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Sample records for reparametrizations levy flights

  1. Fluctuations in a Levy flight gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogedby, H.C.; Jensen, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the density fluctuations of an ideal Brownian gas of particles performing Levy flights characterized by the index f. We find that the fluctuations scale as ΔN(t)∝t H , where the Hurst exponent H locks onto the universal value 1/4 for Levy flights with a finite root mean square range (f>2). For Levy flights with a finite mean range but infinite root mean square range (1< f<2) the Hurst exponent H=1/2f. For infinite range Levy flights (f<1) the Hurst exponent locks onto the value 1/2. The corresponding power spectrum scales with an exponent 1+2H, independent of dimension. (orig.)

  2. Levy flights and random searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, E P [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife-PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Buldyrev, S V [Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, New York, 10033 (United States); Da Luz, M G E [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba-PR, 81531-990 (Brazil); Viswanathan, G M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio-AL, 57072-970 (Brazil); Stanley, H E [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2009-10-30

    In this work we discuss some recent contributions to the random search problem. Our analysis includes superdiffusive Levy processes and correlated random walks in several regimes of target site density, mobility and revisitability. We present results in the context of mean-field-like and closed-form average calculations, as well as numerical simulations. We then consider random searches performed in regular lattices and lattices with defects, and we discuss a necessary criterion for distinguishing true superdiffusion from correlated random walk processes. We invoke energy considerations in relation to critical survival states on the edge of extinction, and we analyze the emergence of Levy behavior in deterministic search walks. Finally, we comment on the random search problem in the context of biological foraging.

  3. Cooperative random Levy flight searches and the flight patterns of honeybees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The most efficient Levy flight (scale-free) searching strategy for N independent searchers to adopt when target sites are randomly and sparsely distributed is identified. For N=1, it is well known that the optimal searching strategy is attained when μ=2, where the exponent μ characterizes the Levy distribution, P(l)=l -μ , of flight-lengths. For N>1, the optimal searching strategy is attained as μ->1. It is suggested that the orientation flights of honeybees can be understood within the context of such an optimal cooperative random Levy flight searching strategy. Upon returning to their hive after surveying a landscape honeybees can exchange information about the locations of target sites through the waggle dance. In accordance with observations it is predicted that the waggle dance can be disrupted without noticeable influence on a hive's ability to maintain weight when forage is plentiful

  4. Fundraising flights: a levy on international air travel for adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Tom; Chambwera, Muyeye

    2011-03-15

    Adapting to climate change will not be cheap: it will cost an estimated tens of billions of dollars each year. But where will the money come from? The UN climate negotiations have set up dedicated funds for the task but domestic politics have resulted in insufficient, variable and unreliable contributions from governments. An innovative adaptation levy on international air travel could help fill the gap. A small charge to individual travellers would raise up to US$10 billion a year. The levy, which follows the 'polluter pays' principle, could be implemented very quickly and at minimal cost and would go a long way to raising sums that could make a significant difference.

  5. Species diversity in rock—paper—scissors game coupling with Levy flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Zhuang Qian; Fan Ying; Di Zeng-Ru

    2013-01-01

    The rock—paper—scissors (RPS) game is a nice model to study the biodiversity in an ecosystem. However, in the previous studies only the nearest-neighbor interaction among the species was considered. In this paper, taking the long-range migration into account, the effects of the interplay between nearest-neighbor-interaction and long-range-interaction given by Levy flight with distance distribution l h (−3 ≤ h < −1) in the spatial RPS game are investigated. Taking the probability, exchange rate, and power-law exponent of Levy flight as parameters, the coexistence conditions of three species are given. The critical curves for stable coexistence of three species in the parameter space are presented. It is also found that Levy flight has interesting effects on the final spatiotemporal pattern of the system. The results reveal that the long-range-interaction given by Levy flight exhibits pronounced effects on biodiversity of the ecosystem. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Transport properties of a piecewise linear transformation and deterministic Levy flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaguchi, Tomoshige

    2006-01-01

    The transport properties of a 1-dimensional piecewise linear dynamical system are investigated through the spectrum of its Frobenius-Perron operator. For a class of initial densities, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Frobenius-Perron operator are obtained explicitly. It is also found that in the long length wave limit, this system exhibits normal diffusion and super diffusion called Levy flight. The diffusion constant and stable index are derived from the eigenvalues. (author)

  7. Reparametrization in the path integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storchak, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    The question of the invariance of a measure in the n-dimensional path integral under the path reparametrization is considered. The non-invariance of the measure through the jacobian is suggeste. After the path integral reparametrization the representatioq for the Green's function of the Hamilton operator in terms of the path integral with the classical Hamiltonian has been obtained

  8. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    In [1], we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reparametrization of the unit interval. I am indebted to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out tome...

  9. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In [1] we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reprametrizations of the unit interval. I am grateful to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out to me...

  10. Concentration distribution of trace elements: from normal distribution to Levy flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses a nature of concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, which were measured by using the X-ray fluorescence techniques (XRF, TXRF). Our earlier observation, that the lognormal distribution well describes the measured concentration distribution is explained here on a more general ground. Particularly, the role of random multiplicative process, which models the concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, is discussed in detail. It is demonstrated that the lognormal distribution, appearing when the multiplicative process is driven by normal distribution, can be generalized to the so-called log-stable distribution. Such distribution describes the random multiplicative process, which is driven, instead of normal distribution, by more general stable distribution, being known as the Levy flights. The presented ideas are exemplified by the results of the study of trace element concentration distributions in selected biomedical samples, obtained by using the conventional (XRF) and (TXRF) X-ray fluorescence methods. Particularly, the first observation of log-stable concentration distribution of trace elements is reported and discussed here in detail

  11. Truncated Levy flights and agenda-based mobility are useful for the assessment of personal human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlink, Uwe; Ragas, Ad M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor-oriented approaches can assess the individual-specific exposure to air pollution. In such an individual-based model we analyse the impact of human mobility to the personal exposure that is perceived by individuals simulated in an exemplified urban area. The mobility models comprise random walk (reference point mobility, RPM), truncated Levy flights (TLF), and agenda-based walk (RPMA). We describe and review the general concepts and provide an inter-comparison of these concepts. Stationary and ergodic behaviour are explained and applied as well as performance criteria for a comparative evaluation of the investigated algorithms. We find that none of the studied algorithm results in purely random trajectories. TLF and RPMA prove to be suitable for human mobility modelling, because they provide conditions for very individual-specific trajectories and exposure. Suggesting these models we demonstrate the plausibility of their results for exposure to air-borne benzene and the combined exposure to benzene and nonane. - Highlights: → Human exposure to air pollutants is influenced by a person's movement in the urban area. → We provide a simulation study of approaches to modelling personal exposure. → Agenda-based models and truncated Levy flights are recommended for exposure assessment. → The procedure is demonstrated for benzene exposure in an urban region. - Truncated Levy flights and agenda-based mobility are useful for the assessment of personal human exposure.

  12. A Multi-Verse Optimizer with Levy Flights for Numerical Optimization and Its Application in Test Scheduling for Network-on-Chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Hu

    Full Text Available We propose a new meta-heuristic algorithm named Levy flights multi-verse optimizer (LFMVO, which incorporates Levy flights into multi-verse optimizer (MVO algorithm to solve numerical and engineering optimization problems. The Original MVO easily falls into stagnation when wormholes stochastically re-span a number of universes (solutions around the best universe achieved over the course of iterations. Since Levy flights are superior in exploring unknown, large-scale search space, they are integrated into the previous best universe to force MVO out of stagnation. We test this method on three sets of 23 well-known benchmark test functions and an NP complete problem of test scheduling for Network-on-Chip (NoC. Experimental results prove that the proposed LFMVO is more competitive than its peers in both the quality of the resulting solutions and convergence speed.

  13. Cuckoo Search with flight of Levy applied to the problem of reload of fuels in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Patrick V.; Nast, Fernando N.; Schirru, Roberto; Meneses, Anderson A.M.; Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia

    2017-01-01

    Intra-Nuclear Fuel Management Optimization is a complex combinatorial problem of the NP-difficult type, associated with the refueling process of a nuclear reactor, which aims to extend the cycle of operation by determining loading patterns, obeying safety margins. In addition to the combinatorial problem, we have the aspect of calculations of reactor physics, which increases the difficult of OGCIN. Methods that are proving effective when applied to OGCIN are the algorithms belonging to the swarm intelligence paradigm. A new member of this paradigm is Cuckoo Search (CS), which has shown results promising when applied to optimization issues. The CS is based on the litter parasitism of some cuckoo species combined with the Levy flight behavior of some birds. In the present work we present the results of the application of CS to OGCIN, and compare them to the results obtained by the application of ABC

  14. Reparametrization invariance and the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkach, V.I.; Pashnev, A.I.; Rosales, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    A time-dependent Schroedinger equation for systems invariant under the reparametrization of time is considered. We develop the two-stage procedure of construction such systems from a given initial ones, which are not invariant under the time reparametrization. One of the first-class constraints of the systems in such description becomes the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The procedure is applicable in the supersymmetric theories as well. The n = 2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics is coupled to world-line supergravity, and the local supersymmetric action is constructed leading to the square root representation of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation

  15. Cuckoo search via Levy flights applied to uncapacitated facility location problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Armacheska; Castromayor, Kris; Garillos-Manliguez, Cinmayii; Calag, Vicente

    2017-11-01

    Facility location problem (FLP) is a mathematical way to optimally locate facilities within a set of candidates to satisfy the requirements of a given set of clients. This study addressed the uncapacitated FLP as it assures that the capacity of every selected facility is finite. Thus, even if the demand is not known, which often is the case, in reality, organizations may still be able to take strategic decisions such as locating the facilities. There are different approaches relevant to the uncapacitated FLP. Here, the cuckoo search via Lévy flight (CS-LF) was used to solve the problem. Though hybrid methods produce better results, this study employed CS-LF to determine first its potential in finding solutions for the problem, particularly when applied to a real-world problem. The method was applied to the data set obtained from a department store in Davao City, Philippines. Results showed that applying CS-LF yielded better facility locations compared to particle swarm optimization and other existing algorithms. Although these results showed that CS-LF is a promising method to solve this particular problem, further studies on other FLP are recommended to establish a strong foundation of the capability of CS-LF in solving FLP.

  16. Levy flights and self-similar exploratory behaviour of termite workers: beyond model fitting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Miramontes

    Full Text Available Animal movements have been related to optimal foraging strategies where self-similar trajectories are central. Most of the experimental studies done so far have focused mainly on fitting statistical models to data in order to test for movement patterns described by power-laws. Here we show by analyzing over half a million movement displacements that isolated termite workers actually exhibit a range of very interesting dynamical properties--including Lévy flights--in their exploratory behaviour. Going beyond the current trend of statistical model fitting alone, our study analyses anomalous diffusion and structure functions to estimate values of the scaling exponents describing displacement statistics. We evince the fractal nature of the movement patterns and show how the scaling exponents describing termite space exploration intriguingly comply with mathematical relations found in the physics of transport phenomena. By doing this, we rescue a rich variety of physical and biological phenomenology that can be potentially important and meaningful for the study of complex animal behavior and, in particular, for the study of how patterns of exploratory behaviour of individual social insects may impact not only their feeding demands but also nestmate encounter patterns and, hence, their dynamics at the social scale.

  17. Cuckoo Search with flight of Levy applied to the problem of reload of fuels in nuclear reactors; Busca Cuco com voo de Levy aplicado ao problema de recarga de combustiveis em reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patrick V.; Nast, Fernando N.; Schirru, Roberto; Meneses, Anderson A.M., E-mail: patrickvs@hotmail.com, E-mail: fernandonnast@gmail.com, E-mail: anderson.meneses@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Oeste do Para (UFOPA), Santarem, PA (Brazil). Instituto de Engenharia e Geociencias. Programa de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ) RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    Intra-Nuclear Fuel Management Optimization is a complex combinatorial problem of the NP-difficult type, associated with the refueling process of a nuclear reactor, which aims to extend the cycle of operation by determining loading patterns, obeying safety margins. In addition to the combinatorial problem, we have the aspect of calculations of reactor physics, which increases the difficult of OGCIN. Methods that are proving effective when applied to OGCIN are the algorithms belonging to the swarm intelligence paradigm. A new member of this paradigm is Cuckoo Search (CS), which has shown results promising when applied to optimization issues. The CS is based on the litter parasitism of some cuckoo species combined with the Levy flight behavior of some birds. In the present work we present the results of the application of CS to OGCIN, and compare them to the results obtained by the application of ABC.

  18. Schrodinger Evolution for the Universe: Reparametrization

    OpenAIRE

    Gryb, Sean; Thebault, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Starting from a generalized Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, we develop a new framework for constructing observables and their evolution in theories invariant under global time reparametrizations. Our proposal relaxes the usual Dirac prescription for the observables of a totally constrained system (`perennials') and allows one to recover the influential partial and complete observables approach in a particular limit. Difficulties such as the non-unitary evolution of the complete observables in term...

  19. Perfect discretization of reparametrization invariant path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Dittrich, Bianca; Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    To obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of gravity and reparametrization-invariant systems, the latter of which we consider here as a toy example, discretizations generically break diffeomorphism and reparametrization symmetry, respectively. This has severe implications, as these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. Indeed we will show that a discretized path integral with reparametrization-invariance is necessarily also discretization independent and therefore uniquely determined by the corresponding continuum quantum mechanical propagator. We use this insight to develop an iterative method for constructing such a discretized path integral, akin to a Wilsonian RG flow. This allows us to address the problem of discretization ambiguities and of an anomaly-free path integral measure for such systems. The latter is needed to obtain a path integral, that can act as a projector onto the physical states, satisfying the quantum constraints. We will comment on implications for discrete quantum gravity models, such as spin foams.

  20. Perfect discretization of reparametrization invariant path integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Dittrich, Bianca; Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2011-05-01

    To obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of gravity and reparametrization-invariant systems, the latter of which we consider here as a toy example, discretizations generically break diffeomorphism and reparametrization symmetry, respectively. This has severe implications, as these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. Indeed we will show that a discretized path integral with reparametrization-invariance is necessarily also discretization independent and therefore uniquely determined by the corresponding continuum quantum mechanical propagator. We use this insight to develop an iterative method for constructing such a discretized path integral, akin to a Wilsonian RG flow. This allows us to address the problem of discretization ambiguities and of an anomaly-free path integral measure for such systems. The latter is needed to obtain a path integral, that can act as a projector onto the physical states, satisfying the quantum constraints. We will comment on implications for discrete quantum gravity models, such as spin foams.

  1. Reparametrization in the path integral over finite dimensional manifold with a time-dependent metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storchak, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    The path reparametrization procedure in the path integral is considered using the methods of stochastic processes for diffusion on finite dimensional manifold with a time-dependent metric. the reparametrization Jacobian has been obtained. The formulas of reparametrization for a symbolic presentation of the path integral have been derived

  2. Levy Foraging in a Dynamic Environment – Extending the Levy Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fioriti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A common task for robots is the patrolling of an unknown area with inadequate information about target locations. Under these circumstances it has been suggested that animal foraging could provide an optimal or at least sub-optimal search methodology, namely the Levy flight search. Although still in debate, it seems that predators somehow follow this search pattern when foraging, because it avoids being trapped in a local search if the food is beyond the sensory range. A Levy flight is a particular case of the random walk. Its displacements on a 2-D surface are drawn from the Pareto-Levy probability distribution, characterized by power law tails. The Levy flight search has many applications in optical material, ladars, optics, large database search, earthquake data analysis, location of DNA sites, human mobility, stock return analysis, online auctions, astronomy, ecology and biology. Almost all studies and simulations concerning the Levy flight foraging examine static or slowly moving (with respect to the forager uniformly distributed resources. Moreover, in recent works a small swarm of underwater autonomous vehicles has been used to test the standard Levy search in the underwater environment, with good results. In this paper we extend the classical Levy foraging framework taking into consideration a moving target allocated on a 2-D surface according to a radial probability distribution and comparing its performance with the random walk search. The metric used in the numerical simulations is the detection rate. Simulations include the sensor resolution, intended as the maximum detection distance of the forager from the target. Furthermore, contrarily to the usual Levy foraging framework, we use only one target. Results show that Levy flight outperforms the random walk if the sensor detection radius is not too small or too large. We also find the Levy flight in the velocity of the center of mass model of a fish school according the Kuramoto

  3. Energy levy and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdowski, P.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The principle of regulating levies is that the consumption of products that have negative effects on the environment will be reduced. The income of the levies can be reimbursed to the civilians and companies via tax reduction. One of the impacts of the implementation of energy levies is the negative effect on the competitive position of the Dutch industry and businesses. In this report attention is paid to the micro-economic consequences of energy levies. The flows of fifteen production processes and the position of these processes in the market have been analyzed systematically. The impacts of energy levies on these product flows are investigated. The sectors that have been analyzed are the services sector (mainly determined by households), the agricultural food sector, the transportation sector, and the basic industry (mostly energy-intensive industries). In order to determine the sensitivity of the height of the energy levy three variants were investigated: 25%, 50% and 100% surcharge on the present energy costs. The variants are combined with three geographic levy ranges: national, European and global. 21 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Congestion levies; Congestieheffingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.T. [Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit en Tinbergen Instituut, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-02-20

    Traffic jams or congestion can be controlled by means of Pigouvian levies. Congestion costs comprise both time losses as scheduling costs. Because a part of those costs are external costs, the free market output is not Pareto-efficient, and therefore levies are required to recover the efficiency. With some restrictions, road-pricing for the western part of the Netherlands is considered to be a feasible option

  5. The quantum Levy walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, Manuel O; Nizama, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the quantum Levy walk to study transport and decoherence in a quantum random model. We have derived from second-order perturbation theory the quantum master equation for a Levy-like particle that moves along a lattice through scale-free hopping while interacting with a thermal bath of oscillators. The general evolution of the quantum Levy particle has been solved for different preparations of the system. We examine the evolution of the quantum purity, the localized correlation and the probability to be in a lattice site, all of them leading to important conclusions concerning quantum irreversibility and decoherence features. We prove that the quantum thermal mean-square displacement is finite under a constraint that is different when compared to the classical Weierstrass random walk. We prove that when the mean-square displacement is infinite the density of state has a complex null-set inside the Brillouin zone. We show the existence of a critical behavior in the continuous eigenenergy which is related to its non-differentiability and self-affine characteristics. In general, our approach allows us to study analytically quantum fluctuations and decoherence in a long-range hopping model.

  6. Entrevista con Giovanni Levi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta entrevista, Giovanni Levi - como un conocedor del tema de Familia - realiza una importante evaluación sobre el actual estado de las investigaciones realizadas en el Brasil y em el exterior. Con estilo franco, agudo y lucido critica las visiones tradicionales y sus ilusiones ypropone nuevos conceptos y métodos. La historia de la familia debería ceder espacio para el estudio de las redes relacionales o de los mundos relacionales. De la misma forma, la historia cuantitativa debería abrir espacio para el estudio de las cualidades. Ya con relación a la historia de las elites, tan estudiada y reproducida en una diversidad de trabajos, que deberíase mirar en otra perspectiva. Es decir, no mirar a las reglas sociales predeterminadas, sino a los desvíos y a las variaciones. Levi defiende que los historiadores deben trascender a los documentos que se encuentran fácilmente y que pueden fortalecer perspectivas deformadas y esequilibradas de la sociedad. Para él, los historiadores deben esforzarse por estudiar a aquellos grupos que dejaron pocos rastros documentales. En ese esfuerzo existiría una nueva mirada sobre la historia de la familia.

  7. Piaget and Levy-Bruhl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, G

    2000-08-01

    Levy-Bruhl exerted a powerful influence, seldom considered, on Piaget. The Levy-Bruhlian thesis of a "pre-logical mentality" characterized by "mystical participation" is outlined, together with its initial reception. The first evidence of Piaget's interest in it dates from 1920, and when he began his studies of children's thinking he compared it with that of 'primitives," also adopting Levy-Bruhl's concept of "participation." By 1928 Piaget had elaborated a theory of the social foundations of different types of thought, which he regarded as also explaining the alleged similarity between the thinking of primitives and children. Both are subject to constraint, primitives by elders and children by parents and teachers. Logical as opposed to pre-logical thought was said to depend on cooperation in free social interaction. Piaget continued to maintain essentially the same views long after Levy-Bruhl himself had renounced the notion of pre-logicality.

  8. Hydrogen bonding in malonaldehyde: a density functional and reparametrized semiempirical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, Goran; Hrenar, Tomica; Doslic, Nadja

    2003-01-01

    Intramolecular proton transfer in malonaldehyde (MA) has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT). The DFT results were used for the construction of a high quality semiempirical potential energy surface with a reparametrized PM3 Hamiltonian. A two-step reparameterization procedure is proposed in which (i) the PM3-MAIS core-core functions for the O-H and H-H interactions were used and a new functional form for the O-O correction function was proposed and (ii) a set of specific reaction parameters (SRP) has been obtained via genetic algorithm optimization. The quality of the reparametrized semiempirical potential energy surfaces was tested by calculating the tunneling splitting of vibrational levels and the anharmonic vibrational frequencies of the system. The applicability to multi-dimensional dynamics in large molecular systems is discussed

  9. Reparametrization BRS cohomology in two-dimensional gravity and non-critical string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo.

    1989-07-01

    Various anomalies related to the gravitational BRS current in two-dimensional theories are explained from the view point of the path integral formalism, and the algebraic properties of composite operators are confirmed by the operator product technique. The implications of the reparametrization BRS cohomology on possible non-critical string theory are illustrated by using the string field theoretical technique. The appearance of the Higgs (or Stueckelberg)-like mechanism due to the Liouville freedom is shown. (author)

  10. The Levy sections theorem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Annibal; Gleria, Iram; Matsushita, Raul; Silva, Sergio Da

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the Levy sections theorem. We extend the scope of the theorem to time series and apply it to historical daily returns of selected dollar exchange rates. The elevated kurtosis usually observed in such series is then explained by their volatility patterns. And the duration of exchange rate pegs explains the extra elevated kurtosis in the exchange rates of emerging markets. In the end, our extension of the theorem provides an approach that is simpler than the more common explicit modelling of fat tails and dependence. Our main purpose is to build up a technique based on the sections that allows one to artificially remove the fat tails and dependence present in a data set. By analysing data through the lenses of the Levy sections theorem one can find common patterns in otherwise very different data sets

  11. Mixtures in nonstable Levy processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, N Cufaro

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the Levy processes produced by means of two interconnected classes of nonstable, infinitely divisible distribution: the variance gamma and the Student laws. While the variance gamma family is closed under convolution, the Student one is not: this makes its time evolution more complicated. We prove that-at least for one particular type of Student processes suggested by recent empirical results, and for integral times-the distribution of the process is a mixture of other types of Student distributions, randomized by means of a new probability distribution. The mixture is such that along the time the asymptotic behaviour of the probability density functions always coincide with that of the generating Student law. We put forward the conjecture that this can be a general feature of the Student processes. We finally analyse the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process driven by our Levy noises and show a few simulations of it

  12. The Levy sections theorem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Annibal; Gleria, Iram; Matsushita, Raul; Da Silva, Sergio

    2007-06-01

    This paper revisits the Levy sections theorem. We extend the scope of the theorem to time series and apply it to historical daily returns of selected dollar exchange rates. The elevated kurtosis usually observed in such series is then explained by their volatility patterns. And the duration of exchange rate pegs explains the extra elevated kurtosis in the exchange rates of emerging markets. In the end, our extension of the theorem provides an approach that is simpler than the more common explicit modelling of fat tails and dependence. Our main purpose is to build up a technique based on the sections that allows one to artificially remove the fat tails and dependence present in a data set. By analysing data through the lenses of the Levy sections theorem one can find common patterns in otherwise very different data sets.

  13. Who is paying for the energy levy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemier, B.; Keuning, S.J.; Zijlmans, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of the consequences of an energy levy should not only be aimed at the direct energy consumption (heating, lighting, engine fuels), but also on energy used for the production of goods and services, and the conversion of one energy carrier into the other. Attention is paid to the distribution of direct and indirect public purchasing power effects of three different types of levies. The levies considered here are (1) an energy levy on primary energy sources only in the Netherlands; (2) as (1) but for the whole world; and (3) an energy levy on the energy consumption of households. The effects will be best equallly spread over the households in the case of a worldwide, uniform levy. 3 tabs., 2 refs

  14. Green taxes by doubling energy levies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, R.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of green taxes, levies and investment facilities in the Netherlands. Also, attention is paid to the main issues in the Third Dutch National Environmental Plan (NMP3). Energy levies are imported for the Dutch government to shift taxes on labor further towards taxes on pollution. However, the proposed doubling of the energy levies meets strong opposition from industry and businesses. 2 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Thermodynamics of strongly interacting system from reparametrized Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Maity, Soumitra; Raha, Sibaji; Ray, Rajarshi; Saha, Kinkar; Upadhaya, Sudipa

    2017-01-01

    The Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model has been quite successful in describing various qualitative features of observables for strongly interacting matter, that are measurable in heavy-ion collision experiments. The question still remains on the quantitative uncertainties in the model results. Such an estimation is possible only by contrasting these results with those obtained from rst principles using the lattice QCD framework. Recently a variety of lattice QCD data were reported in the realistic continuum limit. Here we make a first attempt at reparametrizing the model so as to reproduce these lattice data

  16. Stochastic Levy Divergence and Maxwell's Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Volkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons for interest in the Levy Laplacian and its analogues such as Levy d'Alembertian is a connection of these operators with gauge fields. The theorem proved by Accardi, Gibillisco and Volovich stated that a connection in a bundle over a Euclidean space or over a Minkowski space is a solution of the Yang-Mills equations if and only if the corresponding parallel transport to the connection is a solution of the Laplace equation for the Levy Laplacian or of the d'Alembert equation for the Levy d'Alembertian respectively (see [5, 6]. There are two approaches to define Levy type operators, both of which date back to the original works of Levy [7]. The first is that the Levy Laplacian (or Levy d'Alembertian is defined as an integral functional generated by a special form of the second derivative. This approach is used in the works [5, 6], as well as in the paper [8] of Leandre and Volovich, where stochastic Levy-Laplacian is discussed. Another approach to the Levy Laplacian is defining it as the Cesaro mean of second order derivatives along the family of vectors, which is an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space. This definition of the Levy Laplacian is used for the description of solutions of the Yang-Mills equations in the paper [10].The present work shows that the definitions of the Levy Laplacian and the Levy d'Alembertian based on Cesaro averaging of the second order directional derivatives can be transferred to the stochastic case. In the article the values of these operators on a stochastic parallel transport associated with a connection (vector potential are found. In this case, unlike the deterministic case and the stochastic case of Levy Laplacian from [8], these values are not equal to zero if the vector potential corresponding to the stochastic parallel transport is a solution of the Maxwell's equations. As a result, two approaches to definition of the Levy Laplacian in the stochastic case give different operators. This

  17. Correlated Levy Noise in Linear Dynamical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srokowski, T.

    2011-01-01

    Linear dynamical systems, driven by a non-white noise which has the Levy distribution, are analysed. Noise is modelled by a specific stochastic process which is defined by the Langevin equation with a linear force and the Levy distributed symmetric white noise. Correlation properties of the process are discussed. The Fokker-Planck equation driven by that noise is solved. Distributions have the Levy shape and their width, for a given time, is smaller than for processes in the white noise limit. Applicability of the adiabatic approximation in the case of the linear force is discussed. (author)

  18. Classification of finite reparametrization symmetry groups in the three-Higgs-doublet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Igor P.; Vdovin, E.

    2013-01-01

    Symmetries play a crucial role in electroweak symmetry breaking models with non-minimal Higgs content. Within each class of these models, it is desirable to know which symmetry groups can be implemented via the scalar sector. In N-Higgs-doublet models, this classification problem was solved only for N=2 doublets. Very recently, we suggested a method to classify all realizable finite symmetry groups of Higgs-family transformations in the three-Higgs-doublet model (3HDM). Here, we present this classification in all detail together with an introduction to the theory of solvable groups, which play the key role in our derivation. We also consider generalized-CP symmetries, and discuss the interplay between Higgs-family symmetries and CP-conservation. In particular, we prove that presence of the Z 4 symmetry guarantees the explicit CP-conservation of the potential. This work completes classification of finite reparametrization symmetry groups in 3HDM. (orig.)

  19. Decoupling of the reparametrization degree of freedom and a generalized probability in quantum cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, N.; Terzis, Petros A.; Zampeli, Adamantia; Christodoulakis, T.

    2016-09-01

    The high degree of symmetry renders the dynamics of cosmological as well as some black hole spacetimes describable by a system of finite degrees of freedom. These systems are generally known as minisuperspace models. One of their important key features is the invariance of the corresponding reduced actions under reparametrizations of the independent variable, a fact that can be seen as the remnant of the general covariance of the full theory. In the case of a system of n degrees of freedom, described by a Lagrangian quadratic in velocities, one can use the lapse by either gauge fixing it or letting it be defined by the constraint and subsequently substitute into the rest of the equations. In the first case, the system of the second-order equations of motion is solvable for all n accelerations and the constraint becomes a restriction among constants of integration. In the second case, the system can be solved for only n -1 accelerations and the "gauge" freedom is transferred to the choice of one of the scalar degrees of freedom. In this paper, we take the second path and express all n -1 scalar degrees of freedom in terms of the remaining one, say q . By considering these n -1 degrees of freedom as arbitrary but given functions of q , we manage to extract a two-dimensional pure gauge system consisting of the lapse N and the arbitrary q : in a way, we decouple the reparametrization invariance from the rest of the equations of motion, which are thus describing the "true" dynamics. The solution of the corresponding quantum two-dimensional system is used for the definition of a generalized probability for every configuration fi(q ), be it classical or not. The main result is that, interestingly enough, this probability attains its extrema on the classical solution of the initial n -dimensional system.

  20. Energy levy and consequences for the incomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kam, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is paid to levies proposed for the domestic energy consumption in the Netherlands. Possibilities to compensate households for such levies by means of burden reductions are discussed. Given the starting point of the present Dutch coalition agreement that the macro-economic level of levies should not increase, a compensating reduction of the Value Added Tax (VAT) or the income tax seems to be the most obvious measure. Considering the large diversity in the energy consumption of households it is impossible to compensate precisely every household via such general measures. Moreover, this is actual undesirable, because otherwise the stimulus to save energy will be lost. However, a compensation, that will leave the personal income distribution on the whole unaltered, should be feasible. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 14 refs

  1. Satellite orbits in Levi-Civita space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humi, Mayer

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we consider satellite orbits in central force field with quadratic drag using two formalisms. The first using polar coordinates in which the satellite angular momentum plays a dominant role. The second is in Levi-Civita coordinates in which the energy plays a central role. We then merge these two formalisms by introducing polar coordinates in Levi-Civita space and derive a new equation for satellite orbits which unifies these two paradigms. In this equation energy and angular momentum appear on equal footing and thus characterize the orbit by its two invariants. Using this formalism we show that equatorial orbits around oblate spheroids can be expressed analytically in terms of Elliptic functions. In the second part of the paper we derive in Levi-Civita coordinates a linearized equation for the relative motion of two spacecrafts whose trajectories are in the same plane. We carry out also a numerical verification of these equations.

  2. Endogenous enforcement and effectiveness of China's pollution levy system

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Wang; Wheeler, David

    2000-01-01

    The authors investigate two aspects of China's pollution levy system, which was first implemented about 20 years ago. First, they analyze what determines differences in enforcement of the pollution levy in various urban areas. They find that collection of the otherwise uniform pollution levy is sensitive to differences in economic development and environmental quality. Air and water pollution levies are higher in areas that are heavily polluted. Second, they analyze the impact of pollution ch...

  3. Extreme events as foundation of Levy walks with varying velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutner, Ryszard

    2002-01-01

    In this work we study the role of extreme events [E.W. Montroll, B.J. West, in: J.L. Lebowitz, E.W. Montrell (Eds.), Fluctuation Phenomena, SSM, vol. VII, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979, p. 63; J.-P. Bouchaud, M. Potters, Theory of Financial Risks from Statistical Physics to Risk Management, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001; D. Sornette, Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences. Chaos, Fractals, Selforganization and Disorder: Concepts and Tools, Springer, Berlin, 2000] in determining the scaling properties of Levy walks with varying velocity. This model is an extension of the well-known Levy walks one [J. Klafter, G. Zumofen, M.F. Shlesinger, in M.F. Shlesinger, G.M. Zaslavsky, U. Frisch (Eds.), Levy Flights and Related Topics ion Physics, Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 450, Springer, Berlin, 1995, p. 196; G. Zumofen, J. Klafter, M.F. Shlesinger, in: R. Kutner, A. Pekalski, K. Sznajd-Weron (Eds.), Anomalous Diffusion. From Basics to Applications, Lecture Note in Physics, vol. 519, Springer, Berlin, 1999, p. 15] introduced in the context of chaotic dynamics where a fixed value of the walker velocity is assumed for simplicity. Such an extension seems to be necessary when the open and/or complex system is studied. The model of Levy walks with varying velocity is spanned on two coupled velocity-temporal hierarchies: the first one consisting of velocities and the second of corresponding time intervals which the walker spends between the successive turning points. Both these hierarchical structures are characterized by their own self-similar dimensions. The extreme event, which can appear within a given time interval, is defined as a single random step of the walker having largest length. By finding power-laws which describe the time-dependence of this displacement and its statistics we obtained two independent diffusion exponents, which are related to the above-mentioned dimensions and which characterize the extreme event kinetics. In this work we show the

  4. Levi-Strauss : UNESCO = anthropology : politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Levi-Strauss engagement in UNESCO activities. On the one hand, Levi-Strauss engagement in Pakistan had an important impact on his later work, as well as on his overall view about the world and culture( s; while on the other, Levi-Strauss’s definitions of the relationship between race/nation and culture had an important influence on the ways in which UNESCO dealt with the ideas about culture and on the ways these ideas were implemented in its global strategies of action in/towards culture. On the one hand, this engagement included a delivery of the European world view (as a superior one to everyone who does not have it; while on the other, it also meant a protection of material remains of different cultures world-wide and protection of non-material heritage and/as entire "Othern-ness", whenever it is located, and (at least in theory however it looks like. In that sense, Levi- Strauss public engagement had an important impact not only on anthropology, as a discipline that he dedicated his life to, but also to the formation of contemporary understanding of politically correct relationship towards the "Other".

  5. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 meets Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D. H.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1995-08-01

    The impact of comet D/1993 F2 (Shoemaker-Levy 9) with Jupiter was unforgettable, an event probably not to be repeated for millennia to come. One year later the astronomers who first spotted the comet reflect on their discovery, on the anxious months of anticipation before the collision and on what has been learned since.

  6. The Influence of the Number of Different Stocks on the Levy-Levy-Solomon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, R.

    The stock market model of Levy, Levy, Solomon is simulated for more than one stock to analyze the behavior for a large number of investors. Small markets can lead to realistic looking prices for one and more stocks. A large number of investors leads to a semi-regular fashion simulating one stock. For many stocks, three of the stocks are semi-regular and dominant, the rest is chaotic. Aside from that we changed the utility function and checked the results.

  7. On the existence of Levi Foliations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATA N. OSTWALD

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Let L be a real 3 dimensional analytic variety. For each regular point p L there exists a unique complex line l p on the space tangent to L at p. When the field of complex line p l p is completely integrable, we say that L is Levi variety. More generally; let L M be a real subvariety in an holomorphic complex variety M. If there exists a real 2 dimensional integrable distribution on L which is invariant by the holomorphic structure J induced by M, we say that L is a Levi variety. We shall prove: Theorem. Let be a Levi foliation and let be the induced holomorphic foliation. Then, admits a Liouvillian first integral. In other words, if is a 3 dimensional analytic foliation such that the induced complex distribution defines an holomorphic foliation ; that is, if is a Levi foliation; then admits a Liouvillian first integral--a function which can be constructed by the composition of rational functions, exponentiation, integration, and algebraic functions (Singer 1992. For example, if f is an holomorphic function and if theta is real a 1-form on ; then the pull-back of theta by f defines a Levi foliation : f*theta = 0 which is tangent to the holomorphic foliation : df = 0. This problem was proposed by D. Cerveau in a meeting (see Fernandez 1997.Seja L Ì uma variedade real de dimensão 3. Para todo ponto regular p Î L existe uma única reta complexa l p no espaço tangente à L em p. Quando o campo de linhas complexas p l p é completamente integrável, dizemos que L é uma variedade de Levi. Mais geralmente, seja L Ì M uma subvariedade real em uma variedade analítica complexa. Se existe uma distribuição real integrável de dimensão 2 em L que é invariante pela estrutura holomorfa J induzida pela variedade complexa M, dizemos que L é uma variedade de Levi. Vamos provar: Teorema. Seja uma folheação de Levi e seja a folheação holomorfa induzida. Então tem integral primeira Liouvilliana. Em outras palavras, se é uma folheação real de

  8. Zimbabwe's national AIDS levy: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Nisha; Kilmarx, Peter H; Dube, Freeman; Manenji, Albert; Dube, Medelina; Magure, Tapuwa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund ('AIDS Levy') as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the Zimbabwe National AIDS Council (NAC), and key informant interviews with representatives of the Zimbabwean government, civil society and international organizations. The literature search yielded 139 sources, and 20 key informants were interviewed. Established by legislation in 1999, the AIDS Levy entails a 3% income tax for individuals and 3% tax on profits of employers and trusts (which excluded the mining industry until 2015). It is managed by the parastatal NAC through a decentralized structure of AIDS Action Committees. Revenues increased from inception to 2006 through 2008, a period of economic instability and hyperinflation. Following dollarization in 2009, annual revenues continued to increase, reaching US$38.6 million in 2014. By policy, at least 50% of funds are used for purchase of antiretroviral medications. Other spending includes administration and capital costs, HIV prevention, and monitoring and evaluation. Several financial controls and auditing systems are in place. Key informants perceived the AIDS Levy as a 'homegrown' solution that provided country ownership and reduced dependence on donor funding, but called for further increased transparency, accountability, and reduced administrative costs, as well as recommended changes to increase revenue. The Zimbabwe AIDS Levy has generated substantial resources, recently over US$35 million per year, and signals an important commitment by Zimbabweans, which may have helped attract other donor resources. Many key informants considered the Zimbabwe AIDS Levy to be a best practice for other countries to follow.

  9. Energy Efficiency instead of CO2 levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetz, R.

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a look at ways of avoiding a future, planned Swiss CO 2 levy by improving the efficiency of energy use. The political situation concerning the reduction of CO 2 emissions in Switzerland is reviewed and the likeliness of the introduction of a CO 2 levy is discussed. Strategies for the reduction of fossil fuel consumption and therefore of CO 2 emissions are looked at, including process optimisation. Recommendations are made on how to approach this work systematically - data collection, assessment of the potential for reduction and the planning of measures to be taken are looked at. The high economic efficiency of immediate action is stressed and typical middle and long-term measures are listed

  10. Levi-Strauss and the Opera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Kotnik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to Claude Levi-Strauss and his structural reading of opera as metaphorical ‘composing’ of an anthropological grand opera, materialized in the four-volume study of Mythologiques, which refers to Wagner’s tetralogy of The Ring. He created a type of comparative view of the function and structure of myth schemes in Amerindian culture and the orchestral scores of Wagner’s operas, and implicitly signalled that European music, with its eminent representation – opera – has had the same value or similar symbolic position in the mind and life of a contemporary European that myth has had in ‘the savage mind’. Through this, he can lead us to the understanding of opera as myth and metaphor. However, the paper extends the discussion on Levi-Strauss to a broader historical picture of the relationship between opera and mythology as two symbolic systems of European culture.

  11. Make the Alberta Carbon Levy Revenue Neutral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The new carbon levy of $30 per tonne, announced in November 2015 as part of the report issued by the Alberta government’s Climate Leadership Panel, is a positive move in the direction of pricing carbon emissions. The levy is expected to generate $3 billion in net revenue by 2018, and possibly as much as $5 billion by 2030. While there is some discussion in the report of what should be done with the revenues generated by the carbon levy, it is somewhat vague on the details, leaving a number of options open to the government. The purpose of this briefing paper is to argue that the revenues from the carbon levy should be used to lower existing taxes – the carbon tax should be revenue neutral, generating no new net revenue for the government. The basic argument is that the carbon levy can be viewed through two lenses. The first lens is the imposition of a price on carbon emissions which (at least partly reflects the social costs of emissions. Viewed through this price lens, the carbon levy plays an important role in incenting firms and individuals to change their behaviour and move towards less carbon intensive activities. The second lens is the role of a carbon tax as a part of the broad revenue system. Viewed through this tax lens, a carbon tax is not a very good, or efficient, way of generating revenue. The reason for this is somewhat nuanced, but the basic idea is that the carbon tax is applied to a narrower base than broader-based taxes. Broad based taxes generally impose lower costs on the economy than narrow based taxes. Moreover, carbon taxes interact with other taxes in the economy, exacerbating the economic costs associated with those taxes. And those costs are quite high – research shows that the total cost to the economy of raising an additional $1 in revenue through the corporate income tax in Alberta is $3.79; for the personal income tax the cost is $1.71. These taxes therefore impose higher costs on the economy than they raise

  12. The Data of Levy and Levy (2002) ÜProspect Theory: Much Ado About Nothing?Ý Actually Support Prospect Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Peter P. Wakker

    2003-01-01

    Levy and Levy (Management Science2002) present data that, according to their claims, violate prospect theory. They suggest that prospect theory's hypothesis of an S-shaped value function, concave for gains and convex for losses, is incorrect. However, all the data of Levy and Levy are perfectly consistent with the predictions of prospect theory, as can be verified by simply applying prospect theory formulas. The mistake of Levy and Levy is that they, incorrectly, thought that probability weig...

  13. Beyond Brownian Motion: A Levy Flight in Magic Boots -50 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in the scientific community to observe molecular aggregates which travel at times .... tional Institutes of health analysed the time intervals between heart beats. ... mental and numerical methods to study a leaking tap. They found that the time ...

  14. 27 CFR 70.162 - Levy and distraint on salary and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... salary and wages. 70.162 Section 70.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... § 70.162 Levy and distraint on salary and wages. (a) Notice of intent to levy. Levy may be made for any... salary or wages. A levy on salary or wages is continuous from the time of the levy until the liability...

  15. Emissions trading and the climate change levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connett, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the flexible mechanisms established in the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework on Climate Change focussing on the mechanism whereby countries achieving their target for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases can trade their excess to countries having difficulty achieving their target. UK measures to meet their commitment, the UK government's proposed climate change levy on the use of energy, negotiated agreements, emissions trading, and the nature, supply and trading of permits are examined. Compatibility with international agreements and the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive, monitoring, and penalties are considered

  16. 26 CFR 301.6331-1 - Levy and distraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intangible, belonging to the taxpayer. The district director may also levy upon property with respect to...), the 30-day period provided in section 6331(d), or the limitation on levy provided in section 6331(g)(1... either a Federal or a State court, the assets of the taxpayer are in general under the control of the...

  17. Ricordare per interrogare: Percorsi della memoria in Primo Levi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This commemorative essay traces the function of memory and the relation between memory and imagination in the works of Primo Levi. It looks at the common matrix and the subtle link between Levi works of testimony and his fictional writings, suggesting that his fantasy and science fiction stories be read as metaphors or ...

  18. Primo Levi and Franz Kafka: an Unheimlich Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bellin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1983 Giulio Einaudi asked Primo Levi to translate Kafka’s Trial for the new series «Scrittori tradotti da scrittori». The proposal sounded original and provocative, and Levi accepted eagerly. The translation, however, had a negative effect on him. While working on The Trial, Levi relived his Auschwitz season, revived his deepest fears, and fell back into depression: he felt as if he was himself on trial. This was partially due to a clash of literary styles as well as to two contrasting – and yet at times kindred – conceptions of language and communication. The present study addresses the following questions: were Levi and Kafka’s literary styles as opposed as Levi implies? How is Levi’s “obscure part” connected to Kafka? Why did Levi associate The Trial with his Holocaust experience and identify himself with Josef K.? What does Levi’s encounter with Kafka tell us about the shame of being human and our capacity to give an account of ourselves? By investigating Levi’s uncanny encounter with Kafka, my essay will discuss Levi’s theory of language, showing how the Levi-Kafka intersection opens up new ways of interpreting Levi’s concerns about communication, the work of the witness, moral responsibility, and shame, which coalesced into the reflections of The Drowned and the Saved.Nel 1983 Giulio Einaudi chiese a Primo Levi di tradurre Il processo di Kafka per la nuova serie Scrittori tradotti da scrittori. La proposta parse a Levi originale ed intelligente, sicché la accettò immediatamente. La traduzione ebbe tuttavia un effetto negativo su di lui. Mentre lavorava al Processo, Levi rivisse la stagione di Auschwitz, risentì le sue più profonde paure e ricadde in depressione. Si sentiva come se fosse lui stesso processato. Ciò era in parte dovuto a due opposte concezioni di stile letterario e a due divergenti – anche se a volte paradossalmente affini – concezioni del linguaggio e della comunicazione. Il presente

  19. Scale-free animal movement patterns: Levy walks outperform fractional Brownian motions and fractional Levy motions in random search scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, A M

    2009-01-01

    The movement patterns of a diverse range of animals have scale-free characteristics. These characteristics provide necessary but not sufficient conditions for the presence of movement patterns that can be approximated by Levy walks. Nevertheless, it has been widely assumed that the occurrence of scale-free animal movements can indeed be attributed to the presence of Levy walks. This is, in part, because it is known that the super-diffusive properties of Levy walks can be advantageous in random search scenarios when searchers have little or no prior knowledge of target locations. However, fractional Brownian motions (fBms) and fractional Levy motions (fLms) are both scale-free and super-diffusive, and so it is possible that these motions rather than Levy walks underlie some or all occurrences of scale-free animal movement patterns. Here this possibility is examined in numerical simulations through a determination of the searching efficiencies of fBm and fLm searches. It is shown that these searches are less efficient than Levy walk searches. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some animals with scale-free movement patterns are executing fBm and fLm searches, but it does make Levy walk searches the more likely possibility.

  20. The data of Lelvy and Levy , "Prospect theory: much ado about nothing??", support prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    Levy and Levy (Management Science, 2002) present data that, according to their claims, violate prospect theory. They suggest that prospect theoryys hypothesis of an S-shaped value function, concave for gains and convex for losses, is incorrect. However, all of the data of Levy and Levy are perfectly

  1. Levy-free part in energy tax is not wanted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilijamse, W.

    1995-01-01

    The Dutch government proposed to implement an energy levy for small-scale consumers in 1996. The yields will be reimbursed by means of a reduction of the tax burden. By applying a levy-free tax allowance the tax reduction can be limited. However, it appears that this allowance does not work: it reduces the energy saving impact of the energy levy, because it does not stimulate investments in energy saving housing construction and energy saving heat supply. It also interferes with a just compensation of income. It is recommended to cancel the levy-free tax allowance and to realize compensation by raising the tax free allowance in the income tax. 2 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  2. Levy's zero-one law in game-theoretic probability

    OpenAIRE

    Shafer, Glenn; Vovk, Vladimir; Takemura, Akimichi

    2009-01-01

    We prove a game-theoretic version of Levy's zero-one law, and deduce several corollaries from it, including non-stochastic versions of Kolmogorov's zero-one law, the ergodicity of Bernoulli shifts, and a zero-one law for dependent trials. Our secondary goal is to explore the basic definitions of game-theoretic probability theory, with Levy's zero-one law serving a useful role.

  3. Final report of the Steering Group Regulating Energy Levies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfson, D.J.; Frijns, J.M.G.; Opschoor, J.B.; Rissik, S.A.; Stevens, L.G.M.

    1992-02-01

    The aim is to determine to what extent regulating energy levies can generate energy savings, and to gain insight into the economic impacts of energy levies. Special attention is paid to the consequences for the competitive position and the development of economic and industrial activities, employment, distribution of incomes and purchasing power. An indication is given to what extent policy tools for regulating energy levies meet the criteria for efficiency, effectivity and legitimacy. Three hypothetic measures to map the energy saving effects and economic side-effects are discussed for two tax-levels: 50% and 100%. Variant A is a fixed levy on all the primary energy carriers, implemented on an OECD-level, equally based on the carbon content and the energy content. Variant B is the same as variant A, but only implemented in the Netherlands. Variant C is a fixed levy on the energy consumption of small energy consumers in the Netherlands, which variant spares and protects the energy-intensive industry. In the chapters 5, 6 and 7 the results of preliminary studies on price elasticities and energy consumption in the road traffic sector, households, and housing construction are discussed, as well as energy conservation in the rental sector and the Dutch production economies, and the competitive impacts of energy levies on industry and business in the Netherlands. In chapter 8 and 9 possibilities to reimburse the revenues to the government, the businesses or industries, and the households, are mentioned and considered. Attention is paid to the financial consequences and the impacts on spending power. In chapter (10) the economic effects of the levy variants, as calculated by the Centraal Plan Bureau (CPB, Dutch government institute for economic planning), are described. Variant A will result in substantial negative economic effects: loss of income and a limited growth of employment, caused by transfer of part of the energy-intensive industry to outside the OECD

  4. ECONOMY AND PARA-FISCAL LEVIES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mahmutović

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The system of para-fiscal levies implies different types of benefits or compensation and payment of citizens and companies for the use of goods or services of state administration which are para-fiscal sources of income of the state. The main characteristics of para-fiscal levies are: they do not originate from all tax payers, but only from members of certain social groups that are linked to some common economic or social interests; they are not part of the budget funds and not regulate them fiscal authorities; they have the character of destined public revenues, as they regularly represent a dedicated revenue whit which a specific task of economic or social character would be solved; they represent a secondary tax levy, which means that they exist along with the country’s tax levy, to draw funds from the same economic resources and to have almost the same economic effects, as well as the collection of taxes; they shall be paid on the basis of laws and decisions or decision of the competent authorities (general obligation or by contract (a specific levy, ie. an individual obligation; they shall be paid in the event of use of property of general interest and / or services of state administration; they represent giving of money, which is always direct, ie. giving cash on the basis of the decision and with the issuance of a receipt of payment (receipt from a box office or bank. Para-fiscal levies should be understood as fees that economic operators and citizens pay for the use of certain goods or services. These are not taxes and they do not serve to fill the budget. However, in Bosnia and Herzegovina the biggest part of para-fiscal levies is used as a parallel budget revenue, as revenue for the operation of the costly administrative apparatus. A large number of studies on para-fiscal levies in Bosnia and Herzegovina showed that they have a negative impact on economic growth and development. Basically para-fiscal levies, for business entities at

  5. Participation of firms in the skills development levy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GJ Lee

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Skills development levies are increasingly being utilised to increase enterprise provided training in developing economies. South Africa is one such example. The impact of such incentive systems on the bottom-line of firms is a vital consideration in such programs. Particularly important are the economic conditions under which the incentive will stimulate participation by organisations. The transaction costs of participation must be taken into account: while a levy-grant system clearly creates a prima-facie incentive, it may be prohibitively expensive for some firms to enter the grant disbursement systems. Accordingly, through a simple model of the incentives for firms, the participation level of the firm under various types of levy systems is assessed. Non-monetary considerations are also considered. The implications for participation by firms, along with managerial and policy implications, are discussed.

  6. Rotationally invariant family of Levy-like random matrix ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jinmyung; Muttalib, K A

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a family of rotationally invariant random matrix ensembles characterized by a parameter λ. While λ = 1 corresponds to well-known critical ensembles, we show that λ ≠ 1 describes 'Levy-like' ensembles, characterized by power-law eigenvalue densities. For λ > 1 the density is bounded, as in Gaussian ensembles, but λ < 1 describes ensembles characterized by densities with long tails. In particular, the model allows us to evaluate, in terms of a novel family of orthogonal polynomials, the eigenvalue correlations for Levy-like ensembles. These correlations differ qualitatively from those in either the Gaussian or the critical ensembles. (fast track communication)

  7. Overview of levies on energy carriers in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Gehrig, S.; Koenig, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    This short report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the situation with respect to levies and steering taxes on various forms of energy in European countries. Comparisons are made with the situation in Switzerland regarding energy prices for various consumer groups, taxation of energy carriers and exceptions for energy-intensive industries. Details are given on prices of energy and the levies imposed, in particular with respect to carbon taxes. Data are given for 11 European countries and detailed information on regulations concerning exceptions is presented for selected countries. Finally, fuel price differences between neighbouring countries are examined and the role of 'motor-fuel-tourism' is discussed

  8. Anomalous diffusion and Levy random walk of magnetic field lines in three dimensional turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P.; Basile, G.; Principato, S.

    1995-01-01

    The transport of magnetic field lines is studied numerically where three dimensional (3-D) magnetic fluctuations, with a power law spectrum, and periodic over the simulation box are superimposed on an average uniform magnetic field. The weak and the strong turbulence regime, δB∼B 0 , are investigated. In the weak turbulence case, magnetic flux tubes are separated from each other by percolating layers in which field lines undergo a chaotic motion. In this regime the field lines may exhibit Levy, rather than Gaussian, random walk, changing from Levy flights to trapped motion. The anomalous diffusion laws left-angle Δx 2 i right-angle ∝s α with α>1 and α<1, are obtained for a number of cases, and the non-Gaussian character of the field line random walk is pointed out by computing the kurtosis. Increasing the fluctuation level, and, therefore stochasticity, normal diffusion (α congruent 1) is recovered and the kurtoses reach their Gaussian value. However, the numerical results show that neither the quasi-linear theory nor the two dimensional percolation theory can be safely extrapolated to the considered 3-D strong turbulence regime. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7033 - Waiver of United Kingdom levies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... waiver of levies included in the price of this contract, the U.S. Government reserves the right to reduce the contract price by the amount of the levy waived plus associated indirect costs and profit or fee... attempt to obtain a waiver of any commercial exploitation levies included in the price of this contract...

  10. On levies to reduce the nitrogen surplus: the case of Dutch pig farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontein, P.; Thijssen, G.; Magnus, J.; Dijk, J.

    1994-01-01

    Pig farms in the Netherlands pay a zero or low price for using the environment. As a consequence, the environment is overused. The Dutch government wants to reduce the emissions of nitrogen and phosphorus. Possible instruments are regulation and levies. In this study a levy on feed and a levy on the

  11. How to Run a Successful School Levy Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Judith K.

    This document describes the public relations strategies employed by the Lakewood (Ohio) City School district to obtain voter support for a school levy. Various aspects of this successful campaign are described, including the formation of administrative committees to oversee campaign activities, steering and citizens' committees, the use of…

  12. UK's climate change levy: cost effectiveness, competitiveness and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Adarsh

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to examine the cost effectiveness of UK's climate change levy (CCL), its implications on competitiveness of firms and the environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the levy and analyses it under the cannons of a good taxation policy. The economic implications of the levy are discussed with theoretical and empirical perspectives. Change in net exports, investment patterns and productivity and inclusion of compliance cost forms the basis for analysing the effect on competitiveness. It discusses the options available to firms to safeguard their competitiveness if it is adversely affected by the CCL. A description of the current scenario of the levy since its inception is also presented. The paper argues the need for a comprehensive policy involving the use of standards, emission trading as well as energy taxes to achieve emission and energy-use reductions. A focal point of this paper is to elucidate the pros and cons of the CCL (energy tax) with respect to an emission trading scheme

  13. The future of levies in a digital environment: final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, P.B.; Guibault, L.; van Geffen, S.

    2003-01-01

    Copyright levy systems have been premised on the assumption that private copying of protected works cannot be controlled and exploited individually. With the advent of digital rights management (DRM), this assumption must be re-examined. In the digital environment, technical protection measures and

  14. Levi-Strauss's "Bricolage" and Theorizing Teachers' Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    A teacher's work is compared to Claude Levi-Strauss's concept of "bricolage." A "bricoleur" is a professional do-it-yourself person, falling somewhere between an odd-job person and a craftsperson. The concept helps to explain pedagogical inadequacy by linking inherent limiting features of teachers' work and some causal…

  15. Shoemaker-Levy 9/JUPITER Collision Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    There are many signs that the upcoming collision between comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 and giant planet Jupiter is beginning to catch the imagination of the public. Numerous reports in the various media describe the effects expected during this unique event which according to the latest calculations will start in the evening of July 16 and end in the morning of July 22, 1994. (The times in this Press Release are given in Central European Summer Time (CEST), i.e., Universal Time (UT) + 2 hours. The corresponding local time in Chile is CEST - 6 hours.) Astronomers all over the world are now preparing to observe the associated phenomena with virtually all major telescopes. There will be no less than 12 different investigations at the ESO La Silla observatory during this period. This Press Release updates the information published in ESO PR 02/94 (27 January 1994) and provides details about the special services which will be provided by ESO to the media around this rare astronomical event. SCIENTIFIC EXPECTATIONS The nucleus of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 broke into many smaller pieces during a near passage of Jupiter in July 1992. They are now moving in parallel orbits around this planet and recent calculations show with close to 100 % certainty that they will all collide with it, just two months from now. At some time, more than 20 individual nuclei were observed. This Press Release is accompanied by a photo that shows this formation, the famous "string of pearls", as it looked like in early May 1994. Both Jupiter and these nuclei have been extensively observed during the past months. A large, coordinated observing programme at La Silla has been active since early April and the first results have become available. However, while we now possess more accurate information about the comet's motion and the times of impact, there is still great uncertainty about the effects which may actually be observed at the time of the impacts. This is first of all due to the fact that it has not

  16. Una complessa chiarezza: gli ipertesti di Primo Levi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Pepe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scrittore poliedrico e versatile, Primo Levi è stato anche un costruttore di estesi e articolati ipertesti: strutture macrotestuali fondate su legami e interrelazioni tese fra opere cronologicamente e tipologicamente differenziate. Un esempio straordinario, ma non certo isolato, di questa scrittura di secondo grado, organizzata in complessi palinsesti testuali, è quello che già Marco Belpoliti ha definito nei termini di «macrotesto del Lager»: un reticolo intra- e intertestuale che, a partire da Se questo è un uomo, si è sviluppato con un andamento rizomatico attraverso diverse stratificazioni scrittorie e genealogiche, sino a I sommersi e i salvati. Il «rizoma» tuttavia è semplicemente una delle varie macrostrutture individuabili nell’opera di Levi. Attraverso un confronto contrastivo con l’opera di Calvino, il saggio si propone di indagare alcune delle caratteristiche salienti di questa scrittura ipertestuale, mostrando come l’intensa sperimentazione scrittoria perseguita da Levi sia da ricollegarsi a una parallela svolta epistemologica, data dall’insorgere di quella che Edgar Morin ha definito come «sfida della complessità».Primo Levi can be considered a versatile and polyhedral writer, capable of building long and articulated hypertexts, i.e., macrotextual structures based on the links and interrelations among works which differ both from a chronological and typological point of view. An extraordinary, but certainly not isolated, example of this writing, organized according to complex textual palimpsests, is the one that Marco Belpoliti defined as the «macrotext of the Lager»: it is an intra- and intertextual network that, starting from If This is a Man, developed according to a rhizomatic structure through his different works and genealogical stratifications, ending with The Drowned and the Saved. The «rhizome», however, is only one of the different macrostructures which may be singled out in Levi’s work. By

  17. Can collective searches profit from Levy walk strategies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, M C; Da Luz, M G E [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba-PR, 81531-990 (Brazil); Raposo, E P [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife-PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Viswanathan, G M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio-AL, 57072-970 (Brazil)], E-mail: luz@fisica.ufpr.br

    2009-10-30

    We address the problem of collective searching in which a group of walkers, guided by a leader, looks for randomly located target sites. In such a process, the necessity to maintain the group aggregated imposes a constraint in the foraging dynamics. We discuss four different models for the system collective behavior, with the leader and followers performing Gaussian as well as truncated Levy walks. In environments with low density of targets we show that Levy foraging is advantageous for the whole group, when compared with Gaussian strategy. Furthermore, certain extra rules must be incorporated in the individuals' dynamics, so that a compromise between the trend to keep the group together and the global efficiency of search is met. The exact character of these rules depends on specific details of the foraging process, such as regeneration of target sites and energy costs.

  18. CO2-impacts of a small-scale consumers levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Because of a number of developments (altered budgets of Dutch ministries and implementation of environmental policy plans of energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) the 1993 analyses of the effects of a small-scale consumer levy on the emission of CO 2 are updated. First, attention is paid to the conservation impetus as a result of an increase of the energy price for small-scale consumers. Next, the effects that can occur as a consequence of the presently suggested form of the levy (in particular, the exemption of renewable energy and waste heat) are discussed. Subsequently, the alterations of other policy tools, that are necessary in case a higher effectiveness of conservation measures is realized, are dealt with. The direct effect of a higher energy price on the saving behavior of the small-scale consumers is calculated by means of the CENECA-model. 4 tabs., 1 appendix, 8 refs

  19. Subordinated Levy Processes and Applications to Crude Oil Options

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Krichene

    2005-01-01

    One approach to oil markets is to treat oil as an asset, besides its role as a commodity. Speculative and nonspeculative activity by investors in the derivatives markets could be responsible for a sizable increase in oil prices. This paper recognizes both the consumption and investment aspects of crude oil and proposes Levy processes for modeling uncertainty and options pricing. Calibration to crude oil futures' options shows high volatility of oil futures prices, fat-tailed, and right-skewed...

  20. Batik Kreatif Amri Yahya dalam Perspektif Strukturalisme Levi-Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfa'ina Rohana Salma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPada saat ini sebagaian besar pengembangan motif batik mengacu pada ragam hias tradisional, sehingga hasilnya cenderung monoton. Perlu penyegaran visual dan diversifikasi gagasan untuk menghasilkan motif batik modern yang baru, unik, kreatif, dan inovatif. Tujuan kajian ini adalah menginspirasi para seniman, perajin, desainer untuk menciptakan motif kreatif sebagai diversifikasi produk yang semakin memperkaya khasanah batik Indonesia, dengan mengkaji batik kreatif karya Amri Yahya. Batik kreatif Amri Yahya telah mendapat pengakuan internasional sebagai batik modern. Metode yang digunakan yaitu deskriptif analitis untuk mendeskripsikan dan menganalisis objek seni yaitu batik karya Amri Yahya dengan perspektif Strukturalisme Levi-Strauss. Dari kajian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa batik kreatif karya Amri Yahya dihasilkan dari keberanian dan kebebasan berekspresi serta konsistensi dalam berkarya seni.Kata kunci: batik, kreatif, Amri Yahya, strukturalisme Levi-StraussABSTRACTAt this time almost all of the batik motive bulk development refers to the traditional decoration, so the results tend to be monotonous. It needs a visual refreshment and diversity idea to produce a modern motive that is new, unique, creative, and innovative. The purpose of this study was to inspire the artists, craft men, designers to create the creative motifs as the diversified products to enrichIndonesian batik, reviewing creative batik of Amri Yahya. These Amri Yahya creative batik hasreceived international recognition as a modern batik. The method used is descriptive analysis todescribe artwork object that is Amri Yahya batik with Levi -Strauss's Structuralism perspective. From this study it can be concluded that the creative work of Amri Yahya batik produced from the encouragement and independecy of expression, as well as consistency in the artwork.Keywords: batik, creative, Amri Yahya, levi - strauss structuralis

  1. Levy-Student distributions for halos in accelerator beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cufaro Petroni, Nicola; De Martino, Salvatore; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    We describe the transverse beam distribution in particle accelerators within the controlled, stochastic dynamical scheme of stochastic mechanics (SM) which produces time reversal invariant diffusion processes. This leads to a linearized theory summarized in a Schroedinger-like (SL) equation. The space charge effects have been introduced in recent papers by coupling this S-L equation with the Maxwell equations. We analyze the space-charge effects to understand how the dynamics produces the actual beam distributions, and in particular we show how the stationary, self-consistent solutions are related to the (external and space-charge) potentials both when we suppose that the external field is harmonic (constant focusing), and when we a priori prescribe the shape of the stationary solution. We then proceed to discuss a few other ideas by introducing generalized Student distributions, namely, non-Gaussian, Levy infinitely divisible (but not stable) distributions. We will discuss this idea from two different standpoints: (a) first by supposing that the stationary distribution of our (Wiener powered) SM model is a Student distribution; (b) by supposing that our model is based on a (non-Gaussian) Levy process whose increments are Student distributed. We show that in the case (a) the longer tails of the power decay of the Student laws and in the case (b) the discontinuities of the Levy-Student process can well account for the rare escape of particles from the beam core, and hence for the formation of a halo in intense beams

  2. LEVIS ion source and beam characterization on PBFA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Johnson, D.J.; Pointon, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    We report on the continuing development of the LEVIS (Laser Evaporation Ion Source) lithium active ion source for the 15-cm radial focussing ion diode on PBFA-11. We found previously that DC-heating of the anode surface to 150 degrees C maximum for 5 hours resulted in a pure lithium beam. This paper discusses the characterization of LEVIS source uniformity by Faraday cup arrays and multiple lines of sight for visible light spectroscopy. These diagnostics give some evidence of nonuniformity in both A-K gap electric fields and ion current density. Despite this, however, the measured focal spot size appears smaller than with a passive LiF source operated in the same magnetic field topology. Experiments using a curved anode for vertical beam focussing show reduced ion beam turn-on delay by 5 ns by altering the magnetic field topology as well as anode curvature. Another 3--5 ns reduction was achieved by switching from a passive LiF to the active LEVIS source

  3. Persistence and extinction for stochastic logistic model with Levy noise and impulsive perturbation

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Lu; Qiang Ma; Xiaohua Ding

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates a stochastic logistic model with Levy noise and impulsive perturbation. In the model, the impulsive perturbation and Levy noise are taken into account simultaneously. This model is new and more feasible and more accordance with the actual. The definition of solution to a stochastic differential equation with Levy noise and impulsive perturbation is established. Based on this definition, we show that our model has a unique global positive solut...

  4. Basics of Swiss water levy politics - Legal aspects; Grundlagen Wasserzinspolitik. Rechtliche Ueberlegungen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimbacher, J.

    2008-10-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the legal aspects involved in setting up the basics for the definition of the interest to be levied on water commodities. This levy is raised in Switzerland on the use of water and represents the payment made to a commune for the use of its water resources. The original aims of the levy, to encourage the use of water resources, are noted. Limits on the height of the levy and the definition and adjustment of the maximum rate by government are discussed. Various legal aspects are examined and the fact that the levy must be economically reasonable and economically acceptable is discussed. Various pragmatic approaches to being able to adjust or index the levy are discussed. The introduction of an additional levy to cover the storage of water is discussed, as is the definition of the part use of the proceeds to provide funding for the high-voltage electricity grid, for example. The history of the levy and various political initiatives are noted and even the abolition of the levy is discussed.

  5. Efficient Option Pricing under Levy Processes, with CVA and FVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy eLaw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the Piterbarg (2010 model to include 1 bilateral default risk as in Burgard and Kjaer (2012, and 2 jumps in the dynamics of the underlying asset using general classes of L'evy processes of exponential type. We develop an efficient explicit-implicit scheme for European options and barrier options taking CVA-FVA into account. We highlight the importance of this work in the context of trading, pricing and management a derivative portfolio given the trajectory of regulations.

  6. New levy on nitrogen oxide emissions: First 'refundable' pollution charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sus; Hanneberg, P.

    1991-01-01

    A new law imposing a charge on nitrogen oxide emissions from combustion installations will soon be coming into force in Sweden. The money generated by the charge will not stay in the exchequer, however, but will be repaid to the plants concerned in proportion to the amount of useful energy they produce. This will be the first environment levy in Sweden to be based on measurements of actual emissions. Emissions of sulphur and carbon dioxide are already taxed. These taxes, unlike other environmental charges, not only have an incentive function, but are also a source of income for the state

  7. Fairer flying: an international air travel levy for adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Muller, Benito

    2008-11-15

    For the world's poorest countries and communities, adaptation to climate change is urgently needed, but costly: estimates run into tens of billions of dollars a year. Given the shortfall in current international adaptation funding, how can resources for the developing world be raised? An adaptation levy on international air travel could help fill the gap. A small per-trip payment by passengers could contribute US$8 billion to US$10 billion a year towards adaptation. Similar schemes in France and elsewhere show that this kind of ethical solidarity and 'polluter pays' approach would be simple to implement in practical and institutional terms.

  8. Prevention before profits: a levy on food and alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Todd A; Mooney, Gavin

    2010-04-05

    The recent interest in health promotion and disease prevention has drawn attention to the role of the alcohol and junk-food industries. Companies supplying, producing, advertising or selling alcohol or junk food (ie, foods with a high content of fat, sugar or salt) do so to generate profits. Even companies marketing "low-carbohydrate" beers, "mild" cigarettes, or "high-fibre" sugary cereals are not primarily concerned about population health, more so increased sales and profits. In a competitive market, it is assumed that consumers make fully informed choices about costs and benefits before purchasing. However, consumers are not being fully informed of the implications of their junk-food and alcohol choices, as advertising of these products carries little information on the health consequences of consumption. We propose that there should be a levy on advertising expenditure for junk food and alcoholic beverages to provide an incentive for industry to promote healthier products. Proceeds of the levy could be used to provide consumers with more complete and balanced information on the healthy and harmful impacts of food and alcohol choices. Our proposal addresses two of the greatest challenges facing Australia's preventable disease epidemic - the imbalance between the promotion of healthier and unhealthy products, and securing funds to empower consumer choice.

  9. LEVIS lithium ion source experiments on PBFA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Lopez, M.; Clark, B.F.; Schroeder, J.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Carlson, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    PBFA-II is a pulsed power generator designed to apply up to a 25 MV, 20 ns pulse to a focusing 15 cm-radius Applied-B ion diode for inertial confinement fusion applications. Several different approaches have been pursued to produce a high-purity (> 90%), high-current density (5--10 kA/cm 2 ) singly ionized lithium ion source for acceleration in this diode. In addition to having high source purity, such a source should be active, i.e. the ions should be produced before the power pulse arrives, to provide better electrical coupling from the accelerator to the diode. In the LEVIS (Laser EVaporation Ion Source) process, energy from two lasers impinges on a thin (500 nm) lithium or lithium-bearing film on an insulating substrate. The authors will discuss a new series of LEVIS experiments, with a number of improvements: (1) the laser distribution cone was redesigned, resulting in a more uniform illumination of the 4 cm-tall Li-producing surface; (2) the anode surface is being slow-heated to 120--150 C to help drive off contaminants; and (3) they have expanded the number of source and beam diagnostics

  10. Cloning and adoption: a reply to Levy and Lotz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carson

    2008-02-01

    In previous articles I discussed the ethics of human reproductive cloning, focusing on a possible future scenario in which reproductive cloning can be accomplished without an elevated risk of anomalies to the children who are created. I argued that in such a scenario it would be ethically permissible for infertile couples to use cloning as a way to have genetically related children and that such use should not be prohibited. In 'Reproductive Cloning and a (Kind of) Genetic Fallacy', Neil Levy and Mianna Lotz raise objections to my conclusions. They disagree with the view, for which I argued, that some couples can have defensible reasons for desiring genetically related children. They also offer several new arguments against reproductive cloning, including an argument that it would diminish the number of adoptions, thereby adversely affecting the welfare of children who need to be adopted. In this paper I point out that Levy and Lotz's criticisms misconstrue my arguments and that there are serious problems with their arguments for prohibiting infertile couples from using cloning, including their argument from adoption.

  11. La costruzione de Il sistema periodico di Primo Levi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bertoldi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tra le opere prodotte nel laboratorio del chimico-scrittore Levi quella che meglio rappresenta l'insensatezza della separazione tra letteratura e scienza e la volontà leviana di ricomporre tale frattura è senz'altro Il sistema periodico. Qui infatti, come sostanze chimiche tra loro reagenti, le due discipline partecipano al processo creativo, consentendo allo scrittore la realizzazione di un'opera la cui forma è data dalla successione di una serie di elementi ed il cui contenuto è costituito da un amalgama significativo di spunti autobiografici, storie chimiche ed inserti metaletterari, in un continuo gioco di rinvii tra le due culture. “Costruire”, verbo che accomuna chimica e scrittura, è quanto fa Levi nell'ideare l'architettura del Sistema periodico, che vede rispecchiate nella disposizione dei suoi componenti tematiche costitutive dell'opera stessa, di conseguenza conferendo ai testi un significato che trascende il loro contenuto specifico per risultare dall'analisi dell'ordinamento della raccolta. Un approccio filologico al testo mostra come la particolare conformazione della raccolta sia il risultato di successivi interventi sull'assetto dei testi. In particolare il quadro variantistico ottenuto dal confronto di un gruppo di racconti anticipati su quotidiani o riviste e dei dattiloscritti originali conservati nell'Archivio storico della casa editrice Einaudi con la loro redazione definitiva, testimonia la cura di Levi nel non lasciare alcun racconto irrelato nell'intento di costruire una struttura ordinata e di per se stessa significante, che veicolando elementi tematici offra un ulteriore simbolo di quanto avviene nei testi, sfumando la distinzione tra forma e contenuto. Among Levi’s works, the The Periodic Table is the one which best represents the senselessness of the division between science and literature and the author’s will to achieve a necessary recomposition between the two. Just like chemical substances that react

  12. Bunker Levy Schemes for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission Reduction in International Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosmas, Vasileios; Acciaro, Michele

    2017-01-01

    , the extent of which depend on the structure of the levy and market conditions. Since there is concern that the costs resulting from the policy will be passed from shipping companies to their customers along the supply chain, the paper dwells on how the costs arising from the enforcement of the levy...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6331-3 - Restrictions on levy while offers to compromise are pending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are pending. 301.6331-3 Section 301.6331-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... for Collection of Taxes § 301.6331-3 Restrictions on levy while offers to compromise are pending. Cross-reference. For provisions relating to the making of levies while an offer to compromise is pending...

  14. 33 CFR 135.103 - Levy and payment of barrel fee on OCS oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Levy of Fees § 135.103 Levy and payment of barrel fee on OCS oil. (a) A fee of $.03 per... paragraph (a) of this section applies whenever the unobligated Fund balance is less than $200,000,000. (d...

  15. Eesti allilm suudab tõkestada GSM-levi / Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kagge, Rasmus, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 10. mai lk. 2. Politsei andmetel on Eesti kuritegelike jõukude käes praegu vähemalt paar GSM-levi segajat ehk jammerit. Politseil on õnnestunud konfiskeerida autovarastelt üks GSM-levi tõkestaja. Lisa. Kasutajapiirang. Vt. samas: Jammereid saab osta internetist

  16. The economic consequences of a fuel levy reform in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Mabugu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the economic effects of a hypothetical fuel levy imposed by South African provinces. The welfare effects of increasing the fuel levy by 10 per cent are negative but very small. Similarly, the marginal excess burdens for efficiency and equity (poverty are quite low, suggesting much smaller impacts of the intervention on both economic activity and equity.  Furthermore, a fiscal policy reform that raises fuel levy by 10 per cent is progressive as it has stronger negative effects on higher income households than the lower income households. A potential source of instability for the macroeconomy and total government revenue is the negative effect on economic activity induced by the fuel levy increase. The remedies suggested are that policymakers should make tax room elsewhere in the intergovernmental fiscal system to accommodate the fuel levy increase.

  17. Greening of taxes and energy. Effects of increased energy levies and specific exemptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The study on the title subject is part of a new long-term outlook for the period 1990-2020, focusing on the environment, mobility, space (physical planning) and energy. The environmental, employment and economic impacts of two levy variants have been analyzed. The first is the so-called Regulating Energy Levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch), and the second is the Environment-Based Tax Law (WBM, abbreviated in Dutch). Tax rebates to households and businesses are in the form of a lower income tax and lower employer contributions. It is concluded that it is possible to double existing energy levies or to triple them for small-scale consumers without large economic impacts, provided that (1) large-scale consumers are spared; (2) the levies are rebated totally or partly; and (3) levy and rebate will be accepted by the Dutch society

  18. Management of Operational Support Requirements for Manned Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This Instruction establishes responsibilities for managing the system whereby operational support requirements are levied for support of manned flight missions including associated payloads. This management system will ensure that support requirements are properly requested and responses are properly obtained to meet operational objectives.

  19. Levy-like behaviour in deterministic models of intelligent agents exploring heterogeneous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, D; Miramontes, O; Larralde, H

    2009-01-01

    Many studies on animal and human movement patterns report the existence of scaling laws and power-law distributions. Whereas a number of random walk models have been proposed to explain observations, in many situations individuals actually rely on mental maps to explore strongly heterogeneous environments. In this work, we study a model of a deterministic walker, visiting sites randomly distributed on the plane and with varying weight or attractiveness. At each step, the walker minimizes a function that depends on the distance to the next unvisited target (cost) and on the weight of that target (gain). If the target weight distribution is a power law, p(k) ∼ k -β , in some range of the exponent β, the foraging medium induces movements that are similar to Levy flights and are characterized by non-trivial exponents. We explore variations of the choice rule in order to test the robustness of the model and argue that the addition of noise has a limited impact on the dynamics in strongly disordered media.

  20. 26 CFR 404.6334(d)-1 - Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary, or other income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 404.6334(d)-1 Minimum exemption from levy for wages, salary, or... him as wages, salary, or other income. Under section 6331(d)(3), a levy upon wages or salary is...

  1. Campaign Expenditures in School Levy Referenda and Their Relationship to Voter Approval: Evidence from Ohio, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, William Kyle; Johnson, Paul Andrew; Givens, Matt Ryan; Rampelt, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Using logistic regression, this study sought to understand the relationship between district characteristics, district finances, levy characteristics, and campaign expenditures with new operating levy outcomes. We found that employee benefits as a percentage of the district's budget were negatively associated with levy outcomes, while salaries…

  2. Self-similar anomalous diffusion and Levy-stable laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchaikin, Vladimir V

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic principles for constructing the process of anomalous diffusion are considered, and corresponding models of random processes are reviewed. The self-similarity and the independent-increments principles are used to extend the notion of diffusion process to the class of Levy-stable processes. Replacing the independent-increments principle with the renewal principle allows us to take the next step in generalizing the notion of diffusion, which results in fractional-order partial space-time differential equations of diffusion. Fundamental solutions to these equations are represented in terms of stable laws, and their relationship to the fractality and memory of the medium is discussed. A new class of distributions, called fractional stable distributions, is introduced. (reviews of topical problems)

  3. Optical design of the comet Shoemaker-Levy speckle camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    An optical design is presented in which the Lick 3 meter telescope and a bare CCD speckle camera system was used to image the collision sites of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet with the Planet Jupiter. The brief overview includes of the optical constraints and system layout. The choice of a Risley prism combination to compensate for the time dependent atmospheric chromatic changes are described. Plate scale and signal-to-noise ratio curves resulting from imaging reference stars are compared with theory. Comparisons between un-corrected and reconstructed images of Jupiter`s impact sites. The results confirm that speckle imaging techniques can be used over an extended time period to provide a method to image large extended objects.

  4. The witness indiscreet window: Primo Levi and surrealism after Auschwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Basevi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primo Levi, renowned for his testimony of Nazi camp (If This Is a Man, 1947, published a collection of short stories entitled “Natural Tales”. He uses the surrealistic elements and plots to imagine the paradoxical consequences of human rationality. “Angelic Butterfly” relates to the theme of genetic experiments during Nazism and stands out for horror elements and drama. This tale’s re­lation to the post-Auschwitz reflection lies firstly in its structure which raises the question of the wit­ness; secondly, in the uncertain effect of the “imaginable” as it questions the fragile boundary be­tween real, possible and fantastic; thirdly in the narrative organization based on the connection of the ideas of trace, fragment and testimony. In my analysis I will expose how this text is marked by one of the most traumatic events of the twentieth century.

  5. Valuation of exotic options in the framework of Levy processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milev, Mariyan, E-mail: marianmilev2002@gmail.com; Georgieva, Svetla, E-mail: marianmilev2002@gmail.com; Markovska, Veneta, E-mail: marianmilev2002@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Physics, UFT-Plovdiv, bul. Maritza 26, 4002 Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    2013-12-18

    In this paper we explore a straightforward procedure to price derivatives by using the Monte Carlo approach when the underlying process is a jump-diffusion. We have compared the Black-Scholes model with one of its extensions that is the Merton model. The latter model is better in capturing the market’s phenomena and is comparative to stochastic volatility models in terms of pricing accuracy. We have presented simulations of asset paths and pricing of barrier options for both Geometric Brownian motion and exponential Levy processes as it is the concrete case of the Merton model. A desired level of accuracy is obtained with simple computer operations in MATLAB for efficient computational time.

  6. The economics of the CDM levy: Revenue potential, tax incidence and distortionary effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Martin, Nat

    2010-01-01

    A levy on the Clean Development Mechanism and other carbon trading schemes is a potential source of finance for climate change adaptation. An adaptation levy of 2% is currently imposed on all CDM transactions which could raise around $500 million between now and 2012. This paper analyses the scope for raising further adaptation finance from the CDM, the economic costs (deadweight loss) of such a measure and the incidence of the levy, that is, the economic burden the levy would impose on the buyers and sellers of credits. We find that a levy of 2% could raise up to $2 billion a year in 2020 if there are no restrictions on demand. This could rise to $10 billion for a 10% tax. Restrictions on credit demand (called supplementarity limits, the requirement that most emission abatement should happen domestically) curtail trade volumes and consequently tax revenues. They also alter the economic impact of the CDM levy. Without supplementarity restrictions sellers (developing countries) bear two-thirds of the cost of the tax. If there are supplementarity limits they can pass on the tax burden to buyers (developed countries) more or less in full. Without supplementarity restrictions the distortionary effect of the levy (its deadweight loss) rises sharply with the tax rate. With them the deadweight loss is close to zero.

  7. Persistence and extinction for stochastic logistic model with Levy noise and impulsive perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Lu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates a stochastic logistic model with Levy noise and impulsive perturbation. In the model, the impulsive perturbation and Levy noise are taken into account simultaneously. This model is new and more feasible and more accordance with the actual. The definition of solution to a stochastic differential equation with Levy noise and impulsive perturbation is established. Based on this definition, we show that our model has a unique global positive solution and obtains its explicit expression. Sufficient conditions for extinction are established as well as nonpersistence in the mean, weak persistence and stochastic permanence. The threshold between weak persistence and extinction is obtained.

  8. the priests and the descendants of levi in the book of malachi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fanie Snyman for his hospitality and for all his generous efforts to make my stay ... This interpretation of the descendants of Levi has long since found many ...... 1998. Malachi. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. New.

  9. Basics of Swiss water levy politics - Economic considerations; Grundlagen Wasserzinspolitik. Oekonomische Ueberlegungen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Staub, C. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Leimbacher, J. [Joerg Leimbacher, Bern (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic considerations involved in defining the basics for the handling of levies on water commodities. This levy is raised in Switzerland on the use of water and represents the payment made to a commune for the use of its water resources. The report first takes a look at the current situation, the reasons behind the Swiss water levy concept and the reasons why they have to be newly regulated. Changes in market factors are discussed, e.g. the liberalisation of the power market and past and future price developments. Also, the situation on the spot and futures markets for electricity is discussed. The actual production costs for hydropower are discussed and compared with other means of electricity generation. Proposals for readjusting the regulations concerning water levies are discussed.

  10. On the generation of log-Levy distributions and extreme randomness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The log-normal distribution is prevalent across the sciences, as it emerges from the combination of multiplicative processes and the central limit theorem (CLT). The CLT, beyond yielding the normal distribution, also yields the class of Levy distributions. The log-Levy distributions are the Levy counterparts of the log-normal distribution, they appear in the context of ultraslow diffusion processes, and they are categorized by Mandelbrot as belonging to the class of extreme randomness. In this paper, we present a natural stochastic growth model from which both the log-normal distribution and the log-Levy distributions emerge universally-the former in the case of deterministic underlying setting, and the latter in the case of stochastic underlying setting. In particular, we establish a stochastic growth model which universally generates Mandelbrot's extreme randomness. (paper)

  11. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2008 Digital Orthophotos - Levy County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set is one component of a digital orthophoto coverage (DOI) over Levy County, FL. This dataset is comprised of 3-band 24-bit (red, green, and blue bands)...

  12. Adaptive nonparametric estimation for L\\'evy processes observed at low frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Kappus, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with adaptive nonparametric estimation for L\\'evy processes observed at low frequency. For general linear functionals of the L\\'evy measure, we construct kernel estimators, provide upper risk bounds and derive rates of convergence under regularity assumptions. Our focus lies on the adaptive choice of the bandwidth, using model selection techniques. We face here a non-standard problem of model selection with unknown variance. A new approach towards this problem is proposed, ...

  13. Levy Stable Processes. From Stationary to Self-Similar Dynamics and Back. An Application to Finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnecki, K.; Weron, A.

    2004-01-01

    We employ an ergodic theory argument to demonstrate the foundations of ubiquity of Levy stable self-similar processes in physics and present a class of models for anomalous and nonextensive diffusion. A relationship between stationary and self-similar models is clarified. The presented stochastic integral description of all Levy stable processes could provide new insights into the mechanism underlying a range of self-similar natural phenomena. Finally, this effect is illustrated by self-similar approach to financial modelling. (author)

  14. Kernel-Correlated Levy Field Driven Forward Rate and Application to Derivative Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo Lijun [Xidian University, Department of Mathematics (China); Wang Yongjin [Nankai University, School of Business (China); Yang Xuewei, E-mail: xwyangnk@yahoo.com.cn [Nanjing University, School of Management and Engineering (China)

    2013-08-01

    We propose a term structure of forward rates driven by a kernel-correlated Levy random field under the HJM framework. The kernel-correlated Levy random field is composed of a kernel-correlated Gaussian random field and a centered Poisson random measure. We shall give a criterion to preclude arbitrage under the risk-neutral pricing measure. As applications, an interest rate derivative with general payoff functional is priced under this pricing measure.

  15. The Implementation of Effluent Taxes for Cambodian Industry: An Assessment of Pollutant Levies

    OpenAIRE

    Sideth Muong

    2006-01-01

    This study looks at how the Cambodian government might introduce a pollution levy system to address the country's industrial pollution problem. Using information drawn from a variety of sources, including a recent industrial survey, it estimates the levels of pollution charges that would reduce pollution by 25%-85%. It also calculates the overall revenue that such levies would produce and estimates the costs that industry would have to bear in terms of abatement costs and pollution charges. B...

  16. Tax levy financing for local public health: fiscal allocation, effort, and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William J; Gearin, Kimberly J; Parrotta, Carmen D; Briggs, Jill; Gyllstrom, M Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Local health departments (LHDs) rely on a wide variety of funding sources, and the level of financing is associated with both LHD performance in essential public health services and population health outcomes. Although it has been shown that funding sources vary across LHDs, there is no evidence regarding the relationship between fiscal allocation (local tax levy); fiscal effort (tax capacity); and fiscal capacity (community wealth). The purpose of this study is to analyze local tax levy support for LHD funding. Three research questions are addressed: (1) What are tax levy trends in LHD fiscal allocation? (2) What is the role of tax levy in overall LHD financing? and (3) How do local community fiscal capacity and fiscal effort relate to LHD tax levy fiscal allocation? This study focuses on 74 LHDs eligible for local tax levy funding in Minnesota. Funding and expenditure data for 5 years (2006 to 2010) were compiled from four governmental databases, including the Minnesota Department of Health, the State Auditor, the State Demographer, and the Metropolitan Council. Trends in various funding sources and expenditures are described for the time frame of interest. Data were analyzed in 2012. During the 2006-2010 time period, total average LHD per capita expenditures increased 13%, from $50.98 to $57.63. Although the overall tax levy increase in Minnesota was 25%, the local tax levy for public health increased 5.6% during the same period. There is a direct relationship between fiscal effort and LHD expenditures. Local funding reflects LHD community priorities and the relative importance in comparison to funding other local programs with tax dollars. In Minnesota, local tax levy support for local public health services is not keeping pace with local tax support for other local government services. These results raise important questions about the relationship between tax levy resource effort, resource allocation, and fiscal capacity as they relate to public health

  17. The pectinases from Sphenophorus levis: Potential for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habrylo, Olivier; Evangelista, Danilo Elton; Castilho, Priscila Vasques; Pelloux, Jérôme; Henrique-Silva, Flávio

    2018-06-01

    Pectinases represent about one fifth of the enzyme worldwide market due their wide range of biotechnological applications. Current commercial pectinases are exclusively obtained from microbial sources, but here we report a pectin methylesterase (Sl-PME) and an endo-polygalacturonase (Sl-EPG) bioprospected from the sugarcane weevil, Sphenophorus levis, which revealed good potential for industrial applications. Sl-PME and Sl-EPG were overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and enzymatically characterized. Sl-EPG presents optimal activity at pH 4-5 and 50 °C, showing that it can be used for juice extraction and clarification. On the other hand, Sl-PME presents optimal activity at pH 6-8 and 40 °C, and thus, suitable for both acidic and alkaline processing, such as coffee and tea fermentation. Sl-EPG shows V max  = 3.23 mM/min, K M  = 2.4 g/L and k cat  = 418.6 s -1 . While Sl-PME shows V max  = 0.14 mM/min, K M  = 4.1 g/L and k cat  = 1.7 s -1 . A PG inhibitor (PGIP2) weakly interfered in the Sl-EPG activity and Sl-PME was not affected by a usual PME inhibitor. Moreover, these enzymes manifested synergistic action towards methylesterified pectin. Here, we propose these enzymes as novel alternative tools for the current commercial pectinases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Can voter-approved tax levies provide fiscal advantages and stability for local public health agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzried, Hans D; Fallon, L Fleming

    2013-01-01

    Major funding cuts have occurred throughout the United States public health system during the past several years. Funding for local public health agency (LPHA) services and programs is obtained through a patchwork of sources that vary both within and among states. Even though local city and county sources provide a significant proportion of funding for LPHAs, information available in the literature about these revenues is sparse and is not clearly described. This study focused on a single specific revenue stream included in the local sources (local city and county) category: funds voted on directly by the public. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether this type of funding source provided fiscal advantages for LPHAs. Specifically, we wanted to see how sensitive levy votes were to changing general economic conditions. A questionnaire to collect LPHA levy data was developed, approved, and mailed to county boards of elections in Ohio (n = 88). Elections officials were asked to provide voting results for all LPHA levy ballot attempts since 1994 regardless of outcome. In the study period (1994 through 2011), 250 LPHA property tax levies were placed on election ballots in Ohio. LPHAs were successful in 155 (62.0%) and unsuccessful in 95 (38.0%) attempts. Over the 18-year period, the most noteworthy outcome was a 94.6% pass rate for renewal levies. Our study demonstrated that voter-approved tax levies provide some fiscal advantages for LPHAs: higher per capita revenues than those who have to rely on other sources of income and predictable revenue streams. This translates into more funds being available for public health programs and services. Property tax levies allow citizens to make direct investments in their local health departments.

  19. [An illustrious unknown. Giuseppe Levi among science, anti-fascism and Nobel Prizes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignolio, Andrea; De Sio, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The anatomist Giuseppe Levi (1872-1965) is unanimously considered one of the major figures of Italian biomedical sciences in the 20th century. His fame, however, is mainly derived from having nurtured three Nobel Prize winners, namely Salvador E. Luria, Rita Levi Montalcini and Renato Dulbecco. In reappraising Levi's role in the development of Italian science and culture in general, this article aims at questioning both the narrowness of earlier accounts and a certain kind of genealogical approach to the history of scientific disciplines and academic schools. We will here consider Giuseppe Levi as an instance of two major cultural phenomena: the development of experimental biology in Italy and continental Europe and the anti-fascist socialist culture expressed by a part of the Italian intellectuals. In so doing, we will reassess the historical specificity of the scientific maturation of Levi's three famous students, on the one hand, while on the other we will consider in some depth the cultural and moral environment in which Levi thrived and his role as a moral example for his students. Such revision, we will argue, have a direct bearing on more general historiographical issues, namely, the need for a stronger contextualization of the birth and consolidation of research traditions, implying a rejection of simplistic genealogical reconstructions, and the role of academic schools and institutional settings in the definition of novel, multidisciplinary scientific approaches. Finally, the following will highlight the importance of a more careful outlook on the master-pupil relationship in academic context, addressing issues of both continuity and rupture. The article is subdivided in two main sections, the first devoted to Levi as a scientist, the second to his Anti-fascism.

  20. Aviator's Fluid Balance During Military Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovsky, Anna; Abot-Barkan, Sivan; Chapnik, Leah; Doron, Omer; Levy, Yuval; Heled, Yuval; Gordon, Barak

    2018-02-01

    A loss of 1% or more of bodyweight due to dehydration has a negative effect on cognitive performance, which could critically affect flight safety. There is no mention in the literature concerning the amounts of military pilots' fluid loss during flight. The aim of this study was to quantify fluid loss of pilots during military flight. There were 48 aviators (mean age 23.9) from the Israeli Air Force who participated in the study, which included 104 training flights in various flight platforms. Bodyweight, urine specific gravity, and environmental heat strain were measured before and after each flight. Fluid loss was calculated as the weight differences before and after the flight. We used a univariate and one-way ANOVA to analyze the effect of different variables on the fluid loss. The mean fluid loss rate was 462 ml · h-1. The results varied among different aircraft platforms and depended on flight duration. Blackhawk pilots lost the highest amount of fluids per flight, albeit had longer flights (mean 108 min compared to 35.5 in fighter jets). Jet fighter pilots had the highest rate of fluid loss per hour of flight (up to 692 ml, extrapolated). Overall, at 11 flights (11%) aircrew completed their flight with a meaningful fluid loss. We conclude that military flights may be associated with significant amount of fluid loss among aircrew.Levkovsky A, Abot-Barkan S, Chapnik L, Doron O, Levy Y, Heled Y, Gordon B. Aviator's fluid balance during military flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):9498.

  1. Energy levies and endogenous technology in an empirical simulation model for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Butter, F.A.G.; Dellink, R.B.; Hofkes, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    The belief in beneficial green tax swaps has been particularly prevalent in Europe, where high levels of unemployment and strong preferences for a large public sector (and hence high tax levels) accentuate the desire for revenue-neutral, growth-enhancing reductions in labor income taxes. In this context an empirical simulation model is developed for the Netherlands, especially designed to reckon with the effects of changes in prices on the level and direction of technological progress. It appears that the so-called employment double dividend, i.e. increasing employment and decreasing energy use at the same time, can occur. A general levy yields stronger effects than a levy on household use only. However, the stronger effects of a general levy on employment and energy use are accompanied by shrinking production and, in the longer run, by decreasing disposable income of workers or non-workers. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 1 appendix, 20 refs

  2. Levy-Student processes for a stochastic model of beam halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, N. Cufaro [Department of Mathematics, University of Bari, and INFN Sezione di Bari, via E. Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: cufaro@ba.infn.it; De Martino, S. [Department of Physics, University of Salerno, and INFN Sezione di Napoli (gruppo di Salerno), Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy); De Siena, S. [Department of Physics, University of Salerno, and INFN Sezione di Napoli (gruppo di Salerno), Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy); Illuminati, F. [Department of Physics, University of Salerno, and INFN Sezione di Napoli (gruppo di Salerno), Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    We describe the transverse beam distribution in particle accelerators within the controlled, stochastic dynamical scheme of the stochastic mechanics which produces time reversal invariant diffusion processes. In this paper we analyze the consequences of introducing the generalized Student laws, namely non-Gaussian, Levy infinitely divisible (but not stable) distributions. We will analyze this idea from two different standpoints: (a) first by supposing that the stationary distribution of our (Wiener powered) stochastic model is a Student distribution; (b) by supposing that our model is based on a (non-Gaussian) Levy process whose increments are Student distributed. In the case (a) the longer tails of the power decay of the Student laws, and in the case (b) the discontinuities of the Levy-Student process can well account for the rare escape of particles from the beam core, and hence for the formation of a halo in intense beams.

  3. Levy-Student processes for a stochastic model of beam halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, N. Cufaro; De Martino, S.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the transverse beam distribution in particle accelerators within the controlled, stochastic dynamical scheme of the stochastic mechanics which produces time reversal invariant diffusion processes. In this paper we analyze the consequences of introducing the generalized Student laws, namely non-Gaussian, Levy infinitely divisible (but not stable) distributions. We will analyze this idea from two different standpoints: (a) first by supposing that the stationary distribution of our (Wiener powered) stochastic model is a Student distribution; (b) by supposing that our model is based on a (non-Gaussian) Levy process whose increments are Student distributed. In the case (a) the longer tails of the power decay of the Student laws, and in the case (b) the discontinuities of the Levy-Student process can well account for the rare escape of particles from the beam core, and hence for the formation of a halo in intense beams

  4. D'Alembert's paradox, 1900-1914: Levi-Civita and his Italian and French followers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazzioli, Rossana

    2017-07-01

    Before the First World War, Tullio Levi-Civita (1873-1941) was already a well-known mathematician in Italy and abroad, in particular in France. Professor at the University of Padua since 1898, he had published important contributions to tensor calculus, theory of relativity, differential geometry, hydrodynamics, and the three-body problem. In 1918, when he moved to the University of Rome, he created an international school of mathematics. In this paper, we focus on d'Alembert's paradox to which Levi-Civita and some of his Italian and French followers contributed remarkable solutions. This case-study is used to illustrate Levi-Civita's approach to hydrodynamics and its influence in Italy and France, especially in the period 1910-1914.

  5. [From psychotherapy to psychoanalysis: Max Levy-Suhl (1876-1947)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, Ludger M; Schröter, Michael; Stroeken, Harry

    2014-01-01

    From psychotherapy to psychoanalysis: Max Levy-Suhl (1876-1947). Levy-Suhl can be considered one of the great practising psychotherapists in early 20th century Berlin. He was active in various fields, including ophthalmology, forensic adolescent psychiatry and hypnosis. Prominent among his publications were two handbooks of psychotherapeutic methods. His attitude towards psychoanalysis shifted from initial criticism to acceptance. Ca. 1930 he experienced some kind of conversion, resulting in his training at the Berlin Institute and becoming a member of the German Psychoanalytic Society. As a Jew being forced to emigrate in 1933, Levy-Suhl turned to the Netherlands where he had a psychoanalytic children's home in Amersfoort, followed by an analyst's practice in Amsterdam. He survived the German occupation, but apparently as a broken man. After the war he committed suicide.--The paper is complemented by an appendix, containing documents and an extensive bibliography.

  6. Major energy users at heart of debate over climate change levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The UK government's decision to introduce a climate change levy on energy-intensive industry and use the revenues from the levy to cut employers national insurance contributions are discussed. The dispute over energy prices, energy savings potential, industry sectors that have approached the government regarding voluntary agreement concerning energy saving measures and tax relief, the Marshall report examining options for reducing business use of energy, possible exemptions for electricity produced from renewable sources, and the encouragement of businesses to conduct pilot emissions trading schemes are considered. (UK)

  7. 27 CFR 70.164 - Surrender of property subject to levy in the case of life insurance and endowment contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the case of life insurance and endowment contracts. (a) In general. This section provides special rules relating to the surrender of property subject to levy in the case of life insurance and endowment... subject to levy in the case of life insurance and endowment contracts. 70.164 Section 70.164 Alcohol...

  8. Periodic Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Collides with Jupiter. Background Material for Science Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA.

    In July of 1994, fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy collided with Jupiter. This document has been provided to better inform students of the work that will be done by scientists and others involved in the study of this event. This document offers some background material on Jupiter, comets, what has and possibly will happen, and how scientists…

  9. Estimating Resource Costs of Levy Campaigns in Five Ohio School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, W. Kyle; Petroff, Ruth Ann; Johnson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Using Levin and McEwan's (2001) "ingredients method," this study identified the major activities and associated costs of school levy campaigns in five districts. The ingredients were divided into one of five cost categories--human resources, facilities, fees, marketing, and supplies. As to overall costs of the campaigns, estimates ranged…

  10. Simulation-based computation of the workload correlation function in a Levy-driven queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Glynn; M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we consider a single-server queue with Levy input, and in particular its workload process (Q_t), focusing on its correlation structure. With the correlation function defined as r(t) := Cov(Q_0, Q_t)/Var Q_0 (assuming the workload process is in stationarity at time 0), we

  11. Functional spaces and operators connected with some L\\'evy noises

    OpenAIRE

    Lytvynov, E.

    2006-01-01

    We review some recent developments in white noise analysis and quantum probability. We pay a special attention to spaces of test and generalized functionals of some L\\'evy white noises, as well as as to the structure of quantum white noise on these spaces.

  12. UK's climate change levy: cost effectiveness, competitiveness and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Adarsh [Hull Univ., School of Economic Studies, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to examine the cost effectiveness of UK's climate change levy (CCL), its implications on competitiveness of firms and the environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the levy and analyses it under the canons of a good taxation policy. The economic implications of the levy are discussed with theoretical and empirical perspectives. Change in net exports, investment patterns and productivity and inclusion of compliance cost forms the basis for analysing the effect on competitiveness. It discusses the options available to firms to safeguard their competitiveness if it is adversely affected by the CCL. A description of the current scenario of the levy since its inception is also presented. The paper argues the need for a comprehensive policy involving the use of standards, emission trading as well as energy taxes to achieve emission and energy-use reductions. A focal point of this paper is to elucidate the pros and cons of the CCL (energy tax) with respect to an emission trading scheme. (Author)

  13. Attraction of Sphenophorus levis Vaurie adults (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to vegetal tissues at different conservation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giron-Perez, Katherine; Nakano, Octavio; Silva, Amanda C; Oda-Souza, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of the sugarcane weevil Sphenophorus levis Vaurie is important in sugarcane in some regions in Brazil. Damage is caused by the larvae as they bore into the nodes and can reach 30 ton/ha/year. Many control alternatives have been attempted, but none were satisfactory, except for the use of toxic baits. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize their efficiency or to propose new techniques. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the attractiveness of adults of S. levis to sugarcane nodes and pineapple peelings in an 'Y' tube olfactometer. The sugarcane internodes were treated with 10% molasses, and tested after different periods of fermentation (24, 48 e 72h), at different times of the day (diurnal and nocturnal) and with both sexes. These tests were carried out in order to correlate the response of S. levis to ethyl acetate and ethanol release as a result of the fermentation process. The release of both compounds was monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data indicated that sugarcane internodes mixed with 10% molasses fermented for 24h and 48h were the most attractive to S. levis (up to 90%). Pineapple peelings attracted 62.5% of the tested insects. The olfactory response was higher during the day, and no differences were found between the sexes. The production of ethanol in all plant substrates was higher than ethyl acetate, but we could not establish a clear correlation with the insect response to baits. (author)

  14. Primo Levi and the Periodic Table: Teaching Chemistry Using A Literary Text (Excerpt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Viktoria Klara Lakatos; Tiedemann, Peter Wilhelm; Porto, Paulo Alves

    2007-01-01

    The excerpts from The Periodic Table book written by Primo Levi is discussed related to chemical concepts. The use of a literary text as a starting point of discussions of chemical concepts has allowed the integration of various topics covered in separate courses of the undergraduate program in chemistry.

  15. The paradigm of description in ethnographic translation: the translator Levi-Strauss in Tristes Tropiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maria de Araújo Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Published in 1955, Tristes Tropiques by Claude Levi-Strauss is an account of the journey that the author and ethnographer made on the American continent, especially in Brazil, in 1930. With a free poetic style not restricted by the austerity of scientific work, Levi-Strauss introduced a reflection that established a crucial rupture in ethnographic studies and in the humanities in general, or rather, the rupture of the gaze. His aim is not precisely the culture of the indigenous people in Brazil, but Levi-Strauss himself as the subject of the gaze. How may one grasp an object that changes as one gazes at it? How does the gaze affect the object while gazing, observing, analyzing, describing, and translating it? Current essay discusses what the translator does to the speech of the other when translating it. Different translation strategies from Portuguese into French proposed by Levi-Strauss in Tristes Tropiques are discussed. Conceiving ethnographic translation from the description paradigm and as an encounter of cultures (but not as replacement, the author analyzes the process performed within the gap between the gaze experience and the production of speech of such gaze to understand the value produced at the end of the axis corresponding to the ethnographic translation-description.

  16. Tight Error Bounds for Fourier Methods for Option Pricing for Exponential Levy Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Crocce, Fabian; Hä ppö lä , Juho; Keissling, Jonas; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    for the discontinuities in the asset price. The Levy -Khintchine formula provides an explicit representation of the characteristic function of a L´evy process (cf, [6]): One can derive an exact expression for the Fourier transform of the solution of the relevant PIDE

  17. Distribution of the Largest Eigenvalues of the Levi-Smirnov Ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, W.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the distribution of the k-th largest eigenvalue in the random matrix Levi - Smirnov Ensemble (LSE), using the spectral dualism between LSE and chiral Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE). Then we reconstruct universal spectral oscillations and we investigate an asymptotic behavior of the spectral distribution. (author)

  18. Miracle Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Flight Get Involved Events Shop Miles Contact Miracle Flights Blog Giving Tuesday 800-359-1711 Thousands of children have been saved, but we still have miles to go. Request a Flight Click Here to Donate - Your ...

  19. Using nudges to reduce waste? The case of Toronto's plastic bag levy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Nicholas; Shenstone-Harris, Sarah; Young, Nathan

    2017-03-01

    The overuse of disposable plastic bags is a major environmental problem across the globe. In recent years, numerous jurisdictions have sought to curb disposable bag use by implementing a levy or fee at the point of purchase. These levies are typically small and symbolic (around $0.05 per bag), but serve as a highly-visible and continuous reminder to consumers. As such, they are consistent with nudging policies that seek to encourage broad changes in behaviour through small, non-coercive measures that influence people's thinking about an issue. While existing empirical evidence suggests that nudges are highly effective in reducing disposable bag use, we argue that many of these studies are flawed because they lack adequate temporal and geographic controls. We use longitudinal data from four waves of a major Canadian survey to analyze the effect of a disposable bag levy in the City of Toronto. Controlling for demographics and changes in social norms over time, we find that the levy increased the use of reusable shopping bags by 3.4 percentage points. Moreover, we find that the impact of the policy was highly variable across behavioural and demographic groups. The levy was highly effective in encouraging people who already used reusable bags to use them more frequently, while having no effect on infrequent users. We also find that the effects are limited to households with high socio-economic status (as measured by income, educational attainment, and housing situation). This suggests important limitations for nudging policy more generally, as people with lower socio-economic status appear to have been unaffected by this behavioural prompt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tax corrections at the external borders of the European Community at the implementation of an energy levy: An inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, G.

    1993-09-01

    There are several methods to implement an energy levy in the European Union without having a negative impact on the competitive position of energy-intensive industries and businesses in the EU: (1) a worldwide energy levy; (2) partly exemption of energy-intensive industries or businesses in the EU; and (3) an import levy on energy-intensive products from outside the EU, and refunds for industries and businesses in the EU for paid energy levies on products, exported to countries outside the EU. The third option is investigated in this report for two variants: the input variant (levy only on primary energy sources) and the output variant (levies on all the energy-intensive products). Energy-intensive products discussed in this report are energy carriers, food products, paper and board, chemical and synthetic products, ceramic products, and primary products of the metal industry. Attention is paid to the practical execution, the extent to which such a levy can be enforced, and its relation with the GATT. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the two variants with tax corrections at the external borders are discussed in relation with the first two options (1) and (2) to guarantee the competitive position of energy-intensive industries and businesses. 4 tabs., 2 appendices, 30 refs

  1. Primo Levi and Ivan Denisovič: The Literary Act between Representation and Expressive Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Tosco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se questo è un uomo di Primo Levi e Una giornata di Ivan Denisovič di Aleksandr Solženicyn sono due “atti letterari” che hanno contribuito in modo significativo alla conoscenza storica del XX secolo: il primo nell’Occidente dei campi di concentramento nazisti, il secondo nell’Oriente del Gulag. Perché sono così famosi? C’è qualcosa che li accomuna? Questo saggio si propone di analizzare la forza della letteratura come luogo di conoscenza e autocoscienza. Se le opere di Levi e Solženicyn hanno un grande valore come testimonianze, in esse la forza della testimonianza è data dal “gesto letterario” che le ha create, un gesto che produce una conoscenza sintetica in cui gli universali esistono solo nel particolare.

  2. A Study on L-Asparaginase of Nocardia levis MK-VL_113

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alapati Kavitha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme-based drug, L-asparaginase, was produced by Nocardia levis MK-VL_113 isolated from laterite soils of Guntur region. Cultural parameters affecting the production of L-asparaginase by the strain were optimized. Maximal yields of L-asparaginase were recorded from 3-day-old culture grown in modified asparagine-glycerol salts broth with initial pH 7.0 at temperature 30∘C. Glycerol (2% and yeast extract (1.5% served as good carbon and nitrogen sources for L-asparaginase production, respectively. Cell-disrupting agents like EDTA slightly enhanced the productivity of L-asparaginase. Ours is the first paper on the production of L-asparaginase by N. levis.

  3. Decrease of energy and emission prices undesired. Unfair attack on CO2-levies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.; De Keizer, I.; Benner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, in the Netherlands, fuel taxes and prices for CO2 emission are criticised. High energy prices are used to suggest other forms of pricing regulations. However, the higher energy prices and CO2-levies are very useful in realizing a sustainable energy supply. More transparency in the market for emissions trading is required to prevent unfair on-charge expenses of CO2-charges [nl

  4. Asymptotics for Exponential Levy Processes and their Volatility Smile: Survey and New Results

    OpenAIRE

    Leif Andersen; Alexander Lipton

    2012-01-01

    Exponential L\\'evy processes can be used to model the evolution of various financial variables such as FX rates, stock prices, etc. Considerable efforts have been devoted to pricing derivatives written on underliers governed by such processes, and the corresponding implied volatility surfaces have been analyzed in some detail. In the non-asymptotic regimes, option prices are described by the Lewis-Lipton formula which allows one to represent them as Fourier integrals; the prices can be trivia...

  5. Linguagem e tradição em Carlo Levi: marcas do arcaico no sul italiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarilis Gallo Coelho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carlo Levi, escritor italiano que objetiva documentar as peculiaridades e a diversidade social de seu país, utiliza, além do léxico colorido constante em sua obra, outros artifícios de expressão, tais como o emprego de formas-símbolo, como pedra, e amostras de linguagem, que caracterizam não só o plurilinguismo italiano, mas também a manutenção do arcaico e da história, através dos hábitos lingüísticos e sociais. Pelo uso estilístico e a constatação real de formas greco-latinas, assim como seus reflexos nos dialetos locais, Levi retrata com autenticidade o apego à tradição e a imobilidade espaço-temporal do homem meridional italiano.Carlo Levi raggiunge, nel contatto amoroso con le immagini ed i suoni meridionali, il passato arcaico presente, “dipinto” con spontaneità e autenticità, attraverso la gente, le cose e le voci di quello che lui chiama affettuosamente “mia terra” e miei “contadini”.

  6. Spazi d’autore. Riscrittura e passaggi di testo ne La strada di Levi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Martelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo propone un percorso d’analisi sulle strategie di riscrittura e di ripresa di alcuni testi di Primo Levi nel film documentario La strada di Levi e nell’opera parallela La prova. Focalizzandosi sul secondo romanzo di Levi, La tregua, questi lavori evadono dalle consuete pratiche di adattamento, sviluppando forme di riscrittura nelle quali la manipolazione critica delle testualità pregresse è posta in tensione con nuovi testi messi in scena, immagini, video, riorientando la percezione dell’ipotesto entro ulteriori linguaggi. È attraverso tale spazio di circolazione di linguaggi artistici e di pratiche intermediali, che gli autori Davide Ferrario e Marco Belpoliti sembrano poter condurre una riflessione sulle forme culturali dello sguardo e delle odierne pratiche di lettura della realtà (nella sua temporalità e memoria come nella sua spazialità e della sua traduzione attraverso codici semiotici molteplici. In tale spostamento costante del proprio oggetto di riscrittura, La strada di Levi e La prova si mostrano così quali nodi o reti di un processo di lettura dialettico del presente e del passato, in un tentativo di tracciare alcune mappe del mondo contemporaneo.   The essay suggests an analysis of the documentary film La strada di Levi and the correlated work La prova. Focusing on Primo Levi’s book La tregua, these works show a different attitude about adaptation through a constant reorientation of the source text and its juxtaposition with new texts and images, and through a projection of these elements within additional languages. In this way, the authors, Davide Ferrario and Marco Belpoliti, offer an experience of an intermedial artistic practice that involves a reflection on the cultural forms through which the texts interpret the reality (and its temporality or memory and its translation through multiple semiotic codes. The effect of this kind of work is the perception of the documentary film as a network that

  7. The Electricity Feed Law levy - how reliably can it be predicted?; Wie verlaesslich laesst sich die EEG-Umlage prognostizieren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bause, Rainer; Schulz, Woldemar [Amprion GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Buehler, Holger [EnBW TNG, Stuttgart (Germany); Hodurek, Claus [50Hertz Transmission GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kiessling, Axel [TenneT TSO GmbH, Bayreuth (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    By paying their monthly electricity bill German consumers are promoting the transition to tomorrow's resource-efficient electricity supply system, in which the largest part of electricity used is to come from renewable energy resources. Every year Germany's transmission system operators publish what is referred to as the ''EEG-Umlage'' (report on the Electricity Feed Law levy, or EEG levy), which shows how much every German household will be paying for the promotion of renewable energies in the coming year. The determination of the EEG levy involves uncertainties and imponderabilities which have to be taken into account in its calculation. The crucial task is to find a suitable systematic scheme for predicting the renewable energy yield.

  8. The UK's Levy Control Framework for renewable electricity support: Effects and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate over price vs. quantity approaches to supporting the deployment of renewable electricity technologies. In the context of a recent shift from quantity to price-based support, the UK has also introduced a new form of budgetary framework, the Levy Control Framework (LCF). The introduction of the LCF has been very important for investors but has received relatively little attention in the academic literature. The paper gives an overview of the LCF, explores its effects on renewables policy, on consumers and on investor confidence arguing that an unintended consequence of its introduction has been to increase uncertainty, through interactions with underlying support mechanisms. A number of problems with the current scope and design of the LCF are noted. It is argued that the LCF is best understood as aimed at avoiding a political backlash against renewable support policy in a context where the benefits of such policy are concentrated economically and socially. The paper concludes by placing the LCF within a wider context of a shift towards greater budgetary control over renewable energy support policy across European countries. - Highlights: • Gives an description of the Levy Control Framework. • Analyses the effects of the LCF on UK renewable policy. • Reviews possible purposes of the LCF. • Evaluates the effects of the LCF on consumers and investors. • Places the LCF in context of greater cost control over renewables across the EU.

  9. Geertz versus Levi-Strauss: latent structural dispositions in Geertz "theory of culture"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Gorunović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available These are two authors, in Foucauldian terms that certainly belong to the most influential individuals in socio-cultural anthropology, as well as in the social sciences and interdisciplinary research more broadly. Claude Levi- Strauss became some kind of an "intellectual hero" during the domination of structuralism in the mid-twentieth century and during the 1960s, while Clifford Geertz was an ‘icon and ambassador’ of anthropology in the second half of the twentieth century. They are both one of the founders of the discourse theory. They not only established a distinct theoretical approaches and methods – structural (Levi-Strauss and interpretative anthropology (Clifford Geertz, but through their intellectual authority they also inspired paradigms and intellectual movements making structuralism and "interpretation of culture" more than some passing episodes in the history of social though (in terms of "trendy ideas". My aim is to make some parallels between these two authors, who despite all the differences that are evident in their epistemological discourses, theoretical approaches and methods (as well as in their ethnographic and anthropological writings itself still have some similarities in their theorisation and interpretation of culture, which I would like to stress in this paper.

  10. A Mortificação do Corpo em É Isto Um Homem?, de Primo Levi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Felix

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2015v68n3p43 Dentre os incontáveis testemunhos e narrativas que se propuseram denunciar, narrar e dar sentido à experiência produzida pela Shoah, o livro É isto um homem?, do escritor italiano Primo Levi, prefigura como um dos relatos mais contundentes acerca dos horrores e monstruosidades vividas nos campos de concentração nazistas durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. O presente artigo propõe uma discussão acerca das formas de violência e mortificação do corpo apontadas no relato de Levi, as quais revelam um processo de reificação da vida, cujas consequências mais diretas afetam tanto a relação do indivíduo com seu próprio corpo quanto com o do outrem. Para tanto, partiremos do testemunho do autor acerca do processo de reificação e degradação humana, bem como das reflexões sobre a relação entre esclarecimento e barbárie pensadas por Horkheimer e Adorno e dos conceitos de soberania e biopolitização do estado chamada de “vida nua” de Agamben.

  11. LEVIS active anode lithium ion source development on PBFA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Clark, B.F.; Reyes, C.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Johnson, D.J.; Carlson, A.L.; Lake, P.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments are ongoing on the PBFA-II Accelerator (10 MV typical, 50 ns) to optimize an active lithium ion source in a 15-cm focusing Applied-B ion diode using the LEVIS (Laser Evaporation Ion Source) process. Two laser pulses impinge on a thin (500 nm) Li or Li-bearing alloy on an insulating substrate. A Nd:YAG laser beam (1 μm, 8 ns, 0.1--0.2 J/cm 2 ) creates a thin (∼1 mm) Li vapor, which is then ionized by a 30--60 mJ/cm 2 dye laser tuned to the first resonant transition of Li (670.8 nm). In order to achieve a high-purity Li beam on PBFA-II with LEVIS, it has proven necessary to clean the anode surface in some way. The principal technique has been DC-heating of the anode to temperatures of 150--200 C for typically 5 hours, and for as long as 13 hours, prior to machine firing. Use of a LiAg alloy and YAG energy densities of 200 mJ/cm 2 have yielded beams of Li purity greater than 90%. They authors also plan to test a diode configuration that deposits Li in-situ on the anode surface just prior to the machine shot, as an alternative to DC-heating

  12. Alternatives to the EEG levy. Possible effects of a reform of the energy transition financing on the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheyhing, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Although it has been adjusted six times since the year 2000, it has not yet been possible to manage the unrestricted growth of the EEG levy. In the 2017 election year, it becomes therefore ever more obvious that an alternative way to finance the energy transition is high on the political agenda. This would lead to significant changes for energy-intensive companies, regardless of whether they have benefited from a release from the levy or not. At the same time, the alternatives currently discussed have quite different effects on the industrial companies concerned and thereby the industry location Germany. [de

  13. Flight Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Seagull Technology, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, produced a computer program under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant called STAFPLAN (Seagull Technology Advanced Flight Plan) that plans optimal trajectory routes for small to medium sized airlines to minimize direct operating costs while complying with various airline operating constraints. STAFPLAN incorporates four input databases, weather, route data, aircraft performance, and flight-specific information (times, payload, crew, fuel cost) to provide the correct amount of fuel optimal cruise altitude, climb and descent points, optimal cruise speed, and flight path.

  14. Attraction of Sphenophorus levis Vaurie adults (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to vegetal tissues at different conservation levels; Atracao de adultos de Sphenophorus levis Vaurie (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) a fragmentos vegetais em diferentes estados de conservacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giron-Perez, Katherine; Nakano, Octavio; Silva, Amanda C; Oda-Souza, Melissa [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia], e-mail: entomologa@ymail.com, e-mail: onakano@esalq.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The occurrence of the sugarcane weevil Sphenophorus levis Vaurie is important in sugarcane in some regions in Brazil. Damage is caused by the larvae as they bore into the nodes and can reach 30 ton/ha/year. Many control alternatives have been attempted, but none were satisfactory, except for the use of toxic baits. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize their efficiency or to propose new techniques. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the attractiveness of adults of S. levis to sugarcane nodes and pineapple peelings in an 'Y' tube olfactometer. The sugarcane internodes were treated with 10% molasses, and tested after different periods of fermentation (24, 48 e 72h), at different times of the day (diurnal and nocturnal) and with both sexes. These tests were carried out in order to correlate the response of S. levis to ethyl acetate and ethanol release as a result of the fermentation process. The release of both compounds was monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data indicated that sugarcane internodes mixed with 10% molasses fermented for 24h and 48h were the most attractive to S. levis (up to 90%). Pineapple peelings attracted 62.5% of the tested insects. The olfactory response was higher during the day, and no differences were found between the sexes. The production of ethanol in all plant substrates was higher than ethyl acetate, but we could not establish a clear correlation with the insect response to baits. (author)

  15. The Relationship between Components of the Ohio Local School District Report Card and the Outcome of a School Tax Levy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Vicki Ann

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between components of the local school district report card, school district typology, and the outcome of public school tax levy requests were examined in this study. A correlation research design was used to measure the relationship between the independent variables (performance index, average yearly progress, value added,…

  16. "Hired Guns" and "Legitimate Voices": The Politics and Participants of Levy Campaigns in Five Ohio School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, William Kyle; Johnson, Paul Andrew; Petroff, Ruth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Ohio, levy campaigns are a burdensome task for district administrators and stakeholders alike. To date, there is little research on the districts' role in crafting school budget referenda campaigns. Purpose: This study asked three research questions: How did the macropolitical contexts shape stakeholders' decision making in terms of…

  17. 76 FR 11522 - In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 52-029-COL, 52-030-COL] In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2... by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in this case. Mr. Dehmel has not previously performed any...

  18. 76 FR 77561 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc.; (Levy County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ...] Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc.; (Levy County Nuclear....\\1\\ On February 23, 2009, this Board was established to handle the matter and to preside over any... resulting from active and passive dewatering; 2. Impacts resulting from the connection of the site to the...

  19. 77 FR 51832 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Levy County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...] Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Levy County Nuclear... testimony are being heard, all of the proceedings will be open to the public. See 10 CFR 2.328. A. Matters.... Impacts resulting from active and passive dewatering; 2. Impacts resulting from the connection of the site...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6331-4 - Restrictions on levy while installment agreements are pending or in effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agreements are pending or in effect. 301.6331-4 Section 301.6331-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Property for Collection of Taxes § 301.6331-4 Restrictions on levy while installment agreements are pending... is pending with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), for 30 days immediately following the rejection...

  1. A Review of the Case of a Levy-Grant Scheme (LGS) in the UK Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Dainty, Andrew; Ison, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A Levy-Grant Scheme (LGS) has existed in the UK construction industry since 1964 to provide financial support for companies undertaking training activities. Despite the support of the LGS for various training activities, notably apprenticeships, the construction industry continues to suffer from both labour shortages and an under-investment in…

  2. Estimating the Operational Effect of a Bunker Levy: The Case of Handymax Bulk Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanis, George N.; Gkonis, Konstantinos G.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    penalty for the existing ships. In this paper the proposal for a Global Emissions fund will be presented and discussed as the most appropriate, easy to implement and flexible solution for an enforcement of a market based measure. At a second stage and using the emissions calculation and speed optimisation...... tool developed within the Laboratory for Maritime Transport of the National Technical University of Athens, simulations will be performed for a specified Bulk carrier and the corresponding to its fleet segment. A bunker levy will be implemented in the program and its effects will be studied in terms......Market based measures concerning air emissions from ships are very likely to be introduced in the next years, in an effort to cap Greenhouse Gas Emissions from ships. A lot of countries have presented their proposals to IMO and practically the majority of them are based on a form of a fuel price...

  3. Memory and testimony in Primo Levi: the Babel of the concentration camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Coira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Memory as a problem and the subject of theoretical inquiry, although early onset in civilization that we call western, has gained an important place in the concerns of historians, philosophers, psychologists, and literary critics, with all the ethical implications, political and aesthetic that entails. In this context, special dimensions such problematic charged when what is narrated, analyzes, represents or attempts to explain what are the collective traumatic events. In this paper, we focus on some aspects of testimonial texts and essays of Primo Levi (1919-1987, which estimates as unavoidable regarding the aforementioned issues. These texts are: Se questo è un uomo (1947, La tregua (1963 and I sommersi e i salvati (1986.

  4. The political economy of an energy tax: the United Kingdom's Climate Change Levy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, D. [University College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Economics

    2006-03-15

    Energy taxes designed to control energy consumption, and to assist the achievement of climate change control targets under the Kyoto Protocol, are fairly common in European Union countries. Yet many of these taxes bear little resemblance to the design guidance that is given in economics textbooks. Political economy analysis, in which the interaction of economics and political reality is emphasised, explains the gap between theoretical ideals and practical reality. A closer look at the factors that influence real world policy design should help policy-oriented economists in designing measures that have a greater chance of adoption. The end-result may well be nth-best solutions which simply have to be 'lived with'. But there may also be room for design improvements that still honour the political constraints of policy design. This paper illustrates these issues in the context of one tax, the UK Climate Change Levy. (author)

  5. Excitation energies from Görling-Levy perturbation theory along the range-separated adiabatic connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolini, Elisa; Teale, Andrew M.; Helgaker, Trygve; Savin, Andreas; Toulouse, Julien

    2018-06-01

    A Görling-Levy (GL)-based perturbation theory along the range-separated adiabatic connection is assessed for the calculation of electronic excitation energies. In comparison with the Rayleigh-Schrödinger (RS)-based perturbation theory this GL-based perturbation theory keeps the ground-state density constant at each order and thus gives the correct ionisation energy at each order. Excitation energies up to first order in the perturbation have been calculated numerically for the helium and beryllium atoms and the hydrogen molecule without introducing any density-functional approximations. In comparison with the RS-based perturbation theory, the present GL-based perturbation theory gives much more accurate excitation energies for Rydberg states but similar excitation energies for valence states.

  6. [Doctor Levi B. Salmans, founder of The Good Samaritan sanitarium in Guanajuato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier-Toledo, Carlos; Viesca-Treviño, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In this research we focus on the medical evangelist Levi B. Salmans, and The Good Samaritan sanitarium. Doctor Salmans lived in Mexico for about 50 years (1885-1935). During the first part of his stay, he was devoted to found churches and Methodist schools. However, from 1891 he took a turn in his career by founding dispensaries in different towns of Guanajuato to create, in 1899, the private charity association for the sick and infirm The Good Samaritan. His intense, intellectual, and practical work led him to create health journals, to train nurses, and to promote physiotherapies in accordance with the science advances of that time. By itself, this research shows that the history of medicine in Mexico still has long way to go and that Protestant communities, in favor of modernity and scientific knowledge, took a big part in shaping the history of this discipline in Mexico.

  7. The Disruption and Demise of Periodic Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Benz, Willy; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The impact of the fragmented comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) into Jupiter this July promises to change our understanding of the outer solar system. More than twenty mountain-sized conglomerates of ice and rock will hit the atmosphere at approx. 50 km/s over the course of a week beginning July 16, releasing approx. 10(exp 4) to 10(exp8) megatons of energy per burst, and providing unique and perhaps pivotal clues to the properties of comets and the physics of massive atmospheres. Because the fragments will strike the far side of Jupiter, data acquisition, analysis and interpretation will be quite sensitive to the actual size and energy of the fragments. We therefore examine an event which took place two summers ago, unnoticed and unobserved: the disruption of SL9 into a "string of pearls' as it passed within the Roche limit at perijove. We first demonstrate, on the basis of timescales of tidal interaction, that the comet could not have broken into 20+ fragments through a hierarchy of brittle fracture events. Next, noting that the tidal stress was too weak to have even fragmented an uncompressed mass of freshly fallen snow, we run models for a strengthless comet held together only by self-gravity. We explore the initial size, density, and rotation. We conclude that a 4 km diameter comet (smaller if a prograde rotator) of density approx. 0.5 g/cu cm disrupts and disperses into a chain of fragments similar to Shoemaker-Levy 9, whether we begin with 21, 85, 169, 700 or 2000 sub-grains. Gravitational reaccumulation is evidently the answer, and there is no need to invoke the presence of 21 "cometesimals" as the subscale of the comet. To explain how a comet can be weaker than uncompacted snow, we show that the ring-plane crossing prior to perijove could have caused total damage. Finally, we compute the tidal stress on impactors as they approach Jupiter this July. Objects of various density are moderately distorted but not disrupted by the time they strike the planet.

  8. Tight Error Bounds for Fourier Methods for Option Pricing for Exponential Levy Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Crocce, Fabian

    2016-01-06

    Prices of European options whose underlying asset is driven by the L´evy process are solutions to partial integrodifferential Equations (PIDEs) that generalise the Black-Scholes equation by incorporating a non-local integral term to account for the discontinuities in the asset price. The Levy -Khintchine formula provides an explicit representation of the characteristic function of a L´evy process (cf, [6]): One can derive an exact expression for the Fourier transform of the solution of the relevant PIDE. The rapid rate of convergence of the trapezoid quadrature and the speedup provide efficient methods for evaluationg option prices, possibly for a range of parameter configurations simultaneously. A couple of works have been devoted to the error analysis and parameter selection for these transform-based methods. In [5] several payoff functions are considered for a rather general set of models, whose characteristic function is assumed to be known. [4] presents the framework and theoretical approach for the error analysis, and establishes polynomial convergence rates for approximations of the option prices. [1] presents FT-related methods with curved integration contour. The classical flat FT-methods have been, on the other hand, extended for option pricing problems beyond the European framework [3]. We present a methodology for studying and bounding the error committed when using FT methods to compute option prices. We also provide a systematic way of choosing the parameters of the numerical method, minimising the error bound and guaranteeing adherence to a pre-described error tolerance. We focus on exponential L´evy processes that may be of either diffusive or pure jump in type. Our contribution is to derive a tight error bound for a Fourier transform method when pricing options under risk-neutral Levy dynamics. We present a simplified bound that separates the contributions of the payoff and of the process in an easily processed and extensible product form that

  9. A betterment levy in Poland and a „fee payable to development” in the Slovak Republic – differences and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Król

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to compare two public levies calculated by units of territorial government in order to collect resources for infrastructure investments – a betterment levy in Poland and “a fee payable to development” (in Slovak: poplatek za rozvoj in the Slovak Republic was made in the paper. It was assumed that the pursued research objective will be realized by means of the desk research analysis as well as the descriptive and logical one. Legal acts that govern issues of calculating a betterment levy in Poland and also selected legal acts which are obligatory in the Slovak Republic were subject to the detailed analysis. In conclusion, it was revealed that in spite of the fact that both fees are single levies collected for infrastructure investments, their calculating way as well as legal construction are radically different.

  10. Study on the effects of the regulating energy levy for businesses. State of the art at the end of 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, J.W.; Worrell, E.; Berkhout, P.H.G.; Giesberger, D.; Paape, A.H.; Velthuijsen, J.W.

    1998-05-01

    January 1, 1996, the so-called regulating energy levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch and also known as ecotax or small-scale consumer levy ('kleinverbruikersheffing')) came into effect in the Netherlands. The Second chamber of the Dutch parliament requested an annual report of the effects of the REB. A first report was published in the summer of 1997. It appeared that for subsequent years a more elaborated survey is needed for which more research is required. In this report the results of a study on the role of the REB on energy conservation investment decisions, taken in several businesses (retail trade, the hotel and restaurant sector (horeca in Dutch), offices in the services sector, small businesses in the metals industry, and installers of energy saving installations),are presented 31 refs

  11. Is the Market Portfolio Efficient? A New Test to Revisit the Roll (1977) versus Levy and Roll (2010) Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Brière; Bastien Drut; Valérie Mignon; Kim Oosterlinck; Ariane Szafarz

    2011-01-01

    Levy and Roll (Review of Financial Studies, 2010) have recently revived the debate related to the market portfolio's efficiency suggesting that it may be mean-variance efficient after all. This paper develops an alternative test of portfolio mean-variance efficiency based on the realistic assumption that all assets are risky. The test is based on the vertical distance of a portfolio from the efficient frontier. Monte Carlo simulations show that our test outperforms the previous mean-variance ...

  12. Pengaruh Harga Diskon, Kualitas Produk, Citra Merek, dan Iklan terhadap Minat Beli Celana Jeans Levi's di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Ghristian, Ignatius Danu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the effect of Discounted Price, Product Quality, Brand Image, and Advertising on Purchase Intention of Levi's Pants Jeans in Surabaya. This study used the independent variables such as discount price, product quality, brand image and advertising while the dependent variable is Purchase Intention. It took 82 respondents that were selected by using Judgment Sampling Technique. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regressions and using analysis tools of S...

  13. BALTIMORE’S M.S. LEVY AND SONS: Straw Hat Makers to the World, 1870-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica I. Elfenbein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1860 to 1960, Baltimore was an important center of the men’s ready-to- wear clothing industries. German-speaking Jews created many businesses that manufactured and sold underwear, men’s suits, and specialty items like hats and umbrellas. The straw hat making firm started by M.S. Levy is an interesting example of a Baltimore-based, family-owned niche business that existedfor 90 years, through three generations ofa singlefamily. The M.S. Levy and Sons story has two main chapters. The first covers the period from its founding by Michael Simon Levy in the 1870s through his son Julius’ death in 1926. This is the story of ascension. A premonition about the coming popularity of straw hats, together with a small but important technological breakthrough, positioned a family and a small industry for significant expansion. The second period began in 1930 with the introduction of wool felt hats and the death of William, M.S. Levy’s oldest son, and includes the Great Depression, unionization, merger, third generation leadership, and finally, in 1959, the family’s withdrawal from the industry. This later period, as told by grandsons of the founder, is the story of struggle followed by decline.

  14. Levy-Lieb-Based Monte Carlo Study of the Dimensionality Behaviour of the Electronic Kinetic Functional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshaditya A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider a gas of interacting electrons in the limit of nearly uniform density and treat the one dimensional (1D, two dimensional (2D and three dimensional (3D cases. We focus on the determination of the correlation part of the kinetic functional by employing a Monte Carlo sampling technique of electrons in space based on an analytic derivation via the Levy-Lieb constrained search principle. Of particular interest is the question of the behaviour of the functional as one passes from 1D to 3D; according to the basic principles of Density Functional Theory (DFT the form of the universal functional should be independent of the dimensionality. However, in practice the straightforward use of current approximate functionals in different dimensions is problematic. Here, we show that going from the 3D to the 2D case the functional form is consistent (concave function but in 1D becomes convex; such a drastic difference is peculiar of 1D electron systems as it is for other quantities. Given the interesting behaviour of the functional, this study represents a basic first-principle approach to the problem and suggests further investigations using highly accurate (though expensive many-electron computational techniques, such as Quantum Monte Carlo.

  15. Ultrarelativistic boost of a black hole in the magnetic universe of Levi-Civita-Bertotti-Robinson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortaggio, Marcello; Astorino, Marco

    2018-05-01

    We consider an exact Einstein-Maxwell solution constructed by Alekseev and Garcia, which describes a Schwarzschild black hole immersed in the magnetic universe of Levi-Civita, Bertotti, and Robinson (LCBR). After reviewing the basic properties of this spacetime, we study the ultrarelativistic limit in which the black hole is boosted to the speed of light, while sending its mass to 0. This results in a nonexpanding impulsive wave traveling in the LCBR universe. The wave front is a 2-sphere carrying two null point particles at its poles—a remnant of the structure of the original static spacetime. It is also shown that the obtained line element belongs to the Kundt class of spacetimes, and the relation with the known family of exact gravitational waves of finite duration propagating in the LCBR background is clarified. In the limit of a vanishing electromagnetic field, one point particle is pushed away to infinity and the single-particle Aichelburg-Sexl p p -wave propagating in Minkowski space is recovered.

  16. Levy's distributions for statistical description of fractal structures; discontinuous metal films on dielectric substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobierzewska-Mozrzymas, E.; Szymczak, G.; Bieganski, P.; Pieciul, E.

    2003-01-01

    The ranges of statistical description of the systems may be determined on the basis of the inverse power law of the Mandelbrot. The slope of the straight line representing the power law in a double-logarithmic plot, determined as -1/μ (μ being a critical exponent), characterizes the distribution of elements in the system. In this paper, the inverse power law is used to describe the statistical distribution of discontinuous metal films with higher coverage coefficients (near percolation threshold). For these films the critical exponent μ∼1, both the mean value and the variance are infinite. The objects with such microstructure are described according to the Levy distribution; Cauchy, inverse Gauss and inverse gamma distribution, respectively. The experimental histograms are compared with the calculated ones. Inhomogeneous metal films were obtained experimentally, their microstructures were examined by means of electron microscope. On the basis of electron micrographs, the fractal dimensions were determined for the metal films with coverage coefficient ranging from 0.35 to 1.00

  17. Showmaker-Levy 9 and plume-forming collisions on Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, M.B.E.; Crawford, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Computational models for the July, 1994 collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter have provided a framework for interpreting the observational data. Imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy data from ground-based, Hubble Space Telescope, and Galileo spacecraft instruments are consistent with phenomena that were dominated by the generation of incandescent fireballs that were ballistically ejected to high altitudes, where they formed plumes that subsequently collapsed over large areas of Jupiter`s atmosphere. Applications of similar computational models to collisions into Earth`s atmosphere show that a very similar sequence of events should take place for NEO impacts with energies as low as 3 megatons, recurring on 100 year timescales or less. This result suggests that the 1908 Tunguska event was a plume-forming atmospheric explosion, and that some of the phenomena associated with it might be related to the ejection and collapse of a high plume. Hazards associated with plume growth and collapse should be included in the evaluation of the impact threat to Earth, and opportunities should be sought for observational validation of atmospheric impact models by exploiting data already being collected from the natural flux of multi-kiloton to megaton sized objects that constantly enter Earth`s atmosphere on annual to decadal timescales.

  18. A significação do grotesco na narrativa de testemunho de Primo Levi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Dantas Moraes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O grotesco, para Wolfgang Kayser, é um conceito que possui como essência estética a deformidade. Esta deformidade, normalmente, se revela por meio da escritura do corpo e imagens que causam abjeção. Primo Levi, ao relatar sua experiência enquanto prisioneiro nos campos de concentração rememora em sua narrativa algumas cenas que se aproximam fortemente do grotesco enquanto imagem e significação. Na sua maioria, se tratam de cenas fortes que, normalmente, se referem às pestes que assolavam o lugar, como os piolhos, assim como as doenças que debilitavam o corpo e as feridas crônicas nos pés. Em uma situação como esta, em que relembrar é doloroso, pois envolve a questão traumática, a tentativa de avaliar a própria dor muitas vezes se torna insuportável, por isso, é possível observar nestas descrições grotescas, aliás, algo frequente no campo de concentração, uma tentativa de externar e revelar um estado de alma em agonia.

  19. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9/Jupiter collision observed with a high resolution speckle imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravel, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    During the week of July 16, 1994, comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, broken into 20 plus pieces by tidal forces on its last orbit, smashed into the planet Jupiter, releasing the explosive energy of 500 thousand megatons. A team of observers from LLNL used the LLNL Speckle Imaging Camera mounted on the University of California`s Lick Observatory 3 Meter Telescope to capture continuous sequences of planet images during the comet encounter. Post processing with the bispectral phase reconstruction algorithm improves the resolution by removing much of the blurring due to atmospheric turbulence. High resolution images of the planet surface showing the aftermath of the impact are probably the best that were obtained from any ground-based telescope. We have been looking at the regions of the fragment impacts to try to discern any dynamic behavior of the spots left on Jupiter`s cloud tops. Such information can lead to conclusions about the nature of the comet and of Jupiter`s atmosphere. So far, the Hubble Space Telescope has observed expanding waves from the G impact whose mechanism is enigmatic since they appear to be too slow to be sound waves and too fast to be gravity waves, given the present knowledge of Jupiter`s atmosphere. Some of our data on the G and L impact region complements the Hubble observations but, so far, is inconclusive about spot dynamics.

  20. The Multiple Life of Nerve Growth Factor: Tribute to Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Aloe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 19th century, it was envisaged by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, but not, proven, that life at the neuronal level requires trophic support. The proof was obtained in the early 1950's by work initiated by Rita Levi-Montalcini (RLM discovering the nerve growth factor (NGF. Today, NGF and its relatives, collectively designated neurotrophins, are well recognized as mediators of multiple biological phenomena in health and disease, ranging from the neurotrophic through immunotrophic and epitheliotrophic to metabotrophic effects. Consequently, NGF and other neurotrophins are implicated in the pathogenesis of a large spectrum of neuronal and non-neuronal diseases, from Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases to atherosclerosis and other cardiometabolic diseases. Recent studies demonstrated the therapeutic potentials of NGF in these diseases, including ocular and cutaneous diseases. Furthermore, NGF TrkA receptor antagonists emerged as novel drugs for pain, prostate and breast cancer, melanoma, and urinary bladder syndromes. Altogether, NGF's multiple potential in health and disease is briefly described here.

  1. The multiple life of nerve growth factor: tribute to rita levi-montalcini (1909-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloe, Luigi; Chaldakov, George N

    2013-03-01

    At the end of the 19(th) century, it was envisaged by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, but not, proven, that life at the neuronal level requires trophic support. The proof was obtained in the early 1950's by work initiated by Rita Levi-Montalcini (RLM) discovering the nerve growth factor (NGF). Today, NGF and its relatives, collectively designated neurotrophins, are well recognized as mediators of multiple biological phenomena in health and disease, ranging from the neurotrophic through immunotrophic and epitheliotrophic to metabotrophic effects. Consequently, NGF and other neurotrophins are implicated in the pathogenesis of a large spectrum of neuronal and non-neuronal diseases, from Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases to atherosclerosis and other cardiometabolic diseases. Recent studies demonstrated the therapeutic potentials of NGF in these diseases, including ocular and cutaneous diseases. Furthermore, NGF TrkA receptor antagonists emerged as novel drugs for pain, prostate and breast cancer, melanoma, and urinary bladder syndromes. Altogether, NGF's multiple potential in health and disease is briefly described here.

  2. Homage to Rita Levi-Montalcini, the queen of modern neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloe, Luigi; Chaldakov, George N

    2013-08-01

    The first cell growth factor, nerve growth factor (NGF), was discovered by Rita Levi-Montalcini (RLM) in the early 1950s. Originally identified as neurite outgrowth-stimulating factor, later studies revealed that non-neuronal cells, including immune cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic beta cells, prostate epithelial and adipose tissue cells, were also targets for and/or sources of NGF. Nerve growth factor is well recognised as mediating multiple biological phenomena, ranging from the neurotrophic through immunotrophic and epitheliotrophic to metabotrophic effects. Consequently, NGF and other members of the neurotrophin family are implicated in the pathogenesis of a large spectrum of neuronal and non-neuronal diseases, ranging from Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases to atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potentials of NGF in these conditions, including ocular and cutaneous diseases. NGF TrkA receptor antagonists emerged as novel drugs for pain, prostate and breast cancer, melanoma and urinary bladder syndromes. Here, we briefly describe the 'unpredictable' ideogenesis of the discovery of NGF, a eureka in the neuroscience. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  3. On the Drell-Levy-Yan relation to O(α2s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Ravindran, V.; Neerven, W.L. van; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden

    2000-03-01

    We study the validity of a relation by Drell, Levy and Yan (DLY) connecting the deep inelastic structure (DIS) functions and the single-particle fragmentation functions in e + e - annihilation which are defined in the spacelike (q 2 2 > 0) regions respectively. Here q denotes the momentum of the virtual photon exchanged in the deep inelastic scattering process or the annihilation process. An extension of the DLY-relation, which originally was only derived in the scaling parton model, to all orders in QCD leads to a connection between the two evolution kernels determining the q 2 -dependence of the DIS structure functions and the fragmentation functions respectively. In relation to this we derive the transformation relations between the space-and time-like splitting functions up to next-to-leading order (NLO) and the coefficient functions up to NNLO both for unpolarized and polarized scattering. It is shown that the evolution kernels describing the combined singlet evolution for the structure functions F 2 (x, Q 2 ), F L (x, Q 2 ) where Q 2 = vertical stroke q 2 vertical stroke or F 2 (x, Q 2 ), ∂F 2 (x,Q 2 )/∂ln(Q 2 ) and the corresponding fragmentation functions satisfy the DLY relation up to next-to-leading order. We also comment on a relation proposed by Gribov and Lipatov. (orig.)

  4. Proliferative thyroid lesions in three diplodactylid geckos: Nephrurus amyae, Nephrurus levis, and Oedura marmorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Catherine A; Clayton, Leigh A; Clancy, Meredith M; Beck, Sarah E; Mangus, Lisa M; Montali, Richard J

    2012-03-01

    Over a 5-mo period, three diplodactylid geckos housed at the National Aquarium were diagnosed with proliferative thyroid lesions: a rough knob-tail gecko (Nephrurus amyae), a smooth knob-tail gecko (Nephrurus levis), and a marbled velvet gecko (Oedura marmorata). Clinical signs included an intraoral mass or ventral throat swelling (or both), oral bleeding, and weight loss. Both of the knob-tail geckos died. The histologic diagnosis for the rough knob-tail gecko was thyroid carcinoma with metastases to the liver and lungs, and thyroid carcinoma with no metastases was reported in the smooth knob-tail gecko. A thyroidectomy was performed on the marbled velvet gecko with a histologic diagnosis of adenomatous hyperplasia. Postoperative weight loss and bradycardia resolved following oral supplementation with levothyroxine. The animal is in normal health 10 mo post-surgery. Five other diplodactylid geckos in the collection remain unaffected, giving a 38% prevalence of proliferative thyroid lesions (3/8). The etiology remains undetermined. This is the first report of a cluster of proliferative thyroid lesions in geckos.

  5. The Patch-Levy-Based Bees Algorithm Applied to Dynamic Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim A. Hussein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many real-world optimization problems are actually of dynamic nature. These problems change over time in terms of the objective function, decision variables, constraints, and so forth. Therefore, it is very important to study the performance of a metaheuristic algorithm in dynamic environments to assess the robustness of the algorithm to deal with real-word problems. In addition, it is important to adapt the existing metaheuristic algorithms to perform well in dynamic environments. This paper investigates a recently proposed version of Bees Algorithm, which is called Patch-Levy-based Bees Algorithm (PLBA, on solving dynamic problems, and adapts it to deal with such problems. The performance of the PLBA is compared with other BA versions and other state-of-the-art algorithms on a set of dynamic multimodal benchmark problems of different degrees of difficulties. The results of the experiments show that PLBA achieves better results than the other BA variants. The obtained results also indicate that PLBA significantly outperforms some of the other state-of-the-art algorithms and is competitive with others.

  6. Levy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Grasso, Frank W; Bartumeus, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Levy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Levy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Levy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accommodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for food

  7. Levy-taxis: a novel search strategy for finding odor plumes in turbulent flow-dominated environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Grasso, Frank W [BioMimetic and Cognitive Robotics Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College, The City University of New York, 2900 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn 11210, NY (United States); Bartumeus, Frederic [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Princeton Environmental Institute, 106 Guyot Hall, Princeton University, Princeton 08544, NJ (United States)], E-mail: zpast@yahoo.com

    2009-10-30

    Locating chemical plumes in aquatic or terrestrial environments is important for many economic, conservation, security and health related human activities. The localization process is composed mainly of two phases: finding the chemical plume and then tracking it to its source. Plume tracking has been the subject of considerable study whereas plume finding has received little attention. We address here the latter issue, where the searching agent must find the plume in a region often many times larger than the plume and devoid of the relevant chemical cues. The probability of detecting the plume not only depends on the movements of the searching agent but also on the fluid mechanical regime, shaping plume intermittency in space and time; this is a basic, general problem when exploring for ephemeral resources (e.g. moving and/or concealing targets). Here we present a bio-inspired search strategy named Levy-taxis that, under certain conditions, located odor plumes significantly faster and with a better success rate than other search strategies such as Levy walks (LW), correlated random walks (CRW) and systematic zig-zag. These results are based on computer simulations which contain, for the first time ever, digitalized real-world water flow and chemical plume instead of their theoretical model approximations. Combining elements of LW and CRW, Levy-taxis is particularly efficient for searching in flow-dominated environments: it adaptively controls the stochastic search pattern using environmental information (i.e. flow) that is available throughout the course of the search and shows correlation with the source providing the cues. This strategy finds natural application in real-world search missions, both by humans and autonomous robots, since it accommodates the stochastic nature of chemical mixing in turbulent flows. In addition, it may prove useful in the field of behavioral ecology, explaining and predicting the movement patterns of various animals searching for food

  8. Edipo, Kant y P.Levi: una reflexión sobre la autonomía de la voluntad

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo Barrera, José Carlos

    2003-01-01

    En este trabajo se lleva a cabo un análisis literario y filosófico de tipo comparativo, en el que se establece un paralelo entre la concepción griega de la autonomía limitada de la voluntad, la concepción ilustrada europea ¿encarnada por Kant- de la autonomía plena de la misma, y la expuesta por P. Levi en su reflexión sobre el totalitarismo. Se concluye que la visión griega posee más interés para comprender el mundo actual que la visión ilustrada.

  9. GPRsurvey as a part of land-use planning in Levi, Finnish Lapland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupila, Juho

    2010-05-01

    The need for detailed information regarding overlying soil layers in townplanning areas has become an important issue, especially in certain areas of Finnish Lapland where the lack of usable soil materials is obvious. Use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a fast and cost-effective method of determining the structure of subsurface layers and quantity of soil material above the bedrock surface. This environmental project was carried out by the Geological Survey of Finland together with local enterprises, environmental authorities and an EU structural fund. One of the goals of the project was to use GPR to determine the thickness of soil layers and the differences in material above the bedrock level in certain target areas of the project. The study area is located in the municipality of Kittilä, in the center of the Levi ski resort. The study area (total size of 28 hectares) and surroundings are under fast townplanning and there are, for example, plans for a hotel, apartments and underground garages and service routes, thus it is very important to determine the volume of quarrying. As well, the quality and quantity of existing soil is valid data for the reuse of materials and upcoming construction. One drilling program has already been executed in the area (11 boreholes), so GPR profiles were planned based on this drilling data, soil mapping data and data collected from the townplanning map of the area. According to these earlier drillings and soil mapping, most of the soil in the study area was morainic, so the antenna for the GPR-survey was set at 100 MHz. The positioning method used in this project was VRS-GPS (Virtual Reference Station Global Positioning System), which is a very accurate positioning system to use. Accuracy can be as good as a few centimeters. After the GPR-survey, secondary drilling program was carried out according to the GPR-profiles, thus the total amount of collected data from the planning area was 23 boreholes and 3500 meters of GPR

  10. The quadratic-form identity for constructing Hamiltonian structures of the NLS-MKdV hierarchy and multi-component Levi hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Huanhe; Wang Xiangrong

    2008-01-01

    The trace identity is extended to the quadratic-form identity. The Hamiltonian structures of the NLS-MKdV hierarchy, and integrable coupling of multi-component Levi hierarchy are obtained by the quadratic-form identity. The method can be used to produce the Hamiltonian structures of the other integrable couplings or multi-component hierarchies

  11. Corporate strategies and clothing supply chains reshaping towards the United States: Levi Strauss & Co firm’s situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe García de León P.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a summary of the corporate strategies of the Levi Strauss & Co. firm, a company that has had an important role in each one of the phases of Mexico’s process of integration into the global apparel production: the integration under the shared–production programs, the first stage of NAFTA, and the current stage of decline of Mexican exports and re–positioning of China. The central argument is that, by analyzing the competitive strategies of the leading firms of global apparel networks—as in the case of Levi’s—, we can get closer to the restructuring logic of these networks and understand the changing terms of the international insertion of the countries and firms involved, as in the case of Mexico.

  12. Exact exchange and Wilson-Levy correlation: a pragmatic device for studying complex weakly-bonded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T R

    2005-02-07

    The Wilson-Levy (WL) correlation functional is used together with Hartree-Fock (HF) theory to evaluate interaction energies at intermediate separations (i.e. around equilibrium separation) for several weakly-bonded systems. The HF+WL approach reproduces binding trends for all complexes studied: selected rare-gas dimers, isomers of the methane dimer, benzene dimer and naphthalene dimer, and base-pair stacking structures for pyrimidine, cytosine, uracil and guanine dimers. These HF+WL data are contrasted against results obtained from some popular functionals (including B3LYP and PBE), as well as two newly-developed functionals, X3LYP and xPBE. The utility of HF+WL, with reference to exact-exchange (EXX) density-functional theory, is discussed in terms of a suggested EXXWL exchange-correlation functional.

  13. Gadamer, O’Gorman, Levi. Combates contra el neopositivismo historiográfico y contra el fetiche del documento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morelos Torres Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza críticamente, a partir de las consideraciones de Giovanni Levi, Hans-Georg Gadamer y Edmundo O’Gorman, la manera en que los historiadores aprehenden los acontecimientos y el procedimiento mediante el cual obtienen y utilizan sus fuentes. Las ideas de estos tres pensadores cuestionan, desde distintas perspectivas, la preeminencia de una heurística basada sólo en la afanosa búsqueda de la verdad, característica de la escuela científica alemana y el positivismo, corrientes ambas del siglo XIX; proponen en cambio, como alternativa que mucho debe a Ser y tiempo de Heidegger, la comprensión e interpretación de los procesos y los sujetos históricos, como una forma adecuada de explicación histórica. The article critically analyzes, from the considerations of Giovanni Levi, Hans-Georg Gadamer and Edmundo O’Gorman, the way in which the historians apprehend the events and the procedure by means of which they obtain and use his sources. The ideas of these three thinkers question, from different perspectives, the preeminence of a heuristic based only on the eager search of the truth, characteristic of the scientific german school and the positivism, currents both of the 19th century; they propose on the other hand, as alternative that much owes to Being and time of Heidegger, the comprehension and interpretation of the processes and the historical subjects, as a suitable form of historical explanation.

  14. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  15. Insect flight muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.; Marrewijk, W.J.A. van

    1984-01-01

    The flight of an insect is of a very complicated and extremely energy-demanding nature. Wingbeat frequency may differ between various species but values up to 1000 Hz have been measured. Consequently metabolic activity may be very high during flight and the transition from rest to flight is

  16. Anomalous particle diffusion and Levy random walk of magnetic field lines in three dimensional solar wind turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardo, G.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma transport in the presence of turbulence depends on a variety of parameters like the fluctuation level ? B/B0, the ratio between the particle Larmor radius and the turbulence correlation lengths, and the turbulence anisotropy. In this presentation, we review the results of numerical simulations of plasma and magnetic field line transport in the case of anisotropic magnetic turbulence, for parameter values close to those of the solar wind. We assume a uniform background magnetic field B0 = B0ez and a Fourier representation for magnetic fluctuations, with wavectors forming any angle with respect to B0. The energy density spectrum is a power law, and in k space the constant amplitude surfaces are ellipsoids, described by the correlation lengths lx, ly, lz, which quantify the anisotropy of turbulence. For magnetic field lines, we find that transport perpendicular to the background field depends on the Kubo number R = ? B B0 lz lx . For small Kubo numbers, R ? 1, we find anomalous, non Gaussian transport regimes (both sub and superdiffusive) which can be described as a Levy random walk. Increasing the Kubo number, i.e., the fluctuation level ? B/B0 and/or the ratio lz/lx, we find first a quasilinear and then a percolative regime, both corresponding to Gaussian diffusion. For particles, we find that transport parallel and perpendicular to the background magnetic field heavily depends on the turbulence anisotropy and on the particle Larmor radius. For turbulence levels typical of the solar wind, ? B/B0 ? 0.5 ?1, when the ratio between the particle Larmor radius and the turbulence correlation lengths is small, anomalous regimes are found in the case lz/lx ? 1, with Levy random walk (superdiffusion) along the magnetic field and subdiffusion in the perpendicular directions. Conversely, for lz/lx > 1 normal, Gaussian diffusion is found. Increasing the ratio between the particle Larmor radius and the turbulence correlation lengths, the parallel superdiffusion is

  17. Bitcoinin omaksumisen ja leviämisen mahdollisuudet maksuvälineenä vähittäiskauppa-alalla : Case: Bitcoinkaupat

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää bitcoinin omaksumisen ja leviämisen mahdollisuudet vähittäiskauppa-alalla. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana oli Bitcoinkaupat, joka tarjoaa yrityksille bitcoin-maksujen vastaanottamisen mahdollistavaa BitPay-maksupalvelua. Tavoitteena oli tulosten perusteella muodostaa kokonaiskuva vähittäiskauppa-alan asenteista virtuaalivaluutta bitcoinia kohtaan BitPay-maksupalvelun myynnin ja markkinoinnin tehostamiseksi. Tavoitteena oli myös uusien asiakasyritysten...

  18. In regard to Levi-Strauss’s "motive of oblivion". Structure of disturbed communication and styles of thoughts in transitory Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts with Levi-Strauss’s semantic concept that consists of oblivion, misunderstanding, indiscretion and nostalgia. Through his analysis of North American and Greek myths, Levi-Strauss concluded that "semantic filed of oblivion" has an important meaning especially in the construction of particular rules and rituals; or, in other words, it has an important part in the introduction of culture to the nature of cognitive and social processes. After the introduction of concept Structure of disturbed communication and some corrections to the Levi-Strauss’s concept, I start with the proposition that the period of transition represents unstable and ‘slippery’ time in which society negotiates different meanings. That is the time when different styles of thoughts, represented by different and powerful groups that have an impact on current social, political and ideological processes, compete with each other fighting for supremacy. Their field of communication can be seen as a field of "disturbed communication", which in the final instance has a normative function: to reinforce and regulate certain attitudes, ideas and knowledge. This is achieved through the narratives which symbolise a community of newly established order in the moment of its supposed sociohistorical stabilisation. Finally, combining two different theoretical models – Levi-Strauss’s one described above with Greimas’s ideas about structures of modes of veridiction, this paper predicts chances of particular paradigmatic forms of thought in transitory Serbia to became dominant modes of thought, despite of their current low visibility in the public sphere. In mythical terms, it seems though that their domineering efforts are predetermined to success or fail, since they position themselves according to the laws immanent to these structures themselves, which on their part a priori position these structures as powerful orpowerless, influential or non

  19. Flight code validation simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Brent A.

    1996-05-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which Inertial Measurement Unit data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System in January of 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  20. Flight control actuation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  1. A janela indiscreta da testemunha: Primo Levi e o fantástico pós-Auschwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Basevi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Primo Levi, mundialmente conhecido por seu testemunho do campo de extermínio (Se questo è un uomo, 1947 publicou uma coletânea de contos intitulados Histórias naturais onde utiliza os recursos do fantástico para imaginar as consequências paradoxais da racionalidade humana. A narrativa “Borboleta angélica” destaca-se pelos elementos do horror e do drama, relacionados ao tema das experiências genéticas durante o nazismo. O interesse deste conto e a sua especificidade pós-Auschwitz reside em alguns aspectos: em primeiro lugar em sua estrutura que reflete a problemática sobre o testemunho; no efeito de incerteza que se produz entorno ao que seria “imaginável” questionando a frágil fronteira entre real, possível e fantástico; a organização narrativa a partir do eixo rastro-fragmento-testemunho. Veremos, desta forma, como o texto é marcado por um dos eventos mais traumáticos do século XX.

  2. Royalty rules : Alberta producers are now beholden to formal regulations for reporting royalty payments to government levy collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Regulation was established by the Alberta Department of Energy in July 2005 in order to clarify the rules governing conventional crude oil royalties. The regulation provides an incentive for industry to comply with the long-existing oil royalty reporting requirements through the addition of non-compliance penalties. An initial shadow billing system has been implemented to give industry the opportunity to understand their responsibilities and implement procedures to correct reporting and delivery inaccuracies. Battery operators in Alberta must now submit a royalty report to the Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission on a monthly basis. The regulation provides provisions for interest charges on outstanding invoiced amounts, and formalizes existing eligibility requirements for the reimbursement of trucking costs associated with transporting the Crown's share. Penalties will be incurred if royalty reports contain erroneous information, or if the actual deliveries made are less than the prescribed royalty quantity. All penalties levied by the commission will now be sent to the battery operator in a monthly statement. Battery operators who wish to appeal their penalties may do so within 2 months after the date of the monthly statement. It was concluded that industry is not expected to experience any significant problems when the regulation comes into effect, as the 6 month shadow billing period will allow companies to make a smooth transition to the requirements of the new regulation. Details of information sessions for the new regulation were provided, as well as details of various non-compliance penalties. 1 fig

  3. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Capital Flight from Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Loungani; Paolo Mauro

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents the scale of capital flight from Russia, compares it with that observed in other countries, and reviews policy options. The evidence from other countries suggests that capital flight can be reversed once reforms take hold. The paper argues that capital flight from Russia can only be curbed through a medium-term reform strategy aimed at improving governance and macroeconomic performance, and strengthening the banking system. Capital controls result in costly distortions an...

  5. Theseus in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The twin pusher propeller-driven engines of the Theseus research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken during a 1996 research flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite

  6. Flight research and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1989-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic research and development chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond a doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing were the crucible in which aeronautical concepts were advanced and proven to the point that engineers and companies are willing to stake their future to produce and design aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress being made and the challenges to come.

  7. Flight Standards Automation System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  8. Sub-recoil cooling up to nano-Kelvin. Direct measurement of spatial coherency length. New tests for Levy statistics; Refroidissement laser subrecul au nanokelvin. Mesure directe de la longueur de coherence spatiale. Nouveaux tests des statistiques de Levy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saubamea, B

    1998-12-15

    This thesis presents a new method to measure the temperature of ultracold atoms from the spatial autocorrelation function of the atomic wave-packets. We thus determine the temperature of metastable helium-4 atoms cooled by velocity selective dark resonance, a method known to cool the atoms below the temperature related to the emission or the absorption of a single photon by an atom at rest, namely the recoil temperature. This cooling mechanism prepares each atom in a coherent superposition of two wave-packets with opposite mean momenta, which are initially superimposed and then drift apart. By measuring the temporal decay of their overlap, we have access to the Fourier transform of the momentum distribution of the atoms. Using this method, we can measure temperatures as low as 5 nK, 800 times as small as the recoil temperature. Moreover we study in detail the exact shape of the momentum distribution and compare the experimental results with two different theoretical approaches: a quantum Monte Carlo simulation and an analytical model based on Levy statistics. We compare the calculated line shape with the one deduced from simulations, and each theoretical model with experimental data. A very good agreement is found with each approach. We thus demonstrate the validity of the statistical model of sub-recoil cooling and give the first experimental evidence of some of its characteristics: the absence of steady-state, the self-similarity and the non Lorentzian shape of the momentum distribution of the cooled atoms. All these aspects are related to the non ergodicity of sub-recoil cooling. (author)

  9. X-43A Flight Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ethan

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation detailing X-43A Flight controls at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Dryden, Overview and current and recent flight test programs; 2) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Program, Program Overview and Platform Precision Autopilot; and 3) Hyper-X Program, Program Overview, X-43A Flight Controls and Flight Results.

  10. Sub-recoil cooling up to nano-Kelvin. Direct measurement of spatial coherency length. New tests for Levy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saubamea, B.

    1998-12-01

    This thesis presents a new method to measure the temperature of ultracold atoms from the spatial autocorrelation function of the atomic wave-packets. We thus determine the temperature of metastable helium-4 atoms cooled by velocity selective dark resonance, a method known to cool the atoms below the temperature related to the emission or the absorption of a single photon by an atom at rest, namely the recoil temperature. This cooling mechanism prepares each atom in a coherent superposition of two wave-packets with opposite mean momenta, which are initially superimposed and then drift apart. By measuring the temporal decay of their overlap, we have access to the Fourier transform of the momentum distribution of the atoms. Using this method, we can measure temperatures as low as 5 nK, 800 times as small as the recoil temperature. Moreover we study in detail the exact shape of the momentum distribution and compare the experimental results with two different theoretical approaches: a quantum Monte Carlo simulation and an analytical model based on Levy statistics. We compare the calculated line shape with the one deduced from simulations, and each theoretical model with experimental data. A very good agreement is found with each approach. We thus demonstrate the validity of the statistical model of sub-recoil cooling and give the first experimental evidence of some of its characteristics: the absence of steady-state, the self-similarity and the non Lorentzian shape of the momentum distribution of the cooled atoms. All these aspects are related to the non ergodicity of sub-recoil cooling. (author)

  11. Anomalous particle diffusion and Levy random walk of magnetic field lines in three-dimensional solar wind turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2005-01-01

    Plasma transport in the presence of turbulence depends on a variety of parameters such as the fluctuation level, δB/B 0 , the ratio between the particle Larmor radius and the turbulence correlation length, and the turbulence anisotropy. In this paper, we present the results of numerical simulations of plasma and magnetic field line transport in the case of anisotropic magnetic turbulence, for parameter values close to those of the solar wind. We assume a uniform background magnetic field B 0 = B 0 e z and a Fourier representation for magnetic fluctuations, which includes wavectors oblique with respect to B 0 . The energy density spectrum is a power law, and in k space it is described by the correlation lengths l x , l y , l z , which quantify the anisotropy of turbulence. For magnetic field lines, transport perpendicular to the background field depends on the Kubo number R (δB/B 0 ) (l z /l x ). For small Kubo numbers, R 0 , or the ratio l z /l x , we find first a quasilinear regime and then a percolative regime, both corresponding to Gaussian diffusion. For particles, we find that transport parallel and perpendicular to the background magnetic field depends heavily on the turbulence anisotropy and on the particle Larmor radius. For turbulence levels typical of the solar wind, δB/B 0 ≅ 0.5-1, when the ratio between the particle Larmor radius and the turbulence correlation lengths is small, anomalous regimes are found in the case l z /l x ≤ 1, with a Levy random walk (superdiffusion) along the magnetic field and subdiffusion in the perpendicular directions. Conversely, for l z /l x > 1 normal Gaussian diffusion is found. A possible expression for generalized double diffusion is discussed

  12. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  13. Core Flight Software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Core Flight Software (CFS) project purpose is to analyze applicability, and evolve and extend the reusability of the CFS system originally developed by...

  14. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  15. Por um lugar no império: inglesidade, pertencimento negro e memória nacional em dois contos de Andrea Levy

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Denise Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho objetiva examinar a interrogação da inglesidade (Englishness) pela ficcionista britânica negra Andrea Levy a partir do lugar ocupado por ela como cidadã britânica, descendente de imigrantes caribenhos negros. O questionamento é situado no quadro da construção identitária que segue ao contato dos ingleses com seus outros, especialmente no contexto da geração Windrush. Entrevistas e, sobretudo, o ensaio “Back to my own country” ajudam a dimensionar a influência da prática ...

  16. In search of a place in the empire: englishness, black belonging and national memory in two short stories by Andrea Levy

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Denise Almeida

    2017-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p17This essay aims at investigating the interrogation of Englishness carried out by the black English writer Andrea Levy from within the place she occupies as an English citizen who descends from black Caribbean immigrants. This interrogation takes place in the context of the identity construction that follows the encounter between the English and their others, especially in the Windrush generation. Interviews and the essay “Back to my own country”...

  17. Por um lugar no império: inglesidade, pertencimento negro e memória nacional em dois contos de Andrea Levy

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Almeida Silva

    2017-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p17 Este trabalho objetiva examinar a interrogação da inglesidade (Englishness) pela  ficcionista britânica negra Andrea Levy a partir do lugar ocupado por ela como cidadã britânica, descendente de migrantes caribenhos negros.  O questionamento é situado no quadro da construção identitária que segue ao contato dos ingleses com seus outros, especialmente no contexto da geração Windrush. Entrevistas e, sobretudo, o ensaio “Back to my own country”...

  18. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female, 35 ± 7 years old. We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions.

  19. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  20. FLOODPLAIN, LEVY COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  1. DAST in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  2. Capital Flight and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beja, Edsel Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Capital flight aggravates resource constraints and contributes to undermine long-term economic growth. Counterfactual calculations on the Philippines suggest that capital flight contributed to lower the quality of long-term economic growth. Sustained capital flight over three decades means that capital flight had a role for the Philippines to lose the opportunities to achieve economic takeoff. Unless decisive policy actions are taken up to address enduring capital flight and manage the macroe...

  3. Recent estimates of capital flight

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Stijn; Naude, David

    1993-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have in recent years paid considerable attention to the phenomenon of capital flight. Researchers have focused on four questions: What concept should be used to measure capital flight? What figure for capital flight will emerge, using this measure? Can the occurrence and magnitude of capital flight be explained by certain (economic) variables? What policy changes can be useful to reverse capital flight? The authors focus strictly on presenting estimates of capital...

  4. Perseus Post-flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Crew members check out the Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a test flight in 1991. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved

  5. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  6. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  7. Por um lugar no império: inglesidade, pertencimento negro e memória nacional em dois contos de Andrea Levy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Almeida Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p17 Este trabalho objetiva examinar a interrogação da inglesidade (Englishness pela  ficcionista britânica negra Andrea Levy a partir do lugar ocupado por ela como cidadã britânica, descendente de migrantes caribenhos negros.  O questionamento é situado no quadro da construção identitária que segue ao contato dos ingleses com seus outros, especialmente no contexto da geração Windrush. Entrevistas e, sobretudo, o ensaio “Back to my own country” ajudam a dimensionar a influência da prática e pensamento racista tanto nas relações sociais e culturais quanto na invisibilização da escravidão negra na história oficial da Inglaterra. Considera-se a escrita como a forma escolhida por Levy para posicionar-se frente a essa omissão histórica, e  analisam-se, como forma de exemplificar tal práxis ficcional,  dois contos que visibilizam as relações entre os coloniais negros e a população hegemônica inglesa, “The polite way that English people have” e “The empty pram”.

  8. Detection of the 3.4 micron emission feature in Comets P/Brorsen-Metcalf and Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko (1989r) and an observational summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, T.Y.; Tokunaga, A.T.; Knacke, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    The 3.4 micron emission feature due to cometary organics was detected in Comets P/Brorsen-Metcalf and Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko (1989r). Features-to-continuum ratios in these two comets were higher than those expected from the trend seen in other comets to date. Three micron spectra of eight comets are reviewed. The 3.4 micron band flux is better correlated with the water production rate than with the dust production rate in this sample of comets. High feature-to-continuum ratios in P/Brorsen-Metcalf and Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko can be explained by the low dust-to-gas ratios of these two comets. The observations to date are consistent with cometary organics being present in all comets (even those for which no 3.4 micron feature was evident) at comparable abundances with respect to water. The emission mechanism and absolute abundance of the organics are not well determined; either gas-phase fluorescence or thermal emission from hot grains is consistent with the heliocentric distance dependence of the 3.4 micron band flux. There is an overall similarity in the spectral profiles of the 3.4 micron feature in comets; however, there are some potentially significant differences in the details of the spectra. 30 refs

  9. Flight Planning in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.

  10. Perseus in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle flies over Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test basic design concepts for the remotely-piloted, high-altitude vehicle. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA

  11. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

    flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about......  In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  12. ALOFT Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    wmmmmmmmmmmmm i ifmu.immM\\]i\\ ßinimm^mmmmviwmmiwui »vimtm twfjmmmmmmi c-f—rmSmn NWC TP 5954 ALOFT Flight Test Report by James D. Ross anrJ I.. M...responsible i"- u conducting the ALOFT Flight Test Program and made contributions to this report: J. Basden , R. ".estbrook, L. Thompson, J. Willians...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 7. AUTMORC«; <oss James D./Xo L. M.y&ohnson IZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Naval

  13. κ-Minkowski and Snyder algebra from reparametrization symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, Chatterjee; Sunandan, Gangopadhyay

    2008-01-01

    Recently, motivated by the ideas of quantum gravity, a generalization of Special Relativity known as Doubly Special Relativity has been proposed. The most popular model is the Magueijo-Smolin model. We derive non commuting phase-space structures which are combinations of both the κ-Minkowski and the Snyder algebra by exploiting the re-parametrisation symmetry of the recently proposed Lagrangian for a point particle satisfying the exact Doubly Special Relativity dispersion relation in the Magueijo-Smolin framework

  14. A Reparametrization Approach for Dynamic Space-Time Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Ghosh, Sujit K.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers in diverse areas such as environmental and health sciences are increasingly working with data collected across space and time. The space-time processes that are generally used in practice are often complicated in the sense that the auto-dependence structure across space and time is non-trivial, often non-separable and non-stationary in space and time. Moreover, the dimension of such data sets across both space and time can be very large leading to computational difficulties due to...

  15. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  16. Weather and Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

  17. Pegasus hypersonic flight research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Robert E.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.; Budd, Gerald D.

    1992-01-01

    Hypersonic aeronautics research using the Pegasus air-launched space booster is described. Two areas are discussed in the paper: previously obtained results from Pegasus flights 1 and 2, and plans for future programs. Proposed future research includes boundary-layer transition studies on the airplane-like first stage and also use of the complete Pegasus launch system to boost a research vehicle to hypersonic speeds. Pegasus flight 1 and 2 measurements were used to evaluate the results of several analytical aerodynamic design tools applied during the development of the vehicle as well as to develop hypersonic flight-test techniques. These data indicated that the aerodynamic design approach for Pegasus was adequate and showed that acceptable margins were available. Additionally, the correlations provide insight into the capabilities of these analytical tools for more complex vehicles in which design margins may be more stringent. Near-term plans to conduct hypersonic boundary-layer transition studies are discussed. These plans involve the use of a smooth metallic glove at about the mid-span of the wing. Longer-term opportunities are proposed which identify advantages of the Pegasus launch system to boost large-scale research vehicles to the real-gas hypersonic flight regime.

  18. Flight telerobotic servicer legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, Paul L.; Lowrie, James W.

    1992-11-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) was developed to enhance and provide a safe alternative to human presence in space. The first step for this system was a precursor development test flight (DTF-1) on the Space Shuttle. DTF-1 was to be a pathfinder for manned flight safety of robotic systems. The broad objectives of this mission were three-fold: flight validation of telerobotic manipulator (design, control algorithms, man/machine interfaces, safety); demonstration of dexterous manipulator capabilities on specific building block tasks; and correlation of manipulator performance in space with ground predictions. The DTF-1 system is comprised of a payload bay element (7-DOF manipulator with controllers, end-of-arm gripper and camera, telerobot body with head cameras and electronics module, task panel, and MPESS truss) and an aft flight deck element (force-reflecting hand controller, crew restraint, command and display panel and monitors). The approach used to develop the DTF-1 hardware, software and operations involved flight qualification of components from commercial, military, space, and R controller, end-of-arm tooling, force/torque transducer) and the development of the telerobotic system for space applications. The system is capable of teleoperation and autonomous control (advances state of the art); reliable (two-fault tolerance); and safe (man-rated). Benefits from the development flight included space validation of critical telerobotic technologies and resolution of significant safety issues relating to telerobotic operations in the Shuttle bay or in the vicinity of other space assets. This paper discusses the lessons learned and technology evolution that stemmed from developing and integrating a dexterous robot into a manned system, the Space Shuttle. Particular emphasis is placed on the safety and reliability requirements for a man-rated system as these are the critical factors which drive the overall system architecture. Other topics focused on include

  19. Stroke in Commercial Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Velasco, Rodrigo; Masjuan, Jaime; DeFelipe, Alicia; Corral, Iñigo; Estévez-Fraga, Carlos; Crespo, Leticia; Alonso-Cánovas, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Stroke on board aircraft has been reported in retrospective case series, mainly focusing on economy class stroke syndrome. Data on the actual incidence, pathogenesis, and prognosis of stroke in commercial flights are lacking. A prospective registry was designed to include all consecutive patients referred from an international airport (40 million passengers a year) to our hospital with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and onset of symptoms during a flight or immediately after landing. Forty-four patients (32 ischemic strokes and 12 transient ischemic attacks) were included over a 76-month period (January 2008 to April 2014). The estimated incidence of stroke was 1 stroke in 35 000 flights. Pathogeneses of stroke or transient ischemic attack were atherothrombotic in 16 (36%), economy class stroke syndrome in 8 (18%), cardioembolic in 7 (16%), arterial dissection in 4 (9%), lacunar stroke in 4 (9%), and undetermined in 5 (12%) patients. Carotid stenosis >70% was found in 12 (27%) of the patients. Overall prognosis was good, and thrombolysis was applied in 44% of the cases. The most common reason for not treating patients who had experienced stroke onset midflight was the delay in reaching the hospital. Only 1 patient with symptom onset during the flight prompted a flight diversion. We found a low incidence of stroke in the setting of air travel. Economy class stroke syndrome and arterial dissection were well represented in our sample. However, the main pathogenesis was atherothrombosis with a high proportion of patients with high carotid stenosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Interações, poder e instituições totais: a narrativa de Primo Levi e a microssociologia de Erving Goffman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson dos Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir do relato biográfico e literário produzido pelo sobrevivente de um campo de concentração - o judeu italiano Primo Levi -, que descreve as estratégias de interação e representação adotadas pelo narrador-sobrevivente para garantir a manutenção da vida, o presente artigo ensaia algumas reflexões sobre a Sociologia de Erving Goffman. O texto busca apreender os processos de produção da subjetividade e da individualidade no interior de uma instituição total, compreendendo o papel dos espaços sociais na construção de interações particulares, tal como aquelas que aconteceram num campo de extermínio, a partir do relato presente no livro "É isto um homem?", de Primo Levi. Essa análise nos conduz à reflexão sobre o micro e o macro na Sociologia de Goffman, bem como à indagação sobre a existência de uma teoria das instituições em sua Sociologia. Assim, ao adentrarmos essa dimensão da obra de Goffman com o auxílio da descrição da experiência de Primo Levi em uma instituição total, buscamos tanto dispor de uma narrativa diversa sobre o espaço em questão, quanto extrair alguns questionamentos para a própria concepção de Goffman, principalmente no que se refere às formas pelas quais sua Sociologia permite dinamizar as interações particulares, a história e as estruturas sociais exteriores ao território interacional. Ao que nos parece, uma análise das interações imanentes a locais delimitados não entra em contradição com a percepção e a análise dos processos sociais amplos: o campo de extermínio, por exemplo, instituiu e produziu sociabilidades próprias, das quais o entendimento, porém, não exclui a necessidade de se compreender o processo de emergência do nazismo, a história dos grupos perseguidos, bem como o sentido do Holocausto em relação ao chamado "processo civilizatório" ou a uma forma particular de racionalidade moderna.

  1. Retrieving Balloon Data in Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program will soon make flights lasting up to 100 days. Some flights may generate high data rates and retrieving this data...

  2. Die Wahrnehmung der Figur „Adolf Hitler“ in Daniel Levys „Mein Führer- die wirklich wahrste Wahrheit über Adolf Hitler“ durch internationales Filmpublikum.

    OpenAIRE

    Herzner, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Filme beeinflussen die Wahrnehmungen von Figuren. Daniel Levys Film "Mein Führer" (die erste deutschsprachige Komödie über Adolf Hitler) führte zu einer positiven Wahrnehmung der Hauptfigur. In einer empirischen Untersuchung wurde gezeigt, dass sich dieser Effekt bei internationalem Filmpublikum, die einen anderen Zugang zur Thematik Nationalsozialismus haben, verstärkt.

  3. Education Funding Crisis in the Suburbs: The Impact of the 2007-09 Recession Recovery Policies and the New York State Tax Levy Cap on School District Financial Planning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, John J.; Annunziato, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the impact of the fiscal recovery policies stemming from the 2007-09 economic recession and the implementation of the 2011 New York State Property Tax Levy Cap on the budgets of school districts located within a Long Island, New York suburban township. The research basis of this paper is based on two studies conducted by the…

  4. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; hide

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+week) data collection in 5 of 10 controls without treatment. Both groups used the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control

  5. O paraíso não é aqui: a violência contra a mulher emTatiana Salem Levy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Queiroz Dutra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar las representaciones de las distintas formas de violencia contra la mujer en la novela Paraíso (2014, de la escritora brasileña Tatiana Salem Levy. Se busca comprender y problematizar la representación del dolor del otro y del posicionamiento de las mujeres frente a situaciones de violencia dentro de la novela. Además, se pretende observar si la representación de la violencia sufrida por los personajes femeninos, tanto en el espacio público como en el doméstico, contribuye a una crítica a la violencia contra la mujer, deconstruyendo estereotipos de sumisión y victimización.

  6. Daedalus - Last Dryden flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The Daedalus 88, with Glenn Tremml piloting, is seen here on its last flight for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  7. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  8. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  9. Radioastron flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunin, V. I.; Sukhanov, K. G.; Altunin, K. R.

    1993-01-01

    Radioastron is a space-based very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) mission to be operational in the mid-90's. The spacecraft and space radio telescope (SRT) will be designed, manufactured, and launched by the Russians. The United States is constructing a DSN subnet to be used in conjunction with a Russian subnet for Radioastron SRT science data acquisition, phase link, and spacecraft and science payload health monitoring. Command and control will be performed from a Russian tracking facility. In addition to the flight element, the network of ground radio telescopes which will be performing co-observations with the space telescope are essential to the mission. Observatories in 39 locations around the world are expected to participate in the mission. Some aspects of the mission that have helped shaped the flight operations concept are: separate radio channels will be provided for spacecraft operations and for phase link and science data acquisition; 80-90 percent of the spacecraft operational time will be spent in an autonomous mode; and, mission scheduling must take into account not only spacecraft and science payload constraints, but tracking station and ground observatory availability as well. This paper will describe the flight operations system design for translating the Radioastron science program into spacecraft executed events. Planning for in-orbit checkout and contingency response will also be discussed.

  10. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  11. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  12. Flight Mechanics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  13. Flight to America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneli Gün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Güneli Gün’s memoir piece truly combines the excitement of the young traveler with the humor of the mature narrator. Born in Izmir, Turkey, she breaks her engagement to a young but conservative Turkish architect and overcomes her father’s concerns to eventually study at Hollins College, Virginia. Addressing topics such as breaking out of a traditional society, being torn between the home country and the imagined new home, and finding comfort in the arts, “Flight to America” compellingly reflects Güneli Gün’s mastery as a storyteller.

  14. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  15. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.

  16. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  17. The Cibola flight experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Michael Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel - Dupre, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katko, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palmer, Joseph [ISE-3; Robinson, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wirthlin, Michael [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Howes, William [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Richins, Daniel [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  18. Flight plan optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaseelan, Anoop; Adistambha, Keyne D.

    2015-05-01

    Fuel cost accounts for 40 percent of the operating cost of an airline. Fuel cost can be minimized by planning a flight on optimized routes. The routes can be optimized by searching best connections based on the cost function defined by the airline. The most common algorithm that used to optimize route search is Dijkstra's. Dijkstra's algorithm produces a static result and the time taken for the search is relatively long. This paper experiments a new algorithm to optimize route search which combines the principle of simulated annealing and genetic algorithm. The experimental results of route search, presented are shown to be computationally fast and accurate compared with timings from generic algorithm. The new algorithm is optimal for random routing feature that is highly sought by many regional operators.

  19. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, T.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J.J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, R.J.; Dake, S.; Oda, H.; Miyamura, O.; Fuki, M.; Jones, W.V.; Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Takahashi, U.; Tominaga, Y.; Wefel, J.P.; Fountain, W.; Derrickson, J.; Parnell, T.A.; Roberts, E.; Tabuki, T.; Watts, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1-100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs

  20. Capital flight and political risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Hermes, N; Murinde, [No Value

    This paper provides the first serious attempt to examine the relationship between political risk and capital flight for a large set of developing countries. The outcomes of the analysis show that in most cases political risk variables do have a statistically robust relationship to capital flight

  1. Passengers waste production during flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A

    2017-12-20

    We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.

  2. Levi-Strauss Ve Roland Barthes’ın Yaklaşımıyla “God Of War III” Oyununun Mitsel Çözümlemesi

    OpenAIRE

    SEPETÇİ, Tülin

    2016-01-01

    Bu çalışmanın amacı, Roland Barthes ve Levi-Strauss’un mit kuramlarını bir popüler kültür ürünü olarak ele alınan “God of War III” adlı video oyunu bağlamında karşılaştırmaktır. Çalışmada öncelikle tarihsel süreç içerisinde mitlerin işlevi ve “oyun” kavramının mitlerle ilişkisinden, ardından Levi-Strauss ve Roland Barthes’ın mit yaklaşımları ve analizinden bahsedilmiş, ardından “God of War III” adlı video oyununa mitsel çözümleme yapılmıştır. Her iki düşünürün mit yaklaşımları çerçevesinde ön...

  3. NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE DISRUPTION OF COMET D/1993 F2 SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9 REPRESENTING THE PROGENITOR BY A GRAVITATIONALLY BOUND ASSEMBLAGE OF RANDOMLY SHAPED POLYHEDRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movshovitz, Naor; Asphaug, Erik; Korycansky, Donald, E-mail: nmovshov@ucsc.edu [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We advance the modeling of rubble-pile solid bodies by re-examining the tidal breakup of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, an event that occurred during a 1.33 R encounter with Jupiter in 1992 July. Tidal disruption of the comet nucleus led to a chain of sub-nuclei {approx}100-1000 m diameter; these went on to collide with the planet two years later. They were intensively studied prior to and during the collisions, making SL9 the best natural benchmark for physical models of small-body disruption. For the first time in the study of this event, we use numerical codes treating rubble piles as collections of polyhedra. This introduces forces of dilatation and friction, and inelastic response. As in our previous studies we conclude that the progenitor must have been a rubble pile, and we obtain approximately the same pre-breakup diameter ({approx}1.5 km) in our best fits to the data. We find that the inclusion of realistic fragment shapes leads to grain locking and dilatancy, so that even in the absence of friction or other dissipation we find that disruption is overall more difficult than in our spheres-based simulations. We constrain the comet's bulk density at {rho}{sub bulk} {approx} 300-400 kg m{sup -3}, half that of our spheres-based predictions and consistent with recent estimates derived from spacecraft observations.

  4. Effects of the regulating energy levy and energy tariffs on the cost effectiveness of energy efficient production of heat and cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    With respect to the title subject collective and stand-alone systems for house and office buildings were analyzed. For houses a high-efficiency boiler as reference system, and individual micro-cogeneration unit, an individual electric heat pump with a collective aquifer as heat source, an individual gas heat pump with outside air as a heat source, a collective cogeneration system, and a collective energy plant with cogeneration and an electric heat pump. For office buildings a high-efficiency boiler and a cooling machine as a reference system, an individual electric heat pump with an individual aquifer as a heat source, cold storage, collective cogeneration, and a collective energy plant with cogeneration and an electric heat pump. Also an overview is given of the changes that are taking place in the tariffs for natural gas, e.g. the use of so-called Commodity Services. Finally, the impact on prices of natural gas and electricity of the fact that the tax-free threshold of the regulating energy levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch) will disappear is investigated. 5 refs

  5. Quem fala por meio do testemunho? Alguns apontamentos teórico-metodológicos sobre a escrita testemunhal a partir da literatura de Primo Levi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Amaral Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Quando falamos de testemunho pensamos na possibilidade dele revelar a “verdade” objetiva dos eventos, na qual o que importa são os fatos que levariam, por exemplo, à condenação de um sujeito ou governo. Neste ensaio, tentarei explorar brevemente, a partir dos depoimentos memorialísticos do escritor italiano Primo Levi, outra dimensão do testemunho: trata-se dele como produtor de uma verdade proveniente da dimensão subjetiva da vida social, das experiências vividas pelos sujeitos, suas narrativas e simbolizações do sofrimento, individual e coletivo. O testemunho de indivíduos marginais e estigmatizados possui um valor bastante significativo para a sociologia, pois ilustra, mais que uma representação objetiva e acabada de fatos vivenciados, elementos subjetivos que, apesar de possuírem incompletudes e inconstâncias, narram experiências heterogêneas de um determinado trauma. Mas, mesmo considerando o testemunho como instrumento importante de documentação e verificação da realidade histórica, uma problematização deve ser feita: a subjetividade inerente à representação literária diminui ou restringe o valor dos testemunhos sobre experiências de extrema violência? Isto é, que tipos de problemas e lacunas o testemunho do trauma, tomado como documento empírico, poderia suscitar?

  6. IVGEN Post Flight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquillen, John; Brown, Dan; Hussey, Sam; Zoldak, John

    2014-01-01

    The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment was a technology demonstration experiment that purified ISS potable water, mixed it with salt, and transferred it through a sterilizing filter. On-orbit performance was verified as appropriate and two 1.5 l bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA certified laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopiea (USP) standards. Salt concentration deviated from required values and an analysis identified probable causes. Current efforts are focused on Total Organic Content (TOC) testing, and shelf life.The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment demonstrated the purification of ISS potable water, the mixing of the purified water with sodium chloride, and sterilization of the solution via membrane filtration. On-orbit performance was monitored where feasible and two 1.5-liter bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA-registered laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP)standards [1]. Current efforts have been focused on challenge testing with identified [2] impurities (total organic-carbon), and shelf life testing. The challenge testing flowed known concentrations of contaminants through the IVGEN deionizing cartridge and membrane filters to test their effectiveness. One finding was that the filters and DI-resin themselves contribute to the contaminant load during initial startup, suggesting that the first 100 ml of fluid be discarded. Shelf life testing is ongoing and involves periodic testing of stored DI cartridges and membrane filters that are capped and sealed in hermetic packages. The testing is conducted at six month intervals measuring conductivity and endotoxins in the effluent. Currently, the packaging technique has been successfully demonstrated for one year of storage testing. The USP standards specifies that the TOC be conducted at point of generation as opposed to point of

  7. Radiations and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalouf, M.; Vogin, G.; Foray, N.; Maalouf; Vogin, G.

    2011-01-01

    A space flight is submitted to 3 main sources of radiation: -) cosmic radiation (4 protons/cm 2 /s and 10000 times less for the heaviest particles), -) solar radiation (10 8 protons/cm 2 /s in the solar wind), -) the Van Allen belt around the earth: the magnetosphere traps particles and at an altitude of 500 km the proton flux can reach 100 protons/cm 2 /s. If we take into account all the spatial missions performed since 1960, we get an average dose of 400 μGray per day with an average dose rate of 0.28 μGray/mn. A significant risk of radiation-induced cancer is expected for missions whose duration is over 250 days.The cataract appears to be the most likely non-cancerous health hazard due to the exposition to comic radiation. Its risk appears to have been under-estimated, particularly for doses over 8 mGray. Some studies on astronauts have shown for some a very strong predisposition for radio-induced cancers: during the reparation phase of DNA breaking due to irradiation, multiple new damages are added by the cells themselves that behave abnormally. (A.C.)

  8. IceBridge Mission Flight Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Mission Flight Reports data set contains flight reports from NASA Operation IceBridge Greenland, Arctic, Antarctic, and Alaska missions. Flight reports...

  9. Change in non-alcoholic beverage sales following a 10-pence levy on sugar-sweetened beverages within a national chain of restaurants in the UK: interrupted time series analysis of a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelsen, Laura; Mytton, Oliver T; Adams, Jean; Gasparrini, Antonio; Iskander, Dalia; Knai, Cecile; Petticrew, Mark; Scott, Courtney; Smith, Richard; Thompson, Claire; White, Martin; Cummins, Steven

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluates changes in sales of non-alcoholic beverages in Jamie's Italian, a national chain of commercial restaurants in the UK, following the introduction of a £0.10 per-beverage levy on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and supporting activity including beverage menu redesign, new products and establishment of a children's health fund from levy proceeds. We used an interrupted time series design to quantify changes in sales of non-alcoholic beverages 12 weeks and 6 months after implementation of the levy, using itemised electronic point of sale data. Main outcomes were number of SSBs and other non-alcoholic beverages sold per customer. Linear regression and multilevel random effects models, adjusting for seasonality and clustering, were used to investigate changes in SSB sales across all restaurants (n=37) and by tertiles of baseline restaurant SSB sales per customer. Compared with the prelevy period, the number of SSBs sold per customer declined by 11.0% (-17.3% to -4.3%) at 12 weeks and 9.3% (-15.2% to -3.2%) at 6 months. For non-levied beverages, sales per customer of children's fruit juice declined by 34.7% (-55.3% to -4.3%) at 12 weeks and 9.9% (-16.8% to -2.4%) at 6 months. At 6 months, sales per customer of fruit juice increased by 21.8% (14.0% to 30.2%) but sales of diet cola (-7.3%; -11.7% to -2.8%) and bottled waters (-6.5%; -11.0% to -1.7%) declined. Changes in sales were only observed in restaurants in the medium and high tertiles of baseline SSB sales per customer. Introduction of a £0.10 levy on SSBs alongside complementary activities is associated with declines in SSB sales per customer in the short and medium term, particularly in restaurants with higher baseline sales of SSBs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng

  11. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  12. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi; Garcia, Daniel; Calo, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  13. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  14. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2014-08-19

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  15. Theseus Landing Following Maiden Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft shows off its high aspect-ratio wing as it comes in for a landing on Rogers Dry Lake after its first test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 24, 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able

  16. "Space flight is utter bilge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Despite skepticism and ridicule from scientists and the public alike, a small handful of dreamers kept faith in their vision of space flight and planned for the day when humanity would break loose from Earth.

  17. Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.

  18. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  19. La cuentística erótica de Jaramillo Levi a través de sus máquinas deseantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima R. Nogueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la narrativa de Jaramillo Levi centrada en la relación entre el erotismo y la muerte, desde el intercambio de dos fuerzas que actúan en la producción del deseo: una, de naturaleza libidinosa e inconsciente, la otra de filiación social. Estos relatos exploran el vínculo entre las pulsiones sexuales y el instinto de la muerte revelando el exceso y la violencia ocultos en el erotismo; además, plasman la magnitud del deseo que al exceder los límites del cuerpo y del individuo deviene una experiencia de la sexualidad inhumana reafirmada sólo por un campo saturado de intensidades y vibraciones. Partiendo de la teoría lacaniana del deseo, y de conceptos de Deleuze y Guattari, en los relatos tal encuentro de fuerzas objetiviza el sujeto y cuestiona la noción antropomórfica de sexualidad. This study deals with Jaramillo Levi’s short stories centered on the relationship between eroticism and death, examining the exchange of two driving forces which create desire. The nature of one of these forces is unconscious and libidinous while the other is social. These stories explore the link between sexual drive and the death instinct, disclosing overindulgence and violence hidden behind eroticism. In addition, they depict the magnitude of desire, which upon exceeding the boundaries of the human body and the individual, becomes an experience of inhuman sexuality that can reaffirm itself only in a field permeated with intensity and vibrations. Considering Lacan’s theory of desire and other concepts from Deleuze and Guattari, the exchange of forces in these stories objectifies the subject and questions the anthropomorphic notion of sexuality.

  20. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    EVADES output. As mentioned above, GEnEVADOSE makes extensive use of ROOT version 6, the data analysis framework developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and the code is written to the C++11 standard (as are the other projects). My second project is the Automated Mission Reference Exposure Utility (AMREU).Unlike GEnEVADOSE, AMREU is a combination of three frameworks written in both Python and C++, also making use of ROOT (and PyROOT). Run as a combination of daily and weekly cron jobs, these macros query the SRAG database system to determine the active ISS missions, and query minute-by-minute radiation dose information from ISS-TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter), one of the radiation detectors onboard the ISS. Using this information, AMREU creates a corrected data set of daily radiation doses, addressing situations where TEPC may be offline or locked up by correcting doses for days with less than 95% live time (the total amount time the instrument acquires data) by averaging the past 7 days. As not all errors may be automatically detectable, AMREU also allows for manual corrections, checking an updated plaintext file each time it runs. With the corrected data, AMREU generates cumulative dose plots for each mission, and uses a Python script to generate a flight note file (.docx format) containing these plots, as well as information sections to be filled in and modified by the space weather environment officers with information specific to the week. AMREU is set up to run without requiring any user input, and it automatically archives old flight notes and information files for missions that are no longer active. My other projects involve cleaning up a large data set from the Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (CPDS), joining together many different data sets in order to clean up information in SRAG SQL databases, and developing other automated utilities for displaying information on active solar regions, that may be used by the

  1. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls. (a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional, and collective controls may not exhibit excessive breakout force, friction...

  2. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls. (a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional, and collective controls may not exhibit excessive breakout force, friction...

  3. F-14 in banked flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    NASA 991, an F-14 Navy Tomcat designated the F-14 (1X), is seen here in banked flight over the desert on a research flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The F-14 was used at Dryden between 1979 and 1985 in extensive high-angle-of-attack and spin-control-and-recovery tests. The NASA/Navy program, which included 212 total flights, acheived considerable improvement in the F-14 high-angle-of-attack flying qualities, improved departure and spin resistance, and contributed to substantial improvements in reducing 'wing rock,' (i.e., tilting from one side to another), at high angles of attack. The Navy had been experiencing inadvertant spin entries caused by the F-14's aileron rudder interconnect. The NASA/Navy/Grumman team developed and tested 4 different configurations of the aileron rudder interconnect to address the spin problem. These problems prompted the Navy to ask the manufacturer, Grumman, and NASA to investigate the issue. NASA 991 had numerous special additions for high-angle-of-attack and spin-recovery research. These included a battery-powered auxiliary power unit, a flight test nose boom, and a special spin recovery system, consisting of forward mounted, hydraulically actuated canards and an emergency spin chute. NASA's F-14 was first flown by NASA research pilots, but was later flown by Grumman, and by Navy test pilots from Patuxent River Naval Air Station (NAS). The Navy test flights with the spin research vehicle constituted the first program that incorporated air combat maneuvering in its test flights at Dryden. The Navy brought F-14s from Point Mugu and Miramar NAS in San Diego to test the new spin control laws in combat situations. Although the new control laws proved valuable, the Navy did not incorporate them into production F-14s until the F-14D, nearly 15 years later.

  4. Aurora Flight Sciences' Perseus B Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in June 1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST

  5. In-flight sleep of flight crew during a 7-hour rest break: implications for research and flight safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, T Leigh; Gander, Philippa H; van den Berg, Margo J; Graeber, R Curtis

    2013-01-01

    To assess the amount and quality of sleep that flight crew are able to obtain during flight, and identify factors that influence the sleep obtained. Flight crew operating flights between Everett, WA, USA and Asia had their sleep recorded polysomnographically for 1 night in a layover hotel and during a 7-h in-flight rest opportunity on flights averaging 15.7 h. Layover hotel and in-flight crew rest facilities onboard the Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. Twenty-one male flight crew (11 Captains, mean age 48 yr and 10 First Officers, mean age 35 yr). N/A. Sleep was recorded using actigraphy during the entire tour of duty, and polysomnographically in a layover hotel and during the flight. Mixed model analysis of covariance was used to determine the factors affecting in-flight sleep. In-flight sleep was less efficient (70% vs. 88%), with more nonrapid eye movement Stage 1/Stage 2 and more frequent awakenings per h (7.7/h vs. 4.6/h) than sleep in the layover hotel. In-flight sleep included very little slow wave sleep (median 0.5%). Less time was spent trying to sleep and less sleep was obtained when sleep opportunities occurred during the first half of the flight. Multivariate analyses suggest age is the most consistent factor affecting in-flight sleep duration and quality. This study confirms that even during long sleep opportunities, in-flight sleep is of poorer quality than sleep on the ground. With longer flight times, the quality and recuperative value of in-flight sleep is increasingly important for flight safety. Because the age limit for flight crew is being challenged, the consequences of age adversely affecting sleep quantity and quality need to be evaluated.

  6. System Identification of Flight Mechanical Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Roger

    2013-01-01

    With the demand for more advanced fighter aircraft, relying on relaxed stability or even unstable flight mechanical characteristics to gain flight performance, more focus has been put on model-based system engineering to help with the design work. The flight control system design is one important part that relies on this modeling. Therefore it has become more important to develop flight mechanical models that are highly accurate in the whole flight envelop. For today’s newly developed fighter...

  7. Supersonic Retropropulsion Flight Test Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Ethan A.; Dupzyk, Ian C.; Korzun, Ashley M.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Tanimoto, Rebekah L.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program has proposed plans for a series of three sub-scale flight tests at Earth for supersonic retropropulsion, a candidate decelerator technology for future, high-mass Mars missions. The first flight test in this series is intended to be a proof-of-concept test, demonstrating successful initiation and operation of supersonic retropropulsion at conditions that replicate the relevant physics of the aerodynamic-propulsive interactions expected in flight. Five sub-scale flight test article concepts, each designed for launch on sounding rockets, have been developed in consideration of this proof-of-concept flight test. Commercial, off-the-shelf components are utilized as much as possible in each concept. The design merits of the concepts are compared along with their predicted performance for a baseline trajectory. The results of a packaging study and performance-based trade studies indicate that a sounding rocket is a viable launch platform for this proof-of-concept test of supersonic retropropulsion.

  8. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in...

  9. Human tolerance to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    1989-01-01

    Medical studies of astronauts and cosmonauts before, during, and after space missions have identified several effects of weightlessness and other factors that influence the ability of humans to tolerate space flight. Weightlessness effects include space motion sickness, cardiovascular abnormalities, reduction in immune system function, loss of red blood cells, loss of bone mass, and muscle atrophy. Extravehicular activity (EVA) increases the likelihood that decompression sickness may occur. Radiation also gives reason for concern about health of crewmembers, and psychological factors are important on long-term flights. Countermeasures that have been used include sensory preadaptation, prebreathing and use of various air mixtures for EVA, loading with water and electrolytes, exercise, use of pharmacological agents and special diets, and psychological support. It appears that humans can tolerate and recover satisfactorily from at least one year of space flight, but a number of conditions must be further ameliorated before long-duration missions can be considered routine.

  10. X-36 during First Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The remotely-piloted X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft climbs out from Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center on its first flight in May 1997. The aircraft flew for five minutes and reached an altitude of approximately 4,900 feet. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19

  11. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Starr Renee

    2015-01-01

    Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project, sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  12. CHANGES IN FLIGHT TRAINEE PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING SYNTHETIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT TRAINING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A…

  13. Flight Attendant Fatigue: A Quantitative Review of Flight Attendant Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Hellesoy, 1994; Hunt & Space, 1994; Nagda & Koontz , 2003; Nesthus et al., 2007; Rayman, 1997; Smolensky, Lee, Mott, & Colligan, 1982; Tashkin...www.boeing. com/commercial/cabinair/ventilation.pdf Nagda, N.L., & Koontz , M.D. (2003). Review of studies on flight attendant health and comfort in

  14. Orion Exploration Flight Test Post-Flight Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The principal mechanism for developing orbital debris environment models, is to make observations of larger pieces of debris in the range of several centimeters and greater using radar and optical techniques. For particles that are smaller than this threshold, breakup and migration models of particles to returned surfaces in lower orbit are relied upon to quantify the flux. This reliance on models to derive spatial densities of particles that are of critical importance to spacecraft make the unique nature of the EFT-1's return surface a valuable metric. To this end detailed post-flight inspections have been performed of the returned EFT-1 backshell, and the inspections identified six candidate impact sites that were not present during the pre-flight inspections. This paper describes the post-flight analysis efforts to characterize the EFT-1 mission craters. This effort included ground based testing to understand small particle impact craters in the thermal protection material, the pre- and post-flight inspection, the crater analysis using optical, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, and numerical simulations.

  15. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng

    2008-03-01

    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  16. MORTALITY MODELING WITH LEVY PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Serhat Yucel, FRM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mortality and longevity risk is usually one of the main risk components ineconomic capital models of insurance companies. Above all, future mortalityexpectations are an important input in the modeling and pricing of long termproducts. Deviations from the expectation can lead insurance company even todefault if sufficient reserves and capital is not held. Thus, Modeling of mortalitytime series accurately is a vital concern for the insurance industry. The aim of thisstudy is to perform distributional and spectral testing to the mortality data andpracticed discrete and continuous time modeling. We believe, the results and thetechniques used in this study will provide a basis for Value at Risk formula incase of mortality.

  17. TERRAIN, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. HYDRAULICS, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  19. SURVEY, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. BASEMAP, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  1. HYDROLOGY, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. STS-70 Post Flight Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Glen (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    In this post-flight overview, the flight crew of the STS-70 mission, Tom Henricks (Cmdr.), Kevin Kregel (Pilot), Major Nancy Currie (MS), Dr. Mary Ellen Weber (MS), and Dr. Don Thomas (MS), discuss their mission and accompanying experiments. Pre-flight, launch, and orbital footage is followed by the in-orbit deployment of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) and a discussion of the following spaceborne experiments: a microgravity bioreactor experiment to grow 3D body-like tissue; pregnant rat muscular changes in microgravity; embryonic development in microgravity; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX); terrain surface imagery using the HERCULES camera; and a range of other physiological tests, including an eye and vision test. Views of Earth include: tropical storm Chantal; the Nile River and Red Sea; lightning over Brazil. A three planet view (Earth, Mars, and Venus) was taken right before sunrise. The end footage shows shuttle pre-landing checkout, entry, and landing, along with a slide presentation of the flight.

  3. ALICE Time Of Flight Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Alici, A

    2013-01-01

    Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector. The time measurement with the TOF, in conjunction with the momentum and track length measured by the tracking detector, is used to calculate the particle mass.

  4. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  5. Centennial of Flight Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Marianne (Technical Monitor); Miller, Susan (Technical Monitor); Vanderpool, Celia

    2003-01-01

    The Centennial of Flight Education Outreach project worked with community partners to disseminate NASA Education materials and the Centennial of Flight CD-ROM as a vehicle to increase national awareness of NASA's Aerospace Education products, services and programs. The Azimuth Education Foundation and the Ninety Nines, an International Women Pilots Association, Inc. were chartered to conduct education outreach to the formal and informal educational community. The Dryden Education Office supported the development of a training and information distribution program that established a national group of prepared Centennial of Flight Ambassadors, with a mission of community education outreach. These Ambassadors are members of the Ninety Nines and through the Azimuth Foundation, they assisted the AECC on the national level to promote and disseminate Centennial of Flight and other educational products. Our objectives were to explore partnership outreach growth opportunities with consortium efforts between organizations. This project directly responded to the highlights of NASA s Implementation Plan for Education. It was structured to network, involve the community, and provide a solid link to active educators and current students with NASA education information. Licensed female pilots who live and work in local communities across the nation carried the link. This partnership has been extremely gratifying to all of those Ninety-Nines involved, and they eagerly look forward to further work opportunities.

  6. Cytogenic Investigations in Flight Personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.; Obe, G.; Bergau, L.

    1999-01-01

    During long-distance flights at high altitudes flight personnel are exposed to cosmic radiation. In order to determine whether there are biological effects of such low dose radiation exposure in aircrew, chromosomal aberrations were investigated in 59 female cabin attendants and a matched control group of 31 members of station personnel. The mean number of dicentric chromosomes amounts to 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6) per 1,000 cells in cabin attendants and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9) per 1,000 cells in controls. In an additional control group of 56 female clerks from Berlin the mean frequency of dicentric chromosomes was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6). Neither in dicentric frequency and distribution nor in other aberrations was a significant difference between the groups of flight and station personnel found. The high frequency of multi-aberrant cells was remarkable in flight personnel as well as in station personnel. The reason for this phenomenon is unknown and needs further investigation. (author)

  7. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  8. In-Flight Sleep of Flight Crew During a 7-hour Rest Break: Implications for Research and Flight Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, T. Leigh; Gander, Philippa H.; van den Berg, Margo J.; Graeber, R. Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the amount and quality of sleep that flight crew are able to obtain during flight, and identify factors that influence the sleep obtained. Design: Flight crew operating flights between Everett, WA, USA and Asia had their sleep recorded polysomnographically for 1 night in a layover hotel and during a 7-h in-flight rest opportunity on flights averaging 15.7 h. Setting: Layover hotel and in-flight crew rest facilities onboard the Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. Participants: Twenty-one male flight crew (11 Captains, mean age 48 yr and 10 First Officers, mean age 35 yr). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Sleep was recorded using actigraphy during the entire tour of duty, and polysomnographically in a layover hotel and during the flight. Mixed model analysis of covariance was used to determine the factors affecting in-flight sleep. In-flight sleep was less efficient (70% vs. 88%), with more nonrapid eye movement Stage 1/Stage 2 and more frequent awakenings per h (7.7/h vs. 4.6/h) than sleep in the layover hotel. In-flight sleep included very little slow wave sleep (median 0.5%). Less time was spent trying to sleep and less sleep was obtained when sleep opportunities occurred during the first half of the flight. Multivariate analyses suggest age is the most consistent factor affecting in-flight sleep duration and quality. Conclusions: This study confirms that even during long sleep opportunities, in-flight sleep is of poorer quality than sleep on the ground. With longer flight times, the quality and recuperative value of in-flight sleep is increasingly important for flight safety. Because the age limit for flight crew is being challenged, the consequences of age adversely affecting sleep quantity and quality need to be evaluated. Citation: Signal TL; Gander PH; van den Berg MJ; Graeber RC. In-flight sleep of flight crew during a 7-hour rest break: implications for research and flight safety. SLEEP 2013;36(1):109–115. PMID:23288977

  9. Altitude exposures during commercial flight: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B; Kregenow, David A; Mahoney, Anne M; Kirtland, Steven H; Horan, Kathleen L; Holm, James R; Gerbino, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia during commercial air travel has the potential to cause or worsen hypoxemia in individuals with pre-existing cardiopulmonary compromise. Knowledge of cabin altitude pressures aboard contemporary flights is essential to counseling patients accurately about flying safety. The objective of the study was to measure peak cabin altitudes during U.S. domestic commercial flights on a variety of aircraft. A handheld mountaineering altimeter was carried by the investigators in the plane cabin during commercial air travel and peak cabin altitude measured. The values were then compared between aircraft models, aircraft classes, and distances flown. The average peak cabin altitude on 207 flights aboard 17 different aircraft was 6341 +/- 1813 ft (1933 m +/- 553 m), significantly higher than when measured in a similar fashion in 1988. Peak cabin altitude was significantly higher for flights longer than 750 mi (7085 +/- 801 ft) compared to shorter flights (5160 +/- 2290 ft/1573 +/- 698 m). Cabin altitude increased linearly with flight distance for flights up to 750 mi in length, but was independent of flight distance for flights exceeding 750 mi. Peak cabin altitude was less than 5000 ft (1524 m) in 70% of flights shorter than 500 mi. Peak cabin altitudes greater than 8000 ft (2438 m) were measured on approximately 10% of the total flights. Peak cabin altitude on commercial aircraft flights has risen over time. Cabin altitude is lower with flights of shorter distance. Physicians should take these factors into account when determining an individual's need for supplemental oxygen during commercial air travel.

  10. Alternatives to the EEG levy. Possible effects of a reform of the energy transition financing on the industry; Alternativen zur EEG-Umlage. Moegliche Auswirkungen einer Reform der Energiewende-Finanzierung auf die Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheyhing, Joerg [ECG Energie Consulting GmbH, Kehl (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Although it has been adjusted six times since the year 2000, it has not yet been possible to manage the unrestricted growth of the EEG levy. In the 2017 election year, it becomes therefore ever more obvious that an alternative way to finance the energy transition is high on the political agenda. This would lead to significant changes for energy-intensive companies, regardless of whether they have benefited from a release from the levy or not. At the same time, the alternatives currently discussed have quite different effects on the industrial companies concerned and thereby the industry location Germany. [German] Obwohl seit dem Jahr 2000 inzwischen sechsmal angepasst, ist es bisher nicht gelungen, den ungebremsten Anstieg der EEG-Umlage in den Griff zu bekommen. Im Wahljahr 2017 wird deshalb immer offensichtlicher, dass ein alternativer Weg zur Finanzierung der Energiewende weit oben auf der politischen Tagesordnung steht. Damit kaemen auf die energieintensiven Unternehmen signifikante Veraenderungen zu, und zwar unabhaengig davon, ob sie bisher von einer Befreiung von der Umlage profitiert haben oder nicht. Dabei haben die derzeit diskutierten Alternativen durchaus unterschiedliche Auswirkungen auf die betroffenen Industrieunternehmen und damit den Wirtschaftsstandort Deutschland.

  11. Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewoehner, Kevin R.; Carter, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The research accomplishments for the cooperative agreement 'Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)' include the following: (1) previous IFC program data collection and analysis; (2) IFC program support site (configured IFC systems support network, configured Tornado/VxWorks OS development system, made Configuration and Documentation Management Systems Internet accessible); (3) Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS) II Hardware (developed hardware requirements specification, developing environmental testing requirements, hardware design, and hardware design development); (4) ARTS II software development laboratory unit (procurement of lab style hardware, configured lab style hardware, and designed interface module equivalent to ARTS II faceplate); (5) program support documentation (developed software development plan, configuration management plan, and software verification and validation plan); (6) LWR algorithm analysis (performed timing and profiling on algorithm); (7) pre-trained neural network analysis; (8) Dynamic Cell Structures (DCS) Neural Network Analysis (performing timing and profiling on algorithm); and (9) conducted technical interchange and quarterly meetings to define IFC research goals.

  12. Flight to Safety from European Stock Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte

    -return trade-off is positive and during flight-to-safety episodes it is negative. The effects of flight-to-safety episodes on the risk-return trade-off are qualitatively similar for own country flight-to-safety episodes, for flight from own country stock market to the US bond market, and for US flight......This paper investigates flight-to-safety from stocks to bonds in seven European markets. We use quantile regressions to identify flight-to-safety episodes. The simple risk-return trade-off on the stock markets is negative which is caused by flight-to-safety episodes: During normal periods, the risk...

  13. Post-Flight Data Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Marina

    2018-01-01

    A software tool that facilitates the retrieval and analysis of post-flight data. This allows our team and other teams to effectively and efficiently analyze and evaluate post-flight data in order to certify commercial providers.

  14. Optimized Lift for Autonomous Formation Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Experimental in-flight evaluations have demonstrated that the concept of formation flight can reduce fuel consumption of trailing aircraft by 10 percent. Armstrong...

  15. GRIP FLIGHT TRACKS AND ANIMATIONS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Flight Tracks and Animations dataset includes both KML files and animation files. The KML files use Google Earth to show the flight tracks on a map. The...

  16. F-15 IFCS Intelligent Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the F-15 aircraft, flight tests, aircraft performance and overall advanced neural network based flight control technologies for aerospace systems designs.

  17. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  18. Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight...

  19. Positive Exchange of Flight Controls Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-10

    This advisory circular provides guidance for all pilots, especially student pilots, flight instructors, and pilot examiners, on the recommended procedure to use for the positive exchange of flight controls between pilots when operating an aircraft.

  20. Free Flight Rotorcraft Flight Test Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, W. Todd; Walker, Gregory W.

    1994-01-01

    A rotary wing, unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is being developed as a research tool at the NASA Langley Research Center by the U.S. Army and NASA. This development program is intended to provide the rotorcraft research community an intermediate step between rotorcraft wind tunnel testing and full scale manned flight testing. The technologies under development for this vehicle are: adaptive electronic flight control systems incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, small-light weight sophisticated sensors, advanced telepresence-telerobotics systems and rotary wing UAV operational procedures. This paper briefly describes the system's requirements and the techniques used to integrate the various technologies to meet these requirements. The paper also discusses the status of the development effort. In addition to the original aeromechanics research mission, the technology development effort has generated a great deal of interest in the UAV community for related spin-off applications, as briefly described at the end of the paper. In some cases the technologies under development in the free flight program are critical to the ability to perform some applications.

  1. The dynamics of parabolic flight: Flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 s of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 s of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity." Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  2. 14 CFR 415.115 - Flight safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 415.115 Section 415.115... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.115 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety analysis. An applicant's...

  3. 14 CFR 417.107 - Flight safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 417.107 Section 417.107... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.107 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety... safety system that satisfies subpart D of this part as follows, unless § 417.125 applies. (1) In the...

  4. 14 CFR 121.387 - Flight engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer. 121.387 Section 121.387..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.387 Flight engineer. No... holding a current flight engineer certificate. For each airplane type certificated after January 1, 1964...

  5. Radiation investigations during space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatov, A.Yu.; Nevzgodina, L.V.; Sakovich, V.A.; Fekher, I.; Deme, Sh.; Khashchegan, D.

    1986-01-01

    Results of radiation investigations during ''Salyut-6'' orbital station flight are presented. The program of studying the environmental radioactivity at the station included ''Integral'' and ''Pille'' experiments. In the course of the ''Integral'' experiment absorbed dose distributions of cosmic radiation and heavy charged particle fluence for long time intervals were studied. Method, allowing one to study dose distributions and determine individual doses for any time interval rapidity and directly on board the station was tested in the course of ''Pille'' experiment for the first time. Attention is paid to measuring equipment. Effect of heavy charged particles on the cellular structure of air-dry Lactuca sativa lettuce seeds was studied in the course of radiobiological experiments conducted at ''Salyut-6'' station. It is shown, that with the increase of flight duration the frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations increases

  6. Time-of-flight spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrico, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The flight time of an ion in an inhomogeneous, oscillatory electric field (IOFE) is an m/e-dependent property of this field and is independent of the initial position and velocity. The d.c. component of the equation of motion for an ion in the IOFE describes a harmonic oscillation of constant period. When ions oscillate for many periods with one species overtaking another the motion may no longer be truly periodic although the resulting period or 'quasi-period' still remains independent of the initial conditions. This period or 'quasi-period' is used in the time-of-flight mass spectrometer described. The principle of operation is also described and both analytical and experimental results are reported. (B.D.)

  7. ALICE Time of Flight Module

    CERN Multimedia

    The Time-Of-Flight system of ALICE consists of 90 such modules, each containing 15 or 19 Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) strips. This detector is used for identification of charged particles. It measures with high precision (50 ps) the time of flight of charged particles and therefore their velocity. The curvature of the particle trajectory inside the magnetic field gives the momentum, thus the particle mass is calculated and the particle is identified The MRPC is a stack of resistive glass plates, separated from each other by nylon fishing line. The mass production of the chambers (~1600, covering a surface of 150 m2) was done at INFN Bologna, while the first prototypes were bult at CERN.

  8. CFD applications in hypersonic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    Design studies are underway for a variety of hypersonic flight vehicles. The National Aero-Space Plane will provide a reusable, single-stage-to-orbit capability for routine access to low earth orbit. Flight-capable satellites will dip into the atmosphere to maneuver to new orbits, while planetary probes will decelerate at their destination by atmospheric aerobraking. To supplement limited experimental capabilities in the hypersonic regime, CFD is being used to analyze the flow about these configurations. The governing equations include fluid dynamic as well as chemical species equations, which are solved with robust upwind differencing schemes. Examples of CFD applications to hypersonic vehicles suggest an important role this technology will play in the development of future aerospace systems. The computational resources needed to obtain solutions are large, but various strategies are being exploited to reduce the time required for complete vehicle simulations.

  9. Flight test trajectory control analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1983-01-01

    Recent extensions to optimal control theory applied to meaningful linear models with sufficiently flexible software tools provide powerful techniques for designing flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs). This report describes the principal steps for systematic development of flight trajectory controllers, which can be summarized as planning, modeling, designing, and validating a trajectory controller. The techniques have been kept as general as possible and should apply to a wide range of problems where quantities must be computed and displayed to a pilot to improve pilot effectiveness and to reduce workload and fatigue. To illustrate the approach, a detailed trajectory guidance law is developed and demonstrated for the F-15 aircraft flying the zoom-and-pushover maneuver.

  10. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight... they are capable of withstanding the effects of a fire. Engine vibration isolators must incorporate...

  11. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.412 Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.414: (1) A flight instructor (airplane) is a...

  12. X-1A in flight with flight data superimposed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-01-01

    This photo of the X-1A includes graphs of the flight data from Maj. Charles E. Yeager's Mach 2.44 flight on December 12, 1953. (This was only a few days short of the 50th anniversary of the Wright brothers' first powered flight.) After reaching Mach 2.44, then the highest speed ever reached by a piloted aircraft, the X-1A tumbled completely out of control. The motions were so violent that Yeager cracked the plastic canopy with his helmet. He finally recovered from a inverted spin and landed on Rogers Dry Lakebed. Among the data shown are Mach number and altitude (the two top graphs). The speed and altitude changes due to the tumble are visible as jagged lines. The third graph from the bottom shows the G-forces on the airplane. During the tumble, these twice reached 8 Gs or 8 times the normal pull of gravity at sea level. (At these G forces, a 200-pound human would, in effect, weigh 1,600 pounds if a scale were placed under him in the direction of the force vector.) Producing these graphs was a slow, difficult process. The raw data from on-board instrumentation recorded on oscillograph film. Human computers then reduced the data and recorded it on data sheets, correcting for such factors as temperature and instrument errors. They used adding machines or slide rules for their calculations, pocket calculators being 20 years in the future. Three second generation Bell Aircraft Corporations X-1s were built, though four were requested. They were the X-1A (48-1384); X-1B (48-1385); X-1C (canceled and never built); X-1D (48-1386). These aircraft were similar to the X-1s, except they were five feet longer, had conventional canopies, and were powered by Reaction Motors, Inc. XLR11-RM-5 rocket engines. The RM-5, like the previous engines, had no throttle and was controlled by igniting one or more of the four thrust chambers at will. The original program outline called for the X-1A and X-1B to be used for dynamic stability and air loads investigations. The X-1D was to be used

  13. STS 63: Post flight presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    At a post flight conference, Captain Jim Wetherbee, of STS Flight 63, introduces each of the other members of the STS 63 crew (Eileen Collins, Pilot; Dr. Bernard Harris, Payload Commander; Dr. Michael Foale, Mission Specialist from England; Dr. Janice Voss, Mission Specialist; and Colonel Vladimir Titor, Mission Specialist from Russia), gave a short autobiography of each member and a brief description of their assignment during this mission. A film was shown that included the preflight suit-up, a view of the launch site, the actual night launch, a tour of the Space Shuttle and several of the experiment areas, several views of earth and the MIR Space Station and cosmonauts, the MlR-Space Shuttle rendezvous, the deployment of the Spartan Ultraviolet Telescope, Foale and Harris's EVA and space walk, the retrieval of Spartan, and the night entry home, including the landing. Several spaceborne experiments were introduced: the radiation monitoring experiment, environment monitoring experiment, solid surface combustion experiment, and protein crystal growth and plant growth experiments. This conference ended with still, color pictures, taken by the astronauts during the entire STS 63 flight, being shown.

  14. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Karl Axel

    In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for

  15. Flight Test Maneuvers for Efficient Aerodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.

  16. The Orion Exploration Flight Test Post Flight Solid Particle Flight Environment Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Orbital debris in the millimeter size range can pose a hazard to current and planned spacecraft due to the high relative impact speeds in Earth orbit. Fortunately, orbital debris has a relatively short life at lower altitudes due to atmospheric effects; however, at higher altitudes orbital debris can survive much longer and has resulted in a band of high flux around 700 to 1,500 km above the surface of the Earth. While large orbital debris objects are tracked via ground based observation, little information can be gathered about small particles except by returned surfaces, which until the Orion Exploration Flight Test number one (EFT-1), has only been possible for lower altitudes (400 to 500 km). The EFT-1 crew module backshell, which used a porous, ceramic tile system with surface coatings, has been inspected post-flight for potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage. This paper describes the pre- and post-flight activities of inspection, identification and analysis of six candidate MMOD impact craters from the EFT-1 mission.

  17. The role of situation assessment and flight experience in pilots' decisions to continue visual flight rules flight into adverse weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Goh, Juliana; O'Hare, David

    2002-01-01

    Visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) is a major safety hazard in general aviation. In this study we examined pilots' decisions to continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC during a dynamic simulation of a cross-country flight. Pilots encountered IMC either early or later into the flight, and the amount of time and distance pilots flew into the adverse weather prior to diverting was recorded. Results revealed that pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather earlier in the flight flew longer into the weather prior to diverting and had more optimistic estimates of weather conditions than did pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather later in the flight. Both the time and distance traveled into the weather prior to diverting were negatively correlated with pilots' previous flight experience. These findings suggest that VFR flight into IMC may be attributable, at least in part, to poor situation assessment and experience rather than to motivational judgment that induces risk-taking behavior as more time and effort are invested in a flight. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of interventions that focus on improving weather evaluation skills in addition to addressing risk-taking attitudes.

  18. ‘From “bad” to “good”: Baroque architecture through a century of art historiography and politics’: Evonne Levy, Baroque and the Political Language of Formalism (1845-1945: Burckhardt, Wölfflin, Gurlitt, Brinckmann, Sedlmayr, 400 pp., 42 ills, Basel: Schwabe, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco M. Mascolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The political element in art history has often played a crucial role and has been individuated as such for artists or their clients. But the political elements that shaped art historical theories or pattern of interpretations are not always clearly addressed as object of analysis. With this book Evonne Levy offers an explanation of the role politics and historical circumstances had on the shaping of an art-historical discourse between 1845 and 1945, focusing her attention on five major Germanophone scholars that had a crucial role in the rediscovery and study of the architectural Baroque. The concept was, as Levy argues in this book, a perfect example to detect the political implications of formalism, which in its reception is often considered apolitical. Aiming to situate formalism in its historical context, Levy focuses primarily on characterising formalist researches about Baroque through the political and philosophical elements that influenced Jacob Burckhardt, Heinrich Wölfflin, Cornelius Gurlitt, Albert Erich Brinckmann and Hans Sedlmayr between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Levy demonstrates how Baroque, from a ‘bad’ style and a ‘bad’ element in German art hds gradually become a ‘good’ element of art-historical discourse, situating it at the crossroad between art history and politics.

  19. VIRTIS-M flight lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchiorri, R.; Piccioni, G.; Mazzoni, A.

    2003-01-01

    VIRTIS-M is a visible-infrared (VIS-IR) image spectrometer designed for the Rosetta mission; it intends to provide detailed informations on the physical, chemical, and mineralogical nature of comets and asteroids. The in-flight performances of VIRTIS-M are expected to be influenced by various disturbances, like the initial strong vibrations of the rocket, the long duration of the experiment (from 2003 to 2010), as well as other possible environmental changes; therefore, an in-flight recalibration procedure is mandatory. Quite often in such kinds of missions, a light emission diode (LED) is employed to calibrate the on-board spectrometers by taking advantage of the relative small dimensions, stability, and hardness of these sources. VIRTIS-M is the first image spectrometer that will use a new generation of lamps for internal calibrations. These new lamps are characterized by a wide spectral range with a blackbody-like emission with an effective temperature of about (2400-2600 K), thereby covering the whole VIRTIS-M's spectral range (0.2-5 μm); i.e., they offer the possibility of a wider spectral calibration in comparison with the quasimonochromatic LED emission. A precise spectral calibration is achieved by adding special filters for visible and infrared ranges in front of the window source, containing many narrow absorption lines. In the present article, we describe the calibration and tests of some flight prototypes of these lamps (VIS and IR), realized by the Officine Galileo and calibrated by the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica

  20. Ethernet for Space Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Evan; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The networking effort is a comprehensive one encompassing missions ranging from small University Explorer (UNEX) class spacecraft to large observatories such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Mission aspects such as flight hardware and software, ground station hardware and software, operations, RF communications, and security (physical and electronic) are all being addressed to ensure a complete end-to-end system solution. One of the current networking development efforts at GSFC is the SpaceLAN (Spacecraft Local Area Network) project, development of a space-qualifiable Ethernet network. To this end we have purchased an IEEE 802.3-compatible 10/100/1000 Media Access Control (MAC) layer Intellectual Property (IP) core and are designing a network node interface (NNI) and associated network components such as a switch. These systems will ultimately allow the replacement of the typical MIL-STD-1553/1773 and custom interfaces that inhabit most spacecraft. In this paper we will describe our current Ethernet NNI development along with a novel new space qualified physical layer that will be used in place of the standard interfaces. We will outline our plans for development of space qualified network components that will allow future spacecraft to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer. There will be a brief discussion of some issues surrounding system implications of a flight Ethernet. Finally, we will

  1. Lymphocytes on sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Pippia, P; Sciola, L; Cogoli, A

    1994-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the formation of cell aggregates are important events in the mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation. The fact that the formation of cell aggregates is only slightly reduced in microgravity suggests that cells are moving and interacting also in space, but direct evidence was still lacking. Here we report on two experiments carried out on a flight of the sounding rocket MAXUS 1B, launched in November 1992 from the base of Esrange in Sweden. The rocket reached the altitude of 716 km and provided 12.5 min of microgravity conditions.

  2. The flight of uncontrolled rockets

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, F R; Dryden, H L

    1964-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Aeronautics and Astronautics, Division VII, Volume 5: The Flight of Uncontrolled Rockets focuses on external ballistics of uncontrolled rockets. The book first discusses the equations of motion of rockets. The rocket as a system of changing composition; application of solidification principle to rockets; rotational motion of rockets; and equations of motion of the center of mass of rockets are described. The text looks at the calculation of trajectory of rockets and the fundamentals of rocket dispersion. The selection further focuses on the dispersion of f

  3. Consort 1 sounding rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Maybee, George W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a payload of six experiments developed for a 7-min microgravity flight aboard a sounding rocket Consort 1, in order to investigate the effects of low gravity on certain material processes. The experiments in question were designed to test the effect of microgravity on the demixing of aqueous polymer two-phase systems, the electrodeposition process, the production of elastomer-modified epoxy resins, the foam formation process and the characteristics of foam, the material dispersion, and metal sintering. The apparatuses designed for these experiments are examined, and the rocket-payload integration and operations are discussed.

  4. STS-72 Flight Day 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-72 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Brian Duffy, Pilot Brent W. Jett, and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao, Daniel T. Barry, Winston E. Scott, and Koichi Wakata (NASDA), awakened to music from the Walt Disney movie, 'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.' Chiao and Scott performed the second spacewalk of the mission where they tested equipment and work platforms that will be used in building the planned International Space Station. This spacewalk was almost seven hours long. Wakata conducted an interview with and answered questions from six graders from a Japanese school in Houston, Texas.

  5. F-8 SCW in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A Vought F-8A Crusader was selected by NASA as the testbed aircraft (designated TF-8A) to install an experimental Supercritical Wing in place of the conventional wing. The unique design of the Supercritical Wing (SCW) reduces the effect of shock waves on the upper surface near Mach 1, which in turn reduces drag. In this photograph a Vought F-8A Crusader is shown being used as a flying testbed for an experimental Supercritical Wing airfoil. The smooth fairing of the fiberglass glove with the wing is illustrated in this view. This is the configuration of the F-8 SCW aircraft late in the program. The SCW team fitted the fuselage with bulges fore and aft of the wings. This was similar to the proposed shape of a near-sonic airliner. Both the SCW airfoil and the bulged-fuselage design were optimal for cruise at Mach 0.98. Dr. Whitcomb (designer of the SCW) had previously spent about four years working on supersonic transport designs. He concluded that these were impractical due to their high operating costs. The high drag at speeds above Mach 1 resulted in greatly increased costs. Following the fuel-price rises caused by the October 1973 oil embargo, airlines lost interest in near-sonic transports. Rather, they wanted a design that would have lower fuel consumption. Dr. Whitcomb developed a modified supercritical-wing shape that provided higher lift-to-drag ratios at the same speeds. He did this by using thicker airfoil sections and a reduced wing sweepback. This resulted in an increased aspect ratio without an increase in wing weight. In the three decades since the F-8 SCW flew, the use of such airfoils has become common. The F-8 Supercritical Wing was a flight research project designed to test a new wing concept designed by Dr. Richard Whitcomb, chief of the Transonic Aerodynamics Branch, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Compared to a conventional wing, the supercritical wing (SCW) is flatter on the top and rounder on the bottom with a downward curve at the

  6. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  7. 14 CFR 63.23 - Special purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered civil airplanes... flight engineer or flight navigator duties on a civil airplane of U.S. registry, leased to a person not a... certificate holder is performing flight engineer or flight navigator duties on the U.S.-registered civil...

  8. STS-95 Post Flight Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-95 flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn present a video mission over-view of their space flight. Images include prelaunch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the "whiteroom" for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. The primary objectives, which include the conducting of a variety of science experiments in the pressurized SPACEHAB module, the deployment and retrieval of the Spartan free-flyer payload, and operations with the HST Orbiting Systems Test (HOST) and the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH) payloads are discussed in both the video and still photo presentation.

  9. Helicopter Flight Procedures for Community Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Eric

    2017-01-01

    A computationally efficient, semiempirical noise model suitable for maneuvering flight noise prediction is used to evaluate the community noise impact of practical variations on several helicopter flight procedures typical of normal operations. Turns, "quick-stops," approaches, climbs, and combinations of these maneuvers are assessed. Relatively small variations in flight procedures are shown to cause significant changes to Sound Exposure Levels over a wide area. Guidelines are developed for helicopter pilots intended to provide effective strategies for reducing the negative effects of helicopter noise on the community. Finally, direct optimization of flight trajectories is conducted to identify low noise optimal flight procedures and quantify the magnitude of community noise reductions that can be obtained through tailored helicopter flight procedures. Physically realizable optimal turns and approaches are identified that achieve global noise reductions of as much as 10 dBA Sound Exposure Level.

  10. Morphing flight control surface for advanced flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrick, Matt; Kwak, Seung-Keon; Yoon, Hwan-Sik

    2006-03-01

    A novel Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) system has been developed. The distinction of this research effort is that the SenAnTech team has incorporated our innovative Highly Deformable Mechanism (HDM) into our MFCS. The feasibility of this novel technology for deformable wing structures, such as airfoil shaping, warping or twisting with a flexure-based high displacement PZT actuator has been demonstrated via computational simulations such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD was implemented to verify the accuracy of the complex potential flow theory for this application. Then, complex potential flow theory, kinematics, geometry, and static force analysis were incorporated into a multidisciplinary GUI simulation tool. This tool has been used to aid the design of the MFCS. The results show that we can achieve up to five degrees of wing twisting with our proposed system, while using minimal volume within the wing and adding little weight.

  11. F-16XL ship #1 (#849) during first flight of the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    After completing its first flight with the Digital Flight Control System on December 16, 1997, the F-16XL #1 aircraft began a series of envelope expansion flights. On January 27 and 29, 1998, it successfully completed structural clearance tests, as well as most of the load testing Only flights at Mach 1.05 at 10,000 feet, Mach 1.1 at 15,000 feet, and Mach 1.2 at 20,000 feet remained. During the next flight, on February 4, an instrumentation problem cut short the planned envelope expansion tests. After the problem was corrected, the F-16XL returned to flight status, and on February 18 and 20, flight control and evaluation flights were made. Two more research flights were planned for the following week, but another problem appeared. During the ground start up, project personnel noticed that the leading edge flap moved without being commanded. The Digital Flight Control Computer was sent to the Lockheed-Martin facility at Fort Worth, where the problem was traced to a defective chip in the computer. After it was replaced, the F-16XL #1 flew a highly successful flight controls and handling qualities evaluation flight on March 26, clearing the way for the final tests. The final limited loads expansion flight occurred on March 31, and was fully successful. As a result, the on-site Lockheed-Martin loads engineer cleared the aircraft to Mach 1.8. The remaining two handling qualities and flight control evaluation flights were both made on April 3, 1998. These three flights concluded the flight test portion of the DFCS upgrade.

  12. Free Flight Ground Testing of ADEPT in Advance of the Sounding Rocket One Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. P.; Dutta, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) project will be conducting the first flight test of ADEPT, titled Sounding Rocket One (SR-1), in just two months. The need for this flight test stems from the fact that ADEPT's supersonic dynamic stability has not yet been characterized. The SR-1 flight test will provide critical data describing the flight mechanics of ADEPT in ballistic flight. These data will feed decision making on future ADEPT mission designs. This presentation will describe the SR-1 scientific data products, possible flight test outcomes, and the implications of those outcomes on future ADEPT development. In addition, this presentation will describe free-flight ground testing performed in advance of the flight test. A subsonic flight dynamics test conducted at the Vertical Spin Tunnel located at NASA Langley Research Center provided subsonic flight dynamics data at high and low altitudes for multiple center of mass (CoM) locations. A ballistic range test at the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamics Facility (HFFAF) located at NASA Ames Research Center provided supersonic flight dynamics data at low supersonic Mach numbers. Execution and outcomes of these tests will be discussed. Finally, a hypothesized trajectory estimate for the SR-1 flight will be presented.

  13. Flight performance of Galileo and Ulysses RTGs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemler, R.J.; Kelly, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    Flight performance data of the GPHS-RTGs (General Purpose Heat Source---Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators) on the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft are reported. Comparison of the flight data with analytical predictions is preformed. Differences between actual flight telemetry data and analytical predictions are addressed including the degree of uncertainty associated with the telemetry data. End of mission power level predictions are included for both missions with an overall assessment of RTG mission performances

  14. Psychology of Flight Attendant’s Profession

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana V. Filipieva

    2012-01-01

    The profession of a flight attendant appeared in aviation in the 1920s. Professional community of flight attendants is constantly growing with the growth of complexity of aviation technology, professional standards of passenger service and safety. The psychological scientific research was carried out by a psychologist who worked as a flight attendant. The study revealed the psychological content, demands, peculiarities in cabin crews' labor. A job description was accomplished. Temporal and sp...

  15. Numerical simulation of hypersonic flight experiment vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Yukimitsu; Yoshioka, Minako; 山本 行光; 吉岡 美菜子

    1994-01-01

    Hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of Hypersonic FLight EXperiment (HYFLEX vehicle were investigated by numerical simulations using Navier-Stokes CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code of NAL. Numerical results were compared with experimental data obtained at Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at NAL. In order to investigate real flight aerodynamic characteristics. numerical calculations corresponding to the flight conditions suffering from maximum aero thermodynamic heating were also made and the d...

  16. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  17. Theseus First Flight - May 24, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft shows off its high aspect-ratio wing as it lifts off from Rogers Dry Lake during its first test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 24, 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to

  18. Theseus Waits on Lakebed for First Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype remotely-piloted aircraft (RPA) waits on the lakebed before its first test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 24, 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental

  19. Advanced in-flight measurement techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Nicholas; Jentink, Henk; Kompenhans, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The book presents a synopsis of the main results achieved during the 3 year EU-project "Advanced Inflight Measurement Techniques (AIM)" which applied advanced image based measurement techniques to industrial flight testing. The book is intended to be not only an overview on the AIM activities but also a guide on the application of advanced optical measurement techniques for future flight testing. Furthermore it is a useful guide for engineers in the field of experimental methods and flight testing who face the challenge of a future requirement for the development of highly accurate non-intrusive in-flight measurement techniques.

  20. Flight Operations . [Zero Knowledge to Mission Complete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Greg; Apyan, Alex; Hillin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Outline the process that takes new hires with zero knowledge all the way to the point of completing missions in Flight Operations. Audience members should be able to outline the attributes of a flight controller and instructor, outline the training flow for flight controllers and instructors, and identify how the flight controller and instructor attributes are necessary to ensure operational excellence in mission prep and execution. Identify how the simulation environment is used to develop crisis management, communication, teamwork, and leadership skills for SGT employees beyond what can be provided by classroom training.

  1. Intelligent Flight Control Simulation Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stolarik, Brian

    2007-01-01

    ...). Under the program, entitled "Intelligent Flight Control Simulation Research Laboratory," a variety of technologies were investigated or developed during the course of the research for AFRL/VAC...

  2. Time Manager Software for a Flight Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoerne, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data to highlight useful information and suggest conclusions. Accurate timestamps and a timeline of vehicle events are needed to analyze flight data. By moving the timekeeping to the flight processor, there is no longer a need for a redundant time source. If each flight processor is initially synchronized to GPS, they can freewheel and maintain a fairly accurate time throughout the flight with no additional GPS time messages received. How ever, additional GPS time messages will ensure an even greater accuracy. When a timestamp is required, a gettime function is called that immediately reads the time-base register.

  3. 14 CFR 91.1095 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instructor certificate— (i) The fundamental principles of the teaching-learning process; (ii) Teaching... Management § 91.1095 Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight...

  4. 14 CFR 61.41 - Flight training received from flight instructors not certificated by the FAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the FAA. (a) A person may credit flight training toward the requirements of a pilot certificate or... flight instructor described in paragraph (a) of this section is only authorized to give endorsements to...

  5. Advanced transport operating system software upgrade: Flight management/flight controls software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Debure, Kelly R.; Dickson, Richard W.; Heaphy, William J.; Parks, Mark A.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Wolverton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software for the Norden 2 (PDP-11/70M) computer installed on the NASA 737 aircraft is described. The software computes the navigation position estimates, guidance commands, those commands to be issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight based on the modes selected on the Advanced Guidance Control System (AGSC) mode panel, and the flight path selected via the Navigation Control/Display Unit (NCDU).

  6. Flight Muscle Dimorphism and Heterogeneity in Flight Initiation of Field-Collected Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gurevitz, Juan M.; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent experiments demonstrated that most field-collected Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) adults from northern Argentina either never initiated flight or did so repeatedly in both sexes. This pattern could not be explained by sex, adult age, weight, weight-to-length ratio (W/L), or chance. We examined whether bugs that never initiated flight possessed developed flight muscles, and whether flight muscle mass relative to total body mass (FMR) was related to the probability of ...

  7. Echocardiography in the flight program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.; Mulvagh, Sharon L.

    1991-01-01

    Observations on American and Soviet astronauts have documented the association of changes in cardiovascular function during orthostasis with space flight. A basic understanding of the cardiovascular changes occurring in astronauts requires the determination of cardiac output and total peripheral vascular resistance as a minimum. In 1982, we selected ultrasound echocardiography as our means of acquiring this information. Ultrasound offers a quick, non-invasive and accurate means of determining stroke volume which, when combined with the blood pressure and heart rate measurements of the stand test, allows calculation of changes in peripheral vascular resistance, the body's major response to orthostatic stress. The history of echocardiography in the Space Shuttle Program is discussed and the results are briefly presented.

  8. The Aerodynamics of Frisbee Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Baumback

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This project will describe the physics of a common Frisbee in flight. The aerodynamic forces acting on the Frisbee are lift and drag, with lift being explained by Bernoulli‘s equation and drag by the Prandtl relationship. Using V. R. Morrison‘s model for the 2-dimensional trajectory of a Frisbee, equations for the x- and y- components of the Frisbee‘s motion were written in Microsoft Excel and the path of the Frisbee was illustrated. Variables such as angle of attack, area, and attack velocity were altered to see their effect on the Frisbee‘s path and to speculate on ways to achieve maximum distance and height.

  9. Flight Telerobotic Servicer prototype simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Rob; Krauze, Linda; Hartley, Craig; Dickenson, Alan; Lavecchia, Tom; Working, Bob

    A prototype simulator for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) system is described for use in the design development of the FTS, emphasizing the hand controller and user interface. The simulator utilizes a graphics workstation based on rapid prototyping tools for systems analyses of the use of the user interface and the hand controller. Kinematic modeling, manipulator-control algorithms, and communications programs are contained in the software for the simulator. The hardwired FTS panels and operator interface for use on the STS Orbiter are represented graphically, and the simulated controls function as the final FTS system configuration does. The robotic arm moves based on the user hand-controller interface, and the joint angles and other data are given on the prototype of the user interface. This graphics simulation tool provides the means for familiarizing crewmembers with the FTS system operation, displays, and controls.

  10. STS-72 Flight Day 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    On this second day of the STS-72 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Brian Duffy, Pilot Brent W. Jett, and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao, Daniel T. Barry, Winston E. Scott, and Koichi Wakata (NASDA), awakened to music from the motion picture 'Star Wars.' The crew performed a systems checkout, prepared for the retrieval of the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU), tested the spacesuits for the EVA, and activated some of the secondary experiments. An in-orbit news interview was conducted with the crew via satellite downlinking. Questions asked ranged from the logistics of the mission to the avoidance procedures the Endeavour Orbiter performed to miss hitting the inactive Air Force satellite, nicknamed 'Misty' (MSTI). Earth views included cloud cover, several storm systems, and various land masses with several views of the shuttle's open cargo bay in the foreground.

  11. Flexible wings in flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Lionel; Thiria, Benjamin; Zhang, Jun

    2007-11-01

    We study the effect of passive pitching and flexible deflection of wings on the forward flapping flight. The wings are flapped vertically in water and are allowed to move freely horizontally. The forward speed is chosen by the flapping wing itself by balance of drag and thrust. We show, that by allowing the wing to passively pitch or by adding a flexible extension at its trailing edge, the forward speed is significantly increased. Detailed measurements of wing deflection and passive pitching, together with flow visualization, are used to explain our observations. The advantage of having a wing with finite rigidity/flexibility is discussed as we compare the current results with our biological inspirations such as birds and fish.

  12. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  13. Biosafety in manned space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boever, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of manned exploration is to achieve a prolonged stay in space, for example in an orbital station (such as the International Space Station (ISS)) or in planetary bases on the Moon and/or Mars. It goes without saying that such missions can only be realized when the astronaut's health and well-being is secured. In this respect, the characterization of the microbiological contamination on board spacecraft and orbital stations and the influence of cosmic radiation and microgravity are of paramount importance. Microbial contamination may originate from different sources and includes the initial contamination of space flight materials during manufacturing and assembly, the delivery of supplies to the orbital station, the supplies themselves, secondary contamination during the lifetime of the orbital station, the crew and any other biological material on board e.g. animals, plants, micro-organisms used in scientific experiments. Although most microorganisms do not threaten human health, it has been reported that in a confined environment, such as a space cabin, microorganisms may produce adverse effects on the optimal performance of the space crew and the integrity of the spacecraft or habitat. These effects range from infections, allergies, and toxicities to degradation of air and water supplies. Biodegradation of critical materials may result in system failure and this may jeopardize the crew. The research aims at monitoring the biological airborne and surface contamination during manned space flight. The ISS has been selected as primary test bed for this study. The majority of the investigations are being done by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), which is responsible for monitoring the biological contamination in the habitable compartments of the ISS for safety and hygienic reasons. Within the frame of a collaboration between IBMP and the European Space Agency (ESA), SCK-CEN is able to participate in the analyses

  14. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  15. Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate neural network-based adaptive controller benefits, with the objective to develop and flight-test control systems using neural network technology to optimize aircraft performance under nominal conditions and stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This open-loop flight test set was performed in preparation for a future phase in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed - pitch frequency sweep and automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. Flight data examination shows that addition of flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved aircraft pitch handling qualities.

  16. Apollo experience report: Development flight instrumentation. [telemetry equipment for space flight test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, N. B.

    1974-01-01

    Development flight instrumentation was delivered for 25 Apollo vehicles as Government-furnished equipment. The problems and philosophies of an activity that was concerned with supplying telemetry equipment to a space-flight test program are discussed. Equipment delivery dates, system-design details, and flight-performance information for each mission also are included.

  17. 76 FR 16236 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR) by all U.S. air carriers; U.S. commercial operators...) Flight Information Region (FIR). (a) Applicability. This section applies to the following persons: (1...

  18. 78 FR 66261 - Certified Flight Instructor Flight Reviews; Recent Pilot in Command Experience; Airmen Online...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ...-0780; Amdt. No. 61-131] RIN 2120-AK23 Certified Flight Instructor Flight Reviews; Recent Pilot in Command Experience; Airmen Online Services; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Federal Aviation...-calendar month flight review requirements. This rule also clarifies that the generally applicable recent...

  19. 78 FR 56822 - Certified Flight Instructor Flight Reviews; Recent Pilot in Command Experience; Airmen Online...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...-0780; Amdt. No. 61-131] RIN 2120-AK23 Certified Flight Instructor Flight Reviews; Recent Pilot in Command Experience; Airmen Online Services AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... review requirements. This rule also clarifies that the generally applicable recent flight experience...

  20. Investigating Flight with a Toy Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Flight fascinates people of all ages. Recent advances in battery technology have extended the capabilities of model airplanes and toy helicopters. For those who have never outgrown a childhood enthusiasm for the wonders of flight, it is possible to buy inexpensive, remotely controlled planes and helicopters. A toy helicopter offers an opportunity…

  1. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  2. Maneuver of Spinning Rocket in Flight

    OpenAIRE

    HAYAKAWA, Satio; ITO, Koji; MATSUI, Yutaka; NOGUCHI, Kunio; UESUGI, Kuninori; YAMASHITA, Kojun

    1980-01-01

    A Yo-despin device successfully functioned to change in flight the precession axis of a sounding rocket for astronomical observation. The rocket attitudes before and after yodespin were measured with a UV star sensor, an infrared horizon sensor and an infrared telescope. Instrumentation and performance of these devices as well as the attitude data during flight are described.

  3. Design techniques for mutlivariable flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Techniques which address the multi-input closely coupled nature of advanced flight control applications and digital implementation issues are described and illustrated through flight control examples. The techniques described seek to exploit the advantages of traditional techniques in treating conventional feedback control design specifications and the simplicity of modern approaches for multivariable control system design.

  4. 75 FR 7345 - Filtered Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... digital flight data recorder regulations affecting certain air carriers and operators. This final rule prohibits the filtering of some original flight recorder sensor signals unless a certificate holder can show... A. Verna, Avionics Systems Branch, Aircraft Certification Service, AIR-130, Federal Aviation...

  5. Simulation of the Physics of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, W. Brian

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulations continue to prove to be a valuable tool in physics education. Based on the needs of an Aviation Physics course, we developed the PHYSics of FLIght Simulator (PhysFliS), which numerically solves Newton's second law for an airplane in flight based on standard aerodynamics relationships. The simulation can be used to pique…

  6. Habitability and Behavioral Issues of Space Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews group behavioral issues from past space missions and simulations such as the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test, Skylab missions, and Shuttle Spacelab I mission. Makes recommendations for future flights concerning commandership, crew selection, and ground-crew communications. Pre- and in-flight behavioral countermeasures are…

  7. Life-critical digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcwha, James

    1990-01-01

    Digital autopilot systems were first used on commercial airplanes in the late 1970s. The A-320 airplane was the first air transport airplane with a fly-by-wire primary flight control system. On the 767-X (777) airplane Boeing will install all fly-by-wire flight controls. Activities related to safety, industry status and program phases are discussed.

  8. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... altitude, in lieu of the 1 hour of flight training required in paragraph (a) of this section. (c) Except as... flight training and 1 hour of ground training. The review must include: (1) A review of the current... of ground training specified in paragraph (a) of this section. (g) A student pilot need not...

  9. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Erich

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  10. A Decentralized Approach to Formation Flight Routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.G.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.; Verhagen, C.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an optimization-based cooperative planning system for the efficient routing and scheduling of flight formations. This study considers the use of formation flight as a means to reduce the overall fuel consumption of civil aviation in long-haul operations. It

  11. Dosimetric system for prolonged manned flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatov, Yu.A.; Kovalev, E.E.; Sakovich, V.A.; Deme, Sh.; Fekher, I.; Nguen, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    Comments for the All-Union state standard 25645.202-83 named Radiation safety of a spacecraft crew during space flight. Requirements for personnel dosimetric control, are given. Devices for the dosimetric control used in manned space flights nowadays are reviewed. The performance principle and structure of the FEDOR dosimetric complex under development are discussed

  12. F-15 IFCS: Intelligent Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS). The goals of this project include: 1) Demonstrate revolutionary control approaches that can efficiently optimize aircraft performance in both normal and failure conditions; and 2) Demonstrate advance neural network-based flight control technology for new aerospace systems designs.

  13. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  14. Looking Up: Multimedia about Space and Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1998-01-01

    The best CD-ROMs for young people about space and flight exploit the promise of hypermedia to create informative simulations. This article provides an annotated bibliography of CD-ROMs on astronomy and flight for K-12 students; suggests book and Internet connections; and highlights poetry for astronomers, science fiction, a biography of Charles…

  15. Pernilla Craig Flight Around Lac Leman

    CERN Multimedia

    Goldfarb, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Aviator and future physicist Pernilla Craig visits CERN and is hosted by the Geneva Flight Club. Web pioneer Robert Cailliau helps in the preparations, flight instructor Aline Cosmetatos takes the co-pilot seat, and ATLAS outreach coordinator Steven Goldfarb serves cocktails from the back seat.

  16. Flight. Science Series Grades 4, 5, 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frensch, Helen

    The activities in this book are designed to reinforce the elementary concepts of flight. General background information, suggested activities, questions for discussion, and answers are provided. Twenty-eight reproducible worksheets are contained in this guide. Topics include: hot air balloons, the physics of flight, air resistance, airplane…

  17. 14 CFR 61.98 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN...) Navigation; (viii) Slow flight and stalls; (ix) Emergency operations; and (x) Postflight procedures. (2) For...

  18. 14 CFR 61.107 - Flight proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.107 Section 61.107 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN... reference maneuvers; (vii) Navigation; (viii) Slow flight and stalls; (ix) Basic instrument maneuvers; (x...

  19. FT 3 Flight Test Cards for Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.

  20. 14 CFR 63.43 - Flight engineer courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer courses. 63.43 Section 63...) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.43 Flight engineer courses. An applicant for approval of a flight engineer course must submit a letter to the Administrator...

  1. Remote radio control of insect flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sato

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely-controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  2. Remote radio control of insect flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E; Lavella, Gabriel; Vandenbrooks, John M; Harrison, Jon F; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  3. Shuttle operations era planning for flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, J. D.; Beckman, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) provides routine access to space for a wide range of customers in which cargos vary from single payloads on dedicated flights to multiple payloads that share Shuttle resources. This paper describes the flight operations planning process from payload introduction through flight assignment to execution of the payload objectives and the changes that have been introduced to improve that process. Particular attention is given to the factors that influence the amount of preflight preparation necessary to satisfy customer requirements. The partnership between the STS operations team and the customer is described in terms of their functions and responsibilities in the development of a flight plan. A description of the Mission Control Center (MCC) and payload support capabilities completes the overview of Shuttle flight operations.

  4. Young PHD's in Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2002-01-01

    The Cooperating Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) in cooperation with the NASA Office of Space Flight, Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise sponsored a summer institute, Young PHD#s (Persons Having Dreams) in Human Space Flight. This 3-day institute used the curriculum of a workshop designed for space professionals, 'Human Space Flight-Analysis and Design: An Integrated, Systematic Approach.' The content was tailored to a high school audience. This institute seeks to stimulate the interest of pre-college students in space flight and motivate them to pursue further experiences in this field. Additionally, this institute will serve as a pilot model for a pre- collegiate training program that can be replicated throughout the country. The institute was complemented with a trip to the Goddard Space Flight Center.

  5. A Survey of Open-Source UAV Flight Controllers and Flight Simulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Skriver, Martin; Terkildsen, Kristian Husum

    2018-01-01

    , which are all tightly linked to the UAV flight controller hardware and software. The lack of standardization of flight controller architectures and the use of proprietary closed-source flight controllers on many UAV platforms, however, complicates this work: solutions developed for one flight controller...... may be difficult to port to another without substantial extra development and testing. Using open-source flight controllers mitigates some of these challenges and enables other researchers to validate and build upon existing research. This paper presents a survey of the publicly available open...

  6. A Simple Flight Mill for the Study of Tethered Flight in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attisano, Alfredo; Murphy, James T; Vickers, Andrew; Moore, Patricia J

    2015-12-10

    Flight in insects can be long-range migratory flights, intermediate-range dispersal flights, or short-range host-seeking flights. Previous studies have shown that flight mills are valuable tools for the experimental study of insect flight behavior, allowing researchers to examine how factors such as age, host plants, or population source can influence an insects' propensity to disperse. Flight mills allow researchers to measure components of flight such as speed and distance flown. Lack of detailed information about how to build such a device can make their construction appear to be prohibitively complex. We present a simple and relatively inexpensive flight mill for the study of tethered flight in insects. Experimental insects can be tethered with non-toxic adhesives and revolve around an axis by means of a very low friction magnetic bearing. The mill is designed for the study of flight in controlled conditions as it can be used inside an incubator or environmental chamber. The strongest points are the very simple electronic circuitry, the design that allows sixteen insects to fly simultaneously allowing the collection and analysis of a large number of samples in a short time and the potential to use the device in a very limited workspace. This design is extremely flexible, and we have adjusted the mill to accommodate different species of insects of various sizes.

  7. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  8. STS-78 Flight Day 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-78 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Terence T. Henricks, Pilot Kevin R. Kregel, Payload Cmdr. Susan J. Helms, Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Charles E. Brady, Jr., and Payload Specialists Jean-Jacques Favier, Ph.D. and Robert B. Thirsk, M.D., are shown conducting a news conference to discuss the progress of the international mission with media from the United States, Canada and Europe. During the press conference, the crew explained the relevance of the experiments conducted aboard the Life Sciences and Microgravity mission, and praised support crews and researchers on Earth who are involved in the mission. Payload Specialist Dr. Robert Thirsk told Canadian journalists of how the research will not only benefit astronauts as they conduct long-term space missions, but also people on Earth. Some of the research will aid studies on osteoporosis and the effects steroids have on bones, and also may help doctors on Earth develop treatments for muscle diseases like muscular dystrophy, Thirsk told reporters in Toronto.

  9. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  10. Multimodal Displays for Target Localization in a Flight Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tannen, Robert

    2001-01-01

    ... Synthesized Immersion Research Environment (SIRE) facility. Twelve pilots with a mean of 2652 flight hours performed a simulated flight task in which they were instructed to maintain a prescribed flight path, air speed, and altitude...

  11. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.; Shaqura, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU

  12. 14 CFR 61.193 - Flight instructor privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.193 Flight instructor privileges. A person who...; (e) An aircraft rating; (f) An instrument rating; (g) A flight review, operating privilege, or...

  13. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  14. Writing executable assertions to test flight software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, A.; Andrews, D. M.; Mccluskey, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    An executable assertion is a logical statement about the variables or a block of code. If there is no error during execution, the assertion statement results in a true value. Executable assertions can be used for dynamic testing of software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and exception and error detection during the operation phase. The present investigation is concerned with the problem of writing executable assertions, taking into account the use of assertions for testing flight software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and for exception handling and error detection during the operation phase The digital flight control system and the flight control software are discussed. The considered system provides autopilot and flight director modes of operation for automatic and manual control of the aircraft during all phases of flight. Attention is given to techniques for writing and using assertions to test flight software, an experimental setup to test flight software, and language features to support efficient use of assertions.

  15. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  16. Ares I-X Flight Test Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. R.; Tuma, M. L.; Heitzman, K.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.

  17. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  18. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented

  19. Psychology of Flight Attendant’s Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Filipieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The profession of a flight attendant appeared in aviation in the 1920s. Professionalcommunity of flight attendants is constantly growing with the growth ofcomplexity of aviation technology, professional standards of passenger serviceand safety. The psychological scientific research was carried out by a psychologistwho worked as a flight attendant. The study revealed the psychological content,demands, peculiarities in cabin crews’ labor. A job description was accomplished.Temporal and spatial characteristics, the main contradictions, unfavorable psychogenicand stress factors in labor were examined and described. Psychological profilesof a cabin attendant and of an air passenger were drawn up.

  20. The Propulsive-Only Flight Control Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blezad, Daniel J.

    1996-01-01

    Attitude control of aircraft using only the throttles is investigated. The long time constants of both the engines and of the aircraft dynamics, together with the coupling between longitudinal and lateral aircraft modes make piloted flight with failed control surfaces hazardous, especially when attempting to land. This research documents the results of in-flight operation using simulated failed flight controls and ground simulations of piloted propulsive-only control to touchdown. Augmentation control laws to assist the pilot are described using both optimal control and classical feedback methods. Piloted simulation using augmentation shows that simple and effective augmented control can be achieved in a wide variety of failed configurations.

  1. Space Flight Orthostatic Intolerance Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luty, Wei

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations conducted on different orthostatic intolerance protection garments. This paper emphasizes on the engineering and operational aspects of the project. The current Shuttle pneumatic Anti-G Suit or AGS at 25 mmHg (0.5 psi) and customized medical mechanical compressive garments (20-30 mmHg) were tested on human subjects. The test process is presented. The preliminary results conclude that mechanical compressive garments can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in hypovolemic subjects. A mechanical compressive garment is light, small and works without external pressure gas source; however the current garment design does not provide an adjustment to compensate for the loss of mass and size in the lower torso during long term space missions. It is also difficult to don. Compression garments that do not include an abdominal component are less effective countermeasures than garments which do. An early investigation conducted by the Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has shown there is no significant difference between the protection function of the AGS (at 77 mmHg or 1.5 psi) and the Russian anti-g suit, Kentavr (at 25 mmHg or 0.5 psi). Although both garments successfully countered hypovolemia-induced orthostatic intolerance, the Kentavr provided protection by using lower levels of compression pressure. This more recent study with a lower AGS pressure shows that pressures at 20-30 mmHg is acceptable but protection function is not as effective as higher pressure. In addition, a questionnaire survey with flight crewmembers who used both AGS and Kentavr during different missions was also performed.

  2. Rotationally Adaptive Flight Test Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ron

    1999-01-01

    Research on a new design of flutter exciter vane using adaptive materials was conducted. This novel design is based on all-moving aerodynamic surface technology and consists of a structurally stiff main spar, a series of piezoelectric actuator elements and an aerodynamic shell which is pivoted around the main spar. The work was built upon the current missile-type all-moving surface designs and change them so they are better suited for flutter excitation through the transonic flight regime. The first portion of research will be centered on aerodynamic and structural modeling of the system. USAF DatCom and vortex lattice codes was used to capture the fundamental aerodynamics of the vane. Finite element codes and laminated plate theory and virtual work analyses will be used to structurally model the aerodynamic vane and wing tip. Following the basic modeling, a flutter test vane was designed. Each component within the structure was designed to meet the design loads. After the design loads are met, then the deflections will be maximized and the internal structure will be laid out. In addition to the structure, a basic electrical control network will be designed which will be capable of driving a scaled exciter vane. The third and final stage of main investigation involved the fabrication of a 1/4 scale vane. This scaled vane was used to verify kinematics and structural mechanics theories on all-moving actuation. Following assembly, a series of bench tests was conducted to determine frequency response, electrical characteristics, mechanical and kinematic properties. Test results indicate peak-to-peak deflections of 1.1 deg with a corner frequency of just over 130 Hz.

  3. Autonomous Operations Design Guidelines for Flight Hardware

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSC experimentally modified an autonomous operations flexible system suite developed for a ground application for a flight system under development by JSC. The...

  4. Flight Deck I-Glasses, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight Deck i-Glasses is a color, stereoscopic 3-D display mounted on consumer style eye glass frames that will enhance operator performance and multi-modal...

  5. Distributed Flight Controls for UAVs, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two novel flight control actuation concepts for UAV applications are proposed for research and development, both of which incorporate shape memory alloy (SMA) wires...

  6. Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) 2015 Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) hardware and software capabilities, including portable electronic devices (PEDs) used as EFBs, as of July 2015. This document updates and replaces the Volpe Centers previous EFB ind...

  7. Electronic flight bag (EFB) : 2010 industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This document provides an overview of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) systems and capabilities, as of June 2010. This document updates and replaces the April 2007 EFB Industry Review (Yeh and Chandra, 2007). As with the previous industry survey, the focu...

  8. FAA Flight Plan 2009-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Flight Plan is the strategic plan for the agency, the plan to help us prepare for the future. The majority of FAAs responsibilities are our core functionsour everyday roles and responsibilitieswhich are not specifically highlighted in th...

  9. Core Flight System (CFS) Integrated Development Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to create an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for the Core Flight System (CFS) software to reduce the time it takes to...

  10. Liability and Insurance for Suborbital Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes and compares liability and liability insurance in the fields of aviation and spaceflight in order to propose solutions for a liability regime and insurance options for suborbital flights. Suborbital flights can be said to take place in the grey zone between air and space, between air law and space law, as well as between aviation insurance and space insurance. In terms of liability, the paper discusses air law and space law provisions in the fields of second and third party liability for damage to passengers and 'innocent bystanders' respectively, touching upon international treaties, national law and EU law, and on insurance to cover those risks. Although the insurance market is currently not ready to provide tailor-made products for operators of suborbital flights, it is expected to adapt rapidly once such flights will become reality. A hybrid approach will provide the best solution in the medium term.

  11. Northern Pintail - Flight Path Telemetry [ds117

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...

  12. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  13. Solar-powered Gossamer Penguin in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Gossamer Penguin in flight above Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards, California, showing the solar panel perpendicular to the wing and facing the sun. Background The first flight of a solar-powered aircraft took place on November 4, 1974, when the remotely controlled Sunrise II, designed by Robert J. Boucher of AstroFlight, Inc., flew following a launch from a catapult. Following this event, AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) took on a more ambitious project to design a human-piloted, solar-powered aircraft. The firm initially took the human-powered Gossamer Albatross II and scaled it down to three-quarters of its previous size for solar-powered flight with a human pilot controlling it. This was more easily done because in early 1980 the Gossamer Albatross had participated in a flight research program at NASA Dryden in a program conducted jointly by the Langley and Dryden research centers. Some of the flights were conducted using a small electric motor for power. Gossamer Penguin The scaled-down aircraft was designated the Gossamer Penguin. It had a 71-foot wingspan compared with the 96-foot span of the Gossamer Albatross. Weighing only 68 pounds without a pilot, it had a low power requirement and thus was an excellent test bed for solar power. AstroFlight, Inc., of Venice, Calif., provided the power plant for the Gossamer Penguin, an Astro-40 electric motor. Robert Boucher, designer of the Sunrise II, served as a key consultant for both this aircraft and the Solar Challenger. The power source for the initial flights of the Gossamer Penguin consisted of 28 nickel-cadmium batteries, replaced for the solar-powered flights by a panel of 3,920 solar cells capable of producing 541 Watts of power. The battery-powered flights took place at Shafter Airport near Bakersfield, Calif. Dr. Paul MacCready's son Marshall, who was 13 years old and weighed roughly 80 pounds, served as the initial pilot for these flights to

  14. Computer aided in-flight radiation scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.

    1989-01-01

    The equipment consists of a radiation detecting instrument, a flight prospection probe and a portable PC. It is aimed at detection of ground radiation sources from a flying airplane, e.g. in case of radiation accident. 3 figs

  15. Laser Obstacle Detection System Flight Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    ...). The Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) was contracted to mount the HELLAS sensor on the nose of a UH-60L Blackhawk helicopter and to conduct flight tests to evaluate the HELLAS obstacle detection sensor...

  16. Doppler time-of-flight imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Heidrich, Wolfgang; Heide, Felix; Wetzstein, Gordon; Hullin, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods for imaging object velocity are provided. In an embodiment, at least one Time-of-Flight camera is used to capture a signal representative of an object in motion over an exposure time. Illumination and modulation frequency

  17. Flight Crew State Monitoring Metrics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — eSky will develop specific crew state metrics based on the timeliness, tempo and accuracy of pilot inputs required by the H-mode Flight Control System (HFCS)....

  18. Optimization Study for Hovering Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Allen, James J.; Balakumar, B. J.

    2009-11-01

    A scaled robotic hummingbird model was used to perform a flow analysis of hovering flight at a range of Reynolds numbers (1,750hummingbird hovers (Re 3600), which suggests that hummingbirds hover in a highly efficient manner.

  19. Comparing future options for human space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2011-09-01

    The paper analyzes the "value proposition" for government-funded human space flight, a vexing question that persistently dogs efforts to justify its $10 10/year expense in the US. The original Mercury/Gemini/Apollo value proposition is not valid today. Neither was it the value proposition actually promoted by von Braun, which the post-Apollo 80% of human space flight history has persistently attempted to fulfill. Divergent potential objectives for human space flight are captured in four strategic options— Explore Mars; accelerate Space Passenger Travel; enable Space Power for Earth; and Settle the Moon—which are then analyzed for their purpose, societal myth, legacy benefits, core needs, and result as measured by the number and type of humans they would fly in space. This simple framework is proposed as a way to support productive dialog with public and other stakeholders, to determine a sustainable value proposition for human space flight.

  20. Asset Analysis and Operational Concepts for Separation Assurance Flight Testing at Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Guillermo J.; Arteaga, Ricardo A.

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary survey of existing separation assurance and collision avoidance advancements, technologies, and efforts has been conducted in order to develop a concept of operations for flight testing autonomous separation assurance at Dryden Flight Research Center. This effort was part of the Unmanned Aerial Systems in the National Airspace System project. The survey focused primarily on separation assurance projects validated through flight testing (including lessons learned), however current forays into the field were also examined. Comparisons between current Dryden flight and range assets were conducted using House of Quality matrices in order to allow project management to make determinations regarding asset utilization for future flight tests. This was conducted in order to establish a body of knowledge of the current collision avoidance landscape, and thus focus Dryden s efforts more effectively towards the providing of assets and test ranges for future flight testing within this research field.

  1. L(sub 1) Adaptive Flight Control System: Flight Evaluation and Technology Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xargay, Enric; Hovakimyan, Naira; Dobrokhodov, Vladimir; Kaminer, Isaac; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu

    2010-01-01

    Certification of adaptive control technologies for both manned and unmanned aircraft represent a major challenge for current Verification and Validation techniques. A (missing) key step towards flight certification of adaptive flight control systems is the definition and development of analysis tools and methods to support Verification and Validation for nonlinear systems, similar to the procedures currently used for linear systems. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control architectures for closing some of the gaps in certification of adaptive flight control systems, which may facilitate the transition of adaptive control into military and commercial aerospace applications. As illustrative examples, we present the results of a piloted simulation evaluation on the NASA AirSTAR flight test vehicle, and results of an extensive flight test program conducted by the Naval Postgraduate School to demonstrate the advantages of L(sub l) adaptive control as a verifiable robust adaptive flight control system.

  2. Principles of time-of-flight tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campagnolo, R.; Garderet, P.; Lecomte, J.L.; Bouvier, A.; Darier, P.; Soussaline, F.

    1983-03-01

    After a short introduction to the physics of time-of-flight positron tomography, the various aspects of this technique are presented. The characteristics including data acquisition and image reconstruction system of a positron tomograph (TTV01) which uses time-of-flight information, are described. The preliminary results obtained with TTV01, such as resolution and sensitivity, as well as phantom images, are presented [fr

  3. Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance

  4. Flight Tasks and Metrics to Evaluate Laser Eye Protection in Flight Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    IFR ) IFR Instrument Flight Rules LED Light Emitting Diode LEP Laser Eye Protection MAPP Model Assessing Pilot Performance OD Optical Density...LEP and then use them to assess the impact of wearing LEP in a flight simulator environment. 2 Pending Distribution, A: Approved for public...2005). LEP has the potential to alter distinct characteristics of the visual environment, giving rise to concerns over the impact on flight tasks and

  5. 2nd Generation QUATARA Flight Computer Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, Jay; Keys, Andrew; Fraticelli, Jose Molina; Capo-Iugo, Pedro; Peeples, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Single core flight computer boards have been designed, developed, and tested (DD&T) to be flown in small satellites for the last few years. In this project, a prototype flight computer will be designed as a distributed multi-core system containing four microprocessors running code in parallel. This flight computer will be capable of performing multiple computationally intensive tasks such as processing digital and/or analog data, controlling actuator systems, managing cameras, operating robotic manipulators and transmitting/receiving from/to a ground station. In addition, this flight computer will be designed to be fault tolerant by creating both a robust physical hardware connection and by using a software voting scheme to determine the processor's performance. This voting scheme will leverage on the work done for the Space Launch System (SLS) flight software. The prototype flight computer will be constructed with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components which are estimated to survive for two years in a low-Earth orbit.

  6. Mouse infection models for space flight immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapes, Stephen Keith; Ganta, Roman Reddy; Chapers, S. K. (Principal Investigator)

    2005-01-01

    Several immunological processes can be affected by space flight. However, there is little evidence to suggest that flight-induced immunological deficits lead to illness. Therefore, one of our goals has been to define models to examine host resistance during space flight. Our working hypothesis is that space flight crews will come from a heterogeneous population; the immune response gene make-up will be quite varied. It is unknown how much the immune response gene variation contributes to the potential threat from infectious organisms, allergic responses or other long term health problems (e.g. cancer). This article details recent efforts of the Kansas State University gravitational immunology group to assess how population heterogeneity impacts host health, either in laboratory experimental situations and/or using the skeletal unloading model of space-flight stress. This paper details our use of several mouse strains with several different genotypes. In particular, mice with varying MHCII allotypes and mice on the C57BL background with different genetic defects have been particularly useful tools with which to study infections by Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We propose that some of these experimental challenge models will be useful to assess the effects of space flight on host resistance to infection.

  7. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  8. Fused Reality for Enhanced Flight Test Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Ed; Klyde, David

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using Fused Reality-based simulation technology to enhance flight test capabilities has been investigated. In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests, even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real-world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight tests provide subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety, including the need for ground and control-room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. A Fused Reality(tm) (FR) Flight system was developed that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources or the risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of, and manual interaction with, the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.

  9. Advanced aircraft service life monitoring method via flight-by-flight load spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hongchul

    This research is an effort to understand current method and to propose an advanced method for Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA) for the purpose of monitoring the aircraft service life. As one of tasks in the DTA, the current indirect Individual Aircraft Tracking (IAT) method for the F-16C/D Block 32 does not properly represent changes in flight usage severity affecting structural fatigue life. Therefore, an advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is proposed and recommended for IAT program to track consumed fatigue life as an alternative to the current method which is based on the crack severity index (CSI) value. Damage Tolerance is one of aircraft design philosophies to ensure that aging aircrafts satisfy structural reliability in terms of fatigue failures throughout their service periods. IAT program, one of the most important tasks of DTA, is able to track potential structural crack growth at critical areas in the major airframe structural components of individual aircraft. The F-16C/D aircraft is equipped with a flight data recorder to monitor flight usage and provide the data to support structural load analysis. However, limited memory of flight data recorder allows user to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage in terms of only the vertical inertia (NzW) data for calculating Crack Severity Index (CSI) value which defines the relative maneuver severity. Current IAT method for the F-16C/D Block 32 based on CSI value calculated from NzW is shown to be not accurate enough to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage due to several problems. The proposed advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is recommended as an improved method for the F-16C/D Block 32 aircraft. Flight-by-flight load spectra was generated from downloaded Crash Survival Flight Data Recorder (CSFDR) data by calculating loads for each time hack in selected flight data utilizing loads equations. From

  10. Re-parametrization of a swine model to predict growth performance of broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Dukhta, G.; van Milgen, Jacob; Kövér, G.; Halas, V.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether a pig growth model is suitable to be modified and adapted for broilers. As monogastric animals, pigs and poultry share many similarities in their digestion and metabolism, many structures (body protein and lipid stores) and the nutrient flows of the underlying metabolic pathways are similar among species. For that purpose, the InraPorc model was used as a basis to predict growth performance and body composition at slaughter in broilers. First...

  11. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Two BQM-34 Firebee II drones were modified with supercritical airfoils, called the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW), for the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program, which ran from 1977 to 1983. In this view of DAST-1 (Serial # 72-1557), taken on June 12, 1980, severe wingtip flutter is visible. Moments later, the right wing failed catastrophically and the vehicle crashed near Cuddeback Dry Lake. Before the drone was lost, it had made two captive and two free flights. Its first free flight, on October 2, 1979, was cut short by an uplink receiver failure. The drone was caught in midair by an HH-3 helicopter. The second free flight, on March 12, 1980, was successful, ending in a midair recovery. The third free flight, made on June 12, was to expand the flutter envelope. All of these missions launched from the NASA B-52. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than

  12. DAST Being Calibrated for Flight in Hangar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    DAST-2, a modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone, undergoes calibration in a hangar at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. After the crash of the first DAST vehicle, project personnel fitted a second Firebee II (serial # 72-1558) with the rebuilt ARW-1 (ARW-1R) wing. The DAST-2 made a captive flight aboard the B-52 on October 29, 1982, followed by a free flight on November 3, 1982. During January and February of 1983, three launch attempts from the B-52 had to be aborted due to various problems. Following this, the project changed the launch aircraft to a DC-130A. Two captive flights occurred in May 1983. The first launch attempt from the DC-130 took place on June 1, 1983. The mothership released the DAST-2, but the recovery system immediately fired without being commanded. The parachute then disconnected from the vehicle, and the DAST-2 crashed into a farm field near Harper Dry Lake. Wags called this the 'Alfalfa Field Impact Test.' These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and

  13. 14 CFR 125.265 - Flight engineer requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer requirements. 125.265... Requirements § 125.265 Flight engineer requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane for which a flight engineer is required by the type certification requirements without a flight crewmember holding a current...

  14. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Minimum After Duty Rest Period for Multi-Time Zone Flights 18 hours 24 hours ...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership... crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of an augmented...

  15. 14 CFR 121.543 - Flight crewmembers at controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.543 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each required flight crewmember on...

  16. ACSYNT inner loop flight control design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortins, Richard; Sorensen, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed the Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) computer program to synthesize conceptual future aircraft designs and to evaluate critical performance metrics early in the design process before significant resources are committed and cost decisions made. ACSYNT uses steady-state performance metrics, such as aircraft range, payload, and fuel consumption, and static performance metrics, such as the control authority required for the takeoff rotation and for landing with an engine out, to evaluate conceptual aircraft designs. It can also optimize designs with respect to selected criteria and constraints. Many modern aircraft have stability provided by the flight control system rather than by the airframe. This may allow the aircraft designer to increase combat agility, or decrease trim drag, for increased range and payload. This strategy requires concurrent design of the airframe and the flight control system, making trade-offs of performance and dynamics during the earliest stages of design. ACSYNT presently lacks means to implement flight control system designs but research is being done to add methods for predicting rotational degrees of freedom and control effector performance. A software module to compute and analyze the dynamics of the aircraft and to compute feedback gains and analyze closed loop dynamics is required. The data gained from these analyses can then be fed back to the aircraft design process so that the effects of the flight control system and the airframe on aircraft performance can be included as design metrics. This report presents results of a feasibility study and the initial design work to add an inner loop flight control system (ILFCS) design capability to the stability and control module in ACSYNT. The overall objective is to provide a capability for concurrent design of the aircraft and its flight control system, and enable concept designers to improve performance by exploiting the interrelationships between

  17. IRVE-II Post-Flight Trajectory Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Bose, David M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) II successfully demonstrated an inflatable aerodynamic decelerator after being launched aboard a sounding rocket from Wallops Flight Facility (WFF). Preliminary day of flight data compared well with pre-flight Monte Carlo analysis, and a more complete trajectory reconstruction performed with an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) approach followed. The reconstructed trajectory and comparisons to an attitude solution provided by NASA Sounding Rocket Operations Contract (NSROC) personnel at WFF are presented. Additional comparisons are made between the reconstructed trajectory and pre and post-flight Monte Carlo trajectory predictions. Alternative observations of the trajectory are summarized which leverage flight accelerometer measurements, the pre-flight aerodynamic database, and on-board flight video. Finally, analysis of the payload separation and aeroshell deployment events are presented. The flight trajectory is reconstructed to fidelity sufficient to assess overall project objectives related to flight dynamics and overall, IRVE-II flight dynamics are in line with expectations

  18. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the following...

  19. The relationship of certified flight instructors' emotional intelligence levels on flight student advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokeness, Mark Merrill

    Aviation researchers estimate airline companies will require nearly 500,000 pilots in the next 20 years. The role of a Certified Flight Instructor (CFI) is to move student pilots to professional pilots with training typically conducted in one-on-one student and instructor sessions. The knowledge of aviation, professionalism as a teacher, and the CFI’s interpersonal skills can directly affect the successes and advancement of a student pilot. A new and emerging assessment of people skills is known as emotional intelligence (EI). The EI of the CFI can and will affect a flight students’ learning experiences. With knowledge of emotional intelligence and its effect on flight training, student pilot dropouts from aviation may be reduced, thus helping to ensure an adequate supply of pilots. Without pilots, the growth of the commercial aviation industry will be restricted. This mixed method research study established the correlation between a CFI’s measured EI levels and the advancement of flight students. The elements contributing to a CFI’s EI level were not found to be teaching or flight-related experiences, suggesting other life factors are drawn upon by the CFI and are reflected in their emotional intelligence levels presented to flight students. Students respond positively to CFIs with higher levels of emotional intelligence. Awareness of EI skills by both the CFI and flight student contribute to flight student successes and advancement.

  20. Flight Test Implementation of a Second Generation Intelligent Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team was to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology, to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions, and to stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. The Intelligent Flight Control System team is currently in the process of implementing a second generation control scheme, collectively known as Generation 2 or Gen 2, for flight testing on the NASA F-15 aircraft. This report describes the Gen 2 system as implemented by the team for flight test evaluation. Simulation results are shown which describe the experiment to be performed in flight and highlight the ways in which the Gen 2 system meets the defined objectives.

  1. Simulation model for the Boeing 720B aircraft-flight control system in continuous flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-08-01

    A mathematical model of the Boeing 720B aircraft and autopilot has been derived. The model is representative of the 720B aircraft for continuous flight within a flight envelope defined by a Mach number of .4 at 20,000 feet altitude in a cruise config...

  2. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  3. Implementation and flight tests for the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS). Part 1: Flight software equations, flight test description and selected flight test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueschen, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Five flight tests of the Digital Automated Landing System (DIALS) were conducted on the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Research Vehicle (TSRV) -- a modified Boeing 737 aircraft for advanced controls and displays research. These flight tests were conducted at NASA's Wallops Flight Center using the microwave landing system (MLS) installation on runway 22. This report describes the flight software equations of the DIALS which was designed using modern control theory direct-digital design methods and employed a constant gain Kalman filter. Selected flight test performance data is presented for localizer (runway centerline) capture and track at various intercept angles, for glideslope capture and track of 3, 4.5, and 5 degree glideslopes, for the decrab maneuver, and for the flare maneuver. Data is also presented to illustrate the system performance in the presence of cross, gust, and shear winds. The mean and standard deviation of the peak position errors for localizer capture were, respectively, 24 feet and 26 feet. For mild wind conditions, glideslope and localizer tracking position errors did not exceed, respectively, 5 and 20 feet. For gusty wind conditions (8 to 10 knots), these errors were, respectively, 10 and 30 feet. Ten hands off automatic lands were performed. The standard deviation of the touchdown position and velocity errors from the mean values were, respectively, 244 feet and 0.7 feet/sec.

  4. Software for Managing Inventory of Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, John; Savage, Scott; Thomas, Shirman

    2003-01-01

    The Flight Hardware Support Request System (FHSRS) is a computer program that relieves engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of most of the non-engineering administrative burden of managing an inventory of flight hardware. The FHSRS can also be adapted to perform similar functions for other organizations. The FHSRS affords a combination of capabilities, including those formerly provided by three separate programs in purchasing, inventorying, and inspecting hardware. The FHSRS provides a Web-based interface with a server computer that supports a relational database of inventory; electronic routing of requests and approvals; and electronic documentation from initial request through implementation of quality criteria, acquisition, receipt, inspection, storage, and final issue of flight materials and components. The database lists both hardware acquired for current projects and residual hardware from previous projects. The increased visibility of residual flight components provided by the FHSRS has dramatically improved the re-utilization of materials in lieu of new procurements, resulting in a cost savings of over $1.7 million. The FHSRS includes subprograms for manipulating the data in the database, informing of the status of a request or an item of hardware, and searching the database on any physical or other technical characteristic of a component or material. The software structure forces normalization of the data to facilitate inquiries and searches for which users have entered mixed or inconsistent values.

  5. Ares I Flight Control System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Ryan, Stephen; Jackson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. This paper presents a design methodology for employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares I flight control system. The design objectives include attitude tracking accuracy and robust stability with respect to rigid body dynamics, propellant slosh, and flex. Under the assumption that the Ares I time-varying dynamics and control system can be frozen over a short period of time, the flight controllers are designed to stabilize all selected frozen-time launch control systems in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Flex filters in the flight control system are designed to minimize the flex components in the error signals before they are sent to the attitude controller. To ensure adequate response to guidance command, step response specifications are introduced as constraints in the optimization problem. Imposing these constraints minimizes performance degradation caused by the addition of the flex filters. The first stage bending filter design achieves stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency to phase stabilize the first flex mode while gain stabilizing the higher modes. The upper stage bending filter design gain stabilizes all the flex bending modes. The flight control system designs provided here have been demonstrated to provide stable first and second stage control systems in both Draper Ares Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) and the MSFC 6DOF nonlinear time domain simulation.

  6. Aircraft digital flight control technical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

  7. Acute symptomatic hyponatremia in a flight attendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero, Magdalena; Monares, Enrique; Domínguez, Aurelio Méndez; Ayus, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Acute symptomatic hyponatremia after thiazide diuretic initiation is a medical emergency. Here we describe the case of a flight attendant who developed acute hyponatremia during a flight and the potential risk factors for developing this condition. A 57-year-old flight attendant with history of essential hypertension was recently started on a thiazide diuretic. As she did routinely when working, she increased her water intake during a flight from London to Mexico City. She complained of nausea and headache during the flight. Upon arrival, she developed severe disorientation and presented to the hospital emergency room (ER) with a Glasgow scale of 12, hypoxia, and a generalized tonic clonic seizure. Her laboratory results on arrival were consistent with severe hyponatremia (serum Na 116 mEql/L) and severe cerebral edema by CT scan. She was treated with hypertonic saline, with complete resolution of the neurologic symptoms. We describe high water intake and hypoxia related to decreased partial pressure of oxygen in the cabin as the two main risk factors for thiazide-induced acute hyponatremia in this case.

  8. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  9. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation for the Automated Flight Test Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartt, David M.; Hewett, Marle D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Cooper, James A.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1989-01-01

    The Automated Flight Test Management System (ATMS) is being developed as part of the NASA Aircraft Automation Program. This program focuses on the application of interdisciplinary state-of-the-art technology in artificial intelligence, control theory, and systems methodology to problems of operating and flight testing high-performance aircraft. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation (FTEWS) is presented, with a detailed description of the system, technical details, and future planned developments. The goal of the FTEWS is to provide flight test engineers and project officers with an automated computer environment for planning, scheduling, and performing flight test programs. The FTEWS system is an outgrowth of the development of ATMS and is an implementation of a component of ATMS on SUN workstations.

  10. Flight Technical Error Analysis of the SATS Higher Volume Operations Simulation and Flight Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Flight Technical Error (FTE) from recent SATS experiments, called the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Simulation and Flight experiments, which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal operating conditions. Reported are FTE results from simulation and flight experiment data indicating the SATS HVO concept is viable and acceptable to low-time instrument rated pilots when compared with today s system (baseline). Described is the comparative FTE analysis of lateral, vertical, and airspeed deviations from the baseline and SATS HVO experimental flight procedures. Based on FTE analysis, all evaluation subjects, low-time instrument-rated pilots, flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently in comparison to today s system. In all cases, the results of the flight experiment validated the results of the simulation experiment and confirm the utility of the simulation platform for comparative Human in the Loop (HITL) studies of SATS HVO and Baseline operations.

  11. Flight demonstration of flight termination system and solid rocket motor ignition using semiconductor laser initiated ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Maxfield, B.; Boucher, C.

    1995-01-01

    Solid State Laser Initiated Ordnance (LIO) offers new technology having potential for enhanced safety, reduced costs, and improved operational efficiency. Concerns over the absence of programmatic applications of the technology, which has prevented acceptance by flight programs, should be abated since LIO has now been operationally implemented by the Laser Initiated Ordnance Sounding Rocket Demonstration (LOSRD) Program. The first launch of solid state laser diode LIO at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) occurred on March 15, 1995 with all mission objectives accomplished. This project, Phase 3 of a series of three NASA Headquarters LIO demonstration initiatives, accomplished its objective by the flight of a dedicated, all-LIO sounding rocket mission using a two-stage Nike-Orion launch vehicle. LIO flight hardware, made by The Ensign-Bickford Company under NASA's first Cooperative Agreement with Profit Making Organizations, safely initiated three demanding pyrotechnic sequence events, namely, solid rocket motor ignition from the ground and in flight, and flight termination, i.e., as a Flight Termination System (FTS). A flight LIO system was designed, built, tested, and flown to support the objectives of quickly and inexpensively putting LIO through ground and flight operational paces. The hardware was fully qualified for this mission, including component testing as well as a full-scale system test. The launch accomplished all mission objectives in less than 11 months from proposal receipt. This paper concentrates on accomplishments of the ordnance aspects of the program and on the program's implementation and results. While this program does not generically qualify LIO for all applications, it demonstrated the safety, technical, and operational feasibility of those two most demanding applications, using an all solid state safe and arm system in critical flight applications.

  12. Investigation of controlled flight into terrain : descriptions of flight paths for selected controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) aircraft accidents, 1985-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This report documents an investigation of the flight paths of 13 selected controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) aircraft accidents that occurred between 1985 and 1997. The Operations Assessment Division (DTS-43) and the Aviation Safety Division (DTS-...

  13. Perseus A in Flight with Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Perseus A, a remotely-piloted, high-altitude research aircraft, is seen here framed against the moon and sky during a research mission at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California in August 1994. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft

  14. Eclipse - tow flight closeup and release

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This clip, running 15 seconds in length, shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' gear down, with the tow rope secured to the attachment point above the aircraft nose. First there is a view looking back from the C-141A, then looking forward from the nose of the QF-106, and finally a shot of the aircraft being released from the tow rope. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly Space and Technology hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed

  15. HUMAN SPACE FLIGHTS: FACTS AND DREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Bizzarri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manned space flight has been the great human and technological adventure of the past half-century. By putting people into places and situations unprecedented in history, it has stirred the imagination while expanding and redefining the human experience. However, space exploration obliges men to confront a hostile environment of cosmic radiation, microgravity, isolation and changes in the magnetic field. Any space traveler is therefore submitted to relevant health threats. In the twenty-first century, human space flight will continue, but it will change in the ways that science and technology have changed on Earth: it will become more networked, more global, and more oriented toward primary objectives. A new international human space flight policy can help achieve these objectives by clarifying the rationales, the ethics of acceptable risk, the role of remote presence, and the need for balance between funding and ambition to justify the risk of human lives.

  16. The FLP microsatellite platform flight operations manual

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book represents the Flight Operations Manual for a reusable microsatellite platform – the “Future Low-cost Platform” (FLP), developed at the University of Stuttgart, Germany. It provides a basic insight on the onboard software functions, the core data handling system and on the power, communications, attitude control and thermal subsystem of the platform. Onboard failure detection, isolation and recovery functions are treated in detail. The platform is suited for satellites in the 50-150 kg class and is baseline of the microsatellite “Flying Laptop” from the University. The book covers the essential information for ground operators to controls an FLP-based satellite applying international command and control standards (CCSDS and ECSS PUS). Furthermore it provides an overview on the Flight Control Center in Stuttgart and on the link to the German Space Agency DLR Ground Station which is used for early mission phases. Flight procedure and mission planning chapters complement the book. .

  17. The Flight of Birds and Other Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Pennycuick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of observing birds in flight now include training them to fly under known conditions in wind tunnels, and fitting free-flying birds with data loggers, that are either retrieved or read remotely via satellite links. The performance that comes to light depends on the known limitations of the materials from which they are made, and the conditions in which the birds live. Bird glide polars can be obtained by training birds to glide in a tilting wind tunnel. Translating these curves to power required from the flight muscles in level flight requires drag coefficients to be measured, which unfortunately does not work with bird bodies, because the flow is always fully detached. The drag of bodies in level flight can be determined by observing wingbeat frequency, and shows CD values around 0.08 in small birds, down to 0.06 in small waders specialised for efficient migration. Lift coefficients are up to 1.6 in gliding, or 1.8 for short, temporary glides. In-flight measurements can be used to calculate power curves for birds in level flight, and this has been applied to migrating geese in detail. These typically achieve lift:drag ratios around 15, including allowances for stops, as against 19 for continuous powered flight. The same calculations, applied to Pacific Black-tailed Godwits which start with fat fractions up to 0.55 at departure, show that such birds not only cross the Pacific to New Zealand, but have enough fuel in hand to reach the South Pole if that were necessary. This performance depends on the “dual fuel” arrangements of these migrants, whereby they use fat as their main fuel, and supplement this by extra fuel from burning the engine (flight muscles, as less power is needed later in the flight. The accuracy of these power curves has never been checked, although provision for stopping the bird, and making these checks at regular intervals during a simulated flight was built into the original design of the Lund wind tunnel. The

  18. Immune resistance of man in space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina, V.; Konstantinova, M. D.

    The immune system of 72 cosmonauts was studied after their flights on board Salyut 6, 7 and Mir orbital stations. PHA lymphocyte reactivity, T helper activity and NK capacity to recognize and kill the target were decreased on 1-7 days after prolonged (3-11 months) space flights. Certain alterations were found in the ultrastructure of the NK secretory and locomotor apparatuses. Decrement of IL 2 production was shown using the biological test. However immunoenzymatic analysis did not reveal a decrease in IL 2 synthesis. Production of α-interferon remained unchanged while that of γ-interferon either rose or was diminished. Several cosmonanauts displayed a trend towards increased OAF production. The observed decrease in immune system functioning may increase the risk of various diseases during prolonged space flights.

  19. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch 2005 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  20. X-36 Taking off During First Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The X-36 remotely piloted aircraft lifts off on its first flight, May 17, 1997, at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The aircraft flew for five minutes and reached an altitude of approximately 4,900 feet. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet

  1. HUMAN CAPITAL FLIGHT - ROMANIA’S CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena VELCIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge, qualifications of workforce and human capital became key factors for progress. Human capital flight transfers not only people but work, knowledge, tangible and intangible capital and development potential. In this article, trying to answer whether Romania is a source country for emigration of highly skilled or well-educated individuals (ie human capital flight I flew over those two dimensions that have traditionally characterized human capital flight namely: shrinking work resource and lossing high educated peoples. Therefore, Romania was faced with decreasing the number of resident population due to the evolution of demographic phenomena with negative projections and declining number of working age population and young educated and highly skilled workers and professionals. This will generate complex problems for economy, labour market, difficulty in finding highly skilled workers, talent shortages etc so it’s critical to monitor the labour migration or brain drain phenomenon.

  2. Adaptive Flight Control Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    A broad overview of current adaptive flight control research efforts at NASA is presented, as well as some more detailed discussion of selected specific approaches. The stated objective of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project, one of NASA s Aviation Safety programs, is to advance the state-of-the-art of adaptive controls as a design option to provide enhanced stability and maneuverability margins for safe landing in the presence of adverse conditions such as actuator or sensor failures. Under this project, a number of adaptive control approaches are being pursued, including neural networks and multiple models. Validation of all the adaptive control approaches will use not only traditional methods such as simulation, wind tunnel testing and manned flight tests, but will be augmented with recently developed capabilities in unmanned flight testing.

  3. The Legacy of Space Shuttle Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.

  4. Speech Recognition Interfaces Improve Flight Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    "Alpha, Golf, November, Echo, Zulu." "Sierra, Alpha, Golf, Echo, Sierra." "Lima, Hotel, Yankee." It looks like some strange word game, but the combinations of words above actually communicate the first three points of a flight plan from Albany, New York to Florence, South Carolina. Spoken by air traffic controllers and pilots, the aviation industry s standard International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet uses words to represent letters. The first letter of each word in the series is combined to spell waypoints, or reference points, used in flight navigation. The first waypoint above is AGNEZ (alpha for A, golf for G, etc.). The second is SAGES, and the third is LHY. For pilots of general aviation aircraft, the traditional method of entering the letters of each waypoint into a GPS device is a time-consuming process. For each of the 16 waypoints required for the complete flight plan from Albany to Florence, the pilot uses a knob to scroll through each letter of the alphabet. It takes approximately 5 minutes of the pilot s focused attention to complete this particular plan. Entering such a long flight plan into a GPS can pose a safety hazard because it can take the pilot s attention from other critical tasks like scanning gauges or avoiding other aircraft. For more than five decades, NASA has supported research and development in aviation safety, including through its Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) program, which works to advance safer and more capable flight decks (cockpits) in aircraft. Randy Bailey, a lead aerospace engineer in the VSST program at Langley Research Center, says the technology in cockpits is directly related to flight safety. For example, "GPS navigation systems are wonderful as far as improving a pilot s ability to navigate, but if you can find ways to reduce the draw of the pilot s attention into the cockpit while using the GPS, it could potentially improve safety," he says.

  5. MD-11 PCA - Research flight team photo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    On Aug. 30, 1995, a the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 transport aircraft landed equipped with a computer-assisted engine control system that has the potential to increase flight safety. In landings at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on August 29 and 30, the aircraft demonstrated software used in the aircraft's flight control computer that essentially landed the MD-11 without a need for the pilot to manipulate the flight controls significantly. In partnership with McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), with Pratt & Whitney and Honeywell helping to design the software, NASA developed this propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system following a series of incidents in which hydraulic failures resulted in the loss of flight controls. This new system enables a pilot to operate and land the aircraft safely when its normal, hydraulically-activated control surfaces are disabled. This August 29, 1995, photo shows the MD-11 team. Back row, left to right: Tim Dingen, MDA pilot; John Miller, MD-11 Chief pilot (MDA); Wayne Anselmo, MD-11 Flight Test Engineer (MDA); Gordon Fullerton, PCA Project pilot; Bill Burcham, PCA Chief Engineer; Rudey Duran, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); John Feather, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); Daryl Townsend, Crew Chief; Henry Hernandez, aircraft mechanic; Bob Baron, PCA Project Manager; Don Hermann, aircraft mechanic; Jerry Cousins, aircraft mechanic; Eric Petersen, PCA Manager (Honeywell); Trindel Maine, PCA Data Engineer; Jeff Kahler, PCA Software Engineer (Honeywell); Steve Goldthorpe, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA). Front row, left to right: Teresa Hass, Senior Project Management Analyst; Hollie Allingham (Aguilera), Senior Project Management Analyst; Taher Zeglum, PCA Data Engineer (MDA); Drew Pappas, PCA Project Manager (MDA); John Burken, PCA Control Engineer.

  6. Pion absorption in flight on 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungfelt, S.H.

    1985-02-01

    Pion absorption in flight on 3 He has been measured in a kinematically complete manner. The experiment was done in the πE1-channel at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research, SIN, using π + - and π - -beams of 120 and 165 MeV kinetic energy. Two of the emitted particles were measured in coincidence and identified by their time-of-flight/pulseheight relation. The obtained two-dimensional energy representation enabled a separation of the different kinematical regions and exhibited a clear enhancement in the region of quasifree absorption, QFA. (orig./WL)

  7. Mini-Sniffer II in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This photograph shows the second Mini-Sniffer undergoing flight testing over Rogers Dry Lake in Edwards, California. This version of the Mini-Sniffer lacked the canard of the original version and had wing tips and tail booms added. The Mini-Sniffer was a remotely controlled, propeller-driven vehicle developed at the NASA Flight Research Center (which became the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in 1976) as a potential platform to sample the upper atmosphere for pollution. The vehicle, flown from 1975 to 1977, was one of the earliest attempts by NASA to develop an aircraft that could sense turbulence and measure natural and human-produced atmospheric pollutants at altitudes above 80,000 feet with a variable-load propeller that was never flight-tested. Three Mini-Sniffer vehicles were built. The number 1 Mini-Sniffer vehicle had swept wings with a span of 18 feet and canards on the nose. It flew 12 flights with the gas-powered engine at low altitudes of around 2,500 feet. The number 1 vehicle was then modified into version number 2 by removing the canards and wing rudders and adding wing tips and tail booms. Twenty flights were made with this version, up to altitudes of 20,000 feet. The number 3 vehicle had a longer fuselage, was lighter in weight, and was powered by the non-air-breathing hydrazine engine designed by NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. This version was designed to fly a 25-pound payload to an altitude of 70,000 feet for one hour or to climb to 90,000 feet and glide back. The number 3 Mini-Sniffer made one flight to 20,000 feet and was not flown again because of a hydrazine leak problem. All three versions used a pusher propeller to free the nose area for an atmospheric-sampling payload. At various times the Mini-Sniffer has been considered for exploration in the carbon dioxide atmosphere of the planet Mars, where the gravity (38 percent of that on Earth) would reduce the horsepower needed for flight.

  8. Development of a flight software testing methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccluskey, E. J.; Andrews, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The research to develop a testing methodology for flight software is described. An experiment was conducted in using assertions to dynamically test digital flight control software. The experiment showed that 87% of typical errors introduced into the program would be detected by assertions. Detailed analysis of the test data showed that the number of assertions needed to detect those errors could be reduced to a minimal set. The analysis also revealed that the most effective assertions tested program parameters that provided greater indirect (collateral) testing of other parameters. In addition, a prototype watchdog task system was built to evaluate the effectiveness of executing assertions in parallel by using the multitasking features of Ada.

  9. Propulsion systems for vertical flight aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.

    1990-01-01

    The present evaluation of VTOL airframe/powerplant integration configurations combining high forward flight speed with safe and efficient vertical flight identifies six configurations that can be matched with one of three powerplant types: turboshafts, convertible-driveshaft lift fans, and gas-drive lift fans. The airframes configurations are (1) tilt-rotor, (2) folded tilt-rotor, (3) tilt-wing, (4) rotor wing/disk wing, (5) lift fan, and (6) variable-diameter rotor. Attention is given to the lift-fan VTOL configuration. The evaluation of these configurations has been conducted by both a joint NASA/DARPA program and the NASA High Speed Rotorcraft program. 7 refs.

  10. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  11. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  12. Orion Exploration Flight Test Reaction Control System Jet Interaction Heating Environment from Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Molly E.; Hyatt, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Reaction Control System (RCS) is critical to guide the vehicle along the desired trajectory during re-­-entry. However, this system has a significant impact on the convective heating environment to the spacecraft. Heating augmentation from the jet interaction (JI) drives thermal protection system (TPS) material selection and thickness requirements for the spacecraft. This paper describes the heating environment from the RCS on the afterbody of the Orion MPCV during Orion's first flight test, Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). These jet plumes interact with the wake of the crew capsule and cause an increase in the convective heating environment. Not only is there widespread influence from the jet banks, there may also be very localized effects. The firing history during EFT-1 will be summarized to assess which jet bank interaction was measured during flight. Heating augmentation factors derived from the reconstructed flight data will be presented. Furthermore, flight instrumentation across the afterbody provides the highest spatial resolution of the region of influence of the individual jet banks of any spacecraft yet flown. This distribution of heating augmentation across the afterbody will be derived from the flight data. Additionally, trends with possible correlating parameters will be investigated to assist future designs and ground testing programs. Finally, the challenges of measuring JI, applying this data to future flights and lessons learned will be discussed.

  13. Flight Testing an Iced Business Jet for Flight Simulation Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Lee, Sam; Cooper, Jon

    2007-01-01

    A flight test of a business jet aircraft with various ice accretions was performed to obtain data to validate flight simulation models developed through wind tunnel tests. Three types of ice accretions were tested: pre-activation roughness, runback shapes that form downstream of the thermal wing ice protection system, and a wing ice protection system failure shape. The high fidelity flight simulation models of this business jet aircraft were validated using a software tool called "Overdrive." Through comparisons of flight-extracted aerodynamic forces and moments to simulation-predicted forces and moments, the simulation models were successfully validated. Only minor adjustments in the simulation database were required to obtain adequate match, signifying the process used to develop the simulation models was successful. The simulation models were implemented in the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD) to enable company pilots to evaluate flight characteristics of the simulation models. By and large, the pilots confirmed good similarities in the flight characteristics when compared to the real airplane. However, pilots noted pitch up tendencies at stall with the flaps extended that were not representative of the airplane and identified some differences in pilot forces. The elevator hinge moment model and implementation of the control forces on the ICEFTD were identified as a driver in the pitch ups and control force issues, and will be an area for future work.

  14. X-36 in Flight over Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The unusual lines of the X-36 technology demonstrator contrast sharply with the desert floor as the remotely piloted aircraft scoots across the California desert at low altitude during a research flight on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with

  15. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1995-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  16. Flight Test of L1 Adaptive Control Law: Offset Landings and Large Flight Envelope Modeling Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Xargay, Enric; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents new results of a flight test of the L1 adaptive control architecture designed to directly compensate for significant uncertain cross-coupling in nonlinear systems. The flight test was conducted on the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model that is an integral part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results presented include control law evaluation for piloted offset landing tasks as well as results in support of nonlinear aerodynamic modeling and real-time dynamic modeling of the departure-prone edges of the flight envelope.

  17. The flights before the flight - An overview of shuttle astronaut training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, John T.; Sterling, Michael R.

    1989-01-01

    Space shuttle astronaut training is centered at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Each astronaut receives many different types of training from many sources. This training includes simulator training in the Shuttle Mission Simulator, in-flight simulator training in the Shuttle Training Aircraft, Extravehicular Activity training in the Weightless Environment Training Facility and a variety of lectures and briefings. Once the training program is completed each shuttle flight crew is well-prepared to perform the normal operations required for their flight and deal with any shuttle system malfunctions that might occur.

  18. Wind and Wake Sensing with UAV Formation Flight: System Development and Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Trenton Jameson

    Wind turbulence including atmospheric turbulence and wake turbulence have been widely investigated; however, only recently it become possible to use Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a validation tool for research in this area. Wind can be a major contributing factor of adverse weather for aircraft. More importantly, it is an even greater risk towards UAVs because of their small size and weight. Being able to estimate wind fields and gusts can potentially provide substantial benefits for both unmanned and manned aviation. Possible applications include gust suppression for improving handling qualities, a better warning system for high wind encounters, and enhanced control for small UAVs during flight. On the other hand, the existence of wind can be advantageous since it can lead to fuel savings and longer duration flights through dynamic soaring or thermal soaring. Wakes are an effect of the lift distribution across an aircraft's wing or tail. Wakes can cause substantial disturbances when multiple aircraft are moving through the same airspace. In fact, the perils from an aircraft flying through the wake of another aircraft is a leading cause of the delay between takeoff times at airports. Similar to wind, though, wakes can be useful for energy harvesting and increasing an aircraft's endurance when flying in formation which can be a great advantage to UAVs because they are often limited in flight time due to small payload capacity. Formation flight can most often be seen in manned aircraft but can be adopted for use with unmanned systems. Autonomous flight is needed for flying in the "sweet spot" of the generated wakes for energy harvesting as well as for thermal soaring during long duration flights. For the research presented here formation flight was implemented for the study of wake sensing and gust alleviation. The major contributions of this research are in the areas of a novel technique to estimate wind using an Unscented Kalman filter and experimental wake

  19. The Wright Brothers and their First Flight

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 12. The Wright Brothers and their First Flight. O N Ramesh. Article-in-a-Box Volume 8 Issue 12 December 2003 pp 3-4. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/12/0003-0004 ...

  20. How Insect Flight Steering Muscles Work

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Simon M.; Schwyn, Daniel A.; Mokso, Rajmund; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Doube, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco; Krapp, Holger G.; Taylor, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for