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Sample records for repairing gas mains

  1. Perspective Application Directions of Fiber Optic Lasers in the Repair and Renewal Operations on the Linear Part of Main Gas Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Vadim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Large number of main pipelines requires today an immediate repair. Equipment producing entertainments supply the market with more and more new and advanced devices. However, their use does not always allow reducing the repair work period. That way it is appropriate to develop the alternative repair methods that allow reducing the labor intensity as well as the cost of repair and renewal operations. One of the promising areas is the laser technologies application in the repair process.

  2. Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjertveit, Erling

    2010-07-01

    On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

  3. Gas Main Sensor and Communications Network System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf

    2006-05-31

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. This projected was completed in April 2006, and culminated in the installation of more than 2 dozen GasNet nodes in both low- and high-pressure cast-iron and steel mains owned by multiple utilities in the northeastern US. Utilities are currently logging data (off-line) and monitoring data in real time from single and multiple networked sensors over cellular networks and collecting data using wireless bluetooth PDA systems. The system was designed to be modular, using in-pipe sensor-wands capable of measuring, flow, pressure, temperature, water-content and vibration. Internal antennae allowed for the use of the pipe-internals as a waveguide for setting up a sensor network to collect data from multiple nodes simultaneously. Sensor nodes were designed to be installed with low- and no-blow techniques and tools. Using a multi-drop bus technique with a custom protocol, all electronics were designed to be buriable and allow for on-board data-collection (SD-card), wireless relaying and cellular network forwarding. Installation options afforded by the design included direct-burial and external polemounted variants. Power was provided by one or more batteries, direct AC-power (Class I Div.2) and solar-array. The utilities are currently in a data-collection phase and intend to use the collected (and processed) data to make capital improvement decisions, compare it to Stoner model predictions and evaluate the use of such a system for future expansion, technology-improvement and commercialization starting later in 2006.

  4. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

  5. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf

    2004-09-30

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

  6. Repair of gas pipelines by explosive welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al' shanov, A.P.; Gokhstein, B.E.; Lemyakin, V.P.; Nesterenko, V.Y.; Spirin, V.A.; Rakitin, V.N.

    1980-07-01

    Explosive cladding of the external surfaces of longitudinal sections of large-diameter gas pipelines may be a good way to repair local sections damaged by corrosion. This technique ensures the uniform deposition of a protective coating of metal over pitting damage that extends to varying depths. The technique was successfully applied to 0.45-in. (9 mm) thick plate specimens of 17G2S steel, with machine defects, using 0.2-in. thick strips of 08kp steel as cladding. The explosive had a detonation rate of 11,000 ft/s, making possible a shock-wave speed of 1500-2000 ft/s. Hardness analysis of the joint area indicated a stress-hardening effect at the interface. Based on the success of the tests, further trials were conducted on gas pipelines of 21, 28, and 40-in. diameter made from 17G1S steel, using 0.1-0.2 in. thick strips of cladding. Tests showed that the clad areas had strengths equivalent to those of the base metal.

  7. PETROBAS amazon gas pipeline - repair logistics evaluation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faertes, Denise [Petrobas, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil); Domingues, Joaquim [DNV, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Repair logistics is often a challenge in the pipeline industry because of extreme operating conditions. This paper presents an evaluation of the repair logistics at the Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline in Brazil. This study establishes strategies for each identified failure scenario, classified by type of repair, logistics, resources and costs. Several meetings and brain-storming workshops, bringing together experienced teams from PETROBRAS took place. They provided an analysis of operating conditions for different pipeline sections and an evaluation of the best practices and strategies to be adopted for pipeline repair. Different repair strategies and logistics options were compared with a base case crisis scenario to evaluate gains in terms of repair time reductions. A cost analysis was then done to prioritize these strategies. This study provided important support to the decision making process, with respect to different repair resources and logistics options. It provided formal and innovative solutions.

  8. GAS6 enhances repair following cuprizone-induced demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Tsiperson

    Full Text Available Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (gas6 activities are mediated through the Tyro3, Axl, and Mer family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Gas6 is expressed and secreted by a wide variety of cell types, including cells of the central nervous system (CNS. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that administration of recombinant human Gas6 (rhGas6 protein into the CNS improves recovery following cuprizone withdrawal. After a 4-week cuprizone diet, cuprizone was removed and PBS or rhGas6 (400 ng/ml, 4 µg/ml and 40 µg/ml was delivered by osmotic mini-pump into the corpus callosum of C57Bl6 mice for 14 days. Nine of 11 (82% PBS-treated mice had abundant lipid-associated debris in the corpus callosum by Oil-Red-O staining while only 4 of 19 (21% mice treated with rhGas6 had low Oil-Red-O positive droplets. In rhGas6-treated mice, SMI32-positive axonal spheroids and APP-positive deposits were reduced in number relative to PBS-treated mice. Compared to PBS, rhGas6 enhanced remyelination as revealed by MBP immunostaining and electron microscopy. The rhGas6-treated mice had more oligodendrocytes expressing Olig1 in the cytoplasm, indicative of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation. Relative to PBS-treated mice, rhGas6-treated mice had fewer activated microglia in the corpus callosum by Iba1 immunostaining. The data show that rhGas6 treatment resulted in more efficient repair following cuprizone-induced injury.

  9. Development of ecologically safe method for main oil and gas pipeline trenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmedov Asvar Mikdadovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Constructive, technical and technological reliability of major pipeline ensures ecological safety on different stages of life circle - beginning with project preparation activities up to the end of major pipeline operation. Even in the process of transition into new life circle stage, no matter if the pipeline needs major repairs or reconstruction, such technical and technological solutions should be found, which would preserve ecological stability of nature-anthropogenic system. Development of ecology protection technologies of construction, reconstruction and major repairs of main pipelines is of great importance not only for a region, but ensures ecological safety across the globe. The article presents a new way of trenching the main oil and gas pipeline, preservation and increase of ecological safety during its service. The updated technological plan is given in the paper for overhaul of the main oil and gas pipeline using the new technology of pipeline trenching. The suggested technical solution contributes to environment preservation with the help of deteriorating shells - the shells’ material decomposes into environment-friendly components: carbon dioxide, water and humus. The quantity of polluting agents in the atmosphere decreases with the decrease of construction term and quantity of technical equipment.

  10. Gas pockets in a wastewater rising main: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozos-Estrada, Oscar; Fuentes-Mariles, Oscar A; Pozos-Estrada, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of an existing wastewater rising main (WWRM) in which an extreme transient event produced by simultaneous power failure of the pumps caused the rupture of a 1.2 m (48 in) prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), causing an important leakage of sewage. The event and the methodology followed in order to validate the diagnostics of the failure are described. The detail study included in situ observation of the system, experimental investigation in a setup, hydraulic analysis, as well as details of the structural strength of the WWRM. After the extensive investigation and several simulations of fluid transients for different scenarios and flow conditions, it was found that stationary small gas pockets accumulated at high points of the WWRM were identified as the principal contributory factor of the failure. This case study serves as clear warning of the consequences of operating a WWRM with gas pockets at its high points.

  11. Onshore equivalents of the main Kudu gas reservoir in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanistreet, I.G. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom). Department of Earth Sciences; Stollhofen, H. [Institut fur Geologie, Universitat Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Radiometric dates of Jurassic and Cretaceous flood basalts of the southern South Atlantic maritimes have thrown the stratigraphic contexts of Karoo and post-Karoo sequences into considerable question. Central to the problem is the status of volcano-sedimentary units, characterized by aeolian-related sedimentary interlayer, containing evaporites and other lacustrine elements. The main Kudu gas reservoir ('Lower Gas Sand') offshore Namibia, interleaved with undated flood basalts, is a prime example. A previously proposed onshore correlate is the fluvio-aeolian Etjo Sandstone, with a central Namibian type area, and comparisons have been made, particularly with units traditionally classified as Etjo Sandstone, near the Etendeka Plateau base in northwest Namibia, now recognised to be of younger age. We time-correlate the main Kudu Sandstone reservoir, however, with evaporitic fluvio-lacustrine and aeolian interlayers beneath and interleaved with Early Jurassic Kalkrand flood basalts of southern Namibia, situated onshore almost directly opposite the Kudu Field. The main Kudu Sandstone reservoir is transitional in palaeoenvironmental setting between Early Jurassic onshore analogues. Main Kudu reservoir geometries and associated lithologies can be better constrained with knowledge derived from Kalkrand sedimentary interlayers and their tectonic and volcanic controls. Kalkrand interlayer thicknesses are controlled primarily by down-to-the-east extensional fault system half-graben geometries, antithetic to an inferred down-to-the-west master detachment. Within resulting sub-basinal accommodation space, lava topography controlled thickness variation. When Kalkrand insights are taken into account with radiometric dating and biostratigraphy, a Namibian Mesozoic framework fixes Kudu reservoirs and analogues into a southern Gondwanan context. At least in its type area in central Namibia, the Etjo Formation is Early Jurassic, discounting a previously proposed widespread

  12. Laser Metal Deposition as Repair Technology for a Gas Turbine Burner Made of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrat, Torsten; Graf, Benjamin; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Rethmeier, Michael

    Maintenance, repair and overhaul of components are of increasing interest for parts of high complexity and expensive manufacturing costs. In this paper a production process for laser metal deposition is presented, and used to repair a gas turbine burner of Inconel 718. Different parameters for defined track geometries were determined to attain a near net shape deposition with consistent build-up rate for changing wall thicknesses over the manufacturing process. Spot diameter, powder feed rate, welding velocity and laser power were changed as main parameters for a different track size. An optimal overlap rate for a constant layer height was used to calculate the best track size for a fitting layer width similar to the part dimension. Deviations in width and height over the whole build-up process were detected and customized build-up strategies for the 3D sequences were designed. The results show the possibility of a near net shape repair by using different track geometries with laser metal deposition.

  13. Gas-turbine expander power generating systems for internal needs of compressor stations of gas-main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanov, A. A.; Biryuk, V. V.; Sheludko, L. P.; Shabanov, K. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of this paper, there have been analyzed power station building methods to construct a power station for utilities for gas-main pipelines compressor stations. The application efficiency of turbo expanders in them to expand the power gas of compressor stations' gas compressor units has been shown. New schemes for gas-turbine expander power generating systems have been proposed.

  14. Environmental optimisation of natural gas fired engines. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist, T. et al.

    2010-10-15

    The overall aim of the project has been to assess to which extent it is possible to reduce the emissions by adjusting the different engines examined and to determine the cost of the damage caused by emissions from natural gas combustion. However, only health and climate effects are included. The emissions of NO{sub x}, CO and UHC as well as the composition of the hydrocarbon emissions were measured for four different stationary lean-burn natural-gas fired engines installed at different combined heat and power (CHP) units in Denmark. The units were chosen to be representative of the natural gas fired engine-based power production in Denmark. The measurements showed that NO{sub x} emissions were relatively more sensitive to engine setting than UHC, CO and formaldehyde emissions. By reducing the NO{sub x} emissions to 40 % of the initial value (from 500 to 200 mg/m3(n) at 5 % O{sub 2}) the UHC emission was increased by 10 % to 50 % of the initial value. The electrical efficiency was reduced by 0.5 to 1.0 percentage point. Externalities in relation to power production are defined as the costs, which are not directly included in the price of the produced power. Health effects related to air pollution from power plants fall under this definition and usually dominate the results on external costs. For determination of these effects the exposure of the population, the impact of the exposure and the societal costs accompanying the impacts have been evaluated. As expected, it was found that when the engines are adjusted in order to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, the emission of UHC increases and vice versa. It was found that at high NO{sub x} emission levels (500 mg/m3{sub n} at 5 % O{sub 2}) the external costs related to the NO{sub x} emissions are 15 to 25 times the costs related to UHC emissions. At low NO{sub x} emission levels (200 mg/m3{sub n} at 5 % O{sub 2}) the costs related to NO{sub x} are 5 to 8 times the costs related to UHC emissions. Apparently, the harmfulness

  15. A Novel Repair Technique for the Internal Thermal Control System Dual-Membrane Gas Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Patel, Vipul; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2005-01-01

    A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the gas bubbles. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped gas bubbles to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The gas trap was designed to last for the entire lifetime of the ISS, and therefore was not designed to be repaired. However, repair of these gas traps is now a necessity due to contamination from the on-orbit ITCS fluid and other sources on the ground as well as a limited supply of flight gas traps. This paper describes a novel repair technique that has been developed that will allow the refurbishment of contaminated gas traps and their return to flight use.

  16. A Frequency Model of Vibrational Processes in Gas-Turbine Drives of Compressor Stations of Main Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekardovskiy, M. N.; Chekardovskiy, S. M.; Razboynikov, A. A.; Ponomareva, T. G.

    2016-10-01

    At compressor stations, systematic measurements of noise and vibration of power equipment - gas compressor units - are carried out. The article presents basic equations for calculating natural and forced frequencies at which the main defects appear. According to the studied dependences, results of calculations are obtained on the following types of drives for gas-compressor units GTK-10-4, Avon-1534, DG-90.

  17. Development of repair mechanism of FSX-414 based 1st stage nozzle of gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Tawfiqur

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the failure mechanism and repair technology of 1st stage nozzle or vane of industrial gas turbine which is made of cobalt based super alloy FSX-414. 1st stage nozzles or vanes are important stationery components of gas turbine based power plant. Those are the parts of hot gas path components of gas turbine and their manufacturing process is casting. At present, it is widely accepted that gas turbine based combined cycle power plant is the most efficient and cost effective solution to generate electricity. One of the factors of high efficiency of this type of gas turbine is the increase of its turbine inlet temperature. As an effect of this factor and in conjunction with some other factors, the 1st stage nozzle of gas turbine operates under extremely high temperature and thermal stresses. As a result, the design lifetime of these components becomes limited. Furthermore, attention on nozzles or vanes is required in order to achieve their design lifetime. However, due to unfriendly operational condition and environmental effect, anytime failure can occur on these heat resistant alloy based components which may lead to severe damage of gas turbine. To mitigate these adverse effects, schedule maintenance is performed on a predetermined time interval of hot gas path components of gas turbine based power plant. This paper addresses common failures in gas turbine's 1st stage nozzles or vanes. Usually these are repaired by using ADH process but for several reasons ADH process is not used here. Hence the challenging task is performed using gas tungsten arc welding which is presented in this article systematically.

  18. Prediction of Repair Work Duration for Gas Transport Systems Based on Small Data Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesnykh, Valery; Litvin, Yuri; Kozin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of the duration of a repair and maintenance project of a gas transport system is an important part of planning activities. There exist numerous sources of uncertainties that may result in time overruns possibly leading to multiple negative consequences. Our experience in planning...... this work suggests that accepting the stochastic nature of the project duration is a constructive step towards the preparedness to contingencies and defining penalties for repair companies. To support this approach, one needs to construct probability distributions of the durations of the projects...

  19. INTERNAL REPAIR OF GAS PIPLINES SURVEY OF OPERATOR EXPERIENCE AND INDUSTRY NEEDS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian D. Harris

    2003-09-01

    A repair method that can be applied from the inside of a gas transmission pipeline (i.e., a trenchless repair) is an attractive alternative to conventional repair methods since the need to excavate the pipeline is precluded. This is particularly true for pipelines in environmentally sensitive and highly populated areas. The objectives of the project are to evaluate, develop, demonstrate, and validate internal repair methods for pipelines; develop a functional specification for an internal pipeline repair system; and prepare a recommended practice for internal repair of pipelines. The purpose of this survey is to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. A total of fifty-six surveys were sent to pipeline operators. A total of twenty completed surveys were returned, representing a 36% response rate, which is considered very good given the fact that tailored surveys are known in the marketing industry to seldom attract more than a 10% response rate. The twenty survey responses produced the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water (e.g., lakes and swamps) in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. All these areas tend to be very difficult and very costly if, and where, conventional excavated repairs may be currently used. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem in a water/river crossing. (3) The typical travel distances required can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). In concept, these groups require pig-based systems; despooled umbilical systems could be considered for the first two groups

  20. Preliminary analysis of selected gas dynamic problems. [space shuttle main engine main combustion transients and IUS nozzle flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozan, R. J.; Farmer, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The VAST computer code was used to analyze SSME main combustion chamber start-up transients and the IUS flow field for a damaged nozzle was investigated to better understand the gas dynamic considerations involved in vehicle problems, the effect of start transients on the nozzle flow field for the SSME, and the possibility that a damaged nozzle could account for the acceleration anomaly noted on IUS burn. The results obtained were compared with a method of characteristics prediction. Pressure solutions from both codes were in very good agreement and the Mach number solution on the nozzle centerline deviates substantially for the high expansions for the SSME. Since this deviation was unexpected, the phenomenon is being further examined.

  1. Total left main coronary artery occlusion after aortic aneurysm repair and valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Lemole, G M; Wolf, N W; Dowinsky, S; Untereker, W; Spagna, P M

    1991-02-01

    A 38-year-old woman with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery secondary to cannulation during aortic valve replacement is presented. The clinical course was characterized by progressive left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure. Recognition of this potential problem when it occurs is important as to institute therapeutic measures which may interrupt a patient's progressive clinical deterioration.

  2. Arrangement of tapering traps in the main oil and gas complexes of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vysotskiy, V.M.; Malykh, A.G.; Pikulevich, V.D.; Sidorenkov, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Based on evaluation of the densities of distribution of traps formed by lithological and stratigraphic screens, in the main oil and gas masses of West Siberia an isolation is made of the intervals of the section which are the most promising for detecting screened formations. These include the Berrias-Valanzhinskiy, Valanzhin-Gotherivian and upper Jurassic oil and gas complexes which are included among the primary objects for setting up prospecting and exploration aimed at finding screened hydrocarbon formations.

  3. Karst hazard assessment in the design of the main gas pipeline (South Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, L. A.; Dutova, E. M.; Ermolaeva, A. V.; Alimova, I. N.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The paper represents the description of the zonal and regional geological factors of geoengineering conditions which characterize the territory in South Yakutia crossed by the designed main gas pipeline. Cryogenic processes and karst are considered to be the most dangerous hazards for gas pipeline maintenance. Karst hazard assessment of the gas pipeline section made in the course of the research has involved a complex of geological methods: geoengineering, geophysical, hydrogeological, and mapping. Sections prone to karst development have been identified. The authors have suggested the measures to protect potentially hazardous sections and to ensure timely informing on sinkhole collapses.

  4. Prediction of Repair Work Duration for Gas Transport Systems Based on Small Data Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesnykh, Valery; Litvin, Yuri; Kozin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of the duration of a repair and maintenance project of a gas transport system is an important part of planning activities. There exist numerous sources of uncertainties that may result in time overruns possibly leading to multiple negative consequences. Our experience in planning...... this work suggests that accepting the stochastic nature of the project duration is a constructive step towards the preparedness to contingencies and defining penalties for repair companies. To support this approach, one needs to construct probability distributions of the durations of the projects...... of concurrently running subprojects. Following this, guidance is provided on how to decide about what duration should define the deadline for completion of the whole work. A simple example is provided....

  5. Molecular and atomic gas along and across the main sequence of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintonge, Amelie; Catinella, Barbara; Cortese, Luca; Genzel, Reinhard; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Kramer, Carsten; Lutz, Katharina A.; Schiminovich, David; Tacconi, Linda J.; Wuyts, Stijn; Accurso, Gioacchino

    2016-10-01

    We use spectra from the ALFALFA, GASS and COLD GASS surveys to quantify variations in the mean atomic and molecular gas mass fractions throughout the SFR-M* plane and along the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies. Although galaxies well below the MS tend to be undetected in the Arecibo and IRAM observations, reliable mean atomic and molecular gas fractions can be obtained through a spectral stacking technique. We find that the position of galaxies in the SFR-M* plane can be explained mostly by their global cold gas reservoirs as observed in the H I line, with in addition systematic variations in the molecular-to-atomic ratio and star formation efficiency. When looking at galaxies within ±0.4 dex of the MS, we find that as stellar mass increases, both atomic and molecular gas mass fractions decrease, stellar bulges become more prominent, and the mean stellar ages increase. Both star formation efficiency and molecular-to-atomic ratios vary little for massive MS galaxies, indicating that the flattening of the MS is due to the global decrease of the cold gas reservoirs of galaxies rather than to bottlenecks in the process of converting cold atomic gas to stars.

  6. Molecular and atomic gas along and across the main sequence of star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Saintonge, A; Cortese, L; Genzel, R; Giovanelli, R; Haynes, M P; Janowiecki, S; Kramer, C; Lutz, K A; Schiminovich, D; Tacconi, L J; Wuyts, S; Accurso, G

    2016-01-01

    We use spectra from the ALFALFA, GASS and COLD GASS surveys to quantify variations in the mean atomic and molecular gas mass fractions throughout the SFR-M* plane and along the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies. Although galaxies well below the MS tend to be undetected in the Arecibo and IRAM observations, reliable mean atomic and molecular gas fractions can be obtained through a spectral stacking technique. We find that the position of galaxies in the SFR-M* plane can be explained mostly by their global cold gas reservoirs as observed in the HI line, with in addition systematic variations in the molecular-to-atomic ratio and star formation efficiency. When looking at galaxies within +/-0.4 dex of the MS, we find that as stellar mass increases, both atomic and molecular gas mass fractions decrease, stellar bulges become more prominent, and the mean stellar ages increase. Both star formation efficiency and molecular-to-atomic ratios vary little for massive main sequence galaxies, indicating that the ...

  7. Abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of the C-reactive response to injury in subjects undergoing inguinal hernia repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irkulla Sashidhar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and serum C-reactive protein (CRP (a sensitive marker of inflammatory activity are associated with most chronic diseases. Abdominal adiposity along with age is the strongest determinant of baseline CRP levels in healthy subjects. The mechanism of the association of serum CRP with disease is uncertain. We hypothesized that baseline serum CRP is a marker of inflammatory responsiveness to injury and that abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of this responsiveness. We studied the effect of abdominal adiposity, age and other environmental risk factors for chronic disease on the CRP response to a standardised surgical insult, unilateral hernia repair to not only test this hypothesis but to inform the factors which must be taken into account when assessing systemic inflammatory responses to surgery. Methods 102 male subjects aged 24-94 underwent unilateral hernia repair by a single operator. CRP was measured at 0, 6, 24 and 48 hrs. Response was defined as the peak CRP adjusted for baseline CRP. Results Age and waist:hip ratio (WHR were associated both with basal CRP and CRP response with similar effect sizes after adjustment for a wide-range of covariates. The adjusted proportional difference in CRP response per 10% increase in WHR was 1.50 (1.17-1.91 p = 0.0014 and 1.15(1.00-1.31 p = 0.05 per decade increase in age. There was no evidence of important effects of other environmental cardiovascular risk factors on CRP response. Conclusion Waist:hip ratio and age need to be considered when studying the inflammatory response to surgery. The finding that age and waist:hip ratio influence baseline and post-operative CRP levels to a similar extent suggests that baseline CRP is a measure of inflammatory responsiveness to casual stimuli and that higher age and obesity modulate the generic excitability of the inflammatory system leading to both higher baseline CRP and higher CRP response to surgery. The mechanism for

  8. Deflating the shale gas potential of South Africa's Main Karoo basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel O. de Kock

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Main Karoo basin has been identified as a potential source of shale gas (i.e. natural gas that can be extracted via the process of hydraulic stimulation or ‘fracking’. Current resource estimates of 0.4–11x109 m3 (13–390 Tcf are speculatively based on carbonaceous shale thickness, area, depth, thermal maturity and, most of all, the total organic carbon content of specifically the Ecca Group’s Whitehill Formation with a thickness of more than 30 m. These estimates were made without any measurements on the actual available gas content of the shale. Such measurements were recently conducted on samples from two boreholes and are reported here. These measurements indicate that there is little to no desorbed and residual gas, despite high total organic carbon values. In addition, vitrinite reflectance and illite crystallinity of unweathered shale material reveal the Ecca Group to be metamorphosed and overmature. Organic carbon in the shale is largely unbound to hydrogen, and little hydrocarbon generation potential remains. These findings led to the conclusion that the lowest of the existing resource estimates, namely 0.4x109 m3 (13 Tcf, may be the most realistic. However, such low estimates still represent a large resource with developmental potential for the South African petroleum industry. To be economically viable, the resource would be required to be confined to a small, well-delineated ‘sweet spot’ area in the vast southern area of the basin. It is acknowledged that the drill cores we investigated fall outside of currently identified sweet spots and these areas should be targets for further scientific drilling projects. Significance: This is the first report of direct measurements of the actual gas contents of southern Karoo basin shales. The findings reveal carbon content of shales to be dominated by overmature organic matter. The results demonstrate a much reduced potential shale gas resource presented by the Whitehill

  9. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: Structure and Kinematics of Dense Gas in Serpens Main

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Katherine I; Storm, Shaye; Looney, Leslie W; Mundy, Lee G; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Teuben, Peter; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Hector G; Ostriker, Eve C; Shirley, Yancy L; Kwon, Woojin; Kauffmann, Jens; Tobin, John J; Plunkett, Adele L; Pound, Marc W; Salter, Demerese M; Volgenau, N H; Chen, Che-Yu; Tassis, Konstantinos; Isella, Andrea; Crutcher, Richard M; Gammie, Charles F; Testi, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of N2H+(1-0), HCO+(1-0), and HCN(1-0) toward the Serpens Main molecular cloud from the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy). We mapped 150 square arcminutes of Serpens Main with an angular resolution of 7 arcsecs. The gas emission is concentrated in two subclusters (the NW and SE subclusters). The SE subcluster has more prominent filamentary structures and more complicated kinematics compared to the NW subcluster. The majority of gas in the two subclusters has subsonic to sonic velocity dispersions. We applied a dendrogram technique with N2H+(1-0) to study the gas structures; the SE subcluster has a higher degree of hierarchy than the NW subcluster. Combining the dendrogram and line fitting analyses reveals two distinct relations: a flat relation between nonthermal velocity dispersion and size, and a positive correlation between variation in velocity centroids and size. The two relations imply a characteristic depth of 0.15 pc for the cloud. Furthermore, we have identified s...

  10. Long-Range Untethered Real-Time Live Gas Main Robotic Inspection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf; Daphne D' Zurko

    2004-10-31

    Under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) developed an untethered, wireless remote controlled inspection robot dubbed Explorer. The project entailed the design and prototyping of a wireless self-powered video-inspection robot capable of accessing live 6- and 8-inch diameter cast-iron and steel mains, while traversing turns and Ts and elbows under real-time control with live video feedback to an operator. The design is that of a segmented actively articulated and wheel-leg powered robot design, with fisheye imaging capability and self-powered battery storage and wireless real-time communication link. The prototype was functionally tested in an above ground pipe-network, in order to debug all mechanical, electrical and software subsystems, and develop the necessary deployment and retrieval, as well as obstacle-handling scripts. A pressurized natural gas test-section was used to certify it for operation in natural gas at up to 60 psig. Two subsequent live-main field-trials in both cast-iron and steel pipe, demonstrated its ability to be safely launched, operated and retrieved under real-world conditions. The system's ability to safely and repeatably exidrecover from angled and vertical launchers, traverse multi-thousand foot long pipe-sections, make T and varied-angle elbow-turns while wirelessly sending live video and handling command and control messages, was clearly demonstrated. Video-inspection was clearly shown to be a viable tool to understand the state of this critical buried infrastructure, irrespective of low- (cast-iron) or high-pressure (steel) conditions. This report covers the different aspects of specifications, requirements, design, prototyping, integration and testing and field-trialing of the Explorer platform.

  11. CARMA LARGE AREA STAR FORMATION SURVEY: STRUCTURE AND KINEMATICS OF DENSE GAS IN SERPENS MAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Katherine I.; Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Teuben, Peter; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Chen, Che-Yu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Fernández-López, Manuel; Looney, Leslie W.; Segura-Cox, Dominique [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Departments of Physics and Statistics, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Arce, Héctor G.; Plunkett, Adele L. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, PO Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Ostriker, Eve C. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kwon, Woojin [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Kauffmann, Jens [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69 D-53121, Bonn Germany (Germany); Tobin, John J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Volgenau, N. H. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tassis, Konstantinos, E-mail: ijlee9@astro.umd.edu [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present observations of N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1 → 0), HCO{sup +} (J = 1 → 0), and HCN (J = 1 → 0) toward the Serpens Main molecular cloud from the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy). We mapped 150 arcmin{sup 2} of Serpens Main with an angular resolution of ∼7''. The gas emission is concentrated in two subclusters (the NW and SE subclusters). The SE subcluster has more prominent filamentary structures and more complicated kinematics compared to the NW subcluster. The majority of gas in the two subclusters has subsonic to sonic velocity dispersions. We applied a dendrogram technique with N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0) to study the gas structures; the SE subcluster has a higher degree of hierarchy than the NW subcluster. Combining the dendrogram and line fitting analyses reveals two distinct relations: a flat relation between nonthermal velocity dispersion and size, and a positive correlation between variation in velocity centroids and size. The two relations imply a characteristic depth of 0.15 pc for the cloud. Furthermore, we have identified six filaments in the SE subcluster. These filaments have lengths of ∼0.2 pc and widths of ∼0.03 pc, which is smaller than a characteristic width of 0.1 pc suggested by Herschel observations. The filaments can be classified into two types based on their properties. The first type, located in the northeast of the SE subcluster, has larger velocity gradients, smaller masses, and nearly critical mass-per-unit-length ratios. The other type, located in the southwest of the SE subcluster, has the opposite properties. Several YSOs are formed along two filaments which have supercritical mass per unit length ratios, while filaments with nearly critical mass-per-unit-length ratios are not associated with YSOs, suggesting that stars are formed on gravitationally unstable filaments.

  12. On a Batch Arrival Queuing System Equipped with a Stand-by Server during Vacation Periods or the Repairs Times of the Main Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab F. Khalaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a queuing system which is equipped with a stand-by server in addition to the main server. The stand-by server provides service to customers only during the period of absence of the main server when either the main server is on a vacation or it is in the state of repairs due to a sudden failure from time to time. The service times, vacation times, and repair times are assumed to follow general arbitrary distributions while the stand-by service times follow exponential distribution. Supplementary variables technique has been used to obtain steady state results in explicit and closed form in terms of the probability generating functions for the number of customers in the queue, the average number of customers, and the average waiting time in the queue while the MathCad software has been used to illustrate the numerical results in this work.

  13. TBG's equipment for gas pipeline repair and bypass in service; Equipamentos da TBG para execucao de reparos e bypass em operacao no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemgruber, Nelson Arthur Pinto; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Frota, Cristiane Souto [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline - GASBOL - begins in the city of Santa Cruz of La Sierra, in Bolivia, arriving in Canoas (RS), in Brazil, traveling an extension of 3.150 km. TBG is the owner and operator from 2.593 km in Brazilian soil, with maximum nominal diameter 32 inches, capacity of transportations until 30 million cubic meter a day, and MAOP 100 bar. This work presents the main available resources in TBG for repair of the gas pipeline, as clamps for small repairs, bolt-on clamps, equipment for hot tapping and execution of by pass in-service, cold cutter machine, air movers for removal the gas of the line, and movable systems of emergency illumination. The location of the equipment is detailed, the main technical and operational characteristics, as well as aspects observed in simulated accomplished in the operational units of TBG and presents the planning for acquisition of new equipment. (author)

  14. Origins of natural gas and the main controlling factors of gas accumulation in the Middle Ordovician assemblages in Jingxi area, Ordos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshe Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the progressive exploration of the Jingbian Gas Field in the Ordos Basin, multiple gas-bearing regions have been discovered in the dolomite reservoirs in the Middle Ordovician assemblages of Lower Paleozoic in Jingxi area, but these gas-bearing regions and intervals are significantly different in terms of gas enrichment degrees. So far, however, the reasons for the difference have not been figured out. In this paper, the origin and source of natural gas in the Middle Ordovician assemblages in Jingxi area was investigated on the basis of geochemical data (e.g. natural gas composition and carbon isotope, and then the main factors controlling the gas accumulation were analyzed. It is shown that the natural gas in the Middle Ordovician assemblages in the Middle Ordovician assemblages in Jingxi area is similar to that in the Upper Ordovician assemblages and Upper Paleozoic reservoir in terms of genesis and sources, and they are mainly the Upper Paleozoic coaliferous gas with some oil-derived gas. Under the influence of hydrocarbon generation center of coal source rocks and the source–rock–reservoir contact relationship, the proportion of coaliferous gas increases areally from the north to the south and vertically from Ma55 sub-member of the Lower Ordovician Majiagou Fm. It is concluded that the natural gas enrichment degree is controlled by the gas charging capacity at the hydrocarbon-supplying windows. Second, the vertical migration and distribution of natural gas is dominated by the differences of Ma55−Ma510 transport pathways. And third, the lateral migration direction of natural gas and the range of gas accumulation are controlled by the superimposition relationship between structures and reservoirs.

  15. Endonuclease IV Is the Main Base Excision Repair Enzyme Involved in DNA Damage Induced by UVA Radiation and Stannous Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen S. Motta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stannous chloride (SnCl2 and UVA induce DNA lesions through ROS. The aim of this work was to study the toxicity induced by UVA preillumination, followed by SnCl2 treatment. E. coli BER mutants were used to identify genes which could play a role in DNA lesion repair generated by these agents. The survival assays showed (i The nfo mutant was the most sensitive to SnCl2; (ii lethal synergistic effect was observed after UVA pre-illumination, plus SnCl2 incubation, the nfo mutant being the most sensitive; (iii wild type and nfo mutants, transformed with pBW21 plasmid (nfo+ had their survival increased following treatments. The alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis assays pointed that (i UVA induced DNA breaks and fpg mutant was the most sensitive; (ii SnCl2-induced DNA strand breaks were higher than those from UVA and nfo mutant had the slowest repair kinetics; (iii UVA+SnCl2 promoted an increase in DNA breaks than SnCl2 and, again, nfo mutant displayed the slowest repair kinetics. In summary, Nfo protects E. coli cells against damage induced by SnCl2 and UVA+ SnCl2.

  16. Determining the Main Gas-generation Phase of Marine Organic Matters in Different Occurrence States using the Kinetic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunpeng; ZHAO Changyi; WANG Zhaoyun; WANG Hongjun; ZOU Yanrong; LIU Jinzhong; ZHAO Wenzhi; LIU Dehan; LU Jialan

    2008-01-01

    This paper probes the determination of the main gas-generation phase of marine organic mattes using the kinetic method. The main gas-generation phase of marine organic matters was determined by coupling the gas generation yields and rates in geological history computed by the acquired kinetic parameters of typical marine organic matters (reservoir oil, residual bitumen, low-maturity kerogen and residual kerogen) in both China and abroad and maturity by the EasyRo(%) method. Here, the main gas-generation phase was determined as Ro%=1.4%-2.4% for type Ⅰ kerogen, Ro%=1.5-3.0% for low-maturity type Ⅱ kerogen, Ro%=1.4-2.8% for residual kerogen,Ro%=1.5-3.2% for residual bitumen and Ro%=1.6-3.2% for reservoir oil cracking. The influences on the main gas-generation phase from the openness of the simulated system and the "dead line" of natural gas generation are also discussed. The results indicate that the openness of simulation system has a definite influence on computing the main gas-generation phase. The main gas-generation phase of type Ⅱ kerogen is Ro%=1.4-3.1% in an open system, which is earlier than that in a closed system.According to our results, the "dead line" of natural gas generation is determined as Ro=3.5% for type Ⅰ kerogen, Ro=4.4-4.5% for type Ⅱ kerogen and Ro=4.6% for marine oil. Preliminary applications are presented taking the southwestern Tarim Basin as an example.

  17. Leaks in gas mains - Location using GIS and GPS; Leckstellen in Gasrohrnetzen. Aufspueren mit Unterstuetzung durch GIS und GPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, D.

    2009-07-01

    This article takes a look how leaks in gas mains can be located with the help of geographical information systems (GIS) and the satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS). The advantages for long-term planning and, in future, maintenance work are stressed. Experienced gained by the IWB utility in Basel, Switzerland, is discussed. Here, a system for the monitoring and maintenance of the whole of the City of Basel's natural gas supply network is discussed. Cost savings and a particularly improved increase in the quality of leak detection work is noted. Modern technology using GPS-based equipment in the detection of leaks in the gas mains is reviewed. An example of the documentation of the gas mains in a GIS system is given.

  18. Estimation of gas flow dustiness in the main pipelines of booster compressor stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukhymenko, M.; Ostroha, R.; Litvinenko, A.; Bocko, J.

    2017-08-01

    The article provides groundings for cleaning the gas flows of major pipelines from soild particles in order to improve the compressor operation reliability. One obtained formulas for determination of the dust level in the vertical and horizontal sections of the pipelines supplying gas to the booster compressor stations. Ways of structural modernization of vertical pipeline sections using the inbuilt separation devices for more efficient removal of dust particles from the gas flow are described.

  19. Wireless Self-powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Burkett; Hagen Schempf

    2006-01-31

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design of the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main NDE and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules and their arrangement, still allow the robot to configure itself to perform any-angle (up to 90 deg) turns in any orientation (incl. vertical), and enable the live launching and

  20. Implications of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios for the main Asian regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.; van Vuuren, D.P.; van Vliet, J.; Mendoza Beltran, A.; Deetman, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to limit global mean temperature increase, long-term greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced. This paper discusses the implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions for major Asian regions (China, India, Indonesia, South-East Asia, Japan and Korea) based on results from the IMAGE m

  1. Application of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method for estimation of the karst process at main gas pipeline construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaeva, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Main pipelines maintenance is connected with hazard engineering and geological working conditions. The article deals with the use of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method to estimate the karst processes development during the construction of main gas pipelines. The possibility of using this method is analyzed on the example of the initial section of the designed gas pipeline “Power of Siberia” (section “Chayanda-Lensk"). The calculation of the nonequilibrium index Ca was made in accordance with the geotechnical survey data. The dependencies between the geomorphological features of the terrain and the natural waters aggressiveness were determined.

  2. Research on the possibility of restoring blades while repairing gas turbine engines parts by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelov, V. G.; Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    We study the possibility of restoring the blades of chromium-nickel materials for the repair of parts of gas turbine engines using selective laser melting technology. The stages of preparation of the items to repair and reconditioning are considered in detail, the algorithm of the recovery process to a 3D machine has been developed. Chemical analysis of the raw material and facing material has been performed. Maps of distribution of chemical elements in the fusion zone of the starting material with the surfacing material have been acquired. In order to study the nature of alloying materials fractographic analysis of the places of fusion was performed. A map of distribution of chemical elements in the fusion zone was obtained.

  3. The investigation of dangerous geological processes resulting in land subsidence while designing the main gas pipeline in South Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, L. A.; Ermolaeva, A. V.; Golubeva, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The number of gas main accidents has increased recently due to dangerous geological processes in underdeveloped areas located in difficult geological conditions. The paper analyses land subsidence caused by karst and thermokarst processes in the right of way, reveals the assessment criteria for geological hazards and creates zoning schemes considering the levels of karst and thermorkarst hazards.

  4. Development of an inspection robot for gas distribution mains: a Mars-mission underground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dertien, Edwin Christian; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The PIRATE project is aimed to design an energy efficient robot system, capable of autonomous navigation in low-pressure gas distribution network. A prototype of the robot structure is currently being evaluated. The prototype is able to move trough pipes of various diameters, and sharp corners can b

  5. Development of an inspection robot for gas distribution mains: a Mars-mission underground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dertien, E.C.; Stramigioli, S.

    2010-01-01

    The PIRATE project is aimed to design an energy efficient robot system, capable of autonomous navigation in low-pressure gas distribution network. A prototype of the robot structure is currently being evaluated. The prototype is able to move trough pipes of various diameters, and sharp corners can b

  6. The Confinement of Star-Forming Galaxies into a Main Sequence through Episodes of Gas Compaction, Depletion, and Replenishment

    CERN Document Server

    Tacchella, Sandro; Carollo, C Marcella; Ceverino, Daniel; DeGraf, Colin; Lapiner, Sharon; Mandelker, Nir; Primack, Joel R

    2015-01-01

    Using cosmological simulations, we address the properties of high-redshift star-forming galaxies (SFGs) across their main sequence (MS) in the plane of star-formation rate (SFR) versus stellar mass. We relate them to the evolution of galaxies through phases of gas compaction, depletion, possible replenishment, and eventual quenching. We find that the high-SFR galaxies in the upper envelope of the MS are compact, with high gas fractions and short depletion times ("blue nuggets"), while the lower-SFR galaxies in the lower envelope have lower central gas densities, lower gas fractions and longer depletion times, consistent with observed gradients across the MS. Stellar-structure gradients are negligible. The SFGs oscillate about the MS ridge on timescales $\\sim0.4~t_{\\mathrm{Hubble}}$ ($\\sim1$ Gyr at $z\\sim3$). The propagation upwards is due to gas compaction, triggered, e.g., by mergers, counter-rotating streams, and/or violent disc instabilities. The downturn at the upper envelope is due to central gas depleti...

  7. INCREASING EFFICIENCY OF REPAIRING, MANUFACTURING AND OPERATION OF THE TPP FACILITIES BY TECHNOLOGY OF GAS-THERMAL COATING AND LASER SURFACE MELTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Grachev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers effectiveness increase of the TPP heat-mechanical equipment repair, manufacturing and maintenance as exemplified by gas-thermal technique for hardening laststages rotor blades of the steam turbines. The rotor blades work under conditions of intense power loading, their airfoil being erosion-corrosion destructed by the action of the moist-steam flow. Repairing companies employ quite a number of technologies to restore some of erosion-worn rotor blades. Inter alia, argon-arc, plasma and gas-powder weld deposition of the original material with subsequent machining, stellite protection recovery, electrical spark alloying the entry edge mat surface, spraying ion-plasma coating on the blade airfoil surface. In domestic turbine building, rotor blades of the steam turbines last stages are manufactured of martensitic class stainless steel. The key condition for successful blade restoration is thermal effect minimizing on the base material for excluding the slag areas possible forming. The laser surface coating technology provides these conditions. They coat the surface of an item being processed by way of melting the base and the adding material. In as much the base melts smallest, the coating characteristics depend mainly on the properties of adding material. The procedure of laser coating passes through several stages including physical contact creation, chemical interaction (laser radiation absorption, volumetrical processes resulting in formation of stable bonds in volume of the materials that have reacted. For the low-pressure cylinder rotor blades supplementary protection against erosion destruction, LLC ‘Technological Systems of Protective Coating’ developed technology of the blade airfoil protective finish by method of high-speed gas-flame sputter. The company realized this technology in 2012 during K-200-12,8 turbine (of the Leningrad Metallurgical Works – LMZ repairing in Zainsk SDPP by JSC ‘Tatenergo’. The

  8. THE OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN GAS PIPELINES IN THE BLACK SEA REGION: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GRIBINCEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is very dynamic in terms of economic development, security problems and interstate relations. All of the countries in this region are heterogeneous but energy issue plays a pivotal role in their foreign policy priorities. It is the only one common denominator that can both foster cooperation and catalyze conflict in the Black Sea basin. The problem of transporting energy has an impact not only on the Black Sea countries, but also on the Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caspian Sea, Middle East, and ultimately the European consuming markets. Thus, the issue of energy transition needs the experts’ and scientists’ attention fixed on the Black Sea region in order to come together facing the latter-day challenges. The energy challenge has a multi-dimensional nature. Aim. Thus, this paper aims to provide an overview of the energy transaction issues focusing on the economic effects of the most important gas pipelines within the Black Sea region. Particular attention is going to be paid to the problem of the energy routes’ diversification and pipelines which connect the carbon-rich countries of the Middle East and Caspian region and Europe. Also, it is aimed to give a comprehensive analysis of the energy challenge within the Black sea region, focusing on energy efficiency of the gas pipelines which go through this extremely important energy hub. Methods - scientific methods of data analysis, historical and statistical overview, predictive analysis qualitative indicators, comparative method, method of description, case study. Results. The creation of a stable markets, interconnected and transparent natural gas supply would largely counteract the risks. The flexibility transport infrastructure, numerous and capable pipelines, underground storage capacities and their management may play an important role in the sector’s ability to manage supply shocks.

  9. Processes in petroleum chemistry. Technical and economical characteristics Vol. 1. Synthesis gas and derivatives. Main hydrocarbon intermediaries (2 ed. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvel, A.; Lefebvre, G.; Castex, L.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this book is to give rudiments for a preliminary study to outline petrochemical operation and cost estimation. Basic operations are examined: Steam reforming or partial oxidation, steam or thermal cracking and catalytic reforming. The main topics examined include: hydrogen purification, hydrogen fabrication from hydrocarbons, carbonaceous materials or water, production of carbon monoxide, ammoniac synthesis methanol synthesis from synthesis gas, preparation of formol, urea, acetylene and monomers for the preparation of plastics.

  10. Main reaction process simulation of hydrogen gas discharge in a cold cathode electric vacuum device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jing-Ye Liu; Yuan Gao; Gang Wang

    2012-07-01

    Based on the related theory of plasma discharge process and the COMSOL multiphysics software, and considering the corresponding boundary conditions, the related recation types in the hydrogen plasma discharge were simulated and analysed, and the main reactions of hydrogen discharge in small electric vacuum components at low pressure and weak ionization were confirmed. Among the 21 types of reactions in hydrogen discharge process, 11 of them play importnat roles under low pressure and weak ionization in cold cathode electric vacuum device. The simulated results are consistent with the test result.

  11. The pipes for gas and oil pipelines mains one-sided high-speed welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Вікторович Щетинін

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic theory of the undercuts formation under the arc magnetic field action according to which as welding speed increases cooling intensifies and arc diameter reduces, induction and magnetic pressure increase, pinch-effect amplifies, has been proved. The arc concentrates, heat input and the pool side edges electrical resistance reduce with the result that current through the side walls and a downward electromagnetic force, under the action of which the liquid metal flows from the pool edges, increase and the undercuts form. In high-speed welding a composite electrode as compared with the wire electrode the heat input into the side edges and their electrical resistance increase; current and induction at the pool side edges and the electromagnetic force decrease that providing the seams qualitative formation and confirming the electromagnetic theory of the undercuts. With welding speed increasing the weld pool molten metal crystallization rate increases in proportion to it, microstructure gets reduced and welding stresses decrease, that providing the welds joints toughness rise. By increasing welding speed due to deflection rearward the arc pressure decreases, the molten metal movement rate into the back part of the pool grows, that resulting in the molten metal hydrodynamic pressure reduction. Due to simultaneous reduction of the arc pressure, of the downward electromagnetic force and of the molten metal hydrodynamic pressure, the crystallization rate increase and the pool molten state time reduction the backing bead formation on the melt backing improves greatly at the high-speed welding. The energy-saving process of one-sided high-speed welding of the pipes for gas and oil pipelines on the melt backing with the use of glass flux by means of a composite electrode, which provides quality and the welded joints toughness increase, has been developed

  12. 33 CFR 127.405 - Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.405 Repairs. The operator shall ensure that—...

  13. Dissolved methane in rising main sewer systems: field measurements and simple model development for estimating greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jeff; Yuan, Zhiguo; Lant, Paul

    2009-01-01

    At present, the potential generation of methane in wastewater collection systems is ignored under international greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting protocols, despite recent reports of substantial dissolved methane formation in sewers. This suggests that the current national GHG inventories for wastewater handling systems are likely to be underestimated for some situations. This study presents a new catalogue of field data on methane formation in rising main sewerage systems and proposes an empirically-fitted, theoretical model to predict dissolved methane concentrations, based upon the independent variables of pipeline geometry (i.e. surface area to volume ratio, A/V) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). Systems with longer HRT and/or larger A/V ratios are shown to have higher dissolved methane concentrations. This simple predictive model provides a means for water authorities to estimate the methane emissions from other pressurised sewerage systems of similar characteristics.

  14. Computational Study of Main Mechanisms for Gas-Phase Decomposition of 1,1- and 1,2-Dinitroethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyshevsky, Roman V.; Aristov, Ilia V.; Chachkov, Denis V.; Shamov, Alexander G.; Khrapkovskii, Grigorii M.

    2010-10-01

    The gas-phase enthalpies of formation of 1,1- and 1,2-dinitroethane and corresponding radical products were calculated using G3B3, CBS-QB3 composite methods and DFT B3LYP level of theory with various basis sets. The enthalpies of the C-N, C-C bonds dissociation and activation enthalpies for HONO elimination were also calculated and compared with available experimental data. It was found that G3B3 calculations do provide a reasonable way to tackle the problem of the decomposition channels of 1,1- and 1,2-dinitroethane. Four main mechanisms for gas-phase decomposition of 1,1- and 1,2-dinitroethane were studied using G3B3 model chemistry. HONO elimination seems to be the most favorable mechanism for the decomposition of 1,2-dinitroethane. However, the difference in energies of the HONO elimination and C-N homolytic bond cleavage in 1,1-dinitroethane does not allow to favor any of these channels, especially at the working temperature. Gauche conformation of 1,2-dinitroethane is calculated to be the lowest-energy minimum.

  15. Main conditions and effectiveness of gas fuel use for powering of dual fuel IC self-ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan POSTRZEDNIK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are fuelled mostly with liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel. Nowadays the gaseous fuels are applied as driving fuel of combustion engines. In case of spark ignition engines the liquid fuel (petrol can be totally replaced by the gas fuels. This possibility in case of compression engines is essentially restricted through the higher self-ignition temperatures of the combustible gases in comparison to classical diesel oil. Solution if this problem can be achieved by using of the dual fuel system, where for ignition of the prepared fuel gas - air mixture a specified amount of the liquid fuel (diesel oil should be additionally injected into the combustion chamber. For assurance that the combustion process proceeds without mistakes and completely, some basic conditions should be satisfied. In the frame of this work, three main aspects of this problem are taken into account: a. filling efficiency of the engine, b. stoichiometry of the combustion, c. performance of mechanical parameters (torque, power. A complex analysis of these conditions has been done and some achieved important results are presented in the paper.

  16. Applying Systems Engineering to Improve the Main Gas Turbine Exhaust System Maintenance Strategy for the CG-47 Ticonderoga Class Cruiser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust Collector Failure Data 2. A Hybrid Approach to Preventative Maintenance Generating a class standard work template (CSWT) that reflects the...new hybrid approach to RCM. The hybrid RCM concept blends an inspection task with a repair task based on historical failure data analysis. The hybrid ...thesis. The analysis recommends a new hybrid approach to RCM. The hybrid RCM concept blends an inspection task with a repair task based on historical

  17. Determination of the threshold odor concentration of main odorants in essential oils using gas chromatography-olfactometry incremental dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo, Maurizio; Gilardoni, Gianluca; Gandini, Carlo; Caccialanza, Gabriele; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni; Abdo, Susana; Layedra, Patricia

    2007-05-25

    An essential oil, obtained by steam distillation of Clinopodium tomentosum (Kunth) Govaerts (Lamiaceae), collected in Ecuador, was analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-MS techniques. To our knowledge, the composition of this essential oil is described here for the first time, both from the chemical and olfactometric viewpoints. A preliminary analysis by GC-MS and using Kovats' retention indexes, lead to characterize and quantify the oil constituents, while GC-O was then applied for the identification of the main odorants. By the incremental dilution method (AEDA, CHARM Analysis), applied to the GC-O technique, the flavor dilution (FD) chromatogram was obtained. In order to calculate the TOC values of the main odorants, the relationship between the odorant concentration at the sniffing port and that one in the injected solution was established. This relationship was calculated by comparing the injected amount with the TOC value of a reference compound (limonene), obtained by dynamic dilution olfactometry. A good agreement was found between calculated and measured TOC values of few odorants.

  18. 腹壁切口疝手术几个要点问题%Main issues in the treatment of incisional hernia repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨福全

    2014-01-01

    Incisional hernia is one of the most common complication in abdomen surgery. Surgical repairment is the only method to cure incisional hernia. Open and laparoscopic operation skills are available in the hernia treatment. Open repair method has a higher incidence in the incision complication, while the complications in laparoscopic repair procedure are more serious. Component separation skill is suitable for the very huge incisional hernia repairment. The characteristics of mesh should be considered seriously before the mesh used in hernia repair. Appropriate manner is necessary to fix the mesh with abdominal wall. Intestinal injury should be avoided during the hernia repair procedure. Acupuncture of the seroma should be performed timely to prevent wound infection.%腹壁切口疝是腹部外科手术后常见并发症,手术修补是惟一可治愈该疾病的手段。开放修补和腹腔镜修补均为腹壁切口疝的有效治疗手段,开放修补术的切口并发症发生率相对较高,而腹腔镜修补术并发症的严重程度较高。巨大切口疝可采用组织结构分离技术进行修补。选择补片应充分考虑补片的材料学特性包括组织反应程度、强度、舒适度及顺应性等。补片可采用直接缝合或钉合方式固定。须重视预防切口疝修补术中的并发症,避免肠管损伤,出现血清肿时要及时处理,避免感染发生。

  19. Isotope dilution analysis for urinary fentanyl and its main metabolite, norfentanyl, in patients by isotopic fractionation using capillary gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sera, Shoji; Goromaru, Tsuyoshi [Fukuyama Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; Sameshima, Teruko; Kawasaki, Koichi; Oda, Toshiyuki

    1998-07-01

    Isotope dilution analysis was applied to determine urinary excretion of fentanyl (FT) and its main metabolite, norfentanyl (Nor-FT), by isotopic fractionation using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a surface ionization detector (SID). Urinary FT was determined quantitatively in the range of 0.4-40 ng/ml using deuterium labeled FT (FT-{sup 2}H{sub 19}), as an internal standard. We also performed isotope dilution analysis of Nor-FT in urine. N-Alkylation was necessary to sensitively detect Nor-FT with SID. Methyl derivative was selected from 3 kinds of N-alkyl derivatives to increase sensitivity and peak resolution, and to prevent interference with urinary compound. Nor-FT concentration was quantitatively determined in the range of 10-400 ng/ml using deuterium labeled Nor-FT (Nor-FT-{sup 2}H{sub 10}). No endogenous compounds or concomitant drugs interfered with the detection of FT and Nor-FT in the urine of patients. The present method will be useful for pharmacokinetic studies and the evaluation of drug interactions in FT metabolism. (author)

  20. Explorer-II: Wireless Self-Powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnegie Mellon University

    2008-09-30

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design, field-trial and Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) sensor evaluation program for the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The resulting robot-train system with CAD renderings of the individual modules. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules

  1. Explorer-II: Wireless Self-Powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnegie Mellon University

    2008-09-30

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design, field-trial and Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) sensor evaluation program for the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The resulting robot-train system with CAD renderings of the individual modules. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF PERMANENT MECHANICAL REPAIR SLEEVE FOR PLASTIC PIPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitesh Patadia

    2004-09-30

    The report presents a comprehensive summary of the project status related to the development of a permanent mechanical repair fitting intended to be installed on damaged PE mains under blowing gas conditions. Specifically, the product definition has been developed taking into account relevant codes and standards and industry input. A conceptual design for the mechanical repair sleeve has been developed which meets the product definition.

  3. Theoretical study and design of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane and intended for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Petrenko, V.O.

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the construction and performance of a novel combined system intended for natural gas transportation and power production, and for cooling of gas transported in a gas-main pipeline. The proposed system includes a gas turbine compressor, a combined electrogenerating plant and an ejector refrigeration unit operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The combined electrogenerating plant consists of a high-temperature steam-power cycle and a low-temperature hydrocarbon vapor power cycle, which together comprise a binary vapor system. The combined system is designed for the highest possible effectiveness of power generation and could find wide application in gas-transmission systems of gas-main pipelines. Application of the proposed system would enable year-round power generation and provide cooling of natural gas during periods of high ambient temperature operation. This paper presents the main results of a theoretical study and design performance specifications of a low-grade heat-driven pilot ejector refrigeration machine operating with butane and isobutane. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

  4. Repair by weld of steam and gas turbine rotors made of Cr-Mo-V steel; Reparacion por soldadura de rotores de turbinas de vapor y de gas fabricados con aceros al Cr-Mo-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur C, Zdzislaw; Hernandez R, Alejando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Orozco S, Julian; Banuelos P, Jose E. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this article an analysis is presented of the typical damages in steam and gas turbine rotors made of Cr-Mo-V low alloy steels. An analysis of the weldability of the Cr-Mo-V steel is carried out and a classification of the possible types of repairs of the turbine rotors is presented, starting off from the causes and ways of presentation of the faults/deterioration of the rotor materials during the operation of the turbine. With base on the damages detected in the rotor of a gas turbine of 20.65 MW, the development of the repairing technology carried out by weld in site is presented. After the repair process, the rotor was put again in operation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un analisis de los danos tipicos en rotores de turbinas de vapor y de gas fabricados con aceros de baja aleacion al Cr-Mo-V. Se lleva a cabo un analisis de la soldabilidad de los aceros al Cr-Mo-V y se presenta una clasificacion de los posibles tipos de reparaciones de los rotores de turbinas, partiendo de las causas y modos de presentacion de las fallas/deterioro del material de los rotores durante la operacion de la turbina. Con base en los danos detectados en el rotor de una turbina de gas de 20.65 MW, se presenta el desarrollo de la tecnologia de reparacion por soldadura llevada a cabo en sitio. Despues del proceso de reparacion, el rotor fue puesto nuevamente en servicio.

  5. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT AND SCALING RELATIONS IN z {approx} 1-3 MASSIVE, MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacconi, L. J.; Genzel, R.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Lutz, D.; Saintonge, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Neri, R.; Cox, P. [IRAM, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres, Grenoble (France); Combes, F. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Cooper, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bournaud, F. [Service d' Astrophysique, DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Burkert, A. [Universitaetssternwarte der Ludwig-Maximiliansuniversitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Comerford, J. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, 1 University Station, C1402 Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Davis, M.; Newman, S. [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Garcia-Burillo, S. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional-OAN, Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Naab, T. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl Schwarzschildstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Omont, A., E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de [IAP, CNRS and Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2013-05-01

    We present PHIBSS, the IRAM Plateau de Bure high-z blue sequence CO 3-2 survey of the molecular gas properties in massive, main-sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) near the cosmic star formation peak. PHIBSS provides 52 CO detections in two redshift slices at z {approx} 1.2 and 2.2, with log(M{sub *}(M{sub Sun })) {>=} 10.4 and log(SFR(M{sub Sun }/yr)) {>=} 1.5. Including a correction for the incomplete coverage of the M{sub *} -SFR plane, and adopting a ''Galactic'' value for the CO-H{sub 2} conversion factor, we infer average gas fractions of {approx}0.33 at z {approx} 1.2 and {approx}0.47 at z {approx} 2.2. Gas fractions drop with stellar mass, in agreement with cosmological simulations including strong star formation feedback. Most of the z {approx} 1-3 SFGs are rotationally supported turbulent disks. The sizes of CO and UV/optical emission are comparable. The molecular-gas-star-formation relation for the z = 1-3 SFGs is near-linear, with a {approx}0.7 Gyr gas depletion timescale; changes in depletion time are only a secondary effect. Since this timescale is much less than the Hubble time in all SFGs between z {approx} 0 and 2, fresh gas must be supplied with a fairly high duty cycle over several billion years. At given z and M{sub *}, gas fractions correlate strongly with the specific star formation rate (sSFR). The variation of sSFR between z {approx} 0 and 3 is mainly controlled by the fraction of baryonic mass that resides in cold gas.

  6. Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and main hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Soares Neto; J. A. Carvalho; C. A. G. Veras; E. C. Alvarado; R. Gielow; E. N. Lincoln; T. J. Christian; R. J. Yokelson; J. C. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire are presented and discussed. The experiment was conducted in the arc of deforestation, near the city of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The average carbon content of dry biomass was 48% and the estimated average moisture content of fresh biomass was 42% on...

  7. The Main Drivers in the Energy Sector and the Value Chain Characteristics for Offshore Oil and Gas and Offshore Wind

    OpenAIRE

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The value chains for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind are both basically driven by the demand for energy. This is heavily dependent on a number of factors including the price of various energy sources and the policy making of the states which influence legislation, indirect subsidies and direct investments. At the center of both value chains are the energy companies. The energy companies have a number of suppliers and sub suppliers which provide a range of equipment and services to the ...

  8. 压力机飞轮主轴的一种修复方法——堆焊法%Repair of flywheel main shaft on press by use of bead weld technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦宝东; 田晨光

    2012-01-01

    堆焊技术是解决机械零件磨损的高效且经济的方法.飞轮主轴是机械压力机传动的核心部件,长期使用使飞轮主轴磨损.通过对飞轮主轴的堆焊法修复,降低了生产成本.本文通过两种堆焊工艺解决了不同程度磨损的修复问题,达到了良好效果.%The bead welding technology is the efficient and economical method to solve the mechanical parts abrasion. Flywheel main shaft is the core part in mechanical press transmission. It can be abraded with time. If the flywheel main shaft has been repaired by bead welding technology, the production cost can be reduced. Two kinds of bead welding process have been used to repair the abrasion in different degrees, which gets a good effect.

  9. Development of medium-sized medium-speed lean burn spark-ignited gas engines. Analyzing local gas composition within the main combustion chamber and optimizing the design factors of a jet hole in the pre-combustion chamber; Chugata chusoku kihakunensho gas engine no kaihatsu kenkyu. Nenshoshitsunai kyokusho gas sosei no bunseki to yonenshoshitsu funko sekkei yoso no saitekika ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, S.; Sakagami, T.; Hashimoto, T. [Niigata Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-25

    A high-speed gas sampling method was used to analyze the local gas composition within the main combustion chamber of a lean burn gas engine with a 260 mm bore. The spatial distribution of the gas composition and changes every crank angle were studied. The optimum design of a jet hole in the pre-combustion chamber was then investigated based on these results, with the aim of reducing CO and THC concentration and increasing the thermal efficiency. The engineering findings were evaluated by means of a performance test on a 6 cylinder engine. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Replacement of 13 valves by using an isolation plug in the 20 inches diameter main offshore gas pipeline at Cantarell oil field, Campeche Bay, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvahal Reyes, Jorge Omar; Ulloa Ochoa, Carlos Manuel [PEMEX, Exploracion y Produccion, MX (Mexico)

    2009-12-19

    In 2002 we changed 13 valves on deck of one gas production platform called Nohoch-A-Enlace at Cantarell Offshore Oil Field. The 20'' diameter gas pipeline and 200 km of length, transport and deliver gas for others production platforms in the Gas Lift System, So 2 millions of oil barrels per day depends of the operation of this gas pipeline but there was 13 valves on pig traps to be changed after 20 years of service to high pressure (64 to 63 kg/cm{sup 2}). We could not stop the operation of this pipeline and some little gas leaks were eliminated in some parts of the valves. This pipeline has two risers so the gas can be injected by two sides of the ring of 20 Km. So we found the proper technology in order to isolate one riser nad change 8 valves and the isolate the other and change the 5, and the gas lift system never stop during the plug and maintenance operations on platform. In the first isolation plug operation this tool run 20 mts inside the riser and was actionated and resists 65 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas pressure during 44 hours so we changed 8 valves: 2 of 20'', 2 of 10'', 3 of 4'' and 1 of 8'' diameter. In the second isolation the plug run 30 mts inside the second risers and resist 64 Kg/cm{sup 2} of gas during 46 hours and we changed 5 valves of 20'' diameter. In the paper I will describe all the details of this successful operations and procedures. Also the aspects of Health, Security and Environment that we prepared one year before this operations at platform. Pemex save almost 2.5 millions of dollars because the gas lift system never stop and all valves were changed and now we can run cleaning and inspection tools inside the full ring. We used the first isolation plug in Latin America and we want to share this experience to all the pipeline operators in the world as a good practice in pipeline maintenance using plugging technology in the main and large pipelines of high pressure. (author)

  11. Characterization of the main automotive gasoline compounds by using gas chromatography; Caracterizacao dos principais componentes da gasolina automotiva atraves de cromatografia gasosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Julio Cesar Rosa; Jaeger, Helena Valli; Almeida, Selmo Queiroz; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes; Pontes, Luiz Antonio Magalhaes; Vitor Sobrinho, Eledir; Guimaraes, Paulo Roberto Britto; Vianna, Regina Ferreira [Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Arquitetura]. E-mail: julio.assis@posgrad.unifacs.br

    2003-07-01

    Gasoline is composed of a number of hydrocarbons of varied structure and different functional groups, which have a marked influence on the final quality of the former. It is thus important to identify the main components of gasoline and how they influence some of its characteristics. This research work is concerned with the development of a technique, based on gas chromatography, for the separation and identification of more than 350 organic compounds likely to be present in gasoline. The study involved 50 gasoline samples collected at gas stations located in Salvador-Bahia (Brazil). The hydrocarbons identified were classified according to their main functional groups and compositions were obtained via a statistical treatment of the raw data. The results have shown that the gasoline used in Salvador has isopentane as the prevalent saturated compound, while m-xylene and methyl-butene are the most frequently found aromatic and olefin, respectively. (author)

  12. A higher efficiency of converting gas to stars push galaxies at z ~ 1.6 well above the star-forming main sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Rodighiero, G; Rujopakarn, W; Sargent, M; Renzini, A; Liu, D; Feruglio, C; Kashino, D; Sanders, D; Kartaltepe, J; Nagao, T; Arimoto, N; Berta, S; Bethermin, M; Lutz, D; Magdis, G; Mancini, C; Onodera, M; Zamorani, G

    2015-01-01

    Local starbursts have a higher efficiency of converting gas into stars, as compared to typical star-forming galaxies at a given stellar mass, possibly indicative of different modes of star formation. With the peak epoch of galaxy formation occurring at z > 1, it remains to be established whether such an efficient mode of star formation is occurring at high-redshift. To address this issue, we measure the CO molecular gas content of seven high-redshift starburst galaxies with ALMA and IRAM/PdBI. Our sample is selected from the FMOS-COSMOS near-infrared spectroscopic survey of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1.6 with Subaru. All galaxies have star formation rates (~300-800 Msolar/yr) elevated, by at least four times, above the star-forming main sequence. We detect CO emission in all cases at high significance, indicative of plentiful gas supplies (f_gas ~ 30-50%). Even more compelling, we firmly establish for the first time that starbursts at high redshift systematically have a lower ratio of CO to total infrared l...

  13. Recommendations for main line block valves installation in gas pipelines; Recomendacoes para instalacao de valvulas de bloqueio de linha tronco em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Valeriano Duque de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Cases of gas pipelines block valves and its pneumatic actuators presenting problems during the final pipeline commissioning and pre-operation phases, like internal leaks, leaking to the atmosphere, pneumatic circuit defects caused by water and debris, are nearly common. The majority can be avoided if a series of measuring are to be planned and implemented, as well as if an adequate planning of commissioning operations and line gasification, valves and actuators, are to be applied. This paper shows the practical experience in the construction and commissioning of valves and its actuators in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline, which, in the first construction phase had a series of problems. After the diagnosis a set of procedures was implemented in the secondary construction phase, resulting in insignificant problems detected. All measures and procedures taken in the planning process, as well as additional aspects related to the main line valve design, its by-passes and supports, are demonstrated. (author)

  14. Grazing by reindeer in subarctic coniferous forests - how it is affecting three main greenhouse gas emissions from soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Kajar; Köster, Egle; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2017-04-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) are the most important large mammalian herbivores in the northern ecosystems, strongly affecting Arctic lichen dominated ecosystems. Changes caused by reindeer in vegetation have indirect effects on physical features of the soil e.g. soil microclimate, root biomass and also on soil carbon dynamics, and little is known about reindeer and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions between the soil and atmosphere. In a field experiment in northern boreal subarctic coniferous forests in Finnish Lapland, we investigated the influence of reindeer grazing on soil GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes, ground vegetation coverage and biomass, soil temperature and water content. The study was carried out in the growing season of the year 2014. We established the experiment as a split plot experiment with 2 blocks and 5 sub-plots per treatment that were divided into grazed and non-grazed parts, separated with a fence. The sample plots are located along the borderline between Finland and Russia, where the non-grazed area was excluded from reindeer already in 1918, to prevent the Finnish reindeer from going to the Russian side and there are not many reindeer on Russian side of the area. Our study showed that grazing by reindeer significantly affected lichen and moss biomasses. Lichen biomass was significantly lower in the grazed. We also observed that when lichens were removed, mosses were quickly overtaking the areas and moss biomass was significantly higher in grazed areas compared to non-grazed areas. Our results indicated that grazing by reindeer in the northern boreal subarctic forests affects the GHG emissions from the forest floor and these emissions largely depend on changes in vegetation composition. Soil was always a source of CO2in our study, and soil CO2 emissions were significantly smaller in non-grazed areas compared to grazed areas. The soils in our study areas were CH4 sinks through entire measurement period, and grazed areas consumed

  15. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  16. Can a fermentation gas mainly produced by rumen Isotrichidae ciliates be a potential source of biohydrogen and a fuel for a chemical fuel cell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piela, Piotr; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Miltko, Renata; Szewczyk, Krzysztof; Sikora, Radosław; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Sikora, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Bacteria, fungi and protozoa inhabiting the rumen, the largest chamber of the ruminants' stomach, release large quantities of hydrogen during the fermentation of carbohydrates. The hydrogen is used by coexisting methanogens to produce methane in energy-yielding processes. This work shows, for the first time, a fundamental possibility of using a hydrogen-rich fermentation gas produced by selected rumen ciliates to feed a low-temperature hydrogen fuel cell. A biohydrogen fuel cell (BHFC) was constructed consisting of (i) a bioreactor, in which a hydrogen-rich gas was produced from glucose by rumen ciliates, mainly of the Isotrichidae family, deprived of intra- and extracellular bacteria, methanogens, and fungi, and (ii) a chemical fuel cell of the polymer-electrolyte type (PEFC). The fuel cell was used as a tester of the technical applicability of the fermentation gas produced by the rumen ciliates for power generation. The average estimated hydrogen yield was ca. 1.15 mol H2 per mol of fermented glucose. The BHFC performance was equal to the performance of the PEFC running on pure hydrogen. No fuel cell poisoning effects were detected. A maximum power density of 1.66 kW/m2 (PEFC geometric area) was obtained at room temperature. The maximum volumetric power density was 128 W/m3 but the coulombic efficiency was only ca. 3.8%. The configuration of the bioreactor limited the continuous operation time of this BHFC to ca. 14 hours.

  17. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  18. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  19. Tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of tendon ... Tendon repair can be performed using: Local anesthesia (the immediate area of the surgery is pain-free) ... a cut on the skin over the injured tendon. The damaged or torn ends of the tendon ...

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  1. A HIGHER EFFICIENCY OF CONVERTING GAS TO STARS PUSHES GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6 WELL ABOVE THE STAR-FORMING MAIN SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D.; Rujopakarn, W. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Daddi, E.; Liu, D. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay (France); Rodighiero, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sargent, M. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Renzini, A. [Instituto Nazionale de Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, v.co dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Feruglio, C. [IRAM—Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Kashino, D. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Nagao, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI-96720 (United States); Berta, S.; Lutz, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-84571 Garching (Germany); Béthermin, M. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Koekemoer, A., E-mail: john.silverman@ipmu.jp [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); and others

    2015-10-20

    Local starbursts have a higher efficiency of converting gas into stars, as compared to typical star-forming galaxies at a given stellar mass, possibly indicative of different modes of star formation. With the peak epoch of galaxy formation occurring at z > 1, it remains to be established whether such an efficient mode of star formation is occurring at high redshift. To address this issue, we measure the molecular gas content of seven high-redshift (z ∼ 1.6) starburst galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and IRAM/Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our targets are selected from the sample of Herschel far-infrared-detected galaxies having star formation rates (∼300–800 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) elevated (≳4×) above the star-forming main sequence (MS) and included in the FMOS-COSMOS near-infrared spectroscopic survey of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6 with Subaru. We detect CO emission in all cases at high levels of significance, indicative of high gas fractions (∼30%–50%). Even more compelling, we firmly establish with a clean and systematic selection that starbursts, identified as MS outliers, at high redshift generally have a lower ratio of CO to total infrared luminosity as compared to typical MS star-forming galaxies, although with a smaller offset than expected based on past studies of local starbursts. We put forward a hypothesis that there exists a continuous increase in star formation efficiency with elevation from the MS with galaxy mergers as a possible physical driver. Along with a heightened star formation efficiency, our high-redshift sample is similar in other respects to local starbursts, such as being metal rich and having a higher ionization state of the interstellar medium.

  2. Efforts for promotion of environmental conservation and cost reduction in gas pipe construction, rebuild and repair and inspection work; Promotion de la preservation de l'environnement et de la reduction du cout des travaux de construction, de refection, de reparation et d'inspection des canalisations de gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, K.; Anamizu, T.; Kurashina, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Presently, under the guidelines of the Ministry of Construction, Japan is pursuing the 'build up of a resources conservation and recycling society' that is basically aimed at 'zero disposal of reusable construction by-products'. Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. is excavating about two million tons of soil in gas pipe construction, rebuild and repair and inspection work. Of this, 70 percent of the excavated soil is disposed of mainly by landfill. Tokyo Gas is serious about improving this situation. At the same time, the cost reduction of gas pipe construction is also necessary. To promote environmental conservation and construction cost reduction together, the following actions will be intensified, aiming at reducing the disposal of construction surplus soil to 5 percent of the total excavated volume by 2010. - Decrease of construction surplus soil (by adopting trench-less (non-open-cut) methods, burying gas pipes at shallow depths and narrowing trench excavation); - Re-utilization of good quality surplus soil; - Utilization of improved soil. (authors)

  3. Bladder exstrophy repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... Bladder exstrophy repair involves two surgeries. The first surgery is to repair the bladder and the second one is to attach ...

  4. Clamp wins pipe repair prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the permanent pipeline repair system, developed by Tekmar, which is powered by seawater hydraulics and is easily installed and tested by any workclass remotely operated vehicle (rov). Details are given of the two main components of the system, namely, the diverless high pressure split repair clamp and the rov-operated tool to install it.

  5. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  6. Hypospadias repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem. If the repair is not done, problems may occur later on such as: Difficulty controlling and directing urine stream A curve in the penis during erection Decreased fertility Embarrassment about appearance of penis Surgery ...

  7. The greenhouse gas balance of a drained fen peatland is mainly controlled by land-use rather than soil organic carbon content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Eickenscheidt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drained organic soils are considered as hotspots for greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Particularly arable lands and intensively used grasslands have been regarded as the main producers of carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O. However, GHG balances of former peatlands and associated organic soils not considered as peatland according to the definition of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC have not been investigated so far. Therefore, our study addressed the question to what extent the soil organic carbon (SOC content affects the GHG release of drained organic soils under two different land-use types (arable land and intensively used grassland. Both land-use types were established on a mollic Gleysol (named Cmedium as well as on a sapric Histosol (named Chigh. The two soil types significantly differed in their SOC contents in the topsoil (Cmedium: 9.4–10.9% SOC; Chigh: 16.1–17.2% SOC. We determined GHG fluxes (CO2, N2O and methane (CH4 over a period of 2 years. The daily and annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE of CO2 was determined with the closed dynamic chamber technique and by modeling the ecosystem respiration (RECO and the gross primary production (GPP. N2O and CH4 were determined by the close chamber technique. Estimated NEE of CO2 significantly differed between the two land-use types with lower NEE values (−6 to 1707 g CO2–C m−2 yr−1 at the arable sites and higher values (1354 to 1823 g CO2–C m−2 yr−1 at the grassland sites. No effect on NEE was found regarding the SOC content. Significantly higher annual N2O exchange rates were observed at the arable sites (0.23–0.86 g N m−2 yr−1 compared to the grassland sites (0.12–0.31 g N m−2 yr−1. Furthermore, N2O fluxes from the Chigh sites significantly exceeded those of the Cmedium sites. CH4 fluxes were found to be close to zero at all plots. Estimated global warming potential, calculated for a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100 revealed a very high

  8. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Femoral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femorocele repair; Herniorrhaphy; Hernioplasty - femoral ... During surgery to repair the hernia, the bulging tissue is pushed back in. The weakened area is sewn closed or strengthened. This repair ...

  10. Undescended testicle repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchidopexy; Inguinal orchidopexy; Orchiopexy; Repair of undescended testicle; Cryptorchidism repair ... first year of life without treatment. Undescended testicle repair surgery is recommended for patients whose testicles do ...

  11. 直线电机大架修车辆段检修主厂房工艺设计研究%Research on Process Planning of Main Maintenance Workshop for Overhaul and Un - wheeling Repair of Linear Motor Vehicle in Metro Vehicle Depot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强

    2012-01-01

    Research purposes:The Yuzhu Vehicle Depot of Line 5 of Guangzhou metro is the first metro vehicle depot for the overhaul and un - wheeling repair of linear motor vehicle in China. Its main maintenance workshop undertakes the overhaul and un - wheeling repair works and has the first maintenance operation line for the wheel - set of A, B and L types in China. According to the characteristics of linear motor vehicle, the process planning of the main maintenance workshop has been researched for the maintenance mode, inspection and maintenance system and flexible design of the wheel - set operation line for the linear motorvehicle. The maintenance workshop was designed compositely with a number of innovations and the process layout was reasonable and compact. Such design can provide an important reference to the similar works in future.Research conclusions:The combined capital repair and shed repair system was adopted for the linear motor vehicle. By using this system, the repair cycle extanded 30% compared with the repair system for the common wheel and rail vehicle. The main repair workshop was desired with capital and un - wheeling workshop as main part and the main maintenance workshops were all near the capital and un - wheeling workshop. The flexible design was made for the operation line for the wheel - set maintenance and it could meet the demand of repairing three types of wheel - set.%研究目的:广州地铁五号线鱼珠车辆段是我国第一座直线电机大架修车辆段,检修主厂房既承担直线电机车辆大架修任务,又同时设置国内第1条融合A、B、L三种车型的轮对检修作业线,针对直线电机车辆的特点,检修主厂房工艺设计对直线电机车辆检修模式、检修制度、轮对作业线柔性化设计进行研究,为今后国内直线电机大架修车辆段检修主厂房工艺设计提供了重要的参考标准.研究结论:直线电机车辆检修模式采用大修、段修合修制;检修周期比

  12. Investigating Friction as a Main Source of Entropy Generation in the Expansion of Confined Gas in a Piston-and-Cylinder Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dun-Yen; Liou, Kai-Hsin; Chang, Wei-Lun

    2015-01-01

    The expansion or compression of gas confined in a piston-and-cylinder device is a classic working example used for illustrating the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. The balance of energy and entropy enables the estimation of a number of thermodynamic properties. The entropy generation (also called entropy production) resulting from this…

  13. Variability of Disk Emission in Pre-Main Sequence and Related Stars. II. Variability in the Gas and Dust Emission of the Herbig Fe Star SAO 206462

    CERN Document Server

    Sitko, Michael L; Kimes, Robin L; Beerman, Lori C; Martus, Cameron; Lynch, David K; Russell, Ray W; Grady, Carol A; Schneider, Glenn; Lisse, Carey M; Nuth, Joseph A; Cure, Michel; Henden, Arne A; Kraus, Stefan; Motta, Veronica; Tamura, Motohide; Hornbeck, Jeremy; Williger, Gerard M; Fugazza, Dino

    2011-01-01

    We present thirteen epochs of near-infrared (0.8-5 micron) spectroscopic observations of the pre-transitional, "gapped" disk system in SAO 206462 (=HD 135344B). In all, six gas emission lines (including Br gamma, Pa beta, and the 0.8446 micron line of O I) along with continuum measurements made near the standard J, H, K, and L photometric bands were measured. A mass accretion rate of approximately 2 x 10^-8 solar masses per year was derived from the Br gamma and Pa beta lines. However, the fluxes of these lines varied by a factor of over two during the course of a few months. The continuum also varied, but by only ~30%, and even decreased at a time when the gas emission was increasing. The H I line at 1.083 microns was also found to vary in a manner inconsistent with that of either the hydrogen lines or the dust. Both the gas and dust variabilities indicate significant changes in the region of the inner gas and the inner dust belt that may be common to many young disk systems. If planets are responsible for d...

  14. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding, the...

  15. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  16. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  17. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... Endovascular aortic repair is done because your aneurysm is very large, growing quickly, or is leaking or bleeding. You may have ...

  18. Main Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Boncz, Peter; Liu, Lei; Özsu, Tamer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Primary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random Access Memory (RAM), to indicate that load/store instructions can access data at any location at the same cost, is usually implemented using DRAM chips, which are connected to the CPU and other peripherals (di...

  19. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  20. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  1. Engineering practice of sintering main flue gas waste heat recovery in steel factory%钢铁厂烧结主抽烟道余热回收工程实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜蒙; 王辉; 王丽丽; 李鹏元; 徐永权

    2014-01-01

    The technological process of sintering main flue gas waste heat recovery , practical applica-tion, problems in the application and solutions , and economic evaluation of application in Fujian San-ming steel 180 m2 sintering machine were introduced , and the experience was provided for the future sintering main flue gas waste heat recovery .%介绍了福建三钢180 m2烧结机主抽烟道余热回收的工艺流程、实际应用、遇到的问题、解决办法及经济评价,为今后烧结主抽烟道余热回收提供了经验。

  2. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Key to Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation should be placed on the FiveMajor Changes Based on analysis and forecasting on grain consumption influencing factors, production influencing factors and import influencing factors, the supply and demand of main sorts of grain in China is forecas- ted respectively, including paddy, wheat, corn and soybean. In 2020, grain consumption quantity, grain production quantity and grain import quantity of China is 693 million tons, 644 million tons and 49 million tons respectively. For grain security in future, new stratagem on food security should be im- plemented, grain import circumstance and global grain security. Father mechanism should be im- proved, and early warning and regulation on grain production capacity should be paid attention to sys- temically.

  3. Simulation of natural gas dehydration system and optimization of main equipment%天然气脱水系统模拟及主要设备优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷宝刚; 李学坤; 范峥; 李稳宏; 李振龙

    2013-01-01

    陕北某天然气净化厂由于新气源的并入,造成净化后商品气无法达到国家天然气相关标准,这是一个迫切需要解决的问题.通过ChemCAD 6.0.1软件对脱水系统进行模拟,研究分析TEG循环量、原料气进料温度及TEG贫液质量分数对脱水效果的影响,得到最佳的优化操作参数为:TEG循环量为5.5 m3/h,原料气进料温度为26℃,TEG贫液质量分数为99%.通过FRI,HTRI,Pipe Flow Expert等专业软件对TEG脱水塔、TEG贫液水冷器等关键设备进行核算,结果表明:TEG脱水塔的流体力学性能均符合要求,其工作点亦落在负荷性能图的适宜位置;TEG循环量提高导致TEG贫液水冷器负荷增大,需要更换管束,以达到换热效果.研究结果可为该净化装置的优化和改造提供可靠的理论依据,同时对同类型装置也具有一定的借鉴作用.%Due to the new gas sources incorporated into a natural gas purification plant in the north of Shaanxi province, the sales gas after purification can not meet the relevant national standard, and such problem needs to be solved urgently in the practical production. The dehydration system was simulated by ChemCAD 6.0. 1 software and the influences of TEG (triethylene glycol) circulation quantity, the temperature of feed gas, lean TEG mass fraction on dehydration effect were analyzed. The best optimized operating parameters are as follows; the circulation quantity of TEG is 5.5 m3 /h, the temperature of feed gas is 26℃, and the mass fraction of lean TEG is 99%. The key equipment such as TEG dehydration tower,lean TEG water cooler etc. were checked by FRI,HTRI,Pipe Flow Expert professional software. The results show that the hydrodynamic performance of TEG dehydration tower can meet the requirement; the operating point easily locates on the appropriate area of the load characteristic diagram. Because the increase of TEG circulation quantity causes heavier load, the original tubes need to be replaced

  4. 33 CFR 127.607 - Fire main systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.607 Fire main systems. (a)...

  5. 气化炉轴套管法兰螺纹孔的补焊%Repair Welding Procedure for Flange Screwed Holes of Pipe Spreaders of Fluidized Gas Producer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚奇; 徐兵; 马鸣

    2014-01-01

    In order to repair the flange screwed holes of pipe spreader of fluidized gas producer,proper welding procedure and operation method were confirmed,and there were not any slag or lack of fusion in those repaired seams.After ISR with welding stress released,because of a number of screwed holes and welding stress,the inner diameter of pipe spreaders become smaller 0.5 ~0.6 mm than before,but the di-mension of redrilling screwed holes is agreement to design drawing.%为了修补气化炉轴套管法兰的螺纹孔,制定了合理的焊接工艺,采用了特殊的操作手法,补焊焊缝经探伤无夹渣、未熔合,并经中间热处理,释放焊接应力后再重新钻孔。由于补焊的螺纹孔数量较多、焊接应力较大,补焊后轴套管内径缩小0.5~0.6 mm,经检测螺纹孔尺寸仍能满足图样要求。

  6. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES REVIEW & EVALUATION OF INTERNAL PIPELINE REPAIR TRIALS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-09-01

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is generally ineffective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressure for pipe repaired with carbon fiber-reinforced composite liner was greater than that of the un-repaired pipe section with damage, indicating that this type of liner is effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the next phase of this project.

  7. DNA repair deficiency in neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Stevnsner, Tinna V.

    2011-01-01

    : homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage......Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive...... neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative...

  8. Discussion on vibration from main pipe of flare gas in CCR unit%重整火炬气干管振动的原因及处理措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊

    2015-01-01

    The piping system in flare gas unit of A refinery is checked thoroughly to find out the causes of the vibration of discharge pipeline to resolve these accidents of reforming flare gas main pipe,which can offer guidance for similar issues.%以某炼厂的火炬排放管道系统为对象,进行全面且深入的排查,找出火炬放空线振动事故原因,并在此基础上采用针对性的处理措施,最终圆满解决了重整火炬气干管振动问题,为同类或者类似问题的解决提供了有益的参考.

  9. Searching for gas giant planets on Solar System scales - A NACO/APP L'-band survey of A- and F-type Main Sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Meshkat, T; Reggiani, M; Quanz, S P; Mamajek, E E; Meyer, M R

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a direct imaging survey of A- and F-type main sequence stars searching for giant planets. A/F stars are often the targets of surveys, as they are thought to have more massive giant planets relative to solar-type stars. However, most imaging is only sensitive to orbital separations $>$30 AU, where it has been demonstrated that giant planets are rare. In this survey, we take advantage of the high-contrast capabilities of the Apodizing Phase Plate coronagraph on NACO at the Very Large Telescope. Combined with optimized principal component analysis post-processing, we are sensitive to planetary-mass companions (2 to 12 $M_{\\rm Jup}$) at Solar System scales ($\\leq$30 AU). We obtained data on 13 stars in L'-band and detected one new companion as part of this survey: an M$6.0\\pm0.5$ dwarf companion around HD 984. We re-detect low-mass companions around HD 12894 and HD 20385, both reported shortly after the completion of this survey. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine new constraints...

  10. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  11. Ventral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007661.htm Ventral hernia repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ventral hernia repair is surgery to repair a ventral hernia. ...

  12. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  13. Cromatografia gasosa ultrarrápida: uma visão geral sobre parâmetros, instrumentação e aplicações Ultra fast gas chromatography: an overview of the main parameters, instrumentation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sequinel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of GC there has been an ongoing interest in reducing time of analysis resulting in new terms and definitions such as ultra fast gas chromatography (UF-GC. One of the most used definitions describes UF-GC as a technique that combines the employment of short narrow bore column with very fast temperature programming rates producing chromatographic peaks in the range of 50 ms and allowing separations times in 1-2 min or less. This paper summarizes the analytical approaches, the main parameters involved and the instrumentation towards UF-GC.

  14. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  15. Simulación Computacional del Procedimiento de Soldadura en Servicio empleado en la Reparación Estructural de un Gasoducto Computational Simulation of In-Service Welding Procedure used in the Structural Repair of a Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor C Sanzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un análisis de integridad estructural del proceso de reparación de un gasoducto a partir de un modelo simplificado bidimensional usando elementos finitos. Se evalúan las tensiones residuales de origen térmico, producto del procedimiento de soldadura, considerando que se realiza con el gasoducto circulando fluido, es decir con presión aplicada. Los gasoductos que operan en Argentina son inspeccionados periódicamente de acuerdo a prácticas recomendadas por las normas del Instituto Americano del Petróleo (API y a especificaciones, criterios y experiencias propias desarrolladas por cada planta. El modelado que se presenta permite determinar las zonas debilitadas por corrosión o por diferentes tipos de defectos o fisuras. Esto permite planificar y encausar una reparación localizada con un margen de seguridad adecuado.In this paper, an analysis of structural integrity to the repair of a gas pipeline is presented. The study is based on a simplified two-dimensional finite elements model. The residual stresses of thermal origin caused by the welding process are evaluated considering the pipeline flowing fluid and the pressure exerted by the fluid. Pipelines in Argentina are periodically inspected following the standards of the American Petroleum Institute (API and specifications, criteria and experiences developed by each plant. The modeling allows determining weakened areas caused by corrosion or by different types of defects or cracks. This allows planning and prosecuting a localized repair within acceptable safety margins.

  16. Depressurization of a spread of Brazil-Bolivia gas pipeline and the emergency repair of a weld crack in a instrument derivation at Campo Grande compression station; Despressurizacao de trecho do gasoduto Bolivia-Brazil para reparo emergencial de trinca em uma derivacao de instrumento de temperatura na Estacao de Compressao de Campo Grande - MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Carlos Ribeiro; Leite Junior, Ismael Casano [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the actions taken to repair a gas leak, at an original pressure of 100 kgf/cm{sup 2}, occurred due to a 1 1/2'' branch pipe weld crack, located on the 24'' Campo Grande - Mato Grosso do Sul Compression Station discharge pipe. This branch pipe was used to a thermo well installation and was submitted to an additional strength caused by thermo well vibration. The weld repair actions required an urgent depressurization of a 33 km spread of Bolivia-Brazil Pipeline in a timely manner, to avoid any negative impact in the operational schedule. (author)

  17. Natural Gas Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Correa; Nelson Osorio

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  18. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  19. 气排球运动对老年人主要生理指标的贡献研究%Contribution of Gas Volleyball Exercise to the Main Physiological Indicators of the Elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于贵身

    2012-01-01

    Through different experiments, the paper studies the 23 aged playing gas volleyball for a long time as well as the control group of 17 aged, 40 elderly people in all. Through the comparison of their muscle strength, reaction time, cardiac function, pulmonary ventilation function, the aim is to explore the gas volleyhall exercise on the positive impact of main physiological indexes for the aged. The results show that long time engaged in gas volleyball experimental group of elderly in muscular strength, reaction time and cardiopulmonary function indicators are significantly better than the control group; There is a significant difference (P<0. 05 ) , partial index difference is extremely obvious (P<0. 01 ). If is obvious that long time in air volleyball exercise on the main physiological indexes have positive contribution.%通过不同实验,对长期从事气排球运动的23名老年人以及其对照组17名共40名老年人的力量、反应时、心功能、肺通气功能等主要生理指标进行测量比较,旨在探讨气排球运动对老年入主要生理指标的积极影响.结果表明:长期从事气排球运动的实验组老年人在肌肉力量、反应时以及心肺功能指标方面都明显优于对照组;存在显著性差异(P<0.05),部分指标差异性极为明显(P<0.01).可见,长期从事气排球运动对老年人主要生理指标具有积极贡献.

  20. 威金斯煤气柜煤气泄漏原因分析及修补措施%Analysis of the Causes of Gas Leakage in Wiggins Gas Holder and Repair Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊涛; 刘景壹

    2014-01-01

    8万m3威金斯转炉煤气柜在日常运行中发生煤气泄漏现象,经过原因分析查找,发现活塞板和柜壁板都出现了泄漏点,采取了有效的修补措施后,使煤气柜得以安全稳定运行。%Gas leakage happened during daily operation of the 80000 m3 Wiggins con-verter gas holder. Through search and analysis leakage points were found in both the piston plate and side plate. After effective mending measures were taken, the gas holder operated safely and stably.

  1. 49 CFR 192.311 - Repair of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of plastic pipe. 192.311 Section 192.311... Lines and Mains § 192.311 Repair of plastic pipe. Each imperfection or damage that would impair the serviceability of plastic pipe must be repaired or removed....

  2. Oil and Gas Distribution Features and Main Controlling Factors of Northwest Shelf,Australia%澳大利亚西北大陆架油气分布及成藏主控因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伟光; 童晓光; 喻莲; 温志新; 王兆明

    2013-01-01

      从构造演化分析入手,通过对澳大利亚西北大陆架石油地质条件的分析,总结了油气分布特征,并对影响油气成藏及分布的主控因素进行了探讨。研究表明:西北大陆架的油气分布在平面上具有分区性,石油主要富集在侏罗纪晚期形成的北东向狭长裂谷内,天然气主要分布在狭长裂谷之外的构造高地上。纵向上,油气分布较为集中,主要分布于中生界。同时,油和气分布具有明显的分层性:天然气主要分布于三叠系和侏罗系储集层,而石油则主要分布于白垩系及以上地层。西北大陆架的油气富集主要受烃源岩、构造背景、大型三角洲沉积体系和区域盖层以及后期保存条件的控制。烃源岩的性质及分布决定了西北大陆架的富气贫油及油、气的平面分布特征;大型的三角洲沉积体系及优质的区域盖层为油气提供了良好的生储盖组合,决定了油气富集的层位;紧邻洼陷分布的构造高地,发育多种类型的圈闭,成为油气运移的有利指向区。%Based on the analysis of tectonic evolution and petroleum geology,the author summarized the oil and gas distribution features of northwest shelf of Australia,and discuss the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon accumulation. The results show that the hydrocarbon distribution of northwest shelf of Australia are divisional in plane,oil mainly occurs in NW trend narrow rifts formed during the late Jurassic,while gas mainly distributed in the outer highs adjacent to those rifts. Vertically, hydrocarbon principally occurs in Mesozoic series with a stratified feature,and gas is concentrated in Triassic and Jurassic reservoirs while oil mainly occurred in Cretaceous and upper formations. Hydrocarbon accumulation of northwest shelf of Australia is principally controlled by source rock,structural background,big delta sedimentary systems,regional seal and later preservation

  3. Biologics for tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H

    2015-04-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management.

  4. DNA repair. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals. (HLW)

  5. 多年冻土环境对寒区天然气管线稳定性的影响%Influence of Permafrost Conditions on Gas Mains Stability in Cryolithozone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Fokeeva, E. Radina

    2004-01-01

    Field investigations of several gas mains in different geosystems were carried out in Noviy Urengoy region (Eastern Siberia) in September, 2003. There were on ground pipelines covered with peat or sand. In case of small rivers pipelines were elevated by pile support on the shores. Because pipelines were applied in cryolithozone that means special secure methods used in pipeline systems functioning and operating. There are multiple sites of natural landscapes destructed or totally destroyed during building and exploiting of the pipelines. That causes negative cryogenic processes development. The most dangerous one is the heaving, that reaches up to several meters in humid landscapes. The complex thermoerosion, thermokarst and heaving occur very often at one site. The heaving of piles leads to pipe deformations and the emergency situations to occur. It is possible to predict negative cryogenic processes development and so far to reduce an emergency risk.

  6. 毛细管柱气相色谱法测定风油精中主要成分的含量%Determination of Main Compositions in the Essential Balm by Capillary Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆俭洁

    2001-01-01

    The method of the capillary column with programmed temperature gas chromatography was used by the GC-900 gas chromatograph. Many kinds of compositions in the essential balm can be separated effectively by the method. The three main compositions that are camphor, menthol and methyl salicylate were quantified and satisfactory chromatogram was obtained. By the internal standard method, the recovery of determining the camphor, menthol, methyl salicylate are 106.29 %, 102.44 %, 98.38 % and RSD are 0.06 %, 2.62 % ,1.88 % respectively.%采用GC-900型气相色谱仪,毛细管程序升温法,将风油精中10多种成分进行了有效分离,测定风油精中樟脑、薄荷脑、水杨酸甲酯3种主要成分的含量,得出了较为理想的色谱图,用内标法测定樟脑的回收率为106.29 %,RSD为2.56 %;薄荷脑的回收率为102.44 %,RSD为1.52 %;水杨酸甲脂的回收率为98.38 %,RSD为1.35 %.

  7. 基于主因子模型的船用燃气轮机监测参数优化%Measure Parameter Selection for Marine Gas Turbine Based on Main Factors Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁环; 刘永葆

    2014-01-01

    Considering the problem of multicollinearity in gas path fault model of Gas turbine , the method of principal component anal-ysis ( PCA) is used to study the characteristic of fault coefficient matrix of main factors model and research the impact of multicollinear -ity on diagnostic accuracy , combined with sensitivity analysis , optimize the selection of measurement parameters .Results show that the number of selected measurement parameters sequence is less than the number of failure factors , but these parameters supply a better fault diagnosis , which can effectively identify similar faults .%针对燃气轮机气路故障模型存在多重共线性,使用主成分方法分析了主因子模型中故障系数矩阵的特性,并研究了多重共线性对诊断准确性的影响,结合敏感性分析,优化选择了测量参数。结果表明:虽然选择的测量参数数目少于故障因子数目,但故障诊断效果较好,能有效辨别相似故障。

  8. Transvesicoscopic Repair of Vesicovaginal Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Nerli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vesicovaginal fistula has been a social and surgical problem for centuries. Many surgical techniques have been developed to correct this abnormality, including transabdominal, transvaginal, and endoscopic approaches. The best approach is probably the one with which the surgeon feels most experienced and comfortable. Laparoscopy has become increasingly popular in urology, reducing the invasiveness of treatment and shortening the period of convalescence. We report our results of transvesicoscopic approach for VVF repair. Materials and Methods. Patients with VVF were offered repair using the transvesicoscopic route. With the patient under general anaesthesia and in modified lithotomy position cystoscopy was performed with gas insufflation. Under cystoscopic guidance the bladder was fixed to anterior abdominal wall and ports inserted into the bladder. The fistula was repaired under endoscopic vision. Results. Four women, who had VVF following abdominal hysterectomy, underwent this procedure. The operating time ranged from 175 to 235 minutes. There was minimal bleeding. Post operative complications included ileus in one and fever in another. No recurrence of VVF was noted in any patient. Conclusions. Transvesicoscopic repair of VVF is feasible, safe, and results in lower morbidity and quicker recovery time.

  9. Construction, repair and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinger, R. [Terasen Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wong, P. [KC Integrity Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Yeomans, M.; Glover, A. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The presentations by Working Group 4 focused on construction, repair and maintenance of pipelines with particular reference to high-strength steels and their applications for natural gas transmission pipelines. Discussions focused on how technology can be used to provide cost-effective design and construction solutions for long distance pipelines in a manner that does not compromise safety and reliability. The role that carbon plays in increasing the toughness of steel was also discussed. A few fundamental changes in steel production technology and a reduction in carbon content can result in a simultaneous increase in strength and toughness of steels. The cost impact of this technology was summarized. It was concluded that high strength steels offer effective solutions to deliver cost-effective pipelines to transport natural gas from northern basins. This session also presented pipeline routes that transport diluted bitumens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Project and the Muskeg River Mine to upgrader facilities in Alberta. Construction issues included design conservatism, water course crossings, winter construction, winter ditching, and public consultation. Examples of high strength steel pipe applications were also included with reference to experience gained by TransCanada and Corridor Pipeline. tabs., figs.

  10. Predictors of failure of awake regional anesthesia for neonatal hernia repair: data from the General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study: comparing apnoea and neurodevelopmental outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Geoff; Bell, Graham; Disma, Nicola; Withington, Davinia E.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Morton, Neil S.; McCann, Mary Ellen; Arnup, Sarah J.; Bagshaw, Oliver; Wolfler, Andrea; Bellinger, David; Davidson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Awake regional anesthesia (RA) is a viable alternative to general anesthesia (GA) for infants undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Benefits include lower incidence of postoperative apnea and avoidance of anesthetic agents that may increase neuroapoptosis and worsen neurocognitive outcomes. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) study compares neurodevelopmental outcomes following awake RA or GA in otherwise healthy infants. Our aim was to describe success and failure rates of RA in this study and report factors associated with failure. Methods This was a nested cohort study within a prospective randomized, controlled, observer blind, equivalence trial. Seven hundred twenty two infants ≤ 60 weeks postmenstrual age, scheduled for herniorrhaphy under anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive RA (spinal, caudal epidural or combined spinal caudal anesthetic) or GA with sevoflurane. The data of 339 infants, where spinal or combined spinal caudal anesthetic was attempted, was analyzed. Possible predictors of failure were assessed including: patient factors, technique, experience of site and anesthetist and type of local anesthetic. Results RA was sufficient for the completion of surgery in 83.2% of patients. Spinal anesthesia was successful in 86.9% of cases and combined spinal caudal anesthetic in 76.1%. Thirty four patients required conversion to GA and an additional 23 (6.8%) required brief sedation. Bloody tap on the first attempt at lumbar puncture was the only risk factor significantly associated with block failure (OR = 2.46). Conclusions The failure rate of spinal anesthesia was low. Variability in application of combined spinal caudal anesthetic limited attempts to compare the success of this technique to spinal alone. PMID:26001028

  11. Repair Development for a Composite Cryotank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Danley, Susan E.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Cheshire, Brian C.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Taylor, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration Project is working to advance the technologies for composite cryogenic propellant tanks at diameters suitable for future heavy lift vehicles and other in-space applications. The main goals of the project are to reduce weight and cost. One aspect of this project has focused on damage evaluation and repair development. Test panels have been impacted, repaired, and tested. Several repair methods were used to compare their effectiveness at restoring the integrity of the composite. Panels were evaluated by nondestructive evaluations at several points during the process to assess the damage and repair. The testing performed and the results and conclusions from the nondestructive evaluations and the destructive testing will be discussed. These results will lead to further development of inspection techniques and repair methods.

  12. Chromatin structure and DNA damage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinant Christoffel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The integrity of the genome is continuously challenged by both endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. These damaging agents can induce a wide variety of lesions in the DNA, such as double strand breaks, single strand breaks, oxidative lesions and pyrimidine dimers. The cell has evolved intricate DNA damage response mechanisms to counteract the genotoxic effects of these lesions. The two main features of the DNA damage response mechanisms are cell-cycle checkpoint activation and, at the heart of the response, DNA repair. For both damage signalling and repair, chromatin remodelling is most likely a prerequisite. Here, we discuss current knowledge on chromatin remodelling with respect to the cellular response to DNA damage, with emphasis on the response to lesions resolved by nucleotide excision repair. We will discuss the role of histone modifications as well as their displacement or exchange in nucleotide excision repair and make a comparison with their requirement in transcription and double strand break repair.

  13. 49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192.719... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.719 Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a) Testing of replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line...

  14. Pectus excavatum repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002949.htm Pectus excavatum repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pectus excavatum repair is surgery to correct pectus excavatum . This ...

  15. When "Other" Initiate Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.

    2000-01-01

    Elaborates on the locus of other-initiated repair, and reports on a number of environments in which others initiate repair turns later than the one directly following the trouble-source turn. Describes several ways that other initiation of repair, which occurs in next-turn position, may be delayed within that position. (Author/VWL)

  16. Biologics for tendon repair

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately,...

  17. GC-MS法测定松茸中主要脂肪酸的含量%Determination of main fatty acids in Tricholoma matsutake Sing.by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 王辉; 周本宏

    2011-01-01

    目的:测定松茸中主要脂肪酸的种类与含量,为更好地开发利用松茸资源提供依据.方法:采用索氏提取法提取松茸中的粗脂肪,通过甲酯化,并运用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC/MS)技术测定其脂肪酸组成与含量.结果:从松茸的脂肪中检出6种主要脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸含量达85.3%,以油酸和亚油酸为主,油酸与亚油酸相对含量分别为57.6%和26.7%.结论:松茸是一种良好的保健营养植物,具有很好的开发利用前景.%Objective: To determinate the types and contents of main fatty acids in Tricholoma matsutake Sing., and provide the basis for better development and utilization of Tricholoma matsutake Sing..Methods: The fat in Tricholoma matsutake Sing, was extracted by Soxhlet extraction method, and got though methyl esterized, the composition and content of fatty acids were analyzed comparatively by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS).Results: 6 kinds of fatty acids were identified and the content of unsaturated fatty acid was 85.3%.The oleic acid (57.6%) and linoleic acid (26.7%) were main components among them.Conclusion: Tricholoma matsutake Sing, is a good nutritional plant for health and it has better development and utilization prospect.

  18. Percutaneous mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, A Marc; Liddicoat, John R

    2006-01-01

    Surgical mitral valve repair is the procedure of choice to treat mitral regurgitation of all etiologies. Whereas annuloplasty is the cornerstone of mitral valve repair, a variety of other surgical techniques are utilized to correct dysfunction of the leaflets and subvalvular apparatus; in most cases, surgical repair entails application of multiple repair techniques in each patient. Preclinical studies and early human experience have demonstrated that some of these surgical repair techniques can be performed using percutaneous approaches. Specifically, there has been great progress in the development of novel technology to facilitate percutaneous annuloplasty and percutaneous edge-to-edge repair. The objectives of this report were to (1) discuss the surgical foundations for these percutaneous approaches; (2) review device design and experimental and clinical results of percutaneous valve repair; and (3) address future directions, including the key challenges of patient selection and clinical trial design.

  19. Gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiochon, Georges; Guillemin, Claude L.

    1990-11-01

    Gas chromatography is a powerful separation technique for gas and vapor mixtures. Combining separation and on-line detection permits accurate quantitative analysis of complex mixtures, including traces of compounds down to parts per trillions in some particular cases. The importance of gas chromatography in quality control and process control in the chemical and drug industry, in environmental pollution investigations and in clinical analysis is critical. The principles of the technique are discussed, the main components of a gas chromatograph are described and some idea of the importance of the applications is given.

  20. Optimality in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

    2012-01-07

    DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge.

  1. Stochastic intensity for minimal repairs in heterogeneous populations

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Ji Hwan; Finkelstein, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    In this note we revisit the discussion on minimal repair in heterogeneous populations in Finkelstein (2004). We consider the corresponding stochastic intensities (intensity processes) for items in heterogeneous populations given available information on their operational history, i.e. the failure (repair) times and the time since the last failure (repair). Based on the improved definitions, the setup of Finkelstein (2004) is modified and the main results are corrected in acc...

  2. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  3. Attitudes, practice, and experience of German dentists regarding repair restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzow, Philipp; Hoffmann, Robin; Tschammler, Claudia; Kruppa, Jochen; Rödig, Tina; Wiegand, Annette

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a representative survey among German dentists about attitudes, practice, and experience regarding single-tooth repair restorations. An anonymous questionnaire was designed and mailed to all registered dentists in Lower Saxony (n = 6600). Twenty-eight percent were returned (n = 1852), and n = 1805 could be analyzed. Statistical analyses were done by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and ordered logistic regressions (p materials. Frequency of performing repair restorations was partially associated to dentist-related factors. The decision for repairing a restoration was dependent on several tooth- and restoration-associated variables. The main indications for repair were the partial loss of restoration or adjacent tooth structure as well as chipping and endodontic access cavities of crowns. Repair restorations were mostly done with composite using various different preconditioning techniques. Overall patients' acceptance was reported to be high. Most of the dentists considered repair restorations as permanent restoration with a moderate to high longevity. Estimated success of repair restorations depended significantly on the dentists' experiences (frequency and techniques of repair restorations). Repair restorations were often performed and were well accepted by dentists and patients, but indications for repair restorations as well as applied materials and techniques varied distinctly. Repairs of single-tooth restorations are well accepted and frequently performed, but indications, techniques, and materials require further research.

  4. Characterization of the Micro-Welding Process for Repair of Nickel Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, J.; Richards, N. L.

    2007-12-01

    Micro-welding is a low-heat input process whereby a metal or cermet, is deposited by the generation of a low-power arc between a consumable electrode and a substrate. The low-heat input of this process offers unique advantages over more common welding processes such as gas tungsten arc, plasma arc, laser, and electron beam welding. At present, the repair of turbine blades and vanes commonly involves gas tungsten arc welding and these components are susceptible to heat affected zone cracking during the weld repair process; vacuum brazing is also used but mainly on low-stress components such as stators. In this study, the low-heat input characteristic of micro-welding has been utilized to simulate repair of Inconel (Trade Mark of Special Metals) 625, Inconel 718, and Inconel 722 filler alloys to a cast Inconel 738 substrate. The effect of micro-welding process parameters on the deposition rate, coating quality, and substrate has been investigated.

  5. Evaluation of the Low Heat Input Process for Weld Repair of Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, J.; Richards, N. L.

    2011-10-01

    The repair of turbine blades and vanes commonly involves gas tungsten arc welding or an equivalent process, but unfortunately these components are often susceptible to heat-affected zone (HAZ) cracking during the weld repair process. This is a major problem especially in cast alloys due to their coarse-grain size and where the (Al + Ti) contents is in excess of 3-4%; vacuum brazing is also used but mainly on low stress non-rotating components such as vanes. Micro-welding has the potential to deposit small amounts of filler at low heat input levels with minimum HAZ and thus is an attractive process for depositing a quality weld. As with conventional fusion processes, the filler alloy is deposited by the generation of a low power arc between a consumable electrode and the substrate. The low heat input of this process offers unique advantages over more common welding processes such as gas tungsten arc, plasma arc, laser, and electron beam welding. In this study, the low heat input characteristic of micro-welding has been used to simulate weld repair using Inconel (IN) (Inconel and IN are trademarks of INCO Alloys International) 625, Rene (Rene is a trademark of General Electric Company) 41, Nimonic (Nimonic is a trademark of INCO Alloys International) 105 and Inconel 738LC filler alloys, to a cast Inconel 738LC substrate. The effect of micro-welding process parameters on the deposition rate, coating quality, and substrate has been investigated.

  6. Repairs of composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and

  7. Contact lens rehabilitation following repaired corneal perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual outcome following repair of post-traumatic corneal perforation may not be optimal due to presence of irregular keratometric astigmatism. We performed a study to evaluate and compare rigid gas permeable contact lens and spectacles in visual rehabilitation following perforating corneal injuries. Method Eyes that had undergone repair for corneal perforating injuries with or without lens aspiration were fitted rigid gas permeable contact lenses. The fitting pattern and the improvement in visual acuity by contact lens over spectacle correction were noted. Results Forty eyes of 40 patients that had undergone surgical repair of posttraumatic corneal perforations were fitted rigid gas permeable contact lenses for visual rehabilitation. Twenty-four eyes (60% required aphakic contact lenses. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA of ≥ 6/18 in the snellen's acuity chart was seen in 10 (25% eyes with spectacle correction and 37 (92.5% eyes with the use of contact lens (p Conclusion Rigid gas permeable contact lenses are better means of rehabilitation in eyes that have an irregular cornea due to scars caused by perforating corneal injuries.

  8. Workshop on DNA repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Lehmann (Alan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.A. van Zeeland (Albert); C.M.P. Backendorf (Claude); B.A. Bridges; A. Collins; R.P.D. Fuchs; G.P. Margison; R. Montesano; E. Moustacchi; A.T. Natarajan; M. Radman; A. Sarasin; E. Seeberg; C.A. Smith; M. Stefanini (Miria); L.H. Thompson; G.P. van der Schans; C.A. Weber (Christine); M.Z. Zdzienika

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA workshop on DNA repair with emphasis on eukaryotic systems was held, under the auspices of the EC Concerted Action on DNA Repair and Cancer, at Noordwijkerhout (The Netherlands) 14-19 April 1991. The local organization of the meeting was done under the auspices of the Medical Genetic C

  9. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Atul K; Ternovits, Craig A; Speck, Karen E; Pritchard, F Elizabeth; Tichansky, David S

    2006-04-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare clinical entities that often pose a challenge for repair. Because of the surrounding anatomy, adequate surgical herniorraphy is often difficult. Minimally invasive surgery has become an option for these hernias. Herein, we describe two patients with lumbar hernias (one with a recurrent traumatic hernia and one with an incisional hernia). Both of these hernias were successfully repaired laparoscopically.

  10. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  11. Nerve-identifying inguinal hernia repair : A surgical anatomical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsmuller, A. R.; Lange, J. F. M.; Kleinrensink, G. J.; van Geldere, D.; Simons, M. P.; Huygen, F. J. P. M.; Jeekel, J.; Lange, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pain syndromes of somatic and neuropathic origin are considered to be the main causes of chronic pain after open inguinal hernia repair. Nerve-identification during open hernia repair is suggested to be associated with less postoperative chronic pain. The aim of this study was to define

  12. Some aspects concerning the exploitation, maintenance and repair of shearers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koronka, F.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects analysed by the author are: the keeping of the shearer in exploitation at the given parameters; the avoidance of accidental stops; the utilization of maintenance and repair system which should lead to an elimination of accident risks as well as the minimising of maintenance and repair costs. 3 refs.

  13. Immunobiology of Facial Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Shi-ming; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Immunobiological study is a key to revealing the important basis of facial nerve repair and regeneration for both research and development of clinic treatments. The microenvironmental changes around an injuried facial motoneuron, i.e., the aggregation and expression of various types of immune cells and molecules in a dynamic equilibrium, impenetrate from the start to the end of the repair of an injured facial nerve. The concept of "immune microenvironment for facial nerve repair and regeneration", mainly concerns with the dynamic exchange between expression and regulation networks and a variaty of immune cells and immune molecules in the process of facial nerve repair and regeneration for the maintenance of a immune microenvironment favorable for nerve repair.Investigation on microglial activation and recruitment, T cell behavior, cytokine networks, and immunological cellular and molecular signaling pathways in facial nerve repair and regeneration are the current hot spots in the research on immunobiology of facial nerve injury. The current paper provides a comprehensive review of the above mentioned issues. Research of these issues will eventually make immunological interventions practicable treatments for facial nerve injury in the clinic.

  14. Acceptable nationwide outcome after paediatric inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thue; Kehlet, H; Oehlenschlager, J;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The primary objective was to describe 30-day outcomes after primary inguinal paediatric hernia repair. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from the National Patient Registry covering a 2-year study period 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2006 were collected. Unexpected outcomes were defined...... was not associated with the inguinal hernia repair. The usual technique was a simple sutured plasty (96.5 %). Emergency repair was performed in 54 patients (2.2 %) mainly in children between 0 and 2 years (79.6 %). During the 1 year follow-up, reoperation for recurrent inguinal hernia was performed in 8 children...... after elective repair (recurrence rate 0.3 %). Paediatric repairs were for most parts performed in surgical public hospitals, and most departments performed less than 10 inguinal hernia repairs within the 2 years study period. CONCLUSION: These nationwide results are acceptable with low numbers...

  15. Inguinal hernia repair: toward Asian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomanto, Davide; Cheah, Wei-Keat; Faylona, Jose Macario; Huang, Ching Shui; Lohsiriwat, Darin; Maleachi, Andy; Yang, George Pei Cheung; Li, Michael Ka-Wai; Tumtavitikul, Sathien; Sharma, Anil; Hartung, Rolf Ulrich; Choi, Young Bai; Sutedja, Barlian

    2015-02-01

    Groin hernias are very common, and surgical treatment is usually recommended. In fact, hernia repair is the most common surgical procedure performed worldwide. In countries such as the USA, China, and India, there may easily be over 1 million repairs every year. The need for this surgery has become an important socioeconomic problem and may affect health-care providers, especially in aging societies. Surgical repair using mesh is recommended and widely employed in Western countries, but in many developing countries, tissue-to-tissue repair is still the preferred surgical procedure due to economic constraints. For these reason, the development and implementation of guidelines, consensus, or recommendations may aim to clarify issues related to best practices in inguinal hernia repair in Asia. A group of Asian experts in hernia repair gathered together to debate inguinal hernia treatments in Asia in an attempt to reach some consensus or develop recommendations on best practices in the region. The need for recommendations or guidelines was unanimously confirmed to help overcome the discrepancy in clinical practice between countries; the experts decided to focus mainly on the technical aspects of open repair, which is the most common surgery for hernia in our region. After the identification of 12 main topics for discussion (indication, age, and sex; symptomatic and asymptomatic hernia: type of hernia; type of treatment; hospital admission; preoperative care; anesthesia; surgical technique; perioperative care; postoperative care; early complications; and long-term complications), a search of the literature was carried out according to the five levels of the Oxford Classification of Evidence and the four grades of recommendation.

  16. Salvage hypospadias repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Review of our experience and to develop an algorithm for salvage procedures in the management of hypospadias cripples and treatment of urethral strictures following hypospadias repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of hypospadias surgeries over a 41-month period. Out of a total 168 surgeries, 20 were salvage/re-operative repairs. In three children a Duplay repair was feasible, while in four others a variety of single-stage repairs could be done. The repair was staged in seven children - buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs in five, buccal mucosal tube in one, and skin graft in one. Five children with dense strictures were managed by dorsal BMG inlay grafting in one, vascularized tunical onlay grafting on the ventrum in one, and a free tunical patch in one. Three children were treated by internal urethrotomy and stenting for four weeks with a poor outcome. Results: The age of children ranged from 1.5-15 years (mean 4.5. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.5 years. Excellent results were obtained in 10 children (50% with a well-surfaced erect penis and a slit-like meatus. Glans closure could not be achieved and meatus was coronal in three. Two children developed fistulae following a Duplay repair and following a staged BMG. Three repairs failed completely - a composite repair broke down, a BMG tube stenosed with a proximal leak, and a stricture recurred with loss of a ventral free tunical graft. Conclusions: In salvage procedures performed on hypospadias cripples, a staged repair with buccal mucosa as an inlay in the first stage followed by tubularization 4-6 months later provides good results. A simple algorithm to plan corrective surgery in failed hypospadias cases and obtain satisfactory results is devised.

  17. Research on Greenhouse Gas Change of Main Driving Factor of Global Warming%全球变暖主要驱动因子温室气体变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆春; 孙珂; 张轩

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas change has been becoming a hot and focal issue of global change research/The greenhouse gas concentration change increases the absorption of escapeing radiation, and probably cause climate change.%温室气体变化是全球变化研究的热点和焦点问题,温室气体浓度的变化增加了对逸出辐射的吸收,可能引起气候发生变化.

  18. Reoperation Rates for Laparoscopic vs Open Repair of Femoral Hernias in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Bisgaard, Thue; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: In Denmark approximately 10 000 groin hernias are repaired annually, of which 2% to 4% are femoral hernias. Several methods for repair of femoral hernias are used including sutured repair and different types of mesh repair with either open or laparoscopic techniques. The use of many...... laparoscopic vs open femoral hernia repair, analyzing data from a nationwide database. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Data on femoral hernia repairs registered in the Danish Hernia Database from January 1998 until February 2012 were extracted and analyzed. All...... repairs were followed in the database and analyzed for reports of reoperation, which were used as a proxy for recurrence. Femoral hernia recurrence and inguinal hernia occurrence after the index repair were analyzed. EXPOSURE: Repair of a femoral hernia. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Reoperation...

  19. Progress of peripheral nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘

    2002-01-01

    Study on repair of peripheral nerve injury has been proceeding over a long period of time. With the use of microsurgery technique since 1960s,the quality of nerve repair has been greatly improved. In the past 40 years, with the continuous increase of surgical repair methods, more progress has been made on the basic research of peripheral nerve repair.

  20. Achilles tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one large cut ...

  1. Diaphragmatic hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100014.htm Diaphragmatic hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview The chest cavity includes the heart and lungs. The abdominal cavity includes the liver, the stomach, ...

  2. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  3. Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100103.htm Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Esophagus Disorders Fistulas Tracheal Disorders A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  4. Inguinal hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100027.htm Inguinal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview A hernia occurs when part of an organ protrudes through ...

  5. Pectus excavatum repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100035.htm Pectus excavatum repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Pectus excavatum is a deformity of the front of the ...

  6. Hiatal hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100028.htm Hiatal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on ... Overview The esophagus runs through the diaphragm to the stomach. It functions to carry food from the mouth ...

  7. Repairing ceramic insulating tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

  8. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that ...

  9. Cleft lip repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100010.htm Cleft lip repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... abnormal opening in the middle of the upper lip. A cleft palate is an opening in the roof of ...

  10. Grey Repairable System Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renkuan Guo; Charles Ernie Love

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically discuss the basic concepts of grey theory, particularly the grey differential equation and its mathematical foundation, which is essentially unknown in the reliability engineering community. Accordingly,we propose a small-sample based approach to estimate repair improvement effects by partitioning system stopping times into intrinsic functioning times and repair improvement times. An industrial data set is used for illustrative purposes in a stepwise manner.

  11. Repair work in the context of English language mediated computer interface use: A conversation analytic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko

    1992-01-01

    The main aim in this study is to develop an understanding of how repair work is managed in the intertwining of activities and actions with talk and language. By doing this, the richness of the concept of repair in interactional studies is shown. The core work concentrates on exploring repair work...... the English language as a resource. The computer interface use context was chosen to show how narrowly traditional research has seen repair work....

  12. Wellbore Seal Repair Using Nanocomposite Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stormont, John [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Nanocomposite wellbore repair materials have been developed, tested, and modeled through an integrated program of laboratory testing and numerical modeling. Numerous polymer-cement nanocomposites were synthesized as candidate wellbore repair materials using various combinations of base polymers and nanoparticles. Based on tests of bond strength to steel and cement, ductility, stability, flowability, and penetrability in opening of 50 microns and less, we identified Novolac epoxy reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and/or alumina nanoparticles to be a superior wellbore seal material compared to conventional microfine cements. A system was developed for testing damaged and repaired wellbore specimens comprised of a cement sheath cast on a steel casing. The system allows independent application of confining pressures and casing pressures while gas flow is measured through the specimens along the wellbore axis. Repair with the nanocomposite epoxy base material was successful in dramatically reducing the flow through flaws of various sizes and types, and restoring the specimen comparable to an intact condition. In contrast, repair of damaged specimens with microfine cement was less effective, and the repair degraded with application of stress. Post-test observations confirm the complete penetration and sealing of flaws using the nanocomposite epoxy base material. A number of modeling efforts have supported the material development and testing efforts. We have modeled the steel-repair material interface behavior in detail during slant shear tests, which we used to characterize bond strength of candidate repair materials. A numerical model of the laboratory testing of damaged wellbore specimens was developed. This investigation found that microannulus permeability can satisfactorily be described by a joint model. Finally, a wellbore model has been developed that can be used to evaluate the response of the wellbore system (casing, cement, and microannulus

  13. Prediction of 30-day mortality after endovascular repair or open surgery in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.J.; Williams, M.A.; Kievit, J.; Bosch, J.L.; Hunink, M.G.M.; Teijink, J.A.; Verhoeven, E.L.; Smet, A.A. de; Geelkerken, R.H.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Sambeek, M.R. van

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the Glasgow Aneurysm Score (GAS) in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) treated with endovascular repair or open surgery and to update the GAS so that it predicts 30-day mortality for patients with ruptured AAA treated with endovascular repair or open surg

  14. Main: RBENTGA3 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RBENTGA3 S000358 16-Feb-2001 (last modified) seki rbe (RSG binding element) found in the tobacco (N.t.) GA3...scriptional activator; RSG regulates the morphology of plants by controlling the endogenous amounts of GAs; RSG; rbe; rbeGA3...; bZIP; GA3; gibberellin; leaf; shoot; tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) TCCAACTTGGA ...

  15. Detecting and Correcting Speech Repairs

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A; Heeman, Peter; Allen, James

    1994-01-01

    Interactive spoken dialog provides many new challenges for spoken language systems. One of the most critical is the prevalence of speech repairs. This paper presents an algorithm that detects and corrects speech repairs based on finding the repair pattern. The repair pattern is built by finding word matches and word replacements, and identifying fragments and editing terms. Rather than using a set of prebuilt templates, we build the pattern on the fly. In a fair test, our method, when combined with a statistical model to filter possible repairs, was successful at detecting and correcting 80\\% of the repairs, without using prosodic information or a parser.

  16. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  17. Assessment of Human DNA Repair (NER) Capacity With DNA Repair Rate (DRR) by Comet Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI ZHENG; JI-LIANG HE; LI-FEN JIN; JIAN-LIN LOU; BAO-HONG WANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective Alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate DNA repair (nucleotide excision repair, NER) capacity of human fresh lymphocytes from 12 young healthy non-smokers (6 males and 6 females). Methods Lymphocytes were exposed to UV-C (254 nm) at the dose rate of 1.5 J/m2/sec. Novobiocin (NOV) and aphidicolin (APC), DNA repair inhibitors, were utilized to imitate the deficiency of DNA repair capacity at the incision and ligation steps of NER. Lymphocytes from each donor were divided into three grougs: UVC group, UVC plus NOV group, and UVC plus APC group. DNA single strand breaks were detected in UVC irradiated cells incubated for 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min after UVC irradiation. DNA repair rate (DRR) served as an indicator of DNA repair capacity. Results The results indicated that the maximum DNA damage (i.e. maximum tail length) in the UVC group mainly appeared at 90 min. The ranges of DRRs in the UVC group were 62.84%-98.71%. Average DRR value was 81.84%. The DRR difference between males and females was not significant (P<0.05). However, the average DRR value in the UVC plus NOV group and the UVC plus APC group was 52.98% and 39.57% respectively, which were significantly lower than that in the UVC group (P<0.01). Conclusion The comet assay is a rapid, simple and sensitive screening test to assess individual DNA repair (NER) capacity. It is suggested that the time to detect DNA single strand breaks in comet assay should include 0 (before UV irradiation), 90 and 240 min after exposure to 1.5 J·m-2 UVC at least. The DRR, as an indicator, can represent the individual DNA repair capacity in comet assay.

  18. Control of gene editing by manipulation of DNA repair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Eric; Bashir, Sanum; Yumlu, Saniye; Wurst, Wolfgang; Wefers, Benedikt; Kühn, Ralf

    2017-04-03

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are produced intentionally by RNA-guided nucleases to achieve genome editing through DSB repair. These breaks are repaired by one of two main repair pathways, classic non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR), the latter being restricted to the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle and notably less frequent. Precise genome editing applications rely on HDR, with the abundant c-NHEJ formed mutations presenting a barrier to achieving high rates of precise sequence modifications. Here, we give an overview of HDR- and c-NHEJ-mediated DSB repair in gene editing and summarize the current efforts to promote HDR over c-NHEJ.

  19. A Corpus-based Study on Self-repairs in Chinese EFL Learners' Spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张付花

    2009-01-01

    Self-repair mentioned in this paper actually refers to self-initiated same-turn self-repair, which comprises a particular set of repair strategies in which trouble source and repairing segments occur in the same turn and the repair is beth initiated and performed by the speaker of trouble source. This study aims to study the self-repair behaviour of Chinese EFL learners based on the Spoken English Corpus of Chinese Learners as the observing corpus and the reference corpus SBNC. This study is mainly concerned with use frequency, distributions and structures of the self-repair on the basis of a clear classification of the self-repalr, aiming to find out whether there are significant differences in these three aspects of the self-repair between the Chinese EFL learners and the native speakers. Some implications and applications of the findings are also available for English teaching and learning in China.

  20. DNA repair mechanisms in eukaryotes: Special focus in Entamoeba histolytica and related protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Camarillo, César; Lopez-Casamichana, Mavil; Weber, Christian; Guillen, Nancy; Orozco, Esther; Marchat, Laurence A

    2009-12-01

    Eukaryotic cell viability highly relies on genome stability and DNA integrity maintenance. The cellular response to DNA damage mainly consists of six biological conserved pathways known as homologous recombination repair (HRR), non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER), mismatch repair (MMR), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and methyltransferase repair that operate in a concerted way to minimize genetic information loss due to a DNA lesion. Particularly, protozoan parasites survival depends on DNA repair mechanisms that constantly supervise chromosomes to correct damaged nucleotides generated by cytotoxic agents, host immune pressure or cellular processes. Here we reviewed the current knowledge about DNA repair mechanisms in the most relevant human protozoan pathogens. Additionally, we described the recent advances to understand DNA repair mechanisms in Entamoeba histolytica with special emphasis in the use of genomic approaches based on bioinformatic analysis of parasite genome sequence and microarrays technology.

  1. Groin hernia repair in young males: mesh or sutured repair?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, T; Bay-Nielsen, M; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale data for the optimal inguinal hernia repair in younger men with an indirect hernia is not available. We analysed nationwide data for risk of reoperation in younger men after a primary repair using a Lichtenstein operation or a conventional non-mesh hernia repair....

  2. Cleft lip and palate repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002979.htm Cleft lip and palate repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cleft lip and cleft palate repair is surgery to fix birth defects ...

  3. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007392.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part ...

  4. The opening of electricity and gas markets to professional clients. Main lessons - December 2007; L'ouverture des marches du gaz naturel et de l'electricite pour les clients professionnels. Principaux enseignements - decembre 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Since 2004, electricity and gas markets are opened to all professional clients who can freely chose their energy supplier. A quantitative inquiry has been carried out by BVA on behalf of the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) on a sample of 1503 companies representative of both the private and public sectors. The aim of this inquiry is to gain information on the following points: what are the professionals' motivations or brakes concerning the change of energy supplier? What is their general opinion about markets opening? What are the false questions or ideas? what is their level of knowledge about the July 2004 opening of energy markets? What has it changed for them? Do they know the new suppliers? What are the new terms and conditions? What is their intention (faithfulness or changing). The lessons learnt from this inquiry are summarized in this document. (J.S.)

  5. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  6. 2004 Maine Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over an area along the coast of Maine. Data was collected...

  7. Identificação dos principais componentes do fungicida guazatine através da cromatografia a gás e cromatografia a gás acoplada com espectrometria de massas Identification of the main components of guazatine fungicide by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavorenti Arquimedes

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexafluoroacetylaceton derivatives of some synthesized components of the guazatine fungicide were prepared, and their separation and identification performed through gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chromatogram obtained from hexafluoroacetylacetone derivative of the commercial guazatine presented 14 major peaks, and 9 of them were identified through both techniques mentioned above.

  8. Considerations on repeated repairing of weldments in Inconel 718 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E. O.; Lovoy, C. V.; Mcilwain, M. C.; Munafo, P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of repeated weld repairs on the metallurgical characteristics, high cycle fatigue (HCF), and tensile properties of Inconel 718 butt weld joints were determined. A 1/4 in thick plate and a 1/2 in thick plate were used as well as tungsten inert gas welding, and Inconel 718 filler wire. Weld panels were subjected to 2, 6, and 12 repeated repairs and were made in a highly restrained condition. Post weld heat treatments were also conducted with the welded panel in the highly restrained condition. Results indicate that no significant metallurgical anomaly is evident as a result of up to twelve repeated weld repairs. No degradation in fatigue life is noted for up to twelve repeated repairs. Tensile results from specimens which contained up to twelve repeated weld repairs revealed no significant degradation in UTS and YS. However, a significant decrease in elongation is evident with specimens (solution treated and age hardened after welding) which contained twelve repeated repairs. The elongation loss is attributed to the presence of a severe notch on each side (fusion line) of the repair weld bead reinforcement.

  9. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Qifei Wang; Jianhua Yan; Junlin Yang; Bingyun Li

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture rep...

  10. Laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia is mini-invasive and has confirmed effects. Femoral hernia could be repaired through the laparoscopic procedures for inguinal hernia. These procedures have clear anatomic view in the operation and preoperatively undiagnosed femoral hernia could be confirmed and treated. Lower recurrence ratio was reported in laparoscopic procedures compared with open procedures for repair of femoral hernia. The technical details of laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia, ...

  11. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  12. Natural gas conversion program of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil; Projeto de conversao do sistema de distribuicao de gas canalizado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallottino, J.T.; Costa Filho, M.A.F.; Guarana, L.F.M.L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Margalef, J.M. [Companhia Estadual de Gas (CEG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the Conversion Project of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, that converted all customers and the distribution network from Manufactured Gas (MG) to Natural Gas (NG), evaluating its logistic and benefits, highlighting those related to consumer safety. The Conversion Project was executed under the responsibility of CEG with the support of UERJ, specially on the definition and revision of the technical procedures as well as the quality assurance of the project execution. As main advantages followed by MG to NG network conversion, we can note: increasing of gas distribution network capacity and gas network operational condition improvements; elimination of production plant; revision and renovation of gas network; revision and repairing of building gas facilities; augmenting of NG usage; elimination of carbon monoxide as a supplied gas constituent. Conservation condition of most consumer internal gas facilities and ambient ventilation were so critical that conversion program resulted in no measurable accident prevention. The achieved safety level should be maintained through a periodically re-evaluation program of customer's gas facilities and appliances, with special focus on permanent ventilation required for NG safety usage. (author)

  13. Properties shaping and repair of selected types of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of twofold use of TIG - Tungsten Inert Gas also known as GTA - Gas Tungsten Arc. First is surfacing by welding on cold and hot-cold to repair chromium cast iron with chromium content about 15%. Second is remelting with electric arc of selected gray (with pearlitic matrix and ductile (with ferritic-pearlitic matrix cast iron. Repair of cast iron elements was realized in order to cut out a casting defects. Defects decrease a usability of castings for constructional application and increase a manufacturing costs. Application of surface heat treatment guarantees mechanical properties i.e. hardness and wear resistance improvement. The result of investigations show possibility of castings repair by put on defects a good quality padding welds, which have comparable properties with base material. Use of electric arc surface heat treatment resulted in increase of hardness and wear resistance, which was measured on the basis of ASTM G 65 - 00 standard.

  14. DNA repair activity in fish and interest in ecotoxicology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzler, Aude; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain

    2013-06-15

    The knowledge of DNA repair in a target species is of first importance as it is the primary line of defense against genotoxicants, and a better knowledge of DNA repair capacity in fish could help to interpret genotoxicity data and/or assist in the choice of target species, developmental stage and tissues to focus on, both for environmental biomonitoring studies and DNA repair testing. This review focuses in a first part on what is presently known on a mechanistic basis, about the various DNA repair systems in fish, in vivo and in established cell lines. Data on base excision repair (BER), direct reversal with O⁶-alkylguanine transferase and double strand breaks repair, although rather scarce, are being reviewed, as well as nucleotide excision repair (NER) and photoreactivation repair (PER), which are by far the most studied repair mechanisms in fish. Most of these repair mechanisms seem to be strongly species and tissue dependent; they also depend on the developmental stage of the organisms. BER is efficient in vivo, although no data has been found on in vitro models. NER activity is quite low or even inexistent depending on the studies; however this lack is partly compensated by a strong PER activity, especially in early developmental stage. In a second part, a survey of the ecotoxicological studies integrating DNA repair as a parameter responding to single or mixture of contaminant is realized. Three main approaches are being used: the measurement of DNA repair gene expression after exposure, although it has not yet been clearly established whether gene expression is indicative of repair capacity; the monitoring of DNA damage removal by following DNA repair kinetics; and the modulation of DNA repair activity following exposure in situ, in order to assess the impact of exposure history on DNA repair capacity. Since all DNA repair processes are possible targets for environmental pollutants, we can also wonder at which extent such a modulation of repair capacities

  15. Operation of blast furnace gas (BFG) gas holder with ld gas (LDG); Operacao do gasometro de gas de alto forno com gas de aciaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, William Genelhu; Valentino, Waldir Smith [Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais S/A (USIMINAS), Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Intendente Camara plant, one of USIMINAS steel works, located in Ipatinga - MG, operates its network of process gases with two Coke-Oven Gas (COG) oil-seal gas holders, one Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) oil-seal gas holder and a LD gas (LDG) telescope type gas holder. During the repair of LDG gas holder, this gas would be completely burned in the flares for a period of five months. Due to this loss, the cost of additional fuel and interventions in the production rhythm of the Hot Strip Mill, its biggest consumer, would be high. This paper presents the philosophy and pillars that mitigated these losses, highlighting how it was possible to operate the BFG gas holder with LDG, the achieved economy and lessons learned from the process. (author)

  16. The main cubioid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokh, Alexander; Oversteegen, Lex; Ptacek, Ross; Timorin, Vladlen

    2014-08-01

    The connectedness locus in the parameter space of quadratic polynomials is called the Mandelbrot set. A good combinatorial model of this set is due to Thurston. By definition, the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set consists of parameter values, for which the corresponding quadratic polynomials have an attracting fixed point. The closure of the principal hyperbolic domain of the Mandelbrot set is called the main cardioid. Its topology is completely described by Thurston's model. Less is known about the connectedness locus in the parameter space of cubic polynomials. In this paper, we discuss cubic analogues of the main cardioid and establish relationships between them.

  17. Nonnative Speaker-Initiated Repair in A Sequential Complex Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yufu, Mamiko

    Repair has been one of the main subjects of conversation analytical studies and the focus is often put on achieving mutual understanding. However, there are also some phenomena unique to a contact situation, which may be due to restricted linguistic knowledge of nonnative speakers, difference...... to such factors as how Germans see Japanese, the interference of Japanese conversational styles, etc. Through the analyses of nonnative speaker-initiated repair, the context-sensitive complexities are demonstrated in this paper....

  18. Nonnative Speaker-Initiated Repair in A Sequential Complex Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yufu, Mamiko

    Repair has been one of the main subjects of conversation analytical studies and the focus is often put on achieving mutual understanding. However, there are also some phenomena unique to a contact situation, which may be due to restricted linguistic knowledge of nonnative speakers, difference...... to such factors as how Germans see Japanese, the interference of Japanese conversational styles, etc. Through the analyses of nonnative speaker-initiated repair, the context-sensitive complexities are demonstrated in this paper....

  19. Main Development Targets for CNOOC in 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ In order to obtain stable reserves and create scope economic management, the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) officially put forward the main development target and main sci-tech sector target of the Ninth Five-Year Plan in July, 1995. These targets aim to make CNOOC as an international group corporation,including exploration and development of oil and gas,refining, petrochemicals, chemical fertilizer, power generation, unitizing sales network of up and down stream.

  20. Ladybugs of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  1. Abstracts of Main Essays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Engels'Dialectics of "Theoretical Thinking" Sun Zheng-yu The main significant contribution to Marxist dialectics of Engels is to formulate dialectics on the level of theoretical thinking. This contribution is expressed in three aspects: 1 ) generalizing thoroughly the historical evolution of the way of thinking embodied in science history, philosophy history and human history;

  2. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture repair. Next, the review discusses the applications of nanomaterials for bone fracture repair, with a focus on the recent breakthroughs such as nanomaterials leading to precise immobilization of growth factors at the molecular level, promoting vascularization without the use of growth factors, and re-loading therapeutic agents after implantation. The review concludes with perspectives on challenges and future directions for developing nanomaterials for improved bone fracture repair.

  3. Renovating the Main Building

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN's "Main Building" is exactly that. The Organization's central hub, with hundreds of staff and visitors passing through its doors every day, will soon be getting a well-earned facelift. Refurbishment work will proceed in phases, starting with the Salle des Pas Perdus, the concourse between the Council Chamber and the Main Auditorium. By the end of August, informal seating areas will be installed, electronic display panels will provide practical information and improved sound insulation will enhance conditions in the auditoria and surrounding meeting rooms.   In light green the area that will undergo the facelift. Work will start in July. The ground floor is home to the entrance to Restaurant No. 1, the bank, the post office, the travel agent, the Users Office, the Staff Association, the notice boards etc. Step up to the first floor to access CERN's largest lecture theatre, the Council Chamber and its "Pas Perdus" lobby. Everyone who works at or visits CERN i...

  4. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  5. Lodging Update: Portland, Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. Roginsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors summarize regional performance for 2012, offer projections for 2013, and spotlight the lodging market in Portland, Maine.

  6. Gas purification using membrane gas absorption processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Owing to the increasing energy demand and the abundance of low quality natural gas reservoirs containing high percentages of CO2, considerable attention is given to the bulk removal of CO2 and upgrading of low quality natural gas. The main goal in doing so is to increase the heating value of natural

  7. 鄂尔多斯盆地中东部马五段碳酸盐岩气藏富气主控因素以陕200井区为例%Main Controlling Factors of Natural Gas Accumulation in Carbonate in Fifth Member of Ordovician Majiagou Formation,Mid-Eastern Ordos Basin:Take Well Shaan 200 Area as a Study Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐波; 唐铁柱; 李辰

    2015-01-01

    靖边气田是中国最早发现的海相碳酸盐岩气藏之一,目前勘探范围仍在不断扩大。在回顾历年勘探和研究的基础上,以靖边气田陕200井区为例,总结和探讨了鄂尔多斯盆地中东部奥陶系碳酸盐岩储层富气的主控因素,以期为进一步勘探开发提供合理建议。研究表明:构造演变是靖边气田成藏的前提,决定了气田的分布范围和产气层位;沟槽的分布位置和切割深度对马五气藏的富集程度有着重要影响,鼻状构造不是主控因素。沉积环境是形成有利储层岩石类型的先决条件,潮间带云坪、潮上带膏云坪和含膏云坪微相是有利沉积微相。建设性的成岩作用是形成有利储集空间的重要保证,研究区多期溶蚀、白云化等建设性成岩作用对储层质量的改进较大,其中多期溶蚀作用是形成优质储集空间的主要成因。裂缝是天然气富集的重要因素,但裂缝发育程度因层位而不同。孔、洞、缝及沟槽的有效配置受构造、沉积、成岩作用的控制,每个层段的储集性能和天然气的富气程度不同。%Jingbian gas field is one of the earliest marine carbonate gas reservoirs discovered in China ,and its exploration area has been enlarging .Taking Well Shan 200 and its surrounding area as a study example , we discuss the main controlling factors of natural gas accumulation in Ordovician carbonate reservoir in the mid‐eastern Ordos basin ,and summarize the results as below :1)The tectonic evolution of Jingbian gas field is the premise of gas accumulation .It determines the gas‐field distribution range and the gas production layer . The location and cutting depth of the ancient valleys have a significant impact on the enrichment degree of Ma 5 gas reservoir .The nose structure is not the main controlling factor . 2 ) The sedimentary environment is a prerequisite for the formation of favorable reservoir rock .The

  8. Household energy consumption: the future is in our hands. ITER, an experimental fusion reactor. Do CO{sub 2}-free energies exist? Liquefied natural gas, king of the gas market; Consommation d'energie domestique: prenons l'avenir entre nos mains. ITER, un reacteur experimental de fusion. Existe-t-il des energies sans CO{sub 2}? Le gaz naturel liquefie, force motrice du marche du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-07-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter features 4 main articles dealing with: 1 - Household energy consumption - the future is in our hands: With energy resources growing scarcer and more expensive, everyone has a duty to conserve energy. Because combating global warming also means adopting simple habits and using the right equipment - with help from our governments to lead us to change. A practical look at what we can do. 2 - ITER, an experimental fusion reactor: The entire international community is trying to reproduce here on Earth the fusion of hydrogen atoms occurring naturally in the Sun, lured by the promise of a virtually inexhaustible source of energy. More on ITER from the project's Director General. 3 - Do CO{sub 2}-free energies exist?: As nations struggle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the question is moot. Environmental engineer Jean-Marc Jancovici gives us his point of view. 4 - Liquefied natural gas, king of the gas market: LNG's many advantages are enticing industry to develop supply routes and infrastructure to meet strong demand. But the race for LNG is not without its limits.

  9. Laser Engineered Net Shape (LENS) Technology for the Repair of Ni-Base Superalloy Turbine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejian; Lippold, John C.; Li, Jia; Rohklin, Stan R.; Vollbrecht, Justin; Grylls, Richard

    2014-09-01

    The capability of the laser engineered net shape (LENS) process was evaluated for the repair of casting defects and improperly machined holes in gas turbine engine components. Various repair geometries, including indentations, grooves, and through-holes, were used to simulate the actual repair of casting defects and holes in two materials: Alloy 718 and Waspaloy. The influence of LENS parameters, including laser energy density, laser scanning speed, and deposition pattern, on the repair of these defects and holes was studied. Laser surface remelting of the substrate prior to repair was used to remove machining defects and prevent heat-affected zone (HAZ) liquation cracking. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques were used as a possible approach for detecting lack-of-fusion in repairs. Overall, Alloy 718 exhibited excellent repair weldability, with essentially no defects except for some minor porosity in repairs representative of deep through-holes and simulated large area casting defects. In contrast, cracking was initially observed during simulated repair of Waspaloy. Both solidification cracking and HAZ liquation cracking were observed in the repairs, especially under conditions of high heat input (high laser power and/or low scanning speed). For Waspaloy, the degree of cracking was significantly reduced and, in most cases, completely eliminated by the combination of low laser energy density and relatively high laser scanning speeds. It was found that through-hole repairs of Waspaloy made using a fine powder size exhibited excellent repair weldability and were crack-free relative to repairs using coarser powder. Simulated deep (7.4 mm) blind-hole repairs, representative of an actual Waspaloy combustor case, were successfully produced by the combination use of fine powder and relatively high laser scanning speeds.

  10. Web-ADARE: A Web-Aided Data Repairing System

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin

    2017-03-08

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. In this paper, we develop Web-ADARE, an end-to-end web-aided data repairing system, to provide a feasible way to involve the vast data sources on the Web in data repairing. Our main attention in developing Web-ADARE is paid on the interaction problem between web-aided repairing and rule-based repairing, in order to minimize the Web consultation cost while reaching predefined quality requirements. The same interaction problem also exists in crowd-based methods but this is not yet formally defined and addressed. We first prove in theory that the optimal interaction scheme is not feasible to be achieved, and then propose an algorithm to identify a scheme for efficient interaction by investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Extensive experiments on three data collections demonstrate the high repairing precision and recall of Web-ADARE, and the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over several baseline ones.

  11. Platinum drugs and DNA repair mechanisms in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Laura; Favaretto, Adolfo; Rosell, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The standard first-line treatment for around 80% of newly-diagnosed advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is chemotherapy. Currently, patients are allocated to chemotherapy on the basis of clinical conditions, comorbidities and histology. If feasible, platinum-based chemotherapy is considered as the most efficacious option. Due to the heterogeneity in terms of platinum-sensitivity among patients with NSCLC, great efforts have been made in order to identify molecular predictive markers of platinum resistance. Based on the mechanism of action of platinum, several components of DNA repair pathways have been investigated as potential predictive markers. The main DNA repair pathways involved in the repair of platinum-induced DNA damage are nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination. The most studied potential predictive markers of platinum-sensitivity are Excision Repair Cross Complementing-1 (ERCC1) and Brest Cancer Type-I Susceptibility protein (BRCA1); however, increasing biological knowledge about DNA repair pathways suggests the potential clinical usefulness of integrated analysis of multiple DNA repair components.

  12. Mullite Plasma Spraying for In Situ Repair of Cracks in Mullite Refractories: Simultaneous Optimization of Porosity and Thickness by Statistical Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijnemakers, A.; Francq, B. G.; Cloots, R.; Vertruyen, B.; Boschini, F.

    2013-10-01

    We report a laboratory-scale study about the suitability of the plasma spraying process for "in situ" repair of cracks in mullite refractories of industrial furnaces. The "design of experiments" approach is used to investigate how the coating porosity and thickness are influenced by six experimental parameters. Arc current, secondary gas (H2) flow rate, and stand-off distance are the most significant parameters for both responses. Several interaction terms also affect significantly the thickness response. The validity of the model equations is discussed both from a statistical point of view and regarding the physical credibility of the main model terms. Additional experiments confirm that the measured properties lie into the prediction intervals provided by the model. Using a set of parameters optimized for minimal porosity and high thickness (relevant for the crack repair application), coatings with 6% porosity and 1070 μm thickness can be prepared reproducibly.

  13. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  14. Abstracts of Main Essays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zi-yi

    2011-01-01

    On Deepening the Research on the Law of the Social Horizontal Development Feng Zi-yi The further development of globalization makes it urgent to deepen the research on the law of social hori- zontal development. Historical development of human society has experienced periods of isolation, multi-cen- ter, and globalization, while the truly horizontal development began from modernity. This kind of development is driven mainly by the logic of capital. The transforming process of capital, from dominating the whole process of economic development toward all aspects of social life, and from dominating nations toward the whole world, is also the logical process of capital pursuing itself and the process of social horizontal and wholly development as well. Horizontal and vertical developments of the society are interacting always. Researching on the law of social horizontal development is important for us to adapt to the historical trend consciously, to grasp the logic of capital rationally and to choose the right road of development.

  15. Microcracks repairing technique for gun barrel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xu-dong; WU Bin; SU Bing; WANG Cheng-tao

    2004-01-01

    When a gun fires the diffusion of chemical species from the propellant gas, such as CO, CO2, H2, H2O and N2, into the hot surface through the microcracks forms reaction products and speeds up the erosion process.Therefore, crack repairing and healing can be a possible measure for protecting against erosion of gun bore. The present study develops a novel nanocomposite with the size of 30 - 150 nm to repair and heal the microcracks so that the propellant gas can be prevented from reacting with the steel. Sample of gun steel 40CrNiMoV plate (10 mm× 10 mm × 2 mm) is prepared and a fishtail crack is generated through a repeated plastic deformation process. The crackrepairing results show that the fishtail crack become shorter and narrower. A new phase is formed, which is found to have the elements, such as Ca, La, from the raw materials of nanocomposite by energy spectrum analysis.

  16. Laparoscopic Repair of Morgagni Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilker murat arer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is a congenital herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity through a retrosternal diaphragmatic defect and make up about 1 % - 5 % of all types of congenital diaphragmatic hernias. Surgical repair of Morgagni hernias is usually indicated when patients are symptomatic and have a high risk of strangulation or incarceration of the contained viscera. 71-year-old male patient admitted to emergency department with a 2-day history of abdominal pain, vomiting and obstipation. Laparoscopic repair for Morgagni hernia was performed. Laparoscopic repair for Morgagni hernia with mesh repair is secure, satisfactory and easily performed. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 71-74

  17. Combinatorial Reliability and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Press, Oxford, 1987. [2] G. Gordon and L. Traldi, Generalized activities and the Tutte polynomial , Discrete Math. 85 (1990), 167-176. [3] A. B. Huseby, A...particular, Satyanarayana and Tindell introduced a notion of (K,j)-domination in their study of a K-terminal version of the chromatic polynomial [6], and it...G)) graphs. He also intends to look into the properties of the polynomial that gives the expected number of needed repairs of a K-terminal network

  18. Mammalian mismatch repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Jiricny, Josef

    2012-01-01

    A considerable surge of interest in the mismatch repair (MMR) system has been brought about by the discovery of a link between Lynch syndrome, an inherited predisposition to cancer of the colon and other organs, and malfunction of this key DNA metabolic pathway. This review focuses on recent...... advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of canonical MMR, which improves replication fidelity by removing misincorporated nucleotides from the nascent DNA strand. We also discuss the involvement of MMR proteins in two other processes: trinucleotide repeat expansion and antibody maturation...

  19. DNA replication, repair, and repair tests. [Rat; human leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, B.

    1980-09-01

    The rate of inhibition and recovery of DNA synthesis can be used in a rapid assay system to detect genotoxic potentials of chemicals. Also, the observation that an agent stimulates DNA repair in a test system indicates its ability to cause damage in DNA. Different experimental approaches to the study of repair synthesis are discussed.

  20. Multi-channel gas-delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T.; Beese, Steven C.

    2016-09-13

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a gas-delivery system for delivering reaction gas to a reactor chamber. The gas-delivery system includes a main gas-inlet port for receiving reaction gases and a gas-delivery plate that includes a plurality of gas channels. A gas channel includes a plurality of gas holes for allowing the reaction gases to enter the reactor chamber from the gas channel. The gas-delivery system further includes a plurality of sub-gas lines coupling together the main gas-inlet port and the gas-delivery plate, and a respective sub-gas line is configured to deliver a portion of the received reaction gases to a corresponding gas channel.

  1. Handbook of adhesive bonded structural repair

    CERN Document Server

    Wegman, Raymond F

    1992-01-01

    Provides repair methods for adhesive bonded and composite structures; identifies suitable materials and equipment for repairs; describes damage evaluation criteria and techniques, and methods of inspection before and after repair.

  2. The journey of DNA repair

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    21 years ago, the DNA Repair Enzyme was declared “Molecule of the Year”. Today, we are celebrating another “year of repair”, with the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry being awarded to Aziz Sancar, Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich for their collective work on the different DNA repair pathways.

  3. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  4. Rethinking transcription coupled DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Nudler, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved, multistep process that can detect a wide variety of DNA lesions. Transcription coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of NER that repairs the transcribed DNA strand faster than the rest of the genome. RNA polymerase (RNAP) stalled at DNA lesions mediates the recruitment of NER enzymes to the damage site. In this review we focus on a newly identified bacterial TCR pathway in which the NER enzyme UvrD, in conjunction with NusA, plays a major role in initiating the repair process. We discuss the tradeoff between the new and conventional models of TCR, how and when each pathway operates to repair DNA damage, and the necessity of pervasive transcription in maintaining genome integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. POLYMER AND CEMENT MORTARS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of polymer-cement mortars for their application in construction and repair of buildings and structures is presented. The main properties of known polymer-cement mortars used for this purpose are described. The advantages of application of polymer-cement mortars as repair materials are shown.

  6. A modelling study of drying shrinkage damage in concrete repair systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.; Ye, G.; van Breugel, K.

    2014-01-01

    Differential shrinkage between repair material and concrete substrate is considered to be the main cause of premature failure of repair systems (Martinola, Sadouki et al. 2001, Beushausen and Alexander 2007). Magnitude of induced stresses depends on many factors, for example the amount of restraint,

  7. Fenestrated and branched endovascular techniques for thoraco-abdominal aneurysm repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, ELG; Zeebregts, CJ; Kapma, MR; Tielliu, IFJ; Prins, TR; Van Den Dungen, JJAM

    Since 1991, endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been established as an alternative for open surgical repair of aortic aneurysms. one of the main limitations for EVAR is the need for a sufficient scaling zone below or above vital aortic side branches. Recently, efforts have been made to

  8. Fenestrated and branched endovascular techniques for thoraco-abdominal aneurysm repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, ELG; Zeebregts, CJ; Kapma, MR; Tielliu, IFJ; Prins, TR; Van Den Dungen, JJAM

    2005-01-01

    Since 1991, endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been established as an alternative for open surgical repair of aortic aneurysms. one of the main limitations for EVAR is the need for a sufficient scaling zone below or above vital aortic side branches. Recently, efforts have been made to ov

  9. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, I.T. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad, s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: inmatorres@unex.es; Perez-Ocon, R. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida de Severo Ochoa, s/n. 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-03-15

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures.

  10. Gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-15

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  11. Wound repair in Pocillopora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguileraa, Luis Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40 days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40 d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  12. Groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske

    2005-01-01

    The choice of anesthesia for groin hernia repair is between general, regional (epidural or spinal), and local anesthesia. Existing data from large consecutive patient series and randomized studies have shown local anesthesia to be the method of choice because it can be performed by the surgeon......, does not necessarily require an attending anesthesiologist, translates into the shortest recovery (bypassing the postanesthesia care unit), has the lowest cost, and has the lowest postoperative morbidity regarding risk of urinary retention. Spinal anesthesia has no documented benefits for this small...... scientific data to support the choice of anesthesia, large epidemiologic and nationwide information from databases show an undesirable high (about 10-20%) use of spinal anesthesia and low (about 10%) use of local infiltration anesthesia. Surgeons and anesthesiologists should therefore adjust their anesthesia...

  13. Laser repairing surface crack of Ni-based superalloy components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠柯; 叶和清; 许德胜; 黄索逸

    2001-01-01

    Surface crack of components of the cast nickel-base superalloy was repaired with twin laser beams under proper technological conditions. One laser beam was used to melt the substrate material of crack, and the other to fill in powder material to the crack region. The experimental results show that the surface crack with the width of 0.1~0.3mm could be repaired under the laser power of 3kW and the scanning speed of 6~8mm/s. The repaired deepness of crack region is below 6.5mm. The microstructure of repaired region is the cellular crystal, columnar crystal dendrite crystal from the transition region to the top filled layer. The phases in repaired region mainly consisted of supersaturated α-Co with plenty of Ni, some Cr and Al, Cr23C6, Co2B, Co-Ni-Mo, Ni4B3, TiSi and VSi. The hardness of filled layer in repaired region ranged from HV0.2450 to HV0.2500, and the hardness decreases gradually from the filled layer to joined zone.

  14. Hot tapping and plugging in gas pipeline - GASCAB-I and GASDUC-I; Furacao em carga e plugueamento em gasodutos - GASCAB-I e GASDUC-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Jeziel; Ciuffo, Mauro Cunha; Santa Cruz, Sergio de Freitas [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    It is difficult to accomplish interventions avoiding the shutdown on of the main lines during the operation of process plants or gas pipelines. It involves unit halt as well supply contract interruption, which can result heavy financial penalties with fines or cost due to profit loss. In such case it is necessary to use special techniques as hot tapping or line plugging. This paper aim to present the technical feasibility of applying line-plugging technique in a gas pipeline submitted to high pressure (82 kg f/cm{sup 2}) in non-straight section. It also presents the technical feasibility of repairing the fastening system of the connection plug. (author)

  15. Mononuclear Cells and Vascular Repair in HHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calinda eDingenouts

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is a rare genetic vascular disorder known for its endothelial dysplasia causing arteriovenous malformations and severe bleedings. HHT-1 and HHT-2 are the most prevalent variants and are caused by heterozygous mutations in endoglin and ALK1, respectively. An undervalued aspect of the disease is that HHT patients experience persistent inflammation. Although endothelial and mural cells have been the main research focus trying to unravel the mechanism behind the disease, wound healing is a process with a delicate balance between inflammatory and vascular cells. Inflammatory cells are part of the mononuclear cells (MNCs fraction, and can, next to eliciting an immune response, also have angiogenic potential. This biphasic effect of MNC can hold a promising mechanism to further elucidate treatment strategies for HHT patients. Before MNC are able to contribute to repair, they need to home to and retain in ischemic and damaged tissue. Directed migration (homing of mononuclear cells following tissue damage is regulated by the stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF1. MNCs that express the C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4 migrate towards the tightly regulated gradient of SDF1. This directed migration of monocytes and lymphocytes can be inhibited by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4. Interestingly, MNC of HHT patients express elevated levels of DPP4 and show impaired homing towards damaged tissue. Impaired homing capacity of the MNCs might therefore contribute to the impaired angiogenesis and tissue repair observed in HHT patients. This review summarizes recent studies regarding the role of MNCs in the etiology of HHT and vascular repair, and evaluates the efficacy of DPP4 inhibition in tissue integrity and repair.

  16. Functional Analysis of Homologous Recombination Repair Proteins HerA and NurA in the Thermophile Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qihong

    A number of DNA lesions are generated in each cell every day, among which double-stranded breaks (DSBs) constitute one of the most detrimental types of DNA damage. DSBs lead to genome instability, cell death, or even tumorigenesis in human, if not repaired timely. Two main pathways are known...... for DSB repair, homologous recombination repair (HRR) and Non-homologous end joint (NHEJ). HR repairs DSBs using a homologous DNA molecule as a template resulting in error free DNA repair, whereas NHEJ promotes direct re-ligation of the broken DNA ends in an error-prone manner. In eukaryotes DSBs occurred...

  17. The law of oil and gas distribution and mainly controlling factors of the passive rift basin:The Tanan depression of Tamuchage Basin%被动裂陷盆地油气分布规律及主控因素分析——以塔木察格盆地塔南坳陷为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓飞; 王勇; 渠永红; 沙威

    2011-01-01

    Tanan depression is a typical passive rift basin, and has four tectonic evolution stages: passive rift stage, active rift stage, fault-depression conversion stage and depression stage, as well as two petroleum systems;the passive rift petroleum system which oil and gas mainly occur and active rift petroleum system. The major controlling factors of oil and gas distribution have three aspects. First of all, the regional cover and long-term development of fault control the layer of oil and gas accumulation. The Basin has two mudstone regional covers: Nan-1 section and Da-1 section, which has high thickness and mud ratio, controlling the oil and gas accumulation of two petroleum systems. The long-term development of fault forms shale smear of shearing type at the cover. When the SSF is greater than 5, shale smear losts the continuity and oil and gas which through the regional cover occur vertical migration, accumulating at Da-2 section, as well as forming secondary reservoir. Second, the effective hydrocarbon kitchen and good reservoircontrol the scale of oil and gas distribution, while active and passive rift stage both develop a set of hydrocarbon source rock. The passive rift stage of hydrocarbon source rock has interbedded sand and mud structure, so the expulsion efficiency of hydrocarbon is high, which is high-quality source rock. The role of atmospheric water washout filter and organic acid dissolution is that forms a high-quality reservoir,respectively,at the footwall of antithetic fault and trough,so oil and gas occur a short distance lateral migration. Oil and gas distribution has typical characteristics,such as "source control" and "high-quality reservoir control". The third is the antithetic fault,the lower uplift and the fan complex control the gas accumulation. There are many antithetic faults resulting from the tectonic subsidence and the tilting at the stage of passive rifting, and they have the advantages as " three phases the synchronous product

  18. A novel electron-beam-based photomask repair tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Klaus; Becht, Hans; Becker, Rainer; Bert, Volker; Boegli, Volker A.; Budach, Michael; G÷hde, Susanne; Guyot, Jochen; Hofmann, Thorsten; Hoinkis, Ottmar; Kaya, Alexander; Koops, Hans W.; Spies, Petra; Weyrauch, Bernd; Bihr, Johannes

    2003-12-01

    High-resolution electron-beam assisted deposition and etching is an enabling technology for current and future generation photo mask repair. NaWoTec in collaboration with LEO Electron Microscopy has developed a mask repair beta tool capable of processing a wide variety of mask types, such as quartz binary masks, phase shift masks, EUV masks, and e-beam projection stencil masks. Specifications currently meet the 65 nm device node requirements, and tool performance is extendible to 45 nm and below. The tool combines LEO's ultra-high resolution Supra SEM platform with NaWoTec's e-beam deposition and etching technology, gas supply and pattern generation hardware, and repair software. It is expected to ship to the first customer in October this year. In this paper, we present the tool platform, its work flow oriented repair software, and associated deposition and etch processes. Unique features are automatic drift compensation, critical edge detection, and arbitrary pattern copy with automatic placement. Repair of clear and opaque programmed defects on Cr, TaN, and MoSi quartz masks, as well as on SiC and Si stencil masks is demonstrated. We show our development roadmap towards a production tool, which will be available by the end of this year.

  19. Identification of novel DNA repair proteins via primary sequence, secondary structure, and homology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akutsu Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA repair is the general term for the collection of critical mechanisms which repair many forms of DNA damage such as methylation or ionizing radiation. DNA repair has mainly been studied in experimental and clinical situations, and relatively few information-based approaches to new extracting DNA repair knowledge exist. As a first step, automatic detection of DNA repair proteins in genomes via informatics techniques is desirable; however, there are many forms of DNA repair and it is not a straightforward process to identify and classify repair proteins with a single optimal method. We perform a study of the ability of homology and machine learning-based methods to identify and classify DNA repair proteins, as well as scan vertebrate genomes for the presence of novel repair proteins. Combinations of primary sequence polypeptide frequency, secondary structure, and homology information are used as feature information for input to a Support Vector Machine (SVM. Results We identify that SVM techniques are capable of identifying portions of DNA repair protein datasets without admitting false positives; at low levels of false positive tolerance, homology can also identify and classify proteins with good performance. Secondary structure information provides improved performance compared to using primary structure alone. Furthermore, we observe that machine learning methods incorporating homology information perform best when data is filtered by some clustering technique. Analysis by applying these methodologies to the scanning of multiple vertebrate genomes confirms a positive correlation between the size of a genome and the number of DNA repair protein transcripts it is likely to contain, and simultaneously suggests that all organisms have a non-zero minimum number of repair genes. In addition, the scan result clusters several organisms' repair abilities in an evolutionarily consistent fashion. Analysis also identifies several

  20. The indirect effect of radiation reduces the repair fidelity of NHEJ as verified in repair deficient CHO cell lines exposed to different radiation qualities and potassium bromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajinskis, Ainars, E-mail: ainars.bajinskis@gmt.su.se [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Olsson, Gunilla; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-01

    The complexity of DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation is mainly dependent on radiation quality, where the indirect action of radiation may contribute to different extent depending on the type of radiation under study. The effect of indirect action of radiation can be investigated by using agents that induce oxidative DNA damage or by applying free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect effect of radiation for the repair fidelity of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER) when DNA damage of different complexity was induced by gamma radiation, alpha particles or from base damages (8-oxo-dG) induced by potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}). CHO cells lines deficient in XRCC3 (HRR) irs1SF, XRCC7 (NHEJ) V3-3 and XRCC1 (BER) EM9 were irradiated in the absence or presence of the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The endpoints investigated included rate of cell proliferation by the DRAG assay, clonogenic cell survival and the level of primary DNA damage by the comet assay. The results revealed that the indirect effect of low-LET radiation significantly reduced the repair fidelity of both NHEJ and HRR pathways. For high-LET radiation the indirect effect of radiation also significantly reduced the repair fidelity for the repair deficient cell lines. The results suggest further that the repair fidelity of the error prone NHEJ repair pathway is more impaired by the indirect effect of high-LET radiation relative to the other repair pathways studied. The response to bromate observed for the two DSB repair deficient cell lines strongly support earlier studies that bromate induces complex DNA damages. The significantly reduced repair fidelity of irs1SF and V3-3 suggests that NHEJ as well as HRR are needed for the repair, and that complex DSBs are formed after bromate exposure.

  1. How to repair an episiotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Mary; Cummins, Bernie

    2016-02-17

    Rationale and key points Skilful repair of an episiotomy is an important aspect of maternal health care. It is essential that midwives and doctors have the knowledge and skills to undertake this procedure in a safe and effective manner. ▶ An episiotomy should be repaired promptly to reduce blood loss and prevent infection. ▶ Repair of an episiotomy is undertaken in three stages: repair of the vaginal mucosa, repair of the muscle layer and repair of the skin layer. ▶ Adequate pain relief should be provided before suturing. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Why a rectal examination is recommended before and following repair of an episiotomy. 2. What you would do to improve your suturing skills. 3. The factors that may prevent or delay an episiotomy from healing. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio .

  2. DNA repair in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fábio Teixeira; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques de; Bezerra e Silva, Uaska; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2004-03-31

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium that inhabits a variety of ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, including the water and banks of the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. This bacterium has been the subject of extensive study over the last three decades, due to its biotechnological properties, including the characteristic violacein pigment, which has antimicrobial and anti-tumoral activities. C. violaceum promotes the solubilization of gold in a mercury-free process, and has been used in the synthesis of homopolyesters suitable for the production of biodegradable polymers. The complete genome sequence of this organism has been completed by the Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium. The aim of our group was to study the DNA repair genes in this organism, due to their importance in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified DNA repair genes involved in different pathways in C. violaceum through a similarity search against known sequences deposited in databases. The phylogenetic analyses were done using programs of the PHILYP package. This analysis revealed various metabolic pathways, including photoreactivation, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, recombinational repair, and the SOS system. The similarity between the C. violaceum sequences and those of Neisserie miningitidis and Ralstonia solanacearum was greater than that between the C. violaceum and Escherichia coli sequences. The peculiarities found in the C. violaceum genome were the absence of LexA, some horizontal transfer events and a large number of repair genes involved with alkyl and oxidative DNA damage.

  3. Origin of natural gas; Tennen gas no kigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y. [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-20

    Natural gas, which is a general term of flammable hydrocarbon gases such as methane, is classified by origin into the following categories : (1) oil field gas (oil gas), (2) aquifers (bacteria-fermented methane), (3) coal gas (coal field gas), and (4) abiogenetic gas. The natural gas which has (1-4) origins and is now used as resource in a large quantity is (1) oil field gas. This gas is a hydrocarbon gas recovered in the production process of petroleum and contains components such as ethane, propane and butane. To the contrary, (2) aquifers and (3) coal gas have methane as main component. As (4) abiogenetic methane, there are gas formed in inorganic reaction in activities of submarine volcanos and deep gas (earth origin gas). Oil field gas has kerogen origin. Aquifers were formed by fermentation of organic matters. Coal gas was formed by coalification of vitrinite. As abiogenetic methane, there are inorganic reaction formation gas and deep gas, the latter of which exists little as resource. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Functional outcome after laparoscopic and open incisional hernia repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Eker (Hasan); D. den Hartog (Dennis); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); H.J. Stam (Henk); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Background: The debate about the advantages of laparoscopic versus open incisional hernia repair is still ongoing. The primary outcomes of already published studies are mainly recurrence, pain and quality of life. Data on postoperative abdominal wall function after these corre

  5. Diagnostic criteria for constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Katharina; Kratz, Christian P; Vasen, Hans F A;

    2014-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a distinct childhood cancer predisposition syndrome that results from biallelic germline mutations in one of the four MMR genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. The tumour spectrum is very broad, including mainly haematological, brain...

  6. Damage induced by continued corrosion in concrete repair systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luckovic, M.; Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. After the repair, corrosion of the steel might continue and even accelerate. While the development of the corrosion cell depends on many parameters and is difficult to control, the occurrence of vi

  7. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  8. Bone repair and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2016-10-01

    Bones are an important component of vertebrates; they grow explosively in early life and maintain their strength throughout life. Bones also possess amazing capabilities to repair-the bone is like new without a scar after complete repair. In recent years, a substantial progress has been made in our understanding on mammalian bone stem cells. Mouse genetic models are powerful tools to understand the cell lineage, giving us better insights into stem cells that regulate bone growth, maintenance and repair. Recent findings about these stem cells raise new questions that require further investigations.

  9. Repairing and Upgrading Your PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Repairing and Upgrading Your PC delivers start-to-finish instructions, simple enough for even the most inexperienced PC owner, for troubleshooting, repairing, and upgrading your computer. Written by hardware experts Robert Bruce Thompson and Barbara Fritchman Thompson, this book covers it all: how to troubleshoot a troublesome PC, how to identify which components make sense for an upgrade, and how to tear it all down and put it back together. This book shows how to repair and upgrade all of your PC's essential components.

  10. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, H; Lee, F; Patil, N G

    2001-09-01

    A 75-year-old man developed an incisional hernia over the upper abdomen following a wedge resection of a gastric stromal tumour in 1996. This is the first published report of a successful repair of an incisional hernia via a laparoscopic intraperitoneal on-lay technique using GORE-TEX DualMesh material in Hong Kong. Compared with conventional open repair of incisional hernia, long incisions and wound tension are avoided using the laparoscopic approach. This translates into a reduced risk of wound-related complications and facilitates recovery. In selected cases, minimally invasive surgery is a safe technique for the repair of incisional hernias.

  11. [Inguinal and femoral hernia repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, B; Anthuber, M

    2011-05-01

    With an incidence of 200,000 new cases per year in Germany, inguinal hernia has a significant socioeconomic impact. The 2009 guidelines from the European Hernia Society established treatment recommendations. Hernia repair is based on reinforcing the posterior wall of the inguinal canal by suture or mesh repair by an anterior or posterior approach. Lightweight mesh reduces recurrence rates and is the treatment of choice even in primary hernias. Laparoscopic hernia repair is associated with specific risks but is superior in postoperative pain and earlier return to work.

  12. Repair vs replacement of direct composite restorations: a survey of teaching and operative techniques in Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Paul A; Ghazali, Amna; Tarif, Zahidah H; Loch, Carolina; Lynch, Christopher; Wilson, Nairn; Blum, Igor R

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the teaching and operative techniques for the repair and/or replacement of direct resin-based composite restorations (DCRs) in dental schools in Oceania. A 14-item questionnaire was mailed to the heads of operative dentistry in 16 dental schools in Oceania (Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Papua New Guinea). The survey asked whether the repair of DCRs was taught within the curriculum; the rationale behind the teaching; how techniques were taught, indications for repair, operative techniques, materials used, patient acceptability, expected longevity and recall systems. All 16 schools participated in the study. Thirteen (81%) reported the teaching of composite repairs as an alternative to replacement. Most schools taught the theoretical and practical aspects of repair at a clinical level only. All 13 schools (100%) agreed on tooth substance preservation being the main reason for teaching repair. The main indications for repair were marginal defects (100%), followed by secondary caries (69%). All 13 schools that performed repairs reported high patient acceptability, and considered it a definitive measure. Only three schools (23%) claimed to have a recall system in place following repair of DCRs. Most respondents either did not know or did not answer when asked about the longevity of DCRs. Repair of DCRs seems to be a viable alternative to replacement, which is actively taught within Oceania. Advantages include it being minimally invasive, preserving tooth structure, and time and money saving. However, standardised guidelines need to be developed and further clinical long-term studies need to be carried out. The decision between replacing or repairing a defective composite restoration tends to be based on what clinicians have been taught, tempered by experience and judgement. This study investigated the current status of teaching and operative techniques of repair of direct composite restorations in dental schools in Oceania. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  13. RESTORING A DAMAGED 16-YEAR -OLD INSULATING POLYMER CONCRETE DIKE OVERLAY: REPAIR MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this program was to design and formulate organic polymer-based material systems suitable for repairing and restoring the overlay panels of insulating lightweight polymer concrete (ILPC) from the concrete floor and slope wall of a dike at KeySpan liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NY, just over sixteen years ago. It also included undertaking a small-scale field demonstration to ensure that the commercial repairing technologies were applicable to the designed and formulated materials.

  14. Large myelomeningocele repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nejat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound closure is accomplished in most cases of myelomeningocele (MMC by undermining of the skin edges surrounding the defect. However, large defects cannot be closed reliably by this simple technique. Due to the technical challenge associated with large MMC, surgeons have devised different methods for repairing large defects. In this paper, we report our experience of managing large defects, which we believe bears a direct relationship to decrease the incidence of wound complications. Materials and Methods: Forty children with large MMCs underwent surgical repair and represent our experience. We recommend using all hairy skin around the defect as a way to decrease the tension on the edges of the wound and the possible subsequent necrosis. It is our experience that vertical incision on one or two flanks parallel to the midline can decrease the tension of the wound. Moreover, ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for children who developed hydrocephalus was performed simultaneously, which constitutes another recommendation for preventing fluid collection and build up of pressure on the wound. Results: Patients in this study were in the age range of 2 days to 8 years. The most common location of MMC was in the thoracolumbar area. All but four patients had severe weakness in lower extremities. We used as much hairy skin around the MMC sac as possible in all cases. Vertical incisions on one or both flanks and simultaneous shunt procedure were performed in 36 patients. We treated children with large MMC defects with acceptable tension-free closure. Nonetheless, three patients developed superficial skin infection and partial wound dehiscence, and they were managed conservatively. Conclusions: We recommend using all hairy skin around the MMC defect for closure of large defects. In cases that were expected to be at a higher risk to develop dehiscence release incisions on one or two flanks towards the fascia were found to be useful. Simultaneous

  15. A Two-Unit Cold Standby Repairable System with One Replaceable Repair Facility and Delay Repair:Some Reliability Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ying-yuan; TANG Ying-hui

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers a two-unit same cold standby repairable system with a replaceable repair facility and delay repair .The failure time of unit is assumed to follow exponential distribution , and the repair time and delay time of failed unit are assumed to follow arbitrary distributions , whereas the failure and replacement time distributions of the repair facility are exponential and arbitrary . By using the Markov renewal process theory, some primary reliability quantities of the system are obtained.

  16. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1024 Section 63.1024... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1024 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical, but not later than 15...

  17. 40 CFR 65.105 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 65.105 Section 65.105... FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.105 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical but not later than 15 calendar days after it...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... successful repair of the leak. (3) Maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1005 Section 63.1005... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1005 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner...

  19. Early days of DNA repair: discovery of nucleotide excision repair and homology-dependent recombinational repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, W Dean

    2013-12-13

    The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere.

  20. Laparoscopic repair of postoperative perineal hernia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Perineal hernias are infrequent complications following abdominoperineal operations. Various approaches have been described for repair of perineal hernias including open transabdominal, transperineal or combined abdominoperineal repairs. The use of laparoscopic transabdominal repair of perineal hernias is not well-described. We present a case report demonstrating the benefits of laparoscopic repair of perineal hernia following previous laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (APR) using a nonabsorbable mesh to repair the defect. We have demonstrated that the use of laparoscopy with repair of the pelvic floor defect using a non absorbable synthetic mesh offers an excellent alternative with many potential advantages over open transabdominal and transperineal repairs.

  1. Umbilical and epigastric hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschaweck, Ulrike

    2003-10-01

    The repair of umbilical and epigastric hernias still represents a challenge to surgeons. Although a common and relatively simple procedure, there is no exact protocol today on how the repair should be done. The Mayo technique and its alterations could not stand the test of time: a recurrence rate of 20% and higher is not acceptable for any surgical procedure. Although there is no consensus opinion, one thing is clear: the importance of an anatomic repair without tension and without an artificial enlargement of the defect. In 1987 Lichtenstein reported on 6321 cases of herniorraphy with a tension free repair, and in 1994 Stuart reemphasized that special importance in his editorial in the Lancet. A newer study from Brancato and coworkers in Italy also states the advantage of a tension-free prosthetic repair in 16 patients with epigastric hernia. We have gone even further and recommend a tailored-to-the-patient repair using a customized polypropylene mesh and a one-layer running suture. The advantages should be obvious: no artificial creation of an even bigger than original defect, a completely tension-free repair, and little to no recurrence of the hernia. Our results clearly prove that assumption. Moreover, the procedure is extremely safe and complications are very rare and minor. We conclude that using a mesh plug in a customized tension-free repair of umbilical and epigastric hernia shows many advantages over the commonly used methods. And we finally conclude with the words of Albert Einstein: "The only source of knowledge is experience."

  2. Repair Types, Procedures - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    New Jersey, USA. Repair Types, Procedures – Part I RTO-EN-AVT-156 9 - 19 [5] Drieker R, Botello C, MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle... MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle Damage Assessment and Repair (ABDAR), Vol. III: Field Test Report,” AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2002-0039, July 2000. [8

  3. Hand function after nerve repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Lundborg, Göran; Rosén, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of injuries to major nerve trunks in the hand and upper extremity remains a major and challenging reconstructive problem. Such injuries may cause long-lasting disabilities in terms of lost fine sensory and motor functions. Nowadays there is no surgical repair technique that can ensure recovery of tactile discrimination in the hand of an adult patient following nerve repair while very young individuals usually regain a complete recovery of functional sensibility. Post-traumatic nerve...

  4. Cobbler's technique for Iridodialysis repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surinder Singh Pandav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel “Cobbler's technique” for iridodialysis repair in the right eye of a patient aged 18 years, with a traumatic iridodialysis secondary to open globe injury with an iron rod. Our technique is simple with easy surgical maneuvers, that is, effective for repairing iridodialysis. The “Cobbler's technique” allows a maximally functional and cosmetic result for iridodialysis.

  5. Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process.

  6. Repairing Learned Knowledge Using Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    It necessar and Identify by’ 6109h nii be) learning precedent-based learning knowledge repair explanation-based learning near - miss groups 20. ABSTRACT...can a program use explanations to repair a recollection, preventing further misapplication? Near - Miss Groups Isolate Suspicious Relations If a metal...pail differs from a porcelain cup only in the position of handle attachment, then we would say that the pail is a near miss . Unfortunately, there are

  7. Aircraft Metal Skin Repair and Honeycomb Structure Repair; Sheet Metal Work 3: 9857.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course helps students determine types of repairs, compute repair sizes, and complete the repair through surface protection. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, protection of metals, repairs to metal skin, and honeycomb structure repair. A bibliography and post-test are appended. A prerequisite for this course is mastery of the…

  8. Scarf Repair of Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zonghong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of composite materials, such as carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites, aero-structures has led to an increased need of advanced assembly joining and repair technologies. Adhesive bonded repairs as an alternative to recover full or part of initial strength were investigated. Tests were conducted with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of techniques used for repairing damage fiber reinforced laminated composites. Failure loads and failure modes were generated and compared with the following parameters: scarf angles, roughness of grind tool and number of external plies. Results showed that scarf angle was the critical parameter and the largest tensile strength was observed with the smallest scarf angle. Besides, the use of external plies at the outer surface could not increase the repairs efficiency for large scarf angle. Preparing the repair surfaces by sanding them with a sander ranging from 60 to 100 grit number had significant effect on the failure load. These results allowed the proposal of design principles for repairing CFRP structures.

  9. Aging and DNA repair capability. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R R

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature on DNA repair processes in relation to aging is presented under the following headings: DNA repair processes; age-related occurrence of unrepaired DNA lesions; DNA repair capability as a function of age; tissue-specific DNA repair capability; acceleration of the aging process by exposure to DNA damaging agents; human genetic syndromes; and longevity and DNA repair processes. (HLW)

  10. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems with gas if you: Are lactose or gluten intolerant Eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes Drink carbonated beverages Have a chronic intestinal condition, such as irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease Neither age nor sex ...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits,...

  12. Laparoscopic Transabdominal Preperitoneal Inguinal Hernia Repair Using Memory-Ring Mesh: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Matsutani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP inguinal hernia repair using a memory-ring patch (Polysoft™ mesh. Patients and Methods. Between April 2010 and March 2013, a total of 76 inguinal hernias underwent TAPP repair using Polysoft mesh in 67 adults under general anesthesia. Three different senior resident surgeons performed TAPP repair under the instruction of a specialist surgeon. Nine patients had bilateral hernias. The 76 hernias included 37 indirect inguinal hernias, 29 direct hernias, 1 femoral hernia, 1 pantaloon hernia (combined direct/indirect inguinal hernia, and 8 recurrent hernias after open anterior hernia repair. The immediate postoperative outcomes as well as the short-term outcomes (mainly recurrence and incidence of chronic pain were studied. Results. There was no conversion from TAPP repair to anterior open repair. The mean operation time was 109 minutes (range, 40–132 for unilateral hernia repair. Scrotal seroma was diagnosed at the operation site in 5 patients. No patient had operation-related orchitis, testicle edema, trocar site infection, or chronic pain during follow-up. Conclusions. The use of Polysoft mesh for TAPP inguinal hernia repair does not seem to adversely affect the quality of repair. The use of this mesh is therefore feasible and safe and may reduce postoperative pain.

  13. Laparoscopic Transabdominal Preperitoneal Inguinal Hernia Repair Using Memory-Ring Mesh: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tsutomu; Matsuda, Akihisa; Takao, Yoshimune

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair using a memory-ring patch (Polysoft™ mesh). Patients and Methods. Between April 2010 and March 2013, a total of 76 inguinal hernias underwent TAPP repair using Polysoft mesh in 67 adults under general anesthesia. Three different senior resident surgeons performed TAPP repair under the instruction of a specialist surgeon. Nine patients had bilateral hernias. The 76 hernias included 37 indirect inguinal hernias, 29 direct hernias, 1 femoral hernia, 1 pantaloon hernia (combined direct/indirect inguinal hernia), and 8 recurrent hernias after open anterior hernia repair. The immediate postoperative outcomes as well as the short-term outcomes (mainly recurrence and incidence of chronic pain) were studied. Results. There was no conversion from TAPP repair to anterior open repair. The mean operation time was 109 minutes (range, 40–132) for unilateral hernia repair. Scrotal seroma was diagnosed at the operation site in 5 patients. No patient had operation-related orchitis, testicle edema, trocar site infection, or chronic pain during follow-up. Conclusions. The use of Polysoft mesh for TAPP inguinal hernia repair does not seem to adversely affect the quality of repair. The use of this mesh is therefore feasible and safe and may reduce postoperative pain. PMID:27635414

  14. Nampt is involved in DNA double-strand break repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingtao Zhu; Xiaoli Deng; Yifan Sun; Lin Bai; Zhikai Xiahou; Yusheng Cong; Xingzhi Xu

    2012-01-01

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) is the most severe form of DNA damage,which is repaired mainly through high-fidelity homologous recombination (HR) or error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).Defects in the DNA damage response lead to genomic instability and ultimately predispose organs to cancer.Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt),which is involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism,is overexpressed in a variety of tumors.In this report,we found that Nampt physically associated with CtlP and DNA-PKcs/Ku80,which are key factors in HR and NHEJ,respectively.Depletion of Nampt by small interfering RNA (siRNA) led to defective NHEJ-mediated DSB repair and enhanced HR-mediated repair.Furthermore,the inhibition of Nampt expression promoted proliferation of cancer cells and normal human fibroblasts and decreased β-galactosidase staining,indicating a delay in the onset of cellular senescence in normal human fibroblasts.Taken together,our results suggest that Nampt is a suppressor of HR-mediated DSB repair and an enhancer of NHEJ-mediated DSB repair,contributing to the acceleration of cellular senescence.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA repair: a novel therapeutic target for heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-García, José

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria play a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes ranging from energy metabolism, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) handling to stress responses, cell survival and death. Malfunction of the organelle may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuromuscular, cancer, premature aging and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including myocardial ischemia, cardiomyopathy and heart failure (HF). Mitochondria contain their own genome organized into DNA-protein complexes, called "mitochondrial nucleoids," along with multiprotein machineries, which promote mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, transcription and repair. Although the mammalian organelle possesses almost all known nuclear DNA repair pathways, including base excision repair, mismatch repair and recombinational repair, the proximity of mtDNA to the main sites of ROS production and the lack of protective histones may result in increased susceptibility to various types of mtDNA damage. These include accumulation of mtDNA point mutations and/or deletions and decreased mtDNA copy number, which will impair mitochondrial function and finally, may lead to CVD including HF.

  16. Laparoscopic repair for perforated peptic ulcers with U-CLIP®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontana Diego

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature established that, in patients without Boey's risk factors, laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcers, compared to open repair, is associated to lower wound infection rate, less analgesic use, reduction in post operative pain, shorter hospital stay. Some of the main drawbacks are length of operative time and laparoscopic surgeon's experience in intracorporeal knotting. We, for first, report our preliminary experience of perforated peptic ulcers' laparoscopic repair using Medtronic U-Clip®. Methods From January 2008 to June 2008 we performed laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcers using Medtronic U-Clip® in 10 consecutive patients (6 men and 4 women, from 20 to 65 years-old of age. All the patients presented with iuxtapyloric perforated peptic ulcer, not greater than 10 mm, without signs of sepsis, free from major illnesses. The mini-invasive procedure was performed both by skilled and non-skilled laparoscopic surgeons under experts' surveillance. After it was recognized, perforation was sutured using U-Clip® in a full-thickness manner. Results and Discussion We reported no surgical complications in the peri-operative period. The clinical outcome and time needed to perform the intervention didn't change between skilled and non-skilled surgeons. The follow-up at 30 days was good. Conclusion In our experience, the anastomotic device U-Clip® simplifies laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer, avoiding the need to perform knots and making the procedure safe and easier.

  17. Dorsal variant blister aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldwell, William T; Chamoun, Roukoz

    2012-01-01

    Dorsal variant proximal carotid blister aneurysms are treacherous lesions to manage. It is important to recognize this variant on preoperative angiographic imaging, in anticipation of surgical strategies for their treatment. Strategies include trapping the involved segment and revascularization if necessary. Other options include repair of the aneurysm rupture site directly. Given that these are not true berry aneurysms, repair of the rupture site involves wrapping or clip-grafting techniques. The case presented here was a young woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dorsal variant blister aneurysm. The technique used is demonstrated in the video and is a modified clip-wrap technique using woven polyester graft material. The patient was given aspirin preoperatively as preparation for the clip-wrap technique. It is the authors' current protocol to attempt a direct repair with clip-wrapping and leaving artery sacrifice with or without bypass as a salvage therapy if direct repair is not possible. Assessment of vessel patency after repair is performed by intraoperative Doppler and indocyanine green angiography. Intraoperative somatosensory and motor evoked potential monitoring is performed in all cases. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/crUreWGQdGo.

  18. Production, Purification, and Characterization of 15N-Labeled DNA Repair Proteins as Internal Standards for Mass Spectrometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruga, Pawel; Nelson, Bryant C.; Lowenthal, Mark S.; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Loseva, Olga; Coskun, Erdem; Helleday, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Oxidatively induced DNA damage is caused in living organisms by a variety of damaging agents, resulting in the formation of a multiplicity of lesions, which are mutagenic and cytotoxic. Unless repaired by DNA repair mechanisms before DNA replication, DNA lesions can lead to genomic instability, which is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Oxidatively induced DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair pathway with the involvement of a plethora of proteins. Cancer tissues develop greater DNA repair capacity than normal tissues by overexpressing DNA repair proteins. Increased DNA repair in tumors that removes DNA lesions generated by therapeutic agents before they became toxic is a major mechanism in the development of therapy resistance. Evidence suggests that DNA repair capacity may be a predictive biomarker of patient response. Thus, knowledge of DNA–protein expressions in disease-free and cancerous tissues may help predict and guide development of treatments and yield the best therapeutic response. Our laboratory has developed methodologies that use mass spectrometry with isotope dilution for the measurement of expression of DNA repair proteins in human tissues and cultured cells. For this purpose, full-length 15N-labeled analogs of a number of human DNA repair proteins have been produced and purified to be used as internal standards for positive identification and accurate quantification. This chapter describes in detail the protocols of this work. The use of 15N-labeled proteins as internal standards for the measurement of several DNA repair proteins in vivo is also presented. PMID:26791985

  19. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  20. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  1. Repair Pathway Choices and Consequences at the Double-Strand Break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccaldi, Raphael; Rondinelli, Beatrice; D'Andrea, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are cytotoxic lesions that threaten genomic integrity. Failure to repair a DSB has deleterious consequences, including genomic instability and cell death. Indeed, misrepair of DSBs can lead to inappropriate end-joining events, which commonly underlie oncogenic transformation due to chromosomal translocations. Typically, cells employ two main mechanisms to repair DSBs: homologous recombination (HR) and classical nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ). In addition, alternative error-prone DSB repair pathways, namely alternative end joining (alt-EJ) and single-strand annealing (SSA), have been recently shown to operate in many different conditions and to contribute to genome rearrangements and oncogenic transformation. Here, we review the mechanisms regulating DSB repair pathway choice, together with the potential interconnections between HR and the annealing-dependent error-prone DSB repair pathways.

  2. Long-term Recurrence and Complications Associated With Elective Incisional Hernia Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Dunja; Bisgaard, Thue; Helgstrand, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Prosthetic mesh is frequently used to reinforce the repair of abdominal wall incisional hernias. The benefits of mesh for reducing the risk of hernia recurrence or the long-term risks of mesh-related complications are not known. Objective: To investigate the risks of long......-term recurrence and mesh-related complications following elective abdominal wall hernia repair in a population with complete follow-up. Design, Setting, and Participants: Registry-based nationwide cohort study including all elective incisional hernia repairs in Denmark from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010....... Exposures: Hernia repair using mesh performed by either open or laparoscopic techniques vs open repair without use of mesh. Main Outcomes and Measures: Five-year risk of reoperation for recurrence and 5-year risk of all mesh-related complications requiring subsequent surgery. Results: Among the 3242...

  3. Evidence-based outcomes following inferior alveolar and lingual nerve injury and repair: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnerev, E; Yates, J M

    2015-10-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and lingual (LN) are susceptible to iatrogenic surgical damage. Systematically review recent clinical evidence regarding IAN/LN repair methods and to develop updated guidelines for managing injury. Recent publications on IAN/LN microsurgical repair from Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were screened by title/abstract. Main texts were appraised for exclusion criteria: no treatment performed or results provided, poor/lacking procedural description, cohort deficit shows no improvement 90 days post-diagnosis. Nerve transection diagnosed intra-operatively should be repaired in situ; minor nerve injury repair can be delayed. No consensus exists regarding optimal methods and timing for IAN/LN repair. We suggest a schematic guideline for treating IAN/LN injury, based on the most current evidence. We acknowledge that additional RCTs are required to provide definitive confirmation of optimal treatment approaches.

  4. Main: FEA4 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available llin (GAs) regulate growth and influence various developmental processes - Three ...e various developmental processes. While DELLA proteins suppress plant growth, GA binding with its receptor ... Kurosawa, studying bakanae, the foolish seedling disease in rice. Gibberellins regulate growth and influenc

  5. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly en

  6. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly en

  7. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Research continued on the study of coal permeability and gas desorption. This quarter, most of the effort involved identifying problems with the microbalance and then getting it repaired. Measurement of the amount of gas adsorbed with the microbalance involved corrections for the buoyancy change with pressure and several experiments with helium were made to determine this correction.

  8. Local Circles in a Circular Economy – the Case of Smartphone Repair in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Riisgaard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Circular economy has gained increasing attention the last decade, and more often the main focus is on the large  global circles addressing recycling of materials rather than the “inner circles” that address maintenance/repair and reuse. In this article we investigate one such inner circle ofthe circular economy namely repair of smartphones which extends the lifetime of products and adds to a local economy. Local repair of smartphones has increased in the resent years in Denmark. These loop-closing businesses not only extend the useful lifetime of smartphones; they also entail both environmental benefits and economic value creation. We map the extent ofthe repair sector and investigate the drivers and barriers for its emergence. The study builds on desk studies for identification of repair companiesand telephone interviews with 33 out of 90 identified companies. The mapping of the businessesshows that the repair of smartphones constitute viable business opportunities, and that the main driversarerelated to the economic business potentials as well as motivated entrepreneurs who spot a market potential.The study concludes that the local circular economy within smartphone repair is due to large consumer willingness-to-pay for repair and maintenance services, and this can extend the lifetime of the smartphones. There are some special characteristics that limit the possibility to apply the results directly to other product groups, but further analysis of how to facilitate repair shops within other product groups are interesting in order to facilitate the development of local circles in a circular economy not only in Denmark but also in other countries.   Keywords: Circular economy; Smartphone;Repair; Remanufacturing. 

  9. Nucleotide excision repair in the test tube.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe eukaryotic nucleotide excision-repair pathway has been reconstituted in vitro, an achievement that should hasten the full enzymological characterization of this highly complex DNA-repair pathway.

  10. Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovacevic, David; Rodeo, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site...

  11. Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000004.htm Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge To use the sharing ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 8. Read More Cleft lip and palate Cleft lip and palate repair Review Date 5/9/ ...

  12. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000240.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge To use the sharing features ... References Orandi BJ, Black JH. Open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  13. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  14. The American Eider in Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The American eider, Maine's only breeding sea duck, is known to have nested on 215 coastal islands of the State in 1976. In Maine, eiders seem to prefer to nest on...

  15. Gas Dynamics Equations: Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Gui-Qiang G

    2012-01-01

    Shock waves, vorticity waves, and entropy waves are fundamental discontinuity waves in nature and arise in supersonic or transonic gas flow, or from a very sudden release (explosion) of chemical, nuclear, electrical, radiation, or mechanical energy in a limited space. Tracking these discontinuities and their interactions, especially when and where new waves arise and interact in the motion of gases, is one of the main motivations for numerical computation for the gas dynamics equations. In this paper, we discuss some historic and recent developments, as well as mathematical challenges, in designing and formulating efficient numerical methods and algorithms to compute weak entropy solutions for the Euler equations for gas dynamics.

  16. Complex DNA repair pathways as possible therapeutic targets to overcome temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji eYoshimoto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many conventional chemotherapeutic drugs exert their cytotoxic function by inducing DNA damage in the tumor cell. Therefore, a cell-inherent DNA repair pathway, which reverses the DNA-damaging effect of the cytotoxic drugs, can mediate therapeutic resistance to chemotherapy. The monofunctional DNA-alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug and the gold standard treatment for glioblastoma. Although the activity of DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT has been described as the main modulator to determine the sensitivity of glioblastoma to TMZ, a subset of glioblastoma does not respond despite MGMT inactivation, suggesting that another DNA repair mechanism may also modulate the tolerance to TMZ. Considerable interest has focused on MGMT, mismatch repair (MMR, and the base-excision repair (BER pathway in the mechanism of mediating TMZ resistance, but emerging roles for the DNA strand-break repair pathway have been demonstrated. In the first part of this review article, we briefly review the significant role of MGMT, MMR, and the BER pathway in the tolerance to TMZ; in the last part, we review the recent publications that demonstrate possible roles of DNA strand-break repair pathways, such as single-strand break (SSB repair and double-strand break (DSB repair, as well as the Fanconi anemia pathway in the repair process after alkylating agent-based therapy. It is possible that all of these repair pathways have a potential to modulate the sensitivity to TMZ and aid in overcoming the therapeutic resistance in the clinic.

  17. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  18. 溶剂萃取-中心切割多维色谱-质谱法测定烟草主要中性香味成分%Determination of Main Neutral Aroma Components in Tobacco by Solvent Extraction with Heart-cut Multidimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晔; 孙文梁; 苏庆德; 刘百战

    2013-01-01

    A method for determining the main neutral aroma components in tobacco was developed by combining solvent extraction with heart-cut multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS).Tobacco sample (0.5 g)was extracted by ethyl ether (5 mL),the extract was washed with 5% H2SO4 (2 mL)subsequently,then analyzed by MDGC-MS after standing overnight.The neutral aromatic components,including solanone,β-damascenone,geranylacetone,β-ionone,megastigmatrienone and dihydroactinidiolide were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by using methyl eugenol as the internal standard.Further,this method was compared with simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS).The results showed that:The detection limit of the analytes ranged from 0.02 to 0.18 μg/mL,the recoveries were between 80.0% to 123.4% with the intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD)≤7.5%.The developed method is simple,fast,accurate and suitable for the analysis of neutral aroma compounds in batches of tobacco samples.%采用溶剂萃取-中心切割多维气相色谱-质谱技术(MDGC/MS)建立了一种烟草主要中性香味成分的分析方法.0.5 g烟样经5 mL乙醚萃取和2 mL 5%H2SO4酸洗,静置过夜后萃取液用多维气相色谱-质谱分析;以甲基丁子香酚为内标,对茄酮、β-大马酮、香叶基丙酮、β-紫罗兰酮、巨豆三烯酮和二氢猕猴桃内酯等中性香味成分进行了定性定量测定,并与同时蒸馏萃取(SDE)-气质联用(GC/MS)法进行比较.结果表明:各待测组分检出限在0.02~0.18μg/mL之间,回收率为80.0%~ 123.4%,日内相对标准偏差≤7.5%.该方法快速、简便、准确,适用于烟草中性香味成分的批量测试.

  19. Should we think about wrist extensor after flexor tendon repair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline M Ferreira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the activity of wrist extensor muscle, correlating with wrist motion during gripping after flexor tendon repair. Design: Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Setting: Laboratory for biomechanics and rehabilitation. Subjects: A total of 11 patients submitted to rehabilitation by early passive motion of the fingers with wrist flexion position were evaluated after 8 weeks of fingers flexor tendon repair and 11 healthy volunteers, all ranging from 20 to 37 years of age. Intervention: Volunteers performed an isometric standardized gripping task. Main measures: We used electrogoniometry to analyze wrist range of motion and surface electromyography, considering 100% maximum voluntary contraction to represent the amplitude of electromyographic activity of the extensor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis. Results: Patients with flexor tendon repair showed co-activation deficit between wrist extensor (extensor carpi radialis and flexor finger muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis during gripping in the intermediate phase of rehabilitation, despite some recovering mobility for wrist extension (p ≤ 0.05. A moderate correlation between range of motion and extensor carpi radialis was present only for injured group (r = 0.32. Total active motion score, which represents finger active excursion, was regular or poor in 65% of cases, all with nerve repair associated. Conclusion: Wrist extensors have an important synergist role at handgrip, although some imbalance can be present after flexor tendon repair. These preliminary findings suggest that emphasis could be directed to add synergistic wrist motion in rehabilitation protocols after flexor tendon repair. Future studies with early active rehabilitation are necessary.

  20. Small Crater Expedient Repair Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Force Base, New Mexico , October 1975. 3. Rollings, Raymond S., Laboratory Evaluation of Expedient Pavement Repair Materials, CEEDO-TR-7-44, Civil and...blank) APPENDIX A EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE SP6WCIFICATIONS Performance specit’ications are included i.n tl is appe udi \\ tor the following equipment: 1

  1. Outcome of quadriceps tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Gururaj S; Faraj, Adnan

    2006-04-01

    Complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a well-described injury. There is a scarcity of literature relating to the outcome of patients with this injury after surgery. We undertook a retrospective analysis of patients who had surgical repair of their quadriceps tendon at our institution over a 13-year period, totalling 21 patients. Males were more commonly affected, with a male/female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was in the sixth decade of life. Assessment consisted of the completion of a functional knee questionnaire and a clinical examination. Symptomatic outcome following surgical repair was good with a mean symptom score generated of 19.16 out of a maximum of 25 using the Rougraff et al scoring system. Most of the patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity. Five degrees deficit and extension lag was present in three patients; these patients had the quadriceps repaired using transosseous sutures. Patients who had direct repair of the tendon using the Bunnell technique had lower Rougraff scores than the rest.

  2. How the Brain Repairs Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Christian A.; Neumann, Katrin; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Posenenske, Claudia; von Gudenberg, Alexander W.; Euler, Harald; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with left inferior frontal structural anomalies. While children often recover, stuttering may also spontaneously disappear much later after years of dysfluency. These rare cases of unassisted recovery in adulthood provide a model of optimal brain repair outside the classical windows of…

  3. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  4. Pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok k. Hemal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33 year old female presented with right loin pain and obstruction on intravenous urography with the classical "fish-hook" appearance. She was counseled on the various methods of repair and elected to have a robot assisted repair. The following steps are performed during a pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. The patient is placed in a modified flank position, pneumoperitoneum created and ports inserted. The colon is mobilized to expose the retroperitoneal structures: inferior vena cava, right gonadal vein, right ureter, and duodenum. The renal pelvis and ureter are mobilized and the renal pelvis transected. The ureter is transposed anterior to the inferior vena cava and a pyelopyelostomy is performed over a JJ stent. RESULTS: This patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. The catheter and drain tube were removed on day 1. Her JJ stent was removed at 6 weeks postoperatively. The postoperative intravenous urography at 3 months confirmed normal drainage of contrast medium. CONCLUSION: Pure robotic retrocaval ureter is a feasible procedure; however, there does not appear to be any great advantage over pure laparoscopy, apart from the ergonomic ease for the surgeon as well the simpler intracorporeal suturing.

  5. [Complications of inguinal hernia repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, A; D'Urso, A; Gallinaro, L S; Lo Storto, G; Bosco, M R; Vietri, F; Beltrami, V

    2002-03-01

    It's shown by literature and confirmed by Author's experience that, on account of the excellent results, prosthetic repair of inguinal hernia is more effective than "conventional" (Bassini, Mc Vay, Shouldice). Between January 1993 and December 2000 were observed 875 patients with inguinal hernia (814 monolateral, 61 bilateral); all patients underwent a Lichtenstein repair both in the primary version and in its variations (internal ring plastic, trasversalis plicate, plug repair). The patients were discharged from hospital within 24 hours after surgery in 90% of cases. No important intraoperative complications were observed; the patients restarting work varied from 3 to 15 days after the discharging in relation to patient anxiety, onset of complications and to the type of work. The complications observed were: urine retention (1.6%), superficial haematoma (1.3%), superficial infection (1%), wound suppuration (0.5%), serous effusion (0.7%), postsurgery pain (2.1%), scrotal edema (1.7%), persistent inguinal neuralgia (0.6), local hypoesthesia (4.3%), ischemical orchitis (0.1%), recurrence (0.2%). In conclusion Authors assert that "tension free" repair allows optimal results both for the surgery point (easiness of the technique, repeatability, less invasivity, scanty incident of recurrences, low frequency of postoperative complications) and in economic terms, allowing an early mobilization of the patients. A further improvement would be obtained with more care in surgical and patient management, with more excellent results.

  6. Deletion-bias in DNA double-strand break repair differentially contributes to plant genome shrinkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Giang T H; Cao, Hieu X; Reiss, Bernd; Schubert, Ingo

    2017-02-28

    In order to prevent genome instability, cells need to be protected by a number of repair mechanisms, including DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. The extent to which DSB repair, biased towards deletions or insertions, contributes to evolutionary diversification of genome size is still under debate. We analyzed mutation spectra in Arabidopsis thaliana and in barley (Hordeum vulgare) by PacBio sequencing of three DSB-targeted loci each, uncovering repair via gene conversion, single strand annealing (SSA) or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). Furthermore, phylogenomic comparisons between A. thaliana and two related species were used to detect naturally occurring deletions during Arabidopsis evolution. Arabidopsis thaliana revealed significantly more and larger deletions after DSB repair than barley, and barley displayed more and larger insertions. Arabidopsis displayed a clear net loss of DNA after DSB repair, mainly via SSA and NHEJ. Barley revealed a very weak net loss of DNA, apparently due to less active break-end resection and easier copying of template sequences into breaks. Comparative phylogenomics revealed several footprints of SSA in the A. thaliana genome. Quantitative assessment of DNA gain and loss through DSB repair processes suggests deletion-biased DSB repair causing ongoing genome shrinking in A. thaliana, whereas genome size in barley remains nearly constant.

  7. Cell resistance to the Cytolethal Distending Toxin involves an association of DNA repair mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezine, Elisabeth; Malaisé, Yann; Loeuillet, Aurore; Chevalier, Marianne; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Salles, Bernard; Mirey, Gladys; Vignard, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Cytolethal Distending Toxin (CDT), produced by many bacteria, has been associated with various diseases including cancer. CDT induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), leading to cell death or mutagenesis if misrepaired. At low doses of CDT, other DNA lesions precede replication-dependent DSB formation, implying that non-DSB repair mechanisms may contribute to CDT cell resistance. To address this question, we developed a proliferation assay using human cell lines specifically depleted in each of the main DNA repair pathways. Here, we validate the involvement of the two major DSB repair mechanisms, Homologous Recombination and Non Homologous End Joining, in the management of CDT-induced lesions. We show that impairment of single-strand break repair (SSBR), but not nucleotide excision repair, sensitizes cells to CDT, and we explore the interplay of SSBR with the DSB repair mechanisms. Finally, we document the role of the replicative stress response and demonstrate the involvement of the Fanconi Anemia repair pathway in response to CDT. In conclusion, our work indicates that cellular survival to CDT-induced DNA damage involves different repair pathways, in particular SSBR. This reinforces a model where CDT-related genotoxicity primarily involves SSBs rather than DSBs, underlining the importance of cell proliferation during CDT intoxication and pathogenicity. PMID:27775089

  8. Performance of Styrene Butadiene Rubber as a Concrete Repair Material in tropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Prakash, V. Syam; Thampan, C. K.; Varma, Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Deterioration of Concrete due to variety of reasons like corrosion of steel, inferior quality of materials as well as workmanship and exposure to aggressive environment like thermal cycling affect the performance or damage a number of Reinforced cement concrete structures. In order to repair these structures for enhancing the service life, number of methods and materials are available. But the degree of success of any repair in concrete depends mainly on the correct choice and the method of application of repair materials. This paper discusses the details of an experimental investigation on the performance of Styrene ñ Butadiene Rubber (SBR) as a concrete repair material in tropical climatic conditions. Resistance to water penetration and tensile cracking are two important performance criteria for any repair material. Cement mortar cubes of mix proportion 1:3 with SBR added at the rate of 20% of the weight of cement, and control specimens without SBR were made. Compressive strength and sorptivity values of the cubes were determined. Shear Bond strength (by slant shear test) and splitting tensile strength of the repaired cylinder specimens of standard dimensions, in which SBR used as a bonding agent were determined. These values were compared with the values obtained for the similar specimens, in which the bonding agent applied was conventional cement slurry. The influence of thermal cycling on the properties of repaired concrete specimens were also studied. A comparison has also been made with the values required to meet the standard specifications of a repair material.

  9. The Gas Flow from the Gas Attenuator to the Beam Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D.D.

    2010-12-03

    The gas leak from the gas attenuator to the main beam line of the Linac Coherent Light Source has been evaluated, with the effect of the Knudsen molecular beam included. It has been found that the gas leak from the gas attenuator of the present design, with nitrogen as a working gas, does not exceed 10{sup -5} torr x l/s even at the highest pressure in the main attenuation cell (20 torr).

  10. Fix-It Careers: Jobs in Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2010-01-01

    From auto mechanic to HVAC technicians, many occupations require repair skills. For jobseekers with the right skills, there are many advantages to a repair career. Repair work provides millions of jobs throughout the United States. Wages are often higher than average. And in many occupations, the employment outlook is bright. Plus, most repair…

  11. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a repair garage or shop....

  12. Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Bisgaard, Thue;

    2013-01-01

    Groin hernia repair is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the western world but large-scaled epidemiologic data are sparse. Large-scale data on the occurrence of groin hernia repair may provide further understanding to the pathophysiology of groin hernia development. This study was undert...... was undertaken to investigate the age and gender dependent prevalence of groin hernia repair....

  13. REPAIR MECHANISM IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents practical research on repair mechanismand its four repair trajectories in FL classroom interaction. Thisshows that it is effective and efficient in assisting FL learners todevelop their communicative competence and understand theprocess of language acquisition. Repair strategies that are ofgreat value to FL teachers in FL classroom teaching are also ex-pounded.

  14. Hand function after nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundborg, G; Rosén, B

    2007-02-01

    Treatment of injuries to major nerve trunks in the hand and upper extremity remains a major and challenging reconstructive problem. Such injuries may cause long-lasting disabilities in terms of lost fine sensory and motor functions. Nowadays there is no surgical repair technique that can ensure recovery of tactile discrimination in the hand of an adult patient following nerve repair while very young individuals usually regain a complete recovery of functional sensibility. Post-traumatic nerve regeneration is a complex biological process where the outcome depends on multiple biological and environmental factors such as survival of nerve cells, axonal regeneration rate, extent of axonal misdirection, type of injury, type of nerve, level of the lesion, age of the patient and compliance to training. A major problem is the cortical functional reorganization of hand representation which occurs as a result of axonal misdirection. Although protective sensibility usually occurs following nerve repair, tactile discriminative functions seldom recover--a direct result of cortical remapping. Sensory re-education programmes are routinely applied to facilitate understanding of the new sensory patterns provided by the hand. New trends in hand rehabilitation focus on modulation of central nervous processes rather than peripheral factors. Principles are being evolved to maintain the cortical hand representation by using the brain capacity for visuo-tactile and audio-tactile interaction for the initial phase following nerve injury and repair (phase 1). After the start of the re-innervation of the hand (phase 2), selective de-afferentation, such as cutaneous anaesthesia of the forearm of the injured hand, allows expansion of the nerve-injured cortical hand representation, thereby enhancing the effects of sensory relearning. Recent data support the view that training protocols specifically addressing the relearning process substantially increase the possibilities for improved

  15. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  16. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stoyanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of customer service, choice of forms for maintenance of agricultural machinery. Opportunities are proposed for the optimization of repair activities in the centers for repair of agricultural machinery.

  17. Small Engine Repair Modules (Workbook) = Reparacion de Motores Pequenos (Guia de Trabajo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Dept. of Correctional Services, Albany.

    This package contains an English-Language set of task procedure sheets dealing with small-engine repair and a Spanish translation of the same material. Addressed in the individual sections of the manual are the following aspects of engine tune-up, reconditioning, and troubleshooting: servicing air cleaners; cleaning gas tanks, fuel lines, and fuel…

  18. Small Engine Repair Modules (Workbook) = Reparacion de Motores Pequenos (Guia de Trabajo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Dept. of Correctional Services, Albany.

    This package contains an English-Language set of task procedure sheets dealing with small-engine repair and a Spanish translation of the same material. Addressed in the individual sections of the manual are the following aspects of engine tune-up, reconditioning, and troubleshooting: servicing air cleaners; cleaning gas tanks, fuel lines, and fuel…

  19. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Heater-Type Appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziller, T.

    One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum (see CE 027 767), this course covers minor and major heater-type appliances. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Irons, (2) Roasters, (3) Space Heaters, (4) Water Heaters, (5) Electric Ranges, and (6) Gas Ranges. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience…

  20. Conceptual Design and Access Assessment for In-Service Inspection and Repair of KALIMER-600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young-Sang; Park, Chang-Gyu; Kim, Seok-Hun; Lee, Jae-Han

    2007-02-15

    The conceptual design of in-service inspection (ISI) and repair for KALIMER-600 reactor system and components has been performed. The basic concept and strategy of ISI and repair has been described for considering the design characteristics of KALIMER-600 and the intents of the ASME XI Division 3. The postulated failure defects for main components and structures are estimated and evaluated for KALIMER-600 safety and reliability. The assessment of the ISI performance, accessibility and maintainability has been analyzed and reviewed.

  1. Formaldehyde catabolism is essential in cells deficient for the Fanconi anemia DNA-repair pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Ivan V; Langevin, Frédéric; Crossan, Gerry P; Takata, Minoru; Patel, Ketan J

    2011-11-13

    Metabolism is predicted to generate formaldehyde, a toxic, simple, reactive aldehyde that can damage DNA. Here we report a synthetic lethal interaction in avian cells between ADH5, encoding the main formaldehyde-detoxifying enzyme, and the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA-repair pathway. These results define a fundamental role for the combined action of formaldehyde catabolism and DNA cross-link repair in vertebrate cell survival.

  2. The Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in the Surgical Repair of Bronchial Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used successfully in critically ill patients with traumatic lung injury and offers an additional treatment modality. ECMO is mainly used as a bridge treatment to delayed surgical management; however, only a few case reports have presented the successful application of ECMO as intraoperative support during the surgical repair of traumatic bronchial injury. A 38-year-old man visited our hospital after a blunt chest trauma. His chest imaging showed hemopneumothorax in the left hemithorax and a finding suspicious for left main bronchus rupture. Bronchoscopy was performed and confirmed a tear in the left main bronchus and a congenital tracheal bronchus. We decided to provide venovenous ECMO support during surgery for bronchial repair. We successfully performed main bronchial repair in this traumatic patient with a congenital tracheal bronchus. We suggest that venovenous ECMO offers a good option for the treatment of bronchial rupture when adequate ventilation is not possible.

  3. Dynamics and mechanism of UV-damaged DNA repair in indole-thymine dimer adduct: molecular origin of low repair quantum efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xunmin; Liu, Zheyun; Song, Qinhua; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping

    2015-02-26

    Many biomimetic chemical systems for repair of UV-damaged DNA showed very low repair efficiency, and the molecular origin is still unknown. Here, we report our systematic characterization of the repair dynamics of a model compound of indole-thymine dimer adduct in three solvents with different polarity. By resolving all elementary steps including three electron-transfer processes and two bond-breaking and bond-formation dynamics with femtosecond resolution, we observed the slow electron injection in 580 ps in water, 4 ns in acetonitrile, and 1.38 ns in dioxane, the fast back electron transfer without repair in 120, 150, and 180 ps, and the slow bond splitting in 550 ps, 1.9 ns, and 4.5 ns, respectively. The dimer bond cleavage is clearly accelerated by the solvent polarity. By comparing with the biological repair machine photolyase with a slow back electron transfer (2.4 ns) and a fast bond cleavage (90 ps), the low repair efficiency in the biomimetic system is mainly determined by the fast back electron transfer and slow bond breakage. We also found that the model system exists in a dynamic heterogeneous C-clamped conformation, leading to a stretched dynamic behavior. In water, we even identified another stacked form with ultrafast cyclic electron transfer, significantly reducing the repair efficiency. Thus, the comparison of the repair efficiency in different solvents is complicated and should be cautious, and only the dynamics by resolving all elementary steps can finally determine the total repair efficiency. Finally, we use the Marcus electron-transfer theory to analyze all electron-transfer reactions and rationalize all observed electron-transfer dynamics.

  4. Repairing the breech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry C. Boyte

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main obstacle to genuine and productive partnerships between institutions of higher education and the professionals they prepare, on the one side, and communities, on the other, is a “knowledge war,” full of invisible hierarchies and exclusions, producing a hypercompetitive achievement culture. This knowledge war dramatically limits communities’ and citizens’ ability to act on the problems they face today. It also sharply erodes the power of higher education, professionals, and civic leaders to help shape the culture in democratic ways.We have to get beyond arrogant experts and aggrieved communities if we want to develop communities’ capacities to solve problems and also to generate a larger vision of a good society. Community is the living context for evaluating expert knowledge. But without engagement with other ways of knowing appeal to community knowledge can easily produce a Know-Nothing reaction to the larger world.If we are to build communities’ civic agency – capacities to work across differences to meet our common challenges – we need to democratize the politics of knowledge and end the knowledge war. This requires learning from effective community organizing the idea of “schools for public life,” where ordinary people develop skills, habits, and confidence of citizenship. It also means creating what might be called middle spaces, not owned by academics or professionals, but open to academic and scientific knowledge, where different ways of knowing and acting intermingle in creative ways. Middle spaces put science and academic knowledge in the mix, “on tap, not on top.” They also recognize the power and the limits of communal knowledge.Keywordscivic agency, cultural organizing, knowledge war

  5. Gulf of Maine intermediate water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, T.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Garfield, N. III

    1979-01-01

    The thermohaline dynamics of the Gulf of Maine are analyzed from the two year, eight cruise, data set of Colton, Marak, Nickerson, and Stoddard (1968). Six water masses are described: the Maine Surface Water, Maine Intermediate Water, and the Maine Bottom Water as interior water masses; and the Scotian Shelf Water, the Slope Water, and the Georges Bank Water as exterior water masses. Particular attention is given to the formation and disposition of the Maine Intermediate Water. Salt balance, T-S volume, and T-S drift analyses are used to provide transport and mixing estimates for the year 1966. The Slope Water entered at depth through the Northeast Channel at a rate of 2600 km/sup 3//yr; while the Scotian Shelf Water entered the surface and intermediate layers, mostly during winter intrusions, at a rate of 5200 km/sup 3//yr. The surface and intermediate layers exported a total of 7900 km/sup 3//yr in a 3:5 ratio, respectively. The Maine Intermediate Water tends to collect over the Wilkinson Basin during the stratified season, to exit via the Great South Channel during early spring, and to exit via the Northeast Channel during spring and summer. Comparisons are made between the estimated winter heat loss of 280 Ly/d and the observed heat losses of 230 Ly/d (surface layers) and 360 Ly/d (surface and intermediate layers). A limit for the Scotian Shelf Water contribution is about -70 Ly/d. It is concluded that the Maine Intermediate Water is produced locally and that it is exported in significant quantities.

  6. Current Biomechanical Concepts for Rotator Cuff Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For the past few decades, the repair of rotator cuff tears has evolved significantly with advances in arthroscopy techniques, suture anchors and instrumentation. From the biomechanical perspective, the focus in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. To accomplish these objectives, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. In addition, the healing response may be compromised by intrinsic factors such as decreased vascularity, hypoxia, and fibrocartilaginous changes or aforementioned extrinsic compression factors. Furthermore, it is well documented that torn rotator cuff muscles have a tendency to atrophy and become subject to fatty infiltration which may affect the longevity of the repair. Despite all the aforementioned factors, initial fixation strength is an essential consideration in optimizing rotator cuff repair. Therefore, numerous biomechanical studies have focused on elucidating the strongest devices, knots, and repair configurations to improve contact characteristics for rotator cuff repair. In this review, the biomechanical concepts behind current rotator cuff repair techniques will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:23730471

  7. Ultrasound determination of rotator cuff tear repairability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Andrew K; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Hackett, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff repair aims to reattach the torn tendon to the greater tuberosity footprint with suture anchors. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability and to assess which sonographic and pre-operative features are strongest in predicting repairability. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of measurements made prospectively in a cohort of 373 patients who had ultrasounds of their shoulder and underwent rotator cuff repair. Measurements of rotator cuff tear size and muscle atrophy were made pre-operatively by ultrasound to enable prediction of rotator cuff repairability. Tears were classified following ultrasound as repairable or irreparable, and were correlated with intra-operative repairability. Results Ultrasound assessment of rotator cuff tear repairability has a sensitivity of 86% (p rotator cuff repairability were tear size (p rotator cuff tear. Conclusions Ultrasound assessment is accurate in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability. Tear size or anteroposterior tear length and age were the best predictors of repairability. PMID:27582996

  8. Non-main Stream Plays Main Role in Shipbuilding Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Ping

    2009-01-01

    @@ Comparing with both the major shipyards and shipping companies that were facing an market decline and hard time,the non-mainstream ship types,non-mainstream ship manufacturers and non-mainstream ship owners,as main roles,made a wonderful show of living and developing in 2009.

  9. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  10. VARIANT FOR CONSTRUCTION, REPAIR OR RECONSTRUCTION OF BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the XXI century moral depreciation concept comprises not only deterioration of outside appearance of construction elements in the course of time but accelerated fashion changes in respect of interior design and rapid increase in technical level for residence buildings. For this reason if average rate of building dilapidation in the buildings of series 1–335, 1–335А and 1–464А constructed in Minsk within the period of 1957–1975 and being operated till 2005–2006 has constituted 25–29 % and their moral depreciation has been equal to more than 40 % then rate of the moral depreciation has significantly increased in the XXI century. Such situation requires execution of special investigations. High operating rates of refinancing have led to the necessity for record keeping of initial expenses and repairability levels because selection of building construction, repair or reconstruction variant depends on these parameters. Repairability classification of main elements of residence buildings and premises has been proposed for regulation of such selection procedure. In this case it is recommended to take into account technological effectiveness of repair and technical service, verifiability, accessibility, easy dismountability, substitutability and interchangeability of construction elements and technical devices. The paper presents nomograms that permit to make easier practical calculations on determination of cost-efficient time period for operation of the element prior to its substitution at various refinancing rates and also for comparison of relative initial expenses according to time service. 

  11. INFLUENCE OF THE GAS-DENSITY ON THE GAS ENTRAINMENT RATE AND GAS HOLD-UP IN LOOP-VENTURI REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CRAMERS, PHMR; VANDIERENDONCK, LL; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1992-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of a loop-venturi reactor were investigated using a downflow liquid jet ejector. Both the gas entrainment rate of the ejector and the gas hold-up in the main holding vessel were shown to be influenced by the gas density. The amount of volumetrically entrained gas as well as the gas

  12. INFLUENCE OF THE GAS-DENSITY ON THE GAS ENTRAINMENT RATE AND GAS HOLD-UP IN LOOP-VENTURI REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CRAMERS, PHMR; VANDIERENDONCK, LL; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1992-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of a loop-venturi reactor were investigated using a downflow liquid jet ejector. Both the gas entrainment rate of the ejector and the gas hold-up in the main holding vessel were shown to be influenced by the gas density. The amount of volumetrically entrained gas as well as the gas

  13. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  14. Availability analysis of the main conveyor in the Svea Coal Mine in Norway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon Furuly; Javad Barabady; Abbas Barabadi⇑

    2014-01-01

    Reliability and maintainability of mining industry is more in focus than ever, and the mining systems are becoming more complex and the equipment more expensive to repair or modify. Unplanned failures can result in significant costs, especially when the machinery is hard to repair or spare parts are far away. This paper presents a case study describing a reliability and maintainability analysis of the main conveyor system of the Svea Coal Mine located in Svalbard, Norway. The conveyor system includes several separate conveyors. In this study, the main six conveyors of the whole system were selected for the analysis. The failure and repair data of the conveyors were collected for the whole year of 2010 using maintenance and daily reports. The date was analyzed and the result shows that the availability of six conveyers is 96.44%for one year of operation. However, reliability of these conveyers needs to be improved in order to reduce the number of failures.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF THE GAS SYSTEM OF KALININGRAD REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor NORDIN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged and intensive use of the gas transportation system of the Kaliningrad region, led to the deterioration of a number of areas. This article discusses the current state of the gas transmission system and possible options for its repair without interrupting the gas supply to the Kaliningrad region.

  16. Natural Gas Compression Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5311.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Natural Gas Compression Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to install, commission, maintain and repair equipment used to gather store and transmit natural gas. Advanced Education and Technology has prepared this course outline in partnership with the Natural Gas Compression…

  17. DNA double strand breaks repair pathways in mouse male germ cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are induced by ionizing radiation, and during meiotic recombination. DSBs are repaired via two main pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and non homologous end-joining (NHEJ). There are three main types of male germ cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatid

  18. Methods of repairing a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedell, James A. (Inventor); Easler, Timothy E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A precursor of a ceramic adhesive suitable for use in a vacuum, thermal, and microgravity environment. The precursor of the ceramic adhesive includes a silicon-based, preceramic polymer and at least one ceramic powder selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron carbide, boron oxide, boron nitride, hafnium boride, hafnium carbide, hafnium oxide, lithium aluminate, molybdenum silicide, niobium carbide, niobium nitride, silicon boride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, tin oxide, tantalum boride, tantalum carbide, tantalum oxide, tantalum nitride, titanium boride, titanium carbide, titanium oxide, titanium nitride, yttrium oxide, zirconium boride, zirconium carbide, zirconium oxide, and zirconium silicate. Methods of forming the ceramic adhesive and of repairing a substrate in a vacuum and microgravity environment are also disclosed, as is a substrate repaired with the ceramic adhesive.

  19. Potential recoverable natural gas resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chenglin; Zhu Jie; Che Changbo; Liu Guangdi

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas resources in China are abundant. The undiscovered recoverable natural gas resources in China are estimated to be 19.27×1012 m3. Natural gas is mainly distributed in the middle and west China and offshore areas of China. The Tarim Basin, Sichuan Basin, Ordos Basin, East China Sea Basin, Tsaidam Basin, Yinggehai Basin, and Qiongdongnan Basin are the main gas-beating basins. The natural gas resources are not distributed evenly and are under-explored in China. The deeper horizons in east China, foreland basins and craton paleo-uplifts in the middle and west China, and the offshore basins are the main exploration areas in the future.

  20. Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M.; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using retrograde labeling. Nerve tissue was also collected from the proximal and distal stumps and from the nerve graft, together with the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. A dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump was observed in the 3- and 6-months delayed groups. After 3 months delay, the axonal number in the proximal stump increased 2–3 folds, accompanied by a smaller axonal area. RT-PCR of distal nerve segments revealed a decline in Schwann cells (SC) markers, most notably in the 3 and 6 month delayed repair samples. There was also a progressive increase in fibrosis and proteoglycan scar markers in the distal nerve with increased delayed repair time. The yield of SC isolated from the distal nerve segments progressively fell with increased delay in repair time but cultured SC from all groups proliferated at similar rates. MG muscle at 3- and 6-months delay repair showed a significant decline in weight (61% and 27% compared with contra-lateral side). Muscle fiber atrophy and changes to neuromuscular junctions were observed with increased delayed repair time suggestive of progressively impaired reinnervation. This study demonstrates that one of the main limiting factors for nerve regeneration after delayed repair is the distal stump. The critical time point after which the outcome of regeneration becomes too poor appears to be 3-months. PMID:23409189

  1. Technologies for repairing peripheral nerve injury Progress in domestic and foreign investigations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies on the repair of peripheral nerve injury have achieved great progresses in recent years.Clinical nerve repair prefers microsurgery, while fundamental researches focus on tissue engineering and gene therapy. Recently, microencapsulation technique rises up as a new treatment therapy. This article mainly summarized the repairing techniques referred above, in order to make the basis for further research.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of Pubmed database was undertaken to identify articles about injury and repair of peripheral nerve published in English between January 1997 and May 2007 using the key words of "peripheral nerve, injury, repair". At the same time, Chinese relative articles were searched in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) using the same key words in Chinese.STUDY SELECTION: The data were primarily checked, and the references after each literature were looked up, and the articles focused on the injury and repair of peripheral nerve were selected. Those published in kola-magazine in recent 5 years were in priority for the articles with similar contents. Repetitive studies or Meta analysis were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 144 articles were collected, and 30 literatures were selected as most relative reference literatures, and the other 114 articles were excluded due to old or repeated researches. Among the 30 selected articles, 6 focused on the surgical treatment for peripheral nerve injury, 10 on tissue engineering and Schwann cell, 3 on microencapsulation technology, 5 on gene therapy, 2 on immunosuppresant and 4 on neurotrophic factors.DATA SYNTHESIS: The technologies for repairing peripheral nerve injury are developing with time, also have been successfully combined with tissue engineering and gene therapy techniques which are advanced nowadays. As the researches go further, immunodepression factors have attracted more and more attentions,microencapsulation technology and gene therapy repair also go

  2. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    IL, Kochevar IE, Redmond RW. Large extremity peripheral nerve repair. Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS) Fort Lauderdale, FL. August...some notable discoveries that may impact military health care in the near future. There is a clear need in military medicine to improve outcomes in...membranes or “caul” intact was considered extremely lucky. Children were gifted with life-long happiness , the ability to see spirits, and protection

  3. Shelf Stable Epoxy Repair Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    manufacturing operations are more efficient , discarding less expired film. Commercial and military aircraft repair operations at Boeing experience very similar...successfully encapsulated at concentrations greater than 50 wt% within four N N = CC Infoscitex Corporation Shelf Stable Epoxy Resin Adhesive WP-1763 8...affects the composition of the encapsulant , which in turn affects the ability of the encapsulant to wet the core phase, the barrier properties of the

  4. Repair and regeneration in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L M; Rosenberg, P A

    2011-10-01

    The ideal objective of treatment of established diseases, including irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis, is to achieve wound healing. Wound healing can result in repair or regeneration. The ultimate goal of wound healing is to restore the original architecture and biological function of the injured tissue or organ. Although humans are equipped with powerful innate and adaptive immune defence mechanisms, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect wound healing. Complete regeneration following injury in humans can occur only in the pre-natal foetus within 24 weeks of gestation. Post-natal wounds including irreversible pulpitis or apical periodontitis always heal by repair or by a combination of repair and regeneration. Somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, macrophages, cementoblasts and osteoblasts, in the pulp and periapical tissues have limited potential for regeneration following injury and lack of telomerase. Wound healing of irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis requires recruitment and differentiation of progenitor/stem cells into tissue-committed somatic cells. Stem cell differentiation is regulated by intrinsic factors and extrinsic micro-environmental cues. Functionality of stem cells appears to show an age-related decline because of the change in intrinsic properties and diminished signals within the extrinsic local and systemic environment that modulate the function of stem cells or their progeny. Infection induces an immuno-inflammatory response and tissue destruction, which hinders the potential of tissue regeneration. Therefore, prevention, early detection and treatment of inflammation/infection of pulpal and periapical disease can enhance regeneration and minimize the repair of pulpal and periapical tissues after endodontic therapy. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  5. Pain after groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, T; Bech, K; Nielsen, R

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to provide a detailed description of postoperative pain after elective day-case open inguinal hernia repair under local anaesthesia. METHODS: This was a prospective consecutive case series study. After 500 hernia operations in 466 unselected patients aged 18...... between types of surgery or hernia. CONCLUSION: Pain remained a problem despite the pre-emptive use of opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and local anaesthesia, irrespective of surgical technique....

  6. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    71. Burman S, Tejwani S, Vemuganti GK. Ophthalmic applications of preserved human amniotic membrane: a review of current indications. Cell Tissue Bank...segmental nerve deficit repair using isograft show the best performing wrap/ fixation method to be sutureless photochemical tissue bonding with the...crosslinked amnion wrap. Autograft is often unavailable in wounded warriors, due to extensive tissue damage and amputation and, importantly, we also

  7. The controlling factors of oil and gas charging and accumulation of Puguang gas field in the Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Combined with oil and gas transport and accumulation, structure-Iithology evolution history, and with geochemistry and synthesizing geology methods, this paper studies the oil and gas discharge history of Puguang large scale gas field and the main controlling factors of oil accumulation. The natural gas in Puguang gas field is mainly coal-derived gas and oil-racked gas. The main hydrocarbon is Upper Permian coal mudstone and Lower Silurian mud shale with organic material. Puguang gas field has gone through discharge and adjustment 3 times, and it has favorable palaeostructure location, high quality dredge and effectively conserving conditions.

  8. Revisional laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharakis, Emmanouil; Shalhoub, Joseph; Selvapatt, Nowlan; Darzi, Ara; Ziprin, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We herein report a laparoscopically performed re-do operation on a patient who had previously undergone a laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair. We describe the case of a 71-year-old patient who presented within 3 months of her primary laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair with recurrence. On relaparoscopy, dense adhesions to the mesh were found, and the mesh had migrated into the hernia sac. This had allowed loops of small bowel to herniate into the sac. The initial part of the procedure involved the lysis of adhesions. A piece of Gore-Tex DualMesh with a central keyhole and a radial slit was cut so that it could provide at least 3 cm to 5 cm of overlap of the fascial defect. The tails of the mesh were wrapped around the bowel, and the mesh was secured to the margins of the hernia with circumferential metal tacking and 4 transfascial sutures. The patient remains in satisfactory condition and no recurrence or any surgery-related problem has been observed during 8 months of follow-up. Revisional laparoscopic repair of parastomal hernias seems feasible and has been shown to be safe and effective in this case. The success of this approach depends on longer follow-up reports and standardization of the technical elements.

  9. Augmented Reality Repair Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Bhatia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The daily life of a common man revolves around various forms of appliances/gadgets he uses throughout the day such as a mobile phone, laptop, printer, microwave oven, washing machine, etc. Although these appliances/gadgets are taken by most of the people for granted, the problem occurs when any of these things do not work as they are expected to. Getting them to the repair shops for every small glitch is expensive as well as time consuming. Although most of the companies which produce these appliances/gadgets do supply them with basic manuals, which deal with how to solve these minor issues, but reading them and at the same time repairing the corresponding appliance/gadget can be a frustrating task at times. These problems can be reduced to a large extent if some kind of live guidance is available. In this paper we propose a method to do so with the help of an augmented reality based system that will guide the user to carry out small scale repair jobs on these gadgets. All that is required is a decent webcam and a computing device, with a processor of 1 GHz or more and a display screen.

  10. An Electromagnetic Interference Problem via the Mains Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUZDUGAN, M. I.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an electromagnetic interference problem, due to the proximity of two radio broadcasting stations which injected especially common mode conducted emissions over the maximal limits specified by the national regulations in the public low voltage mains network. These emissions determined the malfunction of the gas heating centrals Themaclassic Saunier Duval installed in the area. The problem was solved by the retro fitting of an extra EMI filter for the mains network, as presented in the paper.

  11. Gas insulated substations

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview on the particular development steps of gas insulated high-voltage switchgear, and is based on the information given with the editor's tutorial. The theory is kept low only as much as it is needed to understand gas insulated technology, with the main focus of the book being on delivering practical application knowledge. It discusses some introductory and advanced aspects in the meaning of applications. The start of the book presents the theory of Gas Insulated Technology, and outlines reliability, design, safety, grounding and bonding, and factors for choosing GIS. The third chapter presents the technology, covering the following in detail: manufacturing, specification, instrument transformers, Gas Insulated Bus, and the assembly process. Next, the book goes into control and monitoring, which covers local control cabinet, bay controller, control schemes, and digital communication. Testing is explained in the middle of the book before installation and energization. Importantly, ...

  12. Comparing Biomechanical Properties, Repair Times, and Value of Common Core Flexor Tendon Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Aakash; Schimoler, Patrick; Miller, Mark C; Kharlamov, Alexander; Merrell, Gregory A; Palmer, Bradley A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare biomechanical strength, repair times, and repair values for zone II core flexor tendon repairs. A total of 75 fresh-frozen human cadaveric flexor tendons were harvested from the index through small finger and randomized into one of 5 repair groups: 4-stranded cross-stitch cruciate (4-0 polyester and 4-0 braided suture), 4-stranded double Pennington (2-0 knotless barbed suture), 4-stranded Pennington (4-0 double-stranded braided suture), and 6-stranded modified Lim-Tsai (4-0 looped braided suture). Repairs were measured in situ and their repair times were measured. Tendons were linearly loaded to failure and multiple biomechanical values were measured. The repair value was calculated based on operating room costs, repair times, and suture costs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc statistical analysis were used to compare repair data. The braided cruciate was the strongest repair ( P > .05) but the slowest ( P > .05), and the 4-stranded Pennington using double-stranded suture was the fastest ( P > .05) to perform. The total repair value was the highest for braided cruciate ( P > .05) compared with all other repairs. Barbed suture did not outperform any repairs in any categories. The braided cruciate was the strongest of the tested flexor tendon repairs. The 2-mm gapping and maximum load to failure for this repair approached similar historical strength of other 6- and 8-stranded repairs. In this study, suture cost was negligible in the overall repair cost and should be not a determining factor in choosing a repair.

  13. Architectural Portfolio 2001: Main Winners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School & University, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents descriptions and photographs of the following two American School and University Architectural Portfolio main winners for 2001: Chesterton, Indiana's Chesterton High School and Lied Library at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Included are each project's vital statistics, the architectural firm involved, and a list of designers.(GR)

  14. The four main LHC experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    AC Team

    1999-01-01

    This diagram shows the locations of the four main experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) that will take place at the LHC. Located between 50 m and 150 m underground, huge caverns have been excavated to house the giant detectors. The SPS, the final link in the pre-acceleration chain, and its connection tunnels to the LHC are also shown.

  15. Bond strength of repaired amalgam restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Rosalia; Mondragon, Eduardo; Shen, Chiayi

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the interfacial flexural strength (FS) of amalgam repairs and the optimal combination of repair materials and mechanical retention required for a consistent and durable repair bond. Amalgam bricks were created, each with 1 end roughened to expose a fresh surface before repair. Four groups followed separate repair protocols: group 1, bonding agent with amalgam; group 2, bonding agent with composite resin; group 3, mechanical retention (slot) with amalgam; and group 4, slot with bonding agent and amalgam. Repaired specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1, 10, 30, 120, or 360 days before being loaded to failure in a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed significant changes in median FS over time in groups 2 and 4. The effect of the repair method on the FS values after each storage period was significant for most groups except the 30-day storage groups. Amalgam-amalgam repair with adequate condensation yielded the most consistent and durable bond. An amalgam bonding agent could be beneficial when firm condensation on the repair surface cannot be achieved or when tooth structure is involved. Composite resin can be a viable option for amalgam repair in an esthetically demanding region, but proper mechanical modification of the amalgam surface and selection of the proper bonding system are essential.

  16. Treatment and Controversies in Paraesophageal Hernia Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marco eFisichella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically all paraesophageal hernias were repaired surgically, today intervention is reserved for symptomatic paraesophageal hernias. In this review, we describe the indications for repair and explore the controversies in paraesophageal hernia repair, which include a comparison of open to laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair, the necessity of complete sac excision, the routine performance of fundoplication, and the use of mesh for hernia repair.Methods: We searched Pubmed for papers published between 1980 and 2015 using the following keywords: hiatal hernias, paraesophageal hernias, regurgitation, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, aspiration, GERD, endoscopy, manometry, pH monitoring, proton pump inhibitors, anemia, iron deficiency anemia, Nissen fundoplication, sac excision, mesh, mesh repair. Results: Indications for paraesophageal hernia repair have changed, and currently symptomatic paraesophageal hernias are recommended for repair. In addition, it is important not to overlook iron-deficiency anemia and pulmonary complaints, which tend to improve with repair. Current practice favors a laparoscopic approach, complete sac excision, primary crural repair with or without use of mesh, and a routine fundoplication.

  17. 40 CFR 265.1062 - Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: skip period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: skip period leak detection and repair. 265.1062 Section... FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1062 Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: skip period leak detection and repair. (a) An owner...

  18. 40 CFR 264.1062 - Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: skip period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: skip period leak detection and repair. 264.1062 Section... Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1062 Alternative standards for valves in gas/vapor service or in light liquid service: skip period leak detection and repair. (a) An owner or operator subject...

  19. Maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators: specialists` meeting, O-Arai Engineering Center, Japan, 4-8 June 1984. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-07-01

    The Specialists` Meeting on "Maintenance and Repair of LMFBR Steam Generators" was held in Oarai, Japan, from 4-8 June 1984. The meeting was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency on the recommendation of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors and was hosted by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the experience accumulated in various countries on the general design philosophy of LMFBR steam generators from the view point of maintenance and repair, in-service inspection of steam generator tube bundles, identification and inspection of failed tubes and the cleaning and repairing of failed steam generators. The following main topical areas were discussed by participants: national review presentations on maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators - design philosophy for maintenance and repair; research and development work on maintenance and repair; and experience on steam generator maintenance and repair.

  20. Accretion disks before (?) the main planet formation phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominik, C.

    2009-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are the sites of planet formation and therefore one of the foremost targets of future facilities in astronomy. In this review, I will discuss the main options for using JWST and concurrent facilities to study the early, gas-rich, massive phases of protoplanetary disks. We discus

  1. Study on Self-Repairing Performance of Mineral Powder Lubrication Oil Additive to Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan-bao; XU Bin-shi; XU Yi

    2004-01-01

    By means of the engine shelf test, the gas escape amount of bent axle box was measured before and after adding hydroxyl silicate mineral powder lubrication oil additives, and discovered that gas escape amount after self-repaired is obviously smaller than before, the average gas escape amount of each rotate speed descend 6.5 %. Watching friction surface with SEM, discovered that the part of net veins in the cylinder inner surface are smoothly patched. Analysis with energy spectroscopy, discovered that there are some changing of atom component. Proofed that through rub chemical reaction, hydroxyl silicate mineral powder lubrication oil additives can generate new substance layer on friction surface, and can increase cylinder inner surface bulk, thereby get the repaired effects.

  2. Epigenetic regulation of DNA repair machinery in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana Carvalho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima

    2015-08-14

    Although thousands of DNA damaging events occur in each cell every day, efficient DNA repair pathways have evolved to counteract them. The DNA repair machinery plays a key role in maintaining genomic stability by avoiding the maintenance of mutations. The DNA repair enzymes continuously monitor the chromosomes to correct any damage that is caused by exogenous and endogenous mutagens. If DNA damage in proliferating cells is not repaired because of an inadequate expression of DNA repair genes, it might increase the risk of cancer. In addition to mutations, which can be either inherited or somatically acquired, epigenetic silencing of DNA repair genes has been associated with carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer represents the second highest cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The disease develops from the accumulation of several genetic and epigenetic changes during the lifetime. Among the risk factors, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is considered the main driving factor to gastric cancer development. Thus, in this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role of H. pylori infection on the epigenetic regulation of DNA repair machinery in gastric carcinogenesis.

  3. Requirements for gas quality and gas appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; Kiewiet, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The gas transmission network in the Netherlands transports two different qualities of gas, low-calorific gas known as G-gas or L-gas and, high calorific gas (H-gas). These two gas qualities are transported in separate networks, and are connected by means of five blending and conversion

  4. Main areas of the national economy modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatolyevich Tsvetkov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the concept of modernization, its main areas related to the commodity sector and transport infrastructure are identified, it is proposed to consider the application in relation to the modernization of modernization of the commodity sector. The author connects the need to modernize the Russian economy with the task of doubling GDP, correcting structural imbalances, reducing the technological gap with the developed world, overcoming social polarization in income, fighting inflation and smoothing the growth of inter-regional contrasts. The aim of modernizing the Russian economy is to achieve high competitiveness of the national economy, which would put the Russian Federation in terms of living standards among the most developed countries, and would provide a decent position in the world. The fact that "breakthrough" sectors of the sixth technological structure cannot be the starting point of modernization is substantiated. The concept of national competitiveness is reviewed. The lack of a complete model of modernization in the world is highlighted. Two main areas in relation to the modernization of the Russian Federation are identified: modernization of the commodity sector, which should represent applied modernization based on the comparative advantages of the Russian economy; with respect to functionally interrelated industries (fuel and energy complex and the oil-gas and upgrading of transport infrastructure, which is so effective because of unique transit facilities and prospects of Russia.

  5. A New Model for the Genesis of Natural Gases——Multi-source Overlap, Multi-stage Continuity, TypeControlled by Main Source and Nomenclature by Main Stage (Ⅱ)——Multi-stage Continuity and Nomenclature by Main Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永昌; 沈平

    1994-01-01

    The generation of natural gases involves several stages and the various stages are of continuous transition. This is another feature of natural gas generation. The term "multi-stage" is relative mainly to oil-generating threshold value and liquid window. The evolution of organic matter is affected by different epigene agencies and natural gases differing in geochemical properties such as biogenic gas (bacterial gas), thermocatalytic gas and pyrolytic gas could be produced at different stages of the evolution of organic matter. The proposal of bio-thermocatalytic transitional-zone gas presents a pattern of mutual linking and continuous transition of natural gases originated at different stages.In the genetic classification of natural gases, the nomenclature of a certain gas is based mainly on the epigene agency which is responsible for its formation, for example, biogenic gas, pyrolytic gas. That is the "nomenclature by the main stage" described in this study. On account of the continuity of gas generati

  6. Gas magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  7. Gas magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  8. Biochemical DSB-repair model for mammalian cells in G1 and early S phases of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleei, Reza; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2013-08-30

    The paper presents a model of double strand breaks (DSB) repair in G1 and early S phases of the cell cycle. The model is based on a plethora of published information on biochemical modification of DSB induced by ionizing radiation. So far, three main DSB repair pathways have been identified, including nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HR), and microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ). During G1 and early S phases of the cell cycle, NHEJ and MMEJ repair pathways are activated dependent on the type of double strand breaks. Simple DSB are a substrate for NHEJ, while complex DSB and DSB in heterochromatin require further end processing. Repair of all DSB start with NHEJ presynaptic processes, and depending on the type of DSB pursue simple ligation, further end processing prior to ligation, or resection. Using law of mass action the model is translated into a mathematical formalism. The solution of the formalism provides the step by step and overall repair kinetics. The overall repair kinetics are compared with the published experimental measurements. Our calculations are in agreement with the experimental results and show that the complex types of DSBs are repaired with slow repair kinetics. The G1 and early S phase model could be employed to predict the kinetics of DSB repair for damage induced by high LET radiation.

  9. Surgical management of the failed SLAP repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stephen C

    2010-09-01

    Repair of superior labral tears anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions has become an increasingly common procedure, despite the low incidence rates reported in the literature. As the incidence of these procedures increases, the surgeons will be increasingly confronted with patients with painful shoulders after SLAP repair. Persistent pain after SLAP repair is multifactorial; careful preoperative workup is necessary to elucidate the cause of pain. Simple failure of the prior SLAP repair will rarely be the cause of persistent pain. Use of tacks is especially worrisome, and suture anchor repair is preferable. Articular cartilage injuries because of either bioabsorbable or metal hardware will often create significant residual disability. Recent literature suggests that older patients may be better served by primary biceps tenodesis rather than SLAP repair.

  10. DNA-Protein Crosslink Proteolysis Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Bruno; Popovic, Marta; Ramadan, Kristijan

    2017-06-01

    Proteins that are covalently bound to DNA constitute a specific type of DNA lesion known as DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs). DPCs represent physical obstacles to the progression of DNA replication. If not repaired, DPCs cause stalling of DNA replication forks that consequently leads to DNA double-strand breaks, the most cytotoxic DNA lesion. Although DPCs are common DNA lesions, the mechanism of DPC repair was unclear until now. Recent work unveiled that DPC repair is orchestrated by proteolysis performed by two distinct metalloproteases, SPARTAN in metazoans and Wss1 in yeast. This review summarizes recent discoveries on two proteases in DNA replication-coupled DPC repair and establishes DPC proteolysis repair as a separate DNA repair pathway for genome stability and protection from accelerated aging and cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Manipulating DNA repair for improved genetic engineering in Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødvig, Christina Spuur

    engineering strategies. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the genus Aspergillus and some of the tools relevant to fungal genetic engineering. It also contains a short introduction to DNA repair and its interplay with gene targeting and finally an overview over the different genome editing technologies......Aspergillus is a genus of filamentous fungi, which members includes industrial producers of enzymes, organic acids and secondary metabolites, important pathogens and a model organism. As such no matter the specific area of interest there are many reasons to perform genetic engineering, whether...... it is metabolic engineering to create better performing cell factory, elucidating pathways to study secondary metabolism etc. In this thesis, the main focus is on different ways to manipulate DNA repair for optimizing gene targeting, ultimately improving the methods available for faster and better genetic...

  12. Current status of endovascular aneurysm repair: 20 years of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Frank R; Murphy, Erin H; Boyes, Christopher; Nussbaum, Tzvi; Lalka, Stephen G; Holleman, Jeremiah; Roush, Timothy S

    2012-09-01

    Parodi first introduced endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in 1991 and since that time it has been shown to have a lower 30-day morbididty and mortality compared to open surgery. Anatomic constraints governed by the need for adequate access vessels, and sufficient proximal and distal landing zones, as well as the need for long-term surveillance, have been the main limitations of this technology. Anatomic factors were initially estimated to exclude 40% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The rapid extension of EVAR technology has been complimented by improved access to both high-quality imaging modalities and a variety of endografts. These developments have led EVAR to become a more practical alternative for patients with ruptured AAA. Early data in this setting is encouraging with even more profound reductions in morbidity and mortality than seen in the elective repair.

  13. [Horizontal root fracture repaired by cementum--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K R; Kuo, J S

    1989-09-20

    Horizontal root fractures are rare among dental trauma. According to Dr. Andreasen's report there are four types of repairs after root fractures. They are 1. healing with calcified tissue; 2. interposition of connective tissue; 3. interposition of connective and bony tissue; 4. interposition of granulation tissue. This report presented a case of horizontal root fracture in a 27 years old female patient. The patient had a trauma in the front teeth about 15 years ago. Spontaneous healing occurred without dental treatment at that moment. However, symptoms appeared recently as a dento-alveolar abscess. Radiograph revealed a horizontal fracture at the middle third of the root portion of the left upper central incisor, and irregular hard tissue over the fractured area. Histologically, the main component of repair tissue is cementum.

  14. Factors predicting sensor y and motor recover y after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo He; Zhaowei Zhu; Qingtang Zhu; Xiang Zhou; Canbin Zheng; Pengliang Li; Shuang Zhu; Xiaolin Liu; Jiakai Zhu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate the factors associated with sensory and motor recovery after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries. DATA SOURCES:The online PubMed database was searched for English articles describing outcomes after the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries in humans with a publication date between 1 January 1990 and 16 February 2011. STUDY SELECTION:The following types of article were selected:(1) clinical trials describ-ing the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries published in English;and (2) studies that reported sufifcient patient information, including age, mechanism of injury, nerve injured, injury location, defect length, repair time, repair method, and repair materials. SPSS 13.0 software was used to perform univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses and to in-vestigate the patient and intervention factors associated with outcomes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Sensory function was assessed using the Mackinnon-Dellon scale and motor function was assessed using the manual muscle test. Satisfactory motor recovery was deifned as grade M4 or M5, and satisfactory sensory recovery was deifned as grade S3+or S4. RESULTS:Seventy-one articles were included in this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that repair time, repair materials, and nerve injured were inde-pendent predictors of outcome after the repair of nerve injuries (P CONCLUSION:Predictors of outcome after the repair of peripheral nerve injuries include age, gender, repair time, repair materials, nerve injured, defect length, and duration of follow-up.

  15. Repairing sealing surfaces on aluminum castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    Approach using stylus nickel plating instead of copper and cadmium plating has simplified repair procedure. Damaged sealing surfaces are stylus nickelplated in one step. Superficial scratches and porous areas are removed more easily from repaired surface by simply lapping sealing areas to required finish. Although method is aimed for aerospace components, it may be easily incorporated into conventional aluminumcasting technology. One-step repair can be considered for cast-aluminum automobile and aircraft engines to reduce time and costs.

  16. Research on Hot Gunning Repairing in Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; LONG Shigang; MENG Qingmin; SUN Jialin; HONG Yanruo

    2003-01-01

    The lining of blast furnace may be damaged partly,so that gunning repair is needed. The bonding strength of boundary surface between the repairing layer and remained lining of blast furnace has been studied by thermal simulation.The factors influencing the bonding strength are the ingredient gunning repair temperature,remained lining condition and water content of gunning refractory.The bonding strength decreases with the increases of remained lining temperature.

  17. Role of ubiquitination in meiotic recombination repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Programmed and unprogrammed double-strand breaks (DSBs) often arise from such physiological requirements as meiotic recombination, and exogenous insults, such as ionizing radiation (IR). Due to deleterious impacts on genome stability, DSBs must be appropriately processed and repaired in a regulatory manner. Recent investigations have indicated that ubiquitination is a critical factor in DNA damage response and meiotic recombination repair. This review summarizes the effects of proteins and complexes associated with ubiquitination with regard to homologous recombination (HR)-dependent DSB repair.

  18. Laparoscopic repair for vesicouterine fistulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Maioli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this video is to present the laparoscopic repair of a VUF in a 42-year-old woman, with gross hematuria, in the immediate postoperative phase following a cesarean delivery. The obstetric team implemented conservative management, including Foley catheter insertion, for 2 weeks. She subsequently developed intermittent hematuria and cystitis. The urology team was consulted 15 days after cesarean delivery. Cystoscopy indicated an ulcerated lesion in the bladder dome of approximately 1.0cm in size. Hysterosalpingography and a pelvic computed tomography scan indicated a fistula. Materials and Methods: Laparoscopic repair was performed 30 days after the cesarean delivery. The patient was placed in the lithotomy position while also in an extreme Trendelenburg position. Pneumoperitoneum was established using a Veress needle in the midline infra-umbilical region, and a primary 11-mm port was inserted. Another 11-mm port was inserted exactly between the left superior iliac spine and the umbilicus. Two other 5-mm ports were established under laparoscopic guidance in the iliac fossa on both sides. The omental adhesions in the pelvis were carefully released and the peritoneum between the bladder and uterus was incised via cautery. Limited cystotomy was performed, and the specific sites of the fistula and the ureteral meatus were identified; thereafter, the posterior bladder wall was adequately mobilized away from the uterus. The uterine rent was then closed using single 3/0Vicryl sutures and two-layer watertight closure of the urinary bladder was achieved by using 3/0Vicryl sutures. An omental flap was mobilized and inserted between the uterus and the urinary bladder, and was fixed using two 3/0Vicryl sutures, followed by tube drain insertion. Results: The operative time was 140 min, whereas the blood loss was 100ml. The patient was discharged 3 days after surgery, and the catheter was removed 12 days after surgery

  19. 53BP1 regulates DSB repair using Rif1 to control 5' end resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michal; Lottersberger, Francisca; Buonomo, Sara B; Sfeir, Agnel; de Lange, Titia

    2013-02-08

    The choice between double-strand break (DSB) repair by either homology-directed repair (HDR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is tightly regulated. Defects in this regulation can induce genome instability and cancer. 53BP1 is critical for the control of DSB repair, promoting NHEJ, and inhibiting the 5' end resection needed for HDR. Using dysfunctional telomeres and genome-wide DSBs, we identify Rif1 as the main factor used by 53BP1 to impair 5' end resection. Rif1 inhibits resection involving CtIP, BLM, and Exo1; limits accumulation of BRCA1/BARD1 complexes at sites of DNA damage; and defines one of the mechanisms by which 53BP1 causes chromosomal abnormalities in Brca1-deficient cells. These data establish Rif1 as an important contributor to the control of DSB repair by 53BP1.

  20. Alkylation damage in DNA and RNA--repair mechanisms and medical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabløs, Finn; Feyzi, Emadoldin; Aas, Per Arne

    2004-01-01

    Alkylation lesions in DNA and RNA result from endogenous compounds, environmental agents and alkylating drugs. Simple methylating agents, e.g. methylnitrosourea, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and drugs like temozolomide or streptozotocin, form adducts at N- and O-atoms in DNA bases. These lesions...... are mainly repaired by direct base repair, base excision repair, and to some extent by nucleotide excision repair (NER). The identified carcinogenicity of O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)-meG) is largely caused by its miscoding properties. Mutations from this lesion are prevented by O(6)-alkylG-DNA alkyltransferase......, inactivation of the MMR system in an AGT-defective background causes resistance to the killing effects of O(6)-alkylating agents, but not to the mutagenic effect. Bifunctional alkylating agents, such as chlorambucil or carmustine (BCNU), are commonly used anti-cancer drugs. DNA lesions caused by these agents...

  1. Extensor tendon repair an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Bin Fayed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of extensor injuries is more than that of flexor tendon injuries. This is to a great extent because of the extensors being superficially placed and covered by skin and subcutaneous tissue over the distal part of the upper extremity. Thus they are more vulnerable to blunt and sharp trauma, the proximal and distal forearm present with laceration and cut with sharp weapon. Extensor tendon injuries are often taken lightly by many, repairs being taken-up at the ER. Repair is done in or if the retrieval of tendon ends is difficult or the wound is complicated with associated injuries such as fractures or in cases of tendon retraction. Delayed primary repair can be undertaken from 7-10 days. Assessment of the injured finger has to be very meticulous. Extension of finger is brought about by the interossei and lumbricals which are the short muscles of the hand. They extend the proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints and flex metacarpophalangeal joint, these intrinsic muscles are innervated by the ulnar and median nerves. The long extensors are innervated by the radial nerve, they primarily extend the metacarpophalangeal joints and also interphalangeal joints. In cases of injury the intrinsic system may compensate for an extensor deficit. Closed injuries of zone I may be managed by splinting of the distal interphalangeal joints and open injuries in the zone I and II can be treated with tenodermodesis. Proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints are immobilized in zone 3 and 4. Metacarpophalangeal joint is immobilized in full extension and the wrist in 10o extension.

  2. Main Elements for Upscaling Recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Termansen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    This report provides information on the main elements used to scale up modelled local visitor flow data to regional level based on recreational de-mand models. These models are described in Report #1. This report also provides information on data sources such as spatial data (e.g. land cov......-er/land use information), demographic information. The report is accom-pagnied with a spatial database for the regional case of forest recreation in Northern Zealand, Denmark. The spatial database contains forest polygons; forest attribute; estimation of total annual number of visits per site; and es...

  3. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  4. Concrete structures protection, repair and rehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Woodson, R Dodge

    2009-01-01

    The success of a repair or rehabilitation project depends on the specific plans designed for it. Concrete Structures: Protection, Repair and Rehabilitation provides guidance on evaluating the condition of the concrete in a structure, relating the condition of the concrete to the underlying cause or causes of that condition, selecting an appropriate repair material and method for any deficiency found, and using the selected materials and methods to repair or rehabilitate the structure. Guidance is also provided for engineers focused on maintaining concrete and preparing concrete investigation r

  5. Changes in DNA repair during aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei; Mao, Zhiyong; Hine, Christpher

    2007-01-01

    DNA is a precious molecule. It encodes vital information about cellular content and function. There are only two copies of each chromosome in the cell, and once the sequence is lost no replacement is possible. The irreplaceable nature of the DNA sets it apart from other cellular molecules, and makes it a critical target for age-related deterioration. To prevent DNA damage cells have evolved elaborate DNA repair machinery. Paradoxically, DNA repair can itself be subject to age-related changes and deterioration. In this review we will discuss the changes in efficiency of mismatch repair (MMR), base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER) and double-strand break (DSB) repair systems during aging, and potential changes in DSB repair pathway usage that occur with age. Mutations in DNA repair genes and premature aging phenotypes they cause have been reviewed extensively elsewhere, therefore the focus of this review is on the comparison of DNA repair mechanisms in young versus old. PMID:17913742

  6. ONSTEP versus laparoscopy for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The optimal repair of inguinal hernias remains controversial. It is recommended that an inguinal hernia be repaired using a mesh, either with a laparoscopic or an open approach. In Denmark, the laparoscopic approach is used in an increasing number of cases. The laparoscopic repair has...... clinical trial described in this protocol is to evaluate chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair using the ONSTEP method versus the laparoscopic approach. METHODS: This study is designed as a non-inferiority, two-arm, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, with a 1:1 allocation to ONSTEP or laparoscopic...

  7. Vesicocervical fistula following vesicovaginal fistula repair report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamudur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vesicocervical fistula following vesicovaginal fistula repair is a very rare condition. It is a complication following repeated lower uterine cesarean section. We report a case of an young married woman who was admitted in the depart­ment of urology, Banghabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Hospital with vesico-cervical fistula following vesico­vaginal fistula repair. Reposition of cervix into vaginal vault and repair of urinary bladder was done. There was no such report of vesicocervical fistula following vesicovaginal fistula repair from Bangladesh.

  8. ONSTEP versus laparoscopy for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The optimal repair of inguinal hernias remains controversial. It is recommended that an inguinal hernia be repaired using a mesh, either with a laparoscopic or an open approach. In Denmark, the laparoscopic approach is used in an increasing number of cases. The laparoscopic repair has...... clinical trial described in this protocol is to evaluate chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair using the ONSTEP method versus the laparoscopic approach. METHODS: This study is designed as a non-inferiority, two-arm, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, with a 1:1 allocation to ONSTEP or laparoscopic...

  9. Complex networks repair strategies: Dynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chaoqi; Wang, Ying; Gao, Yangjun; Wang, Xiaoyang

    2017-09-01

    Network repair strategies are tactical methods that restore the efficiency of damaged networks; however, unreasonable repair strategies not only waste resources, they are also ineffective for network recovery. Most extant research on network repair focuses on static networks, but results and findings on static networks cannot be applied to evolutionary dynamic networks because, in dynamic models, complex network repair has completely different characteristics. For instance, repaired nodes face more severe challenges, and require strategic repair methods in order to have a significant effect. In this study, we propose the Shell Repair Strategy (SRS) to minimize the risk of secondary node failures due to the cascading effect. Our proposed method includes the identification of a set of vital nodes that have a significant impact on network repair and defense. Our identification of these vital nodes reduces the number of switching nodes that face the risk of secondary failures during the dynamic repair process. This is positively correlated with the size of the average degree and enhances network invulnerability.

  10. Root justifications for ontology repair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Moodley_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 32328 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Moodley_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Root Justi cations... the ontology, based on the no- tion of root justi cations [8, 9]. In Section 5, we discuss the implementation of a Prot eg e3 plugin which demonstrates our approach to ontology repair. In this section we also discuss some experimental results comparing...

  11. Arthroscopic Transosseous Bony Bankart Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Matthew D.; Burns, Joseph P.; Snyder, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of glenoid bony integrity is critical to minimizing the risk of recurrence and re-creating normal kinematics in the setting of anterior glenohumeral instability. We present an arthroscopic suture anchor–based technique for treating large bony Bankart fractures in which the fragment is secured to the intact glenoid using mattress sutures placed through the bony fragment and augmented with soft-tissue repair proximal and distal to the bony lesion. This straightforward technique has led to excellent fragment reduction and good outcomes in our experience. PMID:25973373

  12. 40 CFR 60.482-9 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 60.482-9... Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if repair within 15 days is technically infeasible without a process unit shutdown. Repair of...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section 870... repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace the... effect the repair or replacement. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  14. 14 CFR 145.207 - Repair station manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repair station manual. 145.207 Section 145...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.207 Repair station manual. (a) A certificated repair station must prepare and follow a repair station manual acceptable to...

  15. Burden in the main caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Yonte Huete

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective is to determine the degree of burden in the main caregivers of dependent patients, to analyse the profile of informal caregivers and dependent patients. Their claims and help received with caring, the influence of mental deteriorate and duration of care giving regarding the burden of caregivers.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional observational study amongst 50 caregivers and dependents. We used descriptive statistics and correlational studies. Results: 86 % of caregivers were women, middle aged, son/daughter of the dependent, married, with basic studies, no work outside the home, the average time in the role of caregiver was 16,96 hours a day and 2,1 free hours a day. 64 % of them received family support and 68 % wish to receive economic aid. It was found that for 38 % of the caregivers there was no burden at all, 34 % of them had a minimum burden and 28 % a greater burden.Conclusion: There are some caregivers with moderate or great burden. Our caregiver wishes to receive economic help. Our research shows that the decrease of mental health and the years of evolution do not have a significant statistically influence on caregivers. It is necessary prioritize the interventions and its recipients, provide solutions for caregivers with a greater burden, trying to keep away “caregiver syndrome”.

  16. Direct inhibition of excision/synthesis DNA repair activities by cadmium: Analysis on dedicated biochips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candeias, S., E-mail: serge.candeias@cea.fr [CEA, INAC, SCIB, UJF and CNRS, LCIB (UMR-E 3 CEA-UJF and FRE 3200), Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CEA, DSV, iRTSV, LBBSI, UMR 5092 CNRS, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Pons, B.; Viau, M.; Caillat, S.; Sauvaigo, S. [CEA, INAC, SCIB, UJF and CNRS, LCIB (UMR-E 3 CEA-UJF and FRE 3200), Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-12-10

    The well established toxicity of cadmium and cadmium compounds results from their additive effects on several key cellular processes, including DNA repair. Mammalian cells have evolved several biochemical pathways to repair DNA lesions and maintain genomic integrity. By interfering with the homeostasis of redox metals and antioxidant systems, cadmium promotes the development of an intracellular environment that results in oxidative DNA damage which can be mutagenic if unrepaired. Small base lesions are recognised by specialized glycosylases and excised from the DNA molecule. The resulting abasic sites are incised, and the correct sequences restored by DNA polymerases using the opposite strands as template. Bulky lesions are recognised by a different set of proteins and excised from DNA as part of an oligonucleotide. As in base repair, the resulting gaps are filled by DNA polymerases using the opposite strands as template. Thus, these two repair pathways consist in excision of the lesion followed by DNA synthesis. In this study, we analysed in vitro the direct effects of cadmium exposure on the functionality of base and nucleotide DNA repair pathways. To this end, we used recently described dedicated microarrays that allow the parallel monitoring in cell extracts of the repair activities directed against several model base and/or nucleotide lesions. Both base and nucleotide excision/repair pathways are inhibited by CdCl{sub 2}, with different sensitivities. The inhibitory effects of cadmium affect mainly the recognition and excision stages of these processes. Furthermore, our data indicate that the repair activities directed against different damaged bases also exhibit distinct sensitivities, and the direct comparison of cadmium effects on the excision of uracile in different sequences even allows us to propose a hierarchy of cadmium sensibility within the glycosylases removing U from DNA. These results indicate that, in our experimental conditions, cadmium is a

  17. Elements of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Liepmann, H W

    2001-01-01

    The increasing importance of concepts from compressible fluid flow theory for aeronautical applications makes the republication of this first-rate text particularly timely. Intended mainly for aeronautics students, the text will also be helpful to practicing engineers and scientists who work on problems involving the aerodynamics of compressible fluids. Covering the general principles of gas dynamics to provide a working understanding of the essentials of gas flow, the contents of this book form the foundation for a study of the specialized literature and should give the necessary background

  18. Production, Purification, and Characterization of ¹⁵N-Labeled DNA Repair Proteins as Internal Standards for Mass Spectrometric Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Prasad T; Jaruga, Pawel; Nelson, Bryant C; Lowenthal, Mark S; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Loseva, Olga; Coskun, Erdem; Helleday, Thomas; Dizdaroglu, Miral

    2016-01-01

    Oxidatively induced DNA damage is caused in living organisms by a variety of damaging agents, resulting in the formation of a multiplicity of lesions, which are mutagenic and cytotoxic. Unless repaired by DNA repair mechanisms before DNA replication, DNA lesions can lead to genomic instability, which is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Oxidatively induced DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair pathway with the involvement of a plethora of proteins. Cancer tissues develop greater DNA repair capacity than normal tissues by overexpressing DNA repair proteins. Increased DNA repair in tumors that removes DNA lesions generated by therapeutic agents before they became toxic is a major mechanism in the development of therapy resistance. Evidence suggests that DNA repair capacity may be a predictive biomarker of patient response. Thus, knowledge of DNA-protein expressions in disease-free and cancerous tissues may help predict and guide development of treatments and yield the best therapeutic response. Our laboratory has developed methodologies that use mass spectrometry with isotope dilution for the measurement of expression of DNA repair proteins in human tissues and cultured cells. For this purpose, full-length (15)N-labeled analogs of a number of human DNA repair proteins have been produced and purified to be used as internal standards for positive identification and accurate quantification. This chapter describes in detail the protocols of this work. The use of (15)N-labeled proteins as internal standards for the measurement of several DNA repair proteins in vivo is also presented.

  19. CrowdAidRepair: A Crowd-Aided Interactive Data Repairing Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2016-03-25

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. Traditional methods relying on predefined quality rules to detect the conflict between data may fail to choose the right way to fix the detected conflict. Recent efforts turn to use the power of crowd in data repairing, but the crowd power has its own drawbacks such as high human intervention cost and inevitable low efficiency. In this paper, we propose a crowd-aided interactive data repairing method which takes the advantages of both rule-based method and crowd-based method. Particularly, we investigate the interaction between crowd-based repairing and rule-based repairing, and show that by doing crowd-based repairing to a small portion of values, we can greatly improve the repairing quality of the rule-based repairing method. Although we prove that the optimal interaction scheme using the least number of values for crowd-based repairing to maximize the imputation recall is not feasible to be achieved, still, our proposed solution identifies an efficient scheme through investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Our empirical study on three data collections demonstrates the high repairing quality of CrowdAidRepair, as well as the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over baselines.

  20. Initiating Repair and Beyond: The Use of Two Repeat-Formatted Repair Initiations in Mandarin Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruey-Jiuan Regina

    2006-01-01

    As part of a growing effort to understand the organization of repair across languages, this study examines 2 repeat-formatted other-initiated repair practices in Mandarin conversation. Using the methodology of conversation analysis as a central framework, this study shows that the 2 Mandarin repair initiations under examination, like…

  1. X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1 in base excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanssen-Bauer, Audun; Solvang-Garten, Karin; Akbari, Mansour;

    2012-01-01

    X-ray Repair Cross Complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) acts as a scaffolding protein in the converging base excision repair (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR) pathways. XRCC1 also interacts with itself and rapidly accumulates at sites of DNA damage. XRCC1 can thus mediate the assembly of large...

  2. Determinants of a short convalescence after laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolver, Mette Astrup; Strandfelt, Pernille; Forsberg, Gert;

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based recommendations for the expected duration of convalescence after laparoscopic groin hernia repair are not available, and objective reasons for prolonged convalescence are not clear. Our main aim was to establish the expected duration of convalescence using preoperative recommendati......Evidence-based recommendations for the expected duration of convalescence after laparoscopic groin hernia repair are not available, and objective reasons for prolonged convalescence are not clear. Our main aim was to establish the expected duration of convalescence using preoperative...... recommendations to the patient and to identify the limiting factors for early (postoperative) resumption of normal activities after laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal inguinal herniorraphy (TAPP)....

  3. Repair of overheating linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkley, Walter; Baldwin, William; Bennett, Gloria; Bitteker, Leo; Borden, Michael; Casados, Jeff; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Gorman, Fred; Johnson, Kenneth; Kurennoy, Sergey; Martinez, Alberto; O’Hara, James; Perez, Edward; Roller, Brandon; Rybarcyk, Lawrence; Stark, Peter; Stockton, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a proton accelerator that produces high energy particle beams for experiments. These beams include neutrons and protons for diverse uses including radiography, isotope production, small feature study, lattice vibrations and material science. The Drift Tube Linear Accelerator (DTL) is the first portion of a half mile long linear section of accelerator that raises the beam energy from 750 keV to 100 MeV. In its 31st year of operation (2003), the DTL experienced serious issues. The first problem was the inability to maintain resonant frequency at full power. The second problem was increased occurrences of over-temperature failure of cooling hoses. These shortcomings led to an investigation during the 2003 yearly preventative maintenance shutdown that showed evidence of excessive heating: discolored interior tank walls and coper oxide deposition in the cooling circuits. Since overheating was suspected to be caused by compromised heat transfer, improving that was the focus of the repair effort. Investigations revealed copper oxide flow inhibition and iron oxide scale build up. Acid cleaning was implemented with careful attention to protection of the base metal, selection of components to clean and minimization of exposure times. The effort has been very successful in bringing the accelerator through a complete eight month run cycle allowing an incredible array of scientific experiments to be completed this year (2003-2004). This paper will describe the systems, investigation analysis, repair, return to production and conclusion.

  4. Regenerative endodontics: regeneration or repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Stéphane R J; Tomson, Phillip L; Berdal, Ariane

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in biotechnology and translational research have made it possible to provide treatment modalities that protect the vital pulp, allow manipulation of reactionary and reparative dentinogenesis, and, more recently, permit revascularization of an infected root canal space. These approaches are referred to as regenerative procedures. The method currently used to determine the origin of the tissue secreted during the repair/regeneration process is largely based on the identification of cellular markers (usually proteins) left by cells that were responsible for this tissue production. The presence of these proteins in conjunction with other indicators of cellular behavior (especially biomineralization) and analysis of the structure of the newly generated tissue allow conclusions to be made of how it was formed. Thus far, it has not been possible to truly establish the biological mechanism controlling tertiary dentinogenesis. This article considers current therapeutic techniques to treat the dentin-pulp complex and contextualize them in terms of reparative and regenerative processes. Although it may be considered a semantic argument rather than a biological one, the definitions of regeneration and repair are explored to clarify our position in this era of regenerative endodontics. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Burcharth

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Groin hernia repair is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the western world but large-scaled epidemiologic data are sparse. Large-scale data on the occurrence of groin hernia repair may provide further understanding to the pathophysiology of groin hernia development. This study was undertaken to investigate the age and gender dependent prevalence of groin hernia repair. METHODS: In a nationwide register-based study, using data from the Civil Registration System covering all Danish citizens, we established a population-based cohort of all people living in Denmark on December 31(st, 2010. Within this population all groin hernia repairs during the past 5 years were identified using data from the ICD 10(th edition in the Danish National Hospital Register. RESULTS: The study population covered n = 5,639,885 persons. During the five years study period 46,717 groin hernia repairs were performed (88.6% males, 11.4% females. Inguinal hernias comprised 97% of groin hernia repairs (90.2% males, 9.8% females and femoral hernias 3% of groin hernia repairs (29.8% males, 70.2% females. Patients between 0-5 years and 75-80 years constituted the two dominant groups for inguinal hernia repair. In contrast, the age-specific prevalence of femoral hernia repair increased steadily throughout life peaking at age 80-90 years in both men and women. CONCLUSION: The age distribution of inguinal hernia repair is bimodal peaking at early childhood and old age, whereas the prevalence of femoral hernia repair increased steadily throughout life. This information can be used to formulate new hypotheses regarding disease etiology with regard to age and gender specifications.

  6. Landfill gas from environment to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendebien, A.; Pauwels, M.; Constant, M.; Ledrut-Damanet, M.J.; Nyns, E.J. [Louvain Univ. (Belgium); Fabry, R.; Ferrero, G.L. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Willumsen, H.C.; Butson, J.

    1992-11-01

    Landfill gas is an alternative source of energy which can be commercially exploited wherever municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills. In this context, it was decided to launch a comprehensive study on the subject of energy valorization of landfill gas. The main topics dealt with in the study, which is supported by a comprehensive literature survey and six detailed case-studies, include; (i) the environmental impact of landfill gas, (ii) the process of landfill gas genesis and the technology of landfill gas control by its exploitation, (iii) the monitoring of landfill gas emissions, (iv) the policies and legal aspects of landfill gas in the European Community and in the world, (v) the estimation of landfill gas potentials and economics of landfill gas control and exploitation, (vi) the status of landfill gas exploitation in the European Community and in the world. (authors). refs., figs., tabs.

  7. Landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, H. (Crone and Koch, Viborg (Denmark))

    1990-08-01

    In most landfills, the refuse deposit usually has a high content of organic matter consisting of a mixture of household, industrial and garden waste. Immediately after the refuse has been placed in the landfill, aerobic decomposition of the organic waste begins. Once the oxygen has been exhausted, anaerobic decomposition begins. 'Biogas' is produced which has a methane content of approximately 50% and can be used as a fuel. The exploitation of landfill gas for energy purposes was initiated in the USA around 1975 and later in Europe. A landfill gas plant consists of a recovery system and a production system. A recovery system can consist of vertical perforated pipe wells, horizontal perforated pipes or ditches, or membrane covers to collect the generated gas. Under normal conditions it will not be necessary to process the gas except for the removal of water and other impurities (e.g. solid particles) if the gas is to be used in a boiler or engine. In the USA most often only power is produced, whereas in Europe the waste heat is normally exploited, making the plant function as a combined power and heating plant. It is also possible to upgrade the landfill gas to a methane content of nearly 100, after which it can be distributed with natural gas. There are several such plants in the USA. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Specifications for gas treatment apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A surface reaction analysis apparatus was installed as an experimental end-station for the study of surface chemistry at the JAERI soft x-ray beamline in the SPring-8. The surface reaction analysis apparatus is devoted to the study of reaction mechanisms on solid surfaces with incident gas molecules. It is necessary to supply reagent gases to the apparatus. Chlorine and metal organic molecules will be used in the apparatus as well as oxygen molecules. Since the chlorine is corrosive and virulent, the metal organic molecules are flammable, the satiety treatments and the removal of virulence from the exhaust gas are needed. This gas supply and exhaust system is mainly composed of a cylinder cabinet, a gas mixer, a virulence removal cell and an urgent virulence removal apparatus. The former three devices are considered to take a countermeasure against virulent gas leak. The detail specifications concerning the gas supply and exhaust system are described in this report. (author)

  9. Improvement of adhesion performance of mortar-repair interface with inducing crack path into repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Satoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The most important performance for repair materials is adhesion to the substrate. The authors experimentally find out that high modulus fine aggregates in repair material enhance strength of it as well as the strength of the interface repaired with it, compared to the ordinary repair without fine aggregates. This paper elaborates the mechanisms for that with fractographic observation and FEM analysis based on the results of experiment. Also the authors discuss the ways for enhancing the strength and ductility of the repaired mortar

  10. 28 Comparative Study of Open Mesh Repair and Desarda's No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-12-02

    Dec 2, 2006 ... East And Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 11 Number 2. ... new technique and the open mesh repair done in a district level general hospital set ... laparoscopic repairs or the patients given ..... Hernia repair (Open Vs.

  11. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

  12. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  13. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    and the role it plays in the global climate and the future of fuels. Russia, Japan, Nigeria, Peru, Chile, Pakistan, Indonesia, Korea, etc are various countries who are perusing the gas hydrates studies as a future resource for fuel. Indian Initiative..., 1993, Free gas at the base of the gas hydrate zone in the vicinity of the Chile Triple junction: Geology, v. 21, pp. 905-908. Borowski, W.S., C.K. Paull, and U. William, III, 1999, Global and local variations of interstitial sulfate gradients...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  15. DNA repair mechanisms in C. elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/336462557

    2009-01-01

    DNA is the carrier of genetic information. DNA is constantly damaged by, for example, UV light and X-rays. Cells can utilize a large number of proteins that can repair the damages, thereby avoiding changes in the DNA sequence. Damages that are not repaired result in an increase in the number of muta

  16. Damage diagnosis and compatible repair mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, R.P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    Mortars for repair and maintenance of historic masonry have to meet specific requirements. Several authors have made contributions, however many cases of failure show that there still is quite a lack of knowledge on the compatibility of repair mortars for historic masonry. The diagnosis of the cause

  17. Laparoscopic Ventral and Incisional Hernia Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ventral and incisional hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed operations in daily surgical practice. Laparoscopic ventral and incisional hernia repair (LVIHR) is gaining increasing adoption in surgical practice. It has theoretical advantages but improvements in technique can still be

  18. Thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm branched repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, E. L. G.; Tielliu, I. F. J.; Ferreira, M.; Zipfel, B.; Adam, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Open thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is a demanding procedure with high impact on the patient and the operating team. Results from expert centres show mortality rates between 3-21%, with extensive morbidity including renal failure and paraplegia. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneu

  19. Some aspects of RNA repair and editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk M. V.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available All cellular RNA molecules are damaged at the scale of DNA molecules, or even more. In the present review the RNA damaging agents, some mechanisms of RNA repair and editing, their difference from DNA repair mechanisms have been discussed.

  20. Mitral valve repair in acquired dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmistekawy, Elsayed; Chan, Vincent; Hynes, Mark; Mesana, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Surgical correction of valvular heart disease in patients with dextrocardia is extremely rare. We report a surgical case of mitral valve repair in a patient with acquired dextrocardia. Successful mitral valve repair was performed through a right lateral thoracotomy. We describe our surgical strategy and summarize the literature.

  1. Plan Repair using a Plan Library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Plan library's have proven their added value to the efficiency of planning. In this paper, we present results on the use of a plan library to plan repair. We show that using a relatively simple library, we can already obtain significant improvements in efficiency compared to plan repair without a li

  2. Dysphagia in children with repaired oesophageal atresia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, C.H.; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Scharbatke, H.E.; Groot, S.A. de; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem in children with repaired oesophageal atresia (OA). Abnormalities in the oropharyngeal and oesophageal phase have hardly been studied. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of dysphagia in children with repaired OA and to identify and differentiate oral

  3. Targeted gene repair – in the arena

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The development of targeted gene repair is under way and, despite some setbacks, shows promise as an alternative form of gene therapy. This approach uses synthetic DNA molecules to activate and direct the cell’s inherent DNA repair systems to correct inborn errors. The progress of this technique and its therapeutic potential are discussed in relation to the treatment of genetic diseases.

  4. Perirectal mucocele after imperforate anus repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panicek, D.M.; Leeson, S.H.; Farrar, F.M.; Hitch, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A large perirectal mucocele developed in a child over an 11-year period following repair of an imperforate anus. Renal failure and large bowel obstruction secondary to compression by the mass were the presenting symptoms. Computed tomographic evaluation of the pelvis was critical for preoperative assessment of this previously unreported complication of imperforate anus repair.

  5. Other-initiated repair in Siwu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingemanse Mark

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the interactional patterns and linguistic structures associated with other-initiated repair in Siwu, a Kwa language spoken in eastern Ghana. Other-initiated repair is the set of techniques used by people to deal with problems in speaking, hearing and understanding. Formats for repair initiation in Siwu exploit language-specific resources like question words and noun class morphology. At the same time, the basic structure of the system bears a strong similarity to other-initiated repair in other languages. Practices described for Siwu thus are potentially of broader relevance to the study of other-initiated repair. This article documents how different prosodic realisations of repair initiators may index social actions and features of the speech event; how two distinct roles of repetition in repair initiators are kept apart by features of turn design; and what kinds of items can be treated as ‘dispensable’ in resayings. By charting how other-initiated repair uses local linguistic resources and yet is shaped by interactional needs that transcend particular languages, this study contributes to the growing field of pragmatic typology: the study of systems of language use and the principles that shape them.

  6. The Organization of Second Language Classroom Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Euen Hyuk (Sarah)

    1999-01-01

    Explores classroom pedagogy through a focus on classroom interaction. Takes ideas from conversation analysis as a foundation and starts to unravel some of the structures used for classroom pedagogy. Uses the notion of repair, but takes it one step further by understanding repair to be a pedagogical tool used in the English-as-a-Second-Language…

  7. Modelling in Optimal Inspection and Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rackwitz, R.; Faber, M.H.;

    1991-01-01

    A model for reliability based optimal inspection and repair strategies is described. The total expected costs in the lifetime is minimized with the number of inspections, the inspection times and efforts, the repair crack size limit and a design parameter as optimization variables. The equivalenc...

  8. Material Handling Equipment Evaluation for Crater Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    material handling equipment with a reduced logistical footprint for use by crater repair teams in airfield damage repair (ADR) scenarios. A market ...compared to currently utilized material handling equipment. This report presents the results of the market survey and equipment evaluations. Results...1 1.2 Objective and scope

  9. Pain characteristics after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolver, Mette A; Strandfelt, Pernille; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown different pain characteristics in different types of laparoscopic operations, but pain pattern has not been studied in detail after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. To optimise preoperative patient information and postoperative analgesic treatment the present study...... investigated postoperative pain in terms of time course, pain intensity and individual pain components during the first 4 days after transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repair (TAPP)....

  10. DNA repair phenotype and dietary antioxidant supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarnieri, Serena; Loft, Steffen; Riso, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    -release vitamin C tablets had increased DNA repair activity (27 (95 % CI 12, 41) % higher incision activity). These subjects also benefited from the supplementation by reduced levels of oxidised guanines in MNBC. In conclusion, nutritional status, DNA repair activity and DNA damage are linked, and beneficial...

  11. Repairs the added value of being wrong

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Grammatical structures connect systems of thought and articulation, the conditions of which hardly seem to fit each other. Repairs are productive mechanisms that solve translation problems between modules or levels by adapting derivations or representations to requirements that have to be met unconditionally. Compensating for derivational and interpretive defects, repairs

  12. Geochemical evidence of water-soluble gas accumulation in the Weiyuan gas field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengfei Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are several different opinions on the formation process of the Weiyuan gas field in the Sichuan Basin and the source of its natural gas. In view of the fact that the methane carbon isotope of the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is abnormally heavy, the geologic characteristics of gas reservoirs and the geochemical characteristics of natural gas were first analyzed. In the Weiyuan gas field, the principal gas reservoirs belong to Sinian Dengying Fm. The natural gas is mainly composed of methane, with slight ethane and trace propane. The gas reservoirs are higher in water saturation, with well preserved primary water. Then, it was discriminated from the relationship of H2S content vs. methane carbon isotope that the heavier methane carbon isotope of natural gas in this area is not caused by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR. Based on the comparison of methane carbon isotope in this area with that in adjacent areas, and combined with the tectonic evolution background, it is regarded that the natural gas in the Weiyuan gas field is mainly derived from water-soluble gas rather than be migrated laterally from adjacent areas. Some conclusions are made. First, since methane released from water is carbon isotopically heavier, the water-soluble gas accumulation after degasification results in the heavy methane carbon isotope of the gas produced from Weiyuan gas field. Second, along with Himalayan movement, great uplift occurred in the Weiyuan area and structural traps were formed. Under high temperature and high pressure, the gas dissolved in water experienced decompression precipitation, and the released natural gas accumulated in traps, consequently leading to the formation of Weiyuan gas field. Third, based on calculation, the amount of natural gas released from water which is entrapped in the Weiyuan gas field after the tectonic uplift is basically equal to the proved reserves of this field, confirming the opinion of water

  13. Natural gas origins of large and medium-scale gas fields in China sedimentary basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China sedimentary basins present abundant natural gas resource thanks to its unique geological settings.Marine highly-matured hydrocarbon source rocks,widespread coal-measure strata and low temperature Quaternary saline strata,etc.,indicate the wide foreground of China natural gas resources. Up to now,most of the petroliferous basins have been discovered to have wholesale natural gas accumulation from Precambrian,Paleozoic,Mesozoic to Cenozoic in the east,the central,the west and the coast of China.These large and medium-scale gas reservoirs are mainly composed of hydrocarbon gas with big dry coefficient,tiny non-hydrocarbon,wide carbon isotope distribution and varying origin types,the hydrocarbon gas includes coal-formed gas,oil-formed gas,biogenic gas and inorganic gas, etc.Coal-formed gas is the main type of China natural gas resources,in particular several explored large-scale gas fields(>100 billion cubic meter)of Kela 2,Sulige and Daniudi,etc.,they all belong to coal-formed gas fields or the gas fields consisting mostly of coal-formed gas.Oil-formed gas is also abundant in China marine basins,for example marine natural gas of Sichuan Basin generated from crude oil cracking gas.Primary and secondary biogenic gas fields were discovered respectively in the Qaidam Basin and Western Slope of Songliao Basin.In addition,inorganic gases are mainly distributed in the eastern China,in particular the Songliao Basin with abundant carbon dioxide accumulation,indicating that the eastern China present large exploration potential of inorganic gas.

  14. Bankart repair versus Bankart repair plus remplissage: an in vitro biomechanical comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, Jean; Diop, Amadou; Bou Ghosn, Rony; Ghosn, Rosny Bou; Lanari, Dimitri; Canonne, Adrien; Maurel, Nathalie

    2016-02-01

    To biomechanically compare Bankart lesion repair alone and Bankart lesion repair associated with infraspinatus capsulotenodesis described as «remplissage», in the treatment of combined Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. Seven pairs (right and left) of cadaveric shoulders have been tested, first without any lesion and then after performing a combined Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. For each pair, the specimens were then randomly assigned for Bankart lesion repair alone on one side or for Bankart lesion repair associated with remplissage on the other side. During tests, the shoulder was placed at 90° of abduction and at maximal external rotation, which value was recorded. A 50 N postero-anterior load was then applied to the proximal humerus, and the stiffness was calculated from the obtained load-displacement curve. Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions significantly (p Bankart lesion repair alone did not restore stiffness to the level of intact, while adding the remplissage to the Bankart lesion repair did. External rotation was significantly increased after creation of the Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesion; Bankart repair restored the external rotation to the level of intact, while Bankart lesion repair associated with remplissage significantly decreased external rotation compared with intact and to Bankart lesion repair alone. In cadaveric shoulders with combined Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions, Bankart lesion repair associated with remplissage restored intact joint stiffness contrary to Bankart lesion repair alone. This increase in stiffness was associated with a decrease in external rotation.

  15. Dravet syndrome: the main issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Renzo

    2012-09-01

    Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe form of infantile onset epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types, prolonged convulsive seizures and frequent episodes of status epilepticus. Seizures precipitated by fever are a main characteristic. Affected children exhibit normal early development. Cognitive impairment, behavioral disturbances with hyperactivity and sometimes autistic traits occur after seizure onset. Seizures persist into adulthood but become less frequent. In about 85% of patients, a mutation of the SCN1A gene is present. DS fully illustrates the concept of epileptic encephalopathy. However, it is difficult to determine the causative role of the underlying sodium channel dysfunction and that of the consequent seizures in influencing cognitive outcome. An overwhelmingly high number of SCN1A mutations have been associated with DS. Intragenic or whole gene deletions, duplications and amplifications are additional rare molecular mechanisms. Most mutations are de novo, but familial mutations also occur. Somatic mosaic mutations should be considered when estimating the recurrence. MRI imaging is usually normal, and no neuropathologic signature of the condition seems to exist. In heterozygous Scn1a+/- mice, GABAergic interneurons exhibit substantially reduced sodium current density with reduced ability for sustained action potential firing. GABAergic output is reduced and excitability of downstream synaptic targets increased. Stiripentol was effective in combination with valproate and clobazam in two pivotal phase III trials. Phenytoin, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine can worsen seizures and should be avoided. Prospective studies will clarify to what extent earlier diagnosis and efforts at seizure control with the most appropriate drug combinations will reduce clinical deterioration.

  16. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  17. Gas Transport in Bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Gutierre-Rodrigo, V.; Martin, P. I.; Romero, F. J.; Barcala, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The gas permeability of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite compacted at dry densities of between 1.4 and 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} with high water contents was measured for different confining, injection and back pressures. The results were compared with results obtained in previous investigations for lower degrees of saturation. It was checked that gas permeability was greatly affected by dry density, decreasing about three orders of magnitude when it increased from 1.5 to 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} for similar water content. The increase of water content caused also a decrease in gas permeability. It was found that both gas permeability and the relative gas permeability were mainly related to the accessible porosity. These relationships could be fitted to potential expressions with exponents between 3 and 4, as well as the relationship between intrinsic permeability and void ratio. For gas pressures below 1.2 MPa no effect of the injection or confining pressures on the value of permeability was detected. For a given confining pressure the permeability value decreased as the effective pressure increased, especially if the increase in effective pressure was due to a decrease in gas back pressure. It was checked that the Klinkenberg effect was not significant for this material in the range of pressures applied in the tests. The gas breakthrough pressure values in FEBEX saturated bentonite were determined for different dry densities. They increased clearly with dry density and were always higher than the swelling pressure of the bentonite. In high density samples gas flow tended to stop abruptly after breakthrough, whereas in lower density samples gas flow decreased gradually until a given pressure gradient was reached. The permeabilities computed after breakthrough (which usually did not stabilise) were inversely related to dry density. This would indicate that, even if the flow took place predominantly through preferential pathways that sometimes closed quickly after breakthrough and others

  18. ONSTEP versus laparoscopy for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    a learning curve of about 50-100 cases and decreases chronic pain, but slightly increases the risk of serious complications compared with open mesh repairs. Therefore, a simpler kind of operation is needed. The ONSTEP technique is a possible solution to this problem. The objective of the present randomised......INTRODUCTION: The optimal repair of inguinal hernias remains controversial. It is recommended that an inguinal hernia be repaired using a mesh, either with a laparoscopic or an open approach. In Denmark, the laparoscopic approach is used in an increasing number of cases. The laparoscopic repair has...... clinical trial described in this protocol is to evaluate chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair using the ONSTEP method versus the laparoscopic approach. METHODS: This study is designed as a non-inferiority, two-arm, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, with a 1:1 allocation to ONSTEP or laparoscopic...

  19. Convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolver, Mette Astrup; Rosenberg, Jacob; Bisgaard, Thue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duration of convalescence after inguinal hernia repair is of major socio-economic interest and an often reported outcome measure. The primary aim was to perform a critical analysis of duration of convalescence from work and activity and secondary to identify risk factors for unexpected...... prolonged convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. METHODS: A qualitative systematic review was conducted. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane database were searched for trials reporting convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in the period from January 1990 to January 2016...... factors for prolonged convalescence extending more than a few days after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. CONCLUSIONS: Patients should be recommended a duration of 1-2 days of convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Short and non-restrictive recommendations may reduce duration...

  20. Imperfect repair and lifesaving in heterogeneous populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Maxim [Department of Mathematical Statistics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, 9300 Bloemfontein (South Africa) and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail: FinkelM.SCl@mail.uovs.ac.za

    2007-12-15

    In this theoretical paper we generalize the notion of minimal repair to the heterogeneous case, when the lifetime distribution function can be modeled by continuous or a discrete mixture of distributions. The statistical (black box) minimal repair and the minimal repair based on information just before the failure of an object are considered. The corresponding failure (intensity) rate processes are defined and analyzed. Demographic lifesaving model is also considered: each life is saved (cured) with some probability (or equivalently a proportion of individuals who would have died are now resuscitated and given another chance). Those who are saved experience the statistical minimal repair. Both of these models are based on the Poisson or non-homogeneous Poisson processes of underlying events, which allow for considering heterogeneity. We also consider the new model of imperfect repair in the homogeneous case and present generalizations to the heterogeneous setting.

  1. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  2. ONSTEP versus laparoscopy for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The optimal repair of inguinal hernias remains controversial. It is recommended that an inguinal hernia be repaired using a mesh, either with a laparoscopic or an open approach. In Denmark, the laparoscopic approach is used in an increasing number of cases. The laparoscopic repair has...... a learning curve of about 50-100 cases and decreases chronic pain, but slightly increases the risk of serious complications compared with open mesh repairs. Therefore, a simpler kind of operation is needed. The ONSTEP technique is a possible solution to this problem. The objective of the present randomised...... clinical trial described in this protocol is to evaluate chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair using the ONSTEP method versus the laparoscopic approach. METHODS: This study is designed as a non-inferiority, two-arm, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, with a 1:1 allocation to ONSTEP or laparoscopic...

  3. Stochastic Modelling Of The Repairable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejczak Karol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available All reliability models consisting of random time factors form stochastic processes. In this paper we recall the definitions of the most common point processes which are used for modelling of repairable systems. Particularly this paper presents stochastic processes as examples of reliability systems for the support of the maintenance related decisions. We consider the simplest one-unit system with a negligible repair or replacement time, i.e., the unit is operating and is repaired or replaced at failure, where the time required for repair and replacement is negligible. When the repair or replacement is completed, the unit becomes as good as new and resumes operation. The stochastic modelling of recoverable systems constitutes an excellent method of supporting maintenance related decision-making processes and enables their more rational use.

  4. Instrument repair for remote eye units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Powdrill

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Many skilled eye surgeons in remote hospitals face the frustration that a simple instrument, once in good working order, is now bent or broken. Many eye units have a box containing instruments needing repair, hidden away in a stock room cupboard, in the hope that someone, someday, will be able to redeem them. This article gives guidelines on: 1 How to assess instruments and identify those that can be repaired locally, those that should be sent to a professional repair service and those that cannot be repaired at all. 2 How to make adjustments and carry out basic maintenance and repairs of surgical instruments. The article will refer primarily to instruments in an extracapsular cataract extraction set.

  5. Gas gangrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also can be caused by group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio vulnificus . Clostridium is found nearly everywhere. As the bacteria grow inside the body, it makes gas and harmful substances (toxins) that can damage body tissues, cells, and blood ...

  6. A study on gas hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byoung Jae; Jung, Tae Jin; Sunwoo, Don [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Sufficient documents were reviewed to understand solid components of water and gaseous hydrocarbon known as gas hydrates, which represent an important potential energy resource of the future. The review provides us with valuable information on crystal structures, kinetics, origin and distribution of gas hydrates. In addition, the review increased our knowledge of exploration and development methods of gas hydrates. Large amounts of methane, the principal component of natural gas, in the form of solid gas hydrate are found mainly offshore in outer continental margin sediment and, to a lesser extent, in polar regions commonly associated with permafrost. Natural gas hydrates are stable in some environments where the hydrostatic pressure exerted by overlying water column is sufficient for hydrate formation and stability. The required high pressures generally restrict gas hydrate to sediments beneath water of approximately 400 m. Higher sediment temperatures at greater subbottom depths destabilize gas hydrates. Based on the pressure- temperature condition, the outer continental margin of East Sea where water depth is deep enough to form gas hydrate is considered to have high potential of gas hydrate accumulations. (author). 56 refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Analysis of Direct Costs of Outpatient Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvy, Steven J; Ahluwalia, Avtar; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery is one of the most commonly performed orthopedic surgical procedures. We conducted a study to calculate the direct cost of arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tears confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-eight shoulders in 26 patients (mean age, 54.5 years) underwent primary rotator cuff repair by a single fellowship-trained arthroscopic surgeon in the outpatient surgery center of a major academic medical center. All patients had interscalene blocks placed while in the preoperative holding area. Direct costs of this cycle of care were calculated using the time-driven activity-based costing algorithm. Mean time in operating room was 148 minutes; mean time in recovery was 105 minutes. Calculated surgical cost for this process cycle was $5904.21. Among material costs, suture anchor costs were the main cost driver. Preoperative bloodwork was obtained in 23 cases, adding a mean cost of $111.04. Our findings provide important preliminary information regarding the direct economic costs of rotator cuff surgery and may be useful to hospitals and surgery centers negotiating procedural reimbursement for the increased cost of repairing complex tears.

  8. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  9. Ergonomic assessment for the task of repairing computers in a manufacturing company: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Macías, Aidé; Realyvásquez, Arturo; Hernández, Juan Luis; García-Alcaraz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing industry workers who repair computers may be exposed to ergonomic risk factors. This project analyzes the tasks involved in the computer repair process to (1) find the risk level for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and (2) propose ergonomic interventions to address any ergonomic issues. Work procedures and main body postures were video recorded and analyzed using task analysis, the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) postural method, and biomechanical analysis. High risk for MSDs was found on every subtask using REBA. Although biomechanical analysis found an acceptable mass center displacement during tasks, a hazardous level of compression on the lower back during computer's transportation was detected. This assessment found ergonomic risks mainly in the trunk, arm/forearm, and legs; the neck and hand/wrist were also compromised. Opportunities for ergonomic analyses and interventions in the design and execution of computer repair tasks are discussed.

  10. Laparoscopic repair of vesicovaginal fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłosz Wilczyński

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A vesicovaginal fistula is one of the complications that a gynaecologist is bound to face after oncological operations, especially in postmenopausal women. Over the years there have been introduced many techniques of surgical treatment of this entity, including transabdominal and transvaginal approaches.We present a case of a 46-year-old patient who suffered from urinary leakage via the vagina due to the presence of a vesicovaginal fistula that developed after radical abdominal hysterectomy and subsequent radiotherapy. The decision was made to repair it laparoscopically due to retracted, fibrous and scarred tissue in the vaginal apex that precluded a transvaginal approach. A small cystotomy followed by an excision of fistula borders was performed. After six-month follow-up no recurrence of the disease has been noted.We conclude that laparoscopy is an interesting alternative to traditional approaches that provides comparable results.

  11. [SOS-repair--60 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavil'gel'skiĭ, G B

    2013-01-01

    This review integrates 60 years of research on SOS-repair and SOS-mutagenesis in procaryotes and eucaryotes, from Jean Weigle experiment in 1953 year (mutagenesis of lambda bacteriophage in UV-irradiated bacteria) to the latest achievements in studying SOS-mutagenesis on all living organisms--Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria. A key role in establishing of a biochemical basis for SOS-mutagenesis belonges to the finding in 1998-1999 years that specific error-prone DNA polymerases (PolV and others) catalysed translesion synthesis on damaged DNA. This review focuses on recent studies addressing the new models for SOS-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli and Home sapiens cells.

  12. Migration and accumulation of natural gas in Kela-2 gas field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the guidance of petroleum system theory, the dynamic filling history of natural gas in the Kela-2 gas field is analyzed by using a large suite of oil and gas geochemistry evidence in combination with the tectonic evolution history and reservoir evolution history. It concludes that the Kela-2 gas field was formed by capturing the gas generated during the main gas generation period, while the late kerogen cracking gas contributed a little to the gas field. It suggests that the gas generated during the main gas generation accumulated in the early-formed wide-gentle anticline, which is the necessary condition for natural gas to re-migrate and enrich late to form the large-scale gas reservoir. The newest research shows that the filling history of gas in the Dabei-1, Yinan-2, Tuziluoke and Dina-2 gas fields was related with the natural gas accumulation in the early wide- gentle anticline as well as late re-migration and enrichment of natural gas.

  13. Natural gas in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Indian gas market is expected to be one of the fastest growing in the world over the next two decades. This paper analyses this market, highlighting the current challenges. It first looks at the industry structure, presents the main players from industry as well as government, and gives an overview of the regulatory framework. The issue of pricing remaining crucial for both upstream and downstream development, the paper looks at both supply -- domestic production and LNG imports -- and demand.

  14. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Correa; Elkin Castrillón

    2008-01-01

    The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and...

  15. Endovascular Aortic Repair of Primary Adult Coarctation: Implications and Challenges for Postoperative Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Christina E; Then, Karen L; Rankin, James A; Appoo, Jehangir J

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular aortic repair is a relatively new surgical technique used to treat a variety of aortic pathologies. Aortic coarctation traditionally has been managed with open surgical repair, involving a large posterolateral thoracotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass, and replacement of the narrowed section of the aorta with a dacron graft. Recent advances in minimally invasive aortic surgery have allowed for repair of the diseased section with an endovascular stent placed percutaneously through the groin under intraoperative fluoroscopic guidance. In this paper, the authors willfocus on the implicationsfor postoperative nursing care after endovascular repair of aortic coarctation using a case study of a 17-year-old male. This novel technique required education of the health care team with respect to implications for practice, understanding potential complications, discharge planning and follow-up. With any new surgical technique there are many questions and challenges that health care professionals raise. The main concerns expressed from the health care team stemmed from a lack of understanding of the disease pathology, and the different risk profile associated with an endovascular repair in contrast to an open repair. The authors will address these concerns in detail.

  16. Stochastic behavior of a cold standby system with maximum repair time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to analyze the stochastic behavior of a cold standby system with concept of preventive maintenance, priority and maximum repair time. For this purpose, a stochastic model is developed in which initially one unit is operative and other is kept as cold standby. There is a single server who visits the system immediately as and when required. The server takes the unit under preventive maintenance after a maximum operation time at normal mode if one standby unit is available for operation. If the repair of the failed unit is not possible up to a maximum repair time, failed unit is replaced by new one. The failure time, maximum operation time and maximum repair time distributions of the unit are considered as exponentially distributed while repair and maintenance time distributions are considered as arbitrary. All random variables are statistically independent and repairs are perfect. Various measures of system effectiveness are obtained by using the technique of semi-Markov process and RPT. To highlight the importance of the study numerical results are also obtained for MTSF, availability and profit function.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh P. Rastogi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA is one of the prime molecules, and its stability is of utmost importance for proper functioning and existence of all living systems. Genotoxic chemicals and radiations exert adverse effects on genome stability. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR (mainly UV-B: 280–315 nm is one of the powerful agents that can alter the normal state of life by inducing a variety of mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions such as cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers (CPDs, 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PPs, and their Dewar valence isomers as well as DNA strand breaks by interfering the genome integrity. To counteract these lesions, organisms have developed a number of highly conserved repair mechanisms such as photoreactivation, base excision repair (BER, nucleotide excision repair (NER, and mismatch repair (MMR. Additionally, double-strand break repair (by homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining, SOS response, cell-cycle checkpoints, and programmed cell death (apoptosis are also operative in various organisms with the expense of specific gene products. This review deals with UV-induced alterations in DNA and its maintenance by various repair mechanisms.

  18. DREMECELS: A Curated Database for Base Excision and Mismatch Repair Mechanisms Associated Human Malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Shukla

    Full Text Available DNA repair mechanisms act as a warrior combating various damaging processes that ensue critical malignancies. DREMECELS was designed considering the malignancies with frequent alterations in DNA repair pathways, that is, colorectal and endometrial cancers, associated with Lynch syndrome (also known as HNPCC. Since lynch syndrome carries high risk (~40-60% for both cancers, therefore we decided to cover all three diseases in this portal. Although a large population is presently affected by these malignancies, many resources are available for various cancer types but no database archives information on the genes specifically for only these cancers and disorders. The database contains 156 genes and two repair mechanisms, base excision repair (BER and mismatch repair (MMR. Other parameters include some of the regulatory processes that have roles in these disease progressions due to incompetent repair mechanisms, specifically BER and MMR. However, our unique database mainly provides qualitative and quantitative information on these cancer types along with methylation, drug sensitivity, miRNAs, copy number variation (CNV and somatic mutations data. This database would serve the scientific community by providing integrated information on these disease types, thus sustaining diagnostic and therapeutic processes. This repository would serve as an excellent accompaniment for researchers and biomedical professionals and facilitate in understanding such critical diseases. DREMECELS is publicly available at http://www.bioinfoindia.org/dremecels.

  19. Cartilage repair surgery: outcome evaluation by using noninvasive cartilage biomarkers based on quantitative MRI techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Pia M; Baum, Thomas; Bauer, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Erdle, Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Li, Xiaojuan; Trattnig, Siegfried; Rummeny, Ernst J; Woertler, Klaus; Welsch, Goetz H

    2014-01-01

    New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are increasingly applied as outcome measures after cartilage repair. To review the current literature on the use of quantitative MRI biomarkers for evaluation of cartilage repair at the knee and ankle. Using PubMed literature research, studies on biochemical, quantitative MR imaging of cartilage repair were identified and reviewed. Quantitative MR biomarkers detect early degeneration of articular cartilage, mainly represented by an increasing water content, collagen disruption, and proteoglycan loss. Recently, feasibility of biochemical MR imaging of cartilage repair tissue and surrounding cartilage was demonstrated. Ultrastructural properties of the tissue after different repair procedures resulted in differences in imaging characteristics. T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are applicable on most clinical 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners. Currently, a standard of reference is difficult to define and knowledge is limited concerning correlation of clinical and MR findings. The lack of histological correlations complicates the identification of the exact tissue composition. A multimodal approach combining several quantitative MRI techniques in addition to morphological and clinical evaluation might be promising. Further investigations are required to demonstrate the potential for outcome evaluation after cartilage repair.

  20. Cartilage Repair Surgery: Outcome Evaluation by Using Noninvasive Cartilage Biomarkers Based on Quantitative MRI Techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia M. Jungmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques are increasingly applied as outcome measures after cartilage repair. Objective. To review the current literature on the use of quantitative MRI biomarkers for evaluation of cartilage repair at the knee and ankle. Methods. Using PubMed literature research, studies on biochemical, quantitative MR imaging of cartilage repair were identified and reviewed. Results. Quantitative MR biomarkers detect early degeneration of articular cartilage, mainly represented by an increasing water content, collagen disruption, and proteoglycan loss. Recently, feasibility of biochemical MR imaging of cartilage repair tissue and surrounding cartilage was demonstrated. Ultrastructural properties of the tissue after different repair procedures resulted in differences in imaging characteristics. T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC, and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI are applicable on most clinical 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners. Currently, a standard of reference is difficult to define and knowledge is limited concerning correlation of clinical and MR findings. The lack of histological correlations complicates the identification of the exact tissue composition. Conclusions. A multimodal approach combining several quantitative MRI techniques in addition to morphological and clinical evaluation might be promising. Further investigations are required to demonstrate the potential for outcome evaluation after cartilage repair.

  1. Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Successfully building, flying, and maintaining the space shuttles was an immensely complex job that required a high level of detailed, precise engineering. After each shuttle landed, it entered a maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) phase. Each system was thoroughly checked and tested, and worn or damaged parts replaced, before the shuttle was rolled out for its next mission. During the MRO period, workers needed to record exactly what needed replacing and why, as well as follow precise guidelines and procedures in making their repairs. That meant traceability, and with it lots of paperwork. In 2007, the number of reports generated during electrical system repairs was getting out of hand-placing among the top three systems in terms of paperwork volume. Repair specialists at Kennedy Space Center were unhappy spending so much time at a desk and so little time actually working on the shuttle. "Engineers weren't spending their time doing technical work," says Joseph Schuh, an electrical engineer at Kennedy. "Instead, they were busy with repetitive, time-consuming processes that, while important in their own right, provided a low return on time invested." The strain of such inefficiency was bad enough that slow electrical repairs jeopardized rollout on several occasions. Knowing there had to be a way to streamline operations, Kennedy asked Martin Belson, a project manager with 30 years experience as an aerospace contractor, to co-lead a team in developing software that would reduce the effort required to document shuttle repairs. The result was System Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART) software. SMART is a tool for aggregating and applying information on every aspect of repairs, from procedures and instructions to a vehicle s troubleshooting history. Drawing on that data, SMART largely automates the processes of generating repair instructions and post-repair paperwork. In the case of the space shuttle, this meant that SMART had 30 years worth of operations

  2. Pipelines integrity management in Transportadora de Gas del Sur; Gerenciamento de la integridad de gasoductos en Transportadora de Gas del Sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espineira, Eduardo [Transportadora de Gas del Sur (TGS) (Argentina). Gerencia de Integridad de Gasoductos

    2003-07-01

    To control the integrity of a buried gas pipeline system is not an easy task for a gas pipeline operator. As the threats that affect pipeline integrity are many, it is critical to obtain, visualize, and analyze a great quantity of data in order to ensure a safe and continuous gas supply. This task becomes even more complex in the case of pipelines installed long time ago, where time pays an important role in the formation and development of defects. It is essential to maintain a policy of permanent evaluation, monitoring and repair that allows to evaluate the integrity plan developed and to make the changes that might be necessary. The TGS pipeline system consists of 7400 Km of pipe with an average age of 30 years, going across a great variety of soils and zones with distinctive geographical features that demand the continuous investment of money. This study describes the integrity plan set up by TGS and its evolution in time, including the main tasks related to information gathering and analysis, as well as all rehabilitation tasks. The evaluation of the integrity plan implementation, and the evolution of failure rates in time with respect to the related investments are also described. Finally, the analysis includes the information management systems applied by TGS such as the Geographic Information System . (author)

  3. Laparoscopic repair of hiatal hernia with mesenterioaxial volvulus of the stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuki Inaba; Yoichi Sakurai; Jun Isogaki; Yoshiyuki Komori; Ichiro Uyama

    2011-01-01

    Although mesenterioaxial gastric volvulus is an uncom-mon entity characterized by rotation at the transverse axis of the stomach, laparoscopic repair procedures have still been controversial. We reported a case of mesente-rioaxial intrathoracic gastric volvulus, which was success-fully treated with laparoscopic repair of the diaphrag-matic hiatal defect using a polytetrafluoroethylene mesh associated with Toupet fundoplication. A 70-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of upper abdominal pain. An upper gas-trointestinal series revealed an incarcerated intrathoracic mesenterioaxial volvulus of the distal portion of the stomach and the duodenum. The complete laparoscopic approach was used to repair the volvulus. The laparo-scopic procedures involved the repair of the hiatal hernia using polytetrafluoroethylene mesh and Toupet fundopli-cation. This case highlights the feasibility and effective-ness of the laparoscopic procedure, and laparoscopic repair of the hiatal defect using a polytetrafluoroethylene mesh associated with Toupet fundoplication may be use-ful for preventing postoperative recurrence of hiatal her-nia, volvulus, and gastroesophageal reflux.

  4. 49 CFR 192.367 - Service lines: General requirements for connections to main piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... connections to main piping. 192.367 Section 192.367 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY... requirements for connections to main piping. (a) Location. Each service line connection to a main must...

  5. FISH comets show that the salvage enzyme TK1 contributes to gene-specific DNA repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eDownes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1 is a salvage enzyme that phosphorylates thymidine, imported from surrounding fluids, to create dTMP, which is further phosphorylated to the DNA precursor dTTP. TK1 deficiency has for a long time been known to cause increased cellular sensitivity to DNA damage. We have examined preferential strand break repair of DNA domains in TK1+ and TK1- clones of the Raji cell line, by the Comet-FISH technique, in bulk DNA and in the actively transcribed tumour suppressor (TP53 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene regions, over 1 hour after 5Gy γ-irradiation. Results showed that repair of the TP53 and hTERT gene regions was more efficient in TK1+ compared to TK1- cells, while levels of genomic DNA repair were consistant between the two cell-lines. The targeted gene-specific repair in TK+ cells occurred rapidly, mainly over the first 15 minute repair-period. Therefore, TK1 is needed for preferential repair of actively transcribed regions, through a previously unsuspected mechanism. In principle, TK1 could exert its protective effects through supply of a supplementary dTTP pool for accurate repair of damaged genes; but Raji TK1+ cells in thymidine free media still show preferential repair of transcribed regions. TK1 therefore does not exert its protective effects through dTTP pools, but through another unidentified mechanism, which affects sensitivity to and mutagenicity by DNA damaging agents.

  6. FISH comets show that the salvage enzyme TK1 contributes to gene-specific DNA repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Katherine A.; Yasseen, Akeel A.; McKerr, George; Downes, C. S.; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a salvage enzyme that phosphorylates thymidine, imported from surrounding fluids, to create dTMP, which is further phosphorylated to the DNA precursor dTTP. TK1 deficiency has for a long time been known to cause increased cellular sensitivity to DNA damage. We have examined preferential strand break repair of DNA domains in TK1+ and TK1- clones of the Raji cell line, by the Comet-FISH technique, in bulk DNA and in the actively transcribed tumor suppressor (TP53) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene regions, over 1 h after 5Gy γ-irradiation. Results showed that repair of the TP53 and hTERT gene regions was more efficient in TK1+ compared to TK1- cells, a trend also reflected to a lesser degree in genomic DNA repair between the cell-lines. The targeted gene-specific repair in TK+ cells occurred rapidly, mainly over the first 15 min repair-period. Therefore, TK1 is needed for preferential repair of actively transcribed regions, through a previously unsuspected mechanism. In principle, TK1 could exert its protective effects through supply of a supplementary dTTP pool for accurate repair of damaged genes; but Raji TK1+ cells in thymidine free media still show preferential repair of transcribed regions. TK1 therefore does not exert its protective effects through dTTP pools, but through another unidentified mechanism, which affects sensitivity to and mutagenicity by DNA damaging agents. PMID:25152750

  7. A Comparison of Weld-Repaired and Base Metal for Inconel 718 and CRES 321 at Cryogenic and Room Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Willard, Scott A.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted to characterize the performance of Inconel 718 and CRES 321 welds, weld heat-affect-zone and parent metal at room temperature laboratory air and liquid nitrogen (-196oC) environments. The results of this study were required to predict the damage tolerance behavior of proposed orbiter main engine hydrogen fuel liner weld repairs. Experimental results show that the room and cryogenic temperature fatigue crack growth characteristics of both alloys are not significantly degraded by the weld repair process. However, both Inconel 718 and CRES 321 exhibited lower apparent toughness within the weld repair region compared to the parent metal.

  8. Management and outcomes of colovesical fistula repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Elizabeth T; Ranasinghe, Nalin E; Dallas, Kai B; Divino, Celia M

    2012-05-01

    This large retrospective study presents the largest colovesical fistula (CVF) series to date. We report on recurrence risk factors and patient satisfaction based on quality of life after CVF repair. Approval was obtained from The Mount Sinai School of Medicine Institutional Review Board, and a retrospective review was performed from 2003 to 2010 involving 72 consecutive patients who underwent a colovesical fistula repair. The CVF recurrence rate was 11 per cent. Ten percent of our patients who had a history of radiation therapy were at a significantly higher risk of developing a recurrence. Noted recurrence rates were significantly higher in advanced bladder repairs compared with simple repair (P = 0.022). The modified (Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index) surveys showed overall patient satisfaction score was 3.6, out of a maximum score of 4, regardless of the type of repair or any postoperative complications. Our study found the CVF recurrence rate to be 11 per cent. Patients at higher risk of recurrence include those needing advanced bladder repair, those with "complex" CVF, and those whose fistulas involve the urethra. Patient satisfaction was found to be more closely linked to the resolution of CVF symptoms, irrespective of the type of repair performed or development of postoperative complications.

  9. Arthroscopic Quadriceps Tendon Repair: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetomo Saito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation. Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury.

  10. Arthroscopic quadriceps tendon repair: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hidetomo; Shimada, Yoichi; Yamamura, Toshiaki; Yamada, Shin; Sato, Takahiro; Nozaka, Koji; Kijima, Hiroaki; Saito, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation). Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury.

  11. Dental materials for cleft palate repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Faiza; Ur Rehman, Ihtesham; Muhammad, Nawshad; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-04-01

    Numerous bone and soft tissue grafting techniques are followed to repair cleft of lip and palate (CLP) defects. In addition to the gold standard surgical interventions involving the use of autogenous grafts, various allogenic and xenogenic graft materials are available for bone regeneration. In an attempt to discover minimally invasive and cost effective treatments for cleft repair, an exceptional growth in synthetic biomedical graft materials have occurred. This study gives an overview of the use of dental materials to repair cleft of lip and palate (CLP). The eligibility criteria for this review were case studies, clinical trials and retrospective studies on the use of various types of dental materials in surgical repair of cleft palate defects. Any data available on the surgical interventions to repair alveolar or palatal cleft, with natural or synthetic graft materials was included in this review. Those datasets with long term clinical follow-up results were referred to as particularly relevant. The results provide encouraging evidence in favor of dental and other related biomedical materials to fill the gaps in clefts of lip and palate. The review presents the various bones and soft tissue replacement strategies currently used, tested or explored for the repair of cleft defects. There was little available data on the use of synthetic materials in cleft repair which was a limitation of this study. In conclusion although clinical trials on the use of synthetic materials are currently underway the uses of autologous implants are the preferred treatment methods to date.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries. PMID:26069565

  13. Experimental results of a residential house fire test on tenability: temperature, smoke, and gas analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, Robert J; Stec, Anna A; Walker, Richard G; Shaw, John E A; Hull, T Richard; Rhodes, Jennifer; Garcia-Sorribes, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    A fire experiment conducted in a British 1950s-style house is described. Measurements of temperature, smoke, CO, CO2 , and O2 were taken in the Lounge, stairwell, and front and back bedrooms. The front bedroom door was wedged open, while the door to the back bedroom was wedged closed. Contrary to expectations and despite the relatively small fire load, analysis and hazard calculations show permeation of toxic fire gases throughout the property with lethal concentrations of effluent being measured at each sampling point. A generally poor state of repair and missing carpets in the upper story contributed to a high degree of gas and smoke permeation. The available egress time was calculated as the time before the main escape route became impassable. Given known human responses to fire, such an incident could have caused fatalities to sleeping or otherwise immobile occupants.

  14. Modeling nucleotide excision repair and its impact on UV-induced mutagenesis during SOS-response in bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugay, Aleksandr N; Krasavin, Evgeny A; Parkhomenko, Aleksandr Yu; Vasilyeva, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    A model of the UV-induced mutation process in Escherichia coli bacteria has been developed taking into account the whole sequence of molecular events starting from initial photo-damage and finishing with the fixation of point mutations. The wild-type phenotype bacterial cells are compared with UV-sensitive repair-deficient mutant cells. Attention is mainly paid to excision repair system functioning as regards induced mutagenesis.

  15. Mitochondrial base excision repair assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The main source of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during normal cellular metabolism. The main mtDNA lesions generated by ROS are base modifications, such as the ubiquitous 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) lesion; however, base loss and strand breaks may also occur...

  16. Effect of gas pressure on ionization of ambient gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An Nd: YAG pulsed laser (145 mJ) was used to ablate aluminum target and Ar was used as protecting gas. Time-and space-resolved spectra of the plasmas under pressure 100 Pa, 1 kPa, 10 kPa and 100 kPa were acquired with time- and space-resolved technique. The characteristics of the plasma radiating under each pressure were briefly described, and the laws of Ar characteristical radiaton were analyzed in detail. Based on the profile of Ar characteristical radiation under these pressure, the relation between protecting gas pressure and its ionization was briefly discussed, and explained with quantum theory. Farther more, the mechanism of ambient gas ionization was investigated. As the result, it was suggested that the main mechanism inducing protecting gas to ionize should be the absorption of the plasma continuum radiation by the gas.

  17. Evaluation of injectable constructs for bone repair with a subperiosteal cranial model in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kisiel, M.; Klar, A.S.; Martino, M.M.; Ventura, M.; Hilborn, J.

    2013-01-01

    While testing regenerative medicine strategies, the use of animal models that match the research questions and that are related to clinical translation is crucial. During the initial stage of evaluating new strategies for bone repair, the main goal is to state whether the strategies efficiently indu

  18. Consonantal and Syllabic Repairs of Arabic and Dutch Loanwords in Indonesian: A Phonological Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batais, Saleh Saeed

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation study aims to contribute mainly to the field of loanword phonology in general and particularly to Indonesian and its phonology that are rarely studied to date. The study investigates what consonantal and syllabic repair strategies are employed by Indonesian in adapting Arabic and Dutch loanwords, whether these adaptation…

  19. Factors influencing success of pelvic organ prolapse repair using porcine dermal implant Pelvicol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, T.A. de; Gietelink, D.A.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors influencing pelvic organ prolapse (POP) recurrence after repair surgery with a porcine dermal collagen implant (Pelvicol). STUDY DESIGN: From December 2003 to August 2005, 78 patients with mainly stage 3 pelvic organ prolapse by the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification

  20. Chronic pain after childhood groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Kehlet, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to the well-described 10% risk of chronic pain affecting daily activities after adult groin hernia repair, chronic pain after childhood groin hernia repair has never been investigated. Studies of other childhood surgery before the age of 3 months suggest a risk of increased...... pain responsiveness later in life, but its potential relationship to chronic pain in adult life is unknown. METHODS: This was a nationwide detailed questionnaire study of chronic groin pain in adults having surgery for a groin hernia repair before the age of 5 years (n = 1075). RESULTS: The response...

  1. Repair of umbilical and epigastric hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, David B; McLellan, Jennifer A

    2013-10-01

    Umbilical and epigastric hernias are primary midline defects that are present in up to 50% of the population. In the United States, only about 1% of the population carries this specific diagnosis, and only about 11% of these are repaired. Repair is aimed at symptoms relief or prevention, and the patient's goals and expectations should be explicitly identified and aligned with the health care team. This article details some relevant and interesting anatomic issues, reviews existing data, and highlights some common and important surgical techniques. Emphasis is placed on a patient-centered approach to the repair of umbilical and epigastric hernias.

  2. Open preperitoneal groin hernia repair with mesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted and reported according to the PRISMA statement. PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase were searched systematically. Studies were included if they provided clinical data with more than 30 days follow up following repair of an inguinal hernia with an open preperitoneal mesh......Background For the repair of inguinal hernias, several surgical methods have been presented where the purpose is to place a mesh in the preperitoneal plane through an open access. The aim of this systematic review was to describe preperitoneal repairs with emphasis on the technique. Data sources...

  3. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center

  4. Method of repairing discontinuity in fiberglass structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, L. L.; Helbert, W. B., Jr.; Enie, R. B.; Mulliken, R. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Damaged fiberglass structures are repaired by substantially filling the irregular surfaced damaged area with a liquid, self-curing resin, preferably an epoxy resin mixed with chopped fiberglass, and then applying to the resin surface the first of several woven fiberglass swatches which has stitching in a zig-zag pattern parallel to each of its edges and a fringe of warp and fill glass fibers about the edges outward of the stitching. The method is especially applicable to repair of fiberglass rocket engine casings and is particularly advantageous since it restores the repaired fiberglass structure to substantially its original strength without any significant changes in the geometry or mass of the structure.

  5. Distributed Dynamic Price Mechanism in The New Gas Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In the near future, the Dutch gas distribution is changing due to the decline of domestic gas production and the increase of renewable gas from a share of 0.1% to 8 - 12% and 15 - 20% in 2020 and 2030, respectively [1]. The renewable gas are mainly produced by farmers. Hence, they can be both produc

  6. MAIN PROBLEMS OF CONTROLLING OF THE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlling of statistical methods to ensure product quality is the special case of controlling organizational and economic methods of management. Today, controlling in the practice of management of Russian companies is understood as "the system of information-analytical and methodological support to achieve their goals." The controller is developing a decision-making rules, the head takes decisions on the basis of these rules. We proved the concept of "controlling of methods". Innovation in management is based, in particular, on the use of new adequate organizational-economic (as well as economicmathematical and statistical methods. Controlling in this area - is the development and application procedures of compliance management used and newly developed (implemented organizationaleconomic methods for the task. Thus, the methodology for controlling is of great practical value in any field in which the actions (operations must be carried out in accordance with certain rules (regulations, standards, guidelines, as in any such area in which we need to use development and application procedures of compliance management used and the newly established (implemented rules for solution of tasks assigned to the organization. In this article, we select a area of controlling as controlling quality, and we discuss its main issues. This is about controlling of organizational-economic methods to ensure product quality, especially about the statistical methods based on probability theory and mathematical statistics. We consider the analysis and synthesis of plans of statistical quality control, optimization options plans of statistical control, truncated plans. Are discussed the differences control plans provider and the consumer, the allocation of units formless (liquid, gas products, the selection of a random sample of the statistical quality control of products, lower estimate of the required sample size. It is established, that is not always necessary

  7. The modified Koyanagi hypospadias repair for the one-stage repair of proximal hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata R Jayanthi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Perineal and penoscrotal hypospadias were often managed by two-stage urethroplasty with variable results and significant number of these may need third surgery. Though modified Koyanagi one-stage repair has a learning curve, it has all the advantages of two-stage repair. The aim was to review the results of modified Koyonagi repair from the literature and our own centre experience.

  8. Flue Gas Desulfurization at Navy Bases, Navy Energy Guidance Study. Phase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    inconvenient 19 Reagent feed rate Weight belt mechanism Wear System becomes inoperable control if not repaired 20 Flue gas flow meter Annubar type flow Plugging...required: 3) Rotor NI System becomes S - Normal operation balance inoperable A - Rebalance fan Flue gas flow 4) Annubar Plugging with System function

  9. 46 CFR 196.30-10 - Notice required before repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice required before repair. 196.30-10 Section 196.30... OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-10 Notice required before repair. (a) No repairs or alterations, except in an emergency, shall be made to any lifesaving or fire...

  10. 40 CFR 63.171 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 63.171... Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks § 63.171 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected is allowed if repair within 15 days...

  11. 40 CFR 61.242-10 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 61.242-10... Leaks (Fugitive Emission Sources) § 61.242-10 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if repair within 15 days is...

  12. 40 CFR 60.692-6 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 60.692-6... From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-6 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of facilities that are subject to the provisions of this subpart will be allowed if the repair...

  13. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  14. 46 CFR 97.30-10 - Notice required before repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice required before repair. 97.30-10 Section 97.30-10... OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-10 Notice required before repair. (a) No repairs or alterations, except in an emergency, shall be made to any lifesaving or fire...

  15. 40 CFR 61.350 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 61.350... Waste Operations § 61.350 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of facilities or units that are subject to the provisions of this subpart will be allowed if the repair is technically...

  16. 40 CFR 265.1059 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 265.1059... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1059 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if the repair...

  17. 40 CFR 264.1059 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 264.1059... Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1059 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if the repair is...

  18. Recent trends in repair and refurbishing of steam turbine components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Bhaduri; S K Albert; S K Ray; P Rodriguez

    2003-06-01

    The repair and refurbishing of steam generator components is discussed from the perspective of repair welding philosophy including applicable codes and regulations. Some case histories of repair welding of steam generator components are discussed with special emphasis on details of repair welding of cracked steam turbine blades and shrouds in some of the commercial nuclear power plants using procedures developed.

  19. 49 CFR 396.3 - Inspection, repair, and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection, repair, and maintenance. 396.3 Section..., REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.3 Inspection, repair, and maintenance. (a) General. Every motor carrier and... and maintenance operations to be performed; (3) A record of inspection, repairs, and...

  20. A Minimum Cost Flow model for Level of Repair Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.

    2008-01-01

    Given a product design and a repair network for capital goods, a level of repair analysis determines for each component in the product (1) whether it should be discarded or repaired upon failure and (2) at which location in the repair network to do this. In this paper, we show how the problem can be