WorldWideScience

Sample records for reparative reserve due

  1. Tragic katharsis and reparation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Strauss

    the nature of katharsis; I shall then turn my attention to Segal's discussion of .... and the traditional readings are modelled on some type of cleansing, medical ... tuous people who need no correction or cure; thus the function and nature of ..... think of reparation as the activity of trying to fix or repair what is broken or impaired.

  2. Reparable Key Distribution Protocols for Internet Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It has claimed that any practical way to achieve perfect reparability for key distribution protocol (KDP) could only be futile. Fortunately, this paper presents reparable KDPs for internet environments with the use of the concept of timestamps.

  3. [New stimulants of corneal reparative regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, E A; Kalinin, N I; Kiiasov, A P

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of corneregel, a drug containing pantothenic acid, a component of coenzyme A, in healing of corneal wounds has been evaluated. The study was carried out on 19 rabbits (38 eyes) with standard corneal defect made with a 5-mm trephine for lamellar transplantation of the cornea, divided into 2 groups: 1) instillations of corneregel (10 eyes) and 0.25% levomycetin solution (10 eyes) and 2) 20% solcoseryl gel (9 eyes) and 0.25% levomycetin (9 eyes). Time course of changes were evaluated by biomicroscopy (fluorescent test), histologically (hematoxylin-eosin staining), and immunohistochemically after 1, 2, 4, 7, 30, and 90 days. Proliferative activity was studied by expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the migration capacity of cells by expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin. The terms of epithelialization were as follows: corneregel 10 +/- 7 h, 20% solcoseryl gel 108 +/- 10 h, levomycetin 124 +/- 6.93 h. Earlier epithelialization in the corneregel group was apparently due to increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and increase in the cell migration capacity. Hence, corneregel is recommended for practical use as a stimulant of reparative regeneration of the cornea.

  4. Reparative neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia: Clinical application prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    At the present time two main approaches are in the focus of neurobiological studies of brain recovery after a stroke. One of them is concerned with the infusion of stem cells in damaged brain. The second approach is directed at the stimulation of endogenous reparative processes, in particular, adult neurogenesis. This review considers alterations of adult neurogenesis caused by cerebral ischemia and possible pathways of its regulation. Multiple studies on animal models have shown that adult neurogenesis is mostly increased by cerebral ischemia. In spite of increasing proliferation and moving neural progenitors to infarct zone, most newborn neurons die before reaching maturity. Besides, an increase of neurogenesis in pathological conditions is mainly due to recruitment of new stem cells, but not due to an additional precursor-cells division that results in an overall decline of the regeneration capacity. Thus, the endogenous reparative mechanisms are not sufficient, and the search for new targets to promote proliferation, survival, and maturation of new neurons after a stroke is needed. Neurotransmitter systems and anti-inflammatory drugs are considered as potential regulators of post-ischemic neurogenesis growth factors.

  5. Reparative neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia: Clinical application prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu., E-mail: khodanovich@mail.tsu.ru [Tomsk State University, Research Institute of Biology and Biophysics, Laboratory of Neurobiology (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    At the present time two main approaches are in the focus of neurobiological studies of brain recovery after a stroke. One of them is concerned with the infusion of stem cells in damaged brain. The second approach is directed at the stimulation of endogenous reparative processes, in particular, adult neurogenesis. This review considers alterations of adult neurogenesis caused by cerebral ischemia and possible pathways of its regulation. Multiple studies on animal models have shown that adult neurogenesis is mostly increased by cerebral ischemia. In spite of increasing proliferation and moving neural progenitors to infarct zone, most newborn neurons die before reaching maturity. Besides, an increase of neurogenesis in pathological conditions is mainly due to recruitment of new stem cells, but not due to an additional precursor-cells division that results in an overall decline of the regeneration capacity. Thus, the endogenous reparative mechanisms are not sufficient, and the search for new targets to promote proliferation, survival, and maturation of new neurons after a stroke is needed. Neurotransmitter systems and anti-inflammatory drugs are considered as potential regulators of post-ischemic neurogenesis growth factors.

  6. Traumatic fistula:the case for reparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arletty Pinel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a conflict strategy, women are often sexually assaulted using sticks, guns, branches of trees and bottles. Women’s genitals are deliberately destroyed, some permanently. Traumatic fistula often results. As with victims of torture and other grave human rights abuses, there exists an obligation to restore the women to health as far as possible and to provide reparation for their violations.

  7. Silver Nanocluster Reparative Effect in Hernioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Anichkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The acceleration of re-epithelialization and fibroblast differentiation were noted during the experiments with silver nanoclusters (SNs by interrupting the negative development of inflammation at the level of cytokines and promoting a positive course of reparative processes. The aim of this work was to elaborate the experimental model of prosthesis hernioplasty in subcutaneous and intraperitoneal locations of hernioprostheses with SNs, which allowed us to study the course of reparative reactions in all layers of the anterior abdominal wall. Material and Methods: We used a modified hernioprosthesis made from polyester fibers coated with a metal-polymer composition, including the stabilized SN in a concentration of 6.8 and 11.3 mg per 1 g of the hernioprosthesis mesh. During this research we used guinea pigs to study the in vivo tissue reactions. The clinical part of the study included the group of 212 patients who underwent removal of an inguinal hernia. We have identified various factors associated with infectious and toxic effects on the body by determining the level of the serum glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (SGPT. Results: In implantation of the hernioprostheses, including the high concentration of SN in the laparotomy wound, the exudative component of the inflammation was weakly expressed. It was mostly the proliferative changes that took place. We did not find either CD8-positive type T lymphocytes or PAX5-positive type B activated cells in the exudate. Conclusion: Our research has shown that the use of hernioprostheses that include silver nanoclusters leads to the reduction of inflammation in the exudative phase and to a more favorable course of reparative processes.

  8. Gross human rights violations and reparation under international law: approaching rehabilitation as a form of reparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveaass, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of international criminal law through an increased focus on the right to reparation and rehabilitation for victims of crimes against humanity represents an important challenge to health professionals, particularly to those in the field of trauma research and treatment. A brief outline of some developments in the field of international law and justice for victims of gross human rights violations is presented, with a focus on the right to reparation including the means for rehabilitation. The fulfillment of this right is a complex endeavor which raises many questions. The road to justice and reparation for those whose rights have been brutally violated is long and burdensome. The active presence of trauma-informed health professionals in this process is a priority. Some of the issues raised within the context of states' obligations to provide and ensure redress and rehabilitation to those subjected to torture and gross human rights violations are discussed, and in particular how rehabilitation can be understood and responded to by health professionals.

  9. 17 CFR 12.407 - Satisfaction of reparation award; enforcement; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Satisfaction of reparation... Satisfaction of reparation award; enforcement; sanctions. (a) Satisfaction of reparation award—(1) Where... satisfaction of an award (as prescribed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section) expires, file with...

  10. Role of stem/progenitor cells in reparative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pretheeban Thavaneetharajah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adult stem cells are activated to proliferate and differentiate during normal tissue homeostasis as well as in disease states and injury. This activation is a vital component in the restoration of function to damaged tissue via either complete or partial regeneration. When regeneration does not fully occur, reparative processes involving an overproduction of stromal components ensure the continuity of tissue at the expense of its normal structure and function, resulting in a “reparative disorder”. Adult stem cells from multiple organs have been identified as being involved in this process and their role in tissue repair is being investigated. Evidence for the participation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs in the tissue repair process across multiple tissues is overwhelming and their role in reparative disorders is clearly demonstrated, as is the involvement of a number of specific signaling pathways. Transforming growth factor beta, bone morphogenic protein and Wnt pathways interact to form a complex signaling network that is critical in regulating the fate choices of both stromal and tissue-specific resident stem cells (TSCs, determining whether functional regeneration or the formation of scar tissue follows an injury. A growing understanding of both TSCs, MSCs and the complex cascade of signals regulating both cell populations have, therefore, emerged as potential therapeutic targets to treat reparative disorders. This review focuses on recent advances on the role of these cells in skeletal muscle, heart and lung tissues.

  11. Reparations for U.S. war crimes against Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corlett Angelo J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the basic tenets of just war theory and those of United States law regarding compensatory justice, it is argued that the U.S. invasion of Iraq from 2003-present is morally unjust and that the U.S. owes substantial reparations to Iraq.

  12. Absence of exercise-induced leptin suppression associated with insufficient epinephrine reserve in patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riepe, F.G.; Krone, N.; Kruger, S.N.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Dotsch, J.; Monig, H.; Sippell, W.G.; Partsch, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency suffer from glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. They have insufficient epinephrine reserves and increased basal leptin levels and are often insulin resistant. In healthy subjects, an inhibitor

  13. THINKING PAST RIGHTS: TOWARDS FEMINIST THEORIES OF REPARATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Renard Painter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The notion of reparations encompasses debates about the relationship between individual and society, the nature of political community, the meaning of justice, and the impact of rights on social change. In international law, the dominant approach to reparations is based on individual rights. This normative framework is out of step with the understanding of reparations circulating among many women activists. I develop a theoretical approach to justice and reparations that helps to explain the gap between the international normative framework and activist discourses. Based on distributive, communitarian, and critical theories of justice, I argue that reparations can be thought of as rights, symbols, or processes. Understanding reparations as either rights or symbols is rife with problems when approached from an activist and feminist theoretical standpoint. As decisions about reparations programs are and should be determined by the political, social, economic, and cultural context, a blueprint for ‘a feminist reparations program’ is impractical and ill-advised. However, the strongest feminist approach to reparations would depart from an understanding of reparations as a process. La notion de réparations tient compte des relations entre l’individu et la société, de la nature du politique, de la signification de la justice et de l’incidence des droits dans le changement social. En droit international, l’idée dominante à cet égard est fondée sur les droits individuels. Ce cadre normatif est en décalage avec l’idée que de nombreuses militantes se font des réparations. J’ai élaboré une façon théorique de voir la justice et les réparations qui aide à expliquer l’écart entre le cadre normatif international et le discours militant. Selon cette approche fondée sur des théories distributives, communautaires et critiques de la justice, j’affirme que les réparations peuvent être vues comme des droits, des symboles ou des

  14. OPTIMIZATION RESULTS OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR REPARATIVE REGENERATION BY NITINOL MATRICES (Experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Dyuryagin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Through the experiments on animals, mandibular fragments reparative regeneration and osteohistogenesis in the post-resection period using different ways of their optimization by artifi cial nitinol matrices were investigated.Materials and methods. Rabbits (two groups were subjected to similar resections of mandibular right branch fragments with articular head exarticulation. In the fi rst group (n = 10 extrafocal matrix structures placement option towards regeneration foci (sagittal dislocation was used, in the second one (n = 10 intrafocal matrix bone and periosteum nitinol constructions placement option was used.Results. In the fi rst group, the following reconstructive results were received: organ-like osteogenic regenerates fully displaced mandibular defects in 12 months. In the second group reconstructive results were the following: tissue-engineered composites fully displaced mandibular defects in 3 months. Biological, biometric, radiological, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric, statistical methods were used to evaluate the results.Conclusion. Reparative regeneration and osteohistogenesis at extrafocal placement of artifi cial matrix structures are able to reconstruct independently mandibular fragments due to natural regeneration. Reparative regeneration and osteohistogenesis at intrafocal placement of artifi cial matrix structures are able to reconstruct independently mandibular fragments due to bone and periosteum tissue-engineered composites forming. Four-fold advantage of mandibular reconstruction dynamics by tissue-engineered composites being equal in functional effi ciency with natural regeneration results testifi es to their availability for usage in clinical practice.

  15. Massive trauma and the healing role of reparative justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Yael

    2009-10-01

    In this article, the author focuses on victims/survivors' experiences of justice processes after massive trauma. Reparative justice insists that every step throughout the justice experience--from the first moment of the court's encounter with a potential witness, to the follow-up of witnesses after their return home, to the aftermath of the completion of the case--presents an opportunity for redress and healing. Conversely, this experience may present a risk of missing opportunities for healing and reintegrating victims into their societies, or, worse, (re)victimizing and (re)traumatizing them. Although restitution, rehabilitation, or compensation may come only after this process has concluded, opportunities exist throughout. Although not sufficient in itself, reparative justice is a necessary component among the healing processes after massive trauma. Copyright © 2009 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  16. Children and Reparation: Past lessons and new directions

    OpenAIRE

    Dyan Mazurana; Khristopher Carlson

    2010-01-01

    This paper is among the first to analyse children's experiences of reparations programmes, taking into consideration programmes from Africa, Asia and Latin America. The violence, abuse and hardship that girls and boys suffer during armed conflict and political violence under authoritarian and dictatorial regimes continues to severely affect their development long after the end of war or demise of the violent regime. They experience violations of their civil, political, social, economic and cu...

  17. Reparative giant cell granuloma in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Ruiz, Blanca; Riba García, Francisco de Asís; Navarro Cuéllar, Carlos; Bucci, Tommaso; Cuesta Gil, Matías; Navarro Vila, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Reparative giant cell granulomas are benign, infrequent tumors, of non-odontogenic origin, that develop at central or peripheral level. Peripherally located lesions are frequently denominated "giant cell epulis", and never correspond to true neoplasia, but rather to inflammatory reactions secondary to another lesion (hemorrhage, etc.). It should be taken into account, that in general, head and neck tumors of infancy usually demonstrate an atypical biological behaviour. Furthermore, the anatomicopathologic diagnosis is often compromised in this type of lesion. We present the case of a 6-year-old boy, who, three weeks after suffering a slight facial trauma, developed a painless, exophytic swelling of approximately 4 cm, with bleeding on palpation, in the ipsilateral hemimaxilla. The lesion demonstrated rapid, progressive and continuous growth. The facial CT and incisional biopsy confirmed the suspected diagnosis of reparative giant cell granuloma. The patient was surgically treated, carrying out a left marginal maxillectomy associated with the extirpation of the soft-tissue lesion. The resultant defect was reconstructed with a Bichat fat-pad providing the patient with optimal esthetic and functional results. The definitive anatomicopathologic report of the surgical piece is compatible with reparative giant cell granuloma.

  18. Evaluation of myocardial blood flow reserve in patients with chronic congestive heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Menahem; Akhter, Mohammed W; Lerman, Amir; Karaalp, Ilyas S; Zell, Jason A; Singh, Harpreet; Mehra, Anilkumar; Elkayam, Uri

    2003-11-15

    This study demonstrates a significant impairment in coronary blood flow reserve in most patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy despite normal epicardial coronary arteries. This change may prevent appropriate increases in coronary blood flow and thus lead to myocardial ischemia and progression of disease. An association between decreased response to adenosine and acetylcholine supports previous observations indicating that adenosine-induced vasodilation of coronary microcirculation is dependent on endothelial nitric oxide production.

  19. Giant cell reparative granuloma in soft tissue of foot: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gyeong Min; Lee, Jihae; Kang, Mijin; Lee, Han Bee; Bae, Kyung Eun; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Hyun Jung [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Giant cell reparative granuloma is a benign reactive process following intraosseous hemorrhage rather than a true tumor. This lesion most commonly affects the maxilla and mandible, followed by phalanges, hands, and feet. Local invasion of surrounding soft tissue is a typical feature of giant cell reparative granuloma in the bones of the upper and lower limbs. We present the rare case of giant cell reparative granuloma arising from soft tissue of the foot without erosion or engulfing of the adjacent bone.

  20. Tomographic Evaluation of Reparative Dentin Formation after Direct Pulp Capping with Ca(OH)2, MTA, Biodentine, and Dentin Bonding System in Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Alicja; Wilk, Grażyna; Lipski, Mariusz; Kołecki, Janusz; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2015-08-01

    New materials can increase the efficiency of pulp capping through the formation of a complete reparative dentin bridge with no toxic effects. The present study involved tomographic evaluations of reparative dentin bridge formation after direct pulp capping with calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fossés, France), and Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) in human teeth. Forty-four caries-free, intact, human third molars scheduled for extraction were subjected to mechanical pulp exposure and assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups depending on the pulp capping agent used: calcium hydroxide, MTA, Biodentine, or Single Bond Universal. After 6 weeks, the teeth were extracted and processed for cone-beam computed tomographic imaging and histologic examination. Tomographic data, including the density and volume of formed reparative dentin bridges, were evaluated using a scoring system. The reparative dentin formed in the calcium hydroxide, MTA, and Biodentine groups was significantly superior to that formed in the Single Bond Universal group in terms of thickness and volume. The dentin bridges in the Biodentine group showed the highest average and maximum volumes. The mean density of dentin bridges was the highest in the MTA group and the lowest in the Single Bond Universal group. The volume of reparative dentin bridges formed after direct pulp capping is dependent on the material used. Biodentine and MTA resulted in the formation of bridges with a significantly higher average volume compared with Single Bond Universal, and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging allowed for the identification of the location of dentin bridges. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro reparative dentin: a biochemical and morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Teti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, starting from human dental pulp cells cultured in vitro, we simulated reparative dentinogenesis using a medium supplemented with different odontogenic inductors. The differentiation of dental pulp cells in odontoblast-like cells was evaluated by means of staining, and ultramorphological, biochemical and biomolecular methods. Alizarin red staining showed mineral deposition while transmission electron microscopy revealed a  synthesis of extracellular matrix fibers during the differentiation process. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the differentiated phenotype expressed odontoblast markers, such as Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1 and Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP, as well as type I collagen. Quantitative data regarding the mRNA expression of DMP1, DSP and type I  collagen were obtained by Real Time PCR. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated the various localizations of DSP and DMP1 during odontoblast differentiation. Based on our results, we obtained odontoblast-like cells which simulated the reparative dentin processes in order to better investigate the mechanism of odontoblast differentiation, and dentin extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization. 

  2. How Finnish Upper Secondary Students Conceive Transgenerational Responsibility and Historical Reparations: Implications for the History Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfström, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses how Finnish upper secondary school students ponder upon the questions of transgenerational responsibility and historical reparation. These questions have got a prominent place in the history culture in many societies in the last 20 years. The philosophical and political dimensions of reparations for historical injustices have…

  3. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the occipital bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Briz, A.; Ricoy, J.R.; Martinez-Tello, F.J. [Department of Anatomical Pathology, Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , Madrid (Spain); Lobato, R.D. [Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , Madrid (Spain); Ramos, A.; Millan, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , Madrid (Spain); Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Departamento de Anatomia Patologica, Avda. de Andalucia s/n, Madrid 28041 (Spain)

    2003-03-01

    Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is a non-neoplastic fibrous lesion with unevenly distributed multinucleated giant cells, areas of osseous metaplasia and hemorrhage. The small bones of the hands and feet are the most common sites, followed by the vertebral bodies and craniofacial bones. In the craniofacial bones GCRG has been reported in the temporal bone, in the frontal bone and paranasal sinus. However, to the best of our knowledge no case has been reported in the occipital bone. We report on the imaging findings and pathological features of a GCRG of the occipital bone and discuss the differential diagnosis of this entity in this particular location, especially with giant cell tumor because of the therapeutic and prognostic implications. (orig.)

  4. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the hallux following enchondroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoun, Khaled; Sellami, Tarak; Jlailia, Zied; Abid, Layla; Jenzri, Mourad; Bouaziz, Mouna; Zouar, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is a rare, benign intra osseous lytic lesion occurring especially in gnathis bone but also seen in feet and hands. It has similar clinical and radiological presentations than giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, and hyperparathyroidism brown tumors but with specific histological findings We report a case of a GCRG of hallux phalanx in 18 years old patient appearing many years after enchondroma curettage and grafting. Radiographs showed a multiloculated osteolytic lesions involving whole phalanx with cortical thinning and without fluid-fluid levels in CT view. Expected to be an enchondroma recurrence, second biopsy confirmed diagnosis of GCRG with specific histological findings. Although if aetiopathogeny remains unknown, GCRG is reported to be a local non neoplasic reaction to an intraosseous hemorrhage. Our exceptional case claims that this tumor can appear in reaction to cellular disturbance primary or secondary. PMID:26985281

  5. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the sphenoid bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralasmak, A; Aygun, N; Westra, W H; Yousem, D M

    2006-09-01

    We present 2 patients with giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) of the sphenoid bone. The first patient is an 8-year-old boy with involvement of the greater wing, and the second is a 53- year-old man with a lateral pterygoid plate mass. Both patients presented with rapid expansion of lytic bone lesions, which had solid and cystic components and lacked matrix calcification. Biopsies were indeterminate for definitive diagnoses. The radiologic appearance, location, and incidence of the lesions, and the patient's age and medical history are helpful aids in narrowing the differential diagnosis of sphenoid bone lesions. However, the imaging and, occasionally, even the histologic findings may not suggest the specific diagnosis of GCRG, which must be added into the differential diagnosis of rapidly enlarging cystic bone lesions of the sphenoid bone.

  6. Dictatorships, refugees and reparation in the Southern Cone of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Terminiello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the return of democracy to Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay there has been particular recognition of forced displacement within the framework of reparations for the abuses suffered under dictatorial governments.

  7. Simulation of the spatial stresses due to territorial land development on Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve using a GIS-based assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baolei; Zhang, Qiaoyun; Feng, Qingyu; Cui, Bohao; Zhang, Shumin

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the stresses from land development in or around Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR) and identifying the impacted areas. Major land development types (reservoirs, pond, aquafarm, salt pan, road, residential land, industry land, farming land, and fishing land) in or around the YRDNR from 1995 to 2014 were identified using spatial data sets derived from remote sensing imageries. The spatial stresses were simulated by considering disturbance due to land development activities and accessibility of disturbance using a geographic information system based model. The stresses were then used to identify the impacted area by land development (IALD). The results indicated that main increasing land development types in the study area from 1995 to 2014 were salt pan and construction land. The 98.2% of expanded land development area and 93.7% of increased pump number showed a good control of reserve function zone on land development spread. The spatial stress values and percentages of IALD increased from 1995 to 2014, and IALD percentage exceeded 50% for both parts of YRDNR in 2014. The results of this study also provided the information that detailed planning of the YRDNR (2014-2020) could decrease the spatial stress and IALD percentage of the whole YRDNR on the condition that the area of land development activities increased by 24.4 km(2) from 2014 to 2020. Effective measures should be taken to protect such areas from being further disturbed in order to achieve the goal of a more effective conservation of the YRDNR, and attention should be paid to the disordered land development activities in or around the natural reserves.

  8. Induction of Reparative Dentin Formation on Exposed Dental Pulp by Dentin Phosphophoryn/Collagen Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Koike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of vital pulp therapy is to regenerate rapidly dentin possessing an excellent quality using a biocompatible, bioactive agent. Dentin phosphophoryn (DPP, the most abundant noncollagenous polyanionic protein in dentin, cross-linked to atelocollagen fibrils was applied to direct pulp capping in rats. After 1, 2, and 3 weeks, the teeth applied were examined on the induction of reparative dentin formation and the response of pulp tissue, compared to calcium hydroxide-based agent conventionally used. The reparative dentin formation induced by DPP/collagen composite was more rapid than by calcium hydroxide. In the morphometrical analysis, the formation rate of reparative dentin by DPP/collagen composite was approximately the same as that by calcium hydroxide at 3 weeks. Nevertheless, the compactness of reparative dentin formed by DPP/collagen composite was much superior to what resulted from calcium hydroxide. Also, DPP/collagen composite showed high covering ability of exposed pulp. Moreover, DPP/collagen composite led only to slight pulp inflammation at the beginning whereas calcium hydroxide formed necrotic layer adjacent to the material and induced severe inflammation in pulp tissue at 1 week. The present study demonstrates a potential for DPP/collagen composite as a rapid biocompatible inducer for the formation of reparative dentin of excellent quality in rats.

  9. [Effect of weightlessness on the course of the reparative process in the muscles of the biosatellite Kosmos-2044 rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ina-Kakueva, E I; Burkovskaia, T E

    1991-01-01

    The repair process in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of SPF Wistar rats flown for 14 days on the biosatellite Cosmos-2044 was investigated. The muscles were injured 2 days before launch by means of clamp forceps. The exposure inhibited the process but did not impair its phasic development. As a result, the reparative field diminished and took the size of an atrophic muscle; thinner myofibers appeared that originated from the ends of injured atrophic fibers and fibers that underwent splitting. It is postulated that repair inhibition is caused by the same mechanisms that produce muscle atrophy in microgravity. It is suggested that both repair inhibition and muscle atrophy are induced by disorders in the neurotrophic regulation of metabolism due to partial disuse.

  10. [The effect of the biopolymer chondroitin sulfate on reparative regeneration of connective tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, S V; Norkin, I A; Puchinyan, D M

    2015-01-01

    The research objective is a study of an intra-articular method of introduction of the preparation "mukosat" for stimulation of reparative regeneration of connective tissue of knee joints in rabbits with an experimental arthritis. It is ascertained that intra-articular maintenance of chondroitin sulfate (the preparation "mukosat") acts as a stimulus for reparative regeneration of connective tissue thus showing up positive changes in the status of connective tissue elements of joints: decrease in glycosaminoglycan content in blood serum and normalization of the composition of glycosaminoglycan carbohydrate component. It probably depends on stimulation of biosynthesis of autologous normal glycosaminoglycans in tissues of animal knee joints.

  11. [Rational (injection) of calcitonin for stimulation of the mandibular reparative regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyrkov, M B

    2011-01-01

    This investigation permit to detect, that first resorption stage of the mandible reparative regeneration terminats after fracture 5 days later. Calcitonine injection during 5 days after fracture i.e. in paratiroid hormone dependent stage distorts normal reparative process. Rats with traumatic osteomielitis become 1.5 times more and rats with normal regeneration become 3 times less. Injection calcitonine in KT-dependent stage, i.e. in 6-11 days after fracture increases quantity of rats with normal regeneration in 7 times and decreases quantity animals with traumatic osteomielitis on 50%. There's recommendation to inject KT from 6 days after trauma.

  12. Imbalances in Mobilization and Activation of Pro-Inflammatory and Vascular Reparative Bone Marrow-Derived Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Harshini; Beli, Eleni; Navitskaya, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Sandra; Wang, Qi; Kady, Nermin; Huang, Chao; Grant, Maria B; Busik, Julia V

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes, affecting 65% of patients after 10 years of the disease. Diabetic metabolic insult leads to chronic low-grade inflammation, retinal endothelial cell loss and inadequate vascular repair. This is partly due to bone marrow (BM) pathology leading to increased activity of BM-derived pro-inflammatory monocytes and impaired function of BM-derived reparative circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). We propose that diabetes has a significant long-term effect on the nature and proportion of BM-derived cells that circulate in the blood, localize to the retina and home back to their BM niche. Using a streptozotocin mouse model of diabetic retinopathy with GFP BM-transplantation, we have demonstrated that BM-derived circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes are increased in diabetes while reparative CACs are trapped in the BM and spleen, with impaired release into circulation. Diabetes also alters activation of splenocytes and BM-derived dendritic cells in response to LPS stimulation. A majority of the BM-derived GFP cells that migrate to the retina express microglial markers, while others express endothelial, pericyte and Müller cell markers. Diabetes significantly increases infiltration of BM-derived microglia in an activated state, while reducing infiltration of BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells in the retina. Further, control CACs injected into the vitreous are very efficient at migrating back to their BM niche, whereas diabetic CACs have lost this ability, indicating that the in vivo homing efficiency of diabetic CACs is dramatically decreased. Moreover, diabetes causes a significant reduction in expression of specific integrins regulating CAC migration. Collectively, these findings indicate that BM pathology in diabetes could play a role in both increased pro-inflammatory state and inadequate vascular repair contributing to diabetic retinopathy.

  13. Imbalances in Mobilization and Activation of Pro-Inflammatory and Vascular Reparative Bone Marrow-Derived Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshini Chakravarthy

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes, affecting 65% of patients after 10 years of the disease. Diabetic metabolic insult leads to chronic low-grade inflammation, retinal endothelial cell loss and inadequate vascular repair. This is partly due to bone marrow (BM pathology leading to increased activity of BM-derived pro-inflammatory monocytes and impaired function of BM-derived reparative circulating angiogenic cells (CACs. We propose that diabetes has a significant long-term effect on the nature and proportion of BM-derived cells that circulate in the blood, localize to the retina and home back to their BM niche. Using a streptozotocin mouse model of diabetic retinopathy with GFP BM-transplantation, we have demonstrated that BM-derived circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes are increased in diabetes while reparative CACs are trapped in the BM and spleen, with impaired release into circulation. Diabetes also alters activation of splenocytes and BM-derived dendritic cells in response to LPS stimulation. A majority of the BM-derived GFP cells that migrate to the retina express microglial markers, while others express endothelial, pericyte and Müller cell markers. Diabetes significantly increases infiltration of BM-derived microglia in an activated state, while reducing infiltration of BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells in the retina. Further, control CACs injected into the vitreous are very efficient at migrating back to their BM niche, whereas diabetic CACs have lost this ability, indicating that the in vivo homing efficiency of diabetic CACs is dramatically decreased. Moreover, diabetes causes a significant reduction in expression of specific integrins regulating CAC migration. Collectively, these findings indicate that BM pathology in diabetes could play a role in both increased pro-inflammatory state and inadequate vascular repair contributing to diabetic retinopathy.

  14. Role of CTGF/CCN2 in reparative dentinogenesis in human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muromachi, Koichiro; Kamio, Naoto; Matsumoto, Takashi; Matsushima, Kiyoshi

    2012-03-01

    Connective tissue growth factor/CCN family 2 (CTGF/CCN2) has been considered to participate in tooth development. To date, the expression and role of CTGF/CCN2 in reparative dentinogenesis have been unclear. Our previous study revealed that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) stimulates cell migration via CTGF/CCN2 expression and secretion in human dental pulp cells, and that this is dependent on dynamin-related endocytosis and independent of protease activity. The objective of the present study was to determine the expression of CTGF/CCN2 in reparative dentin in human carious teeth and to examine the effect of CTGF/CCN2 on mineralization in cultured human dental pulp cells. Minimal expression of CTGF/CCN2 was evident in odontoblasts subjacent to the dentin-pulp junction in healthy teeth, whereas strong expression was detected in odontoblast-like cells lining the reparative dentin subjacent to dental caries. In human dental pulp cells, CTGF/CCN2 promoted mineralization but failed to induce proliferation, suggesting that this molecule has the ability to induce the differentiation of human dental pulp cells. Taken together, the data suggest that CTGF/CCN2 is likely involved in reparative dentinogenesis through formation of hard tissue in human carious teeth.

  15. [Use of mesenchymal stem cells for reparative processes activation in bone jaw tissue in experimental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volozhin, A I; Vasil'ev, A Iu; Malyginov, N N; Bulanova, I M; Grigor''ian, A S; Kiseleva, E V; Cherniaev, S E; Tarasenko, I V

    2010-01-01

    In experiment on 12 Chinchilla rabbits dynamics of reparative regeneration was studied at the terms 2 and 4 months. Bone defect in mandible corner was closed by osteoplastic material Gapkol which was covered from inside by allogenic or autologic stem cells received from rabbit adipose tissue. The results of the ray tracing methods of study were verified by SEM and histological methods.

  16. The Paradoxes of Colonial Reparation: Foreclosing memory and the 2008 Italy-Libya Friendship Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Cesari, C.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores a paradox relating to the highly contested project of compensating for mass crimes perpetrated during the colonial period. It analyses the only postcolonial reparation treaty to be signed to date: the Italy-Libya Friendship Treaty of 2008. While all other former colonial powers

  17. Dehumanization and guilt as distinct but related predictors of support for reparation policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zebel, S.; Zimmermann, A.E.M.; Viki, G.T.; Doosje, B.

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we predicted that support for reparation policies would be influenced positively by feelings of group-based guilt and negatively by dehumanization of the outgroup. We also hypothesized that a valence manipulation of the ingroup’s behavior would cause differences in such support which

  18. A new project for operators qualifying: the REPAR challenge; Um novo projeto para a qualificacao dos operadores: um desafio a ser enfrentado pela REPAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenzer, Acacia Z. [Parana Univ., Curitiba (Brazil)]. E-mail: acaciazk@uol.com.br; Reis, Mario Newton Coelho [PETROBRAS, Araucaria, PR (Brazil). Refinaria Presidente Getulio Vargas. Unidade de Negocios Repar]. E-mail: marioreis@petrobras.com.br

    2003-12-01

    This article presents the competence evaluation development and compensation model that is being implemented by Refinaria Presidente Getulio Vargas (REPAR), through a partnership with the Education Sector of the Universidade Federal do Parana. The project aims to create and implement a program for training and development of process operator competencies, to prepare the refinery and its workers to the new necessities workers in the work world, more precisely, in the petroleum refining industry. After a year and a half of work some results can already be observed, as well as opportunities of project improvement. (author)

  19. Can Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predict the Reparability of Massive Rotator Cuff Tears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Youn; Park, Ji Seon; Rhee, Yong Girl

    2017-06-01

    Numerous studies have shown preoperative fatty infiltration of rotator cuff muscles to be strongly negatively correlated with the successful repair of massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs). To assess the association between factors identified on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially infraspinatus fatty infiltration, and the reparability of massive RCTs. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. We analyzed a total of 105 patients with massive RCTs for whom MRI was performed ≤6 months before arthroscopic procedures. The mean age of the patients was 62.7 years (range, 46-83 years), and 46 were men. Among them, complete repair was possible in 50 patients (48%) and not possible in 55 patients (52%). The tangent sign, fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff, and Patte classification were evaluated as predictors of reparability. Using the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC), the prediction accuracy of each variable and combinations of variables were measured. Reparability was associated with fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus ( P = .0045) and infraspinatus ( P 3 and grade >2, respectively. The examination of single variables revealed that infraspinatus fatty infiltration showed the highest AUC value (0.812; sensitivity: 0.86; specificity: 0.76), while the tangent sign showed the lowest AUC value (0.626; sensitivity: 0.38; specificity: 0.87). Among 2-variable combinations, the combination of infraspinatus fatty infiltration and the Patte classification showed the highest AUC value (0.874; sensitivity: 0.54; specificity: 0.96). The combination of 4 variables, that is, infraspinatus and supraspinatus fatty infiltration, the tangent sign, and the Patte classification, had an AUC of 0.866 (sensitivity: 0.28; specificity: 0.98), which was lower than the highest AUC value (0.874; sensitivity: 0.54; specificity: 0.96) among the 2-variable combinations. The tangent sign or Patte classification alone was not a predictive

  20. Analysis of Historical Materiel Return Program (MRP) Credits at the 1st Marine Logistics Group Reparable Issue Point (RIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    MATERIEL RETURN PROGRAM ( MRP ) CREDITS AT THE 1ST MARINE LOGISTICS GROUP REPARABLE ISSUE POINT (RIP) by Edward M. Caricato John D. Draper...Materiel Return Program ( MRP ) Credits at the 1st Marine Logistics Group Reparable Issue Point (RIP) 6. AUTHOR(S) Edward M. Caricato and John D. Draper...unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Materiel Returns Program ( MRP ) credits have increased 1st Marine

  1. Truck frame welding reparation by steel covered electrodes with varied amount of Ni and Mo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz WĘGRZYN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to study safety and exploitation conditions of weld steel structure reparation of car body truck frames. Car (auto body is the name given to the portion of an automobile which gives it shape. The work is a theoretical investigation and concentrates on structural integrity and vehicle safety after the reparation welding of truck frames. To study the effects of the frame flexibility and resistance, the truck frame has been welded by steel electrodes with varied amount of Ni and Mo. The most significant of factors influencing that conditions are connected with material choice, welding technology, state of stress and temperature. Because of that a good selection of steel and welding method is crucial to obtain proper steel structure. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW is a very popular method of welding used for car body reparation. Car body elements of higher durability are made of low carbon and low alloy steel, very often with small amount of carbon and the amount of alloy elements such as Ni, Mn, Mo, Cr, Ti, Al, V in low alloy steel and their welds. In the paper only the influence of the variable amounts of nickel, molybdenum on impact and fatigue properties of low alloy metal weld deposit was tested. The results show that there is good agreement between proper chemical composition of weld metal deposit (WMD and truck structure properties.

  2. Chixoy Dam Legacies: The Struggle to Secure Reparation and the Right to Remedy in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rose Johnston

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams brought global attention to the adverse costs of large dam development, including the disproportionate displacement of indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities and the extreme impoverishment of development refugees. The WCD recommended that governments, industry and financial institutions accept responsibility for flawed development and make proper reparation, including remedial activities such as the restoration of livelihood and land compensation for relocated communities. One exemplary case cited is Guatemala’s Chixoy dam. Completed in 1982, this internationally financed dam was built during a time when military dictatorships deployed policies of state-sponsored violence against a Mayan citizenry. Construction occurred without a resettlement plan, and forced displacement occurred through violence and massacre. This paper describes an attempt to implement WCD reparation recommendations in a context where no political will existed. To clarify events, abuses and meaningful remedy, an independent assessment process was established in 2003, auditing the development record, assessing consequential damages and facilitating the community articulation of histories and needs. The resulting 2005 study played a key role in reparation negotiations. The Chixoy case illustrates some of the more profound impacts of the WCD review. The WCD served as a catalyst in social movement formation and a force that expanded rights-protective space for dam-affected communities to negotiate an equitable involvement in development.

  3. The influence of an opioid on the course of reparative processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateshuk-Vatseba Lesya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our work is to examine the influence of prolonged administration of an opioid, on the course of the reparative process of a multiple post-injection wound inflicted upon a white rat’s skin, doing so by way of using light microscopy. The studies were carried out on 24 mature white male rats, aged 4.5-7.5 months, with weights of 130-150 g. For histological examination, the skin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The preparations were studied and photographed at the magnification of ob.х8, ey.x15 and ob.x40, ey.x10. The «Aver Media» computer system was employed for micropreparations photography. The set levels of light microscopy reveal that the administration of an opioid for a 2 week period does not affect the reparative process of a multiple post-injection wound. Moreover, in most wound canals, the formation of a complete regenerate can be seen. However, after 4 weeks of nalbufin administration, the processes of wound healing slowed and were complicated by the formation of microabscesses. After 6 weeks of opioid administration, destructive changes in the skin were detected. These, in turn, led to the incomplete regenerate formation in the multiple postinjection wound. The experimental results, hence, show the negative effect of prolonged administration of opioid on the reparative processes in the skin.

  4. Carriers of loss-of-function mutations in EXT display impaired pancreatic beta-cell reserve due to smaller pancreas volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie J Bernelot Moens

    Full Text Available Exotosin (EXT proteins are involved in the chain elongation step of heparan sulfate (HS biosynthesis, which is intricately involved in organ development. Loss of function mutations (LOF in EXT1 and EXT2 result in hereditary exostoses (HME. Interestingly, HS plays a role in pancreas development and beta-cell function, and genetic variations in EXT2 are associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that loss of function of EXT1 or EXT2 in subjects with hereditary multiple exostoses (HME affects pancreatic insulin secretion capacity and development. We performed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT followed by hyperglycemic clamps to investigate first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS in HME patients and age and gender matched non-affected relatives. Pancreas volume was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. OGTT did not reveal significant differences in glucose disposal, but there was a markedly lower GSIS in HME subjects during hyperglycemic clamp (iAUC HME: 0.72 [0.46-1.16] vs. controls 1.53 [0.69-3.36] nmol·l-1·min-1, p<0.05. Maximal insulin response following arginine challenge was also significantly attenuated (iAUC HME: 7.14 [4.22-10.5] vs. controls 10.2 [7.91-12.70] nmol·l-1·min-1 p<0.05, indicative of an impaired beta-cell reserve. MRI revealed a significantly smaller pancreatic volume in HME subjects (HME: 72.0±15.8 vs. controls 96.5±26.0 cm3 p = 0.04. In conclusion, loss of function of EXT proteins may affect beta-cell mass and insulin secretion capacity in humans, and render subjects at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes when exposed to environmental risk factors.

  5. Diabetes mellitus and reparative response of dental pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić, Jugoslav

    2016-01-01

    Anatomically, dental pulp is connective tissue and specific microcirculatory system with significant reparatory abilities intending to preserve pulp vitality. Various therapeutic approaches in the treatment of affected pulp may be compromised by various factors leading to treatment failure. Due to microcirculatory system disorders, treatment of affected dental pulp in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is additional challenge. The function and levels of growth factors could be altered in va...

  6. LIVER AND BONE MARROW STEM/PROGENITOR CELLS AS REGULATORS OF REPARATIVE REGENERATION OF DAMAGED LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Lundup

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the modern information about effectiveness of liver insufficiency treatment by stem/ progenitor cells of liver (oval cells and bone marrow (hemopoietic cells and mesenchymal cells was presented. It is shown that medical action of these cells is referred on normalization of liver cell interaction and reorganization of processes of a reparative regeneration in damaged liver. It is believed that application of mesenchymal stromal cells from an autological bone marrow is the most perspective strategy. However, for definitive judgement about regenerative possibilities of the autological bone marrow cells it is necessary to carry out large-scale double blind clinical researches. 

  7. [Mechanisms of reparative action of a new repair and protect toothpaste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovikova, T M; Ermishina, E Yu; Mikheikina, N I

    The aim of the study was to assess clinical efficacy of Sensodyne repair and protect toothpaste as well as mechanics of its reparative action. Forty-eight patients (29 females and 19 males) were included in the study. The participants brushed twice daily with Sensodyne toothpaste. In 24 patients in addition to clinical examination fluoride, calcium and pH were measured in oral fluid. The study showed OHIS reduction by 40.24% and eradication of tooth hypersensitivity even after single use of the toothpaste in 90% of patients because of sodium monofluorophosphate action.

  8. Proliferative, reparative, and reactive benign bone lesions that may be confused diagnostically with true osseous neoplasms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wick, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic problems attending intraosseous and parosteal pseudoneoplastic lesions can be radiographic, or histological, or both. Proliferations in this category may contain cellular fibro-osseous or chondro-osseous tissues that are difficult to separate microscopically from those seen in various true neoplasms of the bones. This review considers the clinicopathologic features of fibrous dysplasia, benign fibro-osseous lesions of the jawbones, osteofibrous dysplasia, metaphyseal fibrous defect, giant-cell reparative granuloma, "brown tumor" of hyperparathyroidism, synovial chondrometaplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, tumefactive chronic osteomyelitis, proliferative Paget disease, and polyvinylpyrrolidone storage disease of bone.

  9. [Evaluation of reparative regeneration of the jaw bone by microfocus roentgenography in an experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, A Iu; Bulanova, I M; Mal'ginov, N N; Tarasenko, I V; Tarasenko, S V; Kiseleva, E V; Drobyshev, A Iu; Volozhin, A I

    2009-01-01

    In experiment on 16 grown-up chinchilla rabbits the dynamic of reparative regeneration was evaluated by digital microfocal rontgenography in the terms of 1, 2 and 4 months. Bone defect of the 8capital CHE, Cyrillic8 mm size in the region of mandible angle was caused by surgical laser Smart 2940 D+ on the right side and by physiodespenser Surgec XT on the left side. Surgical laser use let to reduce intact mother bone traumatisation and to improve remote results of bone tissue regeneration. After bone defect creation bone tissue regeneration was put into effect by all 3 callus types - endosteal, periosteal and intermediary.

  10. Self-reparability of glass-ionomer cements: an in vitro investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar; Swain, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Despite the advantages of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) restorative materials, they exhibit low mechanical properties and are susceptible to dissolution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence of self-reparability of a GIC material. Thirty Fuji IX discs were fabricated and subjected to desiccation. The discs were randomly separated into three groups: one group was kept in air, a second group was soaked in water, and a third group was placed in casein phosphoprotein-amorphous calcium phosphate-containing solution (Dentacal; NSI, Hornsby, Australia). After 21 d of incubation, all specimens were subjected to biaxial flexure testing. One-way ANOVA revealed a statistical difference in the biaxial flexure strength between the groups. Weibull statistics revealed that the Dentacal group demonstrated a lower probability of failure than the other groups. The air group exhibited the highest probability of failure. The difference between the specimens was expected as a result of enhanced cross-linking between the polyalkenoate chains and the GIC particles, and the diffusion of ionic components to the set GIC. Therefore, perhaps a form of reparative mechanism exists for precrazed GIC when it is exposed to a remineralizing solution. In addition to the benefit on natural tooth structures, this study indicates that remineralizing solutions are also beneficial for maintaining the mechanical integrity of GIC restorations.

  11. A riot on campus: The effects of social identity complexity on emotions and reparative attitudes after ingroup-perpetrated violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Kristi A; Austin, Adrienne B

    2017-08-02

    When a group commits a transgression, members who identify closely with the group often engage in defensive strategies in which they are less likely to experience guilt and shame in response to the transgression than are less identified group members. Subsequently, highly identified group members are often less willing to offer reparations to the injured parties. Because appropriate emotional responses and reparations are critical to community reconciliation, the present investigation examined whether social identity complexity-the degree to which individuals perceive their multiple social identities as interrelated-reduced these defensive responses. In the aftermath of a campus riot, emotional responses and reparative attitudes of undergraduate students were assessed. Results indicated that individuals who closely identified with the university were in fact capable of experiencing guilt and shame, but only if they also had complex social identities. A path model indicated that emotional responses, in turn, predicted willingness to provide reparations to the campus community. Accordingly, social identity complexity provides a new approach to understanding responses to ingroup-perpetrated violence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A Therapeutic Approach to Teaching Poetry: Individual Development, Psychology, and Social Reparation. Psychoanalysis, Education and Social Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Todd O.

    2012-01-01

    A Therapeutic Approach to Teaching Poetry develops a poetry pedagogy that offers significant benefits to students by helping them to achieve a sense of renewal (a deeper awareness of self and potentials) and reparation (a realistic, but positive and proactive worldview). Todd O. Williams offers a thorough examination of the therapeutic potential…

  13. Regaining the Moral High Ground on Gitmo...is there a Basis for released Guantanamo Detainees to Receive Reparations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    or 53 the Taliban.14 This action and the opening of Guantanamo Bay Naval Base detention facility served to mark the beginning for a new genre of...life of victims or on the experiences of horror .31 Any reparation program for released detainees would be well served to head thi 1Naomi Roht

  14. A Therapeutic Approach to Teaching Poetry: Individual Development, Psychology, and Social Reparation. Psychoanalysis, Education and Social Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Todd O.

    2012-01-01

    A Therapeutic Approach to Teaching Poetry develops a poetry pedagogy that offers significant benefits to students by helping them to achieve a sense of renewal (a deeper awareness of self and potentials) and reparation (a realistic, but positive and proactive worldview). Todd O. Williams offers a thorough examination of the therapeutic potential…

  15. 'Translation is the making of a subject in reparation': Elfriede Jelinek's response to Fukushima in 'Kein Licht'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bala, S.

    2014-01-01

    Elfriede Jelinek's play Kein Licht [No Light], published online in 2011-12, features the nuclear catastrophe of Fukushima of 2011 and its aftermath as its main theme, engaging with it through a mode of what I term reparative translation. Translation is understood here in a very specific sense. It is

  16. 'Translation is the making of a subject in reparation': Elfriede Jelinek's response to Fukushima in 'Kein Licht'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bala, S.

    2014-01-01

    Elfriede Jelinek's play Kein Licht [No Light], published online in 2011-12, features the nuclear catastrophe of Fukushima of 2011 and its aftermath as its main theme, engaging with it through a mode of what I term reparative translation. Translation is understood here in a very specific sense. It is

  17. Ovarian reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macklon, NS; Fauser, BCJM

    2005-01-01

    The tendency to delay childbirth has increased the importance of ovarian reserve as a determinant of infertility treatment outcome. In the context of assisted reproduction technology, effective strategies to overcome the impact of ovarian aging and diminished ovarian reserve on pregnancy chances rem

  18. Properties of deproteinized bone for reparation of big segmental defect in long bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN Yue-kui; TIAN Xiao-bin; LI Bo; QIU Bing; ZHOU Zuo-jia; YANG Zheng; LI Qi-hong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore suitable scaffold material for big segmental long bone defect by studying the properties of the prepared deproteinized bone. Methods: Cancellated bone were made as 30 mm ×3 mm ×3 mm bone blocks from inferior extremity of pig femur along bone trabecula. The deproteinized bone was prepared with an improved method. Their morphological features, components, cell compatibility, mechanical and immunological properties were investigated respectively. Results: Deproteinized bone maintained natural re ticular pore system. The main organic material is collagen Ⅰand inorganic composition is hydroxyapatite. It has good mechanical properties, cell adhesion rate and histocompatibility. Conlusion: This deproteinized bone can be applicable as scaffold for reparation of big segmental defect in long bone.

  19. The Primitive Edge of Creativity: Destruction and Reparation in Louise Bourgeois's Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Viewed within the psychic geography of Thomas Ogden's modes of generating and organizing experience, in particular the autistic-contiguous mode, Louise Bourgeois's creative imagination can be seen as originating on what Ogden (1989) has called the primitive edge of experience. This mode, dominated by the sensory, is characterized by chaos, fragmentation, and a loss of boundaries. In dynamic movements between the depressive and the autistic-contiguous positions, between destructive and reparative impulses, Bourgeois transforms experiences of chaos, as well as destructive aggression, into aesthetic order and form, into works of art. She is able to delve into the most elemental and presymbolic modes of psychic experience and artistically harness raw feelings and sensations on what can be called the primitive edge of creativity.

  20. Reparations for environmental degradation and species extinction: a moral and ethical imperative for human society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available While the history of reparations within Homo sapiens is lengthy, only recently has the concept been applied to events that have caused degradation or damage to natural systems. Some effects have been unmistakable, even to the untrained eye, and reparations have been made in a short temporal span. However, what should be done about ecological damage that has occurred incrementally over large temporal or spatial spans? If all parties involved are no longer living (e.g. slavery, colonialism, should the descendants of one group, who had nothing to do with the situation and are individually innocent, pay descendants of the other, who did not suffer directly? Degradation of the planet's ecological life support system will cause all humans to suffer, directly or indirectly, regardless of the degree to which they contributed to the damage. Repair of ecological damage is an act of enlightened self-interest, as well as an ethical imperative. Although current events may make restoring the planet's ecological life support system seem futile, even irrational, the forces of destruction cannot exceed those of restoration for a substantial period of time without resulting in severe disequilibrium, whether societal or ecological. The only long-term hope for the human species - sustainability - is a constructive, compassionate approach. Regardless of what happens to humankind, it is probably that some species will survive until the sun fails. Even if the human species does not, it seems ethical to make an exit that is notable for acts of compassion rather than acts of rage and revenge.

  1. REPARATIVE OSTEOGENESIS DURING TREATMENT OF FRACTURE UNDER TRANSOSSEOUS OSTEOSYNTHESIS AND INTRAMEDULLARY INSERTION OF WIRES WITH HYDROXYAPATITE COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii M. Irianov, Arnold V. Popkov, Nikolay A. Kiryanov, Tatiana Iu. Karaseva, Evgenii A. Karasev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of improving medical care for patients with the locomotor system injuries is very important especially last time. Material and Methods: Canine open comminuted tibial fractures modelled experimentally, wires with hydroxyapatite coating inserted intramedullary, osteosynthesis performed with the Ilizarov fixator. Regenerated bones investigated 14-360 days after surgery using the techniques of light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray electron probe microanalysis for histologic sections . Results: It has been found that a zone of active reparative osteo- and angiogenesis forms around the wires, as well as a bone sheath with the properties of osteogenesis conductor and inductor. Fracture consolidation occurs early according to the primary type without cartilaginous and connective tissue formation in bone adhesion. Presented morphological characteristics endovasal angiogenesis. Conclusion: The results of the study evidence of the positive effect of intramedullary wires with hydroxyapatite coating on the course and intensity of reparative osteogenesis during fracture healing

  2. Influence of TGF-beta1 on the expression of BSP, DSP, TGF-beta1 receptor I and Smad proteins during reparative dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun-Chan; Hwang, In-Nam; Oh, Won-Mann; Park, Joo-Cheol; Lee, Dong-Seol; Son, Ho-Hyun

    2008-04-01

    Reparative dentin has a wide variety of manifestations ranging from a regular, tubular form to an irregular, atubular form. However, the characteristics of reparative dentin have not been clarified. This study hypothesized that the level of bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression will increase if the newly formed reparative dentin is bone-like but the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) level will decrease. In order to test this hypothesis, the expression of BSP and DSP was examined by immunohistochemistry and the expression of BSP was measured by in situ hybridization in an animal model. The pulps of 12 maxillary right first molars from twelve male rats were exposed and capped with MTA. In addition, in order to understand the role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) during reparative dentinogenesis, the expression of BSP and DSPP mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR in a human dental pulp cell culture, and the transforming growth factor-beta 1 receptors (TbetaRI) and Smad 2/3 were examined by immunofluorescence in an animal model. DSP was expressed in the normal odontoblasts and odontoblast-like cells of the reparative dentin. Interestingly, BSP was strongly expressed in the odontoblast-like cells of reparative dentin. The level of the TbetaRI and Smad 2/3 proteins was higher in the reparative dentin than in the normal dentin. TGF-beta1 up-regulated BSP in the human pulp cell cultures. This suggests that reparative dentin has both dentinogenic and osteogenic characteristics that are mediated by TGF-beta1.

  3. Temporal and spatial expression of c-jun and jun-B proto-oncogenes in pulp cells involved with reparative dentinogenesis after cavity preparation of rat molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, C; Kimura, K; Nakayama, T; Terashita, M

    1999-02-01

    c-jun and jun-B are nuclear proto-oncogenes induced by growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). These gene products enhance the expression of many genes, including osteocalcin and collagen types, indicating that c-jun and jun-B play important roles in the cell differentiation process. It is also known that BMPs affect the differentiation of pulp cells to odontoblast-like cells during reparative dentinogenesis, but little is known about the transcriptional regulation of genes in cells associated with reparative dentinogenesis. In this study, we examined the expression of c-jun and jun-B in pulp cells during reparative dentinogenesis after cavity preparation of rat molars by in situ hybridization. In rat tooth germs, c-jun and jun-B were co-expressed in the odontoblastic lineage. In rat adult molars, c-jun was expressed in the odontoblast layer, but the jun-B expression was absent in all pulp cells. After cavity preparation, we found that c-jun and jun-B were coexpressed in pulp cells underneath cavities. During the early phase of reparative dentinogenesis, levels of c-jun and jun-B greatly increased in pulp cells within and around the reparative dentin matrix formed adjacent to the cavity floor. Fourteen days after cavity preparation, c-jun and jun-B were expressed only in pulp cells lining the irregular surface of the thick reparative dentin. These results suggest that c-jun and jun-B may play important roles both in physiological and in reparative dentinogenesis; in particular, the limited distribution of the jun-B expression suggests a specific role of jun-B only in cells involved with the active formation of the dentin matrix during primary and reparative dentinogenesis.

  4. Post-Conflict Reparation: Ukrainian Restitution Remedies for Property and Restitution Complaints before the European Court of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Antsupova, Tetyana

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the proposed Ukrainian legislation on national remedies for the restitution of property damaged or destroyed during the conflicts in Eastern Ukraine and Crimea. Noting gaps in this proposed legislation, it emphasizes the need for an effective National Strategy for post-conflict reparations and a related Action Plan. The article also analyzes the European Court of Human Rights’ decision in Lisnyy and Others v. Ukraine and Russia, in which the Court ruled inadmissible for...

  5. Alterations of hepatocyte function with free radical generators and reparation or prevention with coffee polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi Merzouk, Amel; Hafida, Merzouk; Medjdoub, Amel; Loukidi, Bouchra; Cherrak, Sabri; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2017-03-01

    Liver diseases are linked in the majority of cases to oxidative stress that antioxidants could neutralize with reducing liver injury. Chlorogenic acid, a coffee polyphenol, possesses antioxidant prosperities. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro preventive and corrective effects of cholorogenic acid in hepatocyte toxicity induced by free radicals. Hepatocytes were isolated from adult male Wistar rats. To determine corrective effects and reparation, cells were first exposed to two free radical generators (hydrogen peroxide/iron sulfate for hydroxyl radical formation, and phenazine methosulfate/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for superoxide anion formation) for 12H and thereafter treated by chlorogenic acid (1 and 10 μM final concentration) for another 12H. To show preventive effects, cells were pretreated by chlorogenic acid and thereafter exposed to free radical generators. Hepatocyte proliferation, glucose uptake, ATP contents, membrane fluidity and integrity, and intracellular redox status were investigated after 24H culture. The results showed that chlorogenic acid reversed the decrease in cell proliferation, glucose uptake and ATP levels, the increased LDH release and the reduced membrane fluidity and restored the oxidant/antioxidant status under oxidative stress. When pre-treated with chlorogenic acid, hepatocytes became very resistant to oxidative conditions and cellular homeostasis was maintained. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid displayed not only corrective but also preventive effects in hepatocytes exposed to oxidative stress and could be beneficial in patients with or at risk of liver diseases.

  6. [Reparative regeneration of connective tissue structures of mammals under antioxidant therapy conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, S V; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M

    2015-01-01

    The influence of administration of the antioxidant complexes consisting of nonenzymatic antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol acetate preparation) and enzymatic antioxidants (ceruloplasmin) has been studied in rabbits with experimental arthritis. The introduction of alpha-tocopherol acetate (at a daily dose of 4 mg) improved metabolic processes in the organism (decreased in the rate of erythrocyte precipitation, total leukocytes and their stub and segmental forms; increased in erythrocyte count; reduced the glycosaminoglycan content as determined from uronic acid and hexose level; decreased ceruloplasmin activity and malonic dialdehyde level ion blood serum, all at p < 0.05), thus favoring reduction in the total activity of the inflammatory process as judged from hematological and biochemical data. Intra-articular introduction of ceruloplasmin (1.5 mg/kg, once per week) positively influenced the state of joint structures in damaged knee joints of the animals: decreased the activity of ceruloplasmin (from 5.28 ± 0.06 to 3.94 ± 0.01 AU), and malonic dialdehyde level (0.18 ± 0.02 to 0.08 ± 0.01 μM) in the articular fluid (all at p < 0.05). These effects are probably related to the elimination of inefficiency of the antioxidant system in the synovial medium, thus preventing inflammatory destruction of articular tissues, hindering the development of pannus, and assisting the activation of reparative regeneration of connective tissue structures.

  7. Human tooth culture: a study model for reparative dentinogenesis and direct pulp capping materials biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téclès, Odile; Laurent, Patrick; Aubut, Virginie; About, Imad

    2008-04-01

    In a previous work, based on an in vitro entire tooth culture model of human immature third molars, we demonstrated that perivascular progenitor cells can proliferate and migrate to the injury site after pulp exposure. In this work, we investigated the differentiation of cells after direct capping with biomaterials classically used in restorative dentistry. Histological staining after direct pulp capping with Calcium Hydroxide XR(R) or MTA revealed early and progressive mineralized foci formation containing BrdU-labeled sequestered cells. The molecular characterization of the matrix and the sequestered cells by immunohistochemistry (Collagene type I, Dentin sialoprotein, and Nestin) clearly demonstrates that these areas share common characteristics of the mineralized matrix of reparative dentin formed by odontoblast-like cells. This reproduces some features of the pulp responses after applying these materials in vivo and demonstrates that the entire tooth culture model reproduces a part of the early steps of dentin regeneration in vivo. Its future development may be useful in studying the effects of biomaterials on this process.

  8. Functional and pharmacological characterization of a VEGF mimetic peptide on reparative angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finetti, Federica; Basile, Anna; Capasso, Domenica; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Di Stasi, Rossella; Pascale, Maria; Turco, Caterina Maria; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D'Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2012-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the main regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Low molecular weight molecules able to stimulate angiogenesis have interesting medical application for example in regenerative medicine, but at present none has reached the clinic. We reported that a VEGF mimetic helical peptide, QK, designed on the VEGF helix sequence 17-25, is able to bind and activate the VEGF receptors, producing angiogenesis. In this study we evaluate the pharmacological properties of peptide QK with the aim to propose it as a VEGF-mimetic drug to be employed in reparative angiogenesis. We show that the peptide QK is able to recapitulate all the biological activities of VEGF in vivo and on endothelial cells. In experiments evaluating sprouting from aortic ring and vessel formation in an in vivo angiogenesis model, the peptide QK showed biological effects comparable with VEGF. At endothelial level, the peptide up-regulates VEGF receptor expression, activates intracellular pathways depending on VEGFR2, and consistently it induces endothelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. When added to angiogenic factors (VEGF and/or FGF-2), QK produces an improved biological action, which resulted in reduced apoptosis and accelerated in vitro wound healing. The VEGF-like activity of the short peptide QK, characterized by lower cost of production and easier handling compared to the native glycoprotein, suggests that it is an attractive candidate to be further developed for application in therapeutic angiogenesis.

  9. Diasporic Reparations: Repairing the Social Imaginaries of Central America in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Rodríguez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Central American diasporic writers like Horacio Castellanos Moya, Francisco Goldman, Héctor Tobar, and Marcos McPeek Villatoro, in Senselessness (2008, The Art of Political Murder: Who Killed the Bishop? (2007, The Tattooed Soldier (1998, and the Romilia Chacón detective series, write in response to various forms of violence. They grapple with the image of Central America as a site of unsustainable violence, inhospitable material conditions, and unresolved historical issues that extend into the lives of Central Americans in the United States. The past is not easily dismissed, but lies at the core of transnational Central American subject formation. This essay examines how violence and impunity are closely tied in Central American diasporic texts and hold cognitive relevancy for Central Americans in and outside of the isthmus. While US Central Americans seek to understand the origins and conditions of their diaspora, writers reflect critically on Central American historiography, diaspora, and the construction of transnational “Centroamericanidades” in the twenty-first century. These writers engage in a literature of reparation that reveals the (impossibility of repairing and re-writing or righting the past in societies where violence and impunity have been institutionalized.

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitors epigenetically promote reparative events in primary dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Henry F., E-mail: Hal.Duncan@dental.tcd.ie [Division of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Smith, Anthony J. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fleming, Garry J.P. [Material Science Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Cooper, Paul R. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-10

    Application of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) to cells epigenetically alters their chromatin structure and induces transcriptional and cellular reparative events. This study investigated the application of two HDACi, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA) on the induction of repair-associated responses in primary dental pulp cell (DPC) cultures. Flow cytometry demonstrated that TSA (100 nM, 400 nM) significantly increased cell viability. Neither HDACi was cytotoxic, although cell growth analysis revealed significant anti-proliferative effects at higher concentrations for VPA (>0.5 mM) and TSA (>50 nM). While high-content-analysis demonstrated that HDACi did not significantly induce caspase-3 or p21 activity, p53-expression was increased by VPA (3 mM, 5 mM) at 48 h. HDACi-exposure induced mineralization per cell dose-dependently to a plateau level (VPA-0.125 mM and TSA-25 nM) with accompanying increases in mineralization/dentinogenic-associated gene expression at 5 days (DMP-1, BMP-2/-4, Nestin) and 10 days (DSPP, BMP-2/-4). Both HDACis, at a range of concentrations, significantly stimulated osteopontin and BMP-2 protein expression at 10 and 14 days further supporting the ability of HDACi to promote differentiation. HDACi exert different effects on primary compared with transformed DPCs and promote mineralization and differentiation events without cytotoxic effects. These novel data now highlight the potential in restorative dentistry for applying low concentrations of HDACi in vital pulp treatment. -- Highlights: • Valproic acid and trichostatin A promoted mineralization in primary pulp cells. • Cell viability, apoptosis, caspase-3, p21 unaltered; p53 increased by valproic acid. • Trichostatin A increased cell viability at 24 h at selected concentrations. • Altered cell toxicity and differentiation between primary and transformed cells. • HDACi-induced the differentiation marker proteins osteopontin and BMP-2.

  11. Fault self-repair strategy based on evolvable hardware and reparation balance technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Junbin; Cai Jinyan; Meng Yafeng; Meng Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    In the face of harsh natural environment applications such as earth-orbiting and deep space satellites, underwater sea vehicles, strong electromagnetic interference and temperature stress, the circuits faults appear easily. Circuit faults will inevitably lead to serious losses of availability or impeded mission success without self-repair over the mission duration. Traditional fault-repair methods based on redundant fault-tolerant technique are straightforward to implement, yet their area, power and weight cost can be excessive. Moreover they utilize all plug-in or component level circuits to realize redundant backup, such that their applicability is limited. Hence, a novel self-repair technology based on evolvable hardware (EHW) and reparation balance technology (RBT) is proposed. Its cost is low, and fault self-repair of various circuits and devices can be realized through dynamic configuration. Making full use of the fault signals, correcting circuit can be found through EHW technique to realize the balance and compensation of the fault out-put-signals. In this paper, the self-repair model was analyzed which based on EHW and RBT tech-nique, the specific self-repair strategy was studied, the corresponding self-repair circuit fault system was designed, and the typical faults were simulated and analyzed which combined with the actual electronic devices. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed fault self-repair strategy was feasible. Compared to traditional techniques, fault self-repair based on EHW consumes fewer hardware resources, and the scope of fault self-repair was expanded significantly.

  12. Advances made in development of competence of refining plant operators. The REPAR case, PR, Brazil; Avancos realizados no desenvolvimento de competencias de operadores de plantas de refino: o caso da REPAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Mario [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Recursos Humanos]. E-mail: marioreis@petrobras.com.br

    2004-12-01

    The work presents a synthesis of the outcome of two years of research and experiments for the development of competence of Refinery operators in a project carried out by REPAR - Presidente Getulio Vargas Refinery in partnership with the Parana Federal University Education sector. From the Refinery need to reformulate its operators formation and development process, an important perspective was open to discuss and implement pedagogical principles based on the competence category as praxis. Such category brings forth the commitment to transform the workers educational processes and the production social relations excelling the models based on Taylorian/Fordian paradigm.(author)

  13. Granuloma reparador de células gigantes: relato de cinco casos Giant cell reparative granuloma: report of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Torriani

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O granuloma reparador de células gigantes é lesão óssea rara, correspondendo a cerca de 7% de todos os tumores ósseos benignos da mandíbula, com maior incidência no sexo feminino. Embora seja considerada resposta a um trauma, este antecedente nem sempre está presente. O aspecto radiológico característico é de lesão lítica, uni ou multiloculada, com afilamento da cortical, podendo apresentar calcificações no seu interior. Neste trabalho relatamos os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos de cinco casos de granuloma reparador de células gigantes envolvendo a mandíbula e o maxilar, e as principais características que permitem o diagnóstico diferencial com outras lesões fibro-ósseas que acometem a face.Giant cell reparative granuloma is an uncommon bone lesion accounting for slightly less than 7% of all benign tumors of the jaw and affecting predominantly females. It probably represents a reparative reaction to a traumatic injury, although history of trauma is not always confirmed. The characteristic radiological feature is a uni- or multilocular lytic bone defect eroding the bone cortical and occasionally presenting with calcifications within the lesion. We report the most important clinical and radiological features observed in five patients with giant cell reparative granuloma involving the mandible and the maxillae and discuss the main aspects for the differential diagnosis with other fibro-osseous lesions that affect the facial bones.

  14. [Capabilities of digital microfocal x-ray study in the evaluation of reparative regeneration of bone tissue in an experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, A Iu; Bulanova, I M; Mal'ginov, N N; Kiseleva, E V; Cherniaev, S E; Nikulina, O M; Tarasenko, I V; Volozhin, A I

    2008-01-01

    Digital microfocal x-ray study was experimentally studied in animals to examine the time course of changes in their bone regeneration. Sixteen Chinchila rabbits whose bone defect in the angle of the mandibular ramus had been closed with the osteoplastic material Gapcol with the applied allogeneic, autologous stem cells isolated from rabbit adipose tissue and human plasma enriched with thrombocytic growth factors were examined. The capabilities of digital microfocal x-ray study versus x-ray computed tomography were compared in the evaluation of reparative regeneration of bone tissue. The results of radiation studies were verified with the data of scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Maresin-like lipid mediators are produced by leukocytes and platelets and rescue reparative function of diabetes-impaired macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Song; Lu, Yan; Tian, Haibin; Alapure, Bhagwat V; Wang, Quansheng; Bunnell, Bruce A; Laborde, James Monroe

    2014-10-23

    Nonhealing diabetic wounds are associated with impaired macrophage (Mf) function. Leukocytes and platelets (PLT) play crucial roles in wound healing by poorly understood mechanisms. Here we report the identification and characterization of the maresin-like(L) mediators 14,22-dihydroxy-docosa-4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,16Z,19Z-hexaenoic acids, 14S,22-diHDHA (maresin-L1), and 14R,22-diHDHA (maresin-L2) that are produced by leukocytes and PLT and involved in wound healing. We show that 12-lipoxygenase-initiated 14S-hydroxylation or cytochrome P450 catalyzed 14R-hydroxylation and P450-initiated ω(22)-hydroxylation are required for maresin-L biosynthesis. Maresin-L treatment restores reparative functions of diabetic Mfs, suggesting that maresin-Ls act as autocrine/paracrine factors responsible for, at least in part, the reparative functions of leukocytes and PLT in wounds. Additionally, maresin-L ameliorates Mf inflammatory activation and has the potential to suppress the chronic inflammation in diabetic wounds caused by activation of Mfs. These findings provide initial insights into maresin-L biosynthesis and mechanism of action and potentially offer a therapeutic option for better treatment of diabetic wounds.

  16. Reparative Dentinogenesis Induced by Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Review from the Biological and Physicochemical Points of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Okiji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the biological and physicochemical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA with respect to its ability to induce reparative dentinogenesis, which involves complex cellular and molecular events leading to hard-tissue repair by newly differentiated odontoblast-like cells. Compared with that of calcium hydroxide-based materials, MTA is more efficient at inducing reparative dentinogenesis in vivo. The available literature suggests that the action of MTA is attributable to the natural wound healing process of exposed pulps, although MTA can stimulate hard-tissue-forming cells to induce matrix formation and mineralization in vitro. Physicochemical analyses have revealed that MTA not only acts as a “calcium hydroxide-releasing” material, but also interacts with phosphate-containing fluids to form apatite precipitates. MTA also shows better sealing ability and structural stability, but less potent antimicrobial activity compared with that of calcium hydroxide. The clinical outcome of direct pulp capping and pulpotomy with MTA appears quite favorable, although the number of controled prospective studies is still limited. Attempts are being conducted to improve the properties of MTA by the addition of setting accelerators and the development of new calcium silicate-based materials.

  17. Teachable Moments: When Protests Erupted Following the Publication of an Anti-Reparations Ad in a Campus Newspaper, Brown University President Ruth Simmons Decided Her Community Could Benefit from Taking a Closer Look at the University's Historical Ties to Slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    It all started as a rather ran-of-the-mill campus controversy over race and slavery: an anti-reparations ad ran in The Brown Daily Herald; students cried foul, formed human chains and demanded "reparations" in the form of free advertising for the opposing side; still others responded with shouts of "political correctness." But then something…

  18. Cartilage T2 assessment: differentiation of normal hyaline cartilage and reparative tissue after arthroscopic cartilage repair in equine subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lawrence M; Sussman, Marshall S; Hurtig, Mark; Probyn, Linda; Tomlinson, George; Kandel, Rita

    2006-11-01

    To prospectively assess T2 mapping characteristics of normal articular cartilage and of cartilage at sites of arthroscopic repair, including comparison with histologic results and collagen organization assessed at polarized light microscopy (PLM). Study protocol was compliant with the Canadian Council on Animal Care Guidelines and approved by the institutional animal care committee. Arthroscopic osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT) and microfracture arthroplasty (MFx) were performed in knees of 10 equine subjects (seven female, three male; age range, 3-5 years). A site of arthroscopically normal cartilage was documented in each joint as a control site. Joints were harvested at 12 (n = 5) and 24 (n = 5) weeks postoperatively and were imaged at 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) with a 10-echo sagittal fast spin-echo acquisition. T2 maps of each site (21 OAT harvest, 10 MFx, 12 OAT plug, and 10 control sites) were calculated with linear least-squares curve fitting. Cartilage T2 maps were qualitatively graded as "organized" (normal transition of low-to-high T2 signal from deep to superficial cartilage zones) or "disorganized." Quantitative mean T2 values were calculated for deep, middle, and superficial cartilage at each location. Results were compared with histologic and PLM assessments by using kappa analysis. T2 maps were qualitatively graded as organized at 20 of 53 sites and as disorganized at 33 sites. Perfect agreement was seen between organized T2 and histologic findings of hyaline cartilage and between disorganized T2 and histologic findings of fibrous reparative tissue (kappa = 1.0). Strong agreement was seen between organized T2 and normal PLM findings and between disorganized T2 and abnormal PLM findings (kappa = .92). Quantitative assessment of the deep, middle, and superficial cartilage, respectively, showed mean T2 values of 53.3, 58.6, and 54.9 msec at reparative fibrous tissue sites and 40.7, 53.6, and 61.6 msec at hyaline cartilage sites. A

  19. Improving Soldier Recovery from Catastrophic Bone Injuries: Developing an Animal Model for Standarizing the Bone Reparative Potential of Emerging Progenitor Cell Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Injuries: Developing an animal model for standarizing the bone reparative potential of emerging progenitor cell therapies PRINCIPAL...osteogenesis in the surrounding host bone. Helos is a collagen fiber, hydroxyapatite composite that has sufficient structure to make inoculation with donor...adjacent to tubular green structures (muscular vessels). Although myofibroblastic like green cells are also present, they do not appear to

  20. Poor ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rekha Jirge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor ovarian reserve (POR is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women.

  1. The lack of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor desensitisation in alphaT3-1 cells is not due to GnRH receptor reserve or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate pool size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest-Owen, W; Willars, G B; Nahorski, S R; Assefa, D; Davidson, J S; Hislop, J; McArdle, C A

    1999-01-25

    The phospholipase C (PLC)-activating gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor is thought not to rapidly desensitise in alphaT3-1 cells. This extremely unusual characteristic raises the concern that it might be a feature of the cell type, rather than the receptor per se. Here we have used video imaging to establish whether the effects of endogenous PLC-activating G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) on Ca2+ ion concentration [Ca2+]i desensitise in these cells. Oxytocin, endothelin-1, methacholine, and UTP all caused [Ca2+]i increases which underwent rapid homologous desensitisation in that they were transient and responses to repeat stimuli were attenuated whereas subsequent responses to GnRH were not. To test whether receptor reserve obscures functional desensitisation of GnRH receptors, a photoaffinity antagonist (Pant-1), was used to effect a partial and irreversible receptor blockade. UV crosslinking in medium with 1000 nM Pant-1 reduced GnRH receptor number to 20 +/- 5% and reduced maximal buserelin-stimulated [3H]IP(X) accumulation to 57 +/- 5%, demonstrating removal of receptor reserve. In control alphaT3-1 cells the initial rate of GnRH-stimulated [3H]IP(X) accumulation was maintained for at least 5 min and GnRH caused a sustained increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 mass (confirming the resistance of GnRH receptors to desensitisation) and Pant-1 pre-treatment reduced the magnitude of these responses without altering their temporal profiles. In alphaT3-1 cells stably transfected with recombinant human muscarinic receptors (alphaT3-1/M3), responses to methacholine were characteristic of desensitising GPCRs (transient Ins(1,4,5)P3 and curvilinear [3H]IP(X) responses) and were unaltered by Pant-1. To test the relevance of phospholipid pool size, alphaT3-1/M3 cells were pre-treated with GnRH or methacholine in medium with LiCl (to deplete PtdIns(4,5)P2 pools). These pre-treatments reduced subsequent responses to methacholine and GnRH comparably, indicating access to a

  2. Conduction of reparative dentin: A pulp protecting approach by indirect pulp capping in deep carious lesion with biodentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafeza Sultana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This case report represents, the treatment of deep carious lesion in a male was done by using indirect pulp capping with biodentine. The clinical and radiological outcomes were evaluated. The patient was presented with mild to moderate sensitivity on thermal (cold stimulation and discomfort associated with eating in the left mandibular first molar. The clinico–radiographical examination revealed a disto–occlusal carious lesion, very close to the pulp, absence of radiolucencies in the periapical region and no periodontal space widening. Pulp sensitivity was confirmed by thermal pulp vitality test. Indirect pulp capping treatment was performed with biodentine. Following 6 months of the treatment, the clinical symptoms were resolved and a calcific bridge was found at the dentin over the pulp and biodentine interface that was indicative the evidence of reparative dentin formation.

  3. [The research of biodegradation of a composite material used in reconstructive and reparative surgery of maxillofacial area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanchuk, V O; Astapenko, O O; Halatenko, N A; Rozhnova, R A

    2013-09-01

    Dates about the research of biodegradation of epoxy-polyurethane composite material used in reconstructive and reparative surgery of maxillofacial area are reflected in the article. Was founded: 1) notable biodegradation of species from epoxy-polyurethane composition in the term of observation up to 6 months was not founded. That testifies their preservation of physical and mechanical properties. 2) founded, that in species from epoxy-polyurethane composition, which contain levamisole, processes of biodegradation are faster then in species from pure epoxy-polyurethane composition and in species from epoxy-polyurethane composition with hydroxyapatite; 3) material from epoxy-polyurethane composition, which contains levamisole and hydroxyapatite, stays in biological environment in small quantity of petty fragments during the incubation in term of 2 years. So, it biodegrades practically totally. Authors suggest on the basis of achieved information, that the use of epoxy-polyurethane constructions that biodegrade, is pertinently in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery.

  4. The Three R’s of Seeking Transitional Justice: Reparation, Responsibility, and Reframing in Canada and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt James

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous children in state-organized and funded residential schools raises profound and in many ways quite novel questions about transitional justice concerning Indigenous peoples in advanced capitalist societies. This article compares the Canadian case with that of a quintessential transitional justice pioneer: Argentina.Focusing on the efforts of justice-seekers in each country, it reveals similarities in their respective pursuits of what the article identifies as three important transitional justice goals: reparation, responsibility and reframing. However, the article also finds a crucial difference between the two cases. This difference is that justice seekers in Argentina have placed a heavy emphasis on social and political accountability, a goal that, in various ways, has received much less attention in the Canadian case. We conclude that this absence raises broader issues about transitional justice processes in countries marked by ongoing legacies of anti-Indigenouscolonialism—issues that Canadians from the settler society, in particular, must begin urgently to address.

  5. Immunolocalization of fibronectin during reparative dentinogenesis in rat molor teeth after pulp capping with mineral trioxide aggregate or calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Cenkhan; Oztas, Nurhan; Cincik, Mehmet; Baris, Emre

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunolocalization of fibronectin during reparative dentinogenesis in rat teeth after pulp capping with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). The pulps of 72 upper and lower first molar teeth from 18 male Wistar rats were experimentally exposed. The pulps were capped with MTA or (Ca(OH)2); final restoration followed with zinc oxide and eugenol cement. The animals were euthanized at, respectively, one, three, seven and fourteen days postoperatively. At day one, all groups showed varying degrees of inflammation, from mild to severe. There was no positive reaction for fibronectin at day one. After three days, a partial acute pulpitis was observed in the Ca(OH)2 group. There was less inflammation in the MTA group (p<0.05), and a layer of fibrin barrier was observed along the pulp walls of the MTA material. The layer of fibrodentin formation showed positive reaction for fibronectin. At seven days, the Ca(OH)2 group showed mild inflammation and demonstrated more immunostaining for fibronectin than the Ca(OH)2 group (p<0.05) at three days. Pulps capped with MTA at seven days showed thicker fibrin barrier formation than the MTA group at three days and more immunostaining for fibronectin in whole groups (p<0.05). At fourteen days, there was no positive reaction for fibronectin in either the MTA or Ca(OH)2 group. It seems MTA showed better biocompability properties with the dental pulp tissue, inducing the expression of reparative molecule fibronectin compared with Ca(OH)2. Therefore, MTA may be a better choice for pulp capping procedures.

  6. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  7. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  8. The Regularities of the Induction and Reparation of DNA Double Strand Breaks in Human Lymphocytes after Irradiation by Carbon Ions with High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Boreyko, A V

    2005-01-01

    The regularities of the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in human lymphocytes after irradiation by different doses of accelerated carbon ions (480 MeV/nucleon, LET = 10.6 keV/$\\mu $m) and $\\gamma $-rays $^{60}$?? by using of comet assay were investigated. It was shown that dependence of DSB formation increases linearly with growing of the dose of carbon ions and $\\gamma $-rays. The biological effectiveness of carbon ions with high energy was similar to $\\gamma $-rays. The kinetics of DSB reparation in human lymphocytes after irradiation by both carbon ions and $\\gamma $-rays was studied. It is revealed that the reparation proceeds effectively with heavy ion and $\\gamma $-ray irradiation.

  9. The reparation of residual roots and residual crowns and masticatory function%残根和残冠的修复与咀嚼功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊杰

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 The evidences of the reparation of residual roots and residual crowns and the clinical significances Lots of patients have severe physical and mental pain and life quality decrease resulted from the extraction of residual roots and residual crowns. With science development, new material application and designing method promotion, several artificial teeth have replaced the extraction of teeth. In some degree, the method have relieved the pain of no teeth.

  10. Regenerative and reparative effects of human chorion-derived stem cell conditioned medium on photo-aged epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiankun; Chen, Yan; Ma, Kui; Zhao, Along; Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal cells are an important regenerative source for skin wound healing. Aged epidermal cells have a low ability to renew themselves and repair skin injury. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly UVB, can cause photo-aging of the skin by suppressing the viability of human epidermal cells. A chorion-derived stem cell conditioned medium (CDSC-CNM) is thought to have regenerative properties. This study aimed to determine the regenerative effects of CDSC-CNM on UVB-induced photo-aged epidermal cells. Epidermal cells were passaged four times and irradiated with quantitative UVB, and non-irradiated cells served as a control group. Cells were then treated with different concentrations of CDSC-CNM. Compared to the non-irradiated group, the proliferation rates and migration rates of UVB-induced photo-aged epidermal cells significantly decreased (p cells significantly improved their viability, and their ROS generation and DNA damage decreased. The secretory factors in CDSC-CNM, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 and the related signaling pathway protein levels, increased compared to the control medium (CM). The potential regenerative and reparative effects of CDSC-CNM indicate that it may be a candidate material for the treatment of prematurely aged skin. The functions of the secretory factors and the mechanisms of CDSC-CNM therapy deserve further attention.

  11. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  12. The Viability of the Air Mobility Command Pure Pallet Program for US Army Reparable Retrograde Shipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    for their success. However, this decision must be balanced with the possibility of using a third-party logistics ( 3PL ) company if the level of...Increasingly, many manufacturers have turned to third-party logistics ( 3PL ) companies as the solution to many of the aforementioned obstacles. Typically...either planned or intended to utilize 3PLs for parts management, reverse logistics , and depot management due to demand for “wider geographic

  13. Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Reparative Potential in Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badimon, Lina; Oñate, Blanca; Vilahur, Gemma

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue has long been considered an energy storage and endocrine organ; however, in recent decades, this tissue has also been considered an abundant source of mesenchymal cells. Adipose-derived stem cells are easily obtained, show a strong capacity for ex vivo expansion and differentiation to other cell types, release a large variety of angiogenic factors, and have immunomodulatory properties. Thus, adipose tissue is currently the focus of considerable interest in the field of regenerative medicine. In the context of coronary heart disease, numerous experimental studies have supported the safety and efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells in the setting of myocardial infarction. These results have encouraged the clinical use of these stem cells, possibly prematurely. Indeed, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, coronary disease, diabetes mellitus, and obesity, alter and reduce the functionality of adipose-derived stem cells, putting in doubt the efficacy of their autologous implantation. In the present article, white adipose tissue is described, the stem cells found in this tissue are characterized, and the use of these cells is discussed according to the preclinical and clinical trials performed so far. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Detecting larval export from marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, R A; Warner, R R; Gaines, S D; Paris, C B

    2010-10-26

    Marine reserve theory suggests that where large, productive populations are protected within no-take marine reserves, fished areas outside reserves will benefit through the spillover of larvae produced in the reserves. However, empirical evidence for larval export has been sparse. Here we use a simple idealized coastline model to estimate the expected magnitude and spatial scale of larval export from no-take marine reserves across a range of reserve sizes and larval dispersal scales. Results suggest that, given the magnitude of increased production typically found in marine reserves, benefits from larval export are nearly always large enough to offset increased mortality outside marine reserves due to displaced fishing effort. However, the proportional increase in recruitment at sites outside reserves is typically small, particularly for species with long-distance (on the order of hundreds of kilometers) larval dispersal distances, making it very difficult to detect in field studies. Enhanced recruitment due to export may be detected by sampling several sites at an appropriate range of distances from reserves or at sites downcurrent of reserves in systems with directional dispersal. A review of existing empirical evidence confirms the model's suggestion that detecting export may be difficult without an exceptionally large differential in production, short-distance larval dispersal relative to reserve size, directional dispersal, or a sampling scheme that encompasses a broad range of distances from the reserves.

  15. The role of the fibrocyte, a bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor, in reactive and reparative fibroses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Alberto; Mattoli, Sabrina

    2007-09-01

    Human fibrocytes are mesenchymal progenitors that exhibit mixed morphological and molecular characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells, monocytes and fibroblasts. They likely represent the obligate intermediate stage of differentiation into mature mesenchymal cells of a bone marrow-derived precursor of the monocyte lineage under permissive conditions. On in vitro stimulation with pro-fibrotic cytokines and growth factors, human fibrocytes produce large quantities of extracellular matrix components and further differentiate into cells identical to the contractile myofibroblasts that emerge at the tissue sites during repair processes and in some fibrotic lesions. Studies in various animal models of wound healing or fibrotic diseases have confirmed the ability of fibrocytes to differentiate into mature mesenchymal cells in vivo and have suggested a causal link between fibrocyte accumulation and ongoing tissue fibrogenesis or vascular remodeling in response to tissue damage or hypoxia. Fibrocytes synthesizing new collagen or acquiring myofibroblast markers have been detected in human hypertrophic scars, in the skin of patients affected by nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, in human atherosclerotic lesions, and in pulmonary diseases characterized by repeated cycles of inflammation and repair, like asthma. The presence of fibrocyte-like cells has been reported in human chronic pancreatitis and chronic cystitis. Similar cells also populate the stroma surrounding human benign tumors. The available data indicate that human fibrocytes serve as a source of mature mesenchymal cells during reparative processes and in fibrotic disorders or stromal reactions predominantly associated with a persistent inflammatory infiltrate or with the selective recruitment of monocytes induced by ischemic changes and tumor development. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in fibrocyte differentiation in these pathological conditions may lead to the development of novel therapies for

  16. Compatibilite deformationnelle des betons autoplacants pour des utilisations dans les reparations des infrastructures routieres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezal, Aicha Fadela

    Concrete structures repairs in Civil Engineering by using a thin bonded overlay is common practice. However the repaired structures are often victim of premature deterioration of the new repair material due to the appearance of restrained shrinkage cracks. In this context, the main objective of this thesis is to identify, through the experimental program called Phase I the principal parameters that significantly influence the creep potential of the evaluated mixtures. Once these parameters identified, the experimental entitled Phase II is conducted under conditions simulating repairs, and emphasis was placed on restrained shrinkage using instrumented ring test. Article 1 summarized the laboratory investigation undertaken to evaluate the potential of flexural creep behavior of several SCC. The results show clearly that the flexural creep potential of SCC varies widely depending on the nature of HRWR in use. In general, the use of naphthalene sulfonate leads to higher creep by comparison to polycarboxylate. It has been shown also that even when belonging to the same A.S.T.M. classification (polycarboxylic family) the magnitude of flexural creep varies also widely depending on the properties of polycarboxylic chemicals admixture. Based on the identified parameters in phase I, namely PNS superplasticizers type and PC2, with two ternary blended cements with fly ash (BTCFA) and slag (BTCS), the second experimental program was undertaken and summarized in articles 2 and 3. As presented in article 2, the results indicate that optimized SCCs produced with blended ternary cement with fly ash (BTCFA) developed at earlier age lower compressive and splitting-tensile strengths than the corresponding SCCs with blended cement with slag (BTCS). Test results also indicated that the drying shrinkage of SCCs based on BTCFA is higher than the corresponding SCCs proportioned with BTCS and attributed in part to higher total pores volume measured at 120 days on SCC BTCFA. The restrained

  17. Global Reserve Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t GLOBAL RESERVE COOPERATION BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL PAMELA L. MCGAHA United States Army National Guard...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Reserve Cooperation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...decade, the United States, its allies, and partner nations have greatly increased their reliance on Reserve Component forces. This global

  18. The reparative response to cross-linked collagen-based scaffolds in a rat spinal cord gap model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholas, Rahmatullah H; Hsu, Hu-Ping; Spector, Myron

    2012-03-01

    scaffold/laminin and EDAC scaffold/laminin groups. Collagen biomaterials can be useful in the treatment of SCI to: favorably align the reparative tissue with the long axis of the spinal cord; potentially reduce the formation of fluid-filled cysts; serve as a delivery vehicle for NSCs and the gene for GDNF; and impede the collapse of musculature and connective tissue into the defect.

  19. Carpal instability reparation and reconstruction%腕关节不稳的修复与重建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱南海; 张文龙

    2010-01-01

    背景:腕关节不稳是常见的腕关节损伤并发症,临床上可明确各期腕关节不稳的诊断,然而对腕关节不稳各期的修复重建以及晚期腕关节不稳假体置换的问题仍存在争议.目的:通过文献检索和总结,探讨腕关节不稳的机制、诊断和修复重建的方法.方法;应用计算机检索万方数据库和Pubmed数据库1972-01,2009-12的相关文献,检索词分别为"腕关节不稳定;腕关节损伤;修复重建"和"carpal instability;carpal injury;reparation and reconstruction",限定文章语言种类为中文和英文.纳入34篇所述内容与腕关节不稳定的发病机制、分类、腕关节不稳定诊断以及腕关节不稳定治疗相关的文章.结果与结论:腕关节不稳可通过患者的一般表现、X射线表现、其他影像学表现以及关节镜表现等明确诊断.腕关节不稳的治疗和修复重建可根据损伤的类型、程度以及有无退化性改变选择治疗方法,早期通过关节镜的修复重建具有手术损伤小,患者痛苦少,住院时间短,康复期短,功能恢复快的特点;晚期可通过关节融合、关节成形以及腕关节假体置换等方法可达到治疗腕不稳的目的.

  20. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja;

    2012-01-01

    was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...

  1. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  2. Forex Reserve Puzzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China faces pressure of preserving the value of its $3 trillion foreign exchange reserves While already under pressure to revalue its currency,the yuan,against the U.S.dollar,China also faces the challenge of stifling vast losses to its foreign exchange reserve,mostly denominated in U.S.dollars.These losses to foreign exchange

  3. Blueprint for Energy Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhenying

    2008-01-01

    @@ The government is drafting a strategic reserve blueprint to ensure energy security-the move coming close on the heels of the construction of four oil reserve bases, according to Ma Fucai, deputy director of the Office of the National Energy Leading Group.

  4. Adrenocortical reserves in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaht, Kemal; Gullu, Sevim

    2014-02-01

    Explicit data regarding the changes in adrenocortical reserves during hyperthyroidism do not exist. We aimed to document the capability (response) of adrenal gland to secrete cortisol and DHEA-S during hyperthyroidism compared to euthyroidism, and to describe factors associated with these responses. A standard-dose (0.25 mg/i.v.) ACTH stimulation test was performed to the same patients before hyperthyroidism treatment, and after attainment of euthyroidism. Baseline cortisol (Cor(0)), DHEA-S (DHEA-S(0)), cortisol binding globulin (CBG), ACTH, calculated free cortisol (by Coolen's equation = CFC), free cortisol index (FCI), 60-min cortisol (Cor(60)), and DHEA-S (DHEA-S(60)), delta cortisol (ΔCor), delta DHEA-S (ΔDHEA-S) responses were evaluated. Forty-one patients [22 females, 49.5 ± 15.2 years old, 32 Graves disease, nine toxic nodular goiter] had similar Cor(0), DHEA-S(0), CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S(60) in hyperthyroid and euthyroid states. Cor(60), ΔCor, and ΔDHEA-S were lower in hyperthyroidism. In four (10 %) patients the peak ACTH-stimulated cortisol values were lower than 18 μg/dL. When the test repeated after attainment of euthyroidism, all of the patients had normal cortisol response. Regression analysis demonstrated an independent association of Cor(60) with free T3 in hyperthyroidism. However, the predictors of CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S levels were serum creatinine levels in hyperthyroidism, and both creatinine and transaminase levels in euthyroidism. ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol, delta cortisol, and delta DHEA-S levels are decreased during hyperthyroidism, probably due to increased turnover. Since about 10 % of the subjects with hyperthyroidism are at risk for adrenal insufficiency, clinicians dealing with Graves' disease should be alert to the possibility of adrenal insufficiency during hyperthyroid stage.

  5. Cytologic assessment of dynamics of reparative processes in the experimental conditionally aseptic wound under the action of complex preparation based on chitosan and metal nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konyuchenko Е.А.. Zhandarova L.F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: assessment of dynamics of reparative processes with the help of cytological examination of the preparations obtained from a conditionally aseptic wound under the action of a complex preparation based on biopolymer chitosan and metal nanoparticles. Material and Methods. A conditionally aseptic wound was simulated in 40 white outbred rats. In comparison and experimental groups cytologic assessment of dynamics of reparative processes was carried out. A number of neutrophilic leukocytes and fibroblastic row perl 00 cells in the preparations is recorded on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th day from the moment of formation of the wound with the use of the immersion objective. Results. It is established, that in the comparison group the cytologic pattern of impression smear was characterized by decrease in neutrophilic leukocytes and increase in fibroblastic row cells by the 14th day from the moment of formation of the wound. In the experimental group (the use of a complex preparation more intensive reduction of neutrophilic leukocytes and a significant increase in fibroblastic row cells by the 10th day and a complete healing by the 14th day from the moment of formation of the wound has been determined. Conclusion. When treated by a complex preparation based of biopolymer chitosan and metal nanoparticles earlier occurrence of fibroblastic row cells in preparations and a significant decrease in quantity of neutrophilic leukocytes have been observed.

  6. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  7. Professor reveals darter reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on on reserve population of watercress darter in Pinson, AL to help save the population in Roebuck Spring after a significant fish kill in 2008.

  8. Biomarkers of Ovarian Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Roudebush

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the female ovary is the production of a mature and viable oocyte capable of fertilization and subsequent embryo development and implantation. At birth, the ovary contains a finite number of oocytes available for folliculogenesis. This finite number of available oocytes is termed “the ovarian reserve”. The determination of ovarian reserve is important in the assessment and treatment of infertility. As the ovary ages, the ovarian reserve will decline. Infertility affects approximately 15-20% of reproductive aged couples. The most commonly used biomarker assay to assess ovarian reserve is the measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. However, antimüllerian hormone and inhibin-B are other biomarkers of ovarian reserve that are gaining in popularity since they provide direct determination of ovarian status, whereas day 3 FSH is an indirect measurement. This review examines the physical tools and the hormone biomarkers used to evaluate ovarian reserve.

  9. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  10. 10 years of control, repair and replacement of reactor vessel heads; Dix ans de controles, reparations et remplacements de couvercles de cuves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyau, G. [AREVA/FRAMATOME ANP, Div. Service Composants Primaires, 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-06-01

    The occurring of a leak on the primary cooling system at the level of the vessel head of the Bugey-3 reactor during a prescribed hydrostatic test in 1991 has led to more than 10 years of controls, reparations and replacements of vessel heads on French or exported units. This article recalls and details the consequences of this generic defects concerning: -) the devising of special control equipment based on Foucault currents and ultra-sounds, -) the designing of specific repairing tools, and -) the strategy of replacing the vessel head that is now followed in most cases. By end 2003 the total number of vessel head that Framatome-ANP had changed throughout the world, reached 53 units. (A.C.)

  11. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  12. Credit where due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Steven G

    2016-08-01

    The history of medicine is filled with stories of tireless researchers who failed to get credit for their hard work. Examples of this include Rosalind Franklin, who helped to elucidate the structure of DNA; Frederick Banting, who helped to discover insulin; and Jay McLean, who discovered heparin. The founding of the field of vascular surgery provides one of the most vivid examples of uncredited work. Even though Alexis Carrel was an unpaid, untitled assistant in Charles Guthrie's laboratory, it was Carrel alone who received a Nobel Prize for their work. In an attempt to give credit where due, the reasons for this injustice are described. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Payment of Interest on Reserves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiner, Stuart E

    1985-01-01

    .... These reserve requirements, in conjunction with control over the reserve supply, effectively place an upper limit on deposit creation and thus help the Federal Reserve System control the growth of money...

  14. Marine reserves demonstrate trophic interactions across habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Timothy J; Anderson, Marti J; Babcock, Russell C; Kato, Shin

    2006-02-01

    Several infaunal bivalve taxa show patterns of decreased biomass in areas with higher densities of adjacent reef-associated predators (the snapper, Pagrus auratus and rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii). A caging experiment was used to test the hypothesis that patterns observed were caused by predation, using plots seeded with a known initial density of the bivalve Dosinia subrosea to estimate survivorship. The caging experiment was replicated at several sites inside and outside two highly protected marine reserves: predators are significantly more abundant inside these reserves. Survivorship in fully caged, partially caged and open plots were then compared at sites having either low (non reserve) or high (reserve) predator density. The highest rates of survivorship of the bivalve were found in caged plots inside reserves and in all treatments outside reserves. However, inside reserves, open and partially caged treatments exhibited low survivorship. It was possible to specifically attribute much of this mortality to predation by large rock lobsters, due to distinctive marks on the valves of dead D. subrosea. This suggests that predation by large rock lobster could indeed account for the distributional patterns previously documented for certain bivalve populations. Our results illustrate that protection afforded by marine reserves is necessary to investigate how depletion through fishing pressure can change the role of upper-level predators and trophic processes between habitats.

  15. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... AD 83 Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of... Regulation D (Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions) published in the Federal Register on April 12... simplifications related to the administration of reserve requirements: 1. Create a common two-week...

  16. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  17. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  18. Economic losses to buildings due to tsunami impact: the case of Rhodes city, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Ioanna; Novikova, Tatyana; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos

    2017-04-01

    The expected economic losses to buildings due to the tsunami impact is of particular importance for the tsunami risk management. However, only few efforts can be found in this direction. In this study we approached this issue selecting the city of Rhodes Isl., Greece, as a test-site. The methodological steps followed include (a) selection of worst case scenario in the study area based on the tsunami history of the area which includes several powerful events, e.g. 142 AD, 1303, 1481, 1609, 1741, (b) numerical simulation of the tsunami and determination of the inundation zone, (c) application of the DAMASCHE empirical tool, produced by the SCHEMA EU-FP6 project, for the calculation of the damage level expected at each one of the buildings as a function of the water depth in the inundation area, (d) calculation of the buildings that would need reparation after partial damage and of those that would need reconstruction after total destruction, (e) calculation of the cost implied for both reparation and reconstruction. The several data sets which are needed for the execution of these steps, are susceptible to uncertainties and, therefore, the final results are quite sensitive to changes of the data sets. Alternative costs were calculated by taking into account the several uncertainties involved. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 tsunami research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.

  19. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  20. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  1. Statistical Method of Estimating Nigerian Hydrocarbon Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey O. Oseh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon reserves are basic to planning and investment decisions in Petroleum Industry. Therefore its proper estimation is of considerable importance in oil and gas production. The estimation of hydrocarbon reserves in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria has been very popular, and very successful, in the Nigerian oil and gas industry for the past 50 years. In order to fully estimate the hydrocarbon potentials in Nigerian Niger Delta Region, a clear understanding of the reserve geology and production history should be acknowledged. Reserves estimation of most fields is often performed through Material Balance and Volumetric methods. Alternatively a simple Estimation Model and Least Squares Regression may be useful or appropriate. This model is based on extrapolation of additional reserve due to exploratory drilling trend and the additional reserve factor which is due to revision of the existing fields. This Estimation model used alongside with Linear Regression Analysis in this study gives improved estimates of the fields considered, hence can be used in other Nigerian Fields with recent production history

  2. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  3. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether

  4. Granuloma reparativo de células gigantes agresivo en región mandibular Aggressive giant cells reparative granulomas in mandibular region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Sánchez Cabrales

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El granuloma reparativo de células gigantes (GRCG es un proceso reactivo agresivo, que aparece con mayor frecuencia en los sectores anteriores de la mandíbula y el maxilar, en niños y adolecentes jóvenes. Constituye el 1 % de las lesiones óseas tumorales. Existe una considerable controversia acerca de si son lesiones benignas o reactivas; también desde el punto de vista de su origen, de sus características clínicas e histológicas, así como su terapéutica. En octubre de 2007 acudió un caso a consulta externa de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario "Juan M. Márquez", con una lesión diagnosticada como GRCG agresivo, la cual provocó gran deformidad facial y osteólisis del cuerpo mandibular. Se realizaron exámenes físicos, complementarios e iconopatográfico. Se ejecutó tratamiento quirúrgico y análisis de la pieza. La paciente no tuvo alteraciones estéticas ni funcionales. Hubo ausencia de recidiva, luego de 30 meses de seguimiento. Se revisó la literatura más reciente en los sitios Med Line, Lilac, Google, con las palabras clave granuloma reparativo de células gigantes, en inglés y español, para comparar nuestros procederes y resultados con otros reportes.The giant cells reparative granulomas (GCRG is a reactive and aggressive process appearing more frequently in anterior sector of mandible and maxilla in children and young adolescents accounting for the 1 % of tumor bone lesions. There is a considerable controversy if they are benign or reactive lesions from the point of view of its origin, from its clinical and histological features as well as therapeutical. This is the case of a patient seen in external consultation of Maxillofacial Surgery of the "Juán Manuel Márquez" Children and University Hospital at October, 2007 in whom an extent lesion diagnosed as an aggressive GCRG provoked a facial deformity and osteolysis of mandibular body. Complementary, physical and iconopathographic examinations

  5. Evaluation of reparative dentin formation of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine and BioAggregate using micro-CT and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jia; Song, Young-Sang; Min, Kyung-San; Kim, Sun-Hun; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Lee, Bin-Na; Chang, Hoon-Sang; Hwang, In-Nam; Oh, Won-Mann; Hwang, Yun-Chan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of two new calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials (Biodentine and BioAggregate) to induce healing in a rat pulp injury model and to compare them with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Eighteen rats were anesthetized, cavities were prepared and the pulp was capped with either of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine, or BioAggregate. The specimens were scanned using a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system and were prepared and evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically using dentin sialoprotein (DSP). On micro-CT analysis, the ProRoot MTA and Biodentine groups showed significantly thicker hard tissue formation (p MTA showed complete dentin bridge formation with normal pulpal histology. In the Biodentine and BioAggregate groups, a thick, homogeneous hard tissue barrier was observed. The ProRoot MTA specimens showed strong immunopositive reaction for DSP. Our results suggest that calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials induce favorable effects on reparative processes during vital pulp therapy and that both Biodentine and BioAggregate could be considered as alternatives to ProRoot MTA.

  6. Multiple Sclerosis and the LIF/IL-6 Axis: Use of Nanotechnology to Harness the Tolerogenic and Reparative Properties of LIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su M. Metcalfe

    2015-05-01

    tions for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, where the clinical burden is immense. It encompasses more than 100 diseases and, in the USA alone, costs more than $100 billion in direct health care costs annually. Other properties of LIF include the promotion of healthy neuro-glial interactions within the central nervous system (CNS, where, in addition to MS, LIF-NP therapy is relevant to inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases that represent a large and increasing need within aging populations. Thirdly, LIF is a reparative growth factor that can maintain genomic plasticity. LIF-NP supports the use of stem cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine plus augment thera‐ peutic benefits within the patient. These core properties of LIF are greatly amplified in value by the advantage of being formulated as nanoparticles, namely (i targeted delivery, (ii exploitation of endogenous regulatory pathways and (iii creation of surrogate micro-stromal niches. We discuss LIF-NP as a means to harness endogenous pathways for the treatment of MS, both to reset immune self-tolerance and to promote repair of myelin that is required to support health within the nervous system.

  7. Justicia transicional y reparación a las víctimas en Colombia Transitional justice and reparation for victims in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander González Chavarría

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un dilema típico que surge al aplicar el modelo de justicia transicional como marco normativo que orienta el actual proceso de negociación con los grupos paramilitares en Colombia, que ejemplifica el tipo de requerimientos institucionales que contextualizan y delimitan la validez y viabilidad del enfoque de justicia transicional, especialmente si se pone como objetivo central la reparación integral del daño causado a las víctimas del conflicto armado interno.This article describes a typical dilemma that occurs as a result of the application of a transitional justice model as a normative framework guiding the current process of negotiation with paramilitary groups in Colombia. It exemplifies the type of institutional requirements that contextualize and delimit the validity and viability of the transitional justice approach, particularly if the central objective is the integral reparation of the damage caused to the victims of the internal armed conflict.

  8. Evaluation of reparative dentin formation of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine and BioAggregate using micro-CT and immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of two new calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials (Biodentine and BioAggregate to induce healing in a rat pulp injury model and to compare them with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Materials and Methods Eighteen rats were anesthetized, cavities were prepared and the pulp was capped with either of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine, or BioAggregate. The specimens were scanned using a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT system and were prepared and evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically using dentin sialoprotein (DSP. Results On micro-CT analysis, the ProRoot MTA and Biodentine groups showed significantly thicker hard tissue formation (p < 0.05. On H&E staining, ProRoot MTA showed complete dentin bridge formation with normal pulpal histology. In the Biodentine and BioAggregate groups, a thick, homogeneous hard tissue barrier was observed. The ProRoot MTA specimens showed strong immunopositive reaction for DSP. Conclusions Our results suggest that calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials induce favorable effects on reparative processes during vital pulp therapy and that both Biodentine and BioAggregate could be considered as alternatives to ProRoot MTA.

  9. Evaluation of reparative dentin formation of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine and BioAggregate using micro-CT and immunohistochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jia; Song, Young-Sang; Min, Kyung-San; Kim, Sun-Hun; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of two new calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials (Biodentine and BioAggregate) to induce healing in a rat pulp injury model and to compare them with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Materials and Methods Eighteen rats were anesthetized, cavities were prepared and the pulp was capped with either of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine, or BioAggregate. The specimens were scanned using a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system and were prepared and evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically using dentin sialoprotein (DSP). Results On micro-CT analysis, the ProRoot MTA and Biodentine groups showed significantly thicker hard tissue formation (p Biodentine and BioAggregate groups, a thick, homogeneous hard tissue barrier was observed. The ProRoot MTA specimens showed strong immunopositive reaction for DSP. Conclusions Our results suggest that calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials induce favorable effects on reparative processes during vital pulp therapy and that both Biodentine and BioAggregate could be considered as alternatives to ProRoot MTA. PMID:26877988

  10. Impaired Mobilization of Vascular Reparative Bone Marrow Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes but not in Leptin Receptor-Deficient db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasam, Goutham; Joshi, Shrinidh; Jarajapu, Yagna P R

    2016-05-18

    Diabetes is associated with impaired mobilization of bone marrow stem/progenitor cells that accelerate vascularization of ischemic areas. This study characterized mobilization of vascular reparative bone marrow progenitor cells in mouse models of diabetes. Age-matched control or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic, and db/db mice with lean-controls were studied. Mobilization induced by G-CSF, AMD3100 or ischemia was evaluated by flow cytometric enumeration of circulating Lin(-)Sca-1(+)cKit(+) (LSK) cells, and by colony forming unit (CFU) assay. The circulating WBCs and LSKs, and CFUs were reduced in both models with a shorter duration (10-12 weeks) of diabetes compared to their respective controls. Longer duration of STZ-diabetes (≥20 weeks) induced impairment of G-CSF- or AMD3100-mobilization (P mobilization by G-CSF or AMD3100 was either increased or unaffected (P mobilization, of LSK cells were impaired in both models. Leptin receptor antagonist, PESLAN-1, increased G-CSF- or AMD3100-mobilization of WBCs and LSKs, compared to the untreated. Leptin increased basal WBCs, decreased basal and AMD3100-mobilized LSK cells, and had no effect on G-CSF. These results suggest that mobilopathy is apparent in STZ-diabetes but not in db/db mice. Leptin receptor antagonism would be a promising approach for reversing diabetic bone marrow mobilopathy.

  11. On the Reparative Punishment in the Environmental Criminal Law%环境犯罪中修复性刑罚之提

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟祥福

    2015-01-01

    环境犯罪与传统犯罪相比具有特殊性,因而仅仅运用自由刑和罚金刑无法满足司法实践的需要。修复性环境刑罚能够破解环境犯罪执行难的问题,并且满足被害人的权利需求,同时又兼顾预防环境犯罪,为犯罪人提供自我救赎的机会。建构修复性刑罚应当完善罚金刑并增加责令补救和公益劳动刑罚措施。此外,合理设置资格刑也是修复性环境刑罚的重要内容。%Compared with traditional crime , environmental crime has some specific features and only the use of criminal penal -ties can not meet the needs of judicial practice .Restorative environmental penalty can crack the difficulty of environmental crime ex -ecution and the needs of victims'rights, while taking into account the prevention of environmental crime , providing an opportunity to redeem themselves for the perpetrators .Improving the punishment and increasing ordered remedy and volunteer labor punishment can construct the reparative punishment .In addition, a reasonable set qualifications punishment is an important part of repair envi -ronmental penalties .

  12. Reserve requirements: A modern perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Scott E. Hein; Jonathan D. Stewart

    2002-01-01

    The discussion in many money and banking textbooks would suggest that the Federal Reserve requires depository institutions to hold a minimum level of non-interest-earning reserves because (1) reserve requirements are a monetary policy tool that allows the Fed to expand the money supply and lower interest rates, and (2) reserve requirements improve the safety and soundness of depository institutions. This article argues that this "conventional wisdom" view is too narrow. ; The Fed often uses r...

  13. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  14. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  15. 玻璃纤维桩加全瓷冠修复前牙残根残冠的效果%Effects of glass fiber post plus all-ceramic crown on reparation of anterior teeth residual root and crown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑加军; 李瑛; 彭庭莉; 谢良宪

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察玻璃纤维桩+全瓷冠修复前牙残根残冠的效果.方法 选择我科进行前牙残根、残冠修复治疗患者76例82颗患牙,采用玻璃纤维桩+全瓷冠修复,完成后6~12个月对患者进行随访,观察有无冠桩脱落、折断、松动以及牙龈、牙冠的色泽改变情况.结果 82颗患牙中,有1颗出现冠脱落,1例出现根尖叩痛.全部82颗患牙均未出现根折、桩核脱落,无继发龋坏,冠及龈边缘无变色,色泽美观.结论 玻璃纤维桩+全瓷冠修复前牙残根残冠临床效果良好.%Objective To observe the effects of glass fiber post plus all - ceramic crown on the reparation of anterior teeth residual root and crown. Methods 76 patients ( 82 front teeth ) receiving the reparation of anterior teeth residual root and crown in our department were selected and received the reparation by glass fiber post plus all - ceramic crown. Follow up was made 6-12 months after the reparation. Observe was made in whether there were any non - crown post shedding, split, and loosening and the changes in the color of gingival gum and crown. Results There were 1 tooth with the crown shedding and 1 case of percussion pain in the root among the 82 teeth. There was no split, loss of post - core, and secondary caries among all the 82 teeth. The color of their crown and gingival margin did not change. Conclusion Glass fiber post plus all - ceramic crown have good effect on the reparation of anterior teeth residual root and crown.

  16. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    .... 3. One commentator also agreed with the change to the reserve account requirements as the change... regulation to change the Reserve Account for new construction for the Sections 514/516 Farm Labor Housing... Development based its reserve account on a set percentage of a property's total development cost (TDC). With...

  17. Degree of Lipid Control in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease and Measures Adopted by Physicians. REPAR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, Enrique; Cordero, Alberto; Cequier, Angel; Ruiz, Emilio; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2016-10-01

    Lipid control is insufficient in patients with coronary heart disease but this situation may be improving with the implementation of the latest clinical practice guidelines. The aim of this study was to analyze whether target values of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are achieved and to identify associated factors and physicians' attitudes to deficient control. We conducted a national, multicenter, prospective, observational study of 1103 patients with stable coronary heart disease, analyzing lipid values and a broad set of clinical variables. The statistical analysis involved a binary logistic regression model using backward stepwise elimination. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was < 70 mg/dL in only 26% of patients, even though 95.3% were receiving cholesterol-lowering agents, 45% of which were high-intensity therapies. Independent predictors of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 70 mg/dL were diabetes mellitus, wholegrain bread, shorter history of dyslipidemia, and, especially, high-intensity cholesterol-lowering therapies. Physicians increased therapy in only 26% of poorly controlled patients. The main predictor of increased therapy was low-intensity baseline therapy (odds ratio=5.05; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-9.2). A more proactive approach was observed in older physicians (P=.019) and longer physician practice (P=.02). Despite the new guidelines, only 26% of patients with coronary heart disease have adequate lipid control. In 70% of patients, physicians continue the same therapy, even though high-intensity cholesterol-lowering therapies are a key factor in good control. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2007-06-15

    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  20. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... liabilities of depository institutions for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. The Board's Regulation... monetary policy. If the Federal Reserve changes its monetary policy framework, which includes the payment... affect the Federal Reserve's ability to implement monetary policy in the event that all depository...

  1. Adequacy of Frequency Reserves for High Wind Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Maule, Petr

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a new methodology is developed to assess the adequacy of frequency reserves to handle power imbalances caused by wind power forecast errors. The goal of this methodology is to estimate the adequate volume and speed of activation of frequency reserves required to handle power...... imbalances caused due to high penetration of wind power. An algorithm is proposed and developed to estimate the power imbalances due to wind power forecast error following activation of different operating reserves. Frequency containment reserve requirements for mitigating these power imbalances...... are developed through this methodology. Furthermore, the probability of reducing this frequency containment reserve requirement is investigated through this methodology with activation of different volumes and speed of frequency restoration reserve. Wind power generation for 2020 and 2030 scenarios...

  2. Maculopathy due to drug inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Gonzalez-Buendia, L; Marcos-Fernández, M

    2014-08-01

    A case of maculopathy due to "poppers" is described. Poppers is a drug composed of various forms of alkyl nitrite. A 39 year-old man, who had been using poppers for years, was seen in the clinic with phosphenes, reduced visual acuity and central scotoma. The SD-OCT in the right eye showed disruption at the level of the IS/OS junction line. The SD-OCT scan in the left eye showed an outer rectangular retinal hole and an outer retinal cyst. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Marine reserves with ecological uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, R Quentin; Kompas, Tom; Lindenmayer, David

    2005-09-01

    To help manage the fluctuations inherent in fish populations scientists have argued for both an ecosystem approach to management and the greater use of marine reserves. Support for reserves includes empirical evidence that they can raise the spawning biomass and mean size of exploited populations, increase the abundance of species and, relative to reference sites, raise population density, biomass, fish size and diversity. By contrast, fishers often oppose the establishment and expansion of marine reserves and claim that reserves provide few, if any, economic payoffs. Using a stochastic optimal control model with two forms of ecological uncertainty we demonstrate that reserves create a resilience effect that allows for the population to recover faster, and can also raise the harvest immediately following a negative shock. The tradeoff of a larger reserve is a reduced harvest in the absence of a negative shock such that a reserve will never encompass the entire population if the goal is to maximize the economic returns from harvesting, and fishing is profitable. Under a wide range of parameter values with ecological uncertainty, and in the 'worst case' scenario for a reserve, we show that a marine reserve can increase the economic payoff to fishers even when the harvested population is not initially overexploited, harvesting is economically optimal and the population is persistent. Moreover, we show that the benefits of a reserve cannot be achieved by existing effort or output controls. Our results demonstrate that, in many cases, there is no tradeoff between the economic payoff of fishers and ecological benefits when a reserve is established at equal to, or less than, its optimum size.

  4. Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Andrew D; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Babcock, Russell C; Rissik, David; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-10-01

    Natural ecosystems have experienced widespread degradation due to human activities. Consequently, enhancing resilience has become a primary objective for conservation. Nature reserves are a favored management tool, but we need clearer empirical tests of whether they can impart resilience. Catastrophic flooding in early 2011 impacted coastal ecosystems across eastern Australia. We demonstrate that marine reserves enhanced the capacity of coral reefs to withstand flood impacts. Reserve reefs resisted the impact of perturbation, whilst fished reefs did not. Changes on fished reefs were correlated with the magnitude of flood impact, whereas variation on reserve reefs was related to ecological variables. Herbivory and coral recruitment are critical ecological processes that underpin reef resilience, and were greater in reserves and further enhanced on reserve reefs near mangroves. The capacity of reserves to mitigate external disturbances and promote ecological resilience will be critical to resisting an increased frequency of climate-related disturbance.

  5. Major Nature Reserves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At the end of 2010,China had 2,588 nature reserves,covering 14.9 percent of its land area.These nature reserves have effectively protected more than 90 percent of land ecosystems,85 percent of wild animals and 65 percent of higher plant species

  6. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  7. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  8. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  9. Species-specific spatial characteristics in reserve site selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting reserve sites cost-effectively, taking into account the mobility and habitat area requirements of each species. Many reserve site selection problems are analyzed in mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) models due to the mathematical solvers available

  10. Direct pulp capping effect with experimentally developed adhesive resin systems containing reparative dentin-promoting agents on rat pulp: mixed amounts of additives and their effect on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Yoshihisa; Shinkai, Koichi; Suzuki, Masaya; Kato, Chikage; Katoh, Yoshiroh

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the wound-healing process of exposed rat pulp when treated with experimental adhesive resin systems. The experimental direct pulp capping adhesive resin systems were composed of primer-I, primer-II and an experimental bonding agent. Primer-I was Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) primer containing 1.0 or 5.0 wt% CaCl(2), and primer-II was CSE primer containing 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 wt% compound of equal mole of pA and pB with synthetic peptides derived from dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1). Primer-I containing 1.0 and 5.0 wt% CaCl(2) was assigned to the experimental groups 1-3 and 4-6, respectively. Primer-II containing 0.1, 1.0 or 5.0 wt% compound of pA and pB was assigned to the experimental groups 1 and 4, 2 and 5, and 3 and 6, respectively. In all experimental groups, CSE bond containing 10 wt% hydroxyapatite powder was used as the experimental bonding agent. The positive control teeth were capped with calcium hydroxide preparation (Dycal), and the negative control teeth were capped with CSE. The specimens were alternately stained with Mayer's H&E and the enhanced polymer one-step staining methods. Experimental groups 1, 4, 5 and 6 showed a higher level of reparative dentin formation compared to the negative control 14 days postoperatively. At 28 days postoperatively, all experimental groups showed the formation of extensive reparative dentin, and experimental groups 4, 5 and 6 demonstrated similar dentin bridge formation as that of the positive control. How quickly reparative dentin formation occurs may depend on the concentration of CaCl(2) and the compound of pA and pB in the experimental primer.

  11. Hadoop-Based Inconsistence Detection and Reparation Algorithm for Big Data%大数据上基于Hadoop的不一致数据检测与修复算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安珍; 门雪莹; 王宏志; 李建中; 高宏

    2015-01-01

    With the popularity of the Internet applications in modern society, there comes the problem of increasing poor quality data. This paper investigates inconsistency problem in data quality, designs and realizes an inconsistent data detection and reparation algorithm based on Hadoop. By using the conditional functional dependency (CFD) rules in the data dependency theory, inconsistent data can be detected according to the given rules, and reparation scheme is proposed for the inconsistent data, the final reparation dataset, whose deterministic probability has been calculated, satisfies the consistent requirement. At last, this paper proves that the algorithm performs better than those on a single computer through experiments and the runtime grows linearly when the rules are not large.%随着现代社会互联网的普及应用,产生的海量数据普遍存在质量问题。针对数据质量中不一致性问题进行研究,设计并实现了基于Hadoop并行平台的不一致数据检测与修复算法。采用数据依赖理论中的条件函数依赖,根据给定规则检测不一致数据集,对这些不一致数据求解修复方案,使得修复结果满足数据一致性要求,并给出修复结果的确定性概率。最后通过实验证明了该算法较已有的单机算法有更好的修复效果,当约束规则较少的情况下,算法执行时间呈线性增长。

  12. Marine biosphere reserves - Need of the 21st century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    Worldwide awareness for the creation of Marine Biosphere Reserves has increased considerably due to the human depredation in many coastal areas and natural changes. Many important and unique plant and animal species have been extinct and whatever...

  13. E-Cadherin在修复性牙本质形成中的免疫组化研究%Immunohistochemistry study of E - cadherin in reparative dentinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈智; 樊明文; 边专; 吕平; 张旗

    2000-01-01

    目的:观察细胞粘附分子E-cadherin在修复性牙本质形成中的免疫反应和免疫定位。方法:在大鼠上、下颌第一磨牙近中面制备单面洞,分别观察3、15和30d。标本行常规组织学处理。利用鼠抗E-cadherin和免疫组化SABC法,对标本进行标记,HE复染。结果:E-cadherin在术后3d成牙本质细胞染色较弱,牙髓细胞为阳性;15d后,成牙本质细胞样细胞和牙髓细胞染色阳性;30d后,成牙本质细胞样细胞出现极化,胞浆阳性染色明显。结论:E-cadherin可能在牙髓修复过程中参与了牙髓细胞的分化和极化过程。%AIM: To investigate the immunological reactivity of E- cadherin in the reparative dentinogenesis.METHODS: The cavity was prepared on the mesial surface of the first molar of Wistar rats. After the periods of 3, 15, 30days of post - operation, animal were sacrificed and paraffin sections were prepared through histological process. SABC method was used to detect the reactivity using rat anti - E- cadherin antibody. RESULTS: The reactivity was not evident in odontoblasts of 3 days group, but was evident in dental pulp cells; the positive staining was observed in odontoblast - like cells and pulp cells after 15 days; in 30 days, the polarized odontoblast- like cells were positively stained. CONCLUSION:E- cadherin may involve in the differentiation, and polarization of dental pulp cells.

  14. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  15. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  16. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek; Ola I. Saleh; Howida A. Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH) level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound throug...

  17. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  18. Impostor Syndrome, a Reparative History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Simmons

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an attempt to insert the stories we tell about fear and shame into a history of twentieth-century psychology and its obsession with achievement and modernization. It is an attempt to write an affective history of achievement at the turn of the millennium - and to make this feeling history. Impostor Syndrome is a pop-psychological diagnosis, employed to explain the low presence of women in STEM fields, business and academic administration and ’thought leadership’ in the pubic sphere. The article follows the intellectual lineage of two precursors of Impostor Syndrome, Fear of Success and the Impostor Phenomenon. It argues that the grouping of gender/ race/ success/ affect was a keystone of twentieth-century American psychology and development theory. The history of this feeling has consequences for thinking about situated knowledge, realism and epistemic justice.

  19. Reparation, slavery and political realism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    2016-06-19

    Jun 19, 2016 ... slavery that existed in Africa prior to the European influence (BROOKS 2006). ..... inequality between blacks and whites is likely to breed, may be a very .... of Maryland Law Journal of Race, Religion, Gender and Class], Vol.

  20. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  1. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi Duman; Reşat Duman; Mehmet Balcı

    2013-01-01

    Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  2. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  3. The Coal Reserves Database Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonskowski, R. (Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) initiated the Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program in October, 1990 in order to update and improve the inherent applicability of EIA's national coal reserves database. Currently, EIA's database is derived from the demonstrated reserve base (DRB) of coal, a compilation of data from published sources, unified by adherence to standardized physical criteria of minability, but never intended for the detailed coal supply and policy analyses demanded today. The CRDB Program is designed to engage the expertise available at State geological surveys in compiling best current State-level estimates of both quantities and quality of available coal reserves through cooperative agreements with EIA. The CRDB emphasizes integration of more data on coal quality, use of data from unpublished sources, cooperation with industry and other government sources, and flexibility of criteria to take into account local accessibility and mining conditions and utilize computerized geographic information systems or coal resource software. The results of pilot projects in Ohio and Wyoming are summarized. Areas nominated for support in the program include 15 additional priority coal regions in 14 States, which comprise 95 percent of the current reserve estimates and most of the coal-bearing areas of low sulfur potential. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Leveraging the Reserve Component: Associating Active and Reserve Aviation Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    capabilities, forces for large-scale conventional campaigns, balance stress across the Total Force, include a larger portion of American citizenry defending...Integration will also relieve stress on the Active Duty force and provide a cost-effective force multiplier. Finally, it will leverage the high...heavily.18 Other identified organizational challenges included cross- acculturation between active and reserve component career

  5. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  6. Cognitive reserve: The warehouse within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is characterized by progressive and mostly irreversible memory loss. Other neuropsychiatric disorders affect cognition in varying manner. Are all people affected with such disorders manifest clinically in similar manner or does our brain have some reserve to tolerate insults? Relevant researches over the last two decades were scrutinized to understand brain reserve, appreciate the conceptual change in the same over years, and how the same can be improved for better cognition and memory over the year. Literature evidence suggests that the cognitive reserve (CR is a dynamic and functional concept. There is adequate evidence to suggest that enriched environment and various other measures are likely to improve CR across all age. Improving CR may delay or reverse the effects of aging or brain pathology.

  7. China's Ultimate Recoverable Reserves Calculated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Hong

    2003-01-01

    @@ A nationwide project is being launched to assess the potential capacity of China's oil and natural gas resources, a senior official from the Ministry of Land and Resources said in early December. Based on the existing data, China's oil and natural gas reserves are estimated at 106.9 billion tons and 53trillion cubic meters respectively at the present time.

  8. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  9. FEA Reports on Proved Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Explains the way in which oil and gas reserves are estimated, and the variation in these estimates according to the year of the resources' estimation and the group undertaking the survey. A recent Federal Energy Administration study suggests that recoverable oil and gas resources have limits that may be approached in the next 50 years. (MLH)

  10. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...

  11. Due process traditionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  12. Onycholysis due to trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Female patient, 35 years old who came to the private office due to discoloration of her left thumbnail and little pain since 1 month ago. Clinical examination shows nail disease on her left thumbnail with onycholysis and dyschromia, dermatoscopy showed white-yellowish discoloration (Fig. 1A, B. The rest of the clinical examination was normal. Patient use to using acrylic nails since 2 years ago and denied some trauma at the nail. The diagnosis of onycholysis due to trauma was done and recommended her not to use acrylic nail, maintain the nail short and avoid wetness.

  13. Technical Due Diligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Varano, Mattia

    2011-01-01

    Technical Due Diligence (TDD) as an evaluation of the performance of constructed facilities has become an important new field of practice for consultants. Before the financial crisis started in autumn 2008 it represented the fastest growing activity in some consulting companies. TDD is mostly car...

  14. Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    batteries – Environmental concerns, lack of business – Non-availability of some critical materials • Lithium Oxyhalides are systems of choice – Good...exhibit good corrosion resistance to neutral electrolytes (LiAlCl4 in thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride ) • Using AlCl3 creates a much more corrosive...Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries Jeff Swank and Allan Goldberg Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 301-394-3116 jswank@arl.army.mil ll l

  15. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  16. Neurotransplantation therapy and cerebellar reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendelin, Jan; Mitoma, Hiroshi; Manto, Mario

    2017-08-10

    Neurotransplantation has been recently the focus of interest as a promising therapy to substitute lost cerebellar neurons and improve cerebellar ataxias. However, since cell differentiation and synaptic formation are required to obtain a functional circuitry, highly integrated reproduction of cerebellar anatomy is not a simple process. Rather than a genuine replacement, recent studies have shown that grafted cells rescue surviving cells from neurodegeneration by exerting trophic effects, supporting mitochondrial function, modulating neuroinflammation, stimulating endogenous regenerative processes, and facilitating cerebellar compensatory properties thanks to neural plasticity. On the other hand, accumulating clinical evidence suggests that the self-recovery capacity is still preserved even if the cerebellum is affected by a diffuse and progressive pathology. We put forward the period with intact recovery capacity as "restorable stage" and the notion of reversal capacity as "cerebellar reserve". The concept of cerebellar reserve is particularly relevant, both theoretically and practically, to target recovery of cerebellar deficits by neurotransplantation. Reinforcing the cerebellar reserve and prolonging the restorable stage can be envisioned as future endpoints of neurotransplantation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.

  18. Traumatic brain injury and reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    The potential role of brain and cognitive reserve in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is reviewed. Brain reserve capacity (BRC) refers to preinjury quantitative measures such as brain size that relate to outcome. Higher BRC implies threshold differences when clinical deficits will become apparent after injury, where those individuals with higher BRC require more pathology to reach that threshold. Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to how flexibly and efficiently the individual makes use of available brain resources. The CR model suggests the brain actively attempts to cope with brain damage by using pre-existing cognitive processing approaches or by enlisting compensatory approaches. Standard proxies for CR include education and IQ although this has expanded to include literacy, occupational attainment, engagement in leisure activities, and the integrity of social networks. Most research on BRC and CR has taken place in aging and degenerative disease but these concepts likely apply to the effects of TBI, especially with regards to recovery. Since high rates of TBI occur in those under age 35, both CR and BRC factors likely relate to how the individual copes with TBI over the lifespan. These factors may be particularly relevant to the relationship of developing dementia in the individual who has sustained a TBI earlier in life.

  19. Optimal Reserve Management Pattern for Turkish Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Talasli; Suheyla Ozyildirim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we model a representative bank’s optimal reserve management pattern by adopting institutional aspects of the Turkish required reserve regime. The cost minimization problem, in general, takes into account the expected opportunity cost of holding reserves and penalty costs for not fulfilling the liability of reserve requirement. We extend this problem for reserve carry-over provision and use of late liquidity window facility and compute the optimal reserve pattern by dynamic progr...

  20. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  1. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  2. [Enteropathy due to olmesartan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould Sidi Mohamed, M; Colardelle, P

    2016-09-01

    The olmesartan is a selective antagonist of angiotensin II indicated for the treatment of essential hypertension. We report the case of a gastrointestinal involvement with duodenal villous atrophy and lymphocytic infiltrate duodenal epithelial and colonic secondary to the olmesartan taking with test of positive reintroduction. The patient had chronic diarrhea with weight loss of 10kg occurring one month after the passage of 20 to 40mg/day olmesartan took three years. A rectosigmoidoscopy highlighted some puncture slightly erythematous areas. The responsibility of olmesartan was suspected and the drug was stopped. The evolution was rapidly favorable with disappearance of diarrhea 48hours later. Two days after the patient took the drug on its own initiative. Sigmoid biopsies showed an inflammatory infiltrate rich in lymphocytes. Gastroscopy showed erosive esophagitis and duodenal biopsies showed chronic duodenitis with epithelial lymphocytosis and subtotal villous atrophy. The reintroduction has led to the immediate resumption of diarrhea. Olmesartan was finalized. Diarrhea has not returned since. A colonoscopy performed six weeks after discharge was normal. Knowledge of the bowel olmesartan is recent and based almost solely on the description of 22 cases observed at the Mayo Clinic with patients, as in our case, have similar symptoms and lesions. We stress, about a publication of an isolated case, the possibility of less severe cases with histological abnormalities without clinical translation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The petroleum reserves: a peak oil or a plate?; Les reserves de petrole: pic ou plateau?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, B.

    2010-09-15

    With 1100 to 1200 Gbl of proved petroleum reserves, the world can still consume petroleum for 35 to 40 years; if we add 1000 to 1200 Gbl of reserves potentially recoverable and if the politico economical conditions allow it, it is 35 supplementary years that can be considered. In this context and while hydrocarbons will still represent 50% of the world 'energetic mixing' in 2030, the production capacity will reach its maximum at about 100 Mbl/day in 2020-2030 with a potential problem in 2015 due to the investment delays resulting of the crisis. Nevertheless, the detection, exploitation and disposal of these resources will imply non only gigantic investments (about 6000 milliards of dollars from now to 2030) but advanced experts and technologies too. (O.M.)

  4. Deposit Reserve Rate No Panacea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark; A.DeWeaver

    2006-01-01

    To rein in runaway investment, China's central bank, the People's Bank of China (PBOC), took several measures in mid-June, including the most dramatic step of raising the deposit reserve rate by 0.5 percentage point According to Mark A. DeWeaver, who manages Quantrarian Asia Hedge, a fund that invests in Asian equities, the PBOC's measures may lower money supply growth in the short term; that is, the effect of these measures "may be only temporary." He believes that "attempts to slow money supply growth ...

  5. Macrofungi of the Zasavica special nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijanović Marko S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of biodiversity investigation of the Republic of Serbia, the investigation of the presence and the diversity of macrofungi of the Zasavica Special Nature Reserve (North Serbia has been undertaken. Relatively poor generic diversity of macrofungi was recorded with domination of ecological group of wood-decaying species. Even though being preliminary, our results point to the necessity of conservation and protection of recent fungal diversity but, in our opinion, not by making a so-called 'Red list of endangered species', which, due to the lack of information and very poor evidence on this group of organisms in our country, are extremely unreliable and therefore disputable, but rather through the very short list of a few not endangered species, conditionally called 'White list of not endangered fungal species', if such species recently exist et all.

  6. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  7. Essays in the California electricity reserves markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxoglou, Konstantinos

    This dissertation examines inefficiencies in the California electricity reserves markets. In Chapter 1, I use the information released during the investigation of the state's electricity crisis of 2000 and 2001 by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to diagnose allocative inefficiencies. Building upon the work of Wolak (2000), I calculate a lower bound for the sellers' price-cost margins using the inverse elasticities of their residual demand curves. The downward bias in my estimates stems from the fact that I don't account for the hierarchical substitutability of the reserve types. The margins averaged at least 20 percent for the two highest quality types of reserves, regulation and spinning, generating millions of dollars in transfers to a handful of sellers. I provide evidence that the deviations from marginal cost pricing were due to the markets' high concentration and a principal-agent relationship that emerged from their design. In Chapter 2, I document systematic differences between the markets' day- and hour-ahead prices. I use a high-dimensional vector moving average model to estimate the premia and conduct correct inferences. To obtain exact maximum likelihood estimates of the model, I employ the EM algorithm that I develop in Chapter 3. I uncover significant day-ahead premia, which I attribute to market design characteristics too. On the demand side, the market design established a principal-agent relationship between the markets' buyers (principal) and their supervisory authority (agent). The agent had very limited incentives to shift reserve purchases to the lower priced hour-ahead markets. On the supply side, the market design raised substantial entry barriers by precluding purely speculative trading and by introducing a complicated code of conduct that induced uncertainty about which actions were subject to regulatory scrutiny. In Chapter 3, I introduce a state-space representation for vector autoregressive moving average models that enables

  8. Designing Tone Reservation PAR Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Albin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tone reservation peak-to-average (PAR ratio reduction is an established area when it comes to bringing down signal peaks in multicarrier (DMT or OFDM systems. When designing such a system, some questions often arise about PAR reduction. Is it worth the effort? How much can it give? How much does it give depending on the parameter choices? With this paper, we attempt to answer these questions without resolving to extensive simulations for every system and every parameter choice. From a specification of the allowed spectrum, for instance prescribed by a standard, including a PSD-mask and a number of tones, we analytically predict achievable PAR levels, and thus implicitly suggest parameter choices. We use the ADSL2 and ADSL2+ systems as design examples.

  9. Reserved-Length Prefix Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Huffman coding finds an optimal prefix code for a given probability mass function. Consider situations in which one wishes to find an optimal code with the restriction that all codewords have lengths that lie in a user-specified set of lengths (or, equivalently, no codewords have lengths that lie in a complementary set). This paper introduces a polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithm that finds optimal codes for this reserved-length prefix coding problem. This has applications to quickly encoding and decoding lossless codes. In addition, one modification of the approach solves any quasiarithmetic prefix coding problem, while another finds optimal codes restricted to the set of codes with g codeword lengths for user-specified g (e.g., g=2).

  10. Z' reservation at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Montagna, G.; Piccinini, F.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the possibility that one extra Z\\equiv Z' exists with arbitrary mass and fermion couplings that do not violate (charged) lepton universality. We show that, in such a situation, a functional relationship is generated between the \\underline{deviations} from the SM values of three leptonic observables of two-fermion production at future e^+e^- colliders that is completely independent of the values of the Z' mass and couplings. This selects a certain region in the 3-d space of the deviations that is \\underline{characteristic} of the model (Z' "reservation"). As a specific and relevant example, we show the picture that would emerge at LEP2 under realistic experimental conditions.

  11. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  12. Marine reserves: size and age do matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, Joachim; Osenberg, Craig W; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Domenici, Paolo; García-Charton, José-Antonio; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Badalamenti, Fabio; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Brito, Alberto; Bulleri, Fabio; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Dimech, Mark; Falcón, Jesús M; Guala, Ivan; Milazzo, Marco; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Somerfield, Paul J; Stobart, Ben; Vandeperre, Frédéric; Valle, Carlos; Planes, Serge

    2008-05-01

    Marine reserves are widely used throughout the world to prevent overfishing and conserve biodiversity, but uncertainties remain about their optimal design. The effects of marine reserves are heterogeneous. Despite theoretical findings, empirical studies have previously found no effect of size on the effectiveness of marine reserves in protecting commercial fish stocks. Using 58 datasets from 19 European marine reserves, we show that reserve size and age do matter: Increasing the size of the no-take zone increases the density of commercial fishes within the reserve compared with outside; whereas the size of the buffer zone has the opposite effect. Moreover, positive effects of marine reserve on commercial fish species and species richness are linked to the time elapsed since the establishment of the protection scheme. The reserve size-dependency of the response to protection has strong implications for the spatial management of coastal areas because marine reserves are used for spatial zoning.

  13. Burn Bans lifted for Tribal Reservations in Snohomish and Pierce Counties on Jan. 11, Ban Continues for Yakama Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is lifting its burn ban on open burning for the Tulalip, Stillaguamish, Sauk-Suiattle and Puyallup Indian Reservations in Snohomish and Pierce Counties due to improved air quality, effective at 8:00 a.m., Janu

  14. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  15. Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

  16. Marine reserve effects on fishery profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Crow; Kendall, Bruce E; Gaines, Steven; Siegel, David A; Costello, Christopher

    2008-04-01

    Some studies suggest that fishery yields can be higher with reserves than under conventional management. However, the economic performance of fisheries depends on economic profit, not fish yield. The predictions of higher yields with reserves rely on intensive fishing pressures between reserves; the exorbitant costs of harvesting low-density populations erode profits. We incorporated this effect into a bioeconomic model to evaluate the economic performance of reserve-based management. Our results indicate that reserves can still benefit fisheries, even those targeting species that are expensive to harvest. However, in contrast to studies focused on yield, only a moderate proportion of the coast in reserves (with moderate harvest pressures outside reserves) is required to maximize profit. Furthermore, reserve area and harvest intensity can be traded off with little impact on profits, allowing for management flexibility while still providing higher profit than attainable under conventional management.

  17. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  18. Mordovia State Nature Reserve's 80th anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    Elena V. Vargot

    2016-01-01

    Brief physical-geographical characteristics, history of creation and development of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve territory are presented. We listed aims and objectives assigned for the Mordovia Reserve in different periods. During the first years of the Mordovia Reserve the forest conservation was aimed at reforestation of the southern area of the taiga zone; the investigation of harmful insect fauna to timely response on infection foci of trees; enriching of the fauna of the Reserve. At...

  19. 40 CFR 35.2020 - Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under § 35.2025. The Regional Administrator may waive this reserve requirement where a State can... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserves. 35.2020 Section 35.2020... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2020 Reserves. In developing its priority list the...

  20. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  1. Micro-level stochastic loss reserving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Plat, R.

    2010-01-01

    To meet future liabilities general insurance companies will set-up reserves. Predicting future cash-flows is essential in this process. Actuarial loss reserving methods will help them to do this in a sound way. The last decennium a vast literature about stochastic loss reserving for the general insu

  2. 42 CFR 417.934 - Reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve requirement. 417.934 Section 417.934 Public... PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.934 Reserve requirement. (a) Timing... section 1305 of the PHS Act was required to establish a restricted reserve account on the earlier of...

  3. Reserve Requirements and Monetary Management; An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1993-01-01

    Reserve requirements are widely used by central banks as a means to improve monetary control, an instrument for policy implementation, a source of revenue, and a safeguard of bank liquidity. The effectiveness of reserve requirements in fulfilling these functions is reviewed, and the detailed modalities of their use are examined. Reserve requirements in a sample of developing countries are described.

  4. 5 CFR 890.503 - Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any, of the contingency reserve over the preferred minimum balance. OMP must authorize this payment... charge consists of the rate approved by OPM for payment to the plan for each enrollee, plus 4 percent, of... charge set aside for the administrative reserve. The administrative reserve is available for payment of...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2123 - Reserve capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserve capacity. 35.2123 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2123 Reserve capacity. EPA will limit grant assistance for reserve capacity as follows: (a) If EPA awarded a grant for a Step...

  6. Army Reserve (AR) Educational Assistance (EA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army TRADOC Analysis Center Ft. Lee, VA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...Programs REAP: Reserve Education Assistance Program; MGIB-SR: Montgomery GI Bill – Selected Reserve; SRK: Selected Reserve Kicker ; OFF: Officer; EM

  7. Reserve Requirements and Monetary Management; An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1993-01-01

    Reserve requirements are widely used by central banks as a means to improve monetary control, an instrument for policy implementation, a source of revenue, and a safeguard of bank liquidity. The effectiveness of reserve requirements in fulfilling these functions is reviewed, and the detailed modalities of their use are examined. Reserve requirements in a sample of developing countries are described.

  8. A Trial Analysis on the Solution of Japan's Post-war Reparations to Southeast Asian Nations in the Middle and Late 1950s%试析20世纪50年代中后期日本与东南亚各国战后赔偿问题的解决

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛贵成

    2004-01-01

    After the war, the negotiation of Japan's war reparations to the Southeast Asian nations was procrastinated or even suspended for a long time. Then in the middle and late 1950s, the problem was solved through negotiation. Superficially,the main factor that owes to the solution to that issue is that Japan recovered and developed in its economy and had the economic power to compensate those countries. Yet there are several reasons behind it to promote that solution. One reason is that Japan urgently needed to occupy Southeast Asian market to further develop its own economy. The second reason is that the United States, aiming at containing socialist influence during the Cold War, secretly made great efforts to support Japan and the third one is the Southeast Asian nations faced many specific and practical problems, so they had to make some concessions. Therefore,under such historical conditions, the nature for the so called reparations has changed and the reparation has become a tool for Japan to expand its force in that region.

  9. Role of odanacatib in reducing bone loss due to endodontic disease: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Rachana; Jain, Atul; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Arvind, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Through a comprehensive literature review, this article provides an overview of the potential role of odanacatib (ODN) in reducing bone loss due to endodontic disease. Materials and Methods: A literature review was performed in PubMed Central, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and EBSCO databases. The articles identified included those published between 2002 and 2016. Based on the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, out of 237 articles found, 50 were selected for this review. Results: Cathepsin K (CstK), which is indispensible to the immune system, also plays an important role in osteoclastic bone resorption. ODN, which is an orally active, selective, and effective inhibitor of CstK, decreases bone resorption by selectively inhibiting proteolysis of matrix proteins by CstK, without affecting other osteoclastic activity or osteoblast viability. Conclusion: The goal of endodontic treatment is to achieve a clinically asymptomatic state along with formation of reparative bone. This process could take 6 months or longer, hence, an earlier reversal of the resorption process could lead to faster healing and resolution of the periapical lesion. Use of ODN can be of help in achieving this goal. PMID:28217533

  10. Clinical application of free peroneal artery perforator flap transplantation for forefoot defects reparation%腓动脉穿支皮瓣游离移植修复前足创面的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官士兵; 寇伟; 许兰伟; 赵雁

    2014-01-01

    transplantation.In this group,the skin and soft tissue defects size were 4.5 cm ×4.0 cm-13.5 cm × 6.5 cm,Focused on analyzing the features of forefoot skin and soft tissue defects,the design and harvesting of lateral leg peroneal artery perforator flap,and vascular anastomosis and vessel matching,meanwhile,follow-up the survival condition and appearance of the flap,the function of foot and ankle after operation.Results In the 9 cases,the larger myocutaneous perforator arising from peroneal artery,accompanying 2 vena comitans,were found slightly above the midpoint of the line between fibula head and lateral malleolus in lateral leg.The flaps transfered to repair forefoot defects,artery end-end anastomosis:in 5 cases cutaneous branch of peroneal artery to dorsal artery of foot,in 4 cases by cutaneous branch of peroneal artery to dorsal metatarsal artery;vein end-end anastomosis:in 1 case 2 accompanying veins of peroneal artery cutaneous branch to 2 accompanying veins of dorsal artery of foot,in 5 cases 1 accompanying vein of peroneal artery cutaneous branch to 1 accompanying vein of dorsal artery of foot or metatarsal,in 3 cases 1 accompanying vein of peroneal artery cutaneous branch to 1 accompanying vein of dorsal artery of foot or metatarsal,simultaneously,the another accompanying vein of peroneal artery cutaneous branch to 1 dorsal superficial vein of the foot.All the 9 flaps survived,and no vessel articulo happened.The venous return of flaps had no significant difference between repairing 1 vein and 2 veins in gross appearance.All wounds healed in one-period.Followed-up 2-6 months postoperative,1 patient was performed flap reshaping due to flap fat and clumsy at 5 months postoperative,others,the skin texture and appearance of the flaps were good and satisfactive.Conclusion Free transplantation of the lateral leg peroneal artery perforator flap broke away from the bondage of pedicled flap,had more freedom in flap design,and effectively controlled the trauma of donor and

  11. “Sponge Theory”-Based Reparative Design of Artificial Waterscape in Northeastern Region%东北地区城市人工水景修复性设计的“海绵法则”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小舟

    2016-01-01

    Artificial waterscape, as a constant element of landscape design, has been warmly em-braced by urban developers, designers and managers. However, it often leads to social and ecological issues in consequence of unsustainable development concept and design methods. This paper aims to analyze the roots that cause the above problems with“Sponge City” theoretic foundation, and to generate reparative pro-posals of artificial waterscape design according to the objective condition of water scarcity areas.%人工水景近年受城市开发者、设计者和管理者的青睐逐渐成为景观设计中的固定成分,但常由于不可持续的开发理念和理水方式而引发系列生态和社会问题。基于海绵城市的理论先导,以东北城市为例分析人工水景设计的问题根源,并针对水资源匮乏地区提出低影响式水景修复性设计的方法,尝试为目前的设计误区提供科学和可行的调整思路。

  12. Morphological study of the radioprotective effect of vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopheryl) in tissue reparation in rats; Estudo morfologico do efeito radioprotetor da vitamina E (dl-alfa-tocoferil) na reparacao tecidual em ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzi, Flavio Ricardo [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Raduilogia Odontologica]. E-mail: manzi@pucminas.br; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Radiologia Odontologica; Tuji, Fabricio Mesquita [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Radiologia Odontologica

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the action of the vitamin E as a radioprotective agent in the process of tissue reparation in rats submitted to a surgical procedure, which consisted of a wound done in the fore dorsal area. The animals were divided into five groups: group C (controls) - wound; group VE - previous treatment with vitamin E (90 UI); group IR - wound and irradiation of the borders three days after surgery; group VEIR - previous treatment with 90 UI of the vitamin E and irradiation of the borders three days after the surgery; group OIR - previous treatment with olive oil and irradiation of the borders three days after surgery. The radioprotective effect of the vitamin E was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin stained specimens in order to identify granulation tissue, at 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after the surgical procedures. The results showed that 6 Gy of electron irradiation with a beam of 6 MeV caused retardation of the tissue repairing process and that vitamin E was effective as a radioprotective agent. (author)

  13. Marginal reserves of energy and environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raveloson, E.A.; Rakotomaria, E. [Universite d`Antananarivo (Madagascar); Gazerian, J.P. [Universite d`Aix-Marseille (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Madagascar is a country which has a variety of energy fields that present limited reserves in quantity and quality. Up till now, these fields were not economically viable. When and how to change this situation? In the classical project management approach, there will not be any chance to drive up the development of these energy fields. Nowadays, the economical crisis is general at a world-wide level, but for each developing country it appears that poverty is closely linked to environmental problems. Drought, starvation, deforestation, intensive migration of population without taking into account the standard constraints of under-development, non existence of roads or of modern agriculture and industry, limitation of financing availability, etc. The preliminary conditions to answer efficiently the common problems of development and of environment should be the reduction of the project size to a reasonable investment, the splitting of the field to a small zones of {open_quotes}development and environment,{close_quotes} identifying the economic potential (agriculture, industry, tourism, trade, and consumer centers), then determining the model of energy production adapted to the in situ available raw material. Project management methods and competitive intelligence methods should be combined to find the right solution in due time for the southern part of Madagascar. From the logical framework method, the Logiframe software has been designed to be an efficient tool for developing countries project managers and decision makers to solve the projects integratability problems on behalf of a regional development program.

  14. Accounting for system dynamics in reserve design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Shawn J; Schmiegelow, Fiona K A; Cumming, Steve G; Lessard, Robert B; Nagy, John

    2007-10-01

    Systematic conservation plans have only recently considered the dynamic nature of ecosystems. Methods have been developed to incorporate climate change, population dynamics, and uncertainty in reserve design, but few studies have examined how to account for natural disturbance. Considering natural disturbance in reserve design may be especially important for the world's remaining intact areas, which still experience active natural disturbance regimes. We developed a spatially explicit, dynamic simulation model, CONSERV, which simulates patch dynamics and fire, and used it to evaluate the efficacy of hypothetical reserve networks in northern Canada. We designed six networks based on conventional reserve design methods, with different conservation targets for woodland caribou habitat, high-quality wetlands, vegetation, water bodies, and relative connectedness. We input the six reserve networks into CONSERV and tracked the ability of each to maintain initial conservation targets through time under an active natural disturbance regime. None of the reserve networks maintained all initial targets, and some over-represented certain features, suggesting that both effectiveness and efficiency of reserve design could be improved through use of spatially explicit dynamic simulation during the planning process. Spatial simulation models of landscape dynamics are commonly used in natural resource management, but we provide the first illustration of their potential use for reserve design. Spatial simulation models could be used iteratively to evaluate competing reserve designs and select targets that have a higher likelihood of being maintained through time. Such models could be combined with dynamic planning techniques to develop a general theory for reserve design in an uncertain world.

  15. Demand for International Reserves in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimaz Sinem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Having an important place in the international monetary system, international reserves held by central bank usually reflect country’s economic strength in terms of international finance and trade. There are many reasons for holding international reserves by central banks such as financing the deficit in the balance of payment, managing the monetary and exchange rate policies, minimizing the negative effects of external shocks and reducing the cost of borrowing. Continuously changing and diversifying characteristics of these reasons affect the demand for reserves depending to the economic conditions of the country. Over the last ten years, there has been a tremendous increase in international reserves held by Turkish Central Bank. From 2002 to 2012, the reserves of the bank have risen from 20 billion dollars to 96 billion dollars, showing an increase more than four times. This sudden and huge increase in the foreign reserves drove us to determine and investigate the factors which induce the Turkish Central Bank to hold high level of reserves. Thus, the purpose of this study is to estimate and analyze the demand for international reserves held by central banks using the buffer stock model in the case of Turkey. The data used in the study is monthly and cover the period of 1990:03-2012:10. The buffer stock model was econometrically estimated by using the OLS method for three different models. Our findings indicate that the opportunity cost affected reserve demand much stronger than the reserve volatility in Turkish case.

  16. How to Maintain an Operational Reserve? Further Engaging Army Reserve Component Forces in the Coming Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    with mobilizing Reserve Component units for overseas missions. This flexibility will allow the Army to meet ongoing mission requirements , while... reserve will impose an increased cost on the Army. First (and most obviously), the Army will have to fund the additional pay and allowances required ...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HOW TO MAINTAIN AN OPERATIONAL RESERVE ? FURTHER ENGAGING ARMY RESERVE COMPONENT FORCES IN

  17. China has proven 2974 iron ore reserve and 1248 copper reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Recently national mineral resource evaluation has achieved preliminary progress. At present a total of 2974 iron ore reserves have been proven, including 121 large-scale reserves; as well as 1248 copper reserves, including 37 large-scale reserves. Preliminary findings of the evaluation have indicated that retained iron re-

  18. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  19. A general business model for marine reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Sala

    Full Text Available Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models.

  20. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  1. A general business model for marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models.

  2. CHINA'S RESERVE REQUIREMENTS: PRACTICES, EFFECTS, AND IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    GUONAN MA; XIANDONG YAN; XI LIU

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of reserve requirements as a cheaper substitute for the open-market operations of the People's Bank of China (PBC) to sterilize foreign exchange interventions in recent years. China's reserve requirements have also been used to address a range of other policy objectives, not least macroeconomic management, financial stability, and credit policy. The preference for reserve requirements reflects the size of China's FX sterilization and the associated costs, in a qua...

  3. The Euro as a Reserve Currency

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, Marzena

    2010-01-01

    There has been an unusual accumulation of foreign exchange reserves in recent years. Central banks have to diversify their reserves away from the US dollar, especially towards the euro. The same situation is in a private sector, where investors reduce the share of dollar denominated assets. This process has progressed gradually, but it is possible that the euro’s role as a reserve currency will continue to increase. The purpose of ...

  4. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  5. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  6. Naval Reserve: an organization in transition.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazza, Richard Charles

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to examine the issues facing the Naval Reserve as it transitions from its cold war mission to new and, possibly, expanded roles under the New National Military Strategy. The thesis further provides an overview of the changed strategic environment and budgetary concerns that serve as drivers for change within the Naval Reserve. The evolution of the present Naval Reserve organization, manpower an...

  7. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  8. Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, J. S.; Fullwood, L. A. F.

    2013-03-01

    To provide more information about whether sharks benefit from no-take marine reserves, we quantified the relative abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside and outside of Namena, Fiji's largest reserve (60.6 km2). Using stereo baited remote underwater video systems (stereo-BRUVs), we found that the abundance and biomass of sharks was approximately two and four times greater in shallow and deep locations, respectively, within the Namena reserve compared to adjacent fished areas. The greater abundance and biomass of reef sharks inside Namena is likely a result of greater prey availability rather than protection from fishing. This study demonstrates that marine reserves can benefit sharks.

  9. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid

    2012-01-05

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with a selected interval of time and a compressed view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with one or more additional intervals of time, maintaining a visual context between the expanded view and the compressed view within the visualization object, and enabling a user to switch between the expanded view and the compressed view to facilitate use of the reservation system.

  10. Collaborative assessment of California spiny lobster population and fishery responses to a marine reserve network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Matthew C; Lenihan, Hunter S; Guenther, Carla M; Wilson, Jono R; Miller, Christopher J; Shrout, Samuel W

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of the conservation and fisheries effects of marine reserves typically focus on single reserves where sampling occurs over narrow spatiotemporal scales. A strategy for broadening the collection and interpretation of data is collaborative fisheries research (CFR). Here we report results of a CFR program formed in part to test whether reserves at the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, USA, influenced lobster size and trap yield, and whether abundance changes in reserves led to spillover that influenced trap yield and effort distribution near reserve borders. Industry training of scientists allowed us to sample reserves with fishery relevant metrics that we compared with pre-reserve fishing records, a concurrent port sampling program, fishery effort patterns, the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishermen, and fishery-independent visual surveys of lobster abundance. After six years of reserve protection, there was a four- to eightfold increase in trap yield, a 5-10% increase in the mean size (carapace length) of legal sized lobsters, and larger size structure of lobsters trapped inside vs. outside of three replicate reserves. Patterns in trap data were corroborated by visual scuba surveys that indicated a four- to sixfold increase in lobster density inside reserves. Population increases within reserves did not lead to increased trap yields or effort concentrations (fishing the line) immediately outside reserve borders. The absence of these catch and effort trends, which are indicative of spillover, may be due to moderate total mortality (Z = 0.59 for legal sized lobsters outside reserves), which was estimated from analysis of growth and length frequency data collected as part of our CFR program. Spillover at the Channel Islands reserves may be occurring but at levels that are insufficient to influence the fishery dynamics that we measured. Future increases in fishing effort (outside reserves) and lobster biomass (inside reserves) are likely and may lead to

  11. Inherited peripheral neuropathies due to mitochondrial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassereau, J; Codron, P; Funalot, B

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are frequently responsible for neuropathies with variable severity. Mitochondrial diseases causing peripheral neuropathies (PNP) may be due to mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as is the case in MERRF and MELAS syndromes, or to mutations of nuclear genes. Secondary abnormalities of mtDNA (such as multiple deletions of muscle mtDNA) may result from mitochondrial disorders due to mutations in nuclear genes involved in mtDNA maintenance. This is the case in several syndromes caused by impaired mtDNA maintenance, such as Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy, Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) due to recessive mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mtDNA polymerase (DNA polymerase gamma), or Mitochondrial Neuro-Gastro-Intestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), due to recessive mutations in the TYMP gene, which encodes thymidine phosphorylase. The last years have seen a growing list of evidence demonstrating that mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics might be dysfunctional in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2), and these mechanisms might present a common link between dissimilar CMT2-causing genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey assessment of reserve growth outside of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.

    2015-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of potential additions to oil and gas reserves for the United States by reserve growth in discovered accumulations. These volumes were derived by using a new methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation. This methodology was used to assess reserve growth in individual accumulations (reservoirs, groups of reservoirs, or fields). Selected, large, well-studied, conventional accumulations in the United States that are estimated to contribute most to reserve growth were assessed using analysis of geology and engineering practices. Potential additions to oil and gas reserves for large, discovered, conventional accumulations outside of the United States due to reserve growth were assessed using the U.S. accumulations as analogs. Potential oil and gas volumes were assumed to be added to proven plus probable reserves.

  13. 21 CFR 216.23 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 216.23 Section 216.23 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PHARMACY COMPOUNDING Compounded Drug Products § 216.23 [Reserved] ...

  14. The dynamics of the primordial follicle reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jeffrey B; Myers, Michelle; Anderson, Richard A

    2013-12-01

    The female germline comprises a reserve population of primordial (non-growing) follicles containing diplotene oocytes arrested in the first meiotic prophase. By convention, the reserve is established when all individual oocytes are enclosed by granulosa cells. This commonly occurs prior to or around birth, according to species. Histologically, the 'reserve' is the number of primordial follicles in the ovary at any given age and is ultimately depleted by degeneration and progression through folliculogenesis until exhausted. How and when the reserve reaches its peak number of follicles is determined by ovarian morphogenesis and germ cell dynamics involving i) oogonial proliferation and entry into meiosis producing an oversupply of oocytes and ii) large-scale germ cell death resulting in markedly reduced numbers surviving as the primordial follicle reserve. Our understanding of the processes maintaining the reserve comes primarily from genetically engineered mouse models, experimental activation or destruction of oocytes, and quantitative histological analysis. As the source of ovulated oocytes in postnatal life, the primordial follicle reserve requires regulation of i) its survival or maintenance, ii) suppression of development (dormancy), and iii) activation for growth and entry into folliculogenesis. The mechanisms influencing these alternate and complex inter-related phenomena remain to be fully elucidated. Drawing upon direct and indirect evidence, we discuss the controversial concept of postnatal oogenesis. This posits a rare population of oogonial stem cells that contribute new oocytes to partially compensate for the age-related decline in the primordial follicle reserve.

  15. A Guide to Federal Reserve Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Reserve Bank of New York, NY.

    The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Reserve Banks administer more than two dozen regulations affecting a wide variety of financial activities. The regulations concern the functions of the central bank and its relationships with financial institutions, the activities of commercial banks and bank holding companies,…

  16. 75 FR 6539 - Healthy Forests Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Conservation Service 7 CFR Part 625 RIN 0578-AA52 Healthy Forests Reserve Program AGENCY: Natural Resources... amends Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) regulations for the Healthy Forests Reserve Program... benefit cost assessment has not been undertaken. Federal Crop Insurance Reform and Department of...

  17. CNGC Secured More Copper Reserves in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to China Land and Resources Newspaper, the reporter learnt from the work- ing conference of China National Gold Group Corporation (CNGC) that the corporation has again achieved great achievements in terms of its reserve increase strategy in 2011. The corporation increased its reserves by 215 tons of gold, 370,000 tons of copper and 580,000 tons

  18. Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzen, J.A.; Serie, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

  19. Body reserves in intra-African migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nwaogu, Chima; Cresswell, Will

    Avian migration has been shown to be a life history strategy for surviving environmental resource variability, but it requires increased body reserves for long distance flight. Fat reserves make excellent energy stores for barrier crossing, whereas proteins generate less energy for the same mass of

  20. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) As projects age, the required reserve account level may be adjusted to meet anticipated “life-cycle... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Financial Management § 3560.306 Reserve account. (a) Purpose. To meet the major capital expense needs of a housing project, borrowers must establish and...

  1. Role of exogenous TGF-β1 in the induction of reparative dentinogenesis in vivo%外源性TGF-β1在体内诱导修复性牙本质形成的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文玲英; 方军; 贾东; 董绍忠

    2000-01-01

    目的:探讨TGF-β1作为牙髓暴露点的外敷药物和牙髓中的植入体诱导修复性牙本质形成的能力。方法:狗磨牙和尖牙机械开髓,将含TGF-β1的药物植入暴露点内并覆盖露髓处,术后4、8、12周处死动物,制备标本,组织学观察。结果:术后4周,在TGF-p1-HA的表面看到成牙本质样细胞和其他形成细胞相连的新的牙本质样基质的沉积,而对照的HA表面未见形成细胞和基质沉积现象。术后8、12周,TGF-β1-HA颗粒周围有厚层的牙本质样基质及与其相连的高柱状成牙本质样细胞,邻近的周围及洞口部位也看到修复性牙本质明显沉积和牙本质桥形成。结论:外源性TGF-β1在体内可诱导成牙本质细胞分化和修复性牙本质的形成。%Objective:To investigate the in vivo effects of TGF-β1 as dressing at the site of exposed peripheral pulp or as implant placed in central pulp for induced reparative dentinogenesis. Methods :Dental pulps of dog molars and canines were mechanically exposed,and the dressing contained TGF-β1 was applied on the pulp exposure points or implanted into central pulp ,light pressure was applied in contact with the exposed pulp ,and the cavities were further restored with zine oxide eugenol cement. The animals were slain 4,8,12 weeks after operation respectively . The specimens were prepared and examined by histology. Results:4 weeks after operation,deposition of new dentinlike matrix associated with odontoblast-like cells were observed on the specimen surfaces treated with TGF-β1-HA dressing,no evidence of cellular organization and matrix deposition was found in response to the HA implant. Thick layers of dentin-like matrix associated with a layer of highly elongated odontablast-like cells were found around the granular TGF-β1-HA surface 8 or 12 weeks after operation,while enhancement of circumferential dentine deposition and dentin bridge formation was also found at adjacent

  2. 颜面部筋膜蒂皮瓣修复颜面部皮肤软组织缺损的探讨%Discussion on facial soft tissue defects reparation with facial fascio-cutaneous flaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 关志广; 方建勇; 胡发明; 陈国威

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss clinical effect of facial skin soft tissue defects reparation with facial fascio-cutaneous flaps. Methods Out of 48 patients in our hospital, 20 cases of facial skin tumors, 8 cases of traumatic defects, 9 cases of pigmented nevus, 6 cases of anabrosis, 3 cases of scars, 2 cases of scars together with tissue depression. The minimum area of defect was 1.0 cmx1.0 cm and the maximum area was 4.0 cm x 3.0 cm. All of these cases were treated with facial fascio-cutaneous flaps for reparation. Results In these 48 cases, the maximum area of fascio-cutaneous flaps was 5.0×3.5cm, and the minimum area was 1.5 cm×1.2 cm. The width of the pedicle was 1.0~3.0 cm. All of the fascio-cutaneous flaps survived. 6~12 months of follow-up, the appearance of the faces were satisfied. Conclusion The advantages of this method are obvious, including the good aesthetic effects and the aesthetic facial appearance with hidden incision and small scar. The survival rate of fascio-cutaneous flaps is high. The material supply area can be more easily achieved from the operated patient nearby.%目的探讨颜面部筋膜蒂皮瓣修复颜面部皮肤软组织缺损的临床效果。方法48例患者,其中颜面部皮肤肿瘤20例,外伤缺损伤8例,色素痣9例,溃疡6例,瘢痕3例,瘢痕合并组织凹陷2例,缺损面积最小1.0 cm×1.0 cm,最大4.0 cm×3.0 cm,所有病例均应用颜面部筋膜蒂皮瓣进行修复。结果本组48例,皮瓣面积最大为5.0 cm×3.5 cm,最小为1.5 cm×1.2 cm,蒂宽1.0~3.0 cm,皮瓣全部成活。随访6~12个月,颜面部外观满意。结论本方法具有良好的美学效果,颜面部外形美观、皮瓣成活率高、供区就近取材、切口隐蔽且瘢痕小等优点。

  3. Application of plasma cladding technology to reparation of middle pan of scraper conveyor%等离子熔覆修复技术在中部槽维修中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永强; 马忠昌; 李鹏

    2014-01-01

    从刮板输送机中部槽的结构原理和材料入手,分析了刮板输送机中部槽失效的原因,详细阐述了等离子熔覆修复技术在刮板输送机中部槽磨损中板修复中的应用。通过井下工业性对比试验证明,采用等离子熔覆修复技术修复的刮板输送机中部槽不仅能够提升维修品质、延长使用寿命和降低设备的维修频次,而且能够减少人力和维修材料等系统性的浪费。%From the structure principle and the used material of middle pan of scraper conG veyor for fully mechanized mining,the failure reasons of middle pan of scraper conveyor were anG alyzed and the application of plasma cladding technology to reparation of wornGout middle plate in middle pan of scraper conveyor was described in detail�The contrast underground industrial tests showed that the middle pan of scraper conveyor repaired by plasma cladding technology are of good maintenance quality,increased service life and decreased maintenance frequency,as well as less wastes of manpower and maintenance materials.

  4. 农机维修节能减排技术推广探讨%Discussion on Technical Extension of Energy-saving and Emission-reducing for Agricultural Machinery Maintenance and Reparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    畅雄勃

    2015-01-01

    In order to select and extend techniques of energy-saving and emission-reducing for agricultural machinery maintenance and reparation which suit current status , based on the research and data analysis , the paper stated the ne-cessity and feasibility of technical extension for standard fuel transmission and injection pump & injection nozzle debug -ging , and also raised several proposals regarding its extension .The techniques of standard fuel transmission and injection pump &injection nozzle debugging are most worth extension in the field of agricultural machinery maintenance and repa -ration.The paper suggest the government should support to establish the standard fuel transmission network , carry out subsidy policy to farmer who maintain or repair fuel injection pump and injection nozzle , select proper area to test before broad extension .%为了选择、推广适于当前现状的农机维修节能减排技术,采用调查研究、数理统计分析方法,阐述了喷油泵标准油量传递技术、喷油泵和喷油器调试技术推广的必要性和可行性,并提出了推广建议。在农机维修节能减排技术中,喷油泵标准油量传递技术、喷油泵和喷油器调试技术最具有推广价值和推广意义,建议采取国家扶持建设标准油量传递网络、对喷油泵和喷油器调试实施补贴,以及先试点后推广的方法进行推广。

  5. On the optimal size of marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensenane, M; Moussaoui, A; Auger, P

    2013-03-01

    The excessive and unsustainable exploitation of our marine resources has led to the promotion of marine reserves as a fisheries management tool. Marine reserves, areas in which fishing is restricted or prohibited, can offer opportunities for the recovery of exploited stock and fishery enhancement. This study examines the impact of the creation of marine protected areas, from both economic and biological perspectives. The consequences of reserve establishment on the long-run equilibrium fish biomass and fishery catch levels are evaluated. We include reserve size as control variable to maximize catch at equilibrium. A continuous time model is used to simulate the effects of reserve size on fishing catch. Fish movements between the sites is assumed to take place at a faster time scale than the variation of the stock and the change of the fleet size. We take advantage of these two time scales to derive a reduced model governing the dynamics of the total fish stock and the fishing effort. Simulation results suggest that the establishment of a protected marine reserve will always lead to an increase in total fish biomass, an optimal size of a marine reserve can achieve to maximize the catch at equilibrium.

  6. US coal reserves: A review and update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is the third in series of ``U.S. Coal Reserves`` reports. As part of the Administration of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) program to provide information on coal, it presents detailed estimates of domestic coal reserves, which are basic to the analysis and forecasting of future coal supply. It also describes the data, methods, and assumptions used to develop such estimates and explain terminology related to recent data programs. In addition, the report provides technical documentation for specific revisions and adjustments to the demonstrated reserve base (DRB) of coal in the United States and for coal quality and reserve allocations. It makes the resulting data available for general use by the public. This report includes data on recoverable coal reserves located at active mines and on the estimated distribution of rank and sulfur content in those reserves. An analysis of the projected demand and depletion in recoverable reserves at active mines is used to evaluate the areas and magnitude of anticipated investment in new mining capacity.

  7. China's National Oil Reserve Center was Born

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun; Yi

    2008-01-01

      Aseries of events that occurred in October 2007, are rewriting the history of China's energy industry: November 3 an Energy Law Committee asked the public for suggestions on improvements; forty top experts came together to form the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee on November 6; and the National Oil Reserve Center (NORC)became the nerve centre of oil reserves on November 18. Yet, behind the progress of these recent activities remains the fact that international oil prices still hover around a very high price of US$ 90/barrel, and China's oil imports are close to accounting for half of its total oil reserves.……

  8. China's National Oil Reserve Center was Born

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aseries of events that occurred in October 2007, are rewriting the history of China's energy industry: November 3 an Energy Law Committee asked the public for suggestions on improvements; forty top experts came together to form the National Energy Expert Advisory Committee on November 6; and the National Oil Reserve Center (NORC)became the nerve centre of oil reserves on November 18. Yet, behind the progress of these recent activities remains the fact that international oil prices still hover around a very high price of US$ 90/barrel, and China's oil imports are close to accounting for half of its total oil reserves.

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  10. CRISIS FOCUS Forex Reserves to The Rescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When Premier Wen Jiabao told this year’s World Economic Forum in Davos that the Chinese Government was explor- ing more efficient ways to use its massive foreign exchange (forex) reserves to boost the domestic economy, he empha- sized that the reserves could only be used overseas. Zuo Xiaolei, Chief Economist of Beijing-based China Galaxy Securities Co. Ltd., recently wrote an article in the Securities Times explaining why the country’s forex reserves can only be used overseas and how they can help stimulate domestic development. Edited excerpts follow:

  11. Mechanisms of DNA repair and radio-induced mutagenesis in higher eukaryotes; Mecanismes de reparation et mutagenese radio-induite chez les eucaryotes superieurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averbeck, D. [Centre Universitaire d' Orsay, Institut Curie, Section de Recherche, Lab. Raymond-Latarjet, UMR 2027 CNRS, 91 (France)

    2000-10-01

    Cells of higher eukaryotes possess several very efficient systems for the repair of radiation-induced lesions in DNA. Different strategies have been adopted at the cellular level to remove or even tolerate various types of lesions in order to assure survival and limit the mutagenic consequences. In mammalian cells, the main DNA repair systems comprise direct reversion of damage, excision of damage and exchange mechanisms with intact DNA. Among these, the direct ligation of single strand breaks (SSB) by a DNA ligase and the multi-enzymatic repair systems of mismatch repair, base and nucleotide excision repair as well as the repair of double strand breaks (DSB) by homologous recombination or non homologous end-joining are the most important systems. Most of these processes are error-free except the non homologous end-joining pathway used for the repair of DSB. Moreover, certain lesions can be tolerated by more or less accurately acting polymerases capable of performing trans-lesion DNA syntheses. The DNA repair systems are intimately integrated in the network of cellular regulation. Some of their components are DNA damage inducible. Radiation-induced mutagenesis is largely due to unrepaired DNA damage but also involves error-prone repair processes like the repair of DSB by non-homologous end-joining. Generally, mammalian cells are well prepared to repair radiation-induced lesions. However, some questions remain to be asked about mechanistic details and efficiencies of the systems for removing certain types of radiation-damage and about their order and timing of action. The answers to these questions would be important for radioprotection as well as radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Illinois coal reserve assessment and database development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treworgy, C.G.; Prussen, E.I.; Justice, M.A.; Chenoweth, C.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal of Illinois is 105 billion short tons. This estimate is an increase from the 78 billion tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal, as of January 1, 1994. The new estimate arises from revised resource calculations based on recent mapping in a number of countries, as well as significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining. The new estimate for identified resources is 199 billion tons, a revision of the previous estimate of 181 billion tons. The new estimates incorporate the available analyses of sulfur, heat content, and rank group appropriate for characterizing the remaining coal resources in Illinois. Coal-quality data were examined in conjunction with coal resource mapping. Analyses of samples from exploration drill holes, channel samples from mines and outcrops, and geologic trends were compiled and mapped to allocate coal resource quantities to ranges of sulfur, heat content, and rank group. The new allocations place almost 1% of the demonstrated reserve base of Illinois in the two lowest sulfur categories, in contrast to none in the previous allocation used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The new allocations also place 89% of the demonstrated reserve base in the highest sulfur category, in contrast to the previous allocation of 69% in the highest category.

  13. Use and Limitations of the Reserve Requirement Policy in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Velibor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since reserve requirement is the only monetary policy instrument used in Montenegro, it has been subject to frequent amendments since the global crisis outbreak. The analysis of the monetary demand model showed that there is an active transmission mechanism of change in the reserve requirement rate on the deposits trend reflects on lending activity. Also, there is a significant impact of FDIs on deposits trending in the banking system, as well as the positive impact of turnover on stock exchange on the deposits and loans trend. Finally, it was found that the financial crisis has caused negative trends in loans and deposits. On the other hand, the impact of changes in the reserve requirement on the economic activity in Montenegro could not be determined. This is primarily due to the fact that the transmission mechanism of the effect of reserve requirement on economic activity is too long to be able to estimate the model that does not allow the dynamics of the independent variables. The second reason is that industrial output index is only an indirect indicator of the economic activity.

  14. ON RESERVES, STABILITY AND THE MAXIMUM SUSTAINABLE YIELD PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arild Wikan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that several species of commercial interest have been overexploited throughout the years it is important to understand how harvest and other factors like introducing reserves influence the dynamic behaviour of a population with respect to stability and possible extinction. Therefore, simple one-population models are analysed and it is shown that harvest acts in a strong stabilizing fashion in the sense that it may transfer a population which exhibits chaotic oscillations to a state where the equilibrium population is stable. Moreover, if we divide the habitat of the population into a reserve and a harvest zone we find that increased harvest as well as migration between the two areas act stabilizing but that the former turns out to be the dominating one. If age structure is included in the population model harvest may not necessarily play the same role, especially if the number of age classes become large. Regarding MSY, we demonstrate that it is indeed possible to obtain the same MSY in the case where the habitat is split into a reserve and a harvest zone as in case of no reserve.

  15. Reserves and trade jointly determine exposure to food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Philippe; Carr, Joel A.; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Fader, Marianela; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Porkka, Miina; Puma, Michael J.; Ratajczak, Zak; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Seekell, David A.; Suweis, Samir; Tavoni, Alessandro; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    While a growing proportion of global food consumption is obtained through international trade, there is an ongoing debate on whether this increased reliance on trade benefits or hinders food security, and specifically, the ability of global food systems to absorb shocks due to local or regional losses of production. This paper introduces a model that simulates the short-term response to a food supply shock originating in a single country, which is partly absorbed through decreases in domestic reserves and consumption, and partly transmitted through the adjustment of trade flows. By applying the model to publicly-available data for the cereals commodity group over a 17 year period, we find that differential outcomes of supply shocks simulated through this time period are driven not only by the intensification of trade, but as importantly by changes in the distribution of reserves. Our analysis also identifies countries where trade dependency may accentuate the risk of food shortages from foreign production shocks; such risk could be reduced by increasing domestic reserves or importing food from a diversity of suppliers that possess their own reserves. This simulation-based model provides a framework to study the short-term, nonlinear and out-of-equilibrium response of trade networks to supply shocks, and could be applied to specific scenarios of environmental or economic perturbations.

  16. Alternative Approaches for Incentivizing the Frequency Responsive Reserve Ancillary Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Tuohy, A.; Brooks, D.

    2012-03-01

    Frequency responsive reserve is the autonomous response of generators and demand response to deviations of system frequency, usually as a result of the instantaneous outage of a large supplier. Frequency responsive reserve arrests the frequency decline resulting in the stabilization of system frequency, and avoids the triggering of under-frequency load-shedding or the reaching of unstable frequencies that could ultimately lead to system blackouts. It is a crucial service required to maintain a reliable and secure power system. Regions with restructured electricity markets have historically had a lack of incentives for frequency responsive reserve because generators inherently provided the response and on large interconnected systems, more than sufficient response has been available. This may not be the case in future systems due to new technologies and declining response. This paper discusses the issues that can occur without proper incentives and even disincentives, and proposes alternatives to introduce incentives for resources to provide frequency responsive reserve to ensure an efficient and reliable power system.

  17. Temperate marine reserves enhance targeted but not untargeted fishes in multiple no-take MPAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Irene; Ambrose, Richard F

    2007-12-01

    Although many papers report the effects of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs or reserves), scientifically rigorous empirical studies are rare, particularly for temperate reef fishes. We evaluated the responses of fish populations to protection from fishing in reserves by comparing densities and sizes inside and outside of five no-take reserves in southern California, USA. Our results are robust because we compared responses across multiple rocky-reef reserves in two different years and controlled for possible site differences by (a) ensuring that habitat characteristics were the same inside and outside reserves, and (b) sampling species that are not targeted, which would not be expected to have a direct response to fishing. We compared fish density and size and calculated biomass and egg production across all five sites. Fishes targeted by recreational and/or commercial fisheries consistently exhibited increases in mean density (150%), size (30%), biomass (440%), and egg production (730%) inside reserves. Reserve effects were greatest for legal-sized targeted fishes: significantly greater densities were found exclusively inside reserves for targeted species (580%), the largest size classes existed only inside reserves, and mean biomass was 1000% higher. These responses were unlikely to have been caused by habitat differences because there were no significant differences in habitat characteristics between reserve and control locations. Densities of non-targeted species did not differ between reserve and non-reserve locations, further supporting the conclusions that differences in targeted species between reserve and control locations were due to harvesting rather than site-specific effects. Although MPAs cannot replace traditional fisheries management, the concentration of increased biomass and egg production is a unique MPA benefit that serves both reserves and fisheries. Scientifically rigorous studies that include multiple reserves, such as this study, are

  18. Underground coal gasification technology impact on coal reserves in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John William Rosso Murillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In situ coal gasification technology (Underground Coal Gasification–UCG– is an alternative to the traditional exploitation, due to it allows to reach the today’s inaccessible coal reserves’ recovery, to conventional mining technologies. In this article I answer the question on how the today’s reserves available volume, can be increased, given the possibility to exploit further and better the same resources. Mining is an important wealth resource in Colombia as a contributor to the national GDP. According with the Energy Ministry (Ministerio de Minas y Energía [1] mining has been around 5% of total GDP in the last years. This is a significant fact due to the existence of a considerable volume of reserves not accounted for (proved reserves at year 2010 were 6.700 million of tons. Source: INGEOMINAS and UPME, and the coal future role’s prospect, in the world energy production.

  19. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence D. Meinert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798, but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using copper as an example, identified resources are twice as large as the amount projected to be needed through 2050. Estimates of yet-to-be discovered copper resources are up to 40-times more than currently-identified resources, amounts that could last for many centuries. Thus, forecasts of imminent peak production due to resource exhaustion in the next 20–30 years are not valid. Short-term supply problems may arise, however, and supply-chain disruptions are possible at any time due to natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or political complications. Needed to resolve these problems are education and exploration technology development, access to prospective terrain, better recycling and better accounting of externalities associated with production (pollution, loss of ecosystem services and water and energy use.

  20. Asymptomatic eosinophilia due to gnathostomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buppajarntham, Aubonphan; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Rutjanawech, Sasinuj; Mundy, Linda M

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis of gnathostomiasis typically includes a triad of eosinophilia, migratory skin lesions, and exposure risk. The cutaneous manifestations are protean yet often involve intermittent migratory swellings and creeping skin eruptions with abscesses or nodules, which vary in onset and duration. We report the first case of gnathostomiasis presenting as fever and eosinophilia without cutaneous migratory and internal organ involvement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Historical beginnings.. the Federal Reserve System

    OpenAIRE

    Roger T. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Traces the history of the banking system in the United States from 1789, discusses the banking problems of the 19th century, and describes the legislation that led to the formation of the Federal Reserve System.

  2. U.S. Federal Reserve Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset is comprised of forty-five entities that are part of the United States Federal Reserve System according to the United States Department of Treasury. The...

  3. Scientists Call for Strengthening Nature Reserve Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ China has more than 10% of the total species of vascular plants and terrestrial vertebrates in the world, of which about half are endemic to this country. To protect its biodiversity, China has made remarkable achievements in nature reserve establishment.

  4. Conservation Reserve Program Acreage by County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains information regarding the acreages of land currently (as of 2004) enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) distributed by county and...

  5. 75 FR 67731 - Federal Reserve Bank Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...://www.fdic.gov/news/news/press/2010/pr10229.html . Table 6 shows the imputed PSAF elements, including... Advantage , FedLine Web , FedMail , and FedPhone .\\45\\ The Reserve Banks package these channels into...

  6. Suicides on a Southwestern American Indian Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marv

    1979-01-01

    Results showed suicides clustered by day of the week, season, and reservation location, and typical victims as young, unmarried males holding unskilled or semiskilled jobs. Suggested are strategies maximizing suicide prevention efforts. Journal availability: see RC 503 481. (DS)

  7. Angiosperms, Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandujano, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Los Tuxtlas Reserve has been heavily deforested and fragmented since the 1970’s. Although the floraof Los Tuxtlas has been described previously, most floristic lists come from the large forest reserve of the Los Tuxtlasfield station. Here we present a check list of Angiosperms recorded in 45 rainforest fragments (< 1 to 266 ha located inthree landscapes with different levels of deforestation. We sampled all trees, shrubs, lianas, palms and herbs withdiameter at breast height (dbh

  8. Exmoor - Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, S.

    2011-12-01

    On 2011 October 9 Exmoor National Park in the southwest of England was designated as Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve by the International Dark Skies Association. This is a huge achievement, and follows three years of work by park authorities, local astronomers, lighting engineers and the resident community. Exmoor Dark Sky Reserve follows in the footsteps of Galloway Forest Dark Sky Park, set up in 2009, and Sark Dark Sky Island, established in January 2011.

  9. Required reserves as a credit policy tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mimir, Yasin; Sunel, Enes; Taskin, Temel

    2012-01-01

    This paper conducts a quantitative investigation of the role of reserve requirements as a macroprudential policy tool. We build a monetary DSGE model with a banking sector in which (i) an agency problem between households and banks leads to endogenous capital constraints for banks in obtaining funds from households, (ii) banks are subject to time-varying reserve requirements that countercyclically respond to expected credit growth, (iii) households face cash-in-advance constraints, requiring ...

  10. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Bagus; David Howden

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB) system is possible and that precautionary...

  11. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Bagus; David Howden

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB) system is possible and that precautionary...

  12. Transformation of Taiwan’s Reserve Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report also includes an appendix with a brief comparative analysis of reserve force transformation in other countries (Finland, Singapore, Japan ...retention.18 Barring developments that offer Taiwan a substantive role in the emerging Asian security architecture and that make available, with...forces of other countries, we briefly reviewed the reserve forces of Finland, Singapore, Japan , and Georgia. We find that Finland and Singapore

  13. Nasal infection due to Mycobacterium fortuitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D-Q; Righini, C; Darouassi, Y; Schmerber, S

    2011-09-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum, a rapidly growing non-tuberculous atypical mycobacterium, is commonly found in soil and water. This organism generally causes skin, bone, and soft tissue infections following local trauma or surgical procedures, and in immunodeficient patients. The case reported here is, to our knowledge, the first published report of M. fortuitum nasal infection. The authors report the case of a 3-year-old girl with intranasal tumour-like swelling associated with cervical lymph nodes due to M. fortuitum infection. A combination of radical surgical debridement and prolonged therapy with several antimicrobial agents was required to completely eradicate the infection. This case report indicates that non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections should be considered after failure of conventional antibiotic therapy or when classical microbiological tests fail to identify the pathogen responsible for sinonasal and cervical infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Demonstrated reserve base for coal in New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.K.

    1995-02-01

    The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal for the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, is 11.28 billion short tons. This compares with 4.429 billion short tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal as of January 1, 1992 for all of New Mexico and 2.806 billion short tons for the San Juan Basin. The new estimate includes revised resource calculations in the San Juan Basin, in San Juan, McKinley, Sandoval, Rio Arriba, Bernalillo and Cibola counties, but does not include the Raton Basin and smaller fields in New Mexico. These estimated {open_quotes}remaining{close_quotes} coal resource quantities, however, include significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining, and adjustments for accessibility and recoverability.

  15. Marine reserves: fish life history and ecological traits matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, J; Osenberg, C W; Domenici, P; Badalamenti, F; Milazzo, M; Falcón, J M; Bertocci, I; Benedetti-Cecchi, L; García-Charton, J A; Goñi, R; Borg, J A; Forcada, A; De Lucia, G A; Perez-Ruzafa, A; Afonso, P; Brito, A; Guala, I; Le Diréach, L; Sanchez-Jerez, P; Somerfield, P J; Planes, S

    2010-04-01

    Marine reserves are assumed to protect a wide range of species from deleterious effects stemming from exploitation. However, some species, due to their ecological characteristics, may not respond positively to protection. Very little is known about the effects of life history and ecological traits (e.g., mobility, growth, and habitat) on responses of fish species to marine reserves. Using 40 data sets from 12 European marine reserves, we show that there is significant variation in the response of different species of fish to protection and that this heterogeneity can be explained, in part, by differences in their traits. Densities of targeted size-classes of commercial species were greater in protected than unprotected areas. This effect of protection increased as the maximum body size of the targeted species increased, and it was greater for species that were not obligate schoolers. However, contrary to previous theoretical findings, even mobile species with wide home ranges benefited from protection: the effect of protection was at least as strong for mobile species as it was for sedentary ones. Noncommercial bycatch and unexploited species rarely responded to protection, and when they did (in the case of unexploited bentho-pelagic species), they exhibited the opposite response: their densities were lower inside reserves. The use of marine reserves for marine conservation and fisheries management implies that they should ensure protection for a wide range of species with different life-history and ecological traits. Our results suggest this is not the case, and instead that effects vary with economic value, body size, habitat, depth range, and schooling behavior.

  16. Conducting Due Diligence in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Ninety percent of problems when set- ting up business in China can be avoided by the deployment of due diligence at the front end of the investment planning.Here we point out some of the areas that can hinder a sensible approach to due diligence,the hidden risks and basic checks.The process does not have to be expensive. Land use rights These relate to the status of the land on which your Chinese partner has his prem-

  17. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

  18. Design and implementation of land reservation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurong; Gao, Qingqiang

    2009-10-01

    Land reservation is defined as a land management policy for insuring the government to control primary land market. It requires the government to obtain the land first, according to plan, by purchase, confiscation and exchanging, and then exploit and consolidate the land for reservation. Underlying this policy, it is possible for the government to satisfy and manipulate the needs of land for urban development. The author designs and develops "Land Reservation System for Eastern Lake Development District" (LRSELDD), which deals with the realistic land requirement problems in Wuhan Eastern Lake Development Districts. The LRSELDD utilizes modern technologies and solutions of computer science and GIS to process multiple source data related with land. Based on experiments on the system, this paper will first analyze workflow land reservation system and design the system structure based on its principles, then illustrate the approach of organization and management of spatial data, describe the system functions according to the characteristics of land reservation and consolidation finally. The system is running to serve for current work in Eastern Lake Development Districts. It is able to scientifically manage both current and planning land information, as well as the information about land supplying. We use the LRSELDD in our routine work, and with such information, decisions on land confiscation and allocation will be made wisely and scientifically.

  19. Repolarization reserve, arrhythmia and new drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Repolarization-related lethal arrhythmias have led to the concept of “repolarization reserve”, which may help elucidate the relationship between K+ currents and other components of repolarization. Pharmacological manipulation as well as congenital and cardiac disease may affect repolarization and alter the repolarization reserve, leading to the development of arrhythmias. Pharmacological enhancement of outward currents or suppression of inward currents has been shown to be of therapeutic value. A number of newly found selective ion channel inhibitors or agonists have been investigated for their ability to enhance repolarization reserve and decrease the incidence of arrhythmia. In this paper we review the development, potential mechanisms, clinical application, and pharmacological significance of repolarization reserve in order to better understand, predict and prevent unexplained adverse cardiac events.

  20. Marine reserves can enhance ecological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lewis A K; Baskett, Marissa L

    2015-12-01

    The goals of ecosystem-based management (EBM) include protecting ecological resilience, the magnitude of a perturbation that a community can withstand and remain in a given state. As a tool to achieve this goal, no-take marine reserves may enhance resilience by protecting source populations or reduce it by concentrating fishing in harvested areas. Here, we test whether spatial management with marine reserves can increase ecological resilience compared to non-spatial (conventional) management using a dynamic model of a simplified fish community with structured predation and competition that causes alternative stable states. Relative to non-spatial management, reserves increase the resilience of the desired (predator-dominated) equilibrium state in both stochastic and deterministic environments, especially under intensive fishing. As a result, spatial management also increases the feasibility of restoring degraded (competitor-dominated) systems, particularly if combined with culling of competitors or stock enhancement of adult predators.

  1. Stroke due to Hematologic Aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽霖

    2004-01-01

    @@ Stroke due to ‘cerebral vein thrombosis' (CVT) is commonly used to refer to thrombosis of the cerebral venous system, including either dural venous sinuses, or deep and superficial (cortical) cerebral veins. CVT are frightening events due to the severity of their clinical manifestations and their high mortality rate (up to 30% in some casereports).The clinical signs and symptoms of CVT are relatively nonspecific: they include headache, papilledema, vomiting,seizures, focal neurological deficits (motor or sensory) and impaired consciousness. CVT has long been considered as rare and mostly infection-related event; moreover, due to its nonspecific clinical manifestations, the diagnosis has been difficult, delayed and could often be made only post mortem.

  2. Are All Measures of International Reserves Created Equal? An Empirical Comparison of International Reserve Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Yin-Wong; Yuk-Pang Wong, Clement

    2007-01-01

    Using available annual data of 174 economies since 1957, we examine the similarities and differences of seven international reserve ratios. While individual international reserve ratios display substantial variations across economies, they are associated with an economy?s characteristics including geographic location, income level, stage of development, degree of indebtedness, and exchange rate regime. The association pattern varies across time and type of international reserve ratios. Intere...

  3. Running on Empty? The Compensatory Reserve Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Running on empty? The compensatory reserve index Steven L. Moulton, MD, Jane Mulligan , PhD, Greg Z. Grudic, PhD, and Victor A. Convertino, PhD, San...reserve index. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Moulton S. L., Mulligan J., Grudic G. Z., Convertino V...2003;196:679Y684. 25. Convertino VA, Grudic GZ, Mulligan J, Moulton S. Estimation of individual-specific progression to cardiovascular instability using

  4. A critique of full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Montagnoli, A; S Dow; Johnsen, G.

    2015-01-01

    Proposals for full reserve banking have been put forward as a radical way of preventing further financial crises. They rest on the argument that crises are caused by excessive money supply growth brought about by inadequately controlled bank credit creation. Our aim is to provide a critique of the theoretical assumptions underlying the plans for full reserve banking. In particular some of the plans rely on the view that the money supply is a key causal variable and that it is feasible for cen...

  5. Working marginal reserves using Auger technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celada Tamames, B.

    1988-03-01

    Following up an idea put forward at a meeting of the PEN (National Energy Plan) R and D working party held in Ponferrada in the province of Leon, Ocicarbon contracted Geocontrol SA to carry out a study on the possible use of Auger technology for working marginal coal reserves. This article summarises the most important points in the final report on this project: current state of Auger technology, inventory of marginal coal reserves in Spain and the use of Auger technology in Spain. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Estimating Quartz Reserves Using Compositional Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taboada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and volume of four commercial quartz grades, namely, silicon metal, ferrosilicon, aggregate, and kaolin (depending on content in impurities in a quartz seam. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the reserves in the seam were determined from samples collected from outcrops, blasting operations, and exploratory drilling, and compositional kriging was used to calculate the volume and distribution of the reserves. A more accurate knowledge of the deposit ensures better mine planning, leading to higher profitability and an improved relationship with the environment.

  7. Oil Reserve Project Picks Up Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ China will ratchet up its efforts to construct the second phase of the national crude oil reserve base project in 2011, as part of the country's endeavor to secure strategically important natural resources and stabilize the petroleum market."We will accelerate the construction pace of the project and ensure its quality, aiming to put it into operation as early as possible," the National Energy Administration (NEA) said in its annual energy work target for 2011.The agency, which is under China's top economic planner, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), will strengthen supervision to guarantee the safe operation of oil reserve bases.

  8. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pinson, Pierre; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional...... offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both...

  9. Women, truth, justice and reparation in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Ibarra Melo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper account for the main collective actions undertaken by two women networks in Colombia: Women’s Peace Route and the Colombian Women Initiative for Peace, during transition justice process and the implementation of the Justice and Peace Law (2004-2009. From a sociological approach to the political process and the gender category, this paper discusses how gender ideologies inform new ways of mobilization affecting discourses, purposes and repertoires of those claiming identities and defending human rights. The main conclusion here is that the feminist influence in redistribution and acknowledgement claims for victims from the armed conflict have encouraged collective actions that begin to modify their relationship to the State. This is proved by their achievements at Court and social acknowledgement victims have gained as social actors.

  10. Reparation af knogle og brusk med stamceller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kenneth H; Andersen, Tom E; Kassem, Moustapha

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are capable of multilineage differentiation into cells like osteoblasts, chondrocytes or adipocytes. MSCs can be isolated from bone marrow and expanded ex vivo for up to 25-40 population doublings while maintaining genetic stability and differentiation potential. MSCs...... have great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine where cartilage and bone conditions which are non-treatable or show very slow improvement can be effectively handled. Several clinical trials have been performed using MSC and show very promising results....

  11. Reparative inflammation takes charge of tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Michael; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-21

    Inflammation underlies many chronic and degenerative diseases, but it also mitigates infections, clears damaged cells and initiates tissue repair. Many of the mechanisms that link inflammation to damage repair and regeneration in mammals are conserved in lower organisms, indicating that it is an evolutionarily important process. Recent insights have shed light on the cellular and molecular processes through which conventional inflammatory cytokines and Wnt factors control mammalian tissue repair and regeneration. This is particularly important for regeneration in the gastrointestinal system, especially for intestine and liver tissues in which aberrant and deregulated repair results in severe pathologies.

  12. Reparation af knogle og brusk med stamceller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kenneth H; Andersen, Tom E; Kassem, Moustapha

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are capable of multilineage differentiation into cells like osteoblasts, chondrocytes or adipocytes. MSCs can be isolated from bone marrow and expanded ex vivo for up to 25-40 population doublings while maintaining genetic stability and differentiation potential. MSCs...

  13. Reparative inflammation takes charge of tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin, Michael; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation underlies many chronic and degenerative diseases, but it also mitigates infections, clears damaged cells and initiates tissue repair. Many of the mechanisms that link inflammation to damage repair and regeneration in mammals are conserved in lower organisms, indicating that it is an evo

  14. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, David F.

    2009-01-01

    William is 9 years of age, residing with his parent within the boundaries of an unnamed district ("the District"). As a student with autism he is eligible for special education programming and services. There was one issue presented for this due process hearing: What was the appropriate program and placement for him for the 2008-2009 school year?…

  15. Elephantine nose due to rhinoentomophthoromycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, Ashok; Sarma, Podila S A; Iqbal, Syed Md

    2006-01-01

    Rhinoentomophthoromycosis in an immunocompetent Indian male due to Basidiobolus species resulting in a huge (elephantine) nasal deformity, is reported. The diagnosis was done by demonstration of hyphae in direct tissue smear examination in potassium hydroxide, histopathological examination and by cultural characteristics. He showed an excellent response to oral potassium iodide solution.

  16. Endocarditis Due to Citrobacter Freundii

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Cesar V.; Folwarkiw, Oksana

    1984-01-01

    The etiologic association of acute bacterial endocarditis with the Citrobacter species has been rare, although it is one of the opportunistic organisms that afflicts the elderly, neonates, the debilitated and immunocompromised. We report a case of endocarditis due to Citrobacter freundii.

  17. Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-25

    Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet FORMAT : Civilian Research Paper DATE: 25 February 2009 WORDS: 10,172 PAGES: 56 CLASSIFICATION... Barrancas , Florida, in 1910. Unfortunately, on its first test flight, it flew only 500 yards at an altitude of 100 feet before crashing. This flight

  18. 25 CFR 162.500 - Crow Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crow Reservation. 162.500 Section 162.500 Indians BUREAU... sections of this part 162, Crow Indians classified as competent under the Act of June 4, 1920 (41 Stat. 751...), as amended by the Act of March 15, 1948 (62 Stat. 80). However, at their election Crow Indians...

  19. Strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is a government-owned stockpile of crude oil intended to serve as a buffer against possible oil market disruptions. The overall purpose of this project is to develop and apply improved models and tools for SPR management. Current project efforts emphasize developing new modeling tools to explicitly and flexibly portray oil market uncertainty and SPR planning risk.

  20. 49 CFR 193.2003 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 193.2003 Section 193.2003 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  1. 49 CFR 193.2015 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 193.2015 Section 193.2015 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  2. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  3. Energy Law to Highlight Corporate Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The proposed Energy Law is expected to focus on fuel security by regulating commercial oil reserves at the corporate level, according to the reports extensively released by news media. As known to all, the law is being drafted as the country's energy demand, and dependency on imports, is increasing.

  4. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB system is possible and that precautionary reserves consequently do not pose a necessary limit. We discuss various instances in which a FRFB system may expand credit without a prior increase in real savings. These facets all demonstrate why a fractional reserve banking system – even a free banking one – is inherently unstable, and incentivized to impose a stabilizing central bank. We find that at the root of our disagreements with Selgin lies a different approach to monetary theory. Selgin subscribes to the aggregative equation of exchange, which impedes him from seeing the microeconomic problems that the stabilization of “MV” by a FRFB system causes.

  5. The Location Model with Reservation Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a variant of the standard Hotelling model of spatial competition where firms first choose locations along the line and then, given these locations, compete in prices.Consumers have a finite reservation price and incur a quadratic transportation cost.We show that there exist

  6. Is a Forex Reserves Handout Feasible?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s rapid economic development over the past decades has brought in huge social wealth, amassing the largest foreign exchange (forex) reserves in the world at $2 trillion. When financial turbulence crippled the global economy, the mammoth foreign currency holdings quickly shrank in value as a result of the U.S. dollar’s devaluation.

  7. Study on Online Hotel Reservation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alleweldt, Frank; Tonner, Klaus; McDonald, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This study, conducted by Civic Consulting, looks at both pre-contractual and contractual matters concerning online hotel reservation systems, examines relevant Community rules, identifies gaps and, where needed, discusses possible policy options. Key conclusions The study shows that the impact of Community law on online hotel

  8. 7 CFR 1940.590 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true [Reserved] 1940.590 Section 1940.590 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Methodology and Formulas for Allocation of Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940...

  9. Appropriate reserves in the health care sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, D.W.; Helden, G.J. van

    1999-01-01

    Organizations in the health care sector are increasingly managed and judged on the basis of economic criteria. At the same time they are faced with growing risks which necessitate ‘appropriate’ reserves. Various major risks are mentioned in this paper. Health care organizations are allowed to form p

  10. Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    align reserve capabilities with active component requirements. See prepared statement of Vice Admiral John C. Harvey , Chief of Naval Personnel...before the Senate Armed Services Personnel Subcommittee, February 27, 2008, p. 5, http://armed-services.senate.gov/ statemnt/2008/February/ Harvey %2002-27...security and disaster relief missions in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

  11. 31 CFR 308.5 - Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reservations. 308.5 Section 308.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING FULL-PAID...

  12. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  13. Supermarket Defrost Cycles As Flexible Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time...

  14. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  15. 76 FR 64250 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification and Private Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... institutions for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. The Board's Regulation D (Reserve Requirements of... role of reserve requirements in the implementation of monetary policy. The Board believes that these... institutions to enable the Board to conduct monetary policy). \\7\\ The exemption amount is the amount of an...

  16. Mosses from Kakenauwe Natural Reserve and Lambusango Game Reserve, Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORENTINA INDAH WINDADRI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity of Bryophyte in Kakenauwe Natural Reserve and Lambusango Game Reserve has never reported before. Recent floristic study recorded 14 species belong to 12 genus and 8 families occur in this area. Five species of them indicated as a new record for Sulawesi.

  17. Wage differentials due to gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N; Westergard-nielsen, N

    1988-10-01

    "In this paper, a longitudinal data set covering 5% of all Danish wage earners over a 9-year period is used to shed light on the observed wage differentials due to gender. A human capital model is used to isolate the effects of changes in experience, schooling and unemployment, together with other factors.... Despite the observation from macro statistics that women have had the highest observed increases in wage rates, the models show that this increase is mainly due to an improvement in their background characteristics and that men still receive a higher return to their characteristics. The main difference between genders appears to be that female workers do not, in general, get any return to their experience. The estimates also show negative effects on the wage rate of previous spells of unemployment." excerpt

  18. Maternal mortality due to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Vivian Carolina; Pearlman, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Maternal mortality is an important indicator of adequacy of health care in our society. Improvements in the obstetric care system as well as advances in technology have contributed to reduction in maternal mortality rates. Trauma complicates up to 7% of all pregnancies and has emerged as the leading cause of maternal mortality, becoming a significant concern for the public health system. Maternal mortality secondary to trauma can often be prevented by coordinated medical care, but it is essential that caregivers recognize the unique situation of providing simultaneous care to 2 patients who have a complex physiologic relationship. Optimal management of the pregnant trauma victim requires a multidisciplinary team, where the obstetrician plays a central role. This review focuses on the incidence of maternal mortality due to trauma, the mechanisms involved in traumatic injury, the important anatomic and physiologic changes that may predispose to mortality due to trauma, and finally, preventive strategies that may decrease the incidence of traumatic maternal death.

  19. Visual Impairment Due to Lissencephaly

    OpenAIRE

    Marqués-Fernández, V. E.; Sánchez-Tocino, H.; Escudero-Caro, M.T.; Cancho-Candela, R.; García-Zamora, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lissencephaly is a rare disorder due to abnormal neural migration, causing neurological impairment and clinically characterised by mental retardation and epilepsy. Any disturbance of the visual pathway can cause loss of vision. The authors describe a case of a 6-year-old boy referred to the ophthalmologist presenting poor bilateral vision. This child had no other known medical conditions, and neurological examination was completely normal. Only when a magnetic resonance imaging was made that ...

  20. Autoerotic death due to electrocution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Arkuszewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autoerotic death is a very rare case in forensic medicine. It is usually caused by asphyxia, but other reasons are also possible. Herein we present a case of autoerotic death due to electrocution caused by a self-made electrical device. The device was constructed to increase sexual feelings through stimulation of the scrotal area.

  1. A Sensorless Power Reserve Control Strategy for Two-Stage Grid-Connected PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Due to the still increasing penetration of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, advanced active power control functionalities have been introduced in grid regulations. A power reserve control, where namely the active power from the PV panels is reserved during operation, is required for grid...... to achieve the power reserve. In this method, the solar irradiance and temperature measurements that have been used in conventional power reserve control schemes to estimate the available PV power are not required, and thereby being a sensorless approach with reduced cost. Experimental tests have been...... support. In this paper, a cost-effective solution to realize the power reserve for two-stage grid-connected PV systems is proposed. The proposed solution routinely employs a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control to estimate the available PV power and a Constant Power Generation (CPG) control...

  2. 12 CFR 204.4 - Computation of required reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.4 Computation of required reserves. (a) In determining the reserve requirement under this part, the amount of cash items in process of... reserves are computed by applying the reserve requirement ratios below to net transaction...

  3. Marine conservation in the republic of South Africa with special reference to marine parks and reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Robinson

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation in the Republic of South Africa (RSA is dominated by big game and terrestrial reserves. Protecting these, have been in existence for many years. Recently Man has turned his attention more and more to the sea and due to adverse effects of pollution, overexploitation and habitat destruction the marine environment is threatened. However, conservationists have learnt lessons about both terrestrial and marine ecosystem-destruction and are now demanding with increasing persistence the establishment of marine parks and reserves.

  4. Money Multiplier under Reserve Option Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Halit AKTURK; Gocen, Hasan; Duran, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a generalized money (M2) multiplier formula to the literature for a monetary system with Reserve Option Mechanism (ROM). Various features of the proposed multiplier are then explored using monthly Turkish data during the decade 2005 to 2015. We report a step increase in the magnitude and a slight upward adjustment in the long-run trend of the multiplier with the adoption of ROM. We provide evidence for substantial change in the seasonal pattern of the multiplier, cash ra...

  5. Liquidity and reserve requirements in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Robitaille

    2011-01-01

    The international reform initiative that followed the global financial crisis of 2008-09 has resulted in the introduction of liquidity requirements for banks. Under one requirement, the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR), banks will need to hold enough highly liquid assets to survive for a month in a stress scenario. Banks' required reserve balances can be used to fulfill this liquidity requirement and this may be seen as an attractive option for emerging market economies, where financial sectors...

  6. OVARIAN RESERVE IN HEALTHY ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Buralkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preserving reproductive health of girls is a pressing issue for the modern healthcare industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the metrics of ovarian reserve in healthy adolescent girls aged 15 to 17 in the Republic of Mordovia. 49 healthy adolescent girls aged 15 to 17 were examined in the study. A medical and social audit was conducted at the first state to study their medical history and hereditary factors. Their physical and sexual development (sexual form, characteristic of menstrual cycle, general and gynecological exam was assessed at the second stage. Hormonal status and ovarian reserve metrics were examined at the third stage. Ultrasonic examination of pelvic organs was conducted and concentrations of LH, FSH, estradiol and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH in blood were determined. The study results obtained suggest that a reduced size of ovary in girls aged 16 compared with 15-year-old girls is accompanied with the tendency toward a reduced level of AMH and increased concentration of FSH in blood serum. A significant increase in the average size of both ovaries in 17-year-old adolescents is accompanied with the tendency toward increased AMH, and, by contrast, the tendency toward a reduced level of FSH. The level of estradiol significantly increases over age, i.e. over the period from 15 to 17 years. Hence, at ages 15 and 16 all reproductive system components continue to actively adjust to cyclical functioning. By age 17, a close relationship between ovarian reserve and hormonal status is established.Key words: reproductive health, ovarian reserve, hormonal status, girls. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(5:38-43

  7. THE SOIL ALGAE OF CIBODAS FOREST RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of green algae and one blue-green alga were recorded from eight samples of soil found associated with bryophytes in the Cibodas Forest Reserve. Chemical analysis of the soil showed severe leaching of soluable mineral substances associated with a low pH. The low light intensity under forest conditions and the low pH may account for the limited algal flora.

  8. The Nature and Use of Copper Reserve and Resource Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Wright, Nancy A.; Coakley, George J.

    1981-01-01

    Copper reserve, resource, and production data can be combined to produce disaggregated resource estimates and trends and, when combined with demand forecasts, can be used to predict future exploration and development requirements. Reserve estimates are subject to uncertainties due mainly to incomplete exploration and rapidly changing economic conditions. United States' reserve estimates in the past have been low mainly because knowledge of the magnitude of very large porphyry-copper deposits has been incomplete. Present estimates are considerably more reliable because mining firms tend to drill out deposits fully before mining and to release their reserve estimates to the public. The sum of reserves and past production yields an estimate of the total ore, total metal contained in ore, and average grade of ore originally in each of the deposits known in the United States. For most deposits, estimates of total copper in ore are low relative to the total copper in mineralized rock, and many estimates are strongly affected by the economic behavior of mining firms. A better estimate of the real distribution of copper contained in deposits can be obtained by combining past production data with resource estimates. Copper resource data are disaggregated into categories that include resources in undeveloped deposits similar to those mined in the past, resources in mines closed because of unfavorable economic conditions, resources in deep deposits requiring high-cost mining methods, arid resources in deposits located in areas where environmental restrictions have contributed to delays in development. The largest resource is located in the five largest porphyry deposits. These deposits are now being mined but the resources are not included in the present mining plan. Resources in this last category will not contribute to supply until some future time when ores presently being mined are depleted. A high correlation exists between total copper contained in deposits and annual

  9. Fast and Reliable Primary Frequency Reserves From Refrigerators with Decentralized Stochastic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrettos, Evangelos; Ziras, Charalampos; Andersson, Goran

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing shares of renewable energy sources, more frequency reserves are required to maintain power system stability. In this paper, we present a decentralized control scheme that allows a large aggregation of refrigerators to provide Primary Frequency Control (PFC) reserves to the grid....... In addition, we propose a procedure to dynamically reset the thermostat temperature limits in order to provide reliable PFC reserves, as well as a corrective temperature feedback loop to build robustness to biased frequency deviations. Furthermore, we introduce an additional randomization layer...

  10. Study of Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve in Nordic Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    is modelled to investigate the dynamic behaviour of DFR. Two DFR control logics, designed according to different appliance features, are implemented into the heat pump model. In this study, DFR acts as both disturbance and normal operation reserves to fulfill the requirement of frequency reserve by Danish......This paper investigates the efficacy of Demand Frequency Reserve (DFR) in Nordic power system. Heat pump, due to its switching flexibility, less disturbing impacts to customers and promising future in application, is used to represent DFR in the study. Thermodynamics of the heat pump unit...

  11. Exploring the neural basis of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov; Zarahn, Eric; Hilton, H John; Flynn, Joseph; DeLaPaz, Robert; Rakitin, Brian

    2003-08-01

    There is epidemiologic and imaging evidence for the presence of cognitive reserve, but the neurophysiologic substrate of CR has not been established. In order to test the hypothesis that CR is related to aspects of neural processing, we used fMRI to image 19 healthy young adults while they performed a nonverbal recognition test. There were two task conditions. A low demand condition required encoding and recognition of single items and a titrated demand condition required the subject to encode and then recognize a larger list of items, with the study list size for each subject adjusted prior to scanning such that recognition accuracy was 75%. We hypothesized that individual differences in cognitive reserve are related to changes in neural activity as subjects moved from the low to the titrated demand task. To test this, we examined the correlation between subjects' fMRI activation and NART scores. This analysis was implemented voxel-wise in a whole brain fMRI dataset. During both the study and test phases of the recognition memory task we noted areas where, across subjects, there were significant positive and negative correlations between change in activation from low to titrated demand and the NART score. These correlations support our hypothesis that neural processing differs across individuals as a function of CR. This differential processing may help explain individual differences in capacity, and may underlie reserve against age-related or other pathologic changes.

  12. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  13. Endocarditis due to Kingella kingae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, L; Jensen, K T; Slotsbjerg, T D

    1984-06-01

    Four cases of endocarditis due to Kingella kingae are described in compromised patients. All had primary heart disease, and two had systemic lupus erythematosis and congenital heart defect respectively, in addition. Confirmation of Kingella kingae was made in one case at autopsy. The literature on 11 cases of endocarditis, 2 bacteremia, 4 osteomyelitis, 5 septic arthritis and 1 intervertebral disc infection, all caused by Kingella kingae, is reviewed. Our findings confirm that the organism is of low pathogenicity. Children may be predisposed to infection with Kingella kingae.

  14. Interference due to coherence swapping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Kumar Pati; Marek Zukowski

    2001-02-01

    We propose a method called ‘coherence swapping’ which enables us to create superposition of a particle in two distinct paths, which is fed with initially incoherent, independent radiation. This phenomenon is also present for the charged particles, and can be used to swap the effect of flux line due to the Aharonov–Bohm effect. We propose an optical version of experimental set-up to test the coherence swapping. The phenomenon, which is simpler than entanglement swapping or teleportation, raises some fundamental questions about the true nature of wave-particle duality, and also opens up the possibility of studying the quantum erasure from a new angle.

  15. Tardive akathisia due to sulpiride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Munain, A; Poza, J J; Gorospe, A; Arce, A; Martí Massó, J F

    1994-10-01

    A 56 year-old woman who suffered from parkinsonism, oro-lingual dyskinesia (OLD) and tardive akathisia (TA) due to sulpiride is reported. OLD and TA appeared after sulpiride withdrawal. The patient was successfully treated with tetrabenazine even a mild parkinsonism was present. TA seems to be related with an apparent dopaminergic hyperactivity and it has to be differentiated of other neuroleptic-induced movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome in order of an appropriate treatment. Sulpiride has the same possible side effects than classic neuroleptics.

  16. Empirical study of reparation of defect bone around dental implant treated with PRP and BIO-OSS composite%PRP复合BIO-OSS对种植体周骨缺损修复的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦纪英; 杨晶晶; 贺于奇; 司亚静

    2011-01-01

    目的 验证富血小板血浆(PRP)复合无机牛骨(BIO-OSS)对兔胫骨种植体周骨缺损的修复作用.方法 选择健康新西兰大白兔24只,采用自身对照方法.在动物的左右两侧胫骨体部上1/3距膝关节2 cm处各植入1枚种植体,并在种植体一侧建立骨缺损区,左侧为实验组,填充PRP与BIO-OSS复合物;右侧为对照组,填充生理盐水与BIO-OSS复合物.分别于术后2、4、6周处死动物各8只,行X线片检查,进行骨密度分析;行组织学染色检查,测量新生骨面积.结果 术后2、4、6周骨密度分析显示实验组灰度值与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);术后2、4、6周实验组新生骨面积与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 PRP可以促进骨组织的再生与修复,PRP与BIO-OSS复合材料是良好的促进骨缺损修复的移植材料.%Objective To verity the reparation of the composite graft with PRP and deproteinizedbovinebonemineral(BIO-OSS) to the bone defect in dental implantation. Methods 24 healthy New Zealand white rabbits were selected. Defects and holes were made on the bilateral tibia in each side of the 1/3 and 2 centimeters from knee. Implantations were embedded in holes. The left side was experimental group and filled with BIO-OSS/PRP. The right was control group and filled with BIO-OSS/NS. The tibia healing was evaluated by X-ray film,histological analysis at 2,4,and 6 weeks postoperative. Specimens were measured by the computer in histological and new bone density analysis. Results Totally 24 rabbits were involved in the result analysis. A greater volume of new bone formation were observed in the graft sites that received PRP than the control at 2,4 and 6 weeks postoperatively(P<0. 05).Conclusion PRP/BIO-OSS composite can remarkably facilitate the repair of rabbit tibia defects. And it is a more promising alternative to bone graft material.

  17. 76 FR 2083 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... requirement and sets a course for successful implementation of the goals and objectives of the Reserve. Since... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Estuarine Research Reserve System AGENCY: Estuarine Reserves Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Ocean...

  18. Pediatric ischemic stroke due to dengue vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Subrat Kumar; Jayalakshmi, Sita; Mohandas, Surath

    2014-10-01

    Dengue infection is an important arboviral infection in southeast Asia, especially in India. Neurological manifestations of dengue are increasingly recognized. We report an ischemic stroke due to dengue vasculitis in an 8-year-old child. We present a girl with a short febrile illness followed by episodic severe headache, with gradually progressive hemiparesis and visual impairment. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple infarctions in the anterior and posterior circulation. The magnetic resonance angiogram revealed irregular narrowing of bilateral middle cerebral arteries, right anterior cerebral artery, left posterior cerebral, and bilateral vertebral arteries suggestive of vasculitis. Her dengue serology was strongly positive for immunoglobulin M with 68.9 panbio units. The rest of the evaluation for pediatric stroke was unremarkable. She was treated with intravenous followed by oral corticosteroids and recovered totally with resolution of vasculitis on magnetic resonance angiogram over the next 3 months. This child illustrates possible immune-mediated vasculitis caused by dengue infection which is rather a rare presentation in a child who subsequently recovered well. One should consider dengue in childhood strokes in endemic regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Adir, Yochai; Barberà, Joan Albert; Champion, Hunter; Coghlan, John Gerard; Cottin, Vincent; De Marco, Teresa; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghio, Stefano; Gibbs, J Simon R; Martinez, Fernando; Semigran, Marc; Simonneau, Gerald; Wells, Athol; Seeger, Werner

    2013-12-24

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a common complication of left heart diseases (LHD), negatively impacts symptoms, exercise capacity, and outcome. Although the true prevalence of PH-LHD is unknown, a subset of patients might present significant PH that cannot be explained by a passive increase in left-sided filling pressures. The term "out-of-proportion" PH has been used to identify that population without a clear definition, which has been found less than ideal and created confusion. We propose a change in terminology and a new definition of PH due to LHD. We suggest to abandon "out-of-proportion" PH and to distinguish "isolated post-capillary PH" from "post-capillary PH with a pre-capillary component" on the basis of the pressure difference between diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure. Although there is no validated treatment for PH-LHD, we provide insights into management and discuss completed and randomized trials in this condition. Finally, we provide recommendations for future clinical trials to establish safety and efficacy of novel compounds to target this area of unmet medical need. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 17 CFR 229.1202 - (Item 1202) Disclosure of reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., including standardized futures prices or management's own forecasts. (3) If the registrant provides...) Preparation of reserves estimates or reserves audit. Disclose and describe the internal controls...

  1. THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF FRACTIONAL RESERVE BANKING AND FULL RESERVE BANKING: WHERE ISLAMIC BANKING SHOULD STAND?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yaser Taufik Syamlan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives – this research is aimed to compare those epistemological bases to the mindset of Islamic Bank and try to drive the philosophy in practical operation whether based on the Fractional Reserve Banking Sytem (RBS) or 100...

  2. Ready, Reliable, and Relevant: The Army Reserve Component as an Operational Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    33 Stephen Everett and L. Martin Kaplan, Department of the Army Historical Summary: Fiscal Year 1993, Center of...1992 and 1993, Public Law 102- 190, 102nd Cong. (December 5, 1991): 1352-1353. 35 Dennis Chapman , “Planning for Employment of the Reserve...not acronyms. These terms are referenced in Chapman , “Planning for Employment of the Reserve Components,” 1-4; 6-9; 11-12. 40 Chapman , “Planning

  3. Reserve Component Programs. Fiscal Year 1999 Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    border with Mexico in southern San Diego county as part of project Task Force Grizzly Border Road. In New York’s Operation Straight Shoot, the...1992, which was signed by six states: Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico , Nevada, and Utah. The third such compact was the Southern Regional...Reserve par- ticipated in the 1999 Copa Telemundo, a youth soccer tournament and fiesta for boys age 15 to 19. The Naval Reserve is actively

  4. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2017-09-06

    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in prospective research. The study included Rare Patient Voice panel participants. The web-based survey included the Reserve-Building Measure with one-week re-test, measures of quality of life (QOL) and well-being (PROMIS General Health; NeuroQOL Cognitive Function and Positive Affect & Well-Being short-forms; Ryff Environmental Mastery subscale); and the Big Five Inventory-10 personality measure. Classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses investigated psychometric characteristics of the Reserve-Building Measure. This North American sample (n = 592) included both patients and caregivers [mean age = 44, SD 19)]. Psychometric analyses revealed distinct subscales measuring current reserve-building activities (Active in the World, Games, Outdoors, Creative, Religious/Spiritual, Exercise, Inner Life, Shopping/Cooking, Passive Media Consumption,), past reserve-building activities (Childhood Activities, Achievement), and reserve-related person-factors (Perseverance, Current and Past Social Support, and Work Value). Test-retest stability (n = 101) was moderately high for 11 of 15 subscales (ICC range 0.78-0.99); four were below 0.59 indicating a need for further refinement. IRT analyses supported the item functioning of all subscales. Correlational analyses suggest the measure's subscales tap distinct constructs (range r = 0.11-0.46) which are not redundant with QOL, well-being, or personality (range r = 0.11-0.48). The Reserve-Building Measure provides a measure of activities and person-factors related to reserve that may potentially be useful in prospective research.

  5. Reserve Officer Commissioning Program (ROCP) Officer andReserve Personnel Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-07

    Cleared for Public Release DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Reserve Officer...Commissioning Program (ROCP) Officer and Reserve Personnel Readiness Jennifer Griffin and Michelle Dolfini-Reed April 2017 This work was...performed under Federal Government Contract No. N00014-16-D-5003. Copyright © 2017 CNA This document contains the best opinion of CNA at the time of

  6. Occupational injuries due to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T; Seligman, P J; Newman, S C; Timbrook, C L

    1988-06-01

    Each year in the United States, an estimated 800 to 1,400 people are murdered at work, and an unknown number of nonfatal injuries due to workplace violence occur. Based on Ohio's workers' compensation claims from 1983 through 1985, police officers, gasoline service station employees, employees of the real estate industry, and hotel/motel employees were found to be at the highest risk for occupational violent crime (OVC) injury and death. Grocery store employees, specifically those working in convenience food stores, and employees of the real estate industry had the most reported rapes. Four previously unidentified industries at increased risk of employee victimization were described. Identification of industries and occupations at high risk for crime victimization provides the opportunity to focus preventive strategies to promote employee safety and security in the workplace.

  7. Collisional Aggregation due to Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Pumir, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Collisions between particles suspended in a fluid play an important role in many physical processes. As an example, collisions of microscopic water droplets in clouds are a necessary step in the production of macroscopic raindrops. Collisions of dust grains are also conjectured to be important for planet formation in the gas surrounding young stars, and also to play a role in the dynamics of sand storms. In these processes, collisions are favoured by fast turbulent motions. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of collisional aggregation due to turbulence. We discuss the role of fractal clustering of particles, and caustic singularities of their velocities. We also discuss limitations of the Smoluchowski equation for modelling these processes. These advances lead to a semi-quantitative understanding on the influence of turbulence on collision rates, and point to deficiencies in the current understanding of rainfall and planet formation.

  8. EPA Declares Outdoor Burn Ban for Indian Reservations in Snohomish and Pierce Counties, Burn Ban Continues for Yakama Reservation: Air Pollution Levels Now in the Unhealthy to Very Unhealthy Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is declaring a ban on all outdoor open burning on the Tulalip, Stillaguamish, Sauk-Suiattle and Puyallup Indian Reservations in Washington due to stagnant air conditions and elevated air pollution. These conditions

  9. Root carbon reserve dynamics in aspen seedlings: does simulated drought induce reserve limitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, David A; Landhäusser, S M; Tyree, M T

    2011-03-01

    In a greenhouse study we quantified the gradual change of gas exchange, water relations and root reserves of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) seedlings growing over a 3-month period of severe water stress. The aim of the study was to quantify the complex interrelationship between growth, water and gas exchange, and root carbon (C) dynamics. Various growth, gas exchange and water relations variables in combination with root reserves were measured periodically on seedlings that had been exposed to a continuous drought treatment over a 12-week period and compared with well-watered seedlings. Although gas exchange and water relations parameters significantly decreased over the drought period in aspen seedlings, root reserves did not mirror this trend. During the course of the experiment roots of aspen seedlings growing under severe water stress showed a two orders of magnitude increase in sugar and starch content, and roots of these seedlings contained more starch relative to sugar than those in non-droughted seedlings. Drought resulted in a switch from growth to root reserves storage which indicates a close interrelationship between growth and physiological variables and the accumulation of root carbohydrate reserves. Although a severe 3-month drought period created physiological symptoms of C limitation, there was no indication of a depletion of root C reserve in aspen seedlings.

  10. Are Private Reserves Effective for Jaguar Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-González, Carmina E; Gómez-Ramírez, Miguel A; López-González, Carlos A; Doherty, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    We present the first study of density and apparent survival for a jaguar (Panthera onca) population in northern Mexico using 13 years of camera trap data from 2000 to 2012. We used the Barker robust design model which combines data from closed sampling periods and resight data between these periods to estimate apparent survival and abundance. We identified 467 jaguar pictures that corresponded to 48 jaguar individuals. We included camera type and field technician as covariates for detection probabilities. We used three covariates to evaluate the effect of reserve on jaguar apparent survival: i) private reserve creation ii) later reserve expansions, and iii) cattle ranches' conservation activities. We found that the use of digital cameras in addition to film cameras increased detection probability by a factor of 6x compared with the use of only film cameras (p = 0.34 ± 0.05 and p = 0.05 ± 0.02 respectively) in the closed period and more than three times in the open period (R = 0.91 ± 0.08 and R = 0.30 ± 0.13 mixed and film cameras respectively). Our availability estimates showed no temporary emigration and a fidelity probability of 1. Despite an increase of apparent survival probability from 0.47 ± 0.15 to 0.56 ± 0.11 after 2007, no single covariate explained the change in these point estimates. Mean jaguar density was 1.87 ± 0.47 jaguars/100 km2. We found that 13 years of jaguar population monitoring with our sampling size were not enough for detecting changes in survival or density. Our results provide a baseline for studies evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas and the inclusion of ranch owners in jaguar conservation programs and long-term population viability.

  11. Are Private Reserves Effective for Jaguar Conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina E Gutiérrez-González

    Full Text Available We present the first study of density and apparent survival for a jaguar (Panthera onca population in northern Mexico using 13 years of camera trap data from 2000 to 2012. We used the Barker robust design model which combines data from closed sampling periods and resight data between these periods to estimate apparent survival and abundance. We identified 467 jaguar pictures that corresponded to 48 jaguar individuals. We included camera type and field technician as covariates for detection probabilities. We used three covariates to evaluate the effect of reserve on jaguar apparent survival: i private reserve creation ii later reserve expansions, and iii cattle ranches' conservation activities. We found that the use of digital cameras in addition to film cameras increased detection probability by a factor of 6x compared with the use of only film cameras (p = 0.34 ± 0.05 and p = 0.05 ± 0.02 respectively in the closed period and more than three times in the open period (R = 0.91 ± 0.08 and R = 0.30 ± 0.13 mixed and film cameras respectively. Our availability estimates showed no temporary emigration and a fidelity probability of 1. Despite an increase of apparent survival probability from 0.47 ± 0.15 to 0.56 ± 0.11 after 2007, no single covariate explained the change in these point estimates. Mean jaguar density was 1.87 ± 0.47 jaguars/100 km2. We found that 13 years of jaguar population monitoring with our sampling size were not enough for detecting changes in survival or density. Our results provide a baseline for studies evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas and the inclusion of ranch owners in jaguar conservation programs and long-term population viability.

  12. Reserve, flowing electrolyte, high rate lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, M.; Harris, P.

    Flowing electrolyte Li/SOCl2 tests in single cell and multicell bipolar fixtures have been conducted, and measurements are presented for electrolyte flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures, fixture temperatures at several points, and the pressure drop across the fixture. Reserve lithium batteries with flowing thionyl-chloride electrolytes are found to be capable of very high energy densities with usable voltages and capacities at current densities as high as 500 mA/sq cm. At this current density, a battery stack 10 inches in diameter is shown to produce over 60 kW of power while maintaining a safe operating temperature.

  13. Demand as Frequency-controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian Brandt; Østergaard, Jacob

    with great enthusiasm from all DFR project members who have shown a memorable dedication to their work. Active control of electricity demand is a key technology when creating a more dynamic, wind power friendly energy system. In this demonstration project, we have developed and tested devices, which use...... electric loads to provide frequency controlled primary reserves. The devices collected data from domestic households and industrial loads covering i.e. circulation pumps, electrical domestic heating, bottle coolers, a wastewater treatment plant etc., that have been analysed and used for the papers...

  14. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-01-01

    The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N), with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In t...

  15. Forty Defective Criticisms of Full Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The basics of full reserve banking (FR) are set out below, followed by forty defective criticisms of FR. Each of those forty sections has: 1. A heading. 2. Where the heading does not adequately capture the nature of the criticism, there is a paragraph below the heading starting “I.e…”, which expands on the heading. 3. There are references to one or more economists who have put the relevant criticism. 4. The answer to each criticism which starts with a paragraph beginning with the wo...

  16. Flexible reserve markets for wind integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.

    The increased interconnection of variable generation has motivated the use of improved forecasting to more accurately predict future production with the purpose to lower total system costs for balancing when the expected output exceeds or falls short of the actual output. Forecasts are imperfect, and the forecast errors associated with utility-scale generation from variable generators need new balancing capabilities that cannot be handled by existing ancillary services. Our work focuses on strategies for integrating large amounts of wind generation under the flex reserve market, a market that would called upon for short-term energy services during an under or oversupply of wind generation to maintain electric grid reliability. The flex reserve market would be utilized for time intervals that fall in-between the current ancillary services markets that would be longer than second-to-second energy services for maintaining system frequency and shorter than reserve capacity services that are called upon for several minutes up to an hour during an unexpected contingency on the grid. In our work, the wind operator would access the flex reserve market as an energy service to correct for unanticipated forecast errors, akin to paying the generators participating in the market to increase generation during a shortfall or paying the other generators to decrease generation during an excess of wind generation. Such a market does not currently exist in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) is the Mid-Atlantic electric grid case study that was used to examine if a flex reserve market can be utilized for integrating large capacities of wind generation in a lowcost manner for those providing, purchasing and dispatching these short-term balancing services. The following work consists of three studies. The first examines the ability of a hydroelectric facility to provide short-term forecast error balancing services via a flex

  17. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  18. Extended-reach wells tap outlying reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazzal, G. (Eastman Teleco, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Extended-reach drilling (ERD) is being used to exploit fields and reserves that are located far from existing platforms. Effective wellbore placement from fewer platforms can reduce development costs, maximize production and increase reserve recovery. Six wells drilled offshore in the US, North Sea and Australia illustrate how to get the most economic benefit from available infrastructure. These wells are divided into three categories by depth (shallow, medium and deep). Vertical depth of these wells range from 963 to 12,791 ft TVD and displacements range from 4,871 to 23,917 ft. Important factors for successful extended-reach drilling included: careful, comprehensive pre-planning; adequate cuttings removal in all sections; hole stability in long, exposed intervals; torque and drag modeling of drilling BHAs, casing and liners; buoyancy-assisted casing techniques where appropriate; critical modifications to drilling rig and top drive, for medium and deep ERD; modified power swivels for shallow operations; drill pipe rubbers or other casing protection during extended periods of drill string rotation; heavy-wall casting across anticipated high-wear areas; survey accuracy and frequency; sound drilling practices and creativity to accomplish goals and objectives. This paper reviews the case history of these sites and records planning and design procedures.

  19. Engineering, geology hike Black Bayou reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1971-01-04

    New wells drilled in strategic locations, combined with well-engineered attic-oil recovery projects, have added more than 20 million bbl of recoverable oil to Shell Oil Co's reserves in Black Bayou field, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. Development wells discover the small reservoirs in the highly faulted field and up dig gas injection assures Shell of getting all the oil possible. A continuous review of the field's geology, constantly updated with information from each new well, contributes to the program's sucess. In the last 10 yr, the combination of reservoir engineering and geology came up with 71 new wells, added 20 million bbl to the field's reserves, and increased production rate from 1,000 to 9,000 bpd. All this from a field that is celebrating its forty-first anniversary. Black Bayou is the oldest Shell-discovered field in Louisiana. It is a piercement-type salt dome with production confined to narrow bands around the periphery of the salt. The dome is bisected by a major NW.-dipping fault, and is further complicated by at least 30 radial faults. There are 26 productive oil sands of sands of Miocene and Oligocene age. Cumulative production from the field as of Nov. 1, 1970, is approx. 34 million bbl oil. Ultimate recovery for the field is estimated at 50 million bbl oil.

  20. Secondary amyloidosis due to FMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonem, Ozlem; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2007-06-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an ethnically restricted disease with an autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by recurrent attacks of fever, painful manifestations in the abdomen, chest and joints. The disease affects mainly non-Ashkenazi Jews, Armenians, Turks Arabs and other people of Mediterranean origin. The disease may present at any age, more than 80% of patients being symptomatic by the age of 20. Although the inflammatory attacks that characterize the disease may sometimes be debilitating, secondary (AA) amyloidosis remains the most serious manifestation of FMF causing considerable morbidity due mostly to nephropathic amyloidosis. The largest series of secondary amyloidosis in FMF have been reported from Turkey. The pathophysiological steps in progressing a patient from FMF to amyloidosis are not definitely known. Daily treatment with colchicine can prevent both the attacks and amyloid deposition but no effective alternative treatment exists for colchicine resistant cases. Meanwhile more population based epidemiological and genetic data should be gathered by worldwide collaborative studies to elucidate the link between FMF and amyloidosis and to develop alternative therapies.

  1. Galactorrhea due to psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, S; Ziegenbein, M; Grohmann, R; Engel, R R; Degner, D

    2004-03-01

    Within the drug safety program in psychiatry AMSP ( Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie), severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are assessed. Currently 35 psychiatric hospitals and departments are participating in detecting severe ADRs. This paper focuses on prolactin-dependent ADRs such as gynecomastia and galactorrhea due to psychotropic medications. Related to the number of patients surveyed (122,562 from 1993 to 2000), these are rare events (0.03 % or 35 cases). Imputed drugs were mostly antipsychotics, but antidepressants were also imputed in single cases. In the group of antipsychotics, relative frequencies of galactorrhea were highest for amisulpride and risperidone and corresponded to the degree of D2 binding. Galactorrhea assessed as "severe" was accompanied by distressing symptoms such as pain, tension, enlargement of breasts, or soaked clothing. The AMSP data contribute to the knowledge on endocrine ADRs by the large number of patients examined and help clinicians select the appropriate drug if their patients have been prone to for these ADRs in the past.

  2. Can private management compensate the ineffective marine reserves in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Wen, Colin Kuo-Chang; Li, Xiubao; Tao, Yuan; Lian, Jainshen; Yang, Jianhui; Cherh, Kah-Leng

    2017-02-01

    Marine reserves (MRs) have emerged as a preferred method to protect coral reefs from overfishing and human disturbance. However, due to ineffective enforcement by governments, many MRs have been reduced to mere "paper parks" which fail to achieve conservation goals. This is especially true in countries such as China where compliance is low and resources dedicated to enforcement may be scarce. Privately managed marine reserves (PMMRs) may be effective in areas where government enforcement is lacking. To determine if PMMRs are a viable alternative strategy to protect coral reefs, we surveyed and compared fish assemblages and coral coverage in national MRs in Sanya, China to areas of reef privately leased to and managed by dive operators and hospitality industries. We found higher fish abundances and fish sizes in PMMR sites than in MR sites. However, while PMMRs are protected from fishing, other human impacts such as marine debris and illegal coral collection were evident in most tourist sites. Despite protection, long-term monitoring data of PMMRs revealed that in recent years, fish abundances have slightly recovered but species richness has not, indicating the need for a more comprehensive coral reef management plan. We strongly recommend coupling PMMRs with expertise supported regulations as an alternative coral reef management strategy in China.

  3. Node reserve mechanism (over dynamic load-balancing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Francisco Junqueira; Azevedo, Carlos Vicente Goulart de; Dalle, Hugo Moura, E-mail: muniz@cdtn.br, E-mail: cvga@cdtn.br, E-mail: dallehm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Multiple-Instruction Multi-Data (MIMD) distributed-memory processing systems (such as an IBM like set of PCs, connected by a communication device) are since long time commercially available and in use. But many Research Institutions still use them as a mono-user facility: they are much more cost effective if used as a (multi-user) shared resource. However, the use of MIMD machines as a shared resource is often limited due to lack of an efficient, easy-to-use and on hand dynamic load-balancing technique. This work describes the arrangements that were made to establish the interface between a mechanism of processing power availability (resource determined from a shared computer facility) and simultaneous users, demand for resources. The key point is to allow the application designer to ask for (at once) as many nodes as he needs (a multi-reserve mechanism). The system runs over Linux/X86 computing nodes (a cluster). In order to show the interface functionality, the startup module of a MCNP package was modified in such a way that the multi-reserve node mechanism together with a multi-user dynamic load-balancing approach could be used. Nodes set demand is an intrinsic feature of MCNP package. Such modified MCNP package was successfully run over a dynamic load-balancing system. (author)

  4. Vulnerable Earthworm Species Identified from Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Ramasamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of earthworms at Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is less known even though it is one among the biodiversity hot spots. Unless an authentic record of available earthworm species is made, the consequences of human alternation or climate change on the earthworm species diversity cannot be assessed. In this regard, the present study is relevant. Earthworms were collected from twenty three sites of NBR. The findings of this study showed that out of the total earthworm species identified from selected areas of NBR, 83.4% are native species and 16.6% are exotic. This indicates the predominance of native species in the study area possibly due to low level of disturbance in the area. Among the species identified from Mukurthi, Priodichaeta pellucida (Bourne which is listed as vulnerable and has not been encountered since its discovery about 100 years ago.

  5. 26 CFR 1.801-5 - Total reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its highest aggregate reserve by taking State A's requirement of 10 against its life insurance business and adding it to State B's requirement of 7 against its annuity business. (b) Reserves required by...) The reasons for the change in basis of such reserve; and (6) Whether such change in the reserve has...

  6. 12 CFR 204.6 - Charges for reserve deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... waives the penalty for failing to satisfy a liquidity requirement, the Reserve Bank in the District where... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charges for reserve deficiencies. 204.6 Section 204.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE...

  7. 24 CFR 81.95 - Authority of Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority of Federal Reserve Banks... Authority of Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Each Federal Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of..., Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars, this subpart H, and procedures established by the...

  8. 31 CFR 210.7 - Federal Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Reserve Banks. 210.7 Section... CLEARING HOUSE General § 210.7 Federal Reserve Banks. (a) Fiscal Agents. Each Federal Reserve Bank serves... under this part. As Fiscal Agent, each Federal Reserve Bank shall be responsible only to the...

  9. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1) The...

  10. 7 CFR 981.51 - Requirements for reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for reserve. 981.51 Section 981.51... Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.51 Requirements for reserve. Each handler may satisfy his reserve... include grade requirements for reserve almonds delivered to human consumption outlets....

  11. 12 CFR 204.9 - Emergency reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency reserve requirement. 204.9 Section... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.9 Emergency reserve requirement. (a..., additional reserve requirements on depository institutions at any ratio on any liability upon a finding by...

  12. 5 CFR 842.210 - Military reserve technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military reserve technicians. 842.210... reserve technicians. (a) A military reserve technician as defined in 5 U.S.C. 8401(30) who is separated from civilian service because of ceasing to qualify as a member of a military reserve component...

  13. Primary path reservation using enhanced slot assignment in TDMA for session admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneri Chandrasekaran, Suresh; Savarimuthu, Prakash; Andi Elumalai, Priya; Ayyaswamy, Kathirvel

    2015-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is a self-organized collection of nodes that communicates without any infrastructure. Providing quality of service (QoS) in such networks is a competitive task due to unreliable wireless link, mobility, lack of centralized coordination, and channel contention. The success of many real time applications is purely based on the QoS, which can be achieved by quality aware routing (QAR) and admission control (AC). Recently proposed QoS mechanisms do focus completely on either reservation or admission control but are not better enough. In MANET, high mobility causes frequent path break due to the fact that every time the source node must find the route. In such cases the QoS session is affected. To admit a QoS session, admission control protocols must ensure the bandwidth of the relaying path before transmission starts; reservation of such bandwidth noticeably improves the admission control performance. Many TDMA based reservation mechanisms are proposed but need some improvement over slot reservation procedures. In order to overcome this specific issue, we propose a framework-PRAC (primary path reservation admission control protocol), which achieves improved QoS by making use of backup route combined with resource reservation. A network topology has been simulated and our approach proves to be a mechanism that admits the session effectively.

  14. Primary Path Reservation Using Enhanced Slot Assignment in TDMA for Session Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Koneri Chandrasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET is a self-organized collection of nodes that communicates without any infrastructure. Providing quality of service (QoS in such networks is a competitive task due to unreliable wireless link, mobility, lack of centralized coordination, and channel contention. The success of many real time applications is purely based on the QoS, which can be achieved by quality aware routing (QAR and admission control (AC. Recently proposed QoS mechanisms do focus completely on either reservation or admission control but are not better enough. In MANET, high mobility causes frequent path break due to the fact that every time the source node must find the route. In such cases the QoS session is affected. To admit a QoS session, admission control protocols must ensure the bandwidth of the relaying path before transmission starts; reservation of such bandwidth noticeably improves the admission control performance. Many TDMA based reservation mechanisms are proposed but need some improvement over slot reservation procedures. In order to overcome this specific issue, we propose a framework—PRAC (primary path reservation admission control protocol, which achieves improved QoS by making use of backup route combined with resource reservation. A network topology has been simulated and our approach proves to be a mechanism that admits the session effectively.

  15. Computed tomography to evaluate the association of fragmented heterolog cortical bone and methylmethacrylate to repare segmental bone defect produced in tibia of rabbits; Tomografia computadorizada da matriz ossea mineralizada heterologa fragmentada e metilmetacrilato na reparacao de falhas osseas segmentares produzidas em tibia de coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, S.H. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Doria, R.G.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos; Mendonca, F.S.; Santos, M.D.; Moreira, R. [Universidade de Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria; Simoes, R.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital Universitario; Camargo, L.M.; Simoes, M.J. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Marques, A.T.C. [Universidade de Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2012-11-15

    A 6mm segmental defect was performed on the metaphyseal region of the tibia of 12 rabbits and the autoclaved fragmented heterolog cortical bone conserved in glycerin (98%) and methylmethacrylate was used as a bone graft for the reconstruction. The graft was placed in the receptor bed and its integration was evaluated by computed tomography after 30, 60 and 90 days. There was gradual bone graft incorporation in the receptor bed during the time in 100% of the cases. Fragmented cortical bone heterograft and methylmethacrylate was biologically compatible and promotes bone defect reparation without signs of infection, migration and or rejection, featuring a new option of osseous substitute to fill in bone defects. (author)

  16. 纤维桩联合铸造纯钛环与铸造纯钛桩修复龈下残根的疗效比较%Comparison of curative effect of ifber post associated with casting pure titanium ring and casting pure tita-nium post on reparation of subgingival residual root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄磊; 王姝

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨纤维桩联合铸造纯钛环与铸造纯钛桩对龈下残根修复的治疗效果。方法:选择2008-2011年在我科收冶的50例经过完善根管治疗后龈下残根的病例,25例采用铸造纯钛环+玻璃纤维桩+全冠修复(A组),25例采用铸造纯钛桩+全冠修复(B组)。经过2年观察,从桩核松动脱落、根折、牙龈变色三方面观察其修复后疗效。结果:A组25例未出现不良症状。B组25颗患牙无牙龈变色,根折1颗,桩核松动4颗。根折和桩核松动脱落发生率2组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:在与牙根组织结合、牙根应力分布及美观性方面,纤维桩和纯钛环组合的桩核与单纯纯钛桩核比较有较明显的优势。%Objective:To explore the curative effect of the ifber post associated with casting pure titanium ring and casting pure titanium post on the reparation of subgingival residual root. MethodFifty teeth were se-lected by the reparation of subgingival residual root after root canal therapy in our department during 2008-2011. Twenty-ifve teeth were received the reparation by casting pure titanium ring and ifber post and all-ceramic crown. Other 25 teeth were received the reparation by casting pure titanium post and all-ceramic crown. Then observed for 2 years. The effect was estimated from 3 aspects;the stability of the core;root fracture or not;and the gum around the prostheis. ResultWithin the 25 cases treated with casting pure titanium post core crown, one hap-pens root fracture, four cores shed from root, and zero happen gingival discolor. But other 25 cases work well and have no adverse sign. There was signiifcant difference in the root fracture and shed from root (P<0.05). Conclu-sion:Using pure titanium ring and ifber post have obvious advantages than using pure titanium post in combining with the root tissue and stress distribution of root and the best visual impression.

  17. Pulmonary Complications due to Esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashar Talebi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Esophageal carcinoma is the scourge of human beings. Pulmonary compli-cations in patients who have undergone operation are common (20-30% of cases and there are no suitable tools and ways to predict these complications. Methods: During a period of 10 years, from March 1998 to February 2007, 200 patients (150 male and 50 female underwent Esophagectomy due to esophageal carcinoma in thoracic surgery ward retrospectively. Complications include the length of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, morbidity and mortality. Patients’ risk factors include age, preoperative chemo-radiotherapy, stage of the disease and preoperative spirometry condition. Results: We grouped our patients into three categories: Normal (FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted, mildly impaired (FEV1 65% to 79% predicted, more severely impaired (FEV1 < 65% predicted.Although almost all patients had radiographic pulmonary abnormalities, significant pulmonary complications occurred in 40 patients (20% which underwent Esophagectomy. Pleural effusion and atelectasia in 160 patients (80%. 24 patients needed chest-tube insertion. 20 patients (10% developed ARDS. 14 patients (7% developed chylothorax. 20 patients (10% of patients died during their postoperative hospital stay. 30 patients (15% required mechanical ventilation for greater than 48 hours. Conclusion: We reviewed a number of preoperative clinical variables to determine whether they contributed to postoperative pulmonary complications as well as other outcomes. In general, age, impaired pulmonary function especially in those patients with FEV1 less than 65% predicted was associated with prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS. In fact pulmonary complications rate after Esophagectomy are high and there was associated mortality and morbidity.

  18. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Aznar-Marín, Pilar; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; García-Martos, Pedro; Marín-Casanova, Pilar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Otomycosis is common throughout the world but barely studied in Spain. Our objective was to determine the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of this pathology in Cadiz (Spain) between 2005 and 2010. Samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis underwent a direct microscopic examination and culture on different media for fungi and bacteria. Mycological cultures were incubated at 30°C for at least seven days. Identification of fungi was based on colonial morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure. From a total of 2,633 samples, microbial growth was present in 1,375 (52.2%) and fungal isolation in 390 (28.4%). We identified 228 yeasts and 184 filamentous fungi (13.4% of positive cultures and 47.2% of otomycosis), associated with yeasts in 22 cases (5.6%). The most frequent species were Aspergillus flavus (42.4%), A. niger (35.9%), A. fumigatus (12.5%), A. candidus (7.1%), A. terreus (1.6%), and Paecilomyces variotii (0.5%). Infection was predominant in men (54.9%) and patients beyond 55 years old (46.8%). The most common clinical symptoms were itching (98.9%), otalgia (59.3%), and hypoacusis (56.0%). Fall season reported the lowest number of cases (20.1%). Incidence of otomycosis and fungi producing otomycosis vary within the distinct geographical areas. In Cadiz, this infection is endemic due to warm temperatures, high humidity, sea bathing, and wind, which contributes to disseminate the conidia. Despite Aspergillus niger has been reported as the main causative agent, A. flavus is predominant in Cadiz. Although infection is usually detected in warm months, we observed a homogeneous occurrence of otomycosis in almost all the seasons.

  19. Telomere attrition due to infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petteri Ilmonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres--the terminal caps of chromosomes--become shorter as individuals age, and there is much interest in determining what causes telomere attrition since this process may play a role in biological aging. The leading hypothesis is that telomere attrition is due to inflammation, exposure to infectious agents, and other types of oxidative stress, which damage telomeres and impair their repair mechanisms. Several lines of evidence support this hypothesis, including observational findings that people exposed to infectious diseases have shorter telomeres. Experimental tests are still needed, however, to distinguish whether infectious diseases actually cause telomere attrition or whether telomere attrition increases susceptibility to infection. Experiments are also needed to determine whether telomere erosion reduces longevity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We experimentally tested whether repeated exposure to an infectious agent, Salmonella enterica, causes telomere attrition in wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus. We repeatedly infected mice with a genetically diverse cocktail of five different S. enterica strains over seven months, and compared changes in telomere length with sham-infected sibling controls. We measured changes in telomere length of white blood cells (WBC after five infections using a real-time PCR method. Our results show that repeated Salmonella infections cause telomere attrition in WBCs, and particularly for males, which appeared less disease resistant than females. Interestingly, we also found that individuals having long WBC telomeres at early age were relatively disease resistant during later life. Finally, we found evidence that more rapid telomere attrition increases mortality risk, although this trend was not significant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that infectious diseases can cause telomere attrition, and support the idea that telomere length could provide a molecular

  20. The analysisof frequent adjustments of legal deposit reserve ratio of People's Bank of Ghina%The analysisof frequent adjustments of legal deposit reserve ratio of People's Bank of Ghina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓敏

    2012-01-01

    In China, there are three effective weapons of central bank's monetary policy namely open market operations, discount lending and reserve deposit requirement.According to history record, PBOC has a preference to use reserve deposit requirement to achieve the desired economic goal. Reserve deposit requirement system plays a crucial role in controlling the volume of monetary credit and adjusting liquidity and interest rate of monetary market. Since 2008, due to the unsteady economic status, the legal deposit reserve ratio has been adjusted for 25 times. An thorough research to the reasons for such frequent adjustment and its effects is highly needed.

  1. STEM Summer Academy on the Navajo Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission, an ESA cornerstone mission to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. While the project's outreach efforts span multi-media, and a variety of age and ethnic groups, a special emphasis has been made to find a way to provide meaningful outreach to the reservation communities. Because language preservation is an issue of urgent concern to the reservation communities, and because Rosetta, uniquely among NASA missions, has been named after the notion that keys to missing understanding of elements of the ancient past were found in the language on the original Rosetta stone, the US Rosetta Project has embarked upon outreach with a focus on STEM vocabulary in ancient US languages of the Navajo, Hopi, Ojibwe, and other tribal communities as the project expands. NASA image and science are used and described in the native language, alongside lay English and scientific English curriculum elements. Additionally, science (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). In this paper we will report on the most recent Summer Science Academy [2012], a four week summer course for middle school children, created in collaboration with teachers and administrators in the Chinle Unified School District. The concept of the Academy was initiated in 2011, and the first Academy was conducted shortly thereafter, in June 2011 with 14 children, 3 instructors, and a NASA teacher workshop. The community requested three topics: geology, astronomy, and botany. The 2012 Academy built on the curriculum already developed with more robust field trips, addressed to specific science topics, additional quantitative measurements and activities, with more written material for the cultural components from

  2. A public finance analysis of multiple reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa-Vega, Marco; Russell, Steven

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes multiple reserve requirements of the type that have been imposed by a number of developing countries. We show that previous theoretical work on this topic has not succeeded in providing a social welfare rationale for the existence of multiple reserve requirements: in the basic reserve requirements model, any allocation that can be supported by a multiple-reserves regime can also be supported by a single-bond reserve requirement. We go on to present extended versions of the...

  3. A public finance analysis of multiple reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa-Vega, Marco; Russell, Steven

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes multiple reserve requirements of the type that have been imposed by a number of developing countries. We show that previous theoretical work on this topic has not succeeded in providing a social welfare rationale for the existence of multiple reserve requirements: in the basic reserve requirements model, any allocation that can be supported by a multiple-reserves regime can also be supported by a single-bond reserve requirement. We go on to present extended versions of the...

  4. Energy reserves. [Summary of reserve estimates and economic supply models for exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Carhart, S.C.; Marcuse, W.

    1977-03-01

    There is an increasing concern about scarcity of the world's remaining natural energy resources and, in particular, the future supply of oil and natural gas. This paper summarizes recent estimates of energy reserves and economic supply models for exhaustible resources. The basic economic theory of resource exhaustion is reviewed, and recent estimates of both discovered and undiscovered energy resources are presented and compared. Domestic and world-wide reserve estimates are presented for crude oil and natural gas liquids, natural gas, coal, and uranium. Economic models projecting supply of these energy forms, given reserve estimates and other pertinent information, are discussed. Finally, a set of recent models which project world oil prices are summarized and their published results compared. The impact of energy conservation efforts on energy supply is also briefly discussed. 53 references.

  5. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aksu-Zhabagly nature reserve is located in West Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, on the border of three countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (70°18'-57' E and 42°08'-30' N, with an area of 1281 km2; its length is 53 km from the most western to the most eastern point and 41 km from the most southern to the most northern point. It occupies the western limit of the Talasskiy Alatau ridge and its north-western spurs: Zhabaglytau mountains, Alatau, Bugultor, Aksutau and Ugam ridges. In the neighbouring Karatau ridge there is a palaeontological site with an area of 2.2 km2 with deposits of flora and fauna of the Jurassic period. The absolute heights above sea level are 1300–4200 m. The relief is alpine – deep canyons with steep slopes. The middle mountain zone (1300–2000 m is occupied by meadow-steppe formations with juniper sparse forests (Juniperus semiglobosa, J. seravschanica; subalpine meadows (2000–3000 m are alternated by creeping juniper thickets (Juniperus turkestanica and rocky outcrops; the alpine zone (higher than 3000 m is dominated by rocks and snowfields, and glaciers above 3500 m. The nature reserve's flora constitutes almost half of all West Tien Shan's flora and counts 1737 species, including: 235 species of fungi, 64 lichens, 63 species each of algae and mosses, as well as 1312 species of higher plants. Among those, 200 species are medicinal and 57 species are listed in the Red Data Books of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The vertebrates fauna includes 320 species: mammals – 52 species, birds – 247 (130 of them are nesting, reptiles and amphibians – 14, fishes – 7 species. Animals inhabiting the territory include argali (Ovis ammon karelini, mountain goat (Capra sibirica, bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus, snow leopart (Uncia uncia, Turkestan lynx (Lynx lynx isabellinus; birds – bearded vulture (Gypaёtus barbatus, Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayensis, chukar (Alectoris chukar, blue

  6. Beurteilungsmöglichkeiten der ovariellen Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebl O

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Überprüfung der Funktionstüchtigkeit der Ovarien ist für die Beratung und Planung einer IVF-Behandlung von besonderer Bedeutung. Die Funktionstüchtigkeit wird im Allgemeinen als ovarielle Reserve bezeichnet. Diese setzt sich aus der Anzahl der im Rahmen einer kontrollierten ovariellen Stimulation gewonnenen Eizellen und der Qualität eben dieser zusammen. Es gibt verschiedene Möglichkeiten, diese zu bestimmen, jedoch keinen Parameter, der beide Kriterien optimal erfüllt. Auch zeigen sich viele Parameter als nicht unabhängig voneinander oder als zu aufwendig für die routinemäßige Verwendung bei Frauen mit Kinderwunsch. Die Kombination einzelner Parameter erlaubt jedoch eine gute Aussage über die zu erwartende Antwort der Ovarien auf eine kontrollierte ovarielle Stimulation und somit die Anpassung der Stimulation.

  7. Coronary flow velocity reserve by echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Snoer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    reserve (MFR) measured by PET in overweight and obese patients. METHODS: Participants with revascularized coronary artery disease were examined by CFVR. Subgroups were examined by repeated CFVR (reproducibility) or Rubidium-82-PET (agreement). To account for time variation, results were computed for scans...... %, and reliability 0.97. Agreement with MFR of the LAD territory (n = 35) was without significant bias and overall LOA were (-1.40;1.46). Agreement was best for examinations performed within 1-week of participants without MI of the LAD-territory (n = 12); LOA = (-0.68;0.88). CONCLUSIONS: CFVR was highly feasible...... with a good reproducibility on par with other contemporary measures applied in cardiology. Agreement with MFR was acceptable, though discrepancy related to prior MI has to be considered. CFVR of LAD is a valid tool in overweight and obese patients....

  8. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1989. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1989 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1. 16 figs., 194 tabs.

  9. Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1990. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1990 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1.

  10. Independents add gas reserves, forego romance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, D.

    1981-08-01

    Incentive pricing for low-permeability reservoirs and tax advantages for drilling them are 2 big reasons why more independents may start making a special effort to add gas reserves to their inventories. If so, it will be a change from past practices, which saw independents build up big gas positions by circumstance rather than by intention. There are always major refiners ready and willing to buy whole crude oil reservoirs from small producers, but purchasers willing to take gas fields in a single investment are few and far between. Lower-than-normal return on equity during the first 20 years, plus the heavy front-end cost of a frac necessary to produce the tight gas might dissuade independents from drilling tight gas sands, but those liabilities are offset by the higher price tight gas gets and the peculiar tax advantages of exploring for it that make a nice fit with the small operator's way of doing business.

  11. Reserve growth of oil and gas fields—Investigations and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    The reserve growth of fields has been a topic for ongoing discussion for over half a century and will continue to be studied well into the future. This is due to the expected size of the volumetric contribution of reserve growth to the future supply of oil and natural gas. Understanding past methods of estimating future volumes based on the data assembly methods that have been used can lead to a better understanding of their applicability. The statistical nature of past methods and the (1) possible high level of dependency on a limited number of fields, (2) assumption of an age-based correlation with effective reserve growth, and (3) assumption of long-lived and more common than not reserve growth, may be improved by employing a more geologically based approach.

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder in reserve veterans: important reintegration considerations for the occupational health nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lynn A; Burns, Candace

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental health concern for returning U.S. military personnel who have a higher prevalence rate of PTSD than the general population. Among the military population, reserve service members are at increased risk of developing PTSD compared with full-time active duty service members mainly due to difficulty reintegrating into civilian life. Understanding the social risk factors along with the protective effects social support has on PTSD in veterans will provide occupational health professionals the opportunity to support reserve veterans with adjustment into post-deployment life. This literature review examines PTSD in reserve veterans, with a focus on occupational factors, social factors, guideline recommendations, available resources, as well as provides suggestions for occupational health nurses caring for reserve veterans returning to the workplace.

  13. Sensorless Reserved Power Control Strategy for Two-Stage Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Due to still increasing penetration level of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, advanced active power control functionalities have been introduced in grid regulations. A reserved power control, where the active power from the PV panels is reserved during operation, is required for grid...... to achieve the power reserve. In this method, the irradiance measurements that have been used in conventional control schemes to estimate the available PV power are not required, and thereby being a sensorless solution. Simulations and experimental tests have been performed on a 3-kW two-stage single...... support. In this paper, a cost-effective solution to realize the reserved power control for grid-connected PV systems is proposed. The proposed solution routinely employs a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control to estimate the available PV power and a Constant Power Generation (CPG) control...

  14. Emergy Evaluation of a Village Ecosystem in Wolong Nature Reserve in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yong; Kontoleon Andreas; Chen Guojie

    2009-01-01

    Due to historic reasons, there are several human settle-merits in nature reserves and national parks, which may constitute a threat to biodiversity.Establishment ofnature reserves may how-ever generate constraints for development of local communities residing in these reserves.The village ecosystem of Zhuanjinglou Village in Wolong Nature Reserve includes population, farming and livestock (domestic and alpine) and forest ecosystem.An emergy analysis of agro-ecosystem (including the farming and livestock ecosystem) and energy consumption in Zhuanjinglou Village indicates that livestock ecosystem plays an important role in village ecosystem, which may be the source of great pressure on the state of the local environment.The increasing ratio of electrici-ty in energy consumption may play a positive role for environmen-tal conservation.Despite some successful experiences, there are some remaining issues that need to be addressed in the ecological rehabilitation of the village ecosystem.

  15. Tissue carnitine reserves of newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenai, J P; Borum, P R

    1984-07-01

    This study assessed the tissue reserves of carnitine at birth in a group of neonates (n = 22) of varying gestational age dying within 24 h of birth, prior to possible changes in carnitine status induced by postnatal intervention. Tissue carnitine concentration was highest in the muscle in each infant. The mean (+/- SD) muscle carnitine concentration of 8.4 +/- 3.6 nmol/mg noncollagen protein (NCP) in very immature infants (less than or equal to 1000 g birth weight) was significantly lower than the corresponding mean (+/- SD) values of 14.0 +/- 3.2 nmol/mg NCP in larger preterm infants (1001-2500 g; P less than 0.01) and 19.4 +/- 2.6 nmol/mg NCP in term infants (greater than or equal to 2501 g; P less than 0.001). Muscle carnitine concentration correlated positively with gestational age (r = 0.832; P less than 0.001) and with body dimensions. Liver and heart carnitine concentrations did not correlate significantly with gestation or body dimensions. The mean (+/- SD) liver carnitine concentration for all the neonates as a group was 4.1 +/- 1.5 nmol/mg NCP. The mean (+/- SD) heart carnitine concentration was 4.7 +/- 1.3 nmol/mg NCP. In comparison to adult controls, tissue carnitine concentrations were markedly lower in neonates, particularly in immature newborns. These data suggest that newborn infants, especially premature babies, are born with limited tissue reserves of carnitine and are therefore at an increased risk for developing carnitine deficiency and its adverse effects in the postnatal period, particularly if maintained on carnitine-free intravenous nutrition for prolonged periods of time.

  16. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-28

    Malaysia Gabon El Salvador Europe Papua New Guinea Guinea Grenada Phillipines Kenya Guatemala Armenia Republic of Korma Liberia Guyana Azores Singapore...practice bombs, and up to support Operations DESERT SHIELD/ AGM-65 Maverick and AIM-9M Sidewinder STORM. Ammunition shortages existed due to missile

  17. Marine reserves as linked social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollnac, Richard; Christie, Patrick; Cinner, Joshua E; Dalton, Tracey; Daw, Tim M; Forrester, Graham E; Graham, Nicholas A J; McClanahan, Timothy R

    2010-10-26

    Marine reserves are increasingly recognized as having linked social and ecological dynamics. This study investigates how the ecological performance of 56 marine reserves throughout the Philippines, Caribbean, and Western Indian Ocean (WIO) is related to both reserve design features and the socioeconomic characteristics in associated coastal communities. Ecological performance was measured as fish biomass in the reserve relative to nearby areas. Of the socioeconomic variables considered, human population density and compliance with reserve rules had the strongest effects on fish biomass, but the effects of these variables were region specific. Relationships between population density and the reserve effect on fish biomass were negative in the Caribbean, positive in the WIO, and not detectable in the Philippines. Differing associations between population density and reserve effectiveness defy simple explanation but may depend on human migration to effective reserves, depletion of fish stocks outside reserves, or other social factors that change with population density. Higher levels of compliance reported by resource users was related to higher fish biomass in reserves compared with outside, but this relationship was only statistically significant in the Caribbean. A heuristic model based on correlations between social, cultural, political, economic, and other contextual conditions in 127 marine reserves showed that high levels of compliance with reserve rules were related to complex social interactions rather than simply to enforcement of reserve rules. Comparative research of this type is important for uncovering the complexities surrounding human dimensions of marine reserves and improving reserve management.

  18. Estimation of in situ resources, recoverable reserves and marketable reserves from a coal quality perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, B.; Whitby, K.; Meyers, A. [A & B Mylec Pty. Ltd., Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia)

    2000-10-01

    The competitive nature of the coal industry currently has meant that attention to detail in estimating coal resources, and recoverable and marketable reserves is of greater importance now than probably at any other time in the history of the Australian coal industry. This paper describes the mechanisms applied in deriving the best possible resource and reserve estimates in evaulating a coal lease, largely from the coal quality perspective. It attempts to show one way of uniting the geological model of a coal deposit to quality aspects such as in situ density and tonnage and ultimately to the anticipated product coal tonnes. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Establishment of nature reserves in administrative regions of mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziliang Guo

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are widely considered as one available strategy for protecting biodiversity, which is threatened by habitat fragmentation, and wildlife extinction. The Chinese government has established a goal of protecting 15% of its land area by 2015. We quantitated the characteristics and distribution of nature reserves in mainland China and evaluated the expansion process for national nature reserves. National nature reserves occupy 64.15% of the total area of nature reserves. Steppe and meadow ecosystem, ocean and seacoast ecosystem, and wild plant nature reserves represent lower percentages, particularly in national nature reserves, in which they comprised 0.76%, 0.54%, and 0.69%, respectively, of the area. Furthermore, medium and small nature reserves compose 92.32% of all nature reserves. The land area under any legal protection has reached 14.80%, although only 9.78% is strictly protected. However, if 9 super-large national nature reserves, located in Southwest and Northwest China were removed, the percentage of strictly protected area decreases to 2.66% of the land area of China. The areas contained in nature reserves in each province are not proportional to the areas of the provinces, particularly for national nature reserves, with higher protection rates in Southwest and Northwest China than in other regions. Of the 31 provinces, 22 provinces feature strict protection of less than 4% of their areas by national nature reserves; these provinces are mainly located in East, Central, South, and North China. Moreover, the unevenness indexes of the distribution of nature reserves and national nature reserves are 0.39 and 0.58, respectively. The construction of nature reserves has entered a steady development stage after a period of rapid expansion in mainland China. In recent years, the total area of national nature reserves has increased slowly, while the total area of nature reserves has not increased, although the number of nature

  20. Standards for Teaching about the Federal Reserve System: An Initiative by Two Federal Reserve Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, William D.; Grimes, Paul W.; Suiter, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the Federal Reserve Banks of Atlanta and St. Louis began a systematic evaluation of their economic and personal finance educational outreach programs. Both banks were interested in developing tools to assess the success of their existing economic and financial education programs. However, before any assessment could begin, a…

  1. Investigating Textbook Reserves: A Case Study of Two Models for Reserves Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Noggle, Stephanie; Rafferty, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the behaviors and preferences of medical and nursing students in relation to their required textbooks and library reserves. The findings are based on an April 2015 survey at the University of Illinois-Chicago satellite Library of the Health Sciences in Urbana, where the library provides access to textbooks through traditional…

  2. Three dimensional simulation for Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven Ronald (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Moo Yul (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-07-01

    3-D finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of caverns located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Big Hill site. State-of-art analyses simulated the current site configuration and considered additional caverns. The addition of 5 caverns to account for a full site and a full dome containing 31 caverns were modeled. Operations including both normal and cavern workover pressures and cavern enlargement due to leaching were modeled to account for as many as 5 future oil drawdowns. Under the modeled conditions, caverns were placed very close to the edge of the salt dome. The web of salt separating the caverns and the web of salt between the caverns and edge of the salt dome were reduced due to leaching. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence and infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified. The analyses included recently derived damage criterion obtained from testing of Big Hill salt cores. The results show that from a structural view point, many additional caverns can be safely added to Big Hill.

  3. What to Expect After Your Due Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG What to Expect After Your Due Date Home For ... Your Due Date FAQ069, August 2011 PDF Format What to Expect After Your Due Date Pregnancy What ...

  4. Sessile and mobile components of a benthic ecosystem display mixed trends within a temperate marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Leigh M; Pickup, Sarah E; Evans, Lowri E; Cross, Tim J; Hawkins, Julie P; Roberts, Callum M; Stewart, Bryce D

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent efforts to increase the global coverage of marine protected areas (MPAs), studies investigating the effectiveness of marine protected areas within temperate waters remain scarce. Furthermore, out of the few studies published on MPAs in temperate waters, the majority focus on specific ecological or fishery components rather than investigating the ecosystem as a whole. This study therefore investigated the dynamics of both benthic communities and fish populations within a recently established, fully protected marine reserve in Lamlash Bay, Isle of Arran, United Kingdom, over a four year period. A combination of photo and diver surveys revealed live maerl (Phymatolithon calcareum), macroalgae, sponges, hydroids, feather stars and eyelash worms (Myxicola infundibulum) to be significantly more abundant within the marine reserve than on surrounding fishing grounds. Likewise, the overall composition of epifaunal communities in and outside the reserve was significantly different. Both results are consistent with the hypothesis that protecting areas from fishing can encourage seafloor habitats to recover. In addition, the greater abundance of complex habitats within the reserve appeared to providing nursery habitat for juvenile cod (Gadus morhua) and scallops (Pecten maximus and Aequipecten opercularis). In contrast, there was little difference in the abundance of mobile benthic fauna, such as crabs and starfish, between the reserve and outside. Similarly, the use of baited underwater video cameras revealed no difference in the abundance and size of fish between the reserve and outside. Limited recovery of these ecosystem components may be due to the relatively small size (2.67 km(2)) and young age of the reserve (marine reserves can encourage seafloor habitats to recover, which in turn, can create a number of benefits that flow back to other species, including those of commercial importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measures of cognitive reserve in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Sobral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cognitive reserve (CR, a hypothetical construct used to obtain information about cognitive aging, describes the capacity of the adult brain to cope with the effects of neurodegenerative processes. This study evaluated CR using a CR questionnaire (CRQ and a set of variables (education, leisure activities, lifelong occupation that inform CR. It also developed a CR index, validated the CRQ, and examined the correlation between the different CR measures.METHODS: Functional and neuropsychological capacities of 75 outpatients (mean age: 80.2 years with a probable AD diagnosis were evaluated. Socio-demographic data and clinical variables were collected. Patients completed two questionnaires: the Participation in Leisure Activities throughout Life questionnaire, and the CRQ.RESULTS: Participants with a greater CR had higher scores in cognitive tests than the elderly with a lower CR. A CR index was developed. CRQ reliability was 0.795 (Cronbach's alpha. There was a close association between the CR Index and the CRQ.CONCLUSIONS: This study found an association between CR measures and education, occupation and participation in leisure activities. The CRQ seems to be a suitable instrument to measure CR in Portuguese populations.

  6. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the public about the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the public and the environment. It describes the environmental surveillance and monitoring activities conducted at and around the DOE facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Preparation and publication of this report is in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1. The order specifies a publication deadline of June of the following year for each calendar year of data. The primary objective of this report is to summarize all information collected for the previous calendar year regarding effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and estimates of radiation and chemical dose to the surrounding population. When multiple years of information are available for a program, trends are also evaluated. The first seven sections of Volume 1 of this report address this objective. The last three sections of Volume 1 provide information on solid waste management, special environmental studies, and quality assurance programs.

  7. Amyloid positron emission tomography and cognitive reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matteo Bauckneht; Agnese Picco; Flavio Nobili; Silvia Morbelli

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease(AD) is characterized by a nonlinear progressive course and several aspects influence the relationship between cerebral amount of AD pathology and the clinical expression of the disease. Brain cognitive reserve(CR) refers to the hypothesized capacity of an adult brain to cope with brain damage in order to minimize symptomatology. CR phenomenon contributed to explain the disjunction between the degree of neurodegeneration and the clinical phenotype of AD. The possibility to track brain amyloidosis(Aβ) in vivo has huge relevance for AD diagnosis and new therapeutic approaches. The clinical repercussions of positron emission tomography(PET)-assessed Aβ load are certainly mediated by CR thus potentially hampering the prognostic meaning of amyloid PET in selected groups of patients. Similarly, amyloid PET and cerebrospinal fluid amyloidosis biomarkers have recently provided new evidence for CR. The present review discusses the concept of CR in the framework of available neuroimaging studies and specifically deals with the reciprocal influences between amyloid PET and CR in AD patients and with the potential consequent interventional strategies for AD.

  8. Marine ecological reserves research program: research results 1996-2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    This is a collection of results of research done through the Marine Ecological Reserves Research Program, a competitive, peer-review research program focusing on the four new marine ecological reserves...

  9. 12 CFR 204.7 - Supplemental reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to increase the amount of reserves maintained to a level essential for the conduct of monetary policy... reserve ratios established by the Monetary Control Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-221) in effect on September 1...

  10. Relaxed resource advance reservation policy in grid computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Peng; HU Zhi-gang

    2009-01-01

    The advance reservation technique has been widely applied in many grid systems to provide end-to-end quality of service (QoS). However, it will result in low resource utilization rate and high rejection rate when the reservation rate is high. To mitigate these negative effects brought about by advance reservation, a relaxed advance reservation policy is proposed, which allows accepting new reservation requests that overlap the existing reservations under certain conditions. Both the benefits and the risks of the proposed policy are presented theoretically. The experimental results show that the policy can achieve a higher resource utilization rate and lower rejection rate compared to the conventional reservation policy and backfilling technique. In addition, the policy shows better adaptation when the grid systems are in the presence of a high reservation rate.

  11. Marine ecology: reserves do have a key role in fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum

    2012-06-05

    A new study of the Great Barrier Reef proves a 100-year old conjecture correct: marine reserves do replenish populations in surrounding fishing grounds, while modern reserve networking theory is validated by exchange of offspring of animals among protected areas.

  12. Marine Ecology: Reserve Networks Are Necessary, but Not Sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, Glenn R

    2015-04-20

    New work reveals that the large network of no-take marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef is working splendidly. However, bold, global action is needed to eliminate threats that reserves cannot guard against.

  13. 7 CFR 930.57 - Secondary inventory reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Regulations § 930.57 Secondary inventory reserve. (a) In the event the inventory reserve... accordance with the annual marketing policy and with § 930.54....

  14. Water resources of the Menominee Indian Reservation of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohelski, J.T.; Kammerer, P.A.; Conlon, Terrence D.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources of the Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, were investigated during the period October 1981 through September 1987. The report presents baseline data and some interpretation of ground- and surface-water hydrology and quality of the Reservation.

  15. Dissociative disorder due to Graves' hyperthyroidism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Kaoru; Nishimura, Katsuji; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Ishigooka, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 20-year-old Japanese woman with no psychiatric history with apparent dissociative symptoms. These consisted of amnesia for episodes of shoplifting behaviors and a suicide attempt, developing together with an exacerbation of Graves' hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves' disease frequently manifest various psychiatric disorders; however, very few reports have described dissociative disorder due to this disease. Along with other possible causes, for example, encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease, clinicians should be aware of this possibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Trochanteric bursitis due to tuberculosis in an immunocompetent young woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro Marín, Sandra; Sánchez Trenado, María Asunción; Mínguez Sánchez, María Dolores; Paulino Huertas, Marcos; García Morales, Paula Virginia; Salas Manzanedo, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Soft tissue infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can affect muscle, tendons, fascia, bursa and synovial tissue. Tuberculous trochanteric bursitis is a rare entity that usually affects immunocompromised patients. Manifestations usually occur insidiously, which delays diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of an immunocompetent young woman who came to our department for chronic left hip pain. The study confirms the diagnosis of tuberculous trochanteric bursitis. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a possible infectious origin of bursitis in immunocompetent patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. 5 CFR 732.301 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Due process. 732.301 Section 732.301...) NATIONAL SECURITY POSITIONS Due Process and Reporting § 732.301 Due process. When an agency makes an... any determination. (b) Comply with all applicable administrative due process requirements, as...

  18. Development and Status of Forestry Nature Reserves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The primary conservation objective in China is to establish nature reserves to protect biological resources and natural heritage, protect ecosystems which are of global importance or have unique regional features, protect endangered and threatened species and their habitat, and safeguard the genetic resources. By 2000, the number of nature reserves increased to 1,276, while at the same time, the total area protected in nature reserves was up to 123 million ha. Of the total number of reserves, 908 sites ...

  19. Removing bank subsidies leads inexorably to full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent banking crisis laid bare a long standing and inherent defect in fractional reserve banking: the fact that fractional reserve is unlikely to work for long without taxpayer backing. Changing bank regulations in such a way that banks are never a burden on taxpayers leads inexorably to full reserve banking. Full reserve involves splitting the banking industry into two halves. A safe half where depositors earn no interest, but they do have instant access to their money, and a second...

  20. Removing bank subsidies leads inexorably to full reserve banking

    OpenAIRE

    Musgrave, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The recent banking crisis laid bare a long standing and inherent defect in fractional reserve banking: the fact that fractional reserve is unlikely to work for long without taxpayer backing. Changing bank regulations in such a way that banks are never a burden on taxpayers leads inexorably to full reserve banking. Full reserve involves splitting the banking industry into two halves. A safe half where depositors earn no interest, but they do have instant access to their money, and a second...

  1. International Reserve Holdings with Sovereign Risk and Costly Tax Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Nancy P. Marion

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the international reserve-holding behavior of developing countries. It shows that political-economy considerations modify the optimal reserve level determined by efficiency criteria. A country characterized by volatile output, inelastic demand for fiscal outlays, high tax collection costs and sovereign risk will want to accumulate international reserves as well as external debt. Efficiency considerations imply that reserves are optimal when the benefits they provide for in...

  2. The identification and description of the management units of the Goegap Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Rosch

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Goegap Nature Reserve, near Springbok, is situated in the floral paradise of Namaqualand. This 15 000 ha reserve falls within the Namaqualand Broken Veld and in the transition zone between this Veld type and the False Succulent Karoo. Otherwise, it could be said that the reserve falls within the Upland Succulent Karoo and the transition zone between this vegetation type and the Bushmanland vegetation type. With the use of stratified aerial photographs of the reserve, random sample plots were placed within each homogeneous physiographic-physionomic unit and 284 releves were compiled in September 1998. With the use of the BBPC computer program, the resulting TWINSPAN split the data into two tables, one predominantly for the Plains and one for the Rocky Hills. After refining these tables, 13 plant communities were identified. These communities, together with the stratified aerial photographs, land type and habitat information were used to determine ten management units for the reserve. These units will be used in effective management and monitoring on the reserve. Table 1 and 2 will be uploaded as a supplementary file in due course.

  3. VO2 Reserve vs. Heart Rate Reserve During Moderate Intensity Treadmill Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Tanner J; Keller, Brad G; Fountaine, Charles J

    VO2 and heart rate (HR) are widely used when determining appropriate training intensities for clinical, healthy, and athletic populations. It has been shown that if the % reserve (%R) is used, rather than % of max, HR and VO2 can be used interchangeably to accurately prescribe exercise intensities. Thus, heart rate reserve (HRR) can be prescribed if VO2 reserve (VO2R) is known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare VO2 R and HRR during moderate intensity exercise (50%R). Physically active college students performed a maximal treadmill test to exhaustion. During which VO2 and HR were monitored to determine max values. Upon completion of the maximal test, calculations were made to determine the % grade expected to yield approximately 50% of the subjects VO2R. Subjects then returned to complete the submaximal test (50%R) at least two days later. The %VO2R and %HRR were calculated and compared to the predicted value as well as to each other. Statistical analysis revealed that VO2 at 50%R was significantly greater than the actual VO2 achieved, p VO2 could be more accurately predicted than HR during moderate intensity exercise. The weak correlation between VO2R and HRR indicates that caution should be used when relying on a HR to determine VO2.

  4. Policy analysis for tropical marine reserves: challenges and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.; Tupper, M.H.; Folmer, H.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Marine reserves are considered to be a central tool for marine ecosystem-based management in tropical inshore fisheries. The arguments supporting marine reserves are often based on both the nonmarket values of ecological amenities marine reserves provide and the pragmatic cost-saving advantages rela

  5. 12 CFR 209.3 - Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of stock on merger or change in location—(1) Merger of member banks in the same Federal Reserve... any Reserve Bank's capital stock in any calendar year, unless the Board waives these requirements. ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cancellation of Reserve Bank stock. 209.3...

  6. 75 FR 9093 - Extensions of Credit by Federal Reserve Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... CFR Part 201 Extensions of Credit by Federal Reserve Banks AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... primary credit rate at each Federal Reserve Bank. ] The secondary credit rate at each Reserve Bank automatically increased by formula as a result of the Board's primary credit rate action. DATES: The...

  7. 12 CFR 615.5134 - Liquidity reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidity reserve requirement. 615.5134 Section... requirement. (a) Each Farm Credit bank must maintain a liquidity reserve, discounted in accordance with... and other borrowings of the bank at all times. The liquidity reserve may only be funded from...

  8. 12 CFR 204.5 - Maintenance of required reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... institutions are Federal Home Loan Banks, the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of required reserves. 204.5 Section 204.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE...

  9. 7 CFR 1124.11 - Cooperative reserve supply unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative reserve supply unit. 1124.11 Section 1124... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.11 Cooperative reserve supply unit. Cooperative reserve supply unit means any cooperative association or its agent that is a handler pursuant to §...

  10. Policy analysis for tropical marine reserves: challenges and directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.; Tupper, M.H.; Folmer, H.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Marine reserves are considered to be a central tool for marine ecosystem-based management in tropical inshore fisheries. The arguments supporting marine reserves are often based on both the nonmarket values of ecological amenities marine reserves provide and the pragmatic cost-saving advantages rela

  11. 12 CFR 811.1 - Authority of Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of Reserve Banks. 811.1 Section 811.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCING BANK BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR FEDERAL FINANCING BANK SECURITIES § 811.1 Authority of Reserve Banks. Each Reserve Bank is hereby authorized, in accordance with...

  12. 39 CFR 761.2 - Authority of Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of Reserve Banks. 761.2 Section 761.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAL SERVICE DEBT OBLIGATIONS; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 761.2 Authority of Reserve Banks. Each Reserve Bank is hereby...

  13. 18 CFR 1314.3 - Authority of Reserve Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Banks. 1314.3 Section 1314.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES FOR TVA POWER SECURITIES ISSUED THROUGH THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 1314.3 Authority of Reserve Banks. (a) Each Reserve Bank is hereby authorized as fiscal agent of TVA to perform the...

  14. 50 CFR 640.26 - Tortugas marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tortugas marine reserves. 640.26 Section... Measures § 640.26 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities are prohibited within the Tortugas marine reserves: Fishing for any species and anchoring by fishing vessels. (a) EEZ portion of...

  15. 7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations. 623.13 Section... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of operations. (a) After NRCS has accepted the applicant for enrollment in the...

  16. 25 CFR 91.11 - Domestic animals in village reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic animals in village reserves. 91.11 Section 91.11... VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.11 Domestic animals in village reserves. (a) No livestock shall... owner of the animal, if known, by certified mail or by posting in the village square. The notice...

  17. 24 CFR 904.111 - Nonroutine Maintenance Reserve (NRMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the annual reserve requirement, and (3) show the total reserve requirements for all the listed items... reserve requirements for 90 days the LHA shall invest the excess in federally insured savings accounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonroutine Maintenance...

  18. 7 CFR 985.57 - Reserve pool requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve pool requirements. 985.57 Section 985.57... Reserve pool requirements. (a) On November 1, or such other date as the Committee, with the approval of the Secretary may establish, the Committee shall pool identified excess oil as reserve oil in...

  19. 26 CFR 1.166-4 - Reserve for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve for bad debts. 1.166-4 Section 1.166-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-4 Reserve for bad debts. (a) Allowance of deduction. A taxpayer who has established the reserve method of treating...

  20. 14 CFR 23.727 - Reserve energy absorption drop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve energy absorption drop test. 23.727... Construction Landing Gear § 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test. (a) If compliance with the reserve energy absorption requirement in § 23.723(b) is shown by free drop tests, the drop height may not be...

  1. In Plain English: Making Sense of the Federal Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, MO.

    The Federal Reserve was created in 1913 in response to recurring banking panics in the United States. Its mission has since expanded into fostering a healthy economy. The Federal Reserve consists of three parts: (1) the Board of Governors; (2) Reserve Banks; and (3) the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). The Board of Governors is the federal…

  2. 78 FR 26617 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... changes in water quality. Since the last management plan, the reserve has built out its core programs and... the approval of this management plan, the Grand Bay Reserve will decrease their total acreage from 18... management plan, the Delaware Reserve will increase their total acreage from 4,930 acres to 6,206. The change...

  3. 78 FR 53732 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... changes in water quality. Since the last management plan, the reserve has built out its core programs and... the approval of this management plan, the Grand Bay Reserve will decrease their total acreage from 18... management plan, the Delaware Reserve will increase their total acreage from 4,930 acres to 6,206. The change...

  4. Synchronization of the Reserve Officer Professional Development and Promotion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t SYNCHRONIZATION OF THE RESERVE OFFICER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION SYSTEMS BY...PROJECT SYNCHRONIZATION OF THE RESERVE OFFICER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION SYSTEMS by Lieutenant Colonel Roy...Colonel Roy M. Jewell TITLE: Synchronization of the Reserve Officer Professional Development and Promotion Systems FORMAT: Strategy Research

  5. 5 CFR 214.402 - Career reserved positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Career reserved positions. 214.402... EXECUTIVE SERVICE Types of Positions § 214.402 Career reserved positions. (a) The head of each agency is responsible for designating career reserved positions in accordance with the regulations in this section....

  6. Integrating power and reserve trade in electricity networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höning, N.F.; Noot, H.; La Poutré, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In power markets, the trade of reserve energy will become more important as more intermittent generation is traded. In this work, we propose a novel bidding mechanism for the integration of power and reserve markets. It adds expressivity to reserve bids and facilitates planning.

  7. 76 FR 77229 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2012. Pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio...

  8. 78 FR 62633 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2014. Pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio...

  9. 77 FR 74662 - Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... CORPORATION Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013 AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice of Designated Reserve Ratio for 2013. Pursuant to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation designates that the Designated Reserve Ratio...

  10. 40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy... renewable energy reserve. The Administrator will allocate 300,000 allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of the Acid Rain Data System. Allowances from this Reserve will...

  11. Planning Marine Reserve Networks for Both Feature Representation and Demographic Persistence Using Connectivity Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bode

    Full Text Available Marine reserve networks must ensure the representation of important conservation features, and also guarantee the persistence of key populations. For many species, designing reserve networks is complicated by the absence or limited availability of spatial and life-history data. This is particularly true for data on larval dispersal, which has only recently become available. However, systematic conservation planning methods currently incorporate demographic processes through unsatisfactory surrogates. There are therefore two key challenges to designing marine reserve networks that achieve feature representation and demographic persistence constraints. First, constructing a method that efficiently incorporates persistence as well as complementary feature representation. Second, incorporating persistence using a mechanistic description of population viability, rather than a proxy such as size or distance. Here we construct a novel systematic conservation planning method that addresses both challenges, and parameterise it to design a hypothetical marine reserve network for fringing coral reefs in the Keppel Islands, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. For this application, we describe how demographic persistence goals can be constructed for an important reef fish species in the region, the bar-cheeked trout (Plectropomus maculatus. We compare reserve networks that are optimally designed for either feature representation or demographic persistence, with a reserve network that achieves both goals simultaneously. As well as being practically applicable, our analyses also provide general insights into marine reserve planning for both representation and demographic persistence. First, persistence constraints for dispersive organisms are likely to be much harder to achieve than representation targets, due to their greater complexity. Second, persistence and representation constraints pull the reserve network design process in divergent directions, making it

  12. Active power reserves evaluation in large scale PVPPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crăciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    contribute to the total amount of Frequency Containment Reserves (FCR) required by TSOs, reserves which are released during transients. To realize this PVPPs have to operate below their maximum available power and operate in Frequency Sensitive Mode (FSM). The reserve can also be used to fulfill future grid...... of the ancillary services have to be shared by the renewable plants. The main focus of the proposed paper is to technically and economically analyze the possibility of having active power reserves in large scale PV power plants (PVPPs) without any auxiliary storage equipment. The provided reserves should...... codes (GCs) requirements such as Power Ramp Limitation (PRL) during high slopes of irradiance....

  13. [Cognitive reserve and neuronal changes associated with aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Sylvia; Belleville, Sylvie

    2010-06-01

    The severity of brain lesions is not a perfect predictor of the severity of cognitive deficits in age-related brain disorders, an observation which has led to the cognitive reserve hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, cognitive reserve modulates the relationship between cerebral lesions and their clinical manifestations by limiting the negative impact of cerebral lesions on cognition. Thus, individuals with high cognitive reserve could sustain a greater amount of neuropathological lesions before they reach the criteria for dementia. The goal of this review is to present and discuss the notion of cognitive reserve, a hypothesis that brings a novel perspective to the complexity of normal and pathological cognitive aging. The present article describes the neuronal mechanisms proposed to underlie cognitive reserve and the factors that increase and decrease reserve. In addition, influent studies that have measured the cognitive reserve hypothesis in clinical populations are presented.

  14. Renal functional reserve and renal recovery after acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aashish; Mucino, Marìa Jimena; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Renal functional reserve (RFR) represents the capacity of the kidney to increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in response to certain physiological or pathological stimuli or conditions. Once baseline GFR is determined, RFR can be assessed clinically after an oral protein load or intravenous amino acid infusion. In clinical practice, baseline GFR displays variable levels due to diet or other factors. RFR is the difference between peak 'stress' GFR induced by the test (p.o. or i.v.) and the baseline GFR. In clinical scenarios where hyperfiltration is present (high baseline GFR due to pregnancy, hypertension or diabetic nephropathy, in solitary kidney or kidney donors), RFR may be fully or partially used to achieve normal or supranormal renal function. Since commonly used renal function markers, such as GFR, may remain within normal ranges until 50% of nephrons are lost or in patients with a single remnant kidney, the RFR test may represent a sensitive and early way to assess the functional decline in the kidney. RFR assessment may become an important tool to evaluate the ability of the kidney to recover completely or partially after a kidney attack. In case of healing with a defect and progressive fibrosis, recovery may appear complete clinically, but a reduced RFR may be a sign of a maladaptive repair or subclinical loss of renal mass. Thus, a reduction in RFR may represent the equivalent of renal frailty or susceptibility to insults. The main aim of this article is to review the concept of RFR, its utility in different clinical scenarios, and future perspective for its use.

  15. Estimating cognitive reserve in healthy adults using the Cognitive Reserve Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    Full Text Available The concept of cognitive reserve emerged from observed disparities between brain pathology and clinical symptoms. It may explain better neuropsychological performance in healthy individuals. The objectives of this study were to measure reserve in healthy subjects using a new Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS, analyze the internal consistency of the CRS, and analyze validity evidence. A total of 117 healthy individuals were divided into two groups: 87 adults (aged 18-64 years and 30 elderly adults (≥65 years. All subjects completed the CRS and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The internal consistency of the scale was satisfactory (α = 0.77. No significant differences were observed between genders (t = 0.51, p = 0.611, and age was corrected by averaging the CRS score. The study of validity evidence showed that education affected the CRS (t = -2.98, p = 0.004, partial h2 = 0.07 and there was no significant relationship between the CRS and IQ (r = 0.09, p = 0.33. Occupational attainment and the CRS were not related (F2,116 = 0.11, p = 0.898. In line with previous studies on reserve, heterogeneity was observed in the analyses of relationships between the CRS and cognitive performance. There were significant relationships between CRS score and the Verbal Learning Spanish-Complutense Test last trial (r = 0.24, p = 0.009, sum (r = 0.32, p = 0.000, short-term (r = 0.29, p = 0.002 and long-term memory (r = 0.22, p = 0.018, Matrix Reasoning subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.027 and Block Design subtest (r = 0.20, p = 0.029. No other neuropsychological variables correlated with the CRS (p>0.05. The CRS is a reliable instrument that reflects the frequency of participation in brain-stimulating activities across the lifetime. The associations between the CRS and education and neuropsychological performance support validity evidence.

  16. When you pass your due date

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000515.htm When you pass your due date To use the sharing features ... link between you and your baby. As you pass your due date, the placenta may not work ...

  17. China’s Price System Jeopardizes its Grain Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宾

    2008-01-01

    2008 is a year of bumper harvest in summer grain across China. The failure of numerous state-owned grain depots to purchase grain in times of bumper harvest, however, directly threatens grain reserve security and state control over grain prices in the upcoming year. An important factor underpinning the difficulty of state grain depots to purchase grain is the unwillingness of farmers to sell grain due to the excess of the current market price over the government "protected price" aimed at preventing cheap grain from harming farmers. When grassroots grain depots find themselves in trouble, foreign capital stealthily moves in by taking advantage of this situation. To fulfill grain storage tasks and receive various state subsidies, some state-owned grain depots have no alternative but to surreptitiously raise the purchase price. By contrast, some not so courageous state-owned grain depots can only borrow money to finance the purchase of commodity grain at market prices and subsequently figure out a way to pay back such loans. Behind such distorted grain purchase behavior lies a rough and rugged history of grain price reform in China.

  18. The Global Societal Steel Scrap Reserves and Amounts of Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gauffin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study a newly developed method called the Progressing and Backcasting models were used to evaluate the annual resource utilizations of steel scrap in Sweden and globally. The model results show that it is possible to assess the amounts of steel scrap available for steelmaking at a given point in time, based on statistical dynamic material flow models. By a better mapping of the available amounts of steel scrap reserves on a country basis, it is possible to ease the trade of scrap across country boarders. This in turn can optimize the supply of recyclable metals as a raw material used in the industry. The results for Swedish steel consumption show that export bans used to secure the domestic market of steel scrap do damage the internal market due to increased amounts of losses. This suggests that export bans should be lifted to optimize recycling in countries. The model results also show that the global losses of steel are higher than for an industrialized country such as Sweden. Furthermore, the results show that the Backcasting and Progressing models can be used to calculate robust forecasts on the long term availability of steel scrap assets. This information could be used for future structural plans of scrap consuming steelmaking mills and waste management facilities. Hence, it is possible to contribute to a sustainable industrial development and a circular economy.

  19. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ran; Yermiyahu, Uri; Yasuor, Hagai; Cohen Chamus, Dan; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P) nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes. PMID:27907133

  20. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  1. 34 CFR 602.25 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Due process. 602.25 Section 602.25 Education... Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.25 Due process. The agency must demonstrate that the procedures it uses throughout the accrediting process satisfy due process. The agency meets this...

  2. Reparación a las víctimas de dictaduras, conflictos armados y violencia política en sus componente de compensación, satisfacción, rehabilitación y no repetición (reparation for victims of dictatorships, armed conflicts and political violence in their components of compensation, satisfaction, rehabilitation, and non-repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Villa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Encabezado de página SUSCRIPCIÓN Inicie sesión para verificar la suscripción USUARIO/A Nombre de usuario/a Contraseña No cerrar sesión NOTIFICACIONES Vista Suscribirse IDIOMA Escoge idioma CONTENIDO DE LA REVISTA Buscar Ámbito de la búsqueda Examinar Por número Por autor/a Por título Otras revistas TAMAÑO DE FUENTE Make font size smallerMake font size defaultMake font size larger INFORMACIÓN Para lectores/as Para autores/as Para bibliotecarios/as INICIO ACERCA DE INICIAR SESIÓN BUSCAR ACTUAL ARCHIVOS Inicio > Vol. 15, Núm. 1 (2015 >\tVilla REPARACIÓN A LAS VÍCTIMAS DE DICTADURAS, CONFLICTOS ARMADOS Y VIOLENCIA POLÍTICA EN SUS COMPONENTE DE COMPENSACIÓN, SATISFACCIÓN, REHABILITACIÓN Y NO REPETICIÓN Juan David Villa, Daniela Londoño Díaz, Daniela Barrera Machado Resumen Resumen: El presente texto segundo de dos entregas, realiza un acercamiento a las investigaciones realizadas en la pasada década y a comienzos de la presente sobre los procesos de reparación, en el marco de procesos de justicia transicional en países en procesos que van de la guerra a la paz y de la dictadura a la democracia. Se revisan investigaciones que versan sobre las consecuencias de los procesos de reparación y de transición en las víctimas, en la reconstrucción del tejido social, en la generación de procesos de reconciliación y la transformación del sujeto individual y colectivo. Abstract: This current text, which is the second of two issues, carries out an approach of investigations conducted in the past decade and at the beginning of the present decade on the reparation processes, within the context of transitional justice processes, in countries which are on the way to peace, and from dictatorship to democracy. We review research dealing with the consequences of the reparation and transition processes of victims, in the reconstruction of the social fabric, in the generation of reconciliation processes, and the transformation of the

  3. Marine reserve design theory for species with ontogenetic migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Models for marine reserve design have been developed primarily with 'reef fish' life histories in mind: sedentary adults in patches connected by larval dispersal. However, many fished species undertake ontogenetic migrations, such as from nursery grounds to adult spawning habitats, and current theory does not fully address the range of reserve options posed by that situation. I modelled a generic species with ontogenetic migration to investigate the possible benefits of reserves under three alternative scenarios. First, the fishery targets adult habitat, and reserves can sustain yields under high exploitation, unless habitat patches are well connected. Second, the fishery targets the nursery, and reserves are highly effective, regardless of connectivity patterns. Third, the fishery targets both habitats, and reserves only succeed if paired on adjacent, well-connected nursery and adult patches. In all cases, reserves can buffer populations against overexploitation but would not enhance fishery yield beyond that achievable by management without reserves. These results summarize the general situations in which management using reserves could be useful for ontogenetically migrating species, and the type of connectivity data needed to inform reserve design.

  4. Land Use Change Around Nature Reserves: Implications for Sustaining Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. J.; Defries, R.; Curran, L.; Liu, J.; Reid, R.; Turner, B.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of land use change outside of reserves on biodiversity within reserves is not well studied. This paper draws on research from Yellowstone, East Africa, Yucatan, Borneo, and Wolong, China to examine land use effects on nature reserves. Objectives are: quantify rates of change in land use around reserves; examine consequences for biodiversity within the context of specific ecological mechanisms; and draw implications for regional management. Within each of the study regions, semi-natural habitats around nature reserves have been converted to agricultural, rural residential, or urban land uses. Rates vary from 0.2-0.4 %/yr in Yucatan, to 9.5 %/yr in Borneo. Such land use changes may be important because nature reserves are often parts of larger ecosystems that are defined by flows in energy, materials, and organisms. Land use outside of reserves may disrupt these flows and alter biodiversity within reserves. Ecological mechanisms that connect biodiversity to these land use changes include habitat size, ecological flows, crucial habitats, and edge effects. For example, the effective size of the East African study area has been reduced by 45% by human activities. Based on the species area relationship, this reduction in habitat area will lead to a loss of 14% of bird and mammal species. A major conclusion is that the viability of nature reserves can best be ensured by managing them in the context of the surrounding region. Knowledge of the ecological mechanisms by which land use influences nature reserves provides design criteria for this regional management.

  5. With age a lower individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher maximal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2017-09-14

    Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is linearly declining with increasing age. Regular exercise training is supposed to partly prevent this decline, whereas sex and habitual physical activity do not. High exercise capacity is associated with a high cardiac output (HR x stroke volume) and high ventilatory requirements. Due to the close cardiorespiratory coupling, we hypothesized that the individual ventilatory response to maximal exercise might be associated with the age-related HRmax. Retrospective analyses have been conducted on the results of 129 consecutively performed routine cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The study sample comprised healthy subjects of both sexes of a broad range of age (20-86 years). Maximal values of power output, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by the use of incremental cycle spiroergometry. Linear multivariate regression analysis revealed that in addition to age the individual breathing reserve at maximal exercise was independently predictive for HRmax. A lower breathing reserve due to a high ventilatory demand and/or a low ventilatory capacity, which is more pronounced at a higher age, was associated with higher HRmax. Age explained the observed variance in HRmax by 72% and was improved to 83% when the variable "breathing reserve" was entered. The presented findings indicate an independent association between the breathing reserve at maximal exercise and maximal heart rate, i.e. a low individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher age-related HRmax. A deeper understanding of this association has to be investigated in a more physiological scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifying the squeezing or stretching of fisheries as they adapt to displacement by marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollett, Iliana; Box, Stephen J; Mumby, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    The designation of no-take marine reserves involves social and economic concerns due to the resulting displacement of fishing effort, when fishing rights are removed from those who traditionally fished within an area. Displacement can influence the functioning of the fishery and success of the reserve, yet levels of displacement are seldom quantified after reserve implementation and very rarely before that. We devised a simple analytical framework based on set theory to facilitate reserve placement. Implementation of the framework requires maps of fishing grounds, fishing effort, or catch per unit effort for at least 2 years. The framework quantifies the level of conflict that a reserve designation might cause in the fishing sector due to displacement and the opportunities to offset the conflict through fisher spatial mobility (i.e., ability of fishers to fish elsewhere). We also considered how the outputs of the framework can be used to identify targeted management interventions for each fishery. We applied the method in Honduras, where the largest marine protected area in Central America is being placed, for which spatial data on fishing effort were available for 6 fisheries over 3 years. The proposed closure had a greater negative impact on the shrimp and lobster scuba fisheries, which concentrated respectively 28% and 18% of their effort inside the reserve. These fisheries could not accommodate the displacement within existing fishing grounds. Both would be forced to stretch into new fishing grounds, which are available but are of unknown quality. These stakeholders will likely require compensation to offset costly exploratory fishing or to travel to fishing grounds farther away from port.

  7. Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources: reassuring or misleading? An in-depth literature review of global estimates of phosphate rock reserves and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edixhoven, J. D.; Gupta, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2013-09-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) is a finite mineral indispensible for fertilizer production and a major pollutant. High grade PR is obtained from deposits which took millions of years to form and are gradually being depleted. Over the past three years, global PR reserves as reported by US Geological Survey (USGS) have seen a massive increase, from 16 000 Mt PR in 2010 to 65 000 Mt PR in 2011. The bulk of this four-fold increase is based on a 2010 report by International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), which increased Moroccan reserves from 5700 Mt PR as reported by USGS, to 51 000 Mt PR, reported as upgraded ("beneficiated") concentrate. IFDC used a starkly simplified classification compared to the classification used by USGS and proposed that agreement should be reached on PR resource terminology which should be as simple as possible. The report has profoundly influenced the PR scarcity debate, shifting the emphasis from depletion to the pollution angle of the phosphate problem. Various analysts adopted the findings of IFDC and USGS, and argued that that following depletion of reserves, uneconomic deposits (resources and occurrences) will remain available which will extend the lifetime of available deposits to thousands of years. Given the near total dependence of food production on PR, data on PR deposits must be transparent, comparable, reliable and credible. Based on an in-depth literature review, we analyze (i) how IFDC's simplified terminology compares to international best practice in resource classification and whether it is likely to yield data that meets the abovementioned requirements; (ii) whether the difference between ore reserves and reserves as concentrate is sufficiently noted in the literature, and (iii) whether the IFDC report and its estimate of PR reserves and resources is reliable. We conclude that, while there is a global development toward common criteria in resource reporting, IFDC's definitions contravene this development and - due to their

  8. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  9. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeney, J Marion; Christensen, Norman L; Pimm, Stuart L

    2009-01-01

    Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  10. Spillover effects of a community-managed marine reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Marques da Silva

    Full Text Available The value of no-take marine reserves as fisheries-management tools is controversial, particularly in high-poverty areas where human populations depend heavily on fish as a source of protein. Spillover, the net export of adult fish, is one mechanism by which no-take marine reserves may have a positive influence on adjacent fisheries. Spillover can contribute to poverty alleviation, although its effect is modulated by the number of fishermen and fishing intensity. In this study, we quantify the effects of a community-managed marine reserve in a high poverty area of Northern Mozambique. For this purpose, underwater visual censuses of reef fish were undertaken at three different times: 3 years before (2003, at the time of establishment (2006 and 6 years after the marine reserve establishment (2012. The survey locations were chosen inside, outside and on the border of the marine reserve. Benthic cover composition was quantified at the same sites in 2006 and 2012. After the reserve establishment, fish sizes were also estimated. Regression tree models show that the distance from the border and the time after reserve establishment were the variables with the strongest effect on fish abundance. The extent and direction of the spillover depends on trophic group and fish size. Poisson Generalized Linear Models show that, prior to the reserve establishment, the survey sites did not differ but, after 6 years, the abundance of all fish inside the reserve has increased and caused spillover of herbivorous fish. Spillover was detected 1 km beyond the limit of the reserve for small herbivorous fishes. Six years after the establishment of a community-managed reserve, the fish assemblages have changed dramatically inside the reserve, and spillover is benefitting fish assemblages outside the reserve.

  11. Small-scale combined heat and power as a balancing reserve for wind – The case of participation in the German secondary control reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sorknæs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES are being integrated into energy systems worldwide. Due to the nature of these sources, they are found to increase the importance of mechanisms for balancing the electricity system. Small-scale combined heat and power (CHP plants based on gas have proven their ability to participate in the electricity system balancing, and can hence be used to facilitate an integration of intermittent RES into electricity systems. Within the EU electricity system, balancing reserves have to be procured on a market basis. This paper investigates the ability and challenges of a small-scale CHP plant based on natural gas to participate in the German balancing reserve for secondary control. It is found that CHP plants have to account for more potential losses than traditional power plants. However, it is also found that the effect of these losses can be reduced by increasing the flexibility of the CHP unit.

  12. Rethinking Fast Growth in China's Foreign Exchange Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanlong Wang

    2006-01-01

    The sustained surpluses in the current and capital accounts of balance of payments are the main reason for the continuing rapid expanse of China's foreign exchange reserves in recent years. However, flaws in the formation of the renminbi exchange rate regime are the institutional root cause of the sustained high growth in foreign exchange reserves. Various theoretical misconceptions about the scale of foreign exchange reserves have swayed policies and contributed to its sustained fast growth. Sustained high growth of China's foreign exchange reserves, and its extraordinary large scale, carry tremendous risks.Because the security of foreign exchange reserves affects a country's financial safety, China urgently needs to adjust its foreign exchange reserve policies.

  13. Analyzing the layout of China's strategic petroleum reserve base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Huiqing; Zhang, Zhijie

    2017-08-01

    With the development of China's economy, its dependence on foreign oil increases every year. Therefore, oil reserves play a vital role in ensuring China's energy security. The selection of a base site for the construction of strategic oil reserves is a priority. This study analyzes the status quo as well as future development trends for oil processing conditions, pipeline transportation conditions, consumption and production in the base radiation area, crude oil loading and unloading capacity of the port, reserve modes, and other factors. Preliminary planning of the spatial layout of the petroleum strategic reserve base is also detailed in this study. Strategic oil reserve bases can be positioned at the Pearl River Delta, the crude oil pipelines of Central and Southwest China and the large refineries and locations near the crude oil port terminals. Meanwhile, ground and underground reserve modes should be combined.

  14. Reserves and Valuation using Multiples for Oil and Gas Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pontual Ribeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to evaluate the effect of oil and gas reserve increases on firm market value. The estimates are based on Olson’s market value prediction model – that nests the multiples P/E (price-earnings, P/B (price-book value and in the oil industry, the P/R (price-reserves ratio. Reserves are an important characteristic of these firms, but they are not part of equity under usual accounting practices. Using data from firms listed on NYMEX, the results suggest that reserves are positively correlated with firm equity market price. Yet, reserve increases without profit or equity expansions will be penalized by the market, if the reserve increases do not boost profits or the book value of the firm. The evaluation using price multiples appears inefficient, as earnings (or equity and price proportionality is rejected in our empirical model.

  15. Adequacy of operating reserves for power systems in future european wind power scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Maule, Petr

    2015-01-01

    operating reserves. To study the effects of these imbalances, anticipated wind scenarios for European power systems are modelled for 2020 and 2030. Wind power forecasts for different time scales and real-time available wind power are modelled. Based on these studies, this paper qualitatively analyzes......Wind power generation is expected to increase in Europe by large extent in future. This will increase variability and uncertainty in power systems. Imbalances caused due to uncertainty in wind power forecast can trigger frequency instability in the system. These imbalances are handled using...... the adequacy of primary and secondary reserves requirements for future European power systems. This paper also discusses the challenges due to the uncertainty in wind power forecasts and their possible solutions for wind installation scenarios for 2020 and 2030....

  16. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

  17. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report Summary, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared and published each year to inform the public of the environmental activities that take place on the reservation and in the surrounding areas. It is written to comply with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. This document has been prepared to present the highlights of the Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report 2007 in an easy-to-read, summary format.

  18. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Xi; Ning Ding; Yougui Wang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  19. Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorenza Micheli; Andrea Saenz-Arroyo; Ashley Greenley; Leonardo Vazquez; Jose Antonio Espinoza Montes; Marisa Rossetto; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine pop...

  20. Tried And True Integrating Active And Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    requirements through maximizing the strengths of each component, maintain relevancy for the Active, Guard and Reserve , and cost savings. The...water faucet. The faucet cannot be turned on to meet ever changing requirements for reserve manning and turned off when those demands are met. The...Senior leadership has advocated for integrating the active and reserve forces to maximize capabilities and execute the mission in a more efficient, cost

  1. Mental Health Among Reserve Component Military Service Members and Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Gregory H.; Fink, David S.; Sampson, Laura; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, the US military has increasingly relied on National Guard and reserve component forces to meet operational demands. Differences in preparation and military engagement experiences between active component and reserve component forces have long suggested that the psychiatric consequences of military engagement differ by component. We conducted a systematic review of prevalence and new onset of psychiatric disorders among reserve component forces and a meta-analysis of prevalence est...

  2. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Xi; Ning Ding; Yougui Wang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  3. Measuring the policy effects of changes in reserve requirement ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph H. Haslag; Scott E. Hein

    1995-01-01

    The monetary base is the sum of high-powered money and an adjustment factor that measures changes in reserve requirement ratios. This adjustment factor is calculated so that it responds to changes in deposit levels in addition to changes in reserve requirements. Consequently, researchers and policymakers using the monetary base are seeing a mixture of changes implemented through open market operations, discount window borrowings, and reserve requirements, together with nonpolicy actions actin...

  4. Population Status of Blister Beetle during Monsoon in Victoria Park Reserved Forest, Bhavnagar, Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    B. M. Gohil; Devendra Solanki

    2013-01-01

    The Blister Beetles are widely distributed in the world. They have serious impacts, whether agronomic, veterinary or medical. The present investigation was carried out to know about population scenario of Blister Beetle in a reserve forest. Blister Beetle has special affinity to some plant species in particular season due to availability of food. In present study density of Blister Beetle was checked in form of density and its affinity towards plant Abutilon theophrastic was measured by RPE i...

  5. Reserve growth during financial volatility in a technologically challenging world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth (growth-to-known) is the addition of oil and gas quantities to reported proved or proved-plus-probable reserves in discovered fields. The amount of reserve growth fluctuates through time with prevailing economic and technological conditions. Most reserve additions are the result of investment in field operations and in development technology. These investments can be justified by higher prices of oil and gas, the desire to maintain cash flow, and by greater recovery efficiency in well established fields. The price/cost ratio affects decisions for field abandonment and (or) implementation of improved recovery methods. Although small- to medium-size fields might show higher percentages of reserve growth, a relatively few giant fields contribute most volumetric reserve growth, indicating that companies may prefer to invest in existing fields with low geologic and production risk and an established infrastructure in order to increase their price/cost relationship. Whereas many previous estimates of reserve growth were based on past trends of reported reserves, future reserve growth is expected to be greatly affected by financial volatility and fluctuating economic and technological conditions.

  6. How required reserve ratio affects distribution and velocity of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-11-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  7. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, N; Wang, Y; Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  8. Relationship Among Reserve Ratio, Government Spending and Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; ZHOU Sheng-Wu

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among reserve ration, government spending and economic growth was analyzed. A monetary endogenous growth model is well developed by taking into account the growth-enhancing effects of reserve-augmenting seigniorage. If the government spends all the seigniorage revenue on the provision of a public input which has positive externality on the private sector's production, some results to be utterly different from Bronx's have been obtained: the economy has a unique saddle-balanced growth path, but it has nothing to do with reserve ratio. However, the higher reserve ratio, the faster speed of economic convergence.

  9. Study on Disturbances and Its Effects on Nature Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Linying; Zhou Yongzhang; Xu Songjun

    2006-01-01

    As a widespread natural phenomenon,disturbances are considered a discrete event occurring in a natural ecosystem within various spatial and temporal scales. The present paper discusses the types of disturbances and their influence on the ecologic system in nature reserves. It is shown that nature reserves are facing a great challenge dealing with these disturbances.A rational control for disturbances should be improved in order to promote the healthy development of nature reserves this could be done by enhancing the publicity and training of environment protection, coupling management. with communities around and other nature reserves, effective management methods, rational planning, and supporting nature servers.

  10. Socioeconomic profiles of native American communities: Duckwater Shoshone Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, M. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents socioeconomic aspects of Native Americans of the Duckwater Shoshone Reservation. A survey is included concerning their views on the proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository. (CBS)

  11. Coal: resources, reserves and production - Panorama 2008; Charbon: ressources, reserves et production - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the French, whose last coal mine closed in 2004, the 'comeback' of coal as a political issue may seem a bit surprising. Even if coal is still used in domestic industry and to produce electricity, it is many years since it was used as the primary energy source for electricity production. This situation, specific to France and certain European countries, is not at all typical of the world situation: in the face of surging energy demand, coal - whose reserves have been estimated by the World Energy Council to cover 145 years of consumption at the current rate - seems to be an energy of the future and an alternative to oil, natural gas and nuclear power for the production of electricity.

  12. Resource Management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 28, Wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pounds, Larry [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A survey of wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted in 1990. Wetlands occurring on ORR were identified using National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps and field surveys. More than 120 sites were visited and 90 wetlands were identified. Wetland types on ORR included emergent communities in shallow embayments on reservoirs, emergent and aquatic communities in ponds, forested wetland on low ground along major creeks, and wet meadows and marshes associated with streams and seeps. Vascular plant species occurring on sites visited were inventoried, and 57 species were added to the checklist of vascular plants on ORR. Three species listed as rare in Tennessee were discovered on ORR during the wetlands survey. The survey provided an intensive ground truth of the wetlands identified by NWI and offered an indication of wetlands that the NWI remote sensing techniques did not detect.

  13. Research trends in radiobiology since 40 years. a new approach: the enzymatic repair function of DNA, internal factor in evolution of biological systems under irradiation; Etude des tendances des recherches en radiologie depuis 40 ans. Une nouvelle voie de recherche: la fonction de reparation enzymatique de l'ADN, facteur interne d'evolution des systemes biologiques sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    In the first part of the report, the author attempts to draw an historical scheme of successive research working hypotheses in radiobiology since 1924. Less than a generation ago the effect of radiation exposure were viewed as being direct, immediate, irreparable and unmodifiable. Now it is generally accepted that radiation lesion can also be indirect, delayed, reparable and often modified with appropriate chemical or biochemical treatment. It was however in 1962-1964 that came the decisive breakthrough in radiobiology with the discovery that the cell possesses a natural active self-defense mechanism against whatever stress would affect the integrity of the genetic message contained in the DNA structure itself. The existence of what could be considered as a fourth DNA function i.e. self-repair by enzymatic action under genetic control-brings at least to radiobiology the missing molecular biology basis it needed to get out of its 'phenomenological night' after abandon of the generalization of Lea's theory through lack of experimental evidence. In the second part, which is a prospective one, the author tries to set an enlarged synthesis considering the possible role of DNA repair system not only in cell survival - in presence or absence of dose modifiers or mutagens - but also in the artificial and natural evolution of biological system exposed to sub-lethal doses of radiation. Most recent data from the literature fit well with what must be still considered as a general working hypothesis. Studies dealing with phenotypic and genotypic characters linked with the acquisition of gamma and UV radiation resistance in 'Escherichia coli K12' has been started by the author, in collaboration with O. Tremeau, in order to bring a new experimental contribution in this respect. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, l'auteur tente de retracer l'historique des hypotheses successives qui ont jalonne les avances de la radiobiologie depuis 1924

  14. Emergency thyroidectomy: Due to acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfu Bayhan

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Respiratory failure due to giant nodular goiter is a life-threatening situation and should be treated immediately by performing awake endotracheal intubation following emergency total thyroidectomy.

  15. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  16. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  17. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report summary for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document presents a summary of the information collected for the Oak Ridge Reservation 1994 site environmental report. Topics discussed include: Oak Ridge Reservation mission; ecology; environmental laws; community participation; environmental restoration; waste management; radiation effects; chemical effects; risk to public; environmental monitoring; and radionuclide migration.

  18. 49 CFR 392.51 - Reserve fuel; materials of trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve fuel; materials of trade. 392.51 Section... COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Fueling Precautions § 392.51 Reserve fuel; materials of trade. Small amounts of... Group II (including gasoline), Packing Group III (including aviation fuel and fuel oil), or ORM-D,...

  19. 1 CFR 21.12 - Reservation of numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reservation of numbers. 21.12 Section 21.12 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND... Reservation of numbers. In a case where related parts or related sections are grouped under a heading,...

  20. 24 CFR 201.32 - Insurance coverage reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... lender's reserve account to accompany the loan transfers reported by lenders under § 201.30. (1) In all... coverage for the loan under the applicable requirements of this paragraph. (d) Recovery shall not affect... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage reserve account...