; Castiglioni, M.; Weckermann, B.; Samanin, R. (Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milano (Italy))

    1989-10-01

    Intravenous injection of 450 mg/kg quinolinic acid (Quin), an endogenous kynurenine metabolite with excitotoxic properties, induced only minor electroencephalographic (EEG) modifications and no neurotoxicity in rats with a mature blood-brain barrier (BBB). BBB permeability was altered in rats by focal unilateral irradiation of the cortex (7 mm in diameter and 5 mm in depth) with protons (60 Gy, 9 Gy/min). Three days after irradiation, Evans blue dye staining showed BBB breakdown in the dorsal hippocampus of the irradiated hemisphere. No neurotoxic or convulsant effects were observed as a consequence of the radiation itself. When BBB-lesioned rats were challenged with 225 mg/kg Quin iv, epileptiform activity was observed on EEG analysis. Tonic-clonic seizures were induced by 225-450 mg/kg Quin. Light microscopic analysis showed a dose-related excitotoxic type of lesion restricted to the hippocampus ipsilateral to the irradiated side. Neuro-degeneration was prevented by local injection of 120 nmol D(-)2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, a selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. No lesions or EEG or behavioral modifications occurred after 450 mg/kg nicotinic acid, an inactive analog of Quin. The potential neurotoxic and convulsant effects of increased blood levels of Quin under conditions of altered BBB permeability are discussed.

  5. The dopamine beta-hydroxylase inhibitor nepicastat increases dopamine release and potentiates psychostimulant-induced dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoto, Paola; Flore, Giovanna; Saba, Pierluigi; Bini, Valentina; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-07-01

    The dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor nepicastat has been shown to reproduce disulfiram ability to suppress the reinstatement of cocaine seeking after extinction in rats. To clarify its mechanism of action, we examined the effect of nepicastat, given alone or in association with cocaine or amphetamine, on catecholamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, two key regions involved in the reinforcing and motivational effects of cocaine and in the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Nepicastat effect on catecholamines was evaluated by microdialysis in freely moving rats. Nepicastat reduced noradrenaline release both in the medial prefrontal cortex and in the nucleus accumbens, and increased dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex but not in the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, nepicastat markedly potentiated cocaine- and amphetamine-induced extracellular dopamine accumulation in the medial prefrontal cortex but not in the nucleus accumbens. Extracellular dopamine accumulation produced by nepicastat alone or by its combination with cocaine or amphetamine was suppressed by the α2 -adrenoceptor agonist clonidine. It is suggested that nepicastat, by suppressing noradrenaline synthesis and release, eliminated the α2 -adrenoceptor mediated inhibitory mechanism that constrains dopamine release and cocaine- and amphetamine-induced dopamine release from noradrenaline or dopamine terminals in the medial prefrontal cortex.

  6. Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of 316LN SS in Acidified Sodium Chloride Solution at Applied Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonguzhali, A.; Pujar, M. G.; Mallika, C.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2015-05-01

    The influence of acidified 1 M NaCl solution by addition of 2 ml/L of HCl on the cyclic plastic deformation of AISI Type 316LN SS containing 0.07 wt.% and 0.22 wt.% N was investigated as a function of the applied potentials. The corrosion fatigue (CF) behavior of stainless steel (SS) was explained vis-a-vis the dislocation behavior, the propensity to form microcracks, and the evolution of the current transients based on the studies carried out at both room-temperature and boiling conditions. CF experiments were conducted using round tensile specimens at a stress ratio of 0.5 and a frequency of 0.1 Hz. Two different kinds of damage mechanisms were observed (I) the damage mechanism in the stable-passive state was correlated with the localization of the anodic dissolution due to a depassivation-repassivation process, whereas (II) the cyclic stress induced pitting corrosion in the metastable pitting state, which resulted in formation of microcracks. The study of the microcracking process and its evolution is a key to the physical mechanism by which the fatigue life of stainless steels would be affected in an aqueous corrosive solution under the applied potential.

  7. IGF-1 increases invasive potential of MCF 7 breast cancer cells and induces activation of latent TGF-β1 resulting in epithelial to mesenchymal transition

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    Damjanovski Sashko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction TGF-β signaling has been extensively studied in many developmental contexts, amongst which is its ability to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMT. EMTs play crucial roles during embryonic development and have also come under intense scrutiny as a mechanism through which breast cancers progress to become metastatic. Interestingly, while the molecular hallmarks of EMT progression (loss of cell adhesion, nuclear localization of β-catenin are straightforward, the cellular signaling cascades that result in an EMT are numerous and diverse. Furthermore, most studies describing the biological effects of TGF-β have been performed using high concentrations of active, soluble TGF-β, despite the fact that TGF-β is produced and secreted as a latent complex. Methods MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with recombinant IGF-1 were assayed for metalloproteinase activity and invasiveness through a matrigel coated transwell invasion chamber. IGF-1 treatments were then followed by the addition of latent-TGF-β1 to determine if elevated levels of IGF-1 together with latent-TGF-β1 could cause EMT. Results Results showed that IGF-1 - a molecule known to be elevated in breast cancer is a regulator of matrix metalloproteinase activity (MMP and the invasive potential of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The effects of IGF-1 appear to be mediated through signals transduced via the PI3K and MAPK pathways. In addition, increased IGF-1, together with latent TGF-β1 and active MMPs result in EMT. Conclusions Taken together our data suggest a novel a link between IGF-1 levels, MMP activity, TGF-β signaling, and EMT in breast cancer cells.

  8. Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase Increases the Therapeutic Potential of Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Maintaining Antioxidant Enzyme Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Dae Won; Chung, Jin Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo; Choi, Jung Hoon; Choi, Goang-Min; Choi, Soo Young; Moon, Seung Myung

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the ability of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) to improve the therapeutic potential of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) against ischemic damage in the spinal cord. Animals were divided into four groups: the control group, vehicle (PEP-1 peptide and artificial cerebrospinal fluid)-treated group, Ad-MSC alone group, and Ad-MSC-treated group with PEP-1-SOD1. The abdominal aorta of the rabbit was occluded for 30 min in the subrenal region to induce ischemic damage, and immediately after reperfusion, artificial cerebrospinal fluid or Ad-MSCs (2 × 10(5)) were administered intrathecally. In addition, PEP-1 or 0.5 mg/kg PEP-1-SOD1 was administered intraperitoneally to the Ad-MSC-treated rabbits. Motor behaviors and NeuN-immunoreactive neurons were significantly decreased in the vehicle-treated group after ischemia/reperfusion. Administration of Ad-MSCs significantly ameliorated the changes in motor behavior and NeuN-immunoreactive neuronal survival. In addition, the combination of PEP-1-SOD1 and Ad-MSCs further increased the ameliorative effects of Ad-MSCs in the spinal cord after ischemia. Furthermore, the administration of Ad-MSCs with PEP-1-SOD1 decreased lipid peroxidation and maintained levels of antioxidants such as SOD1 and glutathione peroxidase compared to the Ad-MSC alone group. These results suggest that combination therapy using Ad-MSCs and PEP-1-SOD1 strongly protects neurons from ischemic damage by modulating the balance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants.

  9. Increasing the clinical efficacy of NK and antibody-mediated cancer immunotherapy: potential predictors of successful clinical outcome observed in high-risk neuroblastoma

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    Tony A. Koehn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Disease recurrence is frequent in high-risk neuroblastoma (NBL patients even after multimodality aggressive treatment [a combination of chemotherapy, surgical resection, local radiation therapy, autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT and cis-retinoic acid (CRA]. Recent clinical studies have explored the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that bind to disialoganglioside (GD2, highly expressed in NBL, as a means to enable immune effector cells to destroy NBL cells via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC. Preclinical data indicate that ADCC can be more effective when appropriate effector cells are activated by cytokines. Clinical studies have pursued this by administering anti-GD2 mAb in combination with ADCC-enhancing cytokines (IL2 and GM-CSF, a regimen that has demonstrated improved cancer-free survival. More recently, early clinical studies have used a fusion protein that consists of the anti-GD2 mAb directly linked to IL2, and antitumor responses were seen in the Phase II setting. Analyses of genes that code for receptors that influence ADCC activity and Natural Killer (NK cell function [Fc Receptor (FcR, Killer Immunoglublin-like Receptor (KIR, and KIR-ligand (KIR-L] suggest patients with antitumor activity are more likely to have certain genotype profiles. Further analyses will need to be conducted to determine whether these genotypes can be used as predictive markers for favorable therapeutic outcome, thus potentially increasing the efficacy of mAb-mediated NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Allogeneic compact bone-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation increases survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation: a potential immunological mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Shukai; Ren Hanyun; Shi Yongjin; Liu Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiation-induced injury after accidental or therapeutic total body exposure to ionizing radiation has serious pathophysiological consequences,and currently no effective therapy exists.This study was designed to investigate whether transplantation of allogeneic murine compact bone derived-mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs) could improve the survival of mice exposed to lethal dosage total body irradiation (TBI),and to explore the potential immunoprotective role of MSCs.Methods BALB/c mice were treated with 8 Gy TBI,and then some were administered CB-MSCs isolated from C57BL/6 mice.Survival rates and body weight were analyzed for 14 days post-irradiation.At three days post-irradiation,we evaluated IFN-Y and IL-4 concentrations; CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell (Treg) percentage; CXCR3,CCR5,and CCR7 expressions on CD3+T cells; and splenocyte T-bet and GATA-3 mRNA levels.CB-MSC effects on bone marrow hemopoiesis were assessed via colony-forming unit granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) assay.Results After lethal TBI,compared to non-transplanted mice,CB-MSC-transplanted mice exhibited significantly increased survival,body weight,and CFU-GM counts of bone marrow cells (P<0.05),as well as higher Treg percentages,reduced IFN-Y,CXCR3 and CCR5 down-regulation,and CCR7 up-regulation.CB-MSC transplantation suppressed Th1 immunity.Irradiated splenocytes directly suppressed CFU-GM formation from bone marrow cells,and CB-MSC co-culture reversed this inhibition.Conclusion Allogeneic CB-MSC transplantation attenuated radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity,and provided immunoprotection by alleviating lymphocyte-mediated CFU-GM inhibition,expanding Tregs,regulating T cell chemokine receptor expressions,and skewing the Th1/Th2 balance toward anti-inflammatory Th2 polarization.

  11. Development of cost-effective media to increase the economic potential for larger-scale bioproduction of natural food additives by Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Debaryomyces hansenii , and Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2009-11-11

    Yeast extract (YE) is the most common nitrogen source in a variety of bioprocesses in spite of the high cost. Therefore, the use of YE in culture media is one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes, making the search for alternative-cheaper nitrogen sources particularly desired. The aim of the current study is to develop cost-effective media based on corn steep liquor (CSL) and locally available vinasses in order to increase the economic potential for larger-scale bioproduction. Three microorganisms were evaluated: Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Debaryomyces hansenii , and Aspergillus niger . The amino acid profile and protein concentration was relevant for the xylitol and citric acid production by D. hansenii and A. niger , respectively. Metals also played an important role for citric acid production, meanwhile, D. hansenii showed a strong dependence with the initial amount of Mg(2+). Under the best conditions, 28.8 g lactic acid/L (Q(LA) = 0.800 g/L.h, Y(LA/S) = 0.95 g/g), 35.3 g xylitol/L (Q(xylitol) = 0.380 g/L.h, Y(xylitol/S) = 0.69 g/g), and 13.9 g citric acid/L (Q(CA) = 0.146 g/L.h, Y(CA/S) = 0.63 g/g) were obtained. The economic efficiency (E(p/euro)) parameter identify vinasses as a lower cost and more effective nutrient source in comparison to CSL.

  12. Down-regulation of NKD1 increases the invasive potential of non-small-cell lung cancer and correlates with a poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Shun-Dong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a negative modulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, Naked1 (NKD1 is widely expressed in many normal tissues. However, the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of NKD1 in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is still unclear. Methods Immunohistochemical studies were performed on 35 cases of normal lung tissues and 100 cases of NSCLC, including 66 cases with complete follow-up records. The NKD1 protein and mRNA expressions were detected by western blot and Real-time PCR, respectively. To examine the effect of NKD1 on the invasiveness of lung cancer cells, NKD1 was down-regulated by siRNA in lung cancer cell lines and the invasive ability was then evaluated by the Matrigel invasion assay. In addition, the expressions of Dishevelled-1 and β-catenin proteins, as well as MMP mRNA were also examined in NKD1 knockdown cells. Results In 35 fresh lung cancer tissues examined, 27(79% of them exhibited lower levels of NKD1 protein in comparison with their corresponding normal tissue (P = 0.009. However, the NKD1 mRNA level was significantly higher in cancerous lung tissues, compared with the adjacent normal tissues. In 100 NSCLC tissues, NKD1 was significantly lower in 78 cases (78% than in the normal specimens, determined by immunohistochemical staining. The reduced NKD1 expression was correlated with histological type (P = 0.003, poor differentiation (P = 0.004, lymph node metastasis (P = 0.013, TNM stage (P = 0.002 and poor survival (62.88 ± 3.23 versus 23.61 ± 2.18 months, P = 0.03. In addition, NKD1 knockdown could up-regulate Dishevelled-1 and β-catenin protein levels, as well as increased MMP-7 transcription and the invasive ability of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, when the NKD1-knockdown cells were treated with Dishevelled-1 antibody, their invasive potential was significantly reduced. Conclusion NKD1 protein is reduced but NKD1 mRNA is elevated in NSCLC. Reduced NKD1 protein

  13. Increased uptake of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnant women in Zambia (2006–2012: Potential determinants and highlight of lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie Masaninga

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Zambia has increased IPTp uptake through ANC for all women. The malaria control program has contributed to increasing access to health services and reducing demographic and socioeconomic disparities.

  14. Assessment of driving factors for yield and productivity developments in crop and cattle production as key to increasing sustainable biomass potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, Sarah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355262436; Wicke, Birka|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Faaij, Andre

    The sustainable production potential of biomass for energy and material purposes largely depends on the future availability of surplus agricultural lands made available through yield improvements in crop and livestock production. However, the rates at which yields may develop, and the influence of

  15. Assessment of driving factors for yield and productivity developments in crop and cattle production as key to increasing sustainable biomass potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, Sarah; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable production potential of biomass for energy and material purposes largely depends on the future availability of surplus agricultural lands made available through yield improvements in crop and livestock production. However, the rates at which yields may develop, and the influence of t

  16. Livestock in the rice-based economy of Office du Niger: The development potential for increased crop–livestock integration through multi-actor processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doumbia, D.; Paassen, van A.; Oosting, S.J.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2012-01-01

    A diagnostic study of the development potential of livestock for the rice-based economy of the Office du Niger (ON) was conducted in Mali. The functioning of selected farming systems and value chains were studied by means of interviews, surveys and farmer group discussions. The findings show that in

  17. Enteral nutrients potentiate the intestinotrophic action of glucagon-like peptide-2 in association with increased insulin-like growth factor-I responses in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Murali, Sangita G; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    compared to GLP-2. This indicates that EN potentiates the intestinotrophic action of GLP-2. Proliferation of enterocytes due to GLP-2 infusion was associated with greater expression of ileal proglucagon, GLP-2 receptor, IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 mRNAs, and greater IGF-I peptide concentration in ileum (p......action in a physiological model of intestinal growth. Key words...

  18. Rice arbuscular mycorrhiza as a tool to study the molecular mechanisms of fungal symbiosis and a potential target to increase productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tomomi; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko

    2015-12-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a monocot model crop for cereal molecular biology. Following the emergence of molecular genetics of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in model legumes in the 1990s, studies on rice genetic resources have considerably contributed to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and evolution of root intracellular symbioses.In this review, we trace the history of these studies and suggest the potential utility of AM symbiosis for improvement in rice productivity.

  19. Triptan-induced enhancement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in trigeminal ganglion dural afferents underlies increased responsiveness to potential migraine triggers

    OpenAIRE

    De Felice, Milena; Ossipov, Michael H.; Wang, Ruizhong; Dussor, Gregory; Lai, Josephine; Meng, Ian D.; Chichorro, Juliana; Andrews, John S; Rakhit, Suman; Maddaford, Shawn; Dodick, David; Porreca, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Migraine is a common neurological disorder often treated with triptans. Triptan overuse can lead to increased frequency of headache in some patients, a phenomenon termed medication overuse headache. Previous preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated or sustained triptan administration for several days can elicit persistent neural adaptations in trigeminal ganglion cells innervating the dura, prominently characterized by increased labelling of neuronal profiles for calcitonin gene re...

  20. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kranz

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austria does not formally recognise this as a threat.

  1. Oxygen restriction increases the infective potential of Listeria monocytogenes in vitro in Caco-2 cells and in vivo in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Bo; Roldgaard, Bent; Christensen, Bjarke Bak

    2007-01-01

    Background: Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in several food borne outbreaks as well as sporadic cases of disease. Increased understanding of the biology of this organism is important in the prevention of food borne listeriosis. The infectivity of Listeria monocytogenes ScottA, cultivated...

  2. Oxygen restriction increases the infection potential of Listeria monocytogenes –verification of microarray chip data by quantitaive real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Andersen, Jens Bo; Christensen, Bjarke Bak

    Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in several food borne outbreaks as well as sporadic cases of disease during the last two decades. Increased understanding of the biology of this organism is important in the prevention of food borne listeriosis. This is highly relevant for safety...

  3. Exposure of aconitase to smoking-related oxidants results in iron loss and increased iron response protein-1 activity: potential mechanisms for iron accumulation in human arterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talib, Jihan; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Smokers have an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, but the origin(s) of this increased risk are incompletely defined. Evidence supports an accumulation of the oxidant-generating enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the inflamed artery wall, and smokers have high levels of SCN−, a preferred MPO...

  4. Potential role of sodium-proton exchangers in the low concentration arsenic trioxide-increased intracellular pH and cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aravena

    Full Text Available Arsenic main inorganic compound is arsenic trioxide (ATO presented in solution mainly as arsenite. ATO increases intracellular pH (pHi, cell proliferation and tumor growth. Sodium-proton exchangers (NHEs modulate the pHi, with NHE1 playing significant roles. Whether ATO-increased cell proliferation results from altered NHEs expression and activity is unknown. We hypothesize that ATO increases cell proliferation by altering pHi due to increased NHEs-like transport activity. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells grown in 5 mmol/L D-glucose-containing DMEM were exposed to ATO (0.05, 0.5 or 5 µmol/L, 0-48 hours in the absence or presence of 5-N,N-hexamethylene amiloride (HMA, 5-100 µmol/L, NHEs inhibitor, PD-98059 (30 µmol/L, MAPK1/2 inhibitor, Gö6976 (10 µmol/L, PKCα, βI and μ inhibitor, or Schering 28080 (10 µmol/L, H(+/K(+ATPase inhibitor plus concanamycin (0.1 µmol/L, V type ATPases inhibitor. Incorporation of [(3H]thymidine was used to estimate cell proliferation, and counting cells with a hemocytometer to determine the cell number. The pHi was measured by fluorometry in 2,7-bicarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein loaded cells. The Na(+-dependent HMA-sensitive NHEs-like mediated proton transport kinetics, NHE1 protein abundance in the total, cytoplasm and plasma membrane protein fractions, and phosphorylated and total p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p42/44(mapk were also determined. Lowest ATO (0.05 µmol/L, ~0.01 ppm used in this study increased cell proliferation, pHi, NHEs-like transport and plasma membrane NHE1 protein abundance, effects blocked by HMA, PD-98059 or Gö6976. Cell-buffering capacity did not change by ATO. The results show that a low ATO concentration increases MDCK cells proliferation by NHEs (probably NHE1-like transport dependent-increased pHi requiring p42/44(mapk and PKCα, βI and/or μ activity. This finding could be crucial in diseases where uncontrolled cell growth occurs, such as tumor growth, and

  5. Valproic acid increases conservative homologous recombination frequency and reactive oxygen species formation: a potential mechanism for valproic acid-induced neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoort, Ericka N; Kim, Perry M; Winn, Louise M

    2006-04-01

    Valproic acid, a commonly used antiepileptic agent, is associated with a 1 to 2% incidence of neural tube defects when taken during pregnancy; however, the molecular mechanism by which this occurs has not been elucidated. Previous research suggests that valproic acid exposure leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). DNA damage due to ROS can result in DNA double-strand breaks, which can be repaired through homologous recombination (HR), a process that is not error-free and can result in detrimental genetic changes. Because the developing embryo requires tight regulation of gene expression to develop properly, we propose that the loss or dysfunction of genes involved in embryonic development through aberrant HR may ultimately cause neural tube defects. To determine whether valproic acid induces HR, Chinese hamster ovary 3-6 cells, containing a neomycin direct repeat recombination substrate, were exposed to valproic acid for 4 or 24 h. A significant increase in HR after exposure to valproic acid (5 and 10 mM) for 24 h was observed, which seems to occur through a conservative HR mechanism. We also demonstrated that exposure to valproic acid (5 and 10 mM) significantly increased intracellular ROS levels, which were attenuated by preincubation with polyethylene glycol-conjugated (PEG)-catalase. A significant change in the ratio of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine/2'-de-oxyguanosine, a measure of DNA oxidation, was not observed after valproic acid exposure; however, preincubation with PEG-catalase significantly blocked the increase in HR. These data demonstrate that valproic acid increases HR frequency and provides a possible mechanism for valproic acid-induced neural tube defects.

  6. Increased binding of a hydrophobic, photolabile probe to Escherichia coli inversely correlates to membrane potential but not adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M K; Konisky, J

    1981-01-01

    We describe conditions for a quantitative determination of azidopyrene binding to Escherichia coli cells. In addition, we define conditions whereby irradiation of azidopyrene in the presence of cells leads to irreversible association of probe with cells. This is presumably due to the light-dependent generation of reactive nitrenes and subsequent incorporation of nitrenopyrene moieties into cellular components. These methods allowed us to determine that the amount of azidopyrene bound to cells was inversely correlated with the magnitude of the cellular membrane potential, but was not correlated with high or low adenosine 5-triphosphate levels per se. Cells bound more azidopyrene if the delta psi was low. Cell-bound azidopyrene was found to be entirely associated with the inner and outer membrane. We suggest that the decreased association of hydrophobic probes upon energization of whole cells reflects a rapid transition in structural properties of the cell envelope. PMID:7007317

  7. Increased fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake on positron emission tomography-computed tomography postbronchoalveolar lavage: a potential cause of radiologic misinterpretation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, Sum

    2011-08-01

    Cytologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is used for lung cancer diagnosis. We describe a patient with a history of rectal carcinoma who presented with a new lung mass. BAL was performed, with positron emission tomography-computed tomography the following day. There was mildly increased fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in areas of the lung parenchyma with new ground-glass opacification. This created ambiguity in staging, clarified 2 weeks later by a computed tomography showing complete resolution of the ground-glass opacity. Clinicians should be aware that BAL may cause increased pulmonary fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake, making accurate radiologic interpretation problematic. We suggest that to optimize positron emission tomography-computed tomography, studies should not be performed within 24 hours of BAL.

  8. Increased body fat is associated with potentiation of blood pressure response to hypoxia in healthy men: relations with insulin and leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleczny, Bartłomiej; Siennicka, Agnieszka; Zacharski, Maciej; Jankowska, Ewa Anita; Ponikowska, Beata; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Increased peripheral chemosensitivity (PChS) has been proposed as mechanism underlying obesity-related sympathoactivation, with insulin and/or leptin as possible mediators. However, human data on PChS in obesity are scarce. Therefore, we explored this issue in a sample of 41 healthy men aged 30-59 years, divided according to body fat percentage (fat %) into two groups: insulin and leptin levels were measured. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) was used to assess insulin sensitivity/resistance. Individuals with ≥25 % body fat demonstrated increased PChS-SBP (p  0.4). PChS-SBP was related positively with anthropometric characteristics (e.g. waist circumference, fat %), plasma insulin and HOMA (all p insulin resistance (but not hyperleptinaemia) are associated with augmented pressure response from chemoreceptors.

  9. Thermal tolerances of reef corals in the Gulf: a review of the potential for increasing coral survival and adaptation to climate change through assisted translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Steve L; Riegl, Bernhard M

    2013-07-30

    Corals in the Gulf withstand summer temperatures up to 10 °C higher than corals elsewhere and have recovered from extreme temperature events in 10 years or less. This heat-tolerance of Gulf corals has positive implications for the world's coral populations to adapt to increasing water temperatures. However, survival of Gulf corals has been severely tested by 35-37 °C temperatures five times in the last 15 years, each time causing extensive coral bleaching and mortality. Anticipated future temperature increases may therefore challenge survival of already highly stressed Gulf corals. Previously proposed translocation of Gulf corals to introduce temperature-adapted corals outside of the Gulf is assessed and determined to be problematical, and to be considered a tool of last resort. Coral culture and transplantation within the Gulf is feasible for helping maintain coral species populations and preserving genomes and adaptive capacities of Gulf corals that are endangered by future thermal stress events.

  10. Organometal-induced increases in oxygen reactive species: The potential of 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate as an index of neurotoxic damage

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The effects of the neurotoxic metals methylmercury (MeHg) and trimethyltin (TMT) on oxygen reactive species formation within a crude synaptosomal fraction (P2), using the probe 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), with the fluorescent indicator fluo-3, have been investigated. Two and seven days after a single injection of MeHg (1 mg/kg) the formation rate of cerebellar oxygen reactive species was significantly increased. Hippocampal and frontocort...

  11. Slug-dependent upregulation of L1CAM is responsible for the increased invasion potential of pancreatic cancer cells following long-term 5-FU treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Lund

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a lethal disease with 5-year survival of less than 5%. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU is a principal first-line therapy, but treatment only extends survival modestly and is seldom curative. Drug resistance and disease recurrence is typical and there is a pressing need to overcome this. To investigate acquired 5-FU resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, we established chemoresistant monoclonal cell lines from the Panc 03.27 cell line by long-term exposure to increasing doses of 5-FU.5-FU-resistant cell lines exhibited increased expression of markers associated with multidrug resistance explaining their reduced sensitivity to 5-FU. In addition, 5-FU-resistant cell lines showed alterations typical for an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, including upregulation of mesenchymal markers and increased invasiveness. Microarray analysis revealed the L1CAM pathway as one of the most upregulated pathways in the chemoresistant clones, and a significant upregulation of L1CAM was seen on the RNA and protein level. In pancreatic cancer, expression of L1CAM is associated with a chemoresistant and migratory phenotype. Using esiRNA targeting L1CAM, or by blocking the extracellular part of L1CAM with antibodies, we show that the increased invasiveness observed in the chemoresistant cells functionally depends on L1CAM. Using esiRNA targeting β-catenin and/or Slug, we demonstrate that in the chemoresistant cell lines, L1CAM expression depends on Slug rather than β-catenin.Our findings establish Slug-induced L1CAM expression as a mediator of a chemoresistant and migratory phenotype in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.

  12. Assessment of potential increased oil production by polymer-waterflood in northern and southern mid-continent oil fields. Progress report for the quarter ending December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Six tasks are reported on: geological and engineering study of the DOE-Kewanee polymer-augmented waterflood, review of polymer injection program in this field, evaluation of results of polymer-augmented waterflood in this field, review of geological and engineering characteristics of oil fields now in waterflood as candidates for polymer augmentation, review of fields currently under primary production, and determination of ranges of future increased oil production from the polymer-water process in the project area.

  13. Human Alpha-Defensin HNP1 Increases HIV Traversal of the Epithelial Barrier: A Potential Role in STI-Mediated Enhancement of HIV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valere, Kimyata; Rapista, Aprille; Eugenin, Eliseo; Lu, Wuyuan; Chang, Theresa L

    2015-12-01

    Alpha-defensins, including human neutrophil peptides 1-3 (HNP1-3) and human defensin 5 (HD5), are elevated at the genital mucosa in individuals with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The presence of STIs is associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, suggesting there may be a role for defensins in early events of HIV transmission. HD5 has been demonstrated to contribute to STI-mediated increased HIV infectivity in vitro. HNPs exhibit anti-HIV activity in vitro. However, increased levels of HNPs have been associated with enhanced HIV acquisition and higher viral load in breast milk. This study found that HNP1, but not HD5, significantly disrupted epithelial integrity and promoted HIV traversal of epithelial barriers. Linear HNP1 with the same charges did not affect epithelial permeability, indicating that the observed effect of HNP1 on the epithelial barrier was structure dependent. These results suggest a role for HNP1 in STI-mediated enhancement of HIV transmission.

  14. Increased platelet expression of FcGammaRIIa and its potential impact on platelet reactivity in patients with end stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobel Burton E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased platelet reactivity has been implicated in cardiovascular disease – the major cause of death in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. FcGammaRIIA is a component of glycoprotein VI and Ib-IX-V that mediate activation of platelets by collagen and von Willebrand factor. To determine whether expression of FcGammaRIIA impacts platelet reactivity we quantified its expression and platelet reactivity in 33 patients with ESRD who were undergoing hemodialysis. Methods Blood samples were obtained from patients immediately before hemodialysis and before administration of heparin. Platelet expression of FcGammaRIIA and the activation of platelets in response to low concentrations of convulxin (1 ng/ml, selected to mimic effects of collagen, thrombin (1 nM, adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 0.2 uM, or platelet activating factor (PAF, 1 nM were determined with the use of flow cytometry in samples of whole blood anticoagulated with corn trypsin inhibitor (a specific inhibitor of Factor XIIa. Results Patients were stratified with respect to the median expression of FcGammaRIIA. Patients with high platelet expression of FcGammaRIIA exhibited 3-fold greater platelet reactivity compared with that in those with low expression in response to convulxin (p Conclusion Increased platelet reactivity in response to low concentrations of diverse agonists is associated with high expression of FcGammaRIIA and may contribute to an increased risk of thrombosis in patients with ESRD.

  15. Requirement of glycogenolysis for uptake of increased extracellular K+ in astrocytes: potential implications for K+ homeostasis and glycogen usage in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junnan; Song, Dan; Xue, Zhanxia; Gu, Li; Hertz, Leif; Peng, Liang

    2013-03-01

    The importance of astrocytic K(+) uptake for extracellular K(+) ([K(+)](e)) clearance during neuronal stimulation or pathophysiological conditions is increasingly acknowledged. It occurs by preferential stimulation of the astrocytic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, which has higher K(m) and V(max) values than its neuronal counterpart, at more highly increased [K(+)](e) with additional support of the cotransporter NKCC1. Triggered by a recent DiNuzzo et al. paper, we used administration of the glycogenolysis inhibitor DAB to primary cultures of mouse astrocytes to determine whether K(+) uptake required K(+)-stimulated glycogenolysis. KCl was increased by either 5 mM (stimulating only the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase) or 10 mM (stimulating both transporters) in glucose-containing saline media prepared to become iso-osmotic after the addition. DAB completely inhibited both uptakes, the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase-mediated by preventing Na(+) uptake for stimulation of its intracellular Na(+)-activated site, and the NKCC1-mediated uptake by inhibition of depolarization- and L-channel-mediated Ca(2+) uptake. Drugs inhibiting the signaling pathways involved in either of these processes also abolished K(+) uptake. Assuming similar in vivo characteristics, partly supported by literature data, K(+)-stimulated astrocytic K(+) uptake must discontinue after normalization of extracellular K(+). This will allow Kir1.4-mediated release and reuptake by the less powerful neuronal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase.

  16. Brief Report: Power Doppler Ultrasonography for Detection of Increased Vascularity in the Fascia: A Potential Early Diagnostic Tool in Fasciitis of Dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ken; Nishioka, Makiko; Matsushima, Satoshi; Joh, Kensuke; Oto, Yosuke; Yoshiga, Masayuki; Otani, Kazuhiro; Ito, Haruyasu; Hirai, Kenichiro; Furuya, Kazuhiro; Ukichi, Taro; Noda, Kentaro; Kingetsu, Isamu; Kurosaka, Daitaro

    2016-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that fasciitis is a common lesion of dermatomyositis (DM) that is detectable early after disease onset by en bloc muscle biopsy combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) is a useful method for detection of inflammation and vascularity in rheumatic diseases. We undertook this study to determine whether fasciitis was detectable by PDUS in patients with DM. We prospectively evaluated 7 patients with DM and 7 patients with polymyositis (PM) for the detection of fasciitis with PDUS. MRI and PDUS were both performed in all patients. Fasciitis was histologically confirmed by en bloc biopsy. Among all patients with DM, 4 showed signs of fasciitis on MRI, while increased blood flow signals were observed along the fascia by PDUS in 6 DM patients, including 4 patients with early disease (fascia. Immunohistochemical staining for CD31 indicated abnormal neovascular proliferation in the fascia in patients with DM. None of the PM patients showed signs of fasciitis or increased vascularity by MRI, PDUS, or en bloc biopsy. In our limited population, PDUS was useful for the detection of fasciitis associated with DM, especially in the early stage of disease. The increased blood flow signal as detected by PDUS is involved in angiogenesis accompanying fasciitis in patients with DM. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. GLRB allelic variation associated with agoraphobic cognitions, increased startle response and fear network activation: a potential neurogenetic pathway to panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, J; Weber, H; Villmann, C; Lonsdorf, T B; Richter, J; Andreatta, M; Arias-Vasquez, A; Hommers, L; Kent, L; Schartner, C; Cichon, S; Wolf, C; Schaefer, N; von Collenberg, C R; Wachter, B; Blum, R; Schümann, D; Scharfenort, R; Schumacher, J; Forstner, A J; Baumann, C; Schiele, M A; Notzon, S; Zwanzger, P; Janzing, J G E; Galesloot, T; Kiemeney, L A; Gajewska, A; Glotzbach-Schoon, E; Mühlberger, A; Alpers, G; Fydrich, T; Fehm, L; Gerlach, A L; Kircher, T; Lang, T; Ströhle, A; Arolt, V; Wittchen, H-U; Kalisch, R; Büchel, C; Hamm, A; Nöthen, M M; Romanos, M; Domschke, K; Pauli, P; Reif, A

    2017-10-01

    The molecular genetics of panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia (AG) are still largely unknown and progress is hampered by small sample sizes. We therefore performed a genome-wide association study with a dimensional, PD/AG-related anxiety phenotype based on the Agoraphobia Cognition Questionnaire (ACQ) in a sample of 1370 healthy German volunteers of the CRC TRR58 MEGA study wave 1. A genome-wide significant association was found between ACQ and single non-coding nucleotide variants of the GLRB gene (rs78726293, P=3.3 × 10(-8); rs191260602, P=3.9 × 10(-8)). We followed up on this finding in a larger dimensional ACQ sample (N=2547) and in independent samples with a dichotomous AG phenotype based on the Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90; N=3845) and a case-control sample with the categorical phenotype PD/AG (Ncombined =1012) obtaining highly significant P-values also for GLRB single-nucleotide variants rs17035816 (P=3.8 × 10(-4)) and rs7688285 (P=7.6 × 10(-5)). GLRB gene expression was found to be modulated by rs7688285 in brain tissue, as well as cell culture. Analyses of intermediate PD/AG phenotypes demonstrated increased startle reflex and increased fear network, as well as general sensory activation by GLRB risk gene variants rs78726293, rs191260602, rs17035816 and rs7688285. Partial Glrb knockout mice demonstrated an agoraphobic phenotype. In conjunction with the clinical observation that rare coding GLRB gene mutations are associated with the neurological disorder hyperekplexia characterized by a generalized startle reaction and agoraphobic behavior, our data provide evidence that non-coding, although functional GLRB gene polymorphisms may predispose to PD by increasing startle response and agoraphobic cognitions.

  18. A moderate increase of physiological CO2 in a critical range during stable NREM sleep episode: A potential gateway to REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha eMadan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is characterized as rapid eye movement (REM and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Studies suggest that wake-related neurons in the basal forebrain, posterior hypothalamus and brainstem and NREM sleep-related neurons in the anterior-hypothalamic area inhibit each other, thus alternating sleep-wakefulness. Similarly, pontine REM-ON and REM-OFF neurons reciprocally inhibit each other for REM sleep modulation. It has been proposed that inhibition of locus coeruleus (LC REM-OFF neurons is pre-requisite for REM sleep genesis, but it remains ambiguous how REM-OFF neurons are hyperpolarized at REM sleep onset. The frequency of breathing pattern remains high during wake, slows down during NREM sleep but further escalates during REM sleep. As a result, brain CO2 level increases during NREM sleep, which may alter REM sleep manifestation. It has been reported that hypocapnia decreases REM sleep while hypercapnia increases REM sleep periods. The groups of brainstem chemosensory neurons, including those present in LC, sense the alteration in CO2 level and respond accordingly. For example; one group of LC neurons depolarize while other hyperpolarize during hypercapnia. In another group, hypercapnia initially depolarizes but later hyperpolarizes LC neurons. Besides chemosensory functions, LC’s REM-OFF neurons are an integral part of REM sleep executive machinery. We reason that increased CO2 level during a stable NREM sleep period may hyperpolarize LC neurons including REM-OFF, which may help initiate REM sleep. We propose that REM sleep might act as a sentinel to help maintain normal CO2 level for unperturbed sleep.

  19. Increased cycling cell numbers and stem cell associated proteins as potential biomarkers for high grade human papillomavirus+ve pre-neoplastic cervical disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Canham

    Full Text Available High risk (oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV infection causes cervical cancer. Infections are common but most clear naturally. Persistent infection can progress to cancer. Pre-neoplastic disease (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia/CIN is classified by histology (CIN1-3 according to severity. Cervical abnormalities are screened for by cytology and/or detection of high risk HPV but both methods are imperfect for prediction of which women need treatment. There is a need to understand the host virus interactions that lead to different disease outcomes and to develop biomarker tests for accurate triage of infected women. As cancer is increasingly presumed to develop from proliferative, tumour initiating, cancer stem cells (CSCs, and as other oncogenic viruses induce stem cell associated gene expression, we evaluated whether presence of mRNA (detected by qRT-PCR or proteins (detected by flow cytometry and antibody based proteomic microarray from stem cell associated genes and/or increased cell proliferation (detected by flow cytometry could be detected in well-characterised, routinely collected cervical samples from high risk HPV+ve women. Both cytology and histology results were available for most samples with moderate to high grade abnormality. We found that stem cell associated proteins including human chorionic gonadotropin, the oncogene TP63 and the transcription factor SOX2 were upregulated in samples from women with CIN3 and that the stem cell related, cell surface, protein podocalyxin was detectable on cells in samples from a subset of women with CIN3. SOX2, TP63 and human gonadotrophin mRNAs were upregulated in high grade disease. Immunohistochemistry showed that SOX2 and TP63 proteins clearly delineated tumour cells in invasive squamous cervical cancer. Samples from women with CIN3 showed increased proliferating cells. We believe that these markers may be of use to develop triage tests for women with high grade cervical abnormality to

  20. Increased mercury release from dental amalgam restorations after exposure to electromagnetic fields as a potential hazard for hypersensitive people and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Ghazal; Mortazavi, S M J

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the use of common sources of electromagnetic fields such as Wi-Fi routers and mobile phones has been increased enormously all over the world. There is ongoing concern that exposure to electromagnetic fields can lead to adverse health effects. It has recently been shown that even low doses of mercury are capable of causing toxicity. Therefore, efforts are initiated to phase down or eliminate the use of mercury amalgam in dental restorations. Increased release of mercury from dental amalgam restorations after exposure to electromagnetic fields such as those generated by MRI and mobile phones has been reported by our team and other researchers. We have recently shown that some of the papers which reported no increased release of mercury after MRI, may have some methodological errors. Although it was previously believed that the amount of mercury released from dental amalgam cannot be hazardous, new findings indicate that mercury, even at low doses, may cause toxicity. Based on recent epidemiological findings, it can be claimed that the safety of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings is questionable. Therefore, as some individuals tend to be hypersensitive to the toxic effects of mercury, regulatory authorities should re-assess the safety of exposure to electromagnetic fields in individuals with amalgam restorations. On the other hand, we have reported that increased mercury release after exposure to electromagnetic fields may be risky for the pregnant women. It is worth mentioning that as a strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood mercury levels has been found in some studies, our findings regarding the effect of exposure to electromagnetic fields on the release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings lead us to this conclusion that pregnant women with dental amalgam fillings should limit their exposure to electromagnetic fields to prevent toxic effects of mercury in their fetuses. Based on these findings, as infants

  1. Increased excitability and altered action potential waveform in cerebellar granule neurons of the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usowicz, Maria M; Garden, Claire L P

    2012-07-17

    Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by intellectual disability and impaired motor control. Lack of coordinated movement, poor balance, and unclear speech imply dysfunction of the cerebellum, which is known to be reduced in volume in DS. The principal cause of the smaller cerebellum is a diminished number of granule cells (GCs). These neurons form the 'input layer' of the cerebellar cortex, where sensorimotor information carried by incoming mossy fibers is transformed before it is conveyed to Purkinje cells and inhibitory interneurons. However, it is not known how processing of this information is affected in the hypogranular cerebellum that characterizes DS. Here we explore the possibility that the electrical properties of the surviving GCs are changed. We find that in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS, GCs have a higher input resistance at voltages approaching the threshold for firing, which causes them to be more excitable. In addition, they fire narrower and larger amplitude action potentials. These subtly modified electrical properties may result in atypical transfer of information at the input layer of the cerebellum.

  2. CXC chemokine receptor 3 expression increases the disease-inducing potential of CD4+ CD25- T cells in adoptive transfer colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Gad, Monika; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2006-01-01

    was followed after transfer of either normal or CXCR3CD4CD25T cell into immunodeficient host. In addition, the ability of regulatory T cell to function in vivo in the absence of CXCR3 was tested. RESULTS: We find CXCR3 to be expressed on 80% to 90% of CD4 T cells isolated from colitic mice compared with only 4......BACKGROUND: CD4CD25 T cells induce severe colitis when injected into immunodeficient recipients. The migration of disease-inducing cells to the bowel is controlled by adhesion molecules and chemotactic proteins. Chemokine receptors expressed on the T cells are therefore potential targets for anti......-inflammatory therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we have investigated the role of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 in the development of chronic colitis in a murine model. METHOD: Expression of CXCR3 on CD4 T cell from normal and colitic mice was assessed by flow cytometry. Development of colitis...

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha increases reactive oxygen species by inducing spermine oxidase in human lung epithelial cells: a potential mechanism for inflammation-induced carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbar, Naveen; Casero, Robert A

    2006-12-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in the development of many human epithelial cancers, including those of the stomach, lung, colon, and prostate. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent pleiotropic, proinflammatory cytokine produced by many cells in response to injury and inflammation. Here, we show that TNF-alpha exposure results in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with a concomitant increase in the production of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, a marker for oxidative DNA damage, in human lung bronchial epithelial cells. The source of the ROS in TNF-alpha-treated cells was determined by both pharmacologic and small interfering RNA (siRNA) strategies to be spermine oxidase (SMO/PAOh1). SMO/PAOh1 oxidizes spermine into spermidine, 3-aminopropanal, and H(2)O(2). Inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced SMO/PAOh1 activity with MDL 72,527 or with a targeted siRNA prevented ROS production and oxidative DNA damage. Further, similar induction in SMO/PAOh1 is observed with treatment of another inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6. The data are consistent with a model that directly links inflammation and DNA damage through the production of H(2)O(2) by SMO/PAOh1. Further, these results suggest a common mechanism by which inflammation from multiple sources can lead to the mutagenic changes necessary for the development and progression of epithelial cancers.

  4. Enrichment of Echinacea angustifolia with Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 increased anti-inflammatory potential through interfering with COX-2 enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLone, Carlie A.; Huang, Nan; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Yum, Man-Yu; Singh, Navrozedeep; Hauck, Cathy; Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve S.; Kohut, Marian L.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Birt, Diane F.

    2013-01-01

    Bauer alkylamide 11 and ketone 23 were partially responsible for Echinacea angustifolia anti-inflammatory properties previously. This study further tested their importance using the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. angustifolia extracts, phytochemical enriched fractions, or pure synthesized standards. Molecular targets were probed using microarray, qRT-PCR, western blot, and enzyme assays. Fractions with these phytochemicals were more potent inhibitors of LPS induced PGE2 production than E. angustifolia extracts. Microarray did not detect changes in transcripts with phytochemical treatments; however qRT-PCR showed decrease in TNF-α and increase of iNOS transcripts. LPS induced COX-2 protein was increased by an E. angustifolia fraction containing Bauer ketone 23 and by pure phytochemical. COX-2 activity was decreased with all treatments. The phytochemical inhibition of PGE2 production by Echinacea may be due to the direct targeting of COX-2 enzyme. PMID:20681645

  5. Significant increase of salivary testosterone levels after single therapeutic transdermal administration of testosterone: suitability as a potential screening parameter in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Detlef; Rautenberg, Claudia; Grosse, Joachim; Schoenfelder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The legally defensible proof of the abuse of endogenous steroids in sports is currently based on carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), i.e. a comparison between (13)C/(12)C ratios of diagnostic precursors and metabolites of testosterone. The application of this technique requires a chromatographic baseline separation of respective steroids prior to IRMS detection and hence laborious sample pre-processing of the urinary steroid extracts including clean up by solid-phase extraction and/or liquid chromatography. Consequently, an efficient pre-selection of suspicious control urine samples is essential for appropriate follow up confirmation by IRMS and effective doping control. Two single transdermal administration studies of testosterone (50 mg Testogel® and Testopatch® at 3.8 mg in 16 h, respectively) were conducted and resulting profiles of salivary testosterone and urinary steroid profiles and corresponding carbon isotope ratios were determined. Conventional doping control markers (testosterone/epitestosterone ratio, threshold concentrations of androsterone, etiocholanolone, or androstanediols) did not approach or exceed critical thresholds. In contrast to these moderate variations, the testosterone concentration in oral fluid increased from basal values (30-142 pg/mg) to peak concentrations above 1000 pg/mg. It is likely that this significant increase in oral fluid is due to a pulsatile elevation of free (protein unbound) circulating testosterone after transdermal administration and may be assumed to represent a more diagnostic marker for transdermal testosterone administration.

  6. The Potential Impact of CO2 and Air Temperature Increases on Krummholz's Transformation into Arborescent Form in the Southern Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Dvinskaya, M. L.; Im, S. T.; Ranson, K. J.

    2011-01-01

    Trees in the southern Siberian Mountains forest-tundra ecotone have considerably increased their radial and apical growth increments during the last few decades. This leads to the widespread vertical transformation of mat and prostrate krummholz forms of larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb) and Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour). An analysis of the radial growth increments showed that these transformations began in the mid-1980s. Larch showed a greater resistance to the harsh alpine environment and attained a vertical growth form in areas where Siberian pine is still krummholz. Upper larch treeline is about 10 m higher than Siberian pine treeline. Observed apical and radial growth increment increases were correlated with CO2 concentration (r = 0.83-0.87), summer temperatures (r = 0.55-0.64), and "cold period" (i.e. September-May) air temperatures (r = 0.36-0.37). Positive correlation between growth increments and winter precipitation was attributed to snow cover protection for trees during wintertime.

  7. Increased Lung Expression of Anti-Angiogenic Factors in Down Syndrome: Potential Role in Abnormal Lung Vascular Growth and the Risk for Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Csaba; Minic, Angela D.; Bush, Douglas; Nguyen, Dominique; Dodson, Blair; Seedorf, Gregory; Abman, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Infants with Down syndrome (DS) or Trisomy 21, are at high risk for developing pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but mechanisms that increase susceptibility are poorly understood. Laboratory studies have shown that early disruption of angiogenesis during development impairs vascular and alveolar growth and causes PAH. Human chromosome 21 encodes known anti-angiogenic factors, including collagen18a1 (endostatin, ES), ß-amyloid peptide (BAP) and Down Syndrome Critical Region 1 (DSCR-1). Therefore, we hypothesized that fetal lungs from subjects with DS are characterized by early over-expression of anti-angiogenic factors and have abnormal lung vascular growth in utero. Methods Human fetal lung tissue from DS and non-DS subjects were obtained from a biorepository. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to assay 84 angiogenesis-associated genes and individual qRT-PCR was performed for ES, amyloid protein precursor (APP) and DSCR1. Western blot analysis (WBA) was used to assay lung ES, APP and DSCR-1 protein contents. Lung vessel density and wall thickness were determined by morphometric analysis. Results The angiogenesis array identified up-regulation of three anti-angiogenic genes: COL18A1 (ES), COL4A3 (tumstatin) and TIMP3 (tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3) in DS lungs. Single qRT-PCR and WBA showed striking elevations of ES and APP mRNA (p = 0.022 and p = 0.001) and protein (p = 0.040 and p = 0.002; respectively). Vessel density was reduced (p = 0.041) and vessel wall thickness was increased in DS lung tissue (p = 0.033) when compared to non-DS subjects. Conclusions We conclude that lung anti-angiogenic factors, including COL18A1 (ES), COL4A3, TIMP3 and APP are over-expressed and fetal lung vessel growth is decreased in subjects with DS. We speculate that increased fetal lung anti-angiogenic factor expression due to trisomy 21 impairs lung vascular growth and signaling, which impairs alveolarization and

  8. Potentiation of cGMP signaling increases oxygen delivery and oxidative metabolism in contracting skeletal muscle of older but not young humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann; Egelund, Jon;

    2015-01-01

    regulation remain unresolved. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is one of the main second messengers that mediate smooth muscle vasodilation and alterations in cGMP signaling could, therefore, be one mechanism by which skeletal muscle perfusion is impaired with advancing age. The current study aimed...... to evaluate the effect of inhibiting the main enzyme involved in cGMP degradation, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), on blood flow and O2 delivery in contracting skeletal muscle of young and older humans. A group of young (23 ± 1 years) and a group of older (72 ± 2 years) male human subjects performed submaximal...... in the older subjects correlated with the increase in leg O2 uptake (r (2) = 0.843). These findings suggest an insufficient O2 delivery to the contracting skeletal muscle of aged individuals and that reduced cGMP availability is a novel mechanism underlying impaired skeletal muscle perfusion with advancing age....

  9. Increasing the Biological Stability Profile of a New Chemical Entity, UPEI-104, and Potential Use as a Neuroprotectant Against Reperfusion-Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Saleh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated the utility of synthetic combinations of two naturally occurring, biologically active compounds. In particular, we combined two known anti-oxidant compounds, lipoic acid and apocynin, covalently linked via an ester bond (named UPEI-100. In an animal model of ischemia-reperfusion injury (tMCAO, UPEI-100 was shown to produce equivalent neuroprotection compared to each parent compound, but at a 100-fold lower dose. However, it was determined that UPEI-100 was undetectable in any tissue samples almost immediately following intravenous injection. Therefore, the present investigation was done to determine if biological stability of UPEI-100 could be improved by replacing the ester bond with a more bio cleavage-resistant bond, an ether bond (named UPEI-104. We then compared the stability of UPEI-104 to the original parent compound UPEI-100 in human plasma as well as liver microsomes. Our results demonstrated that both UPEI-100 and UPEI-104 could be detected in human plasma for over 120 min; however, only UPEI-104 was detectable for an average of 7 min following incubation with human liver microsomes. This increased stability did not affect the biological activity of UPEI-104 as measured using our tMCAO model. Our results suggest that combining compounds using an ether bond can improve stability while maintaining biological activity.

  10. Potential role for clinical calibration to increase engagement with and application of home telemonitoring: a report from the HeartCycle programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelurrutia, Paloma; Lupón, Josep; Domingo, Mar; Stut, Wim; Dovancescu, Silviu; Cleland, John; Frankenstein, Lutz; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2017-02-01

    There is a need for alternative strategies that might avoid recurrent admissions in patients with heart failure. home telemonitoring (HTM) to monitor patient's symptoms from a distance may be useful. This study attempts to assess changes in HTM vital signs in response to daily life activities (variations in medication, salt intake, exercise, and stress) and to establish which variations affect weight, blood pressure, and heart rate. We assessed 76 patients with heart failure (mean age 76 ± 10.8 years, 75% male, mainly in NYHA class II/III and from ischaemic aetiology cause). Patients were given a calendar of interventions scheduling activities approximately twice a week before measuring their vital signs. Eating salty food or a large meal were the activities that had a significant impact on weight gain (+0.3 kg; P < 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). Exercise and skipping a dose of medication other than diuretics increased heart rate (+3 bpm, P = 0.001 and almost +2 bpm, P = 0.016, respectively). Our HTM system was able to detect small changes in vital signs related to these activities. Further studies should assess if providing such a schedule of activities might be useful for patient education and could improve long-term adherence to recommended lifestyle changes.

  11. Increasing incidence of neuroblastoma and potentially higher associated mortality of children from nonmetropolitan areas: analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Michael H; Meng, Maxwell V; Walsh, Thomas J; Matthay, Katherine K; Baskin, Laurence S

    2009-12-01

    Geographic variations in cancer incidence and mortality can yield clues regarding etiology and healthcare access. We examined pediatric neuroblastoma incidence and mortality in metropolitan counties (containing a core urban area of 50,000 or more people) versus nonmetropolitan counties. We identified cases through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. We analyzed age, race, sex, year of diagnosis, mortality, and county type (metropolitan or nonmetropolitan). In total, 1777 neuroblastoma cases were identified. From 1973 to 2003, the incidence of pediatric neuroblastoma in nonmetropolitan counties has risen from 0.8 to 1.2 cases per 100,000 person-years (annual percent change, 2.09%, Prank test P=0.0357]. The incidence of pediatric neuroblastoma in nonmetropolitan counties seems to be increasing, possibly due to demographic or environmental factors. Mortality seems to be higher in children from nonmetropolitan versus metropolitan counties. However, this study is limited by sample size. These concerning trends warrant further study through means other than Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results.

  12. Conceito de ideotipo e seu uso no aumento do rendimento potencial de cereais The ideotipe concept and its use to increase cereal's yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz de Almeida

    1998-06-01

    new cultivars and to pinpoint the possible consequences of using those individual characteristics rather than grain yield per se to bred the old genotypes. Discussion about crop ideotipes grows in importance with the fast evolution of genetic variability techniques because if a model plant to increase grain yield is not defined all the new genetic technology available may have a narrow practical utilization. This ideotipe was formulated integrating severa! characteristics that have been analyzed individually in the past. Its main proposed features are: (a higher initial growth and greater communal phytomass, which are both important to improve solar radiation use, particularly during early stages of development, (b an increase in photosynthetic capacity through the enhancement of sink strength with a probable effèct on harvest index. The collective influence of the suggested traits must be evaluated on different genotypes to analyze the response level obtained.

  13. Oxidative stress is increased in women with epilepsy: Is it a potential mechanism of anti-epileptic drug-induced teratogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanthi Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oxidative stress can be a final common pathway for AED-induced teratogenesis. Aims: To compare the oxidative stress of women with epilepsy (WWE and unfavorable pregnancy outcome (fetal malformation or spontaneous abortion - group EM with that of WWE with normal pregnancy outcome (group ENM and healthy women with normal pregnancy outcome (group C. Materials and Methods: We identified WWE under group EM (n = 43 and group ENM (n = 22 from the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy (KREP. Group C was constituted of healthy volunteers (N = 20. Oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and isoprostane (ISP. The antioxidant profile was evaluated as activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, catalase (CAT, total antioxidant status (TAO, and glutathione (GSH content. Results: The MDA and ISP levels for group EM (3.46 + 0.82 and 17.77 + 3.0 were higher than that of group ENM (3.07 + 1.02 and 14.0 + 5.3, and both were significantly higher than that of group C (2.42 + 0.51 and 10.77 + 4.1. Their levels of SOD (146.82 + 42.64 vs. 175.81 + 42.61 and GSH (0.98 + 0.98 vs. 1.55 + 1.3 were significantly lower than those of controls. No significant changes were seen in TAO and GR. WWE on polytherapy showed significant increase in MDA when compared to monotherapy group. Conclusion: WWE (group EM and ENM had higher oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant activity. The subgroup of WWE with unfavorable pregnancy outcome (group EM had higher oxidative stress. Excess oxidative stress can be a final common pathway, by which AEDs exert teratogenic effects.

  14. Increased potential for wound activated production of Prostaglandin E2 and related toxic compounds in non-native populations of Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, Mareike; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg; Wang, Gaoge; Boo, Sung Min; Weinberger, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of the East Asian seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla ("Ogonori") for production of prostaglandin E2 from arachidonic acid occasionally causes food poisoning after ingestion. During the last two decades the alga has been introduced to Europe and North America. Non-native populations have been shown to be generally less palatable to marine herbivores than native populations. We hypothesized that the difference in palatability among populations could be due to differences in the algal content of prostaglandins. We therefore compared the capacity for wound-activated production of prostaglandins and other eicosatetraenoid oxylipins among five native populations in East Asia and seven non-native populations in Europe and NW Mexico, using a targeted metabolomics approach. In two independent experiments non-native populations exhibited a significant tendency to produce more eicosatetraenoids than native populations after acclimation to identical conditions and subsequent artificial wounding. Fourteen out of 15 eicosatetraenoids that were detected in experiment I and all 19 eicosatetraenoids that were detected in experiment II reached higher mean concentrations in non-native than in native specimens. Wounding of non-native specimens resulted on average in 390% more 15-keto-PGE2, in 90% more PGE2, in 37% more PGA2 and in 96% more 7,8-di-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid than wounding of native specimens. Not only PGE2, but also PGA2 and dihydroxylated eicosatetraenoic acid are known to deter various biological enemies of G. vermiculophylla that cause tissue or cell wounding, and in the present study the latter two compounds also repelled the mesograzer Littorina brevicula. Non-native populations of G. vermiculophylla are thus more defended against herbivory than native populations. This increased capacity for activated chemical defense may have contributed to their invasion success and at the same time it poses an elevated risk for human food safety.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells increase proliferation but do not change quiescent state of osteosarcoma cells: Potential implications according to the tumor resection status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Pierre; Le Nail, Louis-Romée; Brennan, Meadhbh Á.; Rosset, Philippe; De Pinieux, Gonzague; Layrolle, Pierre; Heymann, Dominique; Perrot, Pierre; Trichet, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Conventional therapy of primary bone tumors includes surgical excision with wide resection, which leads to physical and aesthetic defects. For reconstruction of bone and joints, allografts can be supplemented with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Similarly, adipose tissue transfer (ATT) is supplemented with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to improve the efficient grafting in the correction of soft tissue defects. MSC-like cells may also be used in tumor-targeted cell therapy. However, MSC may have adverse effects on sarcoma development. In the present study, human ADSCs, MSCs and pre-osteoclasts were co-injected with human MNNG-HOS osteosarcoma cells in immunodeficient mice. ADSCs and MSCs, but not the osteoclast precursors, accelerated the local proliferation of MNNG-HOS osteosarcoma cells. However, the osteolysis and the metastasis process were not exacerbated by ADSCs, MSCs, or pre-osteoclasts. In vitro proliferation of MNNG-HOS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells was increased up to 2-fold in the presence of ADSC-conditioned medium. In contrast, ADSC-conditioned medium did not change the dormant, quiescent state of osteosarcoma cells cultured in oncospheres. Due to the enhancing effect of ADSCs/MSCs on in vivo/in vitro proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, MSCs may not be good candidates for osteosarcoma-targeted cell therapy. Although conditioned medium of ADSCs accelerated the cell cycle of proliferating osteosarcoma cells, it did not change the quiescent state of dormant osteosarcoma cells, indicating that ADSC-secreted factors may not be involved in the risk of local recurrence. PMID:26998421

  16. Increase of Bio-Gas Power Potential

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sednin; О. Kraetskaya; I. Prokoрenia

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a review of industrial technologies for obtaining gas-synthesis which is applicable for bio-gas enrichment process. Comparative characteristics are given in the paper. The paper thoroughly considers a technology of dry methane conversion as the most expedient variant recommended for the application in this case. The bio-gas enrichment carried out during its production expands possibilities and efficiency of its application.

  17. Optical quantal analysis indicates that long-term potentiation at single hippocampal mossy fiber synapses is expressed through increased release probability, recruitment of new release sites, and activation of silent synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christopher A; Dixon, Don B; Takahashi, Michiko; Bliss, Tim V P; Fine, Alan

    2004-04-01

    It is generally believed that long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses between dentate granule and CA3 pyramidal cells is expressed through presynaptic mechanisms leading to an increase in quantal content. The source of this increase has remained undefined but could include enhanced probability of transmitter release at existing functional release sites or increases in the number of active release sites. We performed optical quantal analyses of transmission at individual mossy fiber synapses in cultured hippocampal slices, using confocal microscopy and intracellular fluorescent Ca(2+) indicators. Our results indicate that LTP is expressed at functional synapses by both increased probability of transmitter release and recruitment of new release sites, including the activation of previously silent synapses here visualized for the first time.

  18. potentially pathogenic gastrointestinal microorganisms (ID 2972), improved lactose digestion (ID 2972) and increasing IL-10 production (ID 2973) (further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1688 and Lactobacillus salivarius CNCM I-1794 and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion and increasing IL-10 production. The food constituent that is the subject of the health......-intestinal discomfort, is a beneficial physiological effect for the general population. The claimed effect, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, might be a beneficial physiological effect for the general population. The claimed effect, improved lactose digestion, is a beneficial...... physiological effect for individuals with lactose maldigestion. No human intervention studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the above-mentioned claims. On the basis of the data provided, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has...

  19. Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (Maria Pastora e Salvinorina A: crescente uso recreacional e potencial de abuso Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva ("ska María Pastora" and Salvinorin A: increasing recreational use and abuse potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Schneider

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A planta Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI, da família Lamiaceae, tem sido usada por séculos pela cultura mazateca e vem ganhando popularidade como droga recreacional nos últimos anos. Seu princípio ativo - Salvinorina A (SA - é agonista dos receptores opióides kappa, com potencial psicotrópico. A utilização da planta vem crescendo na Europa e na América do Norte, apesar de ainda não existirem provas concretas sobre abuso. A presente revisão da literatura contemporânea aborda as evidências sobre o potencial de abuso de SDI, bem como o crescente uso recreacional, ainda que seja alucinógeno permitido legalmente e de fácil compra em muitos países.The plant Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI, of the Lamiaceae family, has been used for centuries by the Mazateca culture and has gained popularity as a recreational drug in the last years. Its active principle, Salvinorin A (SA, is a potentially psychotropic agonist of the kappa opioid receptors. The use of SDI has increased in Europe and North America, although there are no concrete proofs about abuse. The present review discusses current evidence on potential SDI abuse, as well as its increasing recreational use, although it is considered a legalized hallucinogen easily acquired in many countries.

  20. The Effect of Flow Rates on the Localized Corrosion Behavior of 304 Stainless Steel in Ozonated 0.5N NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-15

    measured and values of breakdown and repassivation potentials were deri- ved from cyclic polarization curves. It was found that the transition from laminar...were measured and values of breakdo%&- and repassivation potentials were derived from cyclic polarization curves. It was "Waind that the transition...after being allowed to stabilize for 4000 seconds. For voltametry experiments, the potential was stepped to -600 mV vs. SCE and subsequently polarized

  1. Evidence that limbic neural plasticity in the right hemisphere mediates partial kindling induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior: effects of low frequency stimulation (quenching?) on long term potentiation of amygdala efferents and behavior following kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E

    1999-08-21

    Behavioral and physiological effects of partial kindling of the right ventral hippocampus by perforant path (PP) stimulation were investigated in the cat. Partial kindling produced lasting changes in affect (increased defensive response to rats) and predatory attack (decreased pawing and biting attack). Partial kindling also induced long term potentiation (LTP) of amygdala efferent transmission to ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and periaqueductal gray (PAG) in left and right hemispheres. LTP of field population spikes evoked in area CA3 by PP stimulation was also observed. LTP was detected using evoked potential methods. These findings parallel previous studies of left PP-CA3 partial kindling. Analysis of covariance removing effects of LTP from behavioral changes suggests that initiation of increased defensiveness at 2 days after completion of partial kindling depended on LTP of left and right amygdalo-VMH and right amygdalo-PAG transmission. From 6 days after kindling onward, increased defensiveness depended on LTP of right amygdalo-PAG transmission. Depotentiation of amygdala efferent LTP by bilateral low frequency amygdala stimulation (LFS) (900 pulses at 1 Hz, once daily for 7 days) selectively reduced LTP in right amygdala efferents. At the same time, defensive, but not predatory attack behavior, was returned to levels seen prior to partial kindling. Both depotentiation and reduction of defensiveness were transient. Defensiveness increased to post-kindling levels by 76 days after LFS. At the same time, LTP was restored in the right amygdalo-PAG pathway. In contrast LTP in the right amygdalo-VMH pathway remained depotentiated. Effects of LFS were not due to damage, as thresholds to evoke amygdala efferent response were unchanged. These findings suggest that lasting change in affect following partial hippocampal kindling depends on LTP of right amygdala efferent transmission to PAG. The findings parallel studies of non-convulsant pharmacological induction of

  2. Photocatalytic pre-treatment with food-grade TiO(2) increases the bioavailability and bioremediation potential of weathered oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, Jonathon A; Hong, Seok Won; Lee, Jaesang; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2013-02-01

    Using the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico as an impetus, we explored the potential for TiO(2)-mediated photocatalytic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation to increase the bioavailability (solubility) and biodegradability of weathered oil after a spill. Food grade TiO(2), which is FDA approved for use as food additive in the United States, was tested as a photocatalyst for this novel application. Photocatalytic pre-treatment (0.05 wt.% TiO(2), UV irradiation 18 W m(-2), 350-400 nm) for 24 h in a bench top photoreactor increased the soluble organic carbon content of weathered oil by 60%, and enhanced its subsequent biodegradation (measured as O(2) consumption in a respirometer) by 37%. Photocatalytic pre-treatment was also tested outdoors under sunlight illumination, but no significant increase in solubility or biodegradation was observed after 11 d of exposure. Although sunlight irradiation of food-grade TiO(2) generated ROS (assessed by the degradation of 4-chlorophenol as a probe compound), the efficacy of weathered oil pre-treatment was apparently hindered by sinking of the photocatalysts under quiescent conditions and illumination occlusion by the oil. Overall, results indicate that photocatalytic pre-treatment to stimulate bioremediation of weathered oil deserves further consideration, but controlling the buoyancy and surface hydrophobicity of the photocatalysts will be important for future efforts to enable ROS generation in proximity to the target compounds.

  3. Novel consortium of Klebsiella variicola and Lactobacillus species enhances the functional potential of fermented dairy products by increasing the availability of branched-chain amino acids and the amount of distinctive volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Bravo, H; Morales-Torres, H C; Vázquez-Martínez, J; Molina-Torres, J; Olalde-Portugal, V; Partida-Martínez, L P

    2017-08-17

    Identify novel bacterial taxa that could increase the availability of branched-chain amino acids and the amount of distinctive volatiles during skim milk fermentation. We recovered 344 bacterial isolates from stool samples of healthy and breastfed infants. Five were selected based on their ability to produce branched-chain amino acids. Three strains were identified as Escherichia coli, one as Klebsiella pneumoniae and other as Klebsiella variicola by molecular and biochemical methods. HPLC and solid-phase microextraction with GC-MS were used for the determination of free amino acids and volatile compounds respectively. The consortium formed by K. variicola and four Lactobacillus species showed the highest production of Leu and Ile in skim milk fermentation. In addition, the production of volatile compounds, such as acetoin, ethanol, 2-nonanone, and acetic, hexanoic and octanoic acids, increased in comparison to commercial yogurt, Emmental and Gouda cheese. Also, distinctive volatiles, such as 2,3-butanediol, 4-methyl-2- hexanone and octanol, were identified. The use of K. variicola in combination with probiotic Lactobacillus species enhances the availability of Leu and Ile and the amount of distinctive volatiles during skim milk fermentation. The identified consortium increases the functional potential of fermented dairy products. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Supercritical CO2 fluid-foaming of polymers to increase porosity: a method to improve the mechanical and biocompatibility characteristics for use as a potential alternative to allografts in impaction bone grafting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayton, Edward; Purcell, M; Aarvold, A; Smith, J O; Kalra, S; Briscoe, A; Shakesheff, K; Howdle, S M; Dunlop, D G; Oreffo, R O C

    2012-05-01

    Disease transmission, availability and cost of allografts have resulted in significant efforts to find an alternative for use in impaction bone grafting (IBG). Recent studies identified two polymers with both structural strength and biocompatibility characteristics as potential replacements. The aim of this study was to assess whether increasing the polymer porosity further enhanced the mechanical and cellular compatibility characteristics for use as an osteogenic biomaterial alternative to allografts in IBG. Solid and porous poly(DL-lactide) (P(DL)LA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (P(DL)LGA) scaffolds were produced via melt processing and supercritical CO(2) foaming, and the differences characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical testing included milling and impaction, with comparisons made using a shear testing rig as well as a novel agitation test for cohesion. Cellular compatibility tests for cell number, viability, and osteogenic differentiation using WST-1 assays, fluorostaining, and ALP assays were determined following 14 day culture with skeletal stem cells. SEM showed excellent porosity throughout both of the supercritical-foam-produced polymer scaffolds, with pores between 50 and 200 μm. Shear testing showed that the porous polymers exceeded the shear strength of allograft controls (P<0.001). Agitation testing showed greater cohesion between the particles of the porous polymers (P<0.05). Cellular studies showed increased cell number, viability, and osteogenic differentiation on the porous polymers compared to solid block polymers (P<0.05). The use of supercritical CO(2) to generate porous polymeric biodegradable scaffolds significantly improves the cellular compatibility and cohesion observed compared to non-porous counterparts, without substantial loss of mechanical shear strength. These improved characteristics are critical for clinical translation as a potential osteogenic composite for use in IBG.

  5. Coronary Artery-Bypass-Graft Surgery Increases the Plasma Concentration of Exosomes Carrying a Cargo of Cardiac MicroRNAs: An Example of Exosome Trafficking Out of the Human Heart with Potential for Cardiac Biomarker Discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Emanueli

    Full Text Available Exosome nanoparticles carry a composite cargo, including microRNAs (miRs. Cultured cardiovascular cells release miR-containing exosomes. The exosomal trafficking of miRNAs from the heart is largely unexplored. Working on clinical samples from coronary-artery by-pass graft (CABG surgery, we investigated if: 1 exosomes containing cardiac miRs and hence putatively released by cardiac cells increase in the circulation after surgery; 2 circulating exosomes and exosomal cardiac miRs correlate with cardiac troponin (cTn, the current "gold standard" surrogate biomarker of myocardial damage.The concentration of exosome-sized nanoparticles was determined in serial plasma samples. Cardiac-expressed (miR-1, miR-24, miR-133a/b, miR-208a/b, miR-210, non-cardiovascular (miR-122 and quality control miRs were measured in whole plasma and in plasma exosomes. Linear regression analyses were employed to establish the extent to which the circulating individual miRs, exosomes and exosomal cardiac miR correlated with cTn-I. Cardiac-expressed miRs and the nanoparticle number increased in the plasma on completion of surgery for up to 48 hours. The exosomal concentration of cardiac miRs also increased after CABG. Cardiac miRs in the whole plasma did not correlate significantly with cTn-I. By contrast cTn-I was positively correlated with the plasma exosome level and the exosomal cardiac miRs.The plasma concentrations of exosomes and their cargo of cardiac miRs increased in patients undergoing CABG and were positively correlated with hs-cTnI. These data provide evidence that CABG induces the trafficking of exosomes from the heart to the peripheral circulation. Future studies are necessary to investigate the potential of circulating exosomes as clinical biomarkers in cardiac patients.

  6. Potential of pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum Linn. to increase vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor expressions on the post-tooth extraction wound of Cavia cobaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Nirwana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pomegranates fruit extracts have several activities, among others, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidants that have the main content punicalagin and ellagic acid. Pomegranate has the ability of various therapies through different mechanisms. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF function was to form new blood vessels produced by various cells one of them was macrophages. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF was a growth factor proven chemotactic, increased fibroblast proliferation and collagen matrix production. In addition, VEGF and PDGF synergize in their ability to vascularize tissues. The PDGF function was to stabilize and regulate maturation of new blood vessels. Activities of pomegranate fruit extract were observed by measuring the increased of VEGF and PDGF expression as a marker of wound healing process. Aim: To investigate the potential of pomegranate extracts on the tooth extraction wound to increase the expression of VEGF and PDGF on the 4th day of wound healing process. Materials and Methods: This study used 12 Cavia cobaya, which were divided into two groups, namely, the provision of 3% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and pomegranate extract. The 12 C. cobaya would be executed on the 4th day, the lower jaw of experimental animals was taken, decalcified about 30 days. The expression of VEGF and PDGF was examined using immunohistochemical techniques. The differences of VEGF and PDGF expression were evaluated statistically using t-test. Results: Statistically analysis showed that there were significant differences between control and treatment groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: Pomegranate fruit extract administration increased VEGF and PDGF expression on post-tooth extraction wound.

  7. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  8. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  9. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of 13CrNiMo weld metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilmes, P.D. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones de Metalurgia Fisica ' Ing. Gregorio Cusminsky' (LIMF), Departamento Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, calle 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Llorente, C.L. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones de Metalurgia Fisica ' Ing. Gregorio Cusminsky' (LIMF), Departamento Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, calle 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Saire Huaman, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones, Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Sucursal 4-C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Ingenieria de Corrosion y Tecnologia Electroquimica (LICTE), Departamento Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Gassa, L.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones, Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Sucursal 4-C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Ingenieria de Corrosion y Tecnologia Electroquimica (LICTE), Departamento Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Gervasi, C.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones, Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Sucursal 4-C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina) and Laboratorio de Ingenieria de Corrosion y Tecnologia Electroquimica (LICTE), Departamento Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: gervasi@inifta.unlp.edu.ar

    2006-10-15

    Cyclic potentiodynamic measurements and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze susceptibility to pitting corrosion of 13CrNiMo weld metals. In order to carry out a critical assessment of the influence of microstructural factors on localized corrosion, different heat treatments were applied to the alloys under investigation. Volume fractions of austenite in tempered conditions as well as the amount and size of precipitated carbides strongly affect pitting resistance. Characteristic potentials (pitting potential and repassivation potential) increase according to the retained austenite content. Results can be discussed in terms of a model that describes the structural refinement resulting from a double-tempering procedure.

  10. Reduced repair capacity of a DNA clustered damage site comprised of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine and 2-deoxyribonolactone results in an increased mutagenic potential of these lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunniffe, Siobhan [CRUK-MRC Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); O’Neill, Peter, E-mail: peter.oneill@oncology.ox.ac.uk [CRUK-MRC Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Greenberg, Marc M. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemistry, 3400 N. Charles St. , Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lomax, Martine E. [CRUK-MRC Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • A dL lesion is not repaired as effectively as an AP site. • The repair of a cluster with dL and 8-oxodGuo lesions is compromised. • Delayed repair of the cluster leads to an increase in mutation frequency. - Abstract: A signature of ionizing radiation is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites. Non-double strand break (DSB) clustered damage has been shown to compromise the base excision repair pathway, extending the lifetimes of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions. This increases the likelihood the lesions persist to replication and thus increasing the mutagenic potential of the lesions within the cluster. Lesions formed by ionizing radiation include 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). dL poses an additional challenge to the cell as it is not repaired by the short-patch base excision repair pathway. Here we show recalcitrant dL repair is reflected in mutations observed when DNA containing it and a proximal 8-oxodGuo is replicated in Escherichia coli. 8-oxodGuo in close proximity to dL on the opposing DNA strand results in an enhanced frequency of mutation of the lesions within the cluster and a 20 base sequence flanking the clustered damage site in an E. coli based plasmid assay. In vitro repair of a dL lesion is reduced when compared to the repair of an abasic (AP) site and a tetrahydrofuran (THF), and this is due mainly to a reduction in the activity of polymerase β, leading to retarded FEN1 and ligase 1 activities. This study has given insights in to the biological effects of clusters containing dL.

  11. Non-conjugate potential-stepping phenothiazine and phenoxazine based polymer hole-transport material for dye-sensitized solar cells & increasing void space in porous titanium dioxide: To study diffusion properties of a cobalt mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Kristoffer

    -stacking interactions at the center of the helix, which allows electrons to tunnel through the DNA strand. A potential-stepping block co-polymer incorporating phenothiazine (PTZ) and phenoxazine (POZ) groups attached to the polymer backbone can π-stack like the base pairs in DNA. By creating a two-block co-polymer, with one composed of PTZ monomers and the other of POZ monomers, charge separation can be achieved by trapping the hole on the POZ groups due to their more negative oxidation potentials. This potential-stepping polymer charge separator is the focus of the first part of this thesis. The second section of this thesis is centered on diffusion issues in DSSCs where the I-/ I3- mediator is replaced with tris((2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-di-tert-butyl)cobalt(III) perchlorate, CoDTB+3 (ClO4-) 3 (DTB = 4,4‧-di-tert-butyl-2,2‧-bipyridine). The cobalt mediator has many advantages: it is non-corrosive, non-volatile, and it is able to be tuned to optimize the electron transfer process to the dye by simple structural modifications of the ligand. However, cobalt mediators have small diffusion coefficients on the order of 1x10-7 cm2 s-1 or less in TiO2 mesoporous thin films. It has been hypothesized that changing the structure of the TiO2 layer or increasing the void space in the films in the correct manner may dramatically increase the effective rate of diffusion. The introduction of appropriate void space will hypothetically create channels and allow faster diffusion of the mediator. The second half of this thesis explores the effects of introducing void space into TiO2 thin films using various nanoparticles.

  12. Combination of low calcium with Y-27632 rock inhibitor increases the proliferative capacity, expansion potential and lifespan of primary human keratinocytes while retaining their capacity to differentiate into stratified epidermis in a 3D skin model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanthe L Strudwick

    Full Text Available Human keratinocytes are difficult to isolate and have a limited lifespan. Traditionally, immortalised keratinocyte cell lines are used in vitro due to their ability to bypass senescence and survive indefinitely. However these cells do not fully retain their ability to differentiate in vitro and they are unable to form a normal stratum corneum in organotypic culture. Here we aimed to generate a pool of phenotypically similar keratinocytes from human donors that could be used in monolayer culture, without a fibroblast feeder layer, and in 3D human skin equivalent models. Primary human neonatal epidermal keratinocytes (HEKn were cultured in low calcium, (0.07 mM media, +/-10 μM Y-27632 ROCK inhibitor (HEKn-CaY. mRNA and protein was extracted and expression of differentiation markers Keratin 14 (K14, Keratin 10 (K10 and Involucrin (Inv assessed by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The differentiation potential of the HEKn-CaY cultures was assessed by increasing calcium levels and removing the Y-27632 for 72 hrs prior to assessment of K14, K10 and Inv. The ability of the HEKn-CaY, to form a stratified epithelium was assessed using a human skin equivalent (HSE model in the absence of Y-27632. Increased proliferative capacity, expansion potential and lifespan of HEKn was observed with the combination of low calcium and 10 μM ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. The removal of Y-27632 and the addition of high calcium to induce differentiation allowed the cells to behave as primary keratinocytes even after extended serial passaging. Prolonged lifespan HEK-CaYs were capable of forming an organised stratified epidermis in 3D HSE cultures, demonstrating their ability to fully stratify and retain their original, primary characteristics. In conclusion, the use of 0.07 mM Calcium and 10 μM Y-27632 in HEKn monocultures provides the opportunity to culture primary human keratinocytes without a cell feeder layer for extended periods of culture whilst retaining their ability to

  13. Increased striatal adenosine A2A receptor levels is an early event in Parkinson's disease-related pathology and it is potentially regulated by miR-34b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Menéndez, Izaskun; Porta, Sílvia; Buira, Sandra P; Pereira-Veiga, Thais; Díaz-Sánchez, Sara; Albasanz, José Luis; Ferrer, Isidre; Martín, Mairena; Barrachina, Marta

    2014-09-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a G-protein coupled receptor that stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity. In the brain, A2ARs are found highly enriched in striatal GABAergic medium spiny neurons, related to the control of voluntary movement. Pharmacological modulation of A2ARs is particularly useful in Parkinson's disease (PD) due to their property of antagonizing dopamine D2 receptor activity. Increases in A2AR levels have been described in PD patients showing an important loss of dopaminergic denervation markers, but no data have been reported about A2AR levels in incidental PD brains. In the present report, we show that increased A2ARs protein levels were also detected in the putamen of incidental PD cases (Braak PD stages 1-2) with respect to age-matched controls. By contrast, A2ARs mRNA levels remained unchanged, suggesting that posttranslational mechanisms could be involved in the regulation of A2ARs. It has been described how miR-34b/c downregulation is an early event in PD cases. We found that miR-34b levels are also significantly reduced in the putamen of incidental PD cases and along disease progression. Given that 3'UTR of A2AR contains a predicted target site for miR-34b, the potential role of this miRNA in protein A2AR levels was assessed. In vitro studies revealed that endogenous A2AR protein levels increased when miR-34b function was blocked using a specific anti-miR-34b. Moreover, using a luciferase reporter assay with point mutations in a miR-34b predicted binding site within the 3'UTR region of A2AR mRNA abolished the effect of the miRNA using a miR-34b mimic. In addition, we showed a reduced percentage of DNA methylation in the 5'UTR region of ADORA2A in advanced PD cases. Overall, these findings reveal that increased A2AR protein levels occur in asymptomatic PD patients and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying A2AR expression levels along the progression of this neurodegenerative disease.

  14. Effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor antagonist compounds SB705498, BCTC and AMG9810 in rat models of thermal hyperalgesia measured with an increasing-temperature water bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tékus, Valéria; Bölcskei, Kata; Kis-Varga, Agnes; Dézsi, László; Szentirmay, Eva; Visegrády, András; Horváth, Csilla; Szolcsányi, János; Petho, Gábor

    2010-09-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor is activated by noxious heat, various endogenous mediators and exogenous irritants. The aim of the present study was to compare three TRPV1 receptor antagonists (SB705498, BCTC and AMG9810) in rat models of heat hyperalgesia. The behavioural noxious heat threshold, defined as the lowest temperature evoking nocifensive reaction, was measured with an increasing-temperature water bath. The effects of TRPV1 receptor antagonists were assessed in thermal hyperalgesia induced by the TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX), mild heat injury (51 degrees C, 20s) or plantar incision in rats. The control heat threshold was 43.2+/-0.4 degrees C. RTX induced an 8-10 degrees C decrease in heat threshold which was dose-dependently inhibited by oral pre-treatment with any of the TRPV1 receptor antagonists with a minimum effective dose of 1mg/kg. The mild heat injury-evoked 7-8 degrees C heat threshold drop was significantly reversed by all three antagonists injected i.p. as post-treatment. The minimum effective doses were as follows: SB705498 10, BCTC 3 and AMG9810 1mg/kg. Plantar incision-induced heat threshold drop (7-8 degrees C) was dose-dependently diminished by an oral post-treatment with any of the antagonists with minimum effective doses of 10, 3 and 3mg/kg, respectively. Assessment of RTX hyperalgesia by measurement of the paw withdrawal latency with a plantar test apparatus yielded 30 mg/kg minimum effective dose for each antagonist. In conclusion, measurement of the noxious heat threshold with the increasing-temperature water bath is suitable to sensitively detect the effects of TRPV1 receptor antagonists in thermal hyperalgesia models.

  15. Multimodal imaging of subventricular zone neural stem/progenitor cells in the cuprizone mouse model reveals increased neurogenic potential for the olfactory bulb pathway, but no contribution to remyelination of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, Caroline; Praet, Jelle; Rangarajan, Janaki Raman; Vreys, Ruth; De Vocht, Nathalie; Maes, Frederik; Verhoye, Marleen; Ponsaerts, Peter; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2014-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a devastating demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which endogenous remyelination, and thus recovery, often fails. Although the cuprizone mouse model allowed elucidation of many molecular factors governing remyelination, currently very little is known about the spatial origin of the oligodendrocyte progenitor cells that initiate remyelination in this model. Therefore, we here investigated in this model whether subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) contribute to remyelination of the splenium following cuprizone-induced demyelination. Experimentally, from the day of in situ NSPC labeling, C57BL/6J mice were fed a 0.2% cuprizone diet during a 4-week period and then left to recover on a normal diet for 8weeks. Two in situ labeling strategies were employed: (i) NSPCs were labeled by intraventricular injection of micron-sized iron oxide particles and then followed up longitudinally by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (ii) SVZ NSPCs were transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding the eGFP and Luciferase reporter proteins for longitudinal monitoring by means of in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI). In contrast to preceding suggestions, no migration of SVZ NSPC towards the demyelinated splenium was observed using both MRI and BLI, and further validated by histological analysis, thereby demonstrating that SVZ NSPCs are unable to contribute directly to remyelination of the splenium in the cuprizone model. Interestingly, using longitudinal BLI analysis and confirmed by histological analysis, an increased migration of SVZ NSPC-derived neuroblasts towards the olfactory bulb was observed following cuprizone treatment, indicative for a potential link between CNS inflammation and increased neurogenesis. © 2013.

  16. Brown Norway rats, a putative schizophrenia model, show increased electroencephalographic activity at rest and decreased event-related potential amplitude, power, and coherence in the auditory sensory gating paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Yoshiro; Hibino, Ryosuke; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    In recent schizophrenia clinical research, electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activities induced by a sensory stimulus or behavioral tasks have gained considerable interest as functional and pathophysiological biomarkers. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is a putative schizophrenia model that shows naturally low sensorimotor gating and deficits in cognitive performance, although other phenotypes have not been studied. The present study aimed to investigate the neurophysiological features of BN rats, particularly EEG/event-related potential (ERP). EEG activity was recorded at rest and during the auditory sensory gating paradigm under an awake, freely moving condition. Frequency and ERP analysis were performed along with time-frequency analysis of evoked power and intertrial coherence. Compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats, a well-documented control line, BN rats showed increased EEG power at rest, particularly in the theta and gamma ranges. In ERP analysis, BN rats showed reduced N40-P20 amplitude but normal sensory gating. The rats also showed reduced evoked power and intertrial coherence against auditory stimuli. These results suggest that BN rats show features of EEG/ERP measures clinically relevant to schizophrenia and may provide additional opportunities for translational research.

  17. Aumento do potencial de armazenamento refrigerado de nêsperas 'Fukuhara' com o uso de tratamento térmico Potential increasing in the cold-storage of 'Fukuhara' loquat using heat treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kazuhiro Edagi

    2009-10-01

    C for 7 days, and at 1ºC for 53 days; storage at 10ºC for 7 days, and at 1ºC for 53 days; intermittent heat, in cycles of 6 days at 1ºC + 1 day at 15ºC, for 60 days; fruit conditioning at 37ºC for 3 hours, and at 1ºC for 60 days; and fruit conditioning at 37ºC for 6 hours, and at 1ºC for 60 days. The fruits were kept at 85-90% relative humidity, over the whole storage. The following parameters were determined: pulp firmness, incidence of internal browning, titrable acidity, pH, content of soluble solids, ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD, in evaluations after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of storage. There was a correlation between firmness level and POD activity, after 60 days of cold storage. Intermittent heat and at 37ºC for 3 hours were efficient in controling internal browning in fruit pulp. Heat treatments did not prevent the increase of pulp firmness. Heat treatments increase cold-storage potential of loquat without changing fruit physicochemical properties.

  18. Villin promoter-mediated transgenic expression of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6) increases intestinal calcium absorption in wild-type and vitamin D receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Min; Li, Qiang; Johnson, Robert; Fleet, James C

    2012-10-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6) is an apical membrane calcium (Ca) channel in the small intestine proposed to be essential for vitamin D-regulated intestinal Ca absorption. Recent studies have challenged the proposed role for TRPV6 in Ca absorption. We directly tested intestinal TRPV6 function in Ca and bone metabolism in wild-type (WT) and vitamin D receptor knockout (VDRKO) mice. TRPV6 transgenic mice (TG) were made with intestinal epithelium-specific expression of a 3X Flag-tagged human TRPV6 protein. TG and VDRKO mice were crossed to make TG-VDRKO mice. Ca and bone metabolism was examined in WT, TG, VDRKO, and TG-VDRKO mice. TG mice developed hypercalcemia and soft tissue calcification on a chow diet. In TG mice fed a 0.25% Ca diet, Ca absorption was more than three-fold higher and femur bone mineral density (BMD) was 26% higher than WT. Renal 1α hydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA and intestinal expression of the natural mouse TRPV6 gene were reduced to intestine calbindin-D(9k) expression was elevated >15 times in TG mice. TG-VDRKO mice had high Ca absorption that prevented the low serum Ca, high renal CYP27B1 mRNA, low BMD, and abnormal bone microarchitecture seen in VDRKO mice. In addition, small intestinal calbindin D(9K) mRNA and protein levels were elevated in TG-VDRKO. Transgenic TRPV6 expression in intestine is sufficient to increase Ca absorption and bone density, even in VDRKO mice. VDR-independent upregulation of intestinal calbindin D(9k) in TG-VDRKO suggests this protein may buffer intracellular Ca during Ca absorption. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. Replacing critical radiators to increase the potential to use low-temperature district heating – A case study of 4 Danish single-family houses from the 1930s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    radiator sizes and heating demands in 4 existing Danish single-family houses from the 1930s. A year-long dynamic simulation was performed for each of the houses to evaluate the potential to lower the heating system temperatures. The results indicate that there is a large potential to use low-temperature...... district heating in existing single-family houses. In order to obtain the full potential of low-temperature district heating, critical radiators must be replaced. Based on a novel method, a total of nine radiators were identified to be critical to ensure thermal comfort and low return temperatures in two......Low-temperature district heating is a promising technology for providing homes with energy-efficient heating in the future. However, it is of great importance to maintain thermal comfort in existing buildings when district heating temperatures are lowered. This case study evaluated the actual...

  20. A diet high in meat protein and potential renal acid load increases fractional Ca absorption and urinary Ca excretion, without affecting markers of bone resorption or formation in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective was to determine the effects of high dietary protein (mostly meat) and high potential renal acid load (PRAL) on calcium (Ca) balance and markers of bone metabolism. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, sixteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two diets: one with l...

  1. Increased store-operated and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-induced calcium influx in monocytes is mediated by transient receptor potential canonical channels in human essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dao Yan; Thilo, Florian; Scholze, Alexandra;

    2007-01-01

    Activation of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) family has been associated with hypertension. Whether store-operated channels, which are activated after depletion of intracellular stores, or second-messenger-operated channels, which are activated by 1......-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol, are affected in essential hypertension is presently unknown....

  2. ON THE ANODIC POLARIZATION BEHAVIOR OF CARBON STEEL IN HANFORD NUCLEAR WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-01-31

    The effect of the important chemical constituents in the Hanford nuclear waste simulant on the anodic behavior of carbon steel was studied. Specifically, the effect of pH, nitrite concentration, nitrite/nitrate concentration ratios, total organic carbon and the chloride concentration on the open circuit potential, pitting potential and repassivation potential was evaluated. It was found that pH adjusting, although capable of returning the tank chemistry back to specification, did not significantly reduce the corrosivity of the stimulant compared to the present condition. Nitrite was found to be a potent inhibitor for carbon steel. A critical concentration of approximately 1.2M appeared to be beneficial to increase the difference of repassivation potential and open circuit potential considerably and thus prevent pitting corrosion from occurring. No further benefit was gained when increasing nitrite concentration to a higher level. The organic compounds were found to be weak inhibitors in the absence of nitrite and the change of chloride from 0.05M to 0.2M did not alter the anodic behavior dramatically.

  3. Circulating levels of sirtuin 4, a potential marker of oxidative metabolism, related to coronary artery disease in obese patients suffering from NAFLD, with normal or slightly increased liver enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Finelli, Carmine; Scopacasa, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Contaldo, Franco; Capone, Domenico; Savastano, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The present study shows low circulating levels of SIRT4 in obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease mirroring its reduced mitochondrial expression in an attempt to increase the fat oxidative capacity and then the mitochondrial function in liver and in muscle. SIRT4 modulates the metabolism of free fatty acids reducing their high circulating levels but, unfortunately, increasing ROS production. Great concentration of free fatty acids, released by adipose tissue, coupled with oxidative stress, directly results in endothelial dysfunction, early atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease risk factor.

  4. NMDA Receptors as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Diabetic Nephropathy: Increased Renal NMDA Receptor Subunit Expression in Akita Mice and Reduced Nephropathy Following Sustained Treatment With Memantine or MK-801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanravan, Hila; Kim, Eun Young; Dryer, Stuart E

    2016-10-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are expressed throughout the kidney, and the abundance of these receptors and some of their endogenous agonists are increased in diabetes. Moreover, sustained activation of podocyte NMDA receptors induces Ca(2+) influx, oxidative stress, loss of slit diaphragm proteins, and apoptosis. We observed that NMDA receptor subunits and their transcripts are increased in podocytes and mesangial cells cultured in elevated glucose compared with controls. A similar increase in NMDA subunits, especially NR1, NR2A, and NR2C, was observed in glomeruli and tubules of Akita mice. Sustained continuous treatment with the strong NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) for 28 days starting at 8 weeks of age reduced 24-h albumin excretion and mesangial matrix expansion and improved glomerular ultrastructure in Akita mice. MK-801 did not alleviate reduced Akita mouse body weight and had no effect on kidney histology or ultrastructure in DBA/2J controls. The structurally dissimilar NMDA antagonist memantine also reduced diabetic nephropathy, although it was less effective than MK-801. Inhibition of NMDA receptors may represent a valid therapeutic approach to reduce renal complications of diabetes, and it is possible to develop well-tolerated agents with minimal central nervous system effects. Two such agents, memantine and dextromethorphan, are already in widespread clinical use.

  5. Desalinated underground seawater of Jeju Island (Korea) improves lipid metabolism in mice fed diets containing high fat and increases antioxidant potential in t-BHP treated HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jung-Ran; Gang, Gil-Tae; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Yang, Keum-Jin; Lee, Chul-Ho; Na, O-Su; Kim, Gi-Ju; Oh, Won-Keun

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of desalinated underground seawater (named as 'magma seawater', MSW) of Jeju Island in Korea on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity. MSW was collected from underground of Han-Dong in Jeju Island, and freely given to high fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice for 10 weeks. Although there were no significant differences in the body weight changes and plasma lipid levels, hepatic triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the MSW group than in the normal tap water (TW)-drunken control group. Furthermore, the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) was significantly decreased and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity was increased in MSW group compared to TW group. Similarly, real-time PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expressions of lipogenic genes were lowered in MSW groups compared to the control group. In a morphometric observation on the liver tissue, accumulation of fats was remarkably reduced in MSW group. Meanwhile, in vitro assay, free radical scavenging activity measured by using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was increased in MSW group. The 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) staining followed with fluorescent microscopy showed a low intensity of fluorescence in MSW-treated HepG2 cells, compared to TW-treated HepG2 cells, which indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) in HepG2 cells was decreased by MSW treatment. The antioxidant effect of MSW on t-BHP-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells was supported by the increased activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and glutathione reductase. From these results, we speculate that MSW has an inhibitory effect on lipogenesis in liver and might play a protective role against cell damage by t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. PMID:20198202

  6. A Potential Inhibitory Profile of Liver CD68+ Cells during HCV Infection as Observed by an Increased CD80 and PD-L1 but Not CD86 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Elias A.; Al-Reesi, Iman; Al-Riyami, Marwa; Al-Naamani, Khalid; Al-Sinawi, Shadia; Al-Balushi, Mohammed S.; Koh, Crystal Y.; Al-Busaidi, Juma Z.; Idris, Mohamed A.; Al-Jabri, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim The lack of potent innate immune responses during HCV infection might lead to a delay in initiating adaptive immune responses. Kupffer cells (KCs) and liver-infiltrating monocytes/macrophages (CD68+ cells) are essential to establish effective anti-HCV responses. They express co-stimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. CD86 upregulation induces activator responses that are then potentially regulated by CD80. The relative levels of expression of CD80, CD86 and the inhibitory molecule, PD-L1, on CD68+ cells modulate T cell activation. A few studies have explored CD80 and PD-L1 expression on KCs and infiltrating monocytes/macrophages in HCV-infected livers, and none investigated CD86 expression in these cells. These studies have identified these cells based on morphology only. We investigated the stimulatory/inhibitory profile of CD68+ cells in HCV-infected livers based on the balance of CD80, CD86 and PD-L1 expression. Methods CD80, CD86 and PD-L1 expression by CD68+ cells in the lobular and portal areas of the liver of chronic HCV-infected (n = 16) and control (n = 14) individuals was investigated using double staining immunohistochemistry. Results The count of CD68+ KCs in the lobular areas of the HCV-infected livers was lower than that in the control (p = 0.041). The frequencies of CD68+CD80+ cells and CD68+PD-L1+ cells in both lobular and total areas of the liver were higher in HCV-infected patients compared with those in the control group (p = 0.001, 0.031 and 0.007 respectively). Moreover, in the lobular areas of the HCV-infected livers, the frequency of CD68+CD80+ cells was higher than that of CD68+CD86+ and CD68+PD-L1+ cells. In addition, the frequencies of CD68+CD80+ and CD68+CD86+ cells were higher in the lobular areas than the portal areas. Conclusions Our results show that CD68+ cells have an inhibitory profile in the HCV-infected livers. This might help explain the delayed T cell response and viral persistence during HCV infection. PMID:27065104

  7. Test Demonstration on Yield-increasing Potential of Summer and Autumn Peas in Guiyang%贵阳市夏秋豌豆增产潜力试验示范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家秀; 朱小清; 田梅; 黄琴

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we carried out the test demonstration on the growth potential of summer and autumn peas from technical measures such as pea cultivar, planting density and cultivation pattern. The results showed that different pea cultivars had different productivities, while different cultivars required different densities correspondingly. The four pea cultivars in this test possessed good commercial characters, large pod and high yield, and all of them were suitable to be promoted and cultivated in high-altitude areas in Guiyang. When they were planted in summer and autumn, the suitable sowing time was in middle and late August, and the suitable seeding quantity of Zhongwan No.4 and Zhongwan No.6 was about 12.5 kg/667 m2, while that of Tengfei No.5 and Tengfei No.7 was about 10 kg/667 m2.%  从豌豆品种、种植密度、栽培方式等技术措施进行了夏秋反季节豌豆增产潜力试验示范.试验结果表明,不同豌豆品种有不同的生产力,而不同品种又要求不同的密度.参试的4个豌豆品种商品性状好,荚大,产量高,均适合在贵阳高海拔地区推广栽培.作夏秋反季节栽培时,播种期均以8月中下旬为宜,中豌4号和中豌6号的适宜播种密度为12.5 kg/667 m2左右,而腾飞5号和腾飞7号的适宜播种密度为10 kg/667 m2左右.

  8. Estimating the economic consequences of an increased medication adherence due to a potential improvement in the inhaler technique with Spiromax® compared with Turbuhaler® in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbà, Josep; Ramírez, Gabriela; García-Rivero, Juan L; Mayoralas, Sagrario; Pascual, José Francisco; Vargas, Diego; Bijedic, Adi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of the introduction of DuoResp® Spiromax®, budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (FDC), focusing on an increase in medication adherence due to an enhancement of the inhalation technique for the treatment of COPD patients in Spain and 5 regions including Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid, and Valencia. Methods A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the time period of 2015–2018. This study aimed at evaluating the budget impact associated with the introduction of DuoResp Spiromax in comparison with Symbicort® Turbuhaler® and Rilast® Turbuhaler. National and regional data on COPD prevalence were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resource utilization were obtained by clinical consultation. Resource included primary care visits, specialist visits, hospitalization, and emergency room visits as well as the length of hospital stay. Based on both pharmacological and health care resource costs, overall annual treatment cost per patient was estimated in EUR 2015. Results It was calculated that 130,777 adults were treated with budesonide/formoterol FDC delivered by a dry powder inhaler, Turbuhaler, in Spain in 2015. However, the target population decreases over the next 4 years. This pattern was observed in 4 regions, but for Andalusia, the treated population increased slightly. The overall budget savings in Spain with the market share of DuoResp Spiromax were estimated to be €6.01 million for the time period of 2015–2018. Region-specific data resulted in savings of €902,133 in Andalusia, €740,520 in Catalonia, €464,281 in Galicia, €748,996 in Madrid, and €495,812 in Valencia for the time period of 2015–2018. Conclusion The introduction of budesonide/formoterol FDC delivered by Spiromax for COPD treatment is likely to contribute in a reduction of health care costs for Spain and in 5 Spanish regions. This model forecasts that Spain and these 5

  9. Price Increases from Online Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Michael R; Chen, Yu-Ching

    2001-01-01

    Consumers value keeping some information about them private from potential marketers. E-commerce dramatically increases the potential for marketers to accumulate otherwise private information about potential customers. Online marketers claim that this information enables them to better market their products. Policy makers are currently drafting rules to regulate the way in which these marketers can collect, store, and share this information. However, there is little evidence yet either of con...

  10. Estimating the economic consequences of an increased medication adherence due to a potential improvement in the inhaler technique with Spiromax® compared with Turbuhaler® in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Gabriela Ramírez,2 Juan L García-Rivero,3 Sagrario Mayoralas,4 José Francisco Pascual,5 Diego Vargas,6 Adi Bijedic7 1Department of Economics, Universitat de Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics & Outcomes Research S.L., Barcelona, 3Hospital Laredo, Cantabria, 4Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, 5Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, 6Hospital de Alta Resolución el Toyo, Andalusia, 7Market Access and HEOR Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical, Madrid, Spain Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of the introduction of DuoResp® Spiromax®, budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (FDC, focusing on an increase in medication adherence due to an enhancement of the inhalation technique for the treatment of COPD patients in Spain and 5 regions including Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid, and Valencia.Methods: A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the time period of 2015–2018. This study aimed at evaluating the budget impact associated with the introduction of DuoResp Spiromax in comparison with Symbicort® Turbuhaler® and Rilast® Turbuhaler. National and regional data on COPD prevalence were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resource utilization were obtained by clinical consultation. Resource included primary care visits, specialist visits, hospitalization, and emergency room visits as well as the length of hospital stay. Based on both pharmacological and health care resource costs, overall annual treatment cost per patient was estimated in EUR 2015. Results: It was calculated that 130,777 adults were treated with budesonide/formoterol FDC delivered by a dry powder inhaler, Turbuhaler, in Spain in 2015. However, the target population decreases over the next 4 years. This pattern was observed in 4 regions, but for Andalusia, the treated population increased slightly. The overall budget savings in Spain with the market share of DuoResp Spiromax were

  11. Molecular evidence of increased resistance to anti-folate drugs in Plasmodium falciparum in North-East India: a signal for potential failure of artemisinin plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Pradyumna Kishore; Sarma, Devojit Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Bora, Khukumoni; Ahmed, Md Atique; Sarma, Bibhas; Goswami, Basanta Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Dibya Ranjan; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    North-east India, being a corridor to South-east Asia, is believed to play an important role in transmitting drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria to India and South Asia. North-east India was the first place in India to record the emergence of drug resistance to chloroquine as well as sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. Presently chloroquine resistance is widespread all over the North-east India and resistance to other anti-malarials is increasing. In this study both in vivo therapeutic efficacy and molecular assays were used to screen the spectrum of drug resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in the circulating P. falciparum strains. A total of 220 P. falciparum positives subjects were enrolled in the study for therapeutic assessment of chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and assessment of point mutations conferring resistances to these drugs were carried out by genotyping the isolates following standard methods. Overall clinical failures in sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine were found 12.6 and 69.5% respectively, while overall treatment failures recorded were 13.7 and 81.5% in the two arms. Nearly all (99.0%) the isolates had mutant pfcrt genotype (76 T), while 68% had mutant pfmdr-1 genotype (86 Y). Mutation in dhps 437 codon was the most prevalent one while dhfr codon 108 showed 100% mutation. A total of 23 unique haplotypes at the dhps locus and 7 at dhfr locus were found while dhps-dhfr combined loci revealed 49 unique haplotypes. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple mutations were common while 1 haplotype was found with all five mutated codons (F/AGEGS/T) at dhps locus. Detection of quadruple mutants (51 I/59 R/108 N/164 L) in the present study, earlier recorded from Car Nicobar Island, India only, indicates the presence of high levels of resistance to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in north-east India. Associations between resistant haplotypes and the clinical outcomes and emerging resistance in sulphadoxine

  12. Potential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

  13. Potential strategies for increasing drug-discovery productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, John G; Finlay, M Raymond V; Giordanetto, Fabrizio; Hemmerling, Martin; Lister, Troy; Sanganee, Hitesh; Waring, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The productivity challenge facing the pharmaceutical industry is well documented. Strategies to improve productivity have mainly focused on enhancing efficiency, such as the application of Lean Six Sigma process improvement methods and the introduction of modeling and simulation in place of 'wet' experiments. While these strategies have their benefits, the real challenge is to improve effectiveness by reducing clinical failure rates. We advocate redesigning the screening cascade to identify and optimize novel compounds with improved efficacy against disease, not just with improved potency against the target. There should be greater use of disease-relevant phenotypic screens in conjunction with target-based assays to drive medicinal chemistry optimization. An opportunistic approach to polypharmacology is recommended. There should also be more emphasis on optimization of the molecular mechanism of action incorporating understanding of binding kinetics, consideration of covalent drug strategies and targeting allosteric modulators.

  14. Increasing the learning potential from events: Case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Bos, E.; Groeneweg, J.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning from incidents is a subject that is important to most organizations. We see the 'learning from incidents processes' as a set of processes from reporting an incident to verifying the effectiveness of the measures taken. This study aims to identify how learning can be more successful and more

  15. Violent Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence as “performed violent potentiality......” plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings. While most Bugkalot men has...... today abandoned headhunting, the potentials for violence and dominance, which the act of headhunting sought to elicit, remains a critical aspect of masculinity. We propose that a focus on the social significance of performative violent potentiality among Bugkalot men can provide general insights...

  16. Increasing Possibilities of Nanosuspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bishwajit Sutradhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a very large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble and thus poorly bioavailable. To avoid this problem, nanotechnology for drug delivery has gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. Nano refers to particles size range of 1–1000 nm. The reduction of drug particles into the submicron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are part of nanotechnology. This interacts with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular scales with a high degree of specificity and can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Production of drugs as nanosuspensions can be developed for drug delivery systems as an oral formulation and nonoral administration. Here, this review describes the methods of pharmaceutical nanosuspension production including advantages and disadvantages, potential benefits, characterization tests, and pharmaceutical applications in drug delivery.

  17. Violent potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Friis Søgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    as ‘performed violent potentiality’ plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings......This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters engaged in ritual killings. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence....... While most Bugkalot men have today abandoned headhunting, the potentials for violence and dominance, which the act of headhunting sought to elicit, remains a critical aspect of masculinity. We propose that a focus on the social significance of performative violent potentiality among Bugkalot men can...

  18. Violent Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence as “performed violent potentiality”...

  19. Potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Helms, Lester L

    2014-01-01

    Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...

  20. Yohimbine increases human salivary secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelut, E; Rispail, Y; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L

    1989-01-01

    The effect of oral yohimbine (14 mg) on salivary secretion was evaluated in healthy volunteers. Yohimbine significantly increased salivary secretion when compared with placebo. This effect was significant from 60 min until 180 min after administration under our experimental conditions. Yohimbine (or alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking agents) could have a potential interest in the treatment of dry mouths. PMID:2789932

  1. Stifling of Crevice Corrosion in Alloy 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mon, K G; Gordon, G M; Rebak, R B

    2005-06-08

    Artificially creviced Alloy 22 (N06022) specimens may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in presence of hot chloride containing solutions. The presence of oxyanions in the electrolyte, especially nitrate, may inhibit the nucleation and growth of crevice corrosion. Constant potential tests were performed using tightly creviced specimens of Alloy 22. It was found that crevice corrosion may initiate when a constant potential above the crevice repassivation potential is applied. It was found that as the crevice corrosion nucleated, the current initially increased but later decreased. The net measured current can be converted into penetration following a power law fit of the experimental data. The average power law coefficient ''n'' was found to be 0.439, suggesting that even under constant applied potential crevice corrosion penetration is diffusion controlled.

  2. STIFLING OF CREVICE CORROSION IN ALLOY 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon; G.M. Gordon; R.B. Rebak

    2005-07-01

    Artificially creviced Alloy 22 (N06022) specimens may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in presence of hot chloride containing solutions. The presence of oxyanions in the electrolyte, especially nitrate, may inhibit the nucleation and growth of crevice corrosion. Constant potential tests were performed using tightly creviced specimens of Alloy 22. It was found that crevice corrosion may initiate when a constant potential above the crevice repassivation potential is applied. It was found that as the crevice corrosion nucleated, the current initially increased but later decreased. The net measured current can be converted into penetration following a power law fit of the experimental data. The average power law coefficient ''n'' was found to be 0.439, suggesting that even under constant applied potential, crevice corrosion penetration is diffusion controlled.

  3. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  4. Grain size influences the corrosion and cavitation of Ni3Al intermetallic alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zasada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of grain size on corrosion and cavitation of the Ni3Al - based intermetallic alloy was studied in recent paper. The research was conducted on Ni3Al - based intermetallic alloy doped with boron and zirconium. The initial grain size of 6, 20 and 45 μm the investigated samples was obtained through cold rolling followed by recrystallization annealing. It was found that initial grain size does not influence the breakthrough potential neither repassivation potential. On the other hand, various types of pits were found for alloys with different grain size during corrosion tests in sodium chloride solutions. It was found that increase of grain size results with reducing the depth of cavitational pits. However, surface area of the pits increases with increasing grain size.

  5. Effect of increased

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreira , C.; Heldal, M.; Bratbak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased since the pre-industrial period and is predicted to continue to increase throughout the twenty-first century. The ocean is a sink for atmospheric CO2 and increased CO2 concentration will change the carbonate equilibrium of seawater and result in lower c

  6. Increasing Mobility Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español In Your Area NPF Shop Increasing Mobility Confidence To increase your confidence moving, you have to move! Make Text Smaller ... It might seem counterintuitive, but to increase your confidence moving, you have to move! Build physical activity ...

  7. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  8. Increasing work-time influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Aust, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated how an intervention aiming at increasing eldercare workers' influence on their working hours affected the flexibility, variability, regularity and predictability of the working hours. We used baseline (n = 296) and follow-up (n = 274) questionnaire data......-operation with colleagues. In subgroup B and C, the participants ended up discussing the potential consequences of more work-time influence without actually implementing any changes. PRACTITIONER SUMMARY: Employee work-time influence may buffer the adverse effects of shift work. However, our intervention study suggested...... that while increasing the individual flexibility, increasing work-time influence may also result in decreased regularity of the working hours and less continuity in the care of clients and co-operation with colleagues....

  9. Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2001-11-08

    This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.

  10. Increasing Public Expenditure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ammar Ben Zaed

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to analyze and interpret the phenomenon of increased public expenditures and test explanatory theories as well as to analyze Abstract the relationship between public spending and GDP...

  11. Increasing Public Library Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Howard

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways of improving productivity for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)

  12. Increased intracranial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patient's bedside in an emergency room or hospital. Primary care doctors may sometimes spot early symptoms of increased intracranial pressure such as headache, seizures, or other nervous system problems. An MRI ...

  13. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  14. Exploding Increase of Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H. [Sunmoon University, Chonan (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Until 1650, the population of the world did not increase properly. According to studies of the demography, the annual increase rate of the world population during 2500 years, from 850 B.C. to 1650 A.D., was just 0.07%. Currently, however, the world population, which has exceptionally rapidly increased from 1900, is more than 6 billion as of 2000. After World War II, especially, the increase rate of the population has risen to about 1.8%, so we can use the word, explosion of the population. The explosion of the population accompanies the increase of energy consumption. The energy production of every year cannot sufficiently meet the energy demand, so we can face the grand energy crisis someday. The date might be a someday after 2020. According to the future forecasting of Shell, one of the majors, the peak of oil supply will be between 2015 and 2020. Unless the alternative energy is developed, the whole world will suffer the serious oil crisis.

  15. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    .... Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines...

  16. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T

    2009-01-01

    , impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...... controls. Urinary orosomucoid was measured using a particle-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM) were measured using ELISA. Endothelial function measured as vasodilatory capacity...... of the brachial artery and echocardiography were done in all participants. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes and increased UOER had subclinically increased serum orosomucoid (pprotein (CRP) (p

  17. Trypsin potentiates human fibrocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J V White

    Full Text Available Trypsin-containing topical treatments can be used to speed wound healing, although the mechanism of action is unknown. To help form granulation tissue and heal wounds, monocytes leave the circulation, enter the wound tissue, and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. We find that 20 to 200 ng/ml trypsin (concentrations similar to those used in wound dressings potentiates the differentiation of human monocytes to fibrocytes in cell culture. Adding trypsin inhibitors increases the amount of trypsin needed to potentiate fibrocyte differentiation, suggesting that the potentiating effect is dependent on trypsin proteolytic activity. Proteases with other site specificities such as pepsin, endoprotease GluC, and chymotrypsin do not potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. This potentiation requires the presence of albumin in the culture medium, and tryptic fragments of human or bovine albumin also potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. These results suggest that topical trypsin speeds wound healing by generating tryptic fragments of albumin, which in turn potentiate fibrocyte differentiation.

  18. Trypsin potentiates human fibrocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael J V; Glenn, Melissa; Gomer, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Trypsin-containing topical treatments can be used to speed wound healing, although the mechanism of action is unknown. To help form granulation tissue and heal wounds, monocytes leave the circulation, enter the wound tissue, and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. We find that 20 to 200 ng/ml trypsin (concentrations similar to those used in wound dressings) potentiates the differentiation of human monocytes to fibrocytes in cell culture. Adding trypsin inhibitors increases the amount of trypsin needed to potentiate fibrocyte differentiation, suggesting that the potentiating effect is dependent on trypsin proteolytic activity. Proteases with other site specificities such as pepsin, endoprotease GluC, and chymotrypsin do not potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. This potentiation requires the presence of albumin in the culture medium, and tryptic fragments of human or bovine albumin also potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. These results suggest that topical trypsin speeds wound healing by generating tryptic fragments of albumin, which in turn potentiate fibrocyte differentiation.

  19. Relationship between Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Martensitic High Nitrogen Stainless Steel 30Cr15Mo1N at Different Austenitizing Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhouhua; Feng, Hao; Li, Huabing; Zhu, Hongchun; Zhang, Shucai; Zhang, Binbin; Han, Yu; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Dake

    2017-07-27

    The relationship between microstructure and corrosion behavior of martensitic high nitrogen stainless steel 30Cr15Mo1N at different austenitizing temperatures was investigated by microscopy observation, electrochemical measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and immersion testing. The results indicated that finer Cr-rich M₂N dispersed more homogeneously than coarse M23C₆, and the fractions of M23C₆ and M₂N both decreased with increasing austenitizing temperature. The Cr-depleted zone around M23C₆ was wider and its minimum Cr concentration was lower than M₂N. The metastable pits initiated preferentially around coarse M23C₆ which induced severer Cr-depletion, and the pit growth followed the power law. The increasing of austenitizing temperature induced fewer metastable pit initiation sites, more uniform element distribution and higher contents of Cr, Mo and N in the matrix. In addition, the passive film thickened and Cr₂O₃, Cr(3+) and CrN enriched with increasing austenitizing temperature, which enhanced the stability of the passive film and repassivation ability of pits. Therefore, as austenitizing temperature increased, the metastable and stable pitting potentials increased and pit growth rate decreased, revealing less susceptible metastable pit initiation, larger repassivation tendency and higher corrosion resistance. The determining factor of pitting potentials could be divided into three stages: dissolution of M23C₆ (below 1000 °C), dissolution of M₂N (from 1000 to 1050 °C) and existence of a few undissolved precipitates and non-metallic inclusions (above 1050 °C).

  20. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified.

  1. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... to the skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  2. Pemex increasing offshore activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachy, D.

    1985-05-01

    Although austere by boom-year standards, Mexico's National Energy Program for 1984-1988 calls for forty wildcats and 90 to 144 development wells off the coast, primarily in the prolific Campeche Bay area. Platform additions will include nine drilling platforms, each for twelve wells, and eight eight platforms to drill injection wells. Additionally, 7 production, 6 accomodation, 6 linkage and 8 compression platforms and 13 tetrapods will be installed. The main objectives of the plan are energy self-sufficiency through the turn of the century, and energy diversification, savings and productivity. The most controversial portion of Mexico's energy program is that calling for nuclear energy development. The energy program lists three basic goals in hydrocarbon production: continuing research on better techniques of secondary recovery; increasing capacity for refining primary and secondary crude products and improving production of heavy crudes; and increasing storage capacity and installing pipelines capable of carrying a greater volume of crude.

  3. Market Expects Demand Increase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the recent releasing Textile Industry Invigorating Plan,"givingattention to both domestlc and overseas markets"is put into a keyposition.Under a series policies,such as increasing the tax rebaterate for textile and garment exports,and granting loan for SME,thefurther development of this industry is expectative.Otherwise,weshould know that it costs time for demand driving.This need ourpatients.The only questionis how much time we have to wait.

  4. Alarming increase in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to

  5. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  6. CHINA INCREASED PETROLEUM TAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xueping

    2005-01-01

    @@ After half a year's gestation and adjustment, the State Administration of Taxation finally set new tax rate of petroleum resources. Notification issued by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation said the petroleum resources tax standard would be lifted nationwide, after the tax rate adjustment, tax on crude oil would be increased to RMB 14-30 yuan per ton and that on natural gas to RMB 7-15 yuan per thousand cubic meters. The new tax rate has been effective nationwide since July 1.

  7. Increasing Inflationary Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's CPI rose to 8.7 percent in February after hitting 7.1 percent in January,creating a 12-year high,the National Bureau of Statistics said.The figure exceeded market expectations,as the Bank of China,the country's secondlargest lender,had predicted a rise of only 8.3 percent.The Consumer Price Index (CPI)is the main gauge of inflation,andthe high CPI over the last two months has put pressure on the government to take action to curb the price increases,and added even more diffculty to the task of reining in this year's inflation rate.

  8. 势能增氧生态净化工艺在高浓度有机废水处理中的应用%Application of potential energy increasing oxygen ecological purification technology in treatment of high concentration organic wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸣钊; 商卫纯; 冯骞; 肖玉冰

    2015-01-01

    Comparing the advantages and shortcomings of two wastewater treatment methods, aerobic process biological rotary method and trickling filter method, a new process,potential energy increasing oxygen ecological purification technology( PIEP) ,was designed by combining the advantages of the two wastewater treatment methods. PIEP was applied in the treatment of high concentration organic wastewater in Nanjing Lamei Food Factory.The results show that PIEP is simple in design and dosen’ t need blast aeration.The effluent of wastewater flowing into the wastewater treatment system meet the required water quality standards, and the whole process is under automatic control management.PIEP has characteristics that the wastewater treatment effect is good and the operation expenses are lower.%比较污水处理好氧工艺生物转盘法和滴滤池法的优缺点,并结合两种废水处理方法的优点,设计新的工艺———势能增氧生态净化工艺,对南京市腊梅食品厂高浓度有机废水进行处理。结果表明,势能增氧生态净化工艺设计简单,不需鼓风曝气,污水进入废水处理系统后出水即达到所要求的水质标准,且全部自控管理,具有废水处理效果佳、运行费用低的特点。

  9. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Navarro; SJ Alonso; R Navarro; J Trujillo; E Jorge

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaphthalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastrointestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats.METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses,intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanolplant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg),cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2× 10-4, 6.4 × 10-4 and 1.2 × 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated.RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase.Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride.CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs.Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain.

  10. Increasing orUnderselling ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2011-01-01

    The downgrade of sovereignty credit rating of the United States causes new concerns on US treasury bonds.According to the report issued recently by Treasury Ministry of United States,China as the largest oversea holding country of US treasury bonds continues to buy US treasury bonds,with an increase of 5.7 billion US dollars in June,marking the third month in line.Till now,China has US treasury bonds up to a new record of 1,165.5 billion US dollars,which amounts to 26% of the oversea holding US treasury bonds,based on market estimation,followed by Japan (20%),UK (8%),Brazil (5%)and Russia (3%).However,in sharp contrast to China,other countries are underselling us treasury bonds,particularly Russia.Data shows that since October 2010,Russia has been selling US treasury bonds for eight months in line,up to 38% of their holdings.Now Russia only holds 111 billion US dollars of US treasury bond.Why the countries take totally different attitudes towards to US treasury bonds? Tne reporter interviewed the experts from China and Russia for more details.

  11. Stress increases periodontal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SUAZO, IVÁN; BECERRA, JAVIERA

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease. PMID:23226743

  12. Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosnan Robert J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Methods Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF containing either 0 or 4 mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4 mg/mL plus 0.4 mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801 was administered intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Results Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P  Conclusions Glycine receptor antagonism increases NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

  13. Increased mortality in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Black, Jed; Lai, Chinglin; Eller, Mark; Guinta, Diane; Bhattacharyya, Arun

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the mortality rate in patients with narcolepsy. Data were derived from a large database representative of the US population, which contains anonymized patient-linked longitudinal claims for 173 million individuals. Symphony Health Solutions (SHS) Source Lx, an anonymized longitudinal patient dataset. All records of patients registered in the SHS database between 2008 and 2010. None. Identification of patients with narcolepsy was based on ≥ 1 medical claim with the diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD-9 347.xx) from 2002 to 2012. Dates of death were acquired from the Social Security Administration via a third party; the third party information was encrypted in the same manner as the claims data such that anonymity is ensured prior to receipt by SHS. Annual all-cause mortality rates for 2008, 2009, and 2010 were calculated retrospectively for patients with narcolepsy and patients without narcolepsy in the database, and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated. Mortality rates were also compared with the general US population (Centers for Disease Control data). SMRs of the narcolepsy population were consistent over the 3-year period and showed an approximate 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. The narcolepsy population had consistently higher mortality rates relative to those without narcolepsy across all age groups, stratified by age decile, from 25-34 years to 75+ years of age. The SMR for females with narcolepsy was lower than for males with narcolepsy. Narcolepsy was associated with approximately 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. While the cause of this increased mortality is unknown, these findings warrant further investigation.

  14. 乌蒙山区超高产玉米不同群体的小气候特征与增产潜力研究%Study on Microclimatic Characters and Yield Increase Potential of Different Populations of Ultra High-yielding Maize in Wumeng Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张邦琨; 杨建松; 彭玉淑; 周启江

    2001-01-01

    在黔西乌蒙山区,通过对玉米不同发育期的田间小气候和生长动态的平行观测,探索当地玉米超高产栽培的田间小气候特征与产量的关系。结果表明,供试品种中,以3638的4900株/(667m2),毕单4号的4100株/(667m2),表现最好,田间光、热、水、风及其通量最有利于产量的形成,实际产量最高达631.6~725.6kg/(667m2)。但根据乌蒙山区当年的气候资源估算,生产潜力可达1182~1244kg/(667m2),增产潜力还非常大。%In Wument mountain area of west Guizhou, under the conditions of using different varieties and plant densities with advanced cropping system and ultra high-yielding technology, which are suitable for the relay cropping in certain width, the relationship between microclimatic characters in fields of ultra high-yielding maize and its output is studied by parallel observing the growing status of maize plants and the microclimates index in the fields. The results showed that 4900 plants/667m2 for variety 3638 and 4100 plants/667m2 for variety Bidan 4 are rather good among all the tested varieties, their highest grain yield amounted to 631.6~728.6kg/667m2 under this conditions, the turbulence flux of light, heat, water and wind in field is of the most advantage to achieve high yields.According to the calculation of climate resource this year, the grain yield of 1182~1244kg/667m2 will be reached so the potential of increase of grain output is still very great.

  15. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of

  16. Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Robert J; Thiesen, Roberto

    2012-06-06

    Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF) containing either 0 or 4 mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4 mg/mL) plus 0.4 mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801) was administered intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

  17. Boron - A potential goiterogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Elizaveta V; Tinkov, Alexey A; Ajsuvakova, Olga P; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-07-01

    The iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) include a variety of disturbances such as decreased fertility, increased perinatal and infant mortality, impaired physical and intellectual development, mental retardation, cretinism, hypothyroidism, and endemic goiter (EG). The occurrence of the latter is determined by interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The major environmental factor is iodine status that is required for normal thyroid hormone synthesis. However, other factors like intake of micronutrients and goiterogens also have a significant impact. Essential and toxic trace elements both play a significant role in thyroid physiology. We hypothesize that in terms of overexposure boron may serve as a potential goiterogen. In particular, it is proposed that boron overload may impair thyroid physiology ultimately leading to goiter formation. Certain studies provide evidential support of the hypothesis. In particular, it has been demonstrated that serum and urinary B levels are characterized by a negative association with thyroid hormone levels in exposed subjects. Single indications on the potential efficiency of B in hypothyroidism also exist. Moreover, the levels of B were found to be interrelated with thyroid volume in children environmentally exposed to boron. Experimental studies also demonstrated a significant impact of boron on thyroid structure and hormone levels. Finally, the high rate of B cumulation in thyroid may also indicate that thyroid is the target for B activity. Chemical properties of iodine and boron also provide a background for certain competition. However, it is questionable whether these interactions may occur in the biological systems. Further clinical and experimental studies are required to support the hypothesis of the involvement of boron overexposure in goiter formation. If such association will be confirmed and the potential mechanisms elucidated, it will help to regulate the incidence of hypothyroidism and goiter in endemic

  18. Generalized Morse Potential Symmetry and Satellite Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Del Sol-Mesa, A; Smirnov, Yu F; Smirnov, Yu. F.

    1998-01-01

    We study in detail the bound state spectrum of the generalized Morse potential~(GMP), which was proposed by Deng and Fan as a potential function for diatomic molecules. By connecting the corresponding Schrödinger equation with the Laplace equation on the hyperboloid and the Schrödinger equation for the an $so(2,2)$ symmetry algebra, and obtain an explicit realization of the latter as $su(1,1) \\oplus su(1,1)$. We prove that some of the $so(2,2)$ generators connect among themselves wave functions belonging to different GMP's (called satellite potentials). The conserved quantity is some combination of the potential parameters instead of the level energy, as for potential algebras. Hence, $so(2,2)$ belongs to a new class of symmetry algebras. We also stress the usefulness of our algebraic results for simplifying the calculation of Frank-Condon factors for electromagnetic transitions between rovibrational levels based on different electronic states.

  19. International Evoked Potentials Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac­ teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...

  20. Propofol directly increases tau phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Whittington

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD and other tauopathies, the microtubule-associated protein tau can undergo aberrant hyperphosphorylation potentially leading to the development of neurofibrillary pathology. Anesthetics have been previously shown to induce tau hyperphosphorylation through a mechanism involving hypothermia-induced inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A activity. However, the effects of propofol, a common clinically used intravenous anesthetic, on tau phosphorylation under normothermic conditions are unknown. We investigated the effects of a general anesthetic dose of propofol on levels of phosphorylated tau in the mouse hippocampus and cortex under normothermic conditions. Thirty min following the administration of propofol 250 mg/kg i.p., significant increases in tau phosphorylation were observed at the AT8, CP13, and PHF-1 phosphoepitopes in the hippocampus, as well as at AT8, PHF-1, MC6, pS262, and pS422 epitopes in the cortex. However, we did not detect somatodendritic relocalization of tau. In both brain regions, tau hyperphosphorylation persisted at the AT8 epitope 2 h following propofol, although the sedative effects of the drug were no longer evident at this time point. By 6 h following propofol, levels of phosphorylated tau at AT8 returned to control levels. An initial decrease in the activity and expression of PP2A were observed, suggesting that PP2A inhibition is at least partly responsible for the hyperphosphorylation of tau at multiple sites following 30 min of propofol exposure. We also examined tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells transfected to overexpress human tau. A 1 h exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of propofol in vitro was also associated with tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings suggest that propofol increases tau phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro under normothermic conditions, and further studies are warranted to determine the impact of this anesthetic on the acceleration of

  1. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  2. Ways of Increase of Intellectual Potential of a Higher Educational Establishment (HES Пути повышения интеллектуального потенциала вуза

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Irina N.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to identify possible ways of increase of intellectual potential of a HES, to consider problems of poor digestion of knowledge by students of economic specialties, to show advantages of work in small groups in teaching subjects of the mathematic cycle. The object of the study are problems of “poor receipt” of knowledge by students of economic HESs. Active methods of teaching subjects of the mathematical cycle are considered as one of the ways to awake student’s interest in the subject, rouse its understanding and applying in further labour activity. Instruments of the study are economic and mathematical methods that allow quantitative analysis of the obtained results. Overcoming the problems of “loss” of knowledge results in the growth of its intellectual potential. Result of the study is justification of use of the methods of active teaching in the process of teaching subjects of the mathematical cycle, positive impact of work in small groups on digestion of knowledge, and revelation of main reasons of “loss” of knowledge by students.Цель статьи определить возможные пути повышения интеллектуального потенциала ВУЗа, рассмотреть проблемы неусвоения знаний студентами экономических специальностей, показать преимущества использования работы в малых группах в преподавании дисциплин математического цикла. Объектом исследования статьи являются проблемы «недополучения» знаний студентами экономических ВУЗов. Активные методы обучения дисциплинам математического цикла рассматриваются, как один из способов з

  3. Soils - Potential Runoff

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the spatial distribution of potential runoff-contributing areas in Kansas. Potential runoff-contributing areas...

  4. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  5. Composite absorbing potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Sala, P R

    1998-01-01

    The multiple scattering interferences due to the addition of several contiguous potential units are used to construct composite absorbing potentials that absorb at an arbitrary set of incident momenta or for a broad momentum interval.

  6. Retail Spending Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This map shows the average household spending potential for retail goods in the United States in 2012. Spending potential data measures household consumer spending...

  7. [Evoked potentials and inhalation anesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, A; Russ, W; Hempelmann, G

    1988-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of evoked potentials can be affected by various factors including volatile anaesthetics. These effects have to be considered in order to give correct interpretations of the obtained data. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) and auditory evoked potentials (AEP) will show strong alterations under general anaesthesia whereas brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are slightly affected. The effects of nitrous oxide, halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) after median nerve stimulation were studied in 35 healthy adult patients. pCO2 and tympanic membrane temperature were held constant. Simultaneous cervical and cortical SEP recording was performed using surface electrodes. After induction of anaesthesia SEP were recorded during normoventilation with 100% oxygen and after inhalation of 66.6% nitrous oxide. 10 patients received halothane at inspired concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%. After nitrous oxide had been replaced by oxygen, halothane was reduced in steps of 0.5%. SEP were recorded at the end of each period (15 min). Equipotent doses of enflurane or isoflurane were administered to 15 and 10 patients, respectively. Nitrous oxide depressed early cortical SEP amplitude. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane caused dose dependent increases of latencies. Reduction of amplitude was most pronounced with isoflurane. Using high doses of enflurane in oxygen cortical SEP showed unusual high amplitudes associated with marked increases of latencies. Even under high concentrations of volatile anaesthetics cervical SEP were minimally affected. The effects of anaesthetic gases have to be considered when SEP are recorded intraoperatively.

  8. ASTAXANTHIN: A POTENTIAL CAROTENOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotika Dhankhar et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin, a member of the carotenoid family, is a dark-red pigment which is the main carotenoid found in the marine world of algae and aquatic animals. Astaxanthin, is present in many types of seafood, including salmon, trout, red sea bream, shrimp and lobster, as well as in birds such as flamingo and quail. Synthetic Astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural Astaxanthin, are the green algae haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses unusual antioxidant property which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market of the encapsulated products. Numerous studies have shown that astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed.

  9. Sensitive Probe for Symmetry Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Ye; XIAO Guo-Qing; GUO Wen-Jun; REN ZhongZhou; ZUO Wei; LEE Xi-Guo

    2007-01-01

    Based on both very obvious isospin effect of the neutron-proton number ratio of nucleon emissions (n/p)nucl on symmetry potential and (n/p)nucl's sensitive dependence on symmetry potential in the nuclear reactions induced by halo-neutron projectiles, compared to the same mass stable projectile, probing symmetry potential is investigated within the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics with isospin and momentum-dependent interactions for different symmetry potentials U1sym and U2sym. It is found that the neutron-halo projectile induces very obvious increase of (n/p)nucl and strengthens the dependence of (n/p)nucl on the symmetry potential for all the beam energies and impact parameters, compared to the same mass stable projectile under the same incident channel condition. Therefore (n/p)nucl induced by the neutron-halo projectile is a more favourable probe than the normal neutron-rich and neutron-poor projectiles for extracting the symmetry potential.

  10. Streaming potential of superhydrophobic microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok; Kim, Damoa; Kim, Se Young

    2016-12-09

    For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species. The Navier slip coefficient of the first kind surfaces and the no-shear slot ratio of the second kind surfaces are similar in the sense that the volumetric flow rate increases as these parameter values increase. However, although the streaming potential increases monotonically with respect to the Navier slip coefficient, it reaches a maximum and afterward decreases as the no-shear ratio increases. The results of the present investigation imply that the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces employing only the measurement of volumetric flow rate against pressure drop is not appropriate and the fine structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces must be verified before predicting the streaming potential and electrokinetic flows accurately.

  11. Increased Responsibility and Transparency in an Era of Increased Visibility

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Medical journals publish many different types of papers that inform doctors about the latest research advances and the latest treatments for their patients. They publish articles that describe laboratory-based research into the causes of diseases and the identification of potential new drugs. They publish the results of early clinical trials in which a few patients are given a potential new drug to check its safety. Finally and most importantly, they publish the re...

  12. Determination of the potential for utilising combined heat and power and of the target reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, inclusive of cost analysis (increased use of combined heat and power); Ermittlung der Potenziale fuer die Anwendung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und der erzielbaren Minderung der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen einschliesslich Bewertung der Kosten (Verstaerkte Nutzung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Manfred; Ziesing, Hans-Joachim [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Matthes, Felix Christian; Harthan, Ralph [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Menzler, Gerald [VIK Verband der Industriellen Energie- und Kraftwirtschaft e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The report provides a statistical overview of CHP utilisation up to now in Germany, analyses the general economic and political conditions with a view to evaluating the competitiveness of CHP, discusses the effectiveness of the German CHP Act with respect to its contribution to meeting emissions-related goals, analyses the cost-effectiveness of investments in different types of new CHP installations, addresses mid- and longer term potential as well as impediments to the utilisation of CHP installations, presents model simulations of how CHP is expected to develop in the context of economic conditions subject to various general political conditions and makes recommendations with an eye to additional requirements and opportunities to support CHP, against the background of the findings of the analysis. (orig.)

  13. BIOELECTRIC POTENTIALS IN HALICYSTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinks, L. R.; Darsie, M. L.; Skow, R. K.

    1938-01-01

    The potential difference across the protoplasm of impaled cells of Halicystis is not affected by increase of oxygen tension in equilibrium with the sea water, nor with decrease down to about 1/10 its tension in the air (2 per cent O2 in N2). When bubbling of 2 per cent O2 is stopped, the P.D. drifts downward, to be restored on stirring the sea water, or rebubbling the gas. Bubbling 0.2 per cent O2 causes the P.D. to drop to 20 mv. or less; 1.1 per cent O2 to about 50 mv. Restoration of 2 per cent or higher O2 causes recovery to 70 or 80 mv. often with a preliminary cusp which decreases the P.D. before it rises. Perfusion of aerated sea water through the vacuole is just as effective in restoring the P.D. as external aeration, indicating that the direction of the oxygen gradient is not significant. Low O2 tension also inhibits the reversed, negative P.D. produced by adding NH4Cl to sea water, 0.2 per cent O2 bringing this P.D. back to the same low positive values found without ammonia. Restoration of 2 per cent O2 or air, restores this latent negativity. At slightly below the threshold for ammonia reversal, low O2 may induce a temporary negativity when first bubbled, and a negative cusp may occur on aeration before positive P.D. is regained. This may be due to a decreased consumption of ammonia, or to intermediate pH changes. The locus of the P.D. alteration was tested by applying increased KCl concentrations to the cell exterior; the large cusps produced in aerated solutions become greatly decreased when the P.D. has fallen in 0.2 per cent O2. This indicates that the originally high relative mobility or concentration of K+ ion has approached that of Na+ in the external protoplasmic surface under reduced O2 tension. Results obtained with sulfate sea water indicate that Na+ mobility approaches that of SO4— in 0.2 per cent O2. P.D. measurements alone cannot tell whether this is due to an increase of the slower ion or a decrease of the faster ion. A decrease of all

  14. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p sodium reduction...

  15. Role of biofertilizers in increasing tea productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Nepolean; R Jayanthi; R Vidhya Pallavi; A Balamurugan; T Kuberan; T Beulah; R Premkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To increase the tea productivity using biofertilizers like VAM fungi, phosphobacteria, Azosprillium. Methods: Nitrogen fixing Azospirillum, phosphate solubilising bacteria and VAM fungi were isolated from tea soils of southern India and region specific potential strains were selected based on laboratory, greenhouse, as well as field experiments. A technology for their mass multiplication has been developed. Results: Biofertilizers were showed higher yield at the rate of 5g/seedling and VAM fungi with 15 g of formulation/bush. Conclusions: Multifunctional biofertilizers were used to reduce the chemical fertilizers, diseases and to increase soil fertility in tea.

  16. Strategies to Increase Adenoma Detection Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Eelco C; Wallace, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR), i.e., the proportion of average risk patients with at least one adenoma detected during screening colonoscopy, is inversely associated with the development of interval colorectal cancer. Increasing the ADR is therefore an important proxy for increase in quality and efficacy of (screening) colonoscopy. Several potentially modifiable factors, such as, procedural and technological factors, and quality improvement programs, and their effect on the ADR will be reviewed. Procedural factors, such as, bowel preparation, withdrawal time, and position changes of the patient are associated with the ADR. While the relation of others, such as inspection during insertion, use of antispasmodic agents, and second inspection in the proximal colon, with the ADR is not completely clear. Many new colonoscopy technologies have been evaluated over recent years and are still under evaluation, but no unequivocal positive effect on the ADR has been observed in randomized trials that have mostly been performed by experienced endoscopists with high baseline ADRs. Several quality improvement programs have been evaluated and seem to have a positive effect on endoscopists' ADR. Increase in ADR is important for the protective benefit of colonoscopy. There are now extensive methods to measure, benchmark, and improve ADR but increased awareness of these is critical. We have provided an overview of potential factors that can be used to increase personal ADRs in every day practice.

  17. Involvement of veratridine-induced increase of reverse Na+/Ca2+ exchange current in intracellular Ca2+ overload and extension of action potential duration in rabbit ventricular myocytes%藜芦定增强反向Na+/Ca2+交换电流诱导家兔心室肌细胞内Ca2+超载和动作电位异常延长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令浩; 马季骅; 张培华; 罗岸涛; 张硕; 任志强; 冯娟; 陈玖玲

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of veratridine (VER) on persistent sodium current (Ina.p), Na+/ Ca2+ exchange current (Incx), calcium transients and the action potential (AP) in rabbit ventricular myocytes, and to explore the mechanism in intracellular calcium overload and myocardial contraction enhancement by using whole-cell patch clamp recording technique, visual motion edge detection system, intracellular calcium measurement system and multi-channel physiological signal acquisition and processing system. The results showed that Ina.p and reverse INCX in ventricular myocytes were obviously increased after giving 10, 20 μmol/L VER, with the current density of Ina.p increasing from (-0.22 ± 0.12) to (-0.61 ±0.13) and (-2.15 ± 0.14) pA/pF (P<0.01,n= 10) at-20 mV, and that of reverse INCX increasing from (1.62 ±0.12) to (2.19 ±0.09) and (2.58 ±0.11) pA/pF(P< 0.05,ng 10, n = 10) at +50 mV, After adding 4 μmol/L tetrodotoxin (TTX). current density of ⅠNa.p and reverse ⅠNCX returned to (-0.07 ± 0.14) and (1.69 ± 0.15) pA/pF (P < 0.05, n = 10). Another specific blocker of ⅠNa.p ranolazine (RAN), could obviously inhibit VER-increased ⅠNa.p and reverse ⅠNCX After giving 2.5 μmol/L VER, the maximal contraction rate of ventricular myocytes increased from (-0.91 ± 0.29) to (-1.53 ± 0.29)μm/s (P < 0.01, n = 7), the amplitude of contraction increased from (0.10 ± 0.04) to (0.16 ± 0.04) μm (P < 0.05, n=7), and the baseline of calcium transients (diastolic calcium concentration) increased from (1.21 ± 0.08) to (1.37 ± 0.12) (P < 0.05, n= 7). After adding 2 μmol/L TTX, the maximal contraction rate and amplitude of ventricular myocytes decreased to (-0.86 ± 0.24) μm/s and (0.09 ±0.03) um(P< 0.01, n = 7) respectively. And the baseline of calcium transients reduced to (1.17 ± 0.09) (P < 0.05, n = 7). VER (20 μmol/L) could extend action potential duration at 50% repolarization (APD50) and at 90% repolarization (APD90) in

  18. Potential alternative approaches to xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Lisha; Chen, Fengjiao; Dai, Yifan; Cai, Zhiming; Cooper, David K C

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing worldwide shortage of organs and cells for transplantation in patients with end-stage organ failure or cellular dysfunction. This shortage could be resolved by the transplantation of organs or cells from pigs into humans. What competing approaches might provide support for the patient with end-stage organ or cell failure? Four main approaches are receiving increasing attention - (i) implantable mechanical devices, although these are currently limited almost entirely to devices aimed at supporting or replacing the heart, (ii) stem cell technology, at present directed mainly to replace absent or failing cells, but which is also fundamental to progress in (iii) tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in which the ultimate aim is to replace an entire organ. A final novel potential approach is (iv) blastocyst complementation. These potential alternative approaches are briefly reviewed, and comments added on their current status and whether they are now (or will soon become) realistic alternative therapies to xenotransplantation.

  19. Graphical Potential Games

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Luis E.

    2015-01-01

    Potential games, originally introduced in the early 1990's by Lloyd Shapley, the 2012 Nobel Laureate in Economics, and his colleague Dov Monderer, are a very important class of models in game theory. They have special properties such as the existence of Nash equilibria in pure strategies. This note introduces graphical versions of potential games. Special cases of graphical potential games have already found applicability in many areas of science and engineering beyond economics, including ar...

  20. Market Potential and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on the long-term impact of market potential on economic development. It derives from the New Economic Geography literature a structural estimation where the level of factors' income of a country is related to its export capacity, labelled Market Access (MA) by Redding and Venables (2004), or Real Market Potential (RMP) by Head and Mayer (2004). The empirical part evaluates this market potential for all countries in the world with available trade data over the 1960...

  1. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162977.html High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide And health risks may appear even ... of people around the world with elevated or high blood pressure increases, so do the number of deaths linked ...

  2. Does residual force enhancement increase with increasing stretch magnitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisey, Brandon; Leonard, Tim R; Herzog, Walter

    2009-07-22

    It is generally accepted that force enhancement in skeletal muscles increases with increasing stretch magnitudes. However, this property has not been tested across supra-physiological stretch magnitudes and different muscle lengths, thus it is not known whether this is a generic property of skeletal muscle, or merely a property that holds for small stretch magnitudes within the physiological range. Six cat soleus muscles were actively stretched with magnitudes varying from 3 to 24 mm at three different parts of the force-length relationship to test the hypothesis that force enhancement increases with increasing stretch magnitude, independent of muscle length. Residual force enhancement increased consistently with stretch amplitudes on the descending limb of the force-length relationship up to a threshold value, after which it reached a plateau. Force enhancement did not increase with stretch amplitude on the ascending limb of the force-length relationship. Passive force enhancement was observed for all test conditions, and paralleled the behavior of the residual force enhancement. Force enhancement increased with stretch magnitude when stretching occurred at lengths where there was natural passive force within the muscle. These results suggest that force enhancement does not increase unconditionally with increasing stretch magnitude, as is generally accepted, and that increasing force enhancement with stretch appears to be tightly linked to that part of the force-length relationship where there is naturally occurring passive force.

  3. Human Potential Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Edna J.

    This paper describes the organization and implementation of 16 seminars on the subject of developing the potentials inherent in the individuals involved. The stated goals of this group project for teacher corps interns are: (1) identify and use personal strengths and potential in many areas; (2) understand achievement patterns and the way in which…

  4. Tapping Academic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLamb, L. W.; Lant, Marsha

    1988-01-01

    Twelve low-achieving, high-potential junior high students were involved in a pullout program to improve their academic performance. The students were partially successful in applying strategies they learned for analyzing their potential, building self-esteem, managing time, managing stress, goal setting, and developing individual action plans.…

  5. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings.......This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings....

  6. Increasing tobacco taxes : A cheap tool to increase public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Pieter H. M.; Brouwer, Werner B. F.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Feenstra, Talitha L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have estimated health effects resulting from tobacco tax increases. However, studies on the cost effectiveness of tobacco taxes are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of tobacco tax increases from a health care perspective, explicitly c

  7. Increasing diversity in radiologic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carwile, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Diversity is increasingly important in the radiologic technology workplace. For significant changes to occur in work force diversity, educators must first recruit and retain students from a wide variety of backgrounds. This article examines personality, race and gender as factors affecting career choice and how educators can use these factors to increase diversity in their programs. An overview of the ASRT's efforts to improve diversity within the profession is presented, along with suggestions for developing effective recruitment and retention plans to increase diversity.

  8. Korea's 2015 cigarette tax increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-03-01

    South Korea increased tobacco taxes in 2015 after a 10-year gap. This commentary suggests two lessons for public finance practitioners. Substantive tax increases are crucial to reducing tobacco use; particularly where prices are demonstrably lower and prevalence higher in comparison to other countries ranked similarly on economic development indicators. Second, as a rule of thumb, governments cannot afford to neglect the annual increases that ensure that tobacco taxes do not lose their efficacy over time.

  9. Increasing Access to Special Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Erway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.

  10. Potential theory of radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical method is being developed by which the structure of a radiation field can be predicted by a radiation potential theory, similar to a classical potential theory. The introduction of a scalar potential is justified on the grounds that the spectral intensity vector is irrotational. The vector is also solenoidal in the limits of a radiation field in complete radiative equilibrium or in a vacuum. This method provides an exact, elliptic type equation that will upgrade the accuracy and the efficiency of the current CFD programs required for the prediction of radiation and flow fields. A number of interesting results emerge from the present study. First, a steady state radiation field exhibits an optically modulated inverse square law distribution character. Secondly, the unsteady radiation field is structured with two conjugate scalar potentials. Each is governed by a Klein-Gordon equation with a frictional force and a restoring force. This steady potential field structure and the propagation of radiation potentials are consistent with the well known results of classical electromagnetic theory. The extension of the radiation potential theory for spray combustion and hypersonic flow is also recommended.

  11. DO SLOVENIAN DEALERS USE TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING THEIR TIPS?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In 1996 Michael Lynn introduced the idea that restaurant managers could increase tips for their waiters and thus increase turnover by training the waiters to engage tip-enhancing behaviours. Since then, the list of tip-enhancing behaviours has expanded. Therefore the potential to increase tips is more accessible. The purpose of this paper was to examine how Slovenian dealers use strategies to increase their tips. We tested fourteen techniques to increase tips. The study was carried out am...

  12. Atmospheric hazards: Hail potential heating up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John T.

    2017-07-01

    There is widespread speculation as to whether hailstorms are getting more intense or frequent as the global climate warms. Now research suggests a potential increase in both the mean hail size and frequency of larger hail events over North America.

  13. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes.

  14. RESTAURANT NO. 2: PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'DSR', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 2 (bldg. 504 - Meyrin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase certain prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 30, 2003.

  15. RESTAURANT NO. 3: PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'AVENANCE', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 3 (bldg. 866 - Prévessin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase its prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 2, 2003.

  16. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  17. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  18. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S.

    2015-12-01

    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.

  19. Environmental and Geometrical Conditions to Sustain Crevice Corrosion in Alloy 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, R M; Rodr?guez, M A; Rebak, R B

    2006-11-10

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is highly resistant to localized corrosion. Under aggressive environmental conditions Alloy 22 may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in hot chloride (Cl{sup -}) solutions. The objective of the present work was to explore the environmental and geometrical conditions for crevice corrosion to occur. Electrochemical tests were performed using PCA and prismatic mill annealed Alloy 22 specimens in chloride solutions. Crevice corrosion current density was found to be a function of applied potential. i{sub CREV} values ranged from 40 {micro}A/cm{sup 2} to 20 mA/cm{sup 2}. Such low values of current density explained the absence of pitting corrosion in Alloy 22 at any potential. Decreasing of the effective diffusion distance in a propagating crevice is thought to cause crevice corrosion stifling or repassivation after long anodic polarization. Crevice corrosion breakdown potential is expected to decrease with potential scan rate, approaching repassivation potential for low scan rates. The lowest corrosion potential of Alloy 22 in hydrochloric acid solutions at which active corrosion exists was proposed as the lowest possible repassivation potential for crevice corrosion.

  20. The Hubble effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

  1. Measuring the Managerial Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Gh. Rosca; George Moldoveanu

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes the measurement of managerial and functional capabilities of the organization, as the dimensions of managerial potential, based on the configurative theory and not on the reductionist one. The components of the managerial potential are fulfilled by the capability of building organizational culture, managerial change and defining equity as the proximate type of social responsibility. The components are described in relation with the socio-economic model, useful in the proces...

  2. Accelerating yield potential in soybean: potential targets for biotechnological improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Yendrek, Craig R; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Long, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown legume and provides an important source of protein and oil. Global soybean production and yield per hectare increased steadily over the past century with improved agronomy and development of cultivars suited to a wide range of latitudes. In order to meet the needs of a growing world population without unsustainable expansion of the land area devoted to this crop, yield must increase at a faster rate than at present. Here, the historical basis for the yield gains realized in the past 90 years are examined together with potential metabolic targets for achieving further improvements in yield potential. These targets include improving photosynthetic efficiency, optimizing delivery and utilization of carbon, more efficient nitrogen fixation and altering flower initiation and abortion. Optimization of investment in photosynthetic enzymes, bypassing photorespiratory metabolism, engineering the electron transport chain and engineering a faster recovery from the photoprotected state are different strategies to improve photosynthesis in soybean. These potential improvements in photosynthetic carbon gain will need to be matched by increased carbon and nitrogen transport to developing soybean pods and seeds in order to maximize the benefit. Better understanding of control of carbon and nitrogen transport along with improved knowledge of the regulation of flower initiation and abortion will be needed to optimize sink capacity in soybean. Although few single targets are likely to deliver a quantum leap in yields, biotechnological advances in molecular breeding techniques that allow for alteration of the soybean genome and transcriptome promise significant yield gains. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Employee benefits or wage increase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper comes from a survey done during the years 2007–2009. It focused on employee satisfaction with the provision of employee benefits. The research included 21 companies, 7 companies were from the engineering sector, 7 companies from the food industry, 3 companies represented the budgetary sphere, 3 companies the services sector and one company operates in pharmaceutical industry.The questionnaire survey consisted of 14 questions, including 5 identification-questions. The paper presents results of the questions on dealing with employees’ awareness of employee benefits and on choosing between employees’ preferences of wage increase or increase in value of benefits provided.Employees are informed about all options of providing employee benefits. Only in 3 cases employees stated dissatisfaction with information. This answer was related with the responses to the second monitored question. Employees of these companies preferred pay increases before benefits’ increases. There was no effect of gender of the respondents, neither the influence of the sector of operation, in the preference of increases in wages or in benefits. Exceptions were the employees of companies operating in the financial sector, who preferred employee benefits before a wage increase. It was found that employees of companies who participated in research in 2009, preferred wage increases before the extension of employee benefits, although the value of the net wage increase is lower than the monetary value of benefits increase.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan MSM 6215648904 The Czech economy in the process of integration and globalization, and the development of agricultural sector and the sector of services under the new conditions of the integrated European market.

  4. Increased Science Instrumentation Funding Strengthens Mars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lee D.; Graff, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    As the strategic knowledge gaps mature for the exploration of Mars, Mars sample return (MSR), and Phobos/Deimos missions, one approach that becomes more probable involves smaller science instrumentation and integrated science suites. Recent technological advances provide the foundation for a significant evolution of instrumentation; however, the funding support is currently too small to fully utilize these advances. We propose that an increase in funding for instrumentation development occur in the near-term so that these foundational technologies can be applied. These instruments would directly address the significant knowledge gaps for humans to Mars orbit, humans to the Martian surface, and humans to Phobos/ Deimos. They would also address the topics covered by the Decadal Survey and the Mars scientific goals, objectives, investigations and priorities as stated by the MEPAG. We argue that an increase of science instrumentation funding would be of great benefit to the Mars program as well as the potential for human exploration of the Mars system. If the total non-Earth-related planetary science instrumentation budget were increased 100% it would not add an appreciable amount to the overall NASA budget and would provide the real potential for future breakthroughs. If such an approach were implemented in the near-term, NASA would benefit greatly in terms of science knowledge of the Mars, Phobos/Deimos system, exploration risk mitigation, technology development, and public interest.

  5. Demand for Phenol Increases Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dramatic growth in output By the end of 2006 China's capacity to produce phenol had reached more than 600 thousand t/a. The total output was 523 thousand tons in 2006,an increase of 18.1% over 2005.

  6. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    1973-01-01

    The question examined in this study was as follows: do teachers increase their positive classroom interactive behaviors as a result of training in systematic classroom observation techniques? (Authors/JA)

  7. Demand for SBR Increased Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yiwen

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Rapid consumption growth Consumption of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) in China was 747 thousand tons in 2006, an increase of 21% over 2005, with faster growth than the average rubber consumption growth.

  8. AND INCREASED SMALLHOLDER PRODUCTIVITY IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Increases in agricultural productivity are fundamental to the sustainable development of many African economies .... scientists learn how to manage trees sustainably ... Today there are powerful tools that can be brought to bear on ...

  9. INCREASING RETURN TO SMART CITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Lööf, Hans; Nabavi, Pardis

    2012-01-01

    Increased urbanization, global warming and sustainable growth belong to the major contemporary policy challenges. Today cities are home to more than 50% of the world population, the largest 600 urban centers generate about 60% of global GDP, and the agglomerated areas are responsible for 75% of world carbon emissions. The UN estimates that 70% of the world's growing population will live in cities by 2050. At the same time the world population is expected to increase from 7 billion people to 9...

  10. RESTAURANT NO. 3 : PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2002-01-01

    'AVENANCE', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 3 (bldg. 866 - Prévessin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase its prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 3, 2002. Restaurant Supervisory Committee, tel. 77551

  11. Exploring Increased Productivity Through Employee Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Wayne K., Jr.

    Disengaged employees cost U.S. companies billions of dollars annually in lowered productivity, a cost which has been compounded by the difficult economic situations in the country. The potential for increasing productivity through increased employee engagement was examined in this study. Using personal engagement theory and the theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how the experiences of salaried aerospace employees affected productivity and the financial performance of an organization. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 aerospace employees whose responses were codified and analyzed to identify themes. The analysis indicated that (a) the lived experiences of employees influenced employee engagement, (b) employee engagement affects organizational commitment and performance, and (c) trust and respect and leadership are essential components to keep employees engaged. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that as employee engagement increases so too does organizational performance. The implications for positive social change include new insights for leaders seeking to increase productivity and financial performance, and to support employee engagement for maintaining sustainability, retaining talent, increasing profits, and improving the economy.

  12. Increase in flexibility with latest technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuebi, Michael; Krull, Florian Felix [RWE Technology GmbH, Essen (Germany); Ladwig, Michael [Alstom (Switzerland) AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Flexibility demands on conventional power plants rise to ensure grid stability within a power generation mix with drastically increasing capacities of renewable power generation sources such as wind farms and photovoltaics. In this paper flexibility requirements for a power plant portfolio are discussed. Through selected examples of projects from RWE's current investment programme, comprising around 13 GW of efficient and flexible power plant capacity in Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey and the UK, application of the latest technologies to fulfil flexibility requirements is presented. Further, the potential of smart retrofits in terms of combined flexibility and efficiency gains is illustrated by means of an existing power plant unit retrofit project. (orig.)

  13. Homocysteine increases the risk associated with hyperlipidaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Caroline

    2009-04-01

    The European Concerted Action Project \\'Homocysteine and Vascular Disease\\' showed that an elevated homocysteine is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and particularly when combined with other factors such as smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential interactions between homocysteine and individual lipid subfractions. In addition, it was hypothesized that HDL cholesterol may protect against hyperhomocysteinaemia because HDL cholesterol is associated with the enzyme paroxonase, which reduces oxidization of homocysteine to the harmful metabolite, homocysteine thiolactonase.

  14. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  15. Benefits of increasing plant diversity in sustainable agroecosystems