WorldWideScience

Sample records for repaired incisions increases

  1. STUDY OF VARIOUS MODALITIES IN MANAGEMENT OF INCISION HERNIA REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Rachha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Incisional hernias are a major problem following abdominal surgery and their repairs are among the common surgeries done by a general surgeon.1 Besides the preoperative factors such as anaemia, BMI over 25 kg/m2 and smoking which are leading causes contributing to the development of Incisional hernia, laparotomy performed through the abdominal incision doubles the risk of IH.2 In addition, wound infection, increases the risk of IH formation by 1.9 times.3 If left unattended they may attain large size therefore cause discomfort and lead to the complications like Obstruction, Strangulation, Incarceration increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality.4 Treatment of IH involves further major surgery and the results may be poor, with the recurrence rates of up to 49% reported.5 A wide spectrum of surgical techniques have been developed and recommended ranging from sutured techniques to the various types of prosthetic mesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 patients were studied who presented to emergency department with incisional hernias during August 2014 – September 2016 at Gandhi Medical College and Hospital. All patients underwent definitive treatment. RESULTS From our study it is observed that 1. The maximum cases of incisional hernias presenting to the emergency surgical department were found to be in 51-60 years age group. 2. There was female preponderance. 3. Obstruction is the most common presenting symptom found in 60% of cases followed by irreducibility (33.3% and strangulation (6.67%. 4. The onset of incisional hernias is more after 10 years following previous surgery. 5. Among 30 patients, bowel was viable in 18 patients (60% and mesh repair was done in 13 patients. Bowel was gangrenous in 12 patients (40% and anatomical repair was done in 17 patients. 6. Out of 30, women got infected in 11 patients (36.67% wound dehiscence noted in 5 patients (16.67%. 7. The recurrence rate was 6.67% with 6 months follow up. CONCLUSION 1. The mean

  2. A new incision for unilateral cleft lip repair developed using animated simulation of repair on computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahay A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unilateral cleft lip repair continues to leave behind some amount of dissatisfaction, as a scope for further improvement is always felt. Most surgeons do not like to deviate from the standard Millard′s/ triangular techniques, or their minor modifications, as no one likes to experiment on the face for fear of unfavourable outcomes. The computer can be utilized as a useful tool in the analysis and planning of surgery and new methods can be developed and attempted subsequently with greater confidence. Aim: We decided to see if an improved lip repair could be developed with the use of computers. Materials and Methods: Analysis of previous lip repairs was done to determine where an improvement was required. Movement of tissues, by simulating an ideal repair, using image warping software, on digital images of cleft lip was studied in animation sequences. A repair which could reproduce these movements was planned. A new incision emerged, which had combined the principles of Millard′s and Randall / Tennyson repairs, with additional features. The new method was performed on 30 cases. Conclusions: The results were encouraging as the shortcomings of these methods were minimized, and the advantages maximized.

  3. In vitro conjunctival incision repair by temperature-controlled laser soldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Galia; Rabi, Yaron; Assia, Ehud; Katzir, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    The common method of closing conjunctival incisions is by suturing, which is associated with several disadvantages. It requires skill to apply and does not always provide a watertight closure, which is required in some operations (e.g., glaucoma filtration). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate laser soldering as an alternative method for closing conjunctival incisions. Conjunctival incisions of 20 ex vivo porcine eyes were laser soldered using a temperature-controlled fiberoptic laser system and an albumin mixed with indocyanine green as a solder. The control group consisted of five repaired incisions by a 10-0 nylon running suture. The leak pressure of the repaired incisions was measured. The mean leak pressure in the laser-soldered group was 132 mm Hg compared to 4 mm Hg in the sutured group. There was no statistically significant difference in both the incision's length and distance from the limbus between the groups, before and after the procedure, indicating that there was no severe thermal damage. These preliminary results clearly demonstrate that laser soldering may be a useful method for achieving an immediate watertight conjunctival wound closure. This procedure is faster and easier to apply than suturing.

  4. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) inguinal hernia repair - recent clinical experiences of this novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussra, Y; Sutton, P A; Kosai, N R; Razman, J; Mishra, R K; Harunarashid, H; Das, S

    2013-01-01

    Inguinal hernia remains the most commonly encountered surgical problem. Various methods of repair have been described, and the most suitable one debated. Single port access (SPA) surgery is a rapidly evolving field, and has the advantage of affording 'scarless' surgery. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) for inguinal hernia repair is seen to be feasible in both total extraperitoneal (TEP) and transabdominal pre-peritoneal (TAPP) approaches. Data and peri-operative information on both of these however are limited. We aimed to review the clinical experience, feasibility and short term complications related to laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair via single port access. A literature search was performed using Google Scholar, Springerlink Library, Highwire Press, Surgical Endoscopy Journal, World Journal of Surgery and Medscape. The following search terms were used: laparoscopic hernia repair, TAPP, TEP, single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). Fourteen articles in English language related to SILS inguinal hernia repair were identified. Nine articles were related to TEP repair and the remaining 5 to TAPP. A total of 340 patients were reported within these studies: 294 patients having a TEP repair and 46 a TAPP. Only two cases of recurrence were reported. Various ports have been utilized, including the SILS port, Tri-Port and a custom- made port using conventional laparoscopic instruments. The duration of surgery was 40-100 minutes and the average length of hospital stay was one day. Early outcomes of this novel technique show it to be feasible, safe and with potentially better cosmetic outcome.

  5. Repair of a submucous cleft palate by W-pushback and levator repositioning without incision to the nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun

    2012-03-01

    The author created an innovative method of W-pushback and levator repositioning without having to make an incision to the nasal mucosa for submucous cleft palate repair.The W-shaped mucoperiosteal flap is outlined where the 2 peaks of W are the alveolar processes of both canine teeth and the midpoint of W is the anterior limit of the cleft notch of the hard palate. A short incision, medial to and behind the maxillary tuberosity and curved forward onto the palate and extended forward just medial to the alveolar process, is joined by a second incision from the apex of the cleft to the region of the canine tooth. The W-shaped mucoperiosteal flap is raised until the midline notch of the hard palate is exposed. The nasal mucosa and abnormally inserted levator veli palatini muscle to the posterior border of the hard palate bone are detached. By leaving the nasal mucosa intact, the detached levator veli palatini muscle is approximated at the midline and so the zona pellucida is obliterated. The cleft uvulas are cut in half and closed. The approximated W-flap is joined to the small anterior flap by 1 or more sutures (the W-pushback).Three patients were operated on with this technique without serious complications.The author believes that this method can make the levator sling and increase the length of the soft palate without making an incision to the nasal mucosa.

  6. Behaviour of UV-sensitive mutants of Proteus mirabilis to repair incision breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoerl, K.; Mund, C.

    1977-01-01

    In U.V.-sensitive mutants of P. mirabilis with the phenotype HCR, REC and EXR single-strand breaks appeared immediately after UV-irradiation. The behaviour of REC- and EXR-mutants was similar to the wildtype. The number of incision breaks observed by sedimentation analysis in these strains was very low. They could be joined during the excision repair process. From the ability of REC- and EXR-strains to rejoin most of the induced single-strand breaks it can be concluded that these strains have approximately the same capacity for excision repair as the wildtype. HCR-mutants of P. mirabilis produced single-strand breaks after UV-irradiation in contrast to HCR-mutants of E. coli. Therefore we suggest that HCR-mutants of P. mirabilis are not completely inhibited in the incision step. The single-strand breaks introduced in the DNA at the beginning of the repair process were not rejoined during further incubation. Experiments with toluenized cells led to the same results. The newly synthesized daughter DNA-strands of UV-irradiated HCR-mutants were of low molecular weight in comparison with those from unirradiated control cells during the repair period. This result is in agreement with the incapability of HCR-mutants to remove the pyrimidine dimers from the parental template strand. (author)

  7. A Simple Method for Closure of Urethrocutaneous Fistula after Tubularized Incised Plate Repair: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mehdi; Ariafar, Ali; Babaei, Amir Hossein; Ashrafzadeh, Abdosamad; Adib, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF) is the most prevalent complication after hypospadias repair surgery. Many methods have been developed for UCF correction, and the best technique for UCF repair is determined based on the size, location, and number of fistulas, as well as the status of the surrounding skin. In this study, we introduced and evaluated a simple method for UCF correction after tubularized incised plate (TIP) repair. This clinical study was conducted on children with UCFs ≤ 4 mm that developed after TIP surgery for hypospadias repair. The skin was incised around the fistula and the tract was released from the surrounding tissues and the dartos fascia, then ligated with 5 - 0 polydioxanone (PDS) sutures. The dartos fascia, as the second layer, was covered on the fistula tract with PDS thread (gauge 5 - 0) by the continuous suture method. The skin was closed with 6 - 0 Vicryl sutures. After six months of follow-up, surgical outcomes were evaluated based on fistula relapse and other complications. After six months, relapse occurred in only one patient, a six-year-old boy with a single 4-mm distal opening, who had undergone no previous fistula repairs. Therefore, in 97.5% of the cases, relapse was non-existent. Other complications, such as urethral stenosis, intraurethral obstruction, and epidermal inclusion cysts, were not seen in the other patients during the six-month follow-up period. This repair method, which is simple, rapid, and easily learned, is highly applicable, with a high success rate for the closure of UCFs measuring up to 4 mm in any location.

  8. Minimal Incision Scar-Less Open Umbilical Hernia Repair in Adults - Technical Aspects and Short Term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanoop Koshy Zachariah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no gold standard technique for umbilical hernia repair .Conventional open umbilical hernia repair often produces an undesirable scar. Laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair requires multiple incisions beyond the umbilicus, specialized equipments, and expensive tissue separating mesh. We describe our technique of open umbilical hernia repair utilizing a small incision. The technique was derived from our experience with single incision laparoscopy. We report the technical details and short term results. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the first 20 patients who underwent minimal incision scar-less open umbilical hernia repair, from June 2011 to February 2014. A single intra-umbilical curved incision was used to gain access to the hernia sac. Primary suture repair was performed for defects upto 2cm.Larger defects were repaired using an onlay mesh. In patients with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater, onlay mesh hernioplasty was performed irrespective of the defect size.Results: A total of 20 patients, 12 males and 8 females underwent the procedure. Mean age was 50 (range 29 - 82 years. Mean BMI was 26.27 (range 20. -33.1 kg/m2. Average size of the incision was 1.96 range (1.5 to 2.5 cm. Mesh hernioplasty was done in 9 patients. 11 patients underwent primary suture repair alone. There were no postoperative complications associated with his technique. Average post operative length of hospital stay was 3.9 (range 2-10 days. Mean follow-up was 29.94 months, (2 weeks to 2.78 years. On follow up there was no externally visible scar in any of the patients. There were no recurrences on final follow up. Conclusion: This technique provides a similar cosmetic effect as obtained from single port laparoscopy. It is easy to perform safe, offers good cosmesis, does not require incisions beyond the umbilicus and cost effective, with encouraging results on short term follow up. Further research is needed to assess the true potential of the

  9. Evidence that novobiocin and nalidixic acid do not inhibit excision repair in u.v.-irradiated human skin fibroblasts at a pre-incision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyse, S.M.; Tyrrell, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of novobiocin and nalidixic acid on the specific toxicity of aphidicolin towards u.v. irradiated arrested human skin fibroblasts have been determined. Contrary to the result expected if either drug were causing inhibition of excision repair at a pre-incision step the sector of toxicity due to a combined treatment of 300 μg ml -1 nalidixic acid and 1.0 μg ml -1 aphidicolin is unchanged when compared with that due to treatment with 1.0 μg ml -1 aphidicolin alone, while that for 150 μg ml -1 novobiocin + 1.0 μg ml -1 aphidicolin was slightly increased. In parallel measurements of the inhibition of u.v.-induced DNA repair synthesis in arrested fibroblasts by these drugs, 150 μg ml -1 novobiocin inhibited repair synthesis by approx.60% over the fluence range employed. Nalidixic acid (300 μg ml -1 ) caused no detectable inhibition of repair synthesis. It was concluded that the mode of action of novobiocin in the inhibition of DNA excision repair is not via the inhibition of a pre-incision step and the data do not support the hypothesis that a type II topoisomerase mediated change in DNA supercoiling is an essential early step in excision repair of u.v.-induced damage. (author)

  10. Evidence that novobiocin and nalidixic acid do not inhibit excision repair in u.v.-irradiated human skin fibroblasts at a pre-incision step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyse, S.M.; Tyrrell, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of novobiocin and nalidixic acid on the specific toxicity of aphidicolin towards u.v. irradiated arrested (nondividing) human skin fibroblasts have been determined. Contrary to the result expected if either drug were causing inhibition of excision repair at a pre-incision step the sector of toxicity due to a combined treatment of 300 micrograms ml -1 nalidixic acid and 1.0 micrograms ml -1 aphidicolin is unchanged when compared with that due to treatment with 1.0 micrograms ml -1 aphidicolin alone, while that for 150 micrograms ml -1 novobiocin + 1.0 micrograms ml -1 aphidicolin was slightly increased. In parallel measurements of the inhibition of u.v.-induced DNA repair synthesis in arrested fibroblasts by these drugs, 150 micrograms ml -1 novobiocin inhibited repair synthesis by approximately 60% over the fluence range employed. Nalidixic acid at a concentration of 300 micrograms ml -1 caused no detectable inhibition of repair synthesis. The authors conclude that the mode of action of novobiocin in the inhibition of DNA excision repair is not via the inhibition of a pre-incision step and the data do not support the hypothesis that a type II topoisomerase mediated change in DNA supercoiling is an essential early step in excision repair of u.v.-induced damage

  11. Comparison between Tubularised Incised Plate Urethroplasty and Onlay Island Flap Repair in Mid and Proximal Penile Hypospadias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javid, L.; Pansota, M. S.; Ahmad, I.; Tariq, M.; Tabassum, S. A. [Bahawal Victoria Hospital Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur (Pakistan). Dept. of Urology

    2014-04-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the surgical outcome of tubularised incised plate urethroplasty and onlay island flap repair for mid and proximal penile hypospadias. Methods: The prospective study was conducted at the Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur from June 2011 to May 2013. A total of 60 patients with mid and proximal penile hypospadias in the age range of 02 to 06 years were included. Patients with hypospadias other than mid and proximal penile, with chordee and history of previous hypospadias repair were excluded. Patients were divided into two equal groups. Urethroplasty was done for group I and flap repair for group II. The follow-up period was 12-24 months. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean duration of surgery was 62+-8.72 minutes for group I and 90+-11.25 minutes for group II (p<0.0001). In group I, only 03 (10.0%) patients had complications, while in group II, 09 (30.0%) patients developed complications (p=0.02). Cosmetic results were also excellent in group I compared to group II. Conclusion: Tubularised incised plate urethroplasty was better and superior than onlay island flap repair in terms of less operative time, complication rate and satisfactory cosmetic results for mid and proximal penile hypospadias. (author)

  12. Comparison between tubularised incised plate urethroplasty and onlay island flap repair in mid and proximal penile hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Latif; Pansota, Mudassar Saeed; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Tariq, Muhammad; Tabassum, Shafqat Ali

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the surgical outcome of tubularised incised plate urethroplasty and onlay island flap repair for mid and proximal penile hypospadias. The prospective study was conducted at the Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur from June 2011 to May 2013. A total of 60 patients with mid and proximal penile hypospadias in the age range of 02 to 06 years were included. Patients with hypospadias other than mid and proximal penile, with chordee and history of previous hypospadias repair were excluded. Patients were divided into two equal groups. Urethroplasty was done for group I and flap repair for group II. The follow-up period was 12-24 months. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. The mean duration of surgery was 62 +/- 8.72 minutes for group I and 90 +/- 11.25 minutes for group II (p < 0.0001). In group I, only 03 (10.0%) patients had complications, while in group II, 09 (30.0%) patients developed complications (p = 0.02). Cosmetic results were also excellent in group I compared to group II. Tubularised incised plate urethroplasty was better and superior than onlay island flap repair in terms of less operative time, complication rate and satisfactory cosmetic results for mid and proximal penile hypospadias.

  13. Comparison between Tubularised Incised Plate Urethroplasty and Onlay Island Flap Repair in Mid and Proximal Penile Hypospadias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, L.; Pansota, M.S.; Ahmad, I.; Tariq, M.; Tabassum, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the surgical outcome of tubularised incised plate urethroplasty and onlay island flap repair for mid and proximal penile hypospadias. Methods: The prospective study was conducted at the Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur from June 2011 to May 2013. A total of 60 patients with mid and proximal penile hypospadias in the age range of 02 to 06 years were included. Patients with hypospadias other than mid and proximal penile, with chordee and history of previous hypospadias repair were excluded. Patients were divided into two equal groups. Urethroplasty was done for group I and flap repair for group II. The follow-up period was 12-24 months. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean duration of surgery was 62+-8.72 minutes for group I and 90+-11.25 minutes for group II (p<0.0001). In group I, only 03 (10.0%) patients had complications, while in group II, 09 (30.0%) patients developed complications (p=0.02). Cosmetic results were also excellent in group I compared to group II. Conclusion: Tubularised incised plate urethroplasty was better and superior than onlay island flap repair in terms of less operative time, complication rate and satisfactory cosmetic results for mid and proximal penile hypospadias. (author)

  14. Open fenestration of the distal landing zone via a subxyphoid incision for subsequent endovascular repair of a dissecting thoracic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Renske; de Bruin, Jorg L; Wisselink, Willem

    2013-02-01

    To describe a novel hybrid technique to address two challenges in endovascular repair of chronic dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm (dTAA): obtaining an adequate seal of the stent-graft in a half-moon-shaped fibrotic aortic lumen and preserving flow into the distal true and false lumens. The technique is demonstrated in a 52-year-old man who presented with progressive asymptomatic dilatation of the thoracic aorta 9 years after undergoing a Bentall procedure for a Stanford type A dissection followed by arch replacement and elephant trunk construction. Imaging at this admission showed a 6.8-cm dissecting aneurysm extending distally to ∼4 cm above the celiac trunk; the dissection included both common iliac arteries. The patient refused a thoracotomy, so a hybrid procedure was devised to resect the intimal flap via a median subxyphoid incision and transperitoneal approach through the lesser sac. Two overlapping Zenith TX-2 stent-grafts were deployed into the elephant trunk, terminating just above the surgically created "flow divider" at the level of the celiac trunk. Imaging showed adequate sealing at both ends of the stent-graft and a type II endoleak that persisted into follow-up, but the aneurysm diameter decreased to 6.4 cm, and there was unobstructed flow into the visceral, renal, and iliac arteries. In this case of chronic dTAA, open surgical removal of a segment of the dissection flap via a subxyphoid incision provided a distal landing zone for subsequent endoluminal repair, with exclusion of the aneurysm and preservation of antegrade flow in both true and false lumens.

  15. Incision and Landsliding Lead to Coupled Increase in Sediment Flux and Grain Size Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda-Boluda, D. C.; Brooke, S.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Whittaker, A. C.; Armitage, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The rates and grain sizes of sediment fluxes modulate the dynamics and timing of landscape response to tectonics, and dictate the depositional patterns of sediment in basins. Over the last decades, we have gained a good quantitative understanding on how sediment flux and grain size may affect incision and basin stratigraphy. However, we comparably still have limited knowledge on how these variables change with varying tectonic rates. To address this question, we have studied 152 catchments along 8 normal fault-bounded ranges in southern Italy, which are affected by varying fault slip rates and experiencing a transient response to tectonics. Using a data set of 38 new and published 10Be erosion rates, we calibrate a sediment flux predictive equation (BQART), in order to estimate catchment sediment fluxes. We demonstrate that long-term sediment flux is governed by fault slip rates and the tectonically-controlled transient incision, and that sediment flux estimates from the BQART, steady-state assumptions, and incised volumes are highly correlated. This is supported by our 10Be erosion rates, which are controlled by fault slip and incision rates, and the associated landsliding. Based on a new landslide inventory, we show that erosion rate differences are likely due to differences in incision-related landslide activity across these catchments, and that landslides are a major component of sediment fluxes. From a data set of >13000 grain size counts on hillslope grain size supply and fluvial sediment at catchment outlets, we observe that landslides deliver material 20-200% coarser than other sediment sources, and that this coarse supply has an impact on the grain size distributions being exported from the catchments. Combining our sediment flux and grain size data sets, we are able to show that for our catchments, and potentially also for any areas that respond to changes in climate or tectonics via enhanced landsliding, sediment flux and grain size export increase

  16. Structural and Functional Studies on Nucleotide Excision Repair From Recognition to Incision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Kisker

    2001-01-01

    Maintenance of the correct genetic information is crucial for all living organisms because mutations are the primary cause of hereditary diseases, as well as cancer and may also be involved in aging. The importance of genomic integrity is underscored by the fact that 80 to 90% of all human cancers are ultimately due to DNA damage. Among the different repair mechanisms that have evolved to protect the genome, nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a universal pathway found in all organisms. NER removes a wide variety of bulky DNA adducts including the carcinogenic cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers induced by UV radiation, benzo(a)pyrene-guanine adducts caused by smoking and the guanine-cisplatin adducts induced by chemotherapy. The importance of this repair mechanism is reflected by three severe inherited diseases in humans, which are due to defects in NER: xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne's syndrome and trichothiodystrophy.

  17. Tubularized proximally-incised plate in distal/midshaft hypospadias repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the validity, feasibility, and the functional results, by uroflowmetry, of Tubularized proximallyincised plate technique in selected case of distal/midshaft hypospadias. Out of 120 patients scheduled to undergo TIP (or Snodgrass procedure, 23 were selected between January 2013 and January 2016 (19.1%. This case series comprised 16 patients with distal and 7 with midshaft hypospadias. Mean age at surgery was 2.9 years. The inclusion criteria were a deep and wide glandular groove and a proximal narrow urethral plate. The procedure was carried out as described by Snodgrass but the incision of the urethral plate, including the mucosal and submucosal tissue, was made only proximally, between the original meatus and the glandular groove in no case extending to the entire length of the plate. Postoperatively a foley catheter was left in place from 4 to 7 days. Uroflowmetry was performed when the patients age ranged from 2.5 to 5.7 years (mean age 3.11 years and mean follow-up 1.8 years, body surface 2. No patient presented fistulas nor perioperative complications. At uroflowmetry, eighteen patients presented values above the 25th percentile and 5 showed a borderline flow. All patients in this group remained stable without urinary symptoms. In selected cases, the tubularized proximally-incised plate yields satisfactory cosmetic and functional results for the treatment of midshaft proximal hypospadias. A long-term follow-up study is needed for further evaluation. Patient selection is crucial for the success of this technique.

  18. Increased rate of repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA strand breaks in mitogen stimulated lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, S.M.; Lavin, M.F.; Jennings, P.A. (Queensland Univ., St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Biochemistry; Queensland Univ., St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Veterinary Pathology; Queensland Univ. St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Public Health)

    1982-05-01

    Previous results have shown that phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes exhibit a peak of ultraviolet-induced DNA repair synthesis 3 to 4 days after addition of mitogen. The level of repair synthesis was approximately tenfold higher than that in unstimulated lymphocytes. These studies have been extended to examine the rate of repair of strand breaks in U.V.-irradiated bovine lymphocytes. The extent of breakage of DNA was shown to be the same in mitogen-stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes from two breeds of cattle, when determined by sedimentation of nucleoids on sucrose gradients. However, in mitogen-stimulated cells the time taken to repair DNA strand breaks was 6 hours compared with 12 hours in stationary phase lymphocytes after a U.V. dose of 5 J/m/sup 2/. These results suggest that the increased rate of repair of strand breaks is due to the induction of enzymes involved at the post-incision stage of DNA repair. Thus the increased level of repair synthesis observed in earlier work correlates with an increased rate of repair of DNA strand breaks in phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes.

  19. Increased rate of repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA strand breaks in mitogen stimulated lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlet, S.M.; Lavin, M.F.; Jennings, P.A.; Queensland Univ., St. Lucia; Queensland Univ. St. Lucia

    1982-01-01

    Previous results have shown that phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes exhibit a peak of ultraviolet-induced DNA repair synthesis 3 to 4 days after addition of mitogen. The level of repair synthesis was approximately tenfold higher than that in unstimulated lymphocytes. These studies have been extended to examine the rate of repair of strand breaks in U.V.-irradiated bovine lymphocytes. The extent of breakage of DNA was shown to be the same in mitogen-stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes from two breeds of cattle, when determined by sedimentation of nucleoids on sucrose gradients. However, in mitogen-stimulated cells the time taken to repair DNA strand breaks was 6 hours compared with 12 hours in stationary phase lymphocytes after a U.V. dose of 5 J/m 2 . These results suggest that the increased rate of repair of strand breaks is due to the induction of enzymes involved at the post-incision stage of DNA repair. Thus the increased level of repair synthesis observed in earlier work correlates with an increased rate of repair of DNA strand breaks in phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes. (author)

  20. Wound repair in rat urinary bladder following electrocautery or holmium laser incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzi, Giordano; Schmidlin, Franz R.; Gabbiani, Giulio; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Pittet, Brigitte; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; Iselin, Christoph E.

    1999-06-01

    Woundhealing is a complex phenomenon which varies according the type of tissue but is also depending from the type of tissue injury. Electrocautery mainly induces coagulation necrosis while thermal damages induced by the Holmium laser primarily lead to tissue vaporization which may induce less tissue injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing process of the Holmium laser induced lesions compared to electrocautery induced lesions in urothelial tissue by assessing the inflammatory response and myofibroblast behavior in sequential healing phases. A surgical wound was created in the urinary rat bladder of 32 rats either by electrocautery or by laser (N=16). The inflammatory response, the total lesion depth and the myofibroblast activity during woundhealing was then analyzed on a qualitative basis on days 0/2/4/8. The overall inflammatory response was comparable in both groups up to days two and four. However, at day eight less cellular inflammatory reaction and less myofibroblast activity was found in the specimen of lesions created by the Holmium laser. These results suggest that wound repair may be a less invasive process after Holmium laser than electrocautery.

  1. The DNA Repair Repertoire of Mycobacterium smegmatis FenA Includes the Incision of DNA 5' Flaps and the Removal of 5' Adenylylated Products of Aborted Nick Ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uson, Maria Loressa; Ghosh, Shreya; Shuman, Stewart

    2017-09-01

    We characterize Mycobacterium smegmatis FenA as a manganese-dependent 5'-flap endonuclease homologous to the 5'-exonuclease of DNA polymerase I. FenA incises a nicked 5' flap between the first and second nucleotides of the duplex segment to yield a 1-nucleotide gapped DNA, which is then further resected in dinucleotide steps. Initial FenA cleavage at a Y-flap or nick occurs between the first and second nucleotides of the duplex. However, when the template 3' single strand is eliminated to create a 5'-tailed duplex, FenA incision shifts to between the second and third nucleotides. A double-flap substrate with a mobile junction (mimicking limited strand displacement synthesis during gap repair) is preferentially incised as the 1-nucleotide 3'-flap isomer, with the scissile phosphodiester shifted by one nucleotide versus a static double flap. FenA efficiently removes the 5' App(dN) terminus of an aborted nick ligation reaction intermediate, thereby highlighting FenA as an agent of repair of such lesions, which are formed under a variety of circumstances by bacterial NAD + -dependent DNA ligases and especially by mycobacterial DNA ligases D and C. IMPORTANCE Structure-specific DNA endonucleases are implicated in bacterial DNA replication, repair, and recombination, yet there is scant knowledge of the roster and catalytic repertoire of such nucleases in Mycobacteria This study identifies M. smegmatis FenA as a stand-alone endonuclease homologous to the 5'-exonuclease domain of mycobacterial DNA polymerase 1. FenA incises 5' flaps, 5' nicks, and 5' App(dN) intermediates of aborted nick ligation. The isolated N-terminal domain of M. smegmatis Pol1 is also shown to be a flap endonuclease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. New insights in the removal of the hydantoins, oxidation product of pyrimidines, via the base excision and nucleotide incision repair pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Redrejo-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage to DNA, if not repaired, can be both miscoding and blocking. These genetic alterations can lead to mutations and/or cell death, which in turn cause cancer and aging. Oxidized DNA bases are substrates for two overlapping repair pathways: base excision (BER and nucleotide incision repair (NIR. Hydantoin derivatives such as 5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-Hyd and 5-methyl-5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-5Me-Hyd, major products of cytosine and thymine oxidative degradation pathways, respectively, have been detected in cancer cells and ancient DNA. Hydantoins are blocking lesions for DNA polymerases and excised by bacterial and yeast DNA glycosylases in the BER pathway. However little is known about repair of pyrimidine-derived hydantoins in human cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, using both denaturing PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS analyses we report that the bacterial, yeast and human AP endonucleases can incise duplex DNA 5' next to 5OH-Hyd and 5OH-5Me-Hyd thus initiating the NIR pathway. We have fully reconstituted the NIR pathway for these lesions in vitro using purified human proteins. Depletion of Nfo in E. coli and APE1 in HeLa cells abolishes the NIR activity in cell-free extracts. Importantly, a number of redundant DNA glycosylase activities can excise hydantoin residues, including human NTH1, NEIL1 and NEIL2 and the former protein being a major DNA glycosylase activity in HeLa cells extracts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that both BER and NIR pathways can compete and/or back-up each other to remove hydantoin DNA lesions in vivo.

  3. Long-Term Incisal Relationships After Palatoplasty in Patients With Isolated Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Elizabeth B; Woo, Albert S; Mendonca, Derick A; Huebener, Donald V; Nissen, Richard J; Skolnick, Gary B; Patel, Kamlesh B

    2016-06-01

    Various palatoplasty techniques have limited incisions in the hard palate due to concerns that these incisions may limit maxillary growth. There is little convincing long-term evidence to support this. Our purpose is to determine incisal relationships, an indicator for future orthognathic procedure, in patients after repair of an isolated cleft of the secondary palate. Our craniofacial database was used to identify patients aged 10 years or greater with an isolated cleft of the secondary palate who underwent palatoplasty between 1985 and 2002. Data collected included age at palatoplasty and follow-up, cleft type, associated syndrome, Robin sequence, surgeon, repair technique, number of operations, and occlusion. Incisal relationship was determined through clinical observation by a pediatric dentist and orthodontist. Seventy eligible patients operated on by 9 surgeons were identified. Class III incisal relationship was seen in 5 patients (7.1%). Palatoplasty techniques over the hard palate (63 of 70 patients) included 2-flap palatoplasty, VY-pushback, and Von Langenbeck repair. There was an association between class III incisal relationship and syndromic diagnosis (P <0.001). Other study variables were not associated with class III incisal relationships. In patients with an isolated cleft of the secondary palate, there was no association between class III incisal relationship and surgeon, age at repair, cleft type, palatoplasty technique, or number of operations. Increased likelihood of class III incisal relationship was associated primarily with syndromic diagnosis.

  4. Smoking increases the risk of early meniscus repair failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Ryan; Schmitt, Laura C; Flanigan, David C; Magnussen, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this study is to determine whether patients who smoke cigarettes at the time of surgery are at significantly increased risk of early meniscus repair failure relative to non-smokers. Retrospective chart review identified 64 current smokers within a series of 444 consecutive patients who underwent meniscus repair during a 7 years period. Fifty-two of these 64 smokers were available for follow-up and were matched by age, sex, and ACL status with non-smokers from the same cohort. Records of these 104 patients with a total of 120 meniscus repairs were reviewed to identify meniscus repair failure (defined as repeat surgery on the index meniscus) during the median 13-month (range: 3-79 months) follow-up period. The smoking and non-smoking groups were similar in age, sex, ACL status, BMI, meniscus repair technique, and meniscus involved. Meniscus repair failure occurred in 19 of the 112 menisci in 104 patients, for an overall failure risk of 17 %. Of the 19 failures, 14 occurred in 79 repaired medial menisci (18 % failure risk) and 5 occurred in 33 repaired lateral menisci (15 % failure risk). Meniscus repair failure occurred in significantly more smokers (15 failures in 56 menisci in 52 patients -27 % failure risk) than non-smokers (4 failures in 56 menisci in 52 patients -7 % failure risk) (p = 0.0076). Smoking is associated with significantly increased risk of early meniscus repair failure as defined by the incidence of repeat surgery on the index meniscus. III.

  5. Conserved structural chemistry for incision activity in structurally non-homologous apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 and endonuclease IV DNA repair enzymes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Shin, David S.; Mol, Clifford D.; Izum, Tadahide; Arvai, Andrew S.; Mantha, Anil K.; Szczesny, Bartosz; Ivanov, Ivaylo N.; Hosfield, David J.; Maiti, Buddhadev; Pique, Mike E.; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hitomi, Kenichi; Cunningham, Richard P.; Mitra, Sankar; Tainer, John A.

    2013-03-22

    Non-coding apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA form spontaneously and as DNA base excision repair intermediates are the most common toxic and mutagenic in vivo DNA lesion. For repair, AP sites must be processed by 5' AP endonucleases in initial stages of base repair. Human APE1 and bacterial Nfo represent the two conserved 5' AP endonuclease families in the biosphere; they both recognize AP sites and incise the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the lesion, yet they lack similar structures and metal ion requirements. Here, we determined and analyzed crystal structures of a 2.4 ? resolution APE1-DNA product complex with Mg(2+) and a 0.92 Nfo with three metal ions. Structural and biochemical comparisons of these two evolutionarily distinct enzymes characterize key APE1 catalytic residues that are potentially functionally similar to Nfo active site components, as further tested and supported by computational analyses. We observe a magnesium-water cluster in the APE1 active site, with only Glu-96 forming the direct protein coordination to the Mg(2+). Despite differences in structure and metal requirements of APE1 and Nfo, comparison of their active site structures surprisingly reveals strong geometric conservation of the catalytic reaction, with APE1 catalytic side chains positioned analogously to Nfo metal positions, suggesting surprising functional equivalence between Nfo metal ions and APE1 residues. The finding that APE1 residues are positioned to substitute for Nfo metal ions is supported by the impact of mutations on activity. Collectively, the results illuminate the activities of residues, metal ions, and active site features for abasic site endonucleases.

  6. Increased DNA-repair in spleen cells of M. Hodgkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, H.; Neumann, E.; Howanietz, L.; Dolejs, I.; Tuschl, H.; Altmann, H.

    1974-11-01

    In spleen cells of control patients and cells of Morbus Hodgkin, DNA-repair after gamma- and UV-irradiation was determined measuring the incorporated 3H-thymidine activity in the DNA. Additionally, the ratio of labeled cells compared to non-labeled cells and the grains per cell were evaluated by autoradiographic investigations. DNA-content per cell was measured using pulsecytophotometry. A significant increase of DNA-repair capacity after gamma-irradiation was found by density gradient centrifugation in alkaline sucrose. The same trend could be shown by investigations of unscheduled DNA-synthesis using autoradiographic method. (author)

  7. Higher Incision at Upper Part of Lower Segment Caesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Shao

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: An incision at the upper part of the lower segment reduces blood loss, enhances uterine retraction, predisposes to fewer complications, is easier to repair, precludes bladder adhesion to the suture line and reduces operation time. Keywords: caesarean section; higher incision technique; traditional uterine incision technique.

  8. A preliminary investigation into the extent of increased radioresistance or hyper-radiosensitivity in cells of hamster cell lines known to be deficient in DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skov, K.; Marples, B.; Matthews, J.B.; Zhou, H.; Joiner, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    The response to low doses of X rays was assessed in cells of three hamster cell lines which are defective in DNA repair and was compared with their parental lines. Cells of the V79-derived double-strand break repair-deficient line XR-V15B showed no radioresistance in the 0.5-Gy range compared with the V79B wild type, but instead showed an exponential response. Cells of the single-strand break repair-deficient line EM9 showed hyper-radiosensitivity and exhibited increased radioresistance. Most interestingly, cells of the UV-20 cell line appeared to respond exponentially, as a continuation of the hyper-radiosensitive portion of the curve, with no evidence of increased radioresistance. This line is defective in an incision step of excision repair and is sensitive to crosslinking agents. Further studies are warranted to address the possible role of single- and double-strand break repair and excision repair in hyper-radiosensitivity and increased radioresistance. 24 refs., 4 figs

  9. Disruption of Maternal DNA Repair Increases Sperm-DerivedChromosomal Aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Essers, Jeroun; Kanaar, Roland; Wyrobek,Andrew J.

    2007-02-07

    The final weeks of male germ cell differentiation occur in aDNA repair-deficient environment and normal development depends on theability of the egg to repair DNA damage in the fertilizing sperm. Geneticdisruption of maternal DNA double-strand break repair pathways in micesignificantly increased the frequency of zygotes with chromosomalstructural aberrations after paternal exposure to ionizing radiation.These findings demonstrate that radiation-induced DNA sperm lesions arerepaired after fertilization by maternal factors and suggest that geneticvariation in maternal DNA repair can modulate the risk of early pregnancylosses and of children with chromosomal aberrations of paternalorigin.

  10. Early postoperative fluoroquinolone use is associated with an increased revision rate after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancienne, Jourdan M; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Rodeo, Scott A; Young, Chris; Werner, Brian C

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use following arthroscopic primary rotator cuff repair with failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. An insurance database was queried for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair from 2007 to 2015. These patients were divided into three groups: (1) patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months postoperatively (divided into 0-2, 2-4, and 4-6 months), (2) a matched negative control cohort of patients not prescribed fluoroquinolones, and (3) a matched positive control cohort of patients prescribed fluoroquinolones between 6 and 18 months following rotator cuff repair. Rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair were compared within 2 years. A total of 1292 patients were prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months after rotator cuff repair, including 442 within 2 months, 433 within 2 to 4 months, and 417 within 4 to 6 months, and were compared to 5225 matched negative controls and 1597 matched positive controls. The rate of revision rotator cuff repair was significantly higher in patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 2 months (6.1 %) compared to matched negative (2.2 %, P = 0.0009) and positive controls (2.4 %, P = 0.0026). There were no significant differences in the rate of revision rotator cuff repair when fluoroquinolones were prescribed >2 months after rotator cuff repair. Early use of fluoroquinolones following rotator cuff repair was independently associated with significantly increased rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. This is the first clinical study examining the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use with failure following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. III.

  11. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Geary

    Full Text Available Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1 expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1. Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism

  12. USING THE OUTSOURCING MECHANISM TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE IN METALLURGICAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Kozlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the work is to study the outsourcing mechanism from the point of view of increasing the efficiency of repair and maintenance at a metallurgical enterprise. Method Analysis of the experience of using outsourcing of repair services at domestic and foreign metallurgical enterprises was carried out. Analysis of the experience of the withdrawal from enterprise repair services into a separate outsourcing company has shown that the main advantages of this method of organising repair activities are an increase in the transparency of the costs of repairs and maintenance, and hence their reduction, as well as a reduction in the amount of equipment downtime. The main characteristics of outsourcing were revealed, substantiating its expediency. The restructuring of the repair system provides a step-by-step transition from decentralised to centralised structures of technical, mechanical, power and electrical repair services of enterprises, from the principle of "self-service" to the principle of "proprietary service" by isolating the subdivisions of the repair system from the structure of enterprises and creating competing members of the repair services market. Put another way, this is typified by moving away from the status of auxiliary production to a selfdependent activity. The stages of outsourcing the repair services of the enterprise are considered and possible problems that may arise in the course of the work of a working group are established to determine the suitability of outsourcing and to resolve the numerous issues arising from the transfer of repair functions. Results The findings of the research include approaches developed for overcoming risky situations: providing guarantees from the customer and the contractor and indicating them in the contract, increasing the motivation of the outsourcing company through a key performance indicator that should increase the interest of the performer in providing quality

  13. Negative Suction Drain Through a Mini Periareolar Incision for the Treatment of Lactational Breast Abscess Shortens Hospital Stay and Increases Breastfeeding Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Fu, Deyuan

    2016-06-01

    Although breast abscess is a serious uncommon complication of mastitis with high morbidity rate, there is a lack of high-quality randomized trial to demonstrate the best treatments. We reported a novel way of applying negative suction drain through a mini periareolar incision. We retrospectively analyzed and compared the clinical characteristics of 62 patients with lactational breast abscess in our department from August 2012 to April 2015. Thirty-two patients went through traditional incision and drainage (Group A) and 30 patients were placed on negative suction drain through mini periareolar incision (Group B). There is no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, white blood cell (WBC) count, size of the abscess cavity, and positive rate of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Patients in Group B had a shorter hospitalized stay (p = 0.003) and had a higher rate of continuation of breastfeeding (p breast abscess and maintaining breastfeeding.

  14. Increasing Nucleosome Occupancy Is Correlated with an Increasing Mutation Rate so Long as DNA Repair Machinery Is Intact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jared F.; Khattab, Omar S.; Chen, Yu-Han; Chen, Yumay; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Wang, Ping H.

    2015-01-01

    Deciphering the multitude of epigenomic and genomic factors that influence the mutation rate is an area of great interest in modern biology. Recently, chromatin has been shown to play a part in this process. To elucidate this relationship further, we integrated our own ultra-deep sequenced human nucleosomal DNA data set with a host of published human genomic and cancer genomic data sets. Our results revealed, that differences in nucleosome occupancy are associated with changes in base-specific mutation rates. Increasing nucleosome occupancy is associated with an increasing transition to transversion ratio and an increased germline mutation rate within the human genome. Additionally, cancer single nucleotide variants and microindels are enriched within nucleosomes and both the coding and non-coding cancer mutation rate increases with increasing nucleosome occupancy. There is an enrichment of cancer indels at the theoretical start (74 bp) and end (115 bp) of linker DNA between two nucleosomes. We then hypothesized that increasing nucleosome occupancy decreases access to DNA by DNA repair machinery and could account for the increasing mutation rate. Such a relationship should not exist in DNA repair knockouts, and we thus repeated our analysis in DNA repair machinery knockouts to test our hypothesis. Indeed, our results revealed no correlation between increasing nucleosome occupancy and increasing mutation rate in DNA repair knockouts. Our findings emphasize the linkage of the genome and epigenome through the nucleosome whose properties can affect genome evolution and genetic aberrations such as cancer. PMID:26308346

  15. Increasing Nucleosome Occupancy Is Correlated with an Increasing Mutation Rate so Long as DNA Repair Machinery Is Intact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puya G Yazdi

    Full Text Available Deciphering the multitude of epigenomic and genomic factors that influence the mutation rate is an area of great interest in modern biology. Recently, chromatin has been shown to play a part in this process. To elucidate this relationship further, we integrated our own ultra-deep sequenced human nucleosomal DNA data set with a host of published human genomic and cancer genomic data sets. Our results revealed, that differences in nucleosome occupancy are associated with changes in base-specific mutation rates. Increasing nucleosome occupancy is associated with an increasing transition to transversion ratio and an increased germline mutation rate within the human genome. Additionally, cancer single nucleotide variants and microindels are enriched within nucleosomes and both the coding and non-coding cancer mutation rate increases with increasing nucleosome occupancy. There is an enrichment of cancer indels at the theoretical start (74 bp and end (115 bp of linker DNA between two nucleosomes. We then hypothesized that increasing nucleosome occupancy decreases access to DNA by DNA repair machinery and could account for the increasing mutation rate. Such a relationship should not exist in DNA repair knockouts, and we thus repeated our analysis in DNA repair machinery knockouts to test our hypothesis. Indeed, our results revealed no correlation between increasing nucleosome occupancy and increasing mutation rate in DNA repair knockouts. Our findings emphasize the linkage of the genome and epigenome through the nucleosome whose properties can affect genome evolution and genetic aberrations such as cancer.

  16. Double-Row Capsulolabral Repair Increases Load to Failure and Decreases Excessive Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lucas S; Thompson, Matthew; Altchek, David W; McGarry, Michelle H; Lee, Thay Q; Rocchi, Vanna J; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-11-01

    Using a cadaver shoulder instability model and load-testing device, we compared biomechanical characteristics of double-row and single-row capsulolabral repairs. We hypothesized a greater reduction in glenohumeral motion and translation and a higher load to failure in a mattress double-row capsulolabral repair than in a single-row repair. In 6 matched pairs of cadaveric shoulders, a capsulolabral injury was created. One shoulder was repaired with a single-row technique, and the other with a double-row mattress technique. Rotational range of motion, anterior-inferior translation, and humeral head kinematics were measured. Load-to-failure testing measured stiffness, yield load, deformation at yield load, energy absorbed at yield load, load to failure, deformation at ultimate load, and energy absorbed at ultimate load. Double-row repair significantly decreased external rotation and total range of motion compared with single-row repair. Both repairs decreased anterior-inferior translation compared with the capsulolabral-injured condition, however, no differences existed between repair types. Yield load in the single-row group was 171.3 ± 110.1 N, and in the double-row group it was 216.1 ± 83.1 N (P = .02). Ultimate load to failure in the single-row group was 224.5 ± 121.0 N, and in the double-row group it was 373.9 ± 172.0 N (P = .05). Energy absorbed at ultimate load in the single-row group was 1,745.4 ± 1,462.9 N-mm, and in the double-row group it was 4,649.8 ± 1,930.8 N-mm (P = .02). In cases of capsulolabral disruption, double-row repair techniques may result in decreased shoulder rotational range of motion and improved load-to-failure characteristics. In cases of capsulolabral disruption, repair techniques with double-row mattress repair may provide more secure fixation. Double-row capsulolabral repair decreases shoulder motion and increases load to failure, yield load, and energy absorbed at yield load more than single-row repair. Published by

  17. Repair of UV-irradiated plasmid DNA in excision repair deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikai, K.; Tano, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Nozu, K.

    1985-01-01

    The repair of UV-irradiated DNA of plasmid YEp13 was studied in the incision defective strains by measurement of cell transformation frequency. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, rad1,2,3 and 4 mutants could repair UV-damaged plasmid DNA. In Escherichia coli, uvrA mutant was unable to repair UV-damaged plasmid DNA; however, pretreatment of the plasmid with Micrococcus luteus endonuclease increased repair. It was concluded that all the mutations of yeast were probably limited only to the nuclear DNA. (author)

  18. Pyrimidine dimers in Drosophila chromatin become increasingly accessible after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, P.V.; Boyd, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    A prokaryotic DNA-repair enzyme has been utilized as a probe for changes in the accessibility of pyrimidine dimers in Drosophila chromatin following UV irradiation. The results demonstrate a rapid cellular response to physiologically relevant doses of radiation which results in at least a 40% increase in accessible dimers. This increase occurs in two incision-deficient mutants which indicates that the excision-repair process, at or beyond the incision step, is not required or responsible for the increase. In the absence of excision the increase in accessibility persists for a least 2 days following irradiation. The observed increase in accessibility is inhibited by both novobiocin and coumermycin. These inhibitors do not inhibit the initial rate of incision, but do reduce dimer excision measured over more extended periods. A pre-incision process is proposed which actively exposes DNA lesions to excision repair. A fraction of the genome is postulated to be accessible without the intervention of that process. (Auth.)

  19. Reliability theory for repair service organization simulation and increase of innovative attraction of industrial enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzhenkova, E. V.; Iurieva, L. V.

    2018-05-01

    The study presents the author's algorithm for the industrial enterprise repair service organization simulation based on the reliability theory, as well as the results of its application. The monitoring of the industrial enterprise repair service organization is proposed to perform on the basis of the enterprise's state indexes for the main resources (equipment, labour, finances, repair areas), which allows quantitative evaluation of the reliability level as a resulting summary rating of the said parameters and the ensuring of an appropriate level of the operation reliability of the serviced technical objects. Under the conditions of the tough competition, the following approach is advisable: the higher efficiency of production and a repair service itself, the higher the innovative attractiveness of an industrial enterprise. The results of the calculations show that in order to prevent inefficient losses of production and to reduce the repair costs, it is advisable to apply the reliability theory. The overall reliability rating calculated on the basis of the author's algorithm has low values. The processing of the statistical data forms the reliability characteristics for the different workshops and services of an industrial enterprise, which allows one to define the failure rates of the various units of equipment and to establish the reliability indexes necessary for the subsequent mathematical simulation. The proposed simulating algorithm contributes to an increase of the efficiency of the repair service organization and improvement of the innovative attraction of an industrial enterprise.

  20. Transient postoperative atrial fibrillation after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair increases mortality risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anai N.; Halandras, Pegge M.; Drescher, Max; Blackwell, Robert H.; Graunke, Dawn M.; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Kuo, Paul C.; Cho, Jae S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether new-onset transient postoperative atrial fibrillation (TPAF) affects mortality rates after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair and to identify predictors for the development of TPAF. Methods Patients who underwent open aortic repair or endovascular aortic repair for a principal diagnosis AAA were retrospectively identified using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-State Inpatient Database (Florida) for 2007 to 2011 and monitored longitudinally for 1 year. Inpatient and 1-year mortality rates were compared between those with and without TPAF. TPAF was defined as new-onset atrial fibrillation that developed in the postoperative period and subsequently resolved in patients without a history of atrial fibrillation. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, gender, comorbidities, rupture status, and repair method, were used to assess 1-year survival. Predictive models were built with preoperative patient factors using Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector decision trees and externally validated on patients from California. Results A 3.7% incidence of TPAF was identified among 15,148 patients who underwent AAA repair. The overall mortality rate was 4.3%. The inpatient mortality rate was 12.3% in patients with TPAF vs 4.0% in those without TPAF. In the ruptured setting, the difference in mortality was similar between groups (33.7% vs 39.9%, P = .3). After controlling for age, gender, comorbid disease severity, urgency (ruptured vs nonruptured), and repair method, TPAF was associated with increased 1-year postoperative mortality (hazard ratio, 1.48; P predict an individual's probability of developing TPAF at the point of care. Conclusions The development of TPAF is associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients undergoing repair of nonruptured AAA. Predictive modeling can be used to identify those patients at highest risk for developing TPAF and guide interventions to improve

  1. Increasing age and tear size reduce rotator cuff repair healing rate at 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mustafa S; Cooper, Cushla; Cook, Jonathan; Cooper, David; Dakin, Stephanie G; Snelling, Sarah; Carr, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - There is a need to understand the reasons why a high proportion of rotator cuff repairs fail to heal. Using data from a large randomized clinical trial, we evaluated age and tear size as risk factors for failure of rotator cuff repair. Patients and methods - Between 2007 and 2014, 65 surgeons from 47 hospitals in the National Health Service (NHS) recruited 447 patients with atraumatic rotator cuff tendon tears to the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Trial (UKUFF) and 256 underwent rotator cuff repair. Cuff integrity was assessed by imaging in 217 patients, at 12 months post-operation. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age and intra-operative tear size on healing. Hand dominance, sex, and previous steroid injections were controlled for. Results - The overall healing rate was 122/217 (56%) at 12 months. Healing rate decreased with increasing tear size (small tears 66%, medium tears 68%, large tears 47%, and massive tears 27% healed). The mean age of patients with a healed repair was 61 years compared with 64 years for those with a non-healed repair. Mean age increased with larger tear sizes (small tears 59 years, medium tears 62 years, large tears 64 years, and massive tears 66 years). Increasing age was an independent factor that negatively influenced healing, even after controlling for tear size. Only massive tears were an independent predictor of non-healing, after controlling for age. Interpretation - Although increasing age and larger tear size are both risks for failure of rotator cuff repair healing, age is the dominant risk factor.

  2. DNA Methylation Modulates Nociceptive Sensitization after Incision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Sun

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling DNA accessibility and gene expression. Blockade of DNA methylation can significantly affect pain behaviors implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of DNA methylation with regard to postoperative pain has not yet been explored. In this study we sought to investigate the role of DNA methylation in modulating incisional pain and identify possible targets under DNA methylation and contributing to incisional pain. DNA methyltranferase (DNMT inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine significantly reduced incision-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal sensitivity. Aza-2'-deoxycytidine also reduced hindpaw swelling after incision, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Global DNA methylation and DNMT3b expression were increased in skin after incision, but none of DNMT1, DNMT3a or DNMT3b was altered in spinal cord or DRG. The expression of proopiomelanocortin Pomc encoding β-endorphin and Oprm1 encoding the mu-opioid receptor were upregulated peripherally after incision; moreover, Oprm1 expression was further increased under DNMT inhibitor treatment. Finally, local peripheral injection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone significantly exacerbated incision-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These results suggest that DNA methylation is functionally relevant to incisional nociceptive sensitization, and that mu-opioid receptor signaling might be one methylation regulated pathway controlling sensitization after incision.

  3. Increasing Melanoma—Too Many Skin Cell Damages or Too Few Repairs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örjan Hallberg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Skin melanoma rates have been increasing for a long time in many Western countries. The object of this study was to apply modern problem-solving theory normally used to clear industrial problems to search for roots and causes of this medical question. Increasing cancer rates can be due to too many cell damage incidents or to too few repairs. So far, it has been assumed that the melanoma epidemic mainly is caused by increasing sun tanning habits. In order to explore this problem in more detail, we used cancer statistics from several countries over time and space. Detailed analysis of data obtained and a model study to evaluate the effects from increased damages or decreased repairs clearly indicate that the main reason behind the melanoma problem is a disturbed immune system. The possibility to introduce efficient corrective actions is apparent.

  4. Can repair increase the longevity of composite resins? Results of a 10-year clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, E; Martín, J; Vildósola, P; Oliveira Junior, O B; Gordan, V; Mjor, I; Bersezio, C; Estay, J; de Andrade, M F; Moncada, G

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this double-blind clinical trial was to assess the longevity of repairs to localized clinical defects in composite resin restorations that were initially planned to be treated with a restoration replacement. Twenty-eight patients aged 18-80 years old with 50 composite resin restorations (CR) were recruited. The restorations with localized, marginal, anatomical deficiencies and/or secondary caries adjacent to CR that were "clinically judged" to be suitable for repair or replacement according to the USPHS criteria were randomly assigned to Repair (n=25) or Replacement (n=25) groups, and the quality of the restorations was scored according to the modified USPHS criteria. The restorations were blind and two examiners scored them at baseline (Cohen Kappa agreement score 0.74) and at ten years (Cohen Kappa agreement score 0.87) restorations. Wilcoxon tests were performed for comparisons within the same group (95% CI), and Friedman tests were utilized for multiple comparisons between the different years within each group. Over the decade, the two groups behaved similarly on the parameters of marginal adaptation (MA) (p>0.05), secondary caries (SC) (p>0.05), anatomy (A) (p0.05). Given that the MA, SC, A and C parameters behaved similarly in both groups, the repair of composite resins should be elected when clinically indicated, because it is a minimally invasive treatment that can consistently increase the longevity of restorations. The repair of defective composite resins as an alternative treatment to increase their longevity proved to be a safe and effective treatment in the long term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Delayed repair of DNA single-strand breaks does not increase cytogenetic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.F.; Djordjevic, M.C.; Jostes, R.F.; Pantelias, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    DNA damage and cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. DNA damage and repair were analysed by alkaline elution under conditions that predominantly measured DNA single-strand breaks (ssb). X-radiation (2.5 Gy) induced ssb in both CHO cells and unstimulated lymphocytes, and the breaks were repaired within 30 and 90 min, respectively. This rapid repair was delayed by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, 3-aminobenzamide (3AB). The cytogenetic effects of the 3AB-induced delay in DNA repair were examined by analysing sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in CHO cells and fragmentation of prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) in unstimulated human lymphocytes after 2.5 Gy of X-rays. Although 3AB delayed the rejoining of DNA ssb, this delay did not result in increased cytogenetic damage manifested as either SCE or fragmentation of PCC. These results indicate that the rapidly rejoining DNA ssb are not important in the production of chromosome damage. (author)

  6. Repair of single-strand breaks induced in the DNA of Proteus mirabilis by excision repair after UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoerl, K.; Mund, C.

    1977-01-01

    Single-strand breaks have been produced in the DNA of P. mirabilis after UV-irradiation in dependence on the incident UV-doses. It has been found that there exists a discrepancy between the single-strand breaks estimated from sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients and the expected single-strand breaks approximated from measurements of dimer excision. The low number in incision breaks observed by sedimentation experiments is an indication that the cells are able to repair the excision-induced breaks as fast as they are formed. Toluenized cells have been used for investigation of the incision step independently of subsequent repair processes. In presence of NMN the appearance of more single-strand breaks in the DNA has been observed. Furthermore, the number of incision breaks in toluenized cells increased in presence of exogenous ATP. The completion of the excision repair process has been investigated by observing the rejoining of incision breaks. After irradiation with UV-doses higher than approximately 240 erg/mm 2 the number of single-strand breaks remaining unrepaired in the DNA increased. Studies of the influence of nutrition conditions on the repair process have shown approximately the same capacity for repair of single-strand breaks in growth medium as well as in buffer. Progress in the excision repair was also followed by investigation of the DNA synthesized at the template-DNA containing the pyrimidine dimers. In comparison with E. coli, P. mirabilis showed a somewhat lower efficiency for the repair of single-strand breaks during the excision repair. (author)

  7. Applying a biodeposition layer to increase the bond of a repair mortar on a mortar substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Snoeck, Didier; Wang, Jianyun; Bentz, D. P.; De Belie, Nele

    2018-01-01

    One of the major concerns in infrastructure repair is a sufficient bond between the substrate and the repair material, especially for the long-term performance and durability of the repaired structure. In this study, the bond of the repair material on the mortar substrate is promoted via the biodeposition of a calcium carbonate layer by a ureolytic bacterium. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine the interfaces between the repair material and the substrate, a...

  8. Ibuprofen loaded PLA nanofibrous scaffolds increase proliferation of human skin cells in vitro and promote healing of full thickness incision wounds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Saha, S; Murphy, S V; Gracz, H; Pourdeyhimi, B; Atala, A; Loboa, E G

    2017-02-01

    This article presents successful incorporation of ibuprofen in polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers to create scaffolds for the treatment of both acute and chronic wounds. Nanofibrous PLA scaffolds containing 10, 20, or 30 wt % ibuprofen were created and ibuprofen release profiles quantified. In vitro cytotoxicity to human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) of the three scaffolds with varying ibuprofen concentrations were evaluated and compared to pure PLA nanofibrous scaffolds. Thereafter, scaffolds loaded with ibuprofen at the concentration that promoted human skin cell viability and proliferation (20 wt %) were evaluated in vivo in nude mice using a full thickness skin incision model to determine the ability of these scaffolds to promote skin regeneration and/or assist with scarless healing. Both acellular and HEK and HDF cell-seeded 20 wt % ibuprofen loaded nanofibrous bandages reduced wound contraction compared with wounds treated with Tegaderm™ and sterile gauze. Newly regenerated skin on wounds treated with cell-seeded 20 wt % ibuprofen bandages exhibited significantly greater blood vessel formation relative to acellular ibuprofen bandages. We have found that degradable anti-inflammatory scaffolds containing 20 wt % ibuprofen promote human skin cell viability and proliferation in vitro, reduce wound contraction in vivo, and when seeded with skin cells, also enhance new blood vessel formation. The approaches and results reported here hold promise for multiple skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 327-339, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Tubularized incised plate technique for recurrent hypospadias: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of recurrent hypospadias. Summary background ... The potential advantages of tubularized incised plate .... after a mean duration of 4.9 ± 3.1 years from the previous repair (Table 2). .... erection and the risk of infection, especially in patients older than 15 .... However, previous surgery often limits the availability ...

  10. Combination of the mutation process with the sensitization and repair processes leading to increased frequencies of mutations in algal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necas, J.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of combining the mutation process with the induction of the repair processes was studied to increase the mutation frequencies in algal populations after UV treatment. The repair process induced by visible light was found to be much more effective than the dark repair processes in the chlorococcal algae used. In these algae, visible light possibly does not induce only those repair processes which affect their DNA, but probably also certain recovery processes which affect their damaged structures and physiological functions. A suitable combination of the sensitization of algae cells by a DNA-base analogue before UV treatment and the induction of the light repair and recovery processes resulted in a rather high increase of viable mutations in chlorococcal algae. These findings may be useful in breeding chlorococcal algae, which have no possibility of hybridization other than somatic. (author)

  11. Characterization of a mutant rat kangaroo cell line with alterations in the cell cycle and DNA repair

    OpenAIRE

    Miyaji, E.N.; Johnson, R.T.; Downes, C.S.; Eveno, E.; Mezzina, M.; Sarasin, A.; Menck, C.F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Using a positive selection system for isolating DNA replication and repair related mutants, we isolated a clone from a rat kangaroo cell line (PtK2) that has increased sensitivity to UV light. Characterization of this clone indicated normal post-replication repair after UV irradiation, and normal removal rates of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts by excision repair. However, this cell line has decreased ability to make early incisions on damaged DNA, po...

  12. The inverted Batman incision: a new incision in transcolumellar incision for open rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Yuji; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Shimizu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Junpei; Fukuta, Keizo; Kishi, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    Columellar and nostril shapes often present irregularity after transcolumellar incision for open rhinoplasty, because of the contracture of the incised wound. The present study introduces a new technique to prevent this complication, and verifies its efficacy in improving cosmetic appearance. In our new method, a zig-zag incision with three small triangular flaps is made on the columella and in the pericolumellar regions of the bilateral nostril rims. Since the shape of the incision resembles the contour of an inverted "batman", we term our new method the "Inverted Batman" incision. To verify the effectiveness of the Inverted Batman incision, aesthetic evaluation was conducted for 21 patients operated on using the conventional transcolumellar incision (Conventional Group) and 19 patients operated on using the Inverted Batman incision (Inverted Batman Group). The evaluation was performed by three plastic surgeons, using a four-grade scale to assess three separate items: symmetry of bilateral soft triangles, symmetry of bilateral margins of the columella, and evenness of the columellar surface. The scores of the two groups for these three items were compared using a non-parametric test (Mann-Whitney U-test). With all three items, the Inverted Batman group patients present higher scores than Conventional Group patients. The Inverted Batman incision is effective in preserving the correct anatomical structure of the columella, soft triangle, and nostril rims. Hence, we recommend the Inverted Batman incision as a useful technique for open rhinoplasty.

  13. Minimal abdominal incisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Magi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive procedures aim to resolve the disease with minimal trauma to the body, resulting in a rapid return to activities and in reductions of infection, complications, costs and pain. Minimally incised laparotomy, sometimes referred to as minilaparotomy, is an example of such minimally invasive procedures. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of laparotomy with minimal incision based on the literature and exemplifying with a case. The case in question describes reconstruction of the intestinal transit with the use of this incision. Male, young, HIV-positive patient in a late postoperative of ileotiflectomy, terminal ileostomy and closing of the ascending colon by an acute perforating abdomen, due to ileocolonic tuberculosis. The barium enema showed a proximal stump of the right colon near the ileostomy. The access to the cavity was made through the orifice resulting from the release of the stoma, with a lateral-lateral ileo-colonic anastomosis with a 25 mm circular stapler and manual closure of the ileal stump. These surgeries require their own tactics, such as rigor in the lysis of adhesions, tissue traction, and hemostasis, in addition to requiring surgeon dexterity – but without the need for investments in technology; moreover, the learning curve is reported as being lower than that for videolaparoscopy. Laparotomy with minimal incision should be considered as a valid and viable option in the treatment of surgical conditions. Resumo: Procedimentos minimamente invasivos visam resolver a doença com o mínimo de trauma ao organismo, resultando em retorno rápido às atividades, reduções nas infecções, complicações, custos e na dor. A laparotomia com incisão mínima, algumas vezes referida como minilaparotomia, é um exemplo desses procedimentos minimamente invasivos. O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar a viabilidade e utilidade das laparotomias com incisão mínima com base na literatura e

  14. Craniosynostosis incision: scalpel or cautery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeyhan S; Kittinger, Benjamin J; Perry, Victor L; Adenola, Adeyemi; van Aalst, John A

    2014-07-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the optimal instrument for scalp incisions: the scalpel or electrocautery. The argument generally focuses on improved healing after an incision made with a knife and decreased bleeding when using electrocautery. This study compares the use of scalpel and electrocautery in making coronal incisions for patients undergoing surgical correction of craniosynostosis. The outcome metric used is wound healing within 6 months after surgery. All patients presenting to the University of North Carolina Children's Hospital with craniosynostosis between July 1, 2007 and January 1, 2010 requiring a coronal incision for surgical correction were prospectively enrolled. In all of these patients, half of the coronal incision was made with knife; the other half, with needle tip cautery. Side of the incision was specified at the time of surgery in the operative report. Patients were excluded from the study if the instrument for incision was not specified or if only 1 modality was used for the entire incision. Sixty-eight patients underwent cranial vault reconstruction, of which 58 met inclusion criteria. Of the 58 matched pairs, 55 were analyzed statistically. The 3 excluded cases were those who had midline complications. There were 17 wound complications (15%): 8 in the knife group, 6 in the cautery group, and 3 at midline (with indeterminate side for the problem). We found no statistically significant difference in wound healing between incisions made with a knife or with electrocautery.

  15. The fourth incision: a cosmetic autopsy incision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Amarjyoti

    2010-03-01

    Autopsy procedure includes thorough external examination as well as internal examination including opening of all the body cavities for proper visualization of all the visceral organs. As such, there remains incision marks with stitches which harts the sentiment of the already traumatized relatives of the deceased. Moreover, it looks odd especially in cases of otherwise healthy dead bodies. So, autopsy incisions should be such that, we can get maximum possible visualization of the body cavities, particularly the thorax and abdomen, and at the same time the incision as well as the stitch marks are also hidden. This article is aimed to describe few modifications in the autopsy incisions for opening the thorax and abdomen and also proper visualization of the neck structures during autopsy where the incisions and the stitches are kept hidden.

  16. Overlapping sphincteroplasty and posterior repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Andrea K; Myers, Erinn M; Lippmann, Quinn K; Matthews, Catherine A

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of how to anatomically reconstruct extensive posterior-compartment defects is variable among gynecologists. The objective of this video is to demonstrate an effective technique of overlapping sphincteroplasty and posterior repair. In this video, a scripted storyboard was constructed that outlines the key surgical steps of a comprehensive posterior compartment repair: (1) surgical incision that permits access to posterior compartment and perineal body, (2) dissection of the rectovaginal space up to the level of the cervix, (3) plication of the rectovaginal muscularis, (4) repair of internal and external anal sphincters, and (5) reconstruction of the perineal body. Using a combination of graphic illustrations and live video footage, tips on repair are highlighted. The goals at the end of repair are to: (1) have improved vaginal caliber, (2) increase rectal tone along the entire posterior vaginal wall, (3) have the posterior vaginal wall at a perpendicular plane to the perineal body, (4) reform the hymenal ring, and (5) not have an overly elongated perineal body. This video provides a step-by-step guide on how to perform an overlapping sphincteroplasty and posterior repair.

  17. Cleft Palate Repair Using a Double Opposing Z-Plasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Craig; Shah, Ajul; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2016-07-01

    Cleft palate is a common congenital defect with several described surgical repairs. The most successful treatment modality remains a controversy. The goals of repair focus on achievement of normal speech and optimizing velopharyngeal function while minimizing both fistula formation and facial growth restriction. In this video, the authors demonstrate use of the double opposing Z-plasty technique in the repair of a Veau II type cleft palate. The video demonstrates the marking, incisions, dissection, and repair of the cleft. It also examines the use of von Langenbeck-type relaxing incisions and demonstrates a specific approach to the repair of this particular cleft. The authors believe that the Furlow double opposing Z-plasty with the von Langenbeck relaxing incision can provide the best postoperative outcome by combining the benefits of each individual operation. The Z-plasty technique works to correct the aberrant muscle of the soft palate while increasing the length of the palate. The authors believe that this results in better velopharyngeal function.

  18. Effects of post-treatment incubation on recombinogenesis in incision-proficient and incision-deficient strains of saccharomyces cerevisiae, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Tetsuya; Machida, Isamu

    1991-01-01

    After the photoaddition of mono- and bifunctional furocoumarins to G1 phase cells, most gene conversion and crossing-over occurred without post-irradiation incubation of these cells in incision-proficient strains. In contrast, incision-deficient cells showed marked induction of both recombinational events only after treated cells had been incubated for several hours before selection. These results indicate that when furocoumarins are photoadded to G1 cells, initiation of recombinational events occurs during the same G1 phase in the incision-proficient cells; whereas, it occurs only after post-irradiation DNA replication in incision-deficient cells. The action of the PSO2 gene product specific for the repair of DNA crosslinks in recombination induction is discussed and compared to the actions of the excision repair genes RAD1 and RAD2. (author)

  19. Pretreatment with mixed-function oxidase inducers increases the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaddock, J.G.; Heflich, R.H.; McMillan, D.C.; Hinson, J.A.; Casciano, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    A recent National Toxicology Program evaluation indicates that the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay has a high false-negative rate and that it is insensitive to some genotoxic hepatocarcinogens as well as other species and organ-specific carcinogens. In this study, the authors examined whether the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay might be increased through animal pretreatment with various hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers, i.e., Aroclor 1254, phenobarbital, and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB). The effects on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), a measured of DNA damage and repair, were studied in cultures exposed to known and/or potential carcinogens that had been evaluated as negative or questionable or that produced conflicting results with hepatocytes isolated from uninduced animals. 4,4'-Oxydianiline, 1-nitropy-rene, and TCAB produced concentration-dependent increases in UDS in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with Aroclor 1254. 4,4'-Oxydianiline and TCAB also induced a dose-dependent increase in DNA repair in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with phenobarbital, whereas 1-nitropyrene was negative. These data indicate that the limited sensitivity to chemical carcinogens displayed by the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay may be increased by using hepatocytes isolated from animals exposed to hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers

  20. Pretreatment with mixed-function oxidase inducers increases the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaddock, J.G.; Heflich, R.H.; McMillan, D.C.; Hinson, J.A.; Casciano, D.A. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AK (USA) Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1989-01-01

    A recent National Toxicology Program evaluation indicates that the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay has a high false-negative rate and that it is insensitive to some genotoxic hepatocarcinogens as well as other species and organ-specific carcinogens. In this study, the authors examined whether the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay might be increased through animal pretreatment with various hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers, i.e., Aroclor 1254, phenobarbital, and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB). The effects on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), a measured of DNA damage and repair, were studied in cultures exposed to known and/or potential carcinogens that had been evaluated as negative or questionable or that produced conflicting results with hepatocytes isolated from uninduced animals. 4,4{prime}-Oxydianiline, 1-nitropy-rene, and TCAB produced concentration-dependent increases in UDS in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with Aroclor 1254. 4,4{prime}-Oxydianiline and TCAB also induced a dose-dependent increase in DNA repair in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with phenobarbital, whereas 1-nitropyrene was negative. These data indicate that the limited sensitivity to chemical carcinogens displayed by the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay may be increased by using hepatocytes isolated from animals exposed to hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers.

  1. Liquid in the major incision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Jaramillo, Diego Alberto; Ortega Jaramillo, Hector

    2003-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with spill pleural extending in the left major incision. In the chest thorax PA, we could observe one of the complex radiographic appearances that take the reconfiguration of fluid in this localization, being this appearance dependent of the patient's position. Some points are also discussed on the anatomy of the major incisions and some of their radiographic characteristics

  2. The association between caudal anesthesia and increased risk of postoperative surgical complications in boys undergoing hypospadias repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taicher, Brad M; Routh, Jonathan C; Eck, John B; Ross, Sherry S; Wiener, John S; Ross, Allison K

    2017-07-01

    Recent reports have suggested that caudal anesthesia may be associated with an increased risk of postoperative surgical complications. We examined our experience with caudal anesthesia in hypospadias repair to evaluate for increased risk of urethrocutaneous fistula or glanular dehiscence. All hypospadias repairs performed by a single surgeon in 2001-2014 were reviewed. Staged or revision surgeries were excluded. Patient age, weight, hypospadias severity, surgery duration, month and year of surgery, caudal anesthesia use, and postoperative complications were recorded. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. We identified 395 single-stage primary hypospadias repairs. Mean age was 15.6 months; 326 patients had distal (83%) and 69 had proximal (17%) hypospadias. Caudal anesthetics were used in 230 (58%) cases; 165 patients (42%) underwent local penile block at the discretion of the surgeon and/or anesthesiologist. Complications of urethrocutaneous fistula or glanular deshiscence occurred in 22 patients (5.6%) and were associated with caudal anesthetic use (OR 16.5, 95% CI 2.2-123.8, P = 0.007), proximal hypospadias (OR 8.2, 95% CI 3.3-20.0, P anesthesia was associated with an over 13-fold increase in the odds of developing postoperative surgical complications in boys undergoing hypospadias repair even after adjusting for urethral meatus location. Until further investigation occurs, clinicians should carefully consider the use of caudal anesthesia for children undergoing hypospadias repair. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. 'Cold shock' increases the frequency of homology directed repair gene editing in induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q; Mintier, G; Ma-Edmonds, M; Storton, D; Wang, X; Xiao, X; Kienzle, B; Zhao, D; Feder, John N

    2018-02-01

    Using CRISPR/Cas9 delivered as a RNA modality in conjunction with a lipid specifically formulated for large RNA molecules, we demonstrate that homology directed repair (HDR) rates between 20-40% can be achieved in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Furthermore, low HDR rates (between 1-20%) can be enhanced two- to ten-fold in both iPSCs and HEK293 cells by 'cold shocking' cells at 32 °C for 24-48 hours following transfection. This method can also increases the proportion of loci that have undergone complete sequence conversion across the donor sequence, or 'perfect HDR', as opposed to partial sequence conversion where nucleotides more distal to the CRISPR cut site are less efficiently incorporated ('partial HDR'). We demonstrate that the structure of the single-stranded DNA oligo donor can influence the fidelity of HDR, with oligos symmetric with respect to the CRISPR cleavage site and complementary to the target strand being more efficient at directing 'perfect HDR' compared to asymmetric non-target strand complementary oligos. Our protocol represents an efficient method for making CRISPR-mediated, specific DNA sequence changes within the genome that will facilitate the rapid generation of genetic models of human disease in iPSCs as well as other genome engineered cell lines.

  4. Laparotomy during endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms increases mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Shaunak S; Turley, Ryan S; Benrashid, Ehsan; Cox, Mitchell W; Mureebe, Leila; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2017-02-01

    Subset analyses from small case series suggest patients requiring laparotomy during endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (REVAR) have worse survival than those undergoing REVAR without laparotomy. Most concomitant laparotomies are performed for abdominal compartment syndrome. This study used data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program to determine whether the need for laparotomy during REVAR is associated with increased mortality. Data were obtained from the 2005 to 2013 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program participant user files based on Current Procedural Terminology (American Medical Association, Chicago, Ill) and International Classification of Diseases-9 Edition coding. Patient and procedure-related characteristics and 30-day postoperative outcomes were compared using Pearson χ 2 tests for categoric variables and Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables. A backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify patient- and procedure-related factors associated with increased death after REVAR. We identified 1241 patients who underwent REVAR, and 91 (7.3%) required concomitant laparotomy. The 30-day mortality was 60% in the laparotomy group and 21% in the standard REVAR group (P < .001). The major complication rate was also higher in the laparotomy group (88% vs 63%; P < .001). Multivariable analysis showed laparotomy was strongly associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 5.91; 95% confidence interval, 3.62-9.62; P < .001). Laparotomy during REVAR is a commonly used technique for the management of elevated intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal compartment syndrome development. The results of this study strongly confirm findings from smaller studies that the need for laparotomy during REVAR is associated with significantly worse 30-day survival. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Niacin deficiency delays DNA excision repair and increases spontaneous and nitrosourea-induced chromosomal instability in rat bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecki, Lisa M; Thomas, Megan; Linford, Geordie; Lizotte, Matthew; Toxopeus, Lori; Bartleman, Anne-Pascale; Kirkland, James B

    2007-12-01

    We have shown that niacin deficiency impairs poly(ADP-ribose) formation and enhances sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei formation in rat bone marrow. We designed the current study to investigate the effects of niacin deficiency on the kinetics of DNA repair following ethylation, and the accumulation of double strand breaks, micronuclei (MN) and chromosomal aberrations (CA). Weanling male Long-Evans rats were fed niacin deficient (ND), or pair fed (PF) control diets for 3 weeks. We examined repair kinetics by comet assay in the 36h following a single dose of ethylnitrosourea (ENU) (30mg/kg bw). There was no effect of ND on mean tail moment (MTM) before ENU treatment, or on the development of strand breaks between 0 and 8h after ENU. Repair kinetics between 12 and 30h were significantly delayed by ND, with a doubling of area under the MTM curve during this period. O(6)-ethylation of guanine peaked by 1.5h, was largely repaired by 15h, and was also delayed in bone marrow cells from ND rats. ND significantly enhanced double strand break accumulation at 24h after ENU. ND alone increased chromosome and chromatid breaks (four- and two-fold). ND alone caused a large increase in MN, and this was amplified by ENU treatment. While repair kinetics suggest that ND may be acting by creating catalytically inactive PARP molecules with a dominant-negative effect on repair processes, the effect of ND alone on O(6)-ethylation, MN and CA, in the absence of altered comet results, suggests additional mechanisms are also leading to chromosomal instability. These data support the idea that the bone marrow cells of niacin deficient cancer patients may be more sensitive to the side effects of genotoxic chemotherapy, resulting in acute bone marrow suppression and chronic development of secondary leukemias.

  6. Repair of DNA damage in Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The repair of DNA lesions in Deinococcus radiodurans was examined with particular reference to DNA excision repair of ultraviolet light (UV) induced pyrimidine dimers. The characteristics of excision repair via UV endonucleases α and β in vivo varied with respect to (a) the substrate range of the enzymes, (b) the rate of repair of DNA damage (c) the requirement for a protein synthesised in response to DNA damage to attenuate exonuclease action at repairing regions. UV endonuclease α is postulated to incise DNA in a different manner from UV endonuclease β thus defining the method of subsequent repair. Several DNA damage specific endonuclease activities independent of α and β are described. Mutations of the uvsA, uvsF and uvsG genes resulted in an increase in single-strand breaks in response to DNA damage producing uncontrolled DNA degradation. Evidence is presented that these genes have a role in limiting the access of UV endonuclease β to DNA lesions. uvsF and uvsG are also shown to be linked to the mtoA gene. Mutation of uvsH and reo-1 produces further distinct phenotypes which are discussed. An overall model of excision repair of DNA damage in Deinococcus radiodurans is presented. (author)

  7. mei-9/sup a/ mutant of Drosophila melanogaster increases mutagen sensitivity and decreases excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.B.; Golino, M.D.; Setlow, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The mei-9/sup a/ mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, which reduces meiotic recombination in females, is deficient in the excision of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers in both sexes. Assays were performed in primary cultures and established cell lines derived from embryos. An endonuclease preparation from M. luteus, which is specific for pyrimidine dimers, was employed to monitor uv-induced dimers in cellular DNA. The rate of disappearance of endonuclease-sensitive sites from DNA of control cells is 10-20 times faster than that from mei-9/sup a/ cells. The mutant mei-218, which is also deficient in meiotic recombination, removes nuclease-sensitive sites at control rates. The mei-9/sup a/ cells exhibit control levels of photorepair, postreplication repair and repair of single strand breaks. In mei-9 cells DNA synthesis and possibly postreplication repair are weakly sensitive to caffeine. Larvae which are hemizygous for either of the two mutants that define the mei-9 locus are hypersensitive to killing by the mutagens methyl methanesulfonate, nitrogen mustard and 2-acetylaminofluorene. Larvae hemizygous for the mei-218 mutant are insensitive to each of these reagents. These data demonstrate that the mei-9 locus is active in DNA repair of somatic cells. Thus functions involved in meiotic recombination are also active in DNA repair in this higher eukaryote. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestions that the mei-9 locus functions in the exchange events of meiosis. The mei-218 mutation behaves differently in genetic tests and our data suggest its function may be restricted to meiosis. These studies demonstrate that currently recognized modes of DNA repair can be efficiently detected in primary cell cultures derived from Drosophila embryos

  8. Single incision pediatric endoscopic surgery: advantages of relatively large incision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, E.; Afsarlar, E.; Karaman, I.

    2015-01-01

    To describe Single Incision Pediatric Endoscopic Surgery (SIPES) performed on children with various diagnoses, emphasizing its advantages. Study Design: An observational case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric Surgery, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from January 2011 to November 2014. Methodology: A review of patient charts was conducted in which SIPES was preferred as the surgical procedure. Patient demographics, operative details, operative time, clinical outcomes, postoperative pain and cosmesis were analyzed. Results: SIPES was performed on 45 patients (21 girls, 24 boys). Thirty-three appendectomies, 5 varicocelectomies, 3 oophorectomies, 2 ovarian and one paratubal cyst excision, and one fallopian tube excision were performed. All except one procedures were performed through our standard 2cm umbilical vertical or smile incision. In 18 cases, abdominal irrigation/aspiration was easily performed through the existing larger incision, as is done with open surgical technique. None of the patients had early postoperative shoulder/back pain since complete disinflation of CO/sub 2/ could be ensured. All of the patients/parents were satisfied with the cosmesis. Conclusion: SIPES has the advantages of limiting the surgical scar to within the umbilicus and providing easy disinflation of CO/sub 2/, allowing intraabdominal cleaning and extraction of large volume tissue samples through a single large umbilical incision. (author)

  9. Afroze incision for functional cheiloseptoplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, G.S.; Reddy, R.R.; Pagaria, N.; Berge, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Repair of unilateral cleft lip is a fascinating and challenging procedure. Although a great number of operations have been described for the unilateral cleft lip repair, none fulfill all the plastic surgical criteria, and in most cases, cleft lip repairs require secondary operations in an attempt to

  10. A skin abscess model for teaching incision and drainage procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Michael T; Manthey, David E; McGinnis, Henderson D; Nicks, Bret A; Pariyadath, Manoj

    2008-07-03

    Skin and soft tissue infections are increasingly prevalent clinical problems, and it is important for health care practitioners to be well trained in how to treat skin abscesses. A realistic model of abscess incision and drainage will allow trainees to learn and practice this basic physician procedure. We developed a realistic model of skin abscess formation to demonstrate the technique of incision and drainage for educational purposes. The creation of this model is described in detail in this report. This model has been successfully used to develop and disseminate a multimedia video production for teaching this medical procedure. Clinical faculty and resident physicians find this model to be a realistic method for demonstrating abscess incision and drainage. This manuscript provides a detailed description of our model of abscess incision and drainage for medical education. Clinical educators can incorporate this model into skills labs or demonstrations for teaching this basic procedure.

  11. Gout Can Increase the Risk of Receiving Rotator Cuff Tear Repair Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Wu, Chin-Wen; Lin, Li-Fong; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Hui-Wen

    2017-08-01

    Gout commonly involves joint inflammation, and clinical epidemiological studies on involved tendons are scant. Rotator cuff tears are the most common cause of shoulder disability, and surgery is one of the choices often adopted to regain previous function. To investigate the risk of receiving rotator cuff repair surgery among patients with gout and to analyze possible risk factors to design an effective prevention strategy. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The authors studied a 7-year longitudinal follow-up of patients from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005). This included a cohort of patients who received a diagnosis of gout during 2004-2008 (gout cohort) and a cohort matched by propensity scores (control cohort). A 2-stage approach that used the National Health Interview Survey 2005 was used to obtain missing confounding variables from the LHID2005. The crude hazard ratio (HR) and adjusted HR were estimated between the gout and control cohorts. The gout and control cohorts comprised 32,723 patients with gout and 65,446 people matched at a ratio of 1:2. The incidence of rotator cuff repair was 31 and 18 per 100,000 person-years in the gout and control cohorts, respectively. The crude HR for rotator cuff repair in the gout cohort was 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-2.44; P gout cohort. Further analysis revealed that the adjusted HR was 1.73 (95% CI, 1.20-2.50; P gout who did not take hypouricemic medication and 2.70 (95% CI, 1.31-5.59; P gout aged 50 years or younger. Patients with gout, particularly those aged 50 years or younger and without hypouricemic medication control, are at a relatively higher risk of receiving rotator cuff repair surgery. Strict control of uric acid levels with hypouricemic medication may effectively reduce the risk of rotator cuff repair.

  12. Superficial parotidectomy via facelift incision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohuis, Peter J. F. M.; Tan, M. Liane; Bonte, Katrien; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Vermeersch, Hubert B.

    2009-01-01

    The stigma of a visually prominent facial scar following parotid surgery can be distressing to a young patient. The surgical technique of parotidectomy via a facelift incision is described and evaluated. Thirty patients with a benign lesion of the parotid gland underwent a partial superficial

  13. Deficiency of the DNA repair protein nibrin increases the basal but not the radiation induced mutation frequency in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessendorf, Petra; Vijg, Jan; Nussenzweig, André; Digweed, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • lacZ mutant frequencies measured in vivo in mouse models of radiosensitive Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome. • Spontaneous mutation frequencies are increased in lymphatic tissue due to Nbn mutation. • Single base transitions, not deletions, dominate the mutation spectrum. • Radiation induced mutation frequencies are not increased due to Nbn mutation. - Abstract: Nibrin (NBN) is a member of a DNA repair complex together with MRE11 and RAD50. The complex is associated particularly with the repair of DNA double strand breaks and with the regulation of cell cycle check points. Hypomorphic mutation of components of the complex leads to human disorders characterised by radiosensitivity and increased tumour occurrence, particularly of the lymphatic system. We have examined here the relationship between DNA damage, mutation frequency and mutation spectrum in vitro and in vivo in mouse models carrying NBN mutations and a lacZ reporter plasmid. We find that NBN mutation leads to increased spontaneous DNA damage in fibroblasts in vitro and high basal mutation rates in lymphatic tissue of mice in vivo. The characteristic mutation spectrum is dominated by single base transitions rather than the deletions and complex rearrangements expected after abortive repair of DNA double strand breaks. We conclude that in the absence of wild type nibrin, the repair of spontaneous errors, presumably arising during DNA replication, makes a major contribution to the basal mutation rate. This applies also to cells heterozygous for an NBN null mutation. Mutation frequencies after irradiation in vivo were not increased in mice with nibrin mutations as might have been expected considering the radiosensitivity of NBS patient cells in vitro. Evidently apoptosis is efficient, even in the absence of wild type nibrin

  14. Deficiency of the DNA repair protein nibrin increases the basal but not the radiation induced mutation frequency in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessendorf, Petra [Institute of Medical and Human Genetics, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany); Vijg, Jan [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Michael F. Price Center, 1301 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Nussenzweig, André [Laboratory of Genome Integrity, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, 37 Convent Drive, Room 1106, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Digweed, Martin, E-mail: martin.digweed@charite.de [Institute of Medical and Human Genetics, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • lacZ mutant frequencies measured in vivo in mouse models of radiosensitive Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome. • Spontaneous mutation frequencies are increased in lymphatic tissue due to Nbn mutation. • Single base transitions, not deletions, dominate the mutation spectrum. • Radiation induced mutation frequencies are not increased due to Nbn mutation. - Abstract: Nibrin (NBN) is a member of a DNA repair complex together with MRE11 and RAD50. The complex is associated particularly with the repair of DNA double strand breaks and with the regulation of cell cycle check points. Hypomorphic mutation of components of the complex leads to human disorders characterised by radiosensitivity and increased tumour occurrence, particularly of the lymphatic system. We have examined here the relationship between DNA damage, mutation frequency and mutation spectrum in vitro and in vivo in mouse models carrying NBN mutations and a lacZ reporter plasmid. We find that NBN mutation leads to increased spontaneous DNA damage in fibroblasts in vitro and high basal mutation rates in lymphatic tissue of mice in vivo. The characteristic mutation spectrum is dominated by single base transitions rather than the deletions and complex rearrangements expected after abortive repair of DNA double strand breaks. We conclude that in the absence of wild type nibrin, the repair of spontaneous errors, presumably arising during DNA replication, makes a major contribution to the basal mutation rate. This applies also to cells heterozygous for an NBN null mutation. Mutation frequencies after irradiation in vivo were not increased in mice with nibrin mutations as might have been expected considering the radiosensitivity of NBS patient cells in vitro. Evidently apoptosis is efficient, even in the absence of wild type nibrin.

  15. ROLE OF METHODS FOR CAR-REPAIRING ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON INCREASE OF LABOR EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of the line form of production organization are shown. The examples of forming the lines in different branches of industry are given. Main characteristics of line production are presented. An important role in the development of new structures of car repair lines promoting in production efficiency and labor productivity growth is emphasized. Huge reserves in this direction can be seen in creation of multi-subject flexible asynchronous systems with high level of production mechanization and automation.

  16. Induction and repair of DNA double strand breaks: The increasing spectrum of non-homologous end joining pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George

    2011-01-01

    A defining characteristic of damage induced in the DNA by ionizing radiation (IR) is its clustered character that leads to the formation of complex lesions challenging the cellular repair mechanisms. The most widely investigated such complex lesion is the DNA double strand break (DSB). DSBs undermine chromatin stability and challenge the repair machinery because an intact template strand is lacking to assist restoration of integrity and sequence in the DNA molecule. Therefore, cells have evolved a sophisticated machinery to detect DSBs and coordinate a response on the basis of inputs from various sources. A central function of cellular responses to DSBs is the coordination of DSB repair. Two conceptually different mechanisms can in principle remove DSBs from the genome of cells of higher eukaryotes. Homologous recombination repair (HRR) uses as template a homologous DNA molecule and is therefore error-free; it functions preferentially in the S and G2 phases. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), on the other hand, simply restores DNA integrity by joining the two ends, is error prone as sequence is only fortuitously preserved and active throughout the cell cycle. The basis of DSB repair pathway choice remains unknown, but cells of higher eukaryotes appear programmed to utilize preferentially NHEJ. Recent work suggests that when the canonical DNA-PK dependent pathway of NHEJ (D-NHEJ), becomes compromised an alternative NHEJ pathway and not HRR substitutes in a quasi-backup function (B-NHEJ). Here, we outline aspects of DSB induction by IR and review the mechanisms of their processing in cells of higher eukaryotes. We place particular emphasis on backup pathways of NHEJ and summarize their increasing significance in various cellular processes, as well as their potential contribution to carcinogenesis.

  17. Enterolactone: A novel radiosensitizer for human breast cancer cell lines through impaired DNA repair and increased apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigdeli, Bahareh; Goliaei, Bahram; Masoudi-Khoram, Nastaran; Jooyan, Najmeh; Nikoofar, Alireza; Rouhani, Maryam; Haghparast, Abbas; Mamashli, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Radiotherapy is a potent treatment against breast cancer, which is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. However, the emergence of radioresistance due to increased DNA repair leads to radiotherapeutic failure. Applying polyphenols combined with radiation is a more promising method leading to better survival. Enterolactone, a phytoestrogenic polyphenol, has been reported to inhibit an important radioresistance signaling pathway, therefore we conjectured that enterolactone could enhance radiosensitivity in breast cancer. To assess this hypothesis, radiation response of enterolactone treated MDA-MB-231 and T47D cell lines and corresponding cellular mechanisms were investigated. Methods: Cytotoxicity of enterolactone was measured via MTT assay. Cells were treated with enterolactone before X-irradiation, and clonogenic assay was used to evaluate radiosensitivity. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometric analysis. In addition, DNA damages and corresponding repair, chromosomal damages, and aberrations were assessed by comet, micronucleus, and cytogenetic assays, respectively. Results: Enterolactone decreased the viability of cells in a concentration- and time dependent manner. Enterolactone significantly enhanced radiosensitivity of cells by abrogating G2/M arrest, impairing DNA repair, and increasing radiation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, increased chromosomal damages and aberrations were detected in cells treated with enterolactone combined with X-rays than X-ray alone. These effects were more prominent in T47D than MDA-MB-231 cells. Discussion: To our knowledge, this is the first report that enterolactone is a novel radiosensitizer for breast cancer irrespective of estrogen receptor status. Authors propose enterolactone as a candidate for combined therapy to decrease the radiation dose delivered to patients and subsequent side effects. - Highlights: • Enterolactone is proposed to be a novel radiosensitizer for

  18. Enterolactone: A novel radiosensitizer for human breast cancer cell lines through impaired DNA repair and increased apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigdeli, Bahareh, E-mail: bhr.bigdeli@ut.ac.ir [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, 16th Azar St., Enghelab Sq., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goliaei, Bahram, E-mail: goliaei@ut.ac.ir [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, 16th Azar St., Enghelab Sq., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masoudi-Khoram, Nastaran, E-mail: n.masoudi@alumni.ut.ac.ir [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, 16th Azar St., Enghelab Sq., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jooyan, Najmeh, E-mail: n.jooyan@ut.ac.ir [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, 16th Azar St., Enghelab Sq., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikoofar, Alireza, E-mail: nikoofar@iums.ac.ir [Department of Radiotherapy, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Shahid Hemmat Highway, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rouhani, Maryam, E-mail: rouhani@iasbs.ac.ir [Department of Biological Sciences, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Prof. Yousef Sobouti Blvd., Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghparast, Abbas, E-mail: Haghparast@sbmu.ac.ir [Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Daneshjo St., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mamashli, Fatemeh, E-mail: mamashli@ut.ac.ir [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, 16th Azar St., Enghelab Sq., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Introduction: Radiotherapy is a potent treatment against breast cancer, which is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. However, the emergence of radioresistance due to increased DNA repair leads to radiotherapeutic failure. Applying polyphenols combined with radiation is a more promising method leading to better survival. Enterolactone, a phytoestrogenic polyphenol, has been reported to inhibit an important radioresistance signaling pathway, therefore we conjectured that enterolactone could enhance radiosensitivity in breast cancer. To assess this hypothesis, radiation response of enterolactone treated MDA-MB-231 and T47D cell lines and corresponding cellular mechanisms were investigated. Methods: Cytotoxicity of enterolactone was measured via MTT assay. Cells were treated with enterolactone before X-irradiation, and clonogenic assay was used to evaluate radiosensitivity. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometric analysis. In addition, DNA damages and corresponding repair, chromosomal damages, and aberrations were assessed by comet, micronucleus, and cytogenetic assays, respectively. Results: Enterolactone decreased the viability of cells in a concentration- and time dependent manner. Enterolactone significantly enhanced radiosensitivity of cells by abrogating G2/M arrest, impairing DNA repair, and increasing radiation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, increased chromosomal damages and aberrations were detected in cells treated with enterolactone combined with X-rays than X-ray alone. These effects were more prominent in T47D than MDA-MB-231 cells. Discussion: To our knowledge, this is the first report that enterolactone is a novel radiosensitizer for breast cancer irrespective of estrogen receptor status. Authors propose enterolactone as a candidate for combined therapy to decrease the radiation dose delivered to patients and subsequent side effects. - Highlights: • Enterolactone is proposed to be a novel radiosensitizer for

  19. Postoperative Granulomas at Liposuction Incision Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, Frederick G; White, Peter F; Barrero Castedo, Carlos E

    2016-02-01

    Since most liposuction incisions heal uneventfully, difficult healing in such incisions must be investigated. In the cases of two gynecomastia liposuction patients in which a water-based lubricating gel was used on the liposuction incisions, the incisions failed to heal. For both patients, workup uncovered palisading granulomas at the lateral inframammary fold incision sites several months after otherwise successful surgeries. These two cases are presented and the previous literature is reviewed, with consideration given to the etiology and prevention of such granulomas. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5: Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The cutting edges in DNA repair, licensing, and fidelity: DNA and RNA repair nucleases sculpt DNA to measure twice, cut once.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutakawa, Susan E; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Tainer, John A

    2014-07-01

    To avoid genome instability, DNA repair nucleases must precisely target the correct damaged substrate before they are licensed to incise. Damage identification is a challenge for all DNA damage response proteins, but especially for nucleases that cut the DNA and necessarily create a cleaved DNA repair intermediate, likely more toxic than the initial damage. How do these enzymes achieve exquisite specificity without specific sequence recognition or, in some cases, without a non-canonical DNA nucleotide? Combined structural, biochemical, and biological analyses of repair nucleases are revealing their molecular tools for damage verification and safeguarding against inadvertent incision. Surprisingly, these enzymes also often act on RNA, which deserves more attention. Here, we review protein-DNA structures for nucleases involved in replication, base excision repair, mismatch repair, double strand break repair (DSBR), and telomere maintenance: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), Endonuclease IV (Nfo), tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2), UV Damage endonuclease (UVDE), very short patch repair endonuclease (Vsr), Endonuclease V (Nfi), Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), RNase T and Meiotic recombination 11 (Mre11). DNA and RNA structure-sensing nucleases are essential to life with roles in DNA replication, repair, and transcription. Increasingly these enzymes are employed as advanced tools for synthetic biology and as targets for cancer prognosis and interventions. Currently their structural biology is most fully illuminated for DNA repair, which is also essential to life. How DNA repair enzymes maintain genome fidelity is one of the DNA double helix secrets missed by James Watson and Francis Crick, that is only now being illuminated though structural biology and mutational analyses. Structures reveal motifs for repair nucleases and mechanisms whereby these enzymes follow the old carpenter adage: measure twice, cut once. Furthermore, to measure

  1. Lateral Erosion Encourages Vertical Incision in a Bimodal Alluvial River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    Sand can have a strong impact on gravel transport, increasing gravel transport rates by orders of magnitude as sand content increases. Recent experimental work by others indicates that adding sand to an armored bed can even cause armor to break-up and mobilize. These two elements together help explain observations from a bimodal sand and gravel-bedded river, where lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium breaks up the armor layer, encouraging further incision into the bed. Detailed bedload measurements were coupled with surface and subsurface grain size analyses and cross-sectional surveys in a seasonally-incised channel carved into the upper alluvial fan of the Pasig-Potrero River at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, filling valleys draining the flanks of the volcano with primarily sand-sized pyroclastic flow debris. Twenty years after the eruption, sand-rich sediment inputs are strongly seasonal, with most sediment input to the channel during the rainy season. During the dry season, flow condenses from a wide braided planform to a single-thread channel in most of the upper basin, extending several km onto the alluvial fan. This change in planform creates similar unit discharge ranges in summer and winter. Lower sediment loads in the dry season drive vertical incision until the bed is sufficiently armored. Incision proceeds downstream in a wave, with increasing sediment transport rates and decreasing grain size with distance downstream, eventually reaching a gravel-sand transition and return to a braided planform. Incision depths in the gravel-bedded section exceeded 3 meters in parts of a 4 km-long study reach, a depth too great to be explained by predictions from simple winnowing during incision. Instead, lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium provides sufficient fine sediment to break up the armor surface, allowing incision to start anew and increasing the total depth of the seasonally-incised valley. Lateral migration is recorded in a

  2. A single incision transaxillary thoracoscopic sympathectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša

    2014-01-01

    exuflation and chest drain, and one case of unilateral transitory Horner’s syndrome. Quarterly and annual postoperative monitoring showed excellent aesthetic effects of the surgery without any residual pain. The complete withdrawal of hyperhidrosis symptoms was noted in 44 (93.62% of the patients. The recurrence of symptoms following the initial regression was seen in 3 (6.38% of the patients 12 months after the surgery, whereas the patients surgically treated as a result of facial hyperhidrosis saw a significantly increased sweating of feet. The quality of life improved in 45 (95.6% of the patients. Conclusion. Single incision transaxillary thoracoscopic sympathectomy generates excellent aesthetic and functional results in patients with primary focal hyperhidrosis.

  3. A feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure for treatment of incarcerated inguinal hernia in children: our preliminary outcome and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Naruhiko; Uchida, Hiroo; Seki, Takashi; Hiramatsu, Kiyoshi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure (LPEC) for incarcerated inguinal hernia (IIH) repair. 6 single-incision LPEC procedures were performed for IIH repair and 60 procedures were performed for reducible inguinal hernia (RIH) in the same period of time in one hospital. The laparoscope and one pair of grasping forceps were placed through the same umbilical incision. In IIH repair, the herniated organ was gently pulled using the grasping forceps with external manual pressure. If it was difficult to reduce the herniated organ with one pair of forceps, another pair of forceps were inserted through a multi-channel port without extending the umbilical incidion. Using the LPEC needle, the hernia orifice was closed extraperitoneally. We performed a retrospective analysis to compare the outcomes of single-incision LPEC for IIH repair or reducible inguinal hernia. All procedures were completed by single-incision without open conversion. A multi-channel port with another pair of forceps was needed in three cases. The operation time and the length of stay were significantly longer with IIH repair than with RIH repair. There were no major complications and there was no evidence of early recurrence in any patient. In conclusion, single-incision LPEC with a multi-channel port is feasible and safe for IIH repair.

  4. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  5. Modified incision for maxillectomy: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavana, Kranti; Tyagi, Isha; Ramani, Mukesh Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Radical maxillectomy has usually been done by the classical Weber Ferguson incision since age old times and still is being used widely due to its advantage of excellent exposure and minimal scarring as the incision follows the natural skin crease. In our modification of radical maxillectomy incision we avoid a scar on the midface by performing a midface degloving and combining it with a subconjunctival eye incision thus avoiding any cosmetic deformity and associated eye complication. It also avoids the late complication of cutaneous fistula following radiotherapy to these areas and due to early healing of the wound, early radiotherapy can be started.

  6. Femtosecond laser effect on the self-sealing properties of the corneal incision of various lengths and profile (experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulduz Shavkatovna Nizametdinova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was carried out to study self-sealing properties of corneal incisions of different profile and length carried out with femtosecond laser Victus (Technolas Perfect Vision/Bausch&Lomb. Using femtosecond laser for this purpose allows creating corneal incisions of high precision and predictability. Reproducibility and standardization of the incision profile and length are an advantage of this technology. Obtained results showed that single-profile incisions are less stable and safe when compared to multi-profile ones. It was noted that incision length increase promotes its self-sealing properties.

  7. Decreased transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair capacity is associated with increased p53- and MLH1-independent apoptosis in response to cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbert, Lawton J; Smith, Jennifer M; McKay, Bruce C

    2010-01-01

    One of the most commonly used classes of anti-cancer drugs presently in clinical practice is the platinum-based drugs, including cisplatin. The efficacy of cisplatin therapy is often limited by the emergence of resistant tumours following treatment. Cisplatin resistance is multi-factorial but can be associated with increased DNA repair capacity, mutations in p53 or loss of DNA mismatch repair capacity. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to reduce the transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) capacity of several prostate and colorectal carcinoma cell lines with specific defects in p53 and/or DNA mismatch repair. The effect of small inhibitory RNAs designed to target the CSB (Cockayne syndrome group B) transcript on TC-NER and the sensitivity of cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis was determined. These prostate and colon cancer cell lines were initially TC-NER proficient and RNAi against CSB significantly reduced their DNA repair capacity. Decreased TC-NER capacity was associated with an increase in the sensitivity of tumour cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis, even in p53 null and DNA mismatch repair-deficient cell lines. The present work indicates that CSB and TC-NER play a prominent role in determining the sensitivity of tumour cells to cisplatin even in the absence of p53 and DNA mismatch repair. These results further suggest that CSB represents a potential target for cancer therapy that may be important to overcome resistance to cisplatin in the clinic

  8. Inhibition of nucleotide excision repair by fludarabine in normal lymphocytes in vitro, measured by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kawai, Yasukazu; Ueda, Takanori [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Alkylating agents or platinum analogues initiate several excision repair mechanisms, which involve incision of the DNA strand, excision of the damaged nucleotide, gap filling by DNA resynthesis, and rejoining by ligation. The previous study described that nucleotide excision repair permitted incorporation of fludarabine nucleoside (F-area-A) into the repair patch, thereby inhibiting the DNA resynthesis. In the present study, to clarify the repair kinetics in view of the inhibition by F-ara-A, normal lymphocytes were stimulated to undergo nucleotide excision repair by ultraviolet C (UV) irradiation in the presence or absence of F-ara-A. The repair kinetics were determined as DNA single strand breaks resulting from the incision and the rejoining using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. DNA resynthesis was evaluated in terms of the uptake of tritiated thymidine into DNA. The lymphocytes initiated the incision step maximally at 1 h, and completed the rejoining process within 4 h after UV exposure. UV also initiated thymidine uptake, which increased time-dependently and reached a plateau at 4 h. A 2-h pre-incubation with F-ara-A inhibited the repair in a concentration-dependent manner, with the maximal inhibition by 5 {mu}M. This inhibitory effect was demonstrated by the reduction of the thymidine uptake and by the inhibition of the rejoining. A DNA polymerase inhibitor, aphidicolin, and a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, hydroxyurea, were not so inhibitory to the repair process as F-ara-A at equimolar concentrations. The present findings suggest that inhibition of nucleotide excision repair may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against cancer, especially in the context of resistant cells with an increased repair capacity. (author)

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells promote incision wound repair in a mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chalkley method was used to determine vascular density. A score was given, for each field examined, for CD31-positive areas, and the results of blind analysis were confirmed by independent analysis of a second evaluator. Results: The tensile strength of the wound area was significantly lower in older versus younger mice ...

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells promote incision wound repair in a mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of PLA General Hospital, ... wound healing include the fibroblast growth ... exogenous growth factors on wound healing have failed to confirm their efficacy in clinical trials.

  11. Temperature-controlled laser-soldering system and its clinical application for bonding skin incisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhon, David; Gabay, Ilan; Shpolyansky, Gregory; Vasilyev, Tamar; Nur, Israel; Meidler, Roberto; Hatoum, Ossama Abu; Katzir, Abraham; Hashmonai, Moshe; Kopelman, Doron

    2015-12-01

    Laser tissue soldering is a method of repairing incisions. It involves the application of a biological solder to the approximated edges of the incision and heating it with a laser beam. A pilot clinical study was carried out on 10 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Of the four abdominal incisions in each patient, two were sutured and two were laser soldered. Cicatrization, esthetical appearance, degree of pain, and pruritus in the incisions were examined on postoperative days 1, 7, and 30. The soldered wounds were watertight and healed well, with no discharge from these wounds or infection. The total closure time was equal in both methods, but the net soldering time was much shorter than suturing. There was no difference between the two types of wound closure with respect to the pain and pruritus on a follow-up of one month. Esthetically, the soldered incisions were estimated as good as the sutured ones. The present study confirmed that temperature-controlled laser soldering of human skin incisions is clinically feasible, and the results obtained were at least equivalent to those of standard suturing.

  12. Human FAN1 promotes strand incision in 5'-flapped DNA complexed with RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Sato, Koichi; Hirayama, Emiko; Takata, Minoru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a human infantile recessive disorder. Seventeen FA causal proteins cooperatively function in the DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair pathway. Dual DNA strand incisions around the crosslink are critical steps in ICL repair. FA-associated nuclease 1 (FAN1) is a DNA structure-specific endonuclease that is considered to be involved in DNA incision at the stalled replication fork. Replication protein A (RPA) rapidly assembles on the single-stranded DNA region of the stalled fork. However, the effect of RPA on the FAN1-mediated DNA incision has not been determined. In this study, we purified human FAN1, as a bacterially expressed recombinant protein. FAN1 exhibited robust endonuclease activity with 5'-flapped DNA, which is formed at the stalled replication fork. We found that FAN1 efficiently promoted DNA incision at the proper site of RPA-coated 5'-flapped DNA. Therefore, FAN1 possesses the ability to promote the ICL repair of 5'-flapped DNA covered by RPA. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary Cleft Lip and Palate Repair in Assam, India: Does Preoperative Anthropometric Analysis Help Identify Patients With Increased Surgical Risk in a Clinically Prescreened Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Mairin A; Gillenwater, Justin; Laub, Donald R; Osler, Turner; Allan, Anna Y; Restrepo, Carolina; Campbell, Alex

    2017-11-01

      To compare anthropometric z-scores with incidence of post-operative complications for patients undergoing primary cleft lip or palate repair.   This was a retrospective observational analysis of patients from a surgical center in Assam, India, and includes a cohort from a single surgical mission completed before the opening of the center.   Patients included in the study underwent surgery during an Operation Smile mission before the opening of Operation Smile's Guwahati Comprehensive Cleft Care Center in Guwahati, India. The remaining cohort received treatment at the center. All patients received preoperative assessment and screening; surgery; and postoperative care, education, and follow-up.   Our sample size included 1941 patients and consisted of all patients with complete information in the database who returned for follow-up after receiving primary cleft lip repair or primary cleft palate repair between January 2011 and April 2013.   Preoperative anthropometric measurements.   Postoperative complications.   Anthropometric z-scores were not a significant predictor of adverse surgical outcomes in the group analyzed. Palate surgery had increased risk of complication versus lip repair, with an overall odds ratio of 5.66 (P < .001) for all patients aged 3 to 228 months.   Anthropometric z-scores were not correlated with increased risk of surgical complications, possibly because patients were well screened for malnutrition before surgery at this center. Primary palate repair is associated with an approximate fivefold increased risk of developing postoperative complication(s) compared with primary lip repair.

  14. Fibrin sealant for mesh fixation in laparoscopic groin hernia repair does not increase long-term recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Andreas Qwist; Helvind, Neel Maria; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methods of groin hernia repair include laparoscopic techniques using tissue-penetrating mesh fixation or non-penetrating fixation. Concerns regarding hernia repair include postoperative chronic pain, sexual dysfunction, and recurrence. Earlier estimations of recurrence rates have......) laparoscopic groin hernia repair using either fibrin sealant or tacks for mesh fixation. METHODS: This study used data from the Danish Hernia Database to create the following cohort: All patients operated laparoscopically for primary groin hernia with a TAPP procedure using fibrin sealant for mesh fixation...... difference in long-term reoperation rates and clinical recurrences in patients undergoing TAPP repair with meshes fixated with fibrin sealant compared with tacks....

  15. Cosmetic effects of skin-crease camouflage incision versus longitudinal incision following carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz; Rybicka, Anita; Rynio, Pawel; Gutowski, Piotr; Wiernicki, Ireneusz

    2018-03-01

    Despite the increasing use of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS), carotid endarterectomy (CEA) nonetheless remains a more medically beneficial method of treatment for carotid artery stenosis. Therefore, one possibility for progress within this procedure may be to use minimally invasive carotid surgery, especially when the scar is in plain sight: the use of the natural wrinkles (skin crease) as a camouflage of the skin incision provides significant cosmetic improvements. To compare the cosmetic effects of classic and trans-wrinkle CEA. To assess the distance between the carotid artery bifurcation (CAB) and the skin-crease incision whilst attempting CEA. It was a randomized prospective study with two groups: patients undergoing classic surgery (control group; n = 100) and skin-crease trans-wrinkle camouflaged CEA (study group; n = 100). Follow-up was at 2 months and 1 year. The medical results of the treatment were similar in both groups. The cumulative count of strokes and myocardial infarctions was 0.5% within 30 days, and after one year 3.5% (and 5.5% including cases of death). The superiority of the transverse crease being hidden compared to the conventional longitudinal technique was proven in the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) score, respectively 11.4 ±1.0 vs. 14.1 ±3.4 (p = 0.0001) after 2 months and 13.5 ±2.8 vs. 14.1 ±3.4 (p = 0.039) after a year. Trans-wrinkle incision gives better cosmetic results, can be safely performed in most cases, and offers a comfortable approach during CEA.

  16. Mitral valve repair and bioprosthetic replacement without postoperative anticoagulation does not increase the risk of stroke or mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwann, Thomas A; Engoren, Milo; Bonnell, Mark; Clancy, Christopher; Khouri, Samer; Kabour, Ameer; Jamil, Tahir; Habib, Robert H

    2013-07-01

    The study aimed to determine if mitral valve repair (MVRR) or bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement (BMVR) without postoperative anticoagulation is associated with a similar risk of thromboembolism and death as anticoagulation. We retrospectively reviewed our 2004-09 experience in 249 MVRR and bioprosthetic replacement patients (53% female; 63 year mean age). Concurrent procedures principally included antiarrhythmic surgery, aortic valve replacement, tricuspid valve repair and coronary bypass grafting. Warfarin therapy was instituted at the discretion of the surgeon. Thirty-day, a period known to have the highest risk of valve-related thromboembolism, outcomes were compared relying on the incidence of stroke and death as surrogates of thromboembolic complications. Intermediate-term survival was compared between the groups using Cox proportional hazard models. The mean follow-up was 2.9 years. Given the non-randomized warfarin use, a propensity score using patient comorbidities and concurrent procedures was created and added to the Cox models. One hundred and ninety-two (77%) patients were discharged on warfarin and 57 (23%) were discharged without warfarin. Thirty-day mortality in patients discharged from the index hospitalization was 1.2% and was similar for the two groups (P = 0.99). Four ischaemic perioperative strokes were detected; 3 in the warfarin group and 1 in the no warfarin group (P = 0.99). Overall survival was 84%, with 84% survival in the warfarin group and 86% in the no warfarin group (P = 0.79). Bleeding complications were comparable between the two groups (P = 0.72). In a multivariate analysis, warfarin was not related to mortality. Despite current guidelines recommending postoperative anticoagulation following MVRR or bioprosthetic replacement, the avoidance of warfarin does not increase perioperative complications and has no impact on intermediate survival. Accordingly, a prospective randomized study to adjudicate the role of extended warfarin

  17. Characterization of a mutant rat kangaroo cell line with alterations in the cell cycle and DNA repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyaji E.N.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a positive selection system for isolating DNA replication and repair related mutants, we isolated a clone from a rat kangaroo cell line (PtK2 that has increased sensitivity to UV light. Characterization of this clone indicated normal post-replication repair after UV irradiation, and normal removal rates of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4pyrimidone photoproducts by excision repair. However, this cell line has decreased ability to make early incisions on damaged DNA, possibly indicating a defect in preferential repair of actively transcribed genes, and a slower cell proliferation rate, including a longer S-phase. This phenotype reinforces the present notion that control of key mechanisms in cell metabolism, such as cell cycle control, repair, transcription and cell death, can be linked.

  18. Increased susceptibility to chemotherapeutic alkylating agents of mice deficient in DNA repair methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, A; Sakumi, K; Sekiguchi, M

    2000-10-01

    O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase plays vital roles in preventing induction of mutations and cancer as well as cell death related to alkylating agents. Mice defective in the MGMT: gene, encoding the methyltransferase, were used to evaluate cell death-inducing and tumorigenic activities of therapeutic agents which have alkylation potential. MGMT(-/-) mice were considerably more sensitive to dacarbazine, a monofunctional triazene, than were wild-type mice, in terms of survival. When dacarbazine was administered i.p. to 6-week-old mice and survival at 30 days was enumerated, LD(50) values of MGMT(-/-) and MGMT(+/+) mice were 20 and 450 mg/kg body wt, respectively. Increased sensitivity of MGMT(-/-) mice to 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosou rea (ACNU), a bifunctional nitrosourea, was also noted. On the other hand, there was no difference in survival of MGMT(+/+) and MGMT(-/-) mice exposed to cyclophosphamide, a bifunctional nitrogen mustard. It appears that dacarbazine and ACNU produce O(6)-alkylguanine as a major toxic lesion, while cyclophosphamide yields other types of modifications in DNA which are not subjected to the action of the methyltransferase. MGMT(-/-) mice seem to be less refractory to the tumor-inducing effect of dacarbazine than are MGMT(+/+) mice. Thus, the level of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity is an important factor when determining susceptibility to drugs with the potential for alkylation.

  19. DNA repair , cell repair and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhestyanikov, V.D.

    1983-01-01

    Data obtained in laboratory of radiation cytology and literature data testifying to a considerable role of DNA repair in cell sensitivity to radiation and chemical DNA-tropic agents have been considered. Data pointing to the probability of contribution of inducible repair of DNA into plant cells sensitivity to X-rays are obtained. Certain violations of DNA repair do not result in the increase of radiosensitivity. It is assumed that in the cases unknown mechanisms of DNA repair operate

  20. Single Incision Laparoscopic Splenectomy: Our First Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Barbaros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most laparoscopic surgeons have attempted to reduce incisional morbidity and improve cosmetic outcomes by using less and smaller trocars. Single incision laparoscopic splenectomy is a new laparoscopic procedure. Herein we would like to present our experiences.Material and Methods: Between January 2009 and June 2009, data of the 7 patients who underwent single incision laparoscopic splenectomy were evaluated retrospectively.Results: There were 7 patients (5 females and 2 males with a mean age of 29.9 years. The most common splenectomy indication was idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Single incision laparoscopic splenectomy was performed successfully in 6 patients. In one patient the operation was converted to an open procedure.Conclusion: With surgeons experienced in minimally invasive surgery, single incision laparoscopic splenectomy could be performed successfully. However, in order to demonstrate the differneces between standard laparoscopic splenectomy and SILS splenetomy, prospective randomized comparative studies are required.

  1. Single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is an alternative to conventional multiport laparoscopy. Single-access laparoscopy using a transumbilical port affords maximum cosmetic benefits because the surgical incision is hidden in the umbilicus. The advantages of single-access laparoscopic surgery may include less bleeding, infection, and hernia formation and better cosmetic outcome and less pain. The disadvantages and limitations include longer surgery time, difficulty in learning the technique, and the need for specialized instruments. Ongoing refinement of the surgical technique and instrumentation is likely to expand its role in gynecologic surgery in the future. We perform single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy using three ports in the single transumbilical incision.

  2. Decreased transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair capacity is associated with increased p53- and MLH1-independent apoptosis in response to cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jennifer M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most commonly used classes of anti-cancer drugs presently in clinical practice is the platinum-based drugs, including cisplatin. The efficacy of cisplatin therapy is often limited by the emergence of resistant tumours following treatment. Cisplatin resistance is multi-factorial but can be associated with increased DNA repair capacity, mutations in p53 or loss of DNA mismatch repair capacity. Methods RNA interference (RNAi was used to reduce the transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER capacity of several prostate and colorectal carcinoma cell lines with specific defects in p53 and/or DNA mismatch repair. The effect of small inhibitory RNAs designed to target the CSB (Cockayne syndrome group B transcript on TC-NER and the sensitivity of cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis was determined. Results These prostate and colon cancer cell lines were initially TC-NER proficient and RNAi against CSB significantly reduced their DNA repair capacity. Decreased TC-NER capacity was associated with an increase in the sensitivity of tumour cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis, even in p53 null and DNA mismatch repair-deficient cell lines. Conclusion The present work indicates that CSB and TC-NER play a prominent role in determining the sensitivity of tumour cells to cisplatin even in the absence of p53 and DNA mismatch repair. These results further suggest that CSB represents a potential target for cancer therapy that may be important to overcome resistance to cisplatin in the clinic.

  3. [External periareolar incision for subdermal mastectomy in men with gynecomastia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro; Reyes-Páramo, Pedro; Ramos-Alvarez, Gloria; López-Colombo, Aurelio; Tinajero-Esquivel, Magdalena; Ruiz-León, Betzabé

    2007-01-01

    Gynecomastia describes a benign increase of the mammary gland in men. When medical treatment fails, symptoms and psychological alterations persist. Subdermal mastectomy is the definitive treatment and can be achieved by different incisions, each with potential complications. We undertook this study to present clinical characteristics of 11 patients with gynecomastia and the results obtained with subdermal mastectomy by means of external periareolar incision. A descriptive cohort study in male patients with gynecomastia was carried out in a third-level medical care hospital. Patients were treated with subdermal mastectomy by means of external periareolar incision. There were 11 male patients with an average age of 19 years (range: 11-60 years), 3 patients (27.2%) with bilateral gynecomastia and 8 patients (72.7%) with unilateral gynecomastia. Average time of evolution was 22 months (range: 16-48 months), 9 patients (81.8%) reported pain, 11 patients (100%) reported psychological alterations with cutaneous alteration, 11 patients (100%) had normal secondary sexual characteristics, 1 patient (9%) had supernumerary nipple development, and 11 patients (100%) had well-defined lesions. According to Simon's classification: seven patients (63.6%) were classified as grade 1, three patients (27.2%) as grade 2 and one patient (9.09%) as grade 3. Each patient had a subdermal mastectomy with external periareolar incision, 11 patients (100%) had a histopathological report of gynecomastia; 1 patient (9.09%) displayed keloid healing and none displayed complications inherent to the surgical procedure. Mastectomy by means of external periareolar incision is useful in the treatment of gynecomastia.

  4. Recent, climate-driven river incision rate fluctuations in the Mercantour crystalline massif, southern French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, C.; Goren, L.; Rolland, Y.; Bourlès, D.; Braucher, R.; Saillard, M.; Cassol, D.

    2017-06-01

    We present a new geomorphological analysis of the Tinée River tributaries in the southern French Alps based on numerical inverse and forward modelling of their longitudinal profiles. We model their relative uplift history with respect to the main channel, hence the incision rate history of this channel. Inverse models show that all tributaries have consistent incision rate histories with alternating high and low values. A comparison with global temperature curves shows that these variations correlate with quaternary climate changes. We suggest that during warm periods, a wave of regressive erosion propagates in the Tinée River, while its tributaries deeply incise their substratum to catch up with the falling base-level. We also show that the post 140 ka history of this landscape evolution is dominated by fluvial incision. We then perform forward models of river incision and simulate the incision of the Tinée River system over a time span of 600 ka. This model allows us to extract time and space incision rate variations of the Tinée River. With a background of a few mm.yr-1, incision rate can increase up to more than 1 cm yr-1 during short periods of time due to climatic oscillations. This result is compatible with published cosmogenic nuclide based dating, which evidenced incision rates from 0.2 to 24 mm yr-1. The part of the channel located between 12 and 20 km downstream from the source has undergone several periods of rapid incision rates, which could explain the steep hillslopes and the triggering of a landslide ∼10 ka ago.

  5. Mast Quadrant-assisted Minimally Invasive Modified Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Single Incision Versus Double Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Lei Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of minimally invasive techniques is to make every effort to reduce tissue damage. Certainly, reducing skin incision is an important part of these techniques. This study aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility of Mast Quadrant-assisted modified transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF with a small single posterior median incision. Methods: During the period of March 2011 to March 2012, 34 patients with single-segment degenerative lumbar disease underwent the minimally invasive modified TLIF assisted by Mast Quadrant with a small single posterior median incision (single incision group. The cases in this group were compared to 37 patients with single-segment degenerative lumbar disease in the double incision group. The perioperative conditions of patients in these two groups were statistically analyzed and compared. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI scores, Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores, and sacrospinalis muscle damage evaluation indicators before operation and 3, 12 months postoperation were compared. Results: A total of 31 and 35 cases in the single incision and double incision groups, respectively, completed at least 12 months of systemic follow-up. The differences in perioperative conditions between the two groups were not statistically significant. The incision length of the single incision group was significantly shorter than that of the double incision group (P < 0.01. The ODI and VAS scores of patients in both groups improved significantly at 3 and 12 months postoperation. However, these two indicators at 3 and 12 months postoperation and the sacrospinalis muscle damage evaluation indicators at 3 months postoperation did not differ significantly between the two groups (P ≥ 0.05. Conclusions: Mast Quadrant-assisted modified TLIF with a small single posterior median incision has excellent clinical feasibility compared to minimally invasive TLIF with a double paramedian incision.

  6. The role of the DNA repair system in increasing the viability of E.coli cells under the action of small UV doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Vilenchik, M.M.; Isakov, B.K.; AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Botaniki)

    1976-01-01

    The authors studied the action of the ultraviolet light (UV) on the colony-forming ability of E.coli K12-HCR + cultured in a meat infusion broth in the presence of glucose. An unusual shape of the curve indicates that the number of viable cells increases under the action of low UV doses. The experiment was repeated seven times, and each time the phenomenon was fully asserted (p 0.01). So it was suggested that low UV doses (about 140 erg/mm 2 ) activate the system of dark DNA repair (induction of the synthesis of repair enzymes) which repairs 'spontaneous' DNA defects and increases the number of colony-forming cells. (orig.) [de

  7. Role of the DNA repair system in increasing the viability of E. coli cells under the action of small UV doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzin, A M; Vilenchik, M M; Isakov, B K [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki; AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Botaniki)

    1976-12-01

    The authors studied the action of the ultraviolet light (UV) on the colony-forming ability of E.coli K12-HCR/sup +/ cultured in a meat infusion broth in the presence of glucose. An unusual shape of the curve indicates that the number of viable cells increases under the action of low UV doses. The experiment was repeated seven times, and each time the phenomenon was fully asserted (p 0.01). So it was suggested that low UV doses (about 140 erg/mm/sup 2/) activate the system of dark DNA repair (induction of the synthesis of repair enzymes) which repairs 'spontaneous' DNA defects and increases the number of colony-forming cells.

  8. Single scrotal incision orchiopexy - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fabiano Fernandes Novaes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To conduct a systematic review on single scrotal incision orchiopexy. Materials and Methods A search was performed using Pubmed, through which 16 articles were selected out of a total of 133. The following conditions were considered exclusion criteria: other surgical methods such as an inguinal procedure or a laparoscopic approach, retractile testes, or patients with previous testicular or inguinal surgery. Results A total of 1558 orchiopexy surgeries initiated with a transcrotal incision were analyzed. Patients' ages ranged between 5 months and 21 years. Thirteen studies used high scrotal incisions, and low scrotal incisions were performed in the remainder of the studies. In 55 cases (3.53%, there was a need for inguinal incision. Recurrence was observed in 9 cases, testicular atrophy in 3, testicular hypotrophy in 2, and surgical site infections in 13 cases. High efficacy rates were observed, varying between 88% and 100%. Conclusions Single scrotal incision orchiopexy proved to be an effective technique and is associated with low rates of complications.

  9. Treadmill exercise induced functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair is associated with increased levels of neurotrophic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Park

    Full Text Available Benefits of exercise on nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been reported in both central and peripheral nervous system disease models. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of enhanced regeneration and improved functional outcomes are less understood. We used a peripheral nerve regeneration model that has a good correlation between functional outcomes and number of motor axons that regenerate to evaluate the impact of treadmill exercise. In this model, the median nerve was transected and repaired while the ulnar nerve was transected and prevented from regeneration. Daily treadmill exercise resulted in faster recovery of the forelimb grip function as evaluated by grip power and inverted holding test. Daily exercise also resulted in better regeneration as evaluated by recovery of compound motor action potentials, higher number of axons in the median nerve and larger myofiber size in target muscles. Furthermore, these observations correlated with higher levels of neurotrophic factors, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, in serum, nerve and muscle suggesting that increase in muscle derived neurotrophic factors may be responsible for improved regeneration.

  10. Inhibition of 5-LOX, COX-1, and COX-2 increases tendon healing and reduces muscle fibrosis and lipid accumulation after rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak, Nikhil R; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Flood, Michael D; Saripalli, Anjali L; Davis, Max E; Harning, Julie A; Lynch, Evan B; Roche, Stuart M; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2014-12-01

    The repair and restoration of function after chronic rotator cuff tears are often complicated by muscle atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty degeneration of the diseased muscle. The inflammatory response has been implicated in the development of fatty degeneration after cuff injuries. Licofelone is a novel anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), as well as cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 enzymes, which play important roles in inducing inflammation after injuries. While previous studies have demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective inhibitors of COX-2 (coxibs) may prevent the proper healing of muscles and tendons, studies about bone and cartilage have demonstrated that drugs that inhibit 5-LOX concurrently with COX-1 and COX-2 may enhance tissue regeneration. After the repair of a chronic rotator cuff tear in rats, licofelone would increase the load to failure of repaired tendons and increase the force production of muscle fibers. Controlled laboratory study. Rats underwent supraspinatus release followed by repair 28 days later. After repair, rats began a treatment regimen of either licofelone or a vehicle for 14 days, at which time animals were euthanized. Supraspinatus muscles and tendons were then subjected to contractile, mechanical, histological, and biochemical analyses. Compared with controls, licofelone-treated rats had a grossly apparent decrease in inflammation and increased fibrocartilage formation at the enthesis, along with a 62% increase in the maximum load to failure and a 51% increase in peak stress to failure. Licofelone resulted in a marked reduction in fibrosis and lipid content in supraspinatus muscles as well as reduced expression of several genes involved in fatty infiltration. Despite the decline in fibrosis and fat accumulation, muscle fiber specific force production was reduced by 23%. The postoperative treatment of cuff repair with licofelone may reduce fatty degeneration and enhance the development

  11. Common variants in mismatch repair genes associated with increased risk of sperm DNA damage and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Guixiang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mismatch repair (MMR pathway plays an important role in the maintenance of the genome integrity, meiotic recombination and gametogenesis. This study investigated whether genetic variations in MMR genes are associated with an increased risk of sperm DNA damage and male infertility. Methods We selected and genotyped 21 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in five MMR genes (MLH1, MLH3, PMS2, MSH4 and MSH5 using the SNPstream 12-plex platform in a case-control study of 1,292 idiopathic infertility patients and 480 fertile controls in a Chinese population. Sperm DNA damage levels were detected with the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL assay in 450 cases. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET and co-immunoprecipitation techniques were employed to determine the effects of functional variants. Results One intronic SNP in MLH1 (rs4647269 and two non-synonymous SNPs in PMS2 (rs1059060, Ser775Asn and MSH5 (rs2075789, Pro29Ser seem to be risk factors for the development of azoospermia or oligozoospermia. Meanwhile, we also identified a possible contribution of PMS2 rs1059060 to the risk of male infertility with normal sperm count. Among patients with normal sperm count, MLH1 rs4647269 and PMS2 rs1059060 were associated with increased sperm DNA damage. Functional analysis revealed that the PMS2 rs1059060 can affect the interactions between MLH1 and PMS2. Conclusions Our results provide evidence supporting the involvement of genetic polymorphisms in MMR genes in the aetiology of male infertility.

  12. Small hook thread (Quill) and soft felt internal splint to increase the primary repair strength of lacerated rabbit Achilles tendons: biomechanical analysis and considerations for hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Johanna; Müller, Angela; Feldman, Kirill; Tervoort, Theo A; Fessel, Gion; Snedeker, Jess G; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2011-07-01

    For the prevention of re-rupture during early healing phase, the primary repair strength of repaired lacerated tendons in hand surgery should be maximal and the reconstructed diameter minimal. Two new repair methods (small hook thread and internal splint) were assessed for strength and reconstructed diameter characteristics. Achilles tendons of 43 female New Zealand White rabbits were sectioned 2 cm above the calcaneus. Specimens were divided into 7 groups and repaired as follows: Kirchmayr method 2-strand with 4.0 polypropylene thread; Becker method 4-strand; 6-strand; internal splint; Kirchmayr method small hook 2-strand; Becker method small hook 4-strand, non-modified tendon. Load until failure, load until gap formation, gap length, cross-sectional area and failure stress were determined. The small hook 2-strand suture had 1.3 fold higher loads until failure compared to a conventional 2-strand suture, P<0.05. The internal splint had a similar load until failure (22 N (SD 6)) as the conventional 2-strand suture (23 N (SD 4)); around half the load until failure of the conventional 4-strand suture (38 N (SD 9)). Load until gap formation correlated positively with load until failure (y=0.65+3.6; r(2)=0.72). The running suture increased the cross-sectional area at the repair site by a factor of 1.3. Using a small hook thread instead of a 4.0 polypropylene thread significantly increases the primary repair strength with the same number of strands. Internal splints may be an alternative to conventional 2-strand sutures for bridging large gaps. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Excision of thymine dimers from specifically incised DNA by extracts of xeroderma pigmentosum cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, K; Friedberg, E C; Slor, H; Cleaver, J E

    1975-07-17

    DNA repair defects as exhibited in fibroblasts from patients with xeroderma pigmentosa were studied. Five complementation groups for excision-repair defects were examined to test the hypothesis that a defective endonuclease or exonuclease may be the cause. No evidence was found to indicate that the enzyme activity functions in dimer excision. Since ultraviolet irradiated E. coli DNA incised with an endonuclease purified from phage-infected cells were used, it is possible that other factors may be involved in human UV endonuclease action. (JWP)

  14. Does immobilization after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair increase tendon healing? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Tang, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Jun-Zu; Zou, Guo-Yao; Xiao, Rong-Chi; Yan, Dong-Xue

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether immobilization after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair improved tendon healing compared with early passive motion. A systematic electronic literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing early passive motion with immobilization after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The primary outcome assessed was tendon healing in the repaired cuff. Secondary outcome measures were range of motion (ROM) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder scale, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), Constant, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain scores. Pooled analyses were performed using a random effects model to obtain summary estimates of treatment effect with 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity among included studies was quantified. Three RCTs examining 265 patients were included. Meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in tendon healing in the repaired cuff between the early-motion and immobilization groups. A significant difference in external rotation at 6 months postoperatively favored early motion over immobilization, but no significant difference was observed at 1 year postoperatively. In one study, Constant scores were slightly higher in the early-motion group than in the immobilization group. Two studies found no significant difference in ASES, SST, or VAS score between groups. We found no evidence that immobilization after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was superior to early-motion rehabilitation in terms of tendon healing or clinical outcome. Patients in the early-motion group may recover ROM more rapidly. Level II; systematic review of levels I and II studies.

  15. Transconjunctival incision for total maxillectomy--an alternative for subciliary incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Tyagi, Isha; Jain, Shilpa; Syal, Rajan; Singh, Alok Pratap; Kapila, Rajeev

    2011-09-01

    A subciliary incision may be associated with various complications of the lower eyelid when it is used during a total maxillectomy. The use of the transconjunctival incision instead is an alternative in suitable patients. The records of 17 patients were reviewed in whom a transconjunctival incision was used during total maxillectomy. These included 13 in whom the Weber-Ferguson incision was used, and 4 who had a sublabial incision. There was mild conjunctival oedema in all the cases during the immediate postoperative period but it did not last for more than two days. Four patients had mild to moderate oedema of the lid that resolved within two days. One had mild ectropion with transient epiphora, which was caused by early removal of the medial canthal sutures. We found the approach to be cosmetically acceptable as it avoids a scar in the subciliary region. The transconjunctival incision can be used in place of the subciliary incision for lateral exposure during total maxillectomy. There are few complications associated with the lower lid, and it has good cosmetic results; if it is combined with a sublabial incision in suitable patients, the maxillectomy is virtually scar-free. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in various incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Nidhi; Chopra, Deepak; Chaurasia, Rajan Kumar; Agarwal, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    To determine the surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in Straight, Frown and Inverted V shape (Chevron) incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS). A prospective cross sectional study was done on a total of 75 patients aged 40y and above with senile cataract. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (25 each). Each group received a particular type of incision (Straight, Frown or Inverted V shape incisions). Manual SICS with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was performed. The patients were compared 4wk post operatively for uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and SIA. All calculations were performed using the SIA calculator version 2.1, a free software program. The study was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 statistical analysis software. The study found that 89.5% of patients in Straight incision group, 94.2% in Frown incision group and 95.7% in Inverted V group attained BCVA post-operatively in the range of 6/6 to 6/18. Mean SIA was minimum (-0.88±0.61D×90 degrees) with Inverted V incision which was statistically significant. Inverted V (Chevron) incision gives minimal SIA.

  17. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs: differential expression of oxidative stress and DNA repair in liver and brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... incision repair (P = 0.014) were all increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P = 0.003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may...

  18. Single incision laparoscopic colorectal resection: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnusamy Palanivelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A prospective case series of single incision multiport laparoscopic colorectal resections for malignancy using conventional laparoscopic trocars and instruments is described. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients (seven men and four women with colonic or rectal pathology underwent single incision multiport laparoscopic colectomy/rectal resection from July till December 2010. Four trocars were placed in a single transumblical incision. The bowel was mobilized laparoscopically and vessels controlled intracorporeally with either intra or extracorporeal anastomosis. Results: Three patients had carcinoma in the caecum, one in the hepatic flexure, two in the rectosigmoid, one in the descending colon, two in the rectum and two had ulcerative pancolitis (one with high grade dysplasia and another with carcinoma rectum. There was no conversion to standard multiport laparoscopy or open surgery. The median age was 52 years (range 24-78 years. The average operating time was 130 min (range 90-210 min. The average incision length was 3.2 cm (2.5-4.0 cm. There were no postoperative complications. The average length of stay was 4.5 days (range 3-8 days. Histopathology showed adequate proximal and distal resection margins with an average lymph node yield of 25 nodes (range 16-30 nodes. Conclusion: Single incision multiport laparoscopic colorectal surgery for malignancy is feasible without extra cost or specialized ports/instrumentation. It does not compromise the oncological radicality of resection. Short-term results are encouraging. Long-term results are awaited.

  19. Primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, C.; Karlsson, L.; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2016-01-01

    incision between January 1995 and June 2012 were reviewed. Horses with a laryngotomy incision closed in three layers for primary healing were included. Descriptive data on healing characteristics and complications of laryngotomy wounds were collected from the medical records and via follow......The objective was to report healing characteristics and complications after primary closure of equine laryngotomies and analyse factors potentially associated with complications. This retrospective case series of the medical records of horses (n = 180) undergoing laryngoplasty and laryngotomy...... after primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions are infrequent and considered of minimal severity and can be performed safely when paying careful attention to the closure of the cricothyroid membrane....

  20. Steady incision of Grand Canyon at the million year timeframe: a case for mantle-driven differential uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Ryan S.; Karl Karlstrom,; Laura Crossey,; Richard Young,; Michael Ort,; Yemane Asmerom,; Victor Polyak,; Andrew Darling,

    2014-01-01

    The Grand Canyon region provides an excellent laboratory to examine the interplay between river incision, magmatism, and the geomorphic and tectonic processes that shape landscapes. Here we apply U-series, Ar–Ar, and cosmogenic burial dating of river terraces to examine spatial variations in incision rates along the 445 km length of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon. We also analyze strath terrace sequences that extend to heights of several hundred meters above the river, and integrate these with speleothem constrained maximum incision rates in several reaches to examine any temporal incision variations at the million-year time frame. This new high-resolution geochronology shows temporally steady long-term incision in any given reach of Grand Canyon but significant variations along its length from 160 m/Ma in the east to 101 m/Ma in the west. Spatial and temporal patterns of incision, and the long timescale of steady incision rule out models where geomorphic controls such as climate oscillations, bedrock strength, sediment load effects, or isostatic response to differential denudation are the first order drivers of canyon incision. The incision pattern is best explained by a model of Neogene and ongoing epeirogenic uplift due to an eastward propagating zone of increased upper mantle buoyancy that we infer from propagation of Neogene basaltic volcanism and a strong lateral gradient in modern upper mantle seismic structure.

  1. Aorta-atria-septum combined incision for aortic valve re-replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiwei; Ye, Xiaofeng; Li, Zhaolong

    2018-01-01

    This case report illustrates a patient who underwent supra-annular mechanical aortic valve replacement then suffered from prosthesis dysfunction, increasing pressure gradient with aortic valve. She was successfully underwent aortic valve re-replacement, sub-annular pannus removing and aortic annulus enlargement procedures through combined cardiac incision passing through aortic root, right atrium (RA), and upper atrial septum. This incision provides optimal visual operative field and simplifies dissection. PMID:29850170

  2. Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS with Clear Corneal Incision and SICS with Scleral Incision – A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shafiqul Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age related cataract is the leading cause of blindness and visual impairment throughout the world. With the advent of microsurgical facilities simple cataract extraction surgery has been replaced by small incision cataract surgery (SICS with posterior chamber intra ocular lens implant, which can be done either with clear corneal incision or scleral incision. Objective: To compare the post operative visual outcome in these two procedures of cataract surgery. Materials and method: This comparative study was carried out in the department of Ophthalmology, Delta Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period of January 2010 to December 2012. Total 60 subjects indicated for age related cataract surgery irrespective of sex with the age range of 40-80 years with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly and equally distributed in 2 groups; Group A for SICS with clear corneal incision and group B for SICS with scleral incision. Post operative visual out come was evaluated by determining visual acuity and astigmatism in different occasions and was compared between groups. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS for windows version12. Results: The highest age incidence (43.3% was found between 61 to 70 years of age group. Among study subjects 40 were male and 20 were female. Preoperative visual acuity and astigmatism were evenly distributed between groups. Regarding postoperative unaided visual outcome, 6/12 or better visual acuity was found in 19.98% cases in group A and 39.6% cases in group B at 1st week. At 6th week 6/6 vision was found in 36.3% in Group A and 56.1% in Group B and 46.2% in group A and 66% in group B without and with correction respectively. With refractive correction, 6/6 vision was attained in 60% subjects of group A and 86.67% of group B at 8th week. Post operative visual acuity was statistically significant in all occasions. Postoperative astigmatism of

  3. [EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVANCED SKIN FLAP AND V-SHAPED VENTRAL INCISION ALONG THE ROOT OF PENILE SHAFT FOR CONCEALED PENIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junshan; Li, Dumiao; Zhang, Jianxing; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Yali; Lin, Li

    2015-09-01

    To investigate effectiveness of advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft for concealed penis in children. Between July 2007 and January 2015, 121 boys with concealed penis were treated with advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft. The age varied from 18 months to 13 years (mean, 7.2 years). Repair was based on a vertical incision in median raphe, complete degloving of penis and tacking its base to the dermis of the skin. Advanced skin flap and a V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft were used to cover the penile shaft. The operation time ranged from 60 to 100 minutes (mean, 75 minutes). Disruption of wound occurred in 1 case, and was cured after dressing change; and primary healing of incision was obtained in the others. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 7 years (median, 24 months). All patients achieved good to excellent cosmetic results with a low incidence of complications. The results were satisfactory in exposure of penis and prepuce appearance. No obvious scar was observed. The penis had similar appearance to that after prepuce circumcision. A combination of advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft is a simple, safe, and effective procedure for concealed penis with a similar appearance result to the prepuce circumcision.

  4. The boomerang incision for periareolar breast malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mona P

    2007-11-01

    Breast-conservation surgery has been shown to be equivalent to mastectomy in terms of long-term survival for the treatment of breast cancer. Various techniques have been described on how to achieve clear margins and good cosmetic outcomes and therefore expand the indications for breast conservation. A novel incision is detailed to augment the options already available.

  5. Single scrotal incision orchidopexy for palpable undescended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.; Safdar, C.A.; Yasir, U.; Rasool, N.; Kanwal, S.; Boota, M.; Rehman, J.U.

    2014-01-01

    To retrospectively asses the results of single scrotal incision orchidopexy (SSIO) performed at our centre with ligation of the patent processus vaginalis in children having palpable undescended testes (UDT). Study Design: Quasi-experimental with retrospective data. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatric surgery Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from April 2007 to December 2011. Patients and Methods: After making a single transverse incision at superior scrotal border, the testis was identified; gubernaculums and the sac were dissected to the highest level and divided. The testis was placed into the scrotum and fixed to the scrotal fascia/skin. All patients were assessed at 2 weeks, 2 months and 6 months post operatively, and then yearly. Results: A total of 38 orchidopexies were performed in 33 patients. The patients age ranged from 14 months to 7 years (mean:2.1 years). Bilateral UDT were found in 5 patients (15.1%). Operative time ranged from 20 to 45 minutes (mean: 36 minutes). The single scrotal incision technique was successful in all 38 cases (100%). All testes were easily fixed in the scrotum. Two patients (5.2%) developed scrotal haematoma and one patient (2.6%) developed stitch abscess. All showed good an atomical and cosmetic results up to a minimum of six months of follow-up. Conclusion: Single scrotal incision orchidopexy for palpable undescended testis is a simple and safe technique. It has shown to consume shorter time and give good cosmetic results. (author)

  6. Watershed-scale modeling of streamflow change in incised montane meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I.; Hill, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Land use practices have caused stream channel incision and water table decline in many montane meadows of the Western United States. Incision changes the magnitude and timing of streamflow in water supply source watersheds, a concern to resource managers and downstream water users. The hydrology of montane meadows under natural and incised conditions was investigated using watershed simulation for a range of hydrologic conditions. The results illustrate the interdependence between: watershed and meadow hydrology; bedrock and meadow aquifers; and surface and groundwater flow through the meadow for the modeled scenarios. During the wet season, stream incision resulted in less overland flow and interflow and more meadow recharge causing a net decrease in streamflow and increase in groundwater storage relative to natural meadow conditions. During the dry season, incision resulted in less meadow evapotranspiration and more groundwater discharge to the stream causing a net increase in streamflow and a decrease in groundwater storage relative to natural meadow conditions. In general, for a given meadow setting, the magnitude of change in summer streamflow and long-term change in watershed groundwater storage due to incision will depend on the combined effect of: reduced evapotranspiration in the eroded meadow; induced groundwater recharge; replenishment of dry season groundwater storage depletion in meadow and bedrock aquifers by precipitation during wet years; and groundwater storage depletion that is not replenished by precipitation during wet years.

  7. The effect of platelet rich fibrin on growth factor levels in urethral repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, Tutku; Ayva, Şebnem; Boybeyi, Özlem; Aslan, Mustafa Kemal; Çakmak, Murat

    2013-12-01

    Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is an autologous source of growth factors and promotes wound healing. An experimental study was performed to evaluate the effect of PRF on growth factor levels in urethral repair. Eighteen Wistar albino rats were included in the study. Rats were allocated in three groups (n:6): control (CG), sham (SG), and PRF (PRFG). In SG, a 5 mm vertical incision was performed in the penile urethra and repaired with 10/0 Vicryl® under a microscope. In PRFG, during the urethral repair as described in SG, 1 cc of blood was sampled from each rat and centrifuged for 10 minutes at 2400 rpm. PRF obtained from the centrifugation was placed on the repair site during closure. Penile urethras were sampled 24 hours after PRF application in PRFG and after urethral repair in SG. Transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGF-β-R-CD105), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGF-R), as well as endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), were evaluated in subepithelia of the penile skin and urethra. Groups were compared for growth factor levels and growth factor receptor expression with the Kruskal Wallis test. TGF-β-R levels were significantly decreased in SG when compared to CG (p0.05). Use of PRF after urethral repair increases TGF-β-R and VEGF expressions in urethral tissue. PRF can be considered as an alternative measure to improve the success of urethral repair. © 2013.

  8. Radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, In One; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Gook Myung; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Kwang Myung; Choi, Hwang; Cheon, Jung Eun; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Guk Myung

    2001-01-01

    Endoscopic incision of ureterocele is considered a simple and safe method for decompression of urinary tract obstruction above ureterocele. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele. We retrospectively reviewed the radiological findings (ultrasonography (US), intravenous urography, and voiding cystourethrography(VCU)) in 16 patients with ureterocele who underwent endoscopic incision (mean age at surgery, 15 months; M:F 3:13; 18 ureteroceles). According to the postoperative results, treatment was classified as successful when medical treatment was still required, and second operation when additional surgical treatment was required. Postoperative US (n=10) showed that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction was relieved: the kidney parenchima was thicker and the ureterocele was smaller. Intravenous urography (n=8), demonstrated that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction and the excretory function of the kidney had improved. Postoperative VCU indicated that in 92% of patients (12 of 13), endoscopic incision of the ureterocele led to vesicoureteral reflux(VUR). Of these twelve, seven (58%) showed VUR of more than grade 3, while newly developed VUR was seen in five of eight patients (63%) who had preoperative VCU. Surgery was successful in four patients (25%), partially successful in three (19%), and a second operation-on account of recurrent urinary tract infection and VUR of more than grase 3 during the follow-up period-was required by nine (56%). Although endoscopic incision of a ureterocele is a useful way of relieving urinary tract obstruction, an ensuing complication may be VUR. Postoperative US and intravenous urography should be used to evaluate parenchymal change in the kidney and improvement of uronary tract obstructon, while to assess the extend of VUR during the follow-up period , postoperative VCU is required

  9. Incision integrity and postoperative outcomes after microcoaxial phacoemulsification performed using 2 incision-dependent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Vaishali; Vasavada, Abhay R; Vasavada, Viraj A; Srivastava, Samaresh; Gajjar, Devarshi U; Mehta, Siddharth

    2013-04-01

    To compare incision integrity and clinical outcomes of 2 microcoaxial phacoemulsification systems. Iladevi Cataract & IOL Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Eyes were randomized to have phacoemulsification using a 1.8 mm clear corneal incision (CCI) system (Group 1, Stellaris system) or a 2.2 mm CCI system (Group 2, Intrepid Infiniti system). Incision enlargement at end of surgery was measured. At the conclusion of surgery, trypan blue was applied over the conjunctival surface, anterior chamber aspirate withdrawn, and ingress into anterior chamber measured. Postoperative observations included evaluation of the CCI using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), change in central corneal thickness (CCT), and anterior segment inflammation at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month and endothelial cell loss and surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) at 3 months. Incision enlargement (P.05). At the end of surgery, it is not the initial incision size alone but also the distortion of the incision during subsequent stages of surgery that determine the integrity of the CCI. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. COMPARISON OF POSTOP SIA IN MSICS WITH STRAIGHT INCISION VERSUS FROWN INCISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayana Bhumbla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Surgically-Induced Astigmatism (SIA is one of the commonest causes of poor postoperative vision even after uneventful cataract surgery. Recent advances have led to a newer concept of “refractive cataract surgery.” The aim of the study is to study the comparison of postop SIA in Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (MSICS with straight versus frown incision. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients of cataract were divided into 2 groups (25 each - group A underwent MSICS with 6 mm straight incision, group B underwent MSICS with 6 mm frown incision. BCVA, keratometry readings were recorded with auto kerato-refractometer preop, at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and SIA was calculated with SIA calculator version 2.1, a free software program. RESULTS Mean SIA in group A and B were - 1.14D versus 0.92D at 1 week; 1.26D versus 0.97D at 1 month; 1.29D versus 0.95D at 3 months. The difference was statistically significant at each follow up visit (p<0.05. CONCLUSION Frown incision gives lesser SIA than straight incision in MSICS.

  11. Incision extension is the optimal method of difficult gallbladder extraction at laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, B M; Hobday, K A; Hunter, J G

    1992-01-01

    An unsolved problem of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the optimal method of removing the gallbladder with thick walls and a large stone burden. Proposed solutions include fascial dilatation, stone crushing, and ultrasonic, high-speed rotary, or laser lithotripsy. Our observation was that extension of the fascial incision to remove the impacted gallbladder was time efficient and did not increase postoperative pain. We reviewed the narcotic requirements of 107 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Fifty-two patients required extension of the umbilical incision, and 55 patients did not have their fascial incision enlarged. Parenteral meperidine use was 39.5 +/- 63.6 mg in the patients requiring fascial incision extension and 66.3 +/- 79.2 mg in those not requiring fascial incision extension (mean +/- standard deviation). Oral narcotic requirements were 1.1 +/- 1.5 doses vs 1.3 +/- 1.7 doses in patients with and without incision extension, respectively. The wide range of narcotic use in both groups makes these apparent differences not statistically significant. We conclude that protracted attempts at stone crushing or expensive stone fragmentation devices are unnecessary for the extraction of a difficult gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  12. Chromatin relaxation-mediated induction of p19INK4d increases the ability of cells to repair damaged DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogara, María F; Sirkin, Pablo F; Carcagno, Abel L; Marazita, Mariela C; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Ceruti, Julieta M; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of genomic integrity is of main importance to the survival and health of organisms which are continuously exposed to genotoxic stress. Cells respond to DNA damage by activating survival pathways consisting of cell cycle checkpoints and repair mechanisms. However, the signal that triggers the DNA damage response is not necessarily a direct detection of the primary DNA lesion. In fact, chromatin defects may serve as initiating signals to activate those mechanisms. If the modulation of chromatin structure could initiate a checkpoint response in a direct manner, this supposes the existence of specific chromatin sensors. p19INK4d, a member of the INK4 cell cycle inhibitors, plays a crucial role in regulating genomic stability and cell viability by enhancing DNA repair. Its expression is induced in cells injured by one of several genotoxic treatments like cis-platin, UV light or neocarzinostatin. Nevertheless, when exogenous DNA damaged molecules are introduced into the cell, this induction is not observed. Here, we show that p19INK4d is enhanced after chromatin relaxation even in the absence of DNA damage. This induction was shown to depend upon ATM/ATR, Chk1/Chk2 and E2F activity, as is the case of p19INK4d induction by endogenous DNA damage. Interestingly, p19INK4d improves DNA repair when the genotoxic damage is caused in a relaxed-chromatin context. These results suggest that changes in chromatin structure, and not DNA damage itself, is the actual trigger of p19INK4d induction. We propose that, in addition to its role as a cell cycle inhibitor, p19INK4d could participate in a signaling network directed to detecting and eventually responding to chromatin anomalies.

  13. Chromatin relaxation-mediated induction of p19INK4d increases the ability of cells to repair damaged DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Ogara

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genomic integrity is of main importance to the survival and health of organisms which are continuously exposed to genotoxic stress. Cells respond to DNA damage by activating survival pathways consisting of cell cycle checkpoints and repair mechanisms. However, the signal that triggers the DNA damage response is not necessarily a direct detection of the primary DNA lesion. In fact, chromatin defects may serve as initiating signals to activate those mechanisms. If the modulation of chromatin structure could initiate a checkpoint response in a direct manner, this supposes the existence of specific chromatin sensors. p19INK4d, a member of the INK4 cell cycle inhibitors, plays a crucial role in regulating genomic stability and cell viability by enhancing DNA repair. Its expression is induced in cells injured by one of several genotoxic treatments like cis-platin, UV light or neocarzinostatin. Nevertheless, when exogenous DNA damaged molecules are introduced into the cell, this induction is not observed. Here, we show that p19INK4d is enhanced after chromatin relaxation even in the absence of DNA damage. This induction was shown to depend upon ATM/ATR, Chk1/Chk2 and E2F activity, as is the case of p19INK4d induction by endogenous DNA damage. Interestingly, p19INK4d improves DNA repair when the genotoxic damage is caused in a relaxed-chromatin context. These results suggest that changes in chromatin structure, and not DNA damage itself, is the actual trigger of p19INK4d induction. We propose that, in addition to its role as a cell cycle inhibitor, p19INK4d could participate in a signaling network directed to detecting and eventually responding to chromatin anomalies.

  14. A UV-resistant mutant without an increased repair synthesis activity, established from a UV-sensitive human clonal cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, N.

    1984-01-01

    When cells of a human clonal cell line, RSa, with high sensitivity to UV lethality, were treated with the mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate, a variant cell strain, UVr-1, was established as a mutant resistant to 254-nm far-ultraviolet radiation (UV). Cell proliferation studies showed that UVr-1 cells survived and actively proliferated at doses of UV-irradiation that greatly suppressed the proliferation of RSa cells. Colony-formation assays also confirmed the increased resistance of UVr-1 cells to UV. The recovery from a UV-induced inhibition in DNA synthesis, as [methyl- 3 H]thymidine uptake into cellular DNA, was more pronounced in UVr-1 cells than in RSa cells. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference in the activity of UV-induced DNA repair synthesis in either cell line, as estimated by the extent of unscheduled DNA synthesis and DNA repair replication. These characteristics of UVr-1 cells are discussed in the light of a previously reported UV-resistant variant, UVr-10, which had an increased DNA repair synthesis activity. (Auth.)

  15. Current Status of Single-incision Laparoscopic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Irfan; Ciancio, Fabio; Ferrara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in minimally invasive surgery have centered on reducing the number of incisions required, which has led to the development of the single-incision laparoscopic technique. A panel of European single-incision laparoscopy experts met to discuss the current status of, and the future...

  16. DNA-repair measurements by use of the modified comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godschalk, Roger W L; Ersson, Clara; Riso, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of DNA-repair activity by extracts from cells or tissues by means of the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay has a high potential to become widely used in biomonitoring studies. We assessed the inter-laboratory variation in reported values of DNA-repair activity...... on substrate cells that had been incubated with Ro19-8022 plus light to generate oxidatively damaged DNA. Eight laboratories assessed the DNA-repair activity of three cell lines (i.e. one epithelial and two fibroblast cell lines), starting with cell pellets or with cell extracts provided by the coordinating...... laboratory. There was a large inter-laboratory variation, as evidenced by the range in the mean level of repair incisions between the laboratory with the lowest (0.002incisions/10(6)bp) and highest (0.988incisions/10(6)bp) incision activity. Nevertheless, six out of eight laboratories reported the same cell...

  17. Meniscal repair devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F A; Herbert, M A

    2000-09-01

    Meniscal repair devices not requiring accessory incisions are attractive. Many factors contribute to their clinical effectiveness including their biomechanical characteristics. This study compared several new meniscal repair devices with standard meniscal suture techniques. Using a porcine model, axis-of-insertion loads were applied to various meniscal sutures and repair devices. A single device or stitch was placed in a created meniscal tear and a load applied. Both loads and modes of failure were recorded. The load-to-failure data show stratification into 4 distinct statistical groups. Group A, 113 N for a double vertical stitch; group B, 80 N for a single vertical stitch; group C, 57 N for the BioStinger, 56 N for a horizontal mattress stitch, and 50 N for the T-Fix stitch; and group D, 33 N for the Meniscus Arrow (inserted by hand or gun), 32 N for the Clearfix screw, 31 N for the SDsorb staple, 30 N for the Mitek meniscal repair system, and 27 N for the Biomet staple. The failure mechanism varied. Sutures broke away from the knot. The Meniscus Arrow and BioStinger pulled through the inner rim with the crossbar intact. The Clearfix screw failed by multiple mechanisms, whereas 1 leg of the SDsorb staple always pulled out of the outer rim. The Mitek device usually failed by pullout from the inner rim. The Biomet staple always broke at the crosshead or just below it. Although the surgeon should be aware of the material properties of the repair technique chosen for a meniscal repair, this information is only an indication of device performance and may not correlate with clinical healing results.

  18. A Precise 6 Ma Start Date for Fluvial Incision of the Northeastern Colorado Plateau Canyonlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, S. N.; Soreghan, G. S.; Reiners, P. W.; Peyton, S. L.; Murray, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Outstanding questions regarding late Cenozoic Colorado Plateau landscape evolution include: (1) the relative roles of isostatic rebound as result Colorado River incision versus longer-term geodynamic processes in driving overall rock uplift of the plateau; and (2) whether incision was triggered by river integration or by a change in deep-seated mantle lithosphere dynamics. A key to answering these questions is to date more precisely the onset of incision to refine previous estimates of between 6 and 10 Ma. We present new low-temperature thermochronologic results from bedrock and deep borehole samples in the northeastern Colorado Plateau to show that rapid river incision began here at 6 Ma (5.93±0.66 Ma) with incision rates increasing from 15-50 m/Myr to 160-200 m/Myr. The onset time is constrained independently by both inverse time-temperature modeling and by the break-in-slope in fission track age-elevation relationships. This new time constraint has several important implications. First, the coincidence in time with 5.97-5.3 Ma integration of the lower Colorado River through the Grand Canyon to the Gulf of California strongly favors downstream river integration triggering carving of the canyonlands of the upper Colorado River system. Second, it implies integration of the entire Colorado River system in less than 2 million years. Third, rock uplift of the plateau driven by the flexural isostatic response to river incision is restricted to just the last 6 Ma, as is associated increased sediment budget. Fourth, incision starting at 6 Ma means that previous estimates of upper Colorado River incision rates based on 10-12 Ma basalt datum levels are too low. This also changes the dependency of measured time interval on incision rate from a non-steady-state negative power-law dependence (exponent of -0.24) to a near steady-state dependence (exponent of 0.07) meaning that long-term upper Colorado river incision rates can provide a reliable proxy for rock uplift rates.

  19. Small incision guarded hydroaspiration of iris lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun D

    2017-11-01

    To describe the technique and results of a minimally invasive surgical technique for resection of small iris lesions. Consecutive case series of 22 patients with localised, small iris lesions that were resected using the described surgical technique that composed of multiple, small corneal incisions created to allow for internal iris resection with 23-gauge horizontal vitrectomy scissors, followed by guarded tumour aspiration through a clear plastic tubing (diameter 3.5 mm) primed with viscoelastic agent. The mean largest basal diameter was 3.0 mm (range 1.5-5.0 mm; median 3.0 mm) and mean thickness was 1.3 mm (range 0.5-2.5 mm; median 1.0 mm). Use of multiple (2-4) small corneal incisions (range 2.0-3.0 mm; mean 2.8 mm) allowed reduced postoperative morbidity (significant hyphema (0%), hypotony (0%), wound leak (0%), >2 line change in best corrected visual acuity at postoperative 1 week (4.5%) and mean corneal astigmatism of 1.0 D (range 0.14-2.99 D; median 0.8 D) at postoperative 4-12 weeks. The tumour could be resected with clear surgical margins in all neoplastic cases (benign (2), borderline (1) and malignant (16)). Local recurrence or metastases were not observed in any melanoma case over a mean follow-up of 33.0 months (range 1.0-90.0 months; median 33.5 months). Small incision guarded hydroaspiration is a minimally invasive surgical technique for resection of select small iris lesions. Use of multiple small corneal incisions avoids morbidity associated with a single large corneoscleral incision, and use of guarded aspiration may eliminate the risk of wound contamination by the malignant tumour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Continuous Aspirin Use Does Not Increase Bleeding Risk of Split-Thickness Skin Transplantation Repair to Chronic Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanwei; Wang, Yibing; Li, Liang; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Ning; Wu, Dan

    Discontinuation of aspirin therapy before cutaneous surgery may cause serious complications. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the bleeding risk of split-thickness skin transplantation repair to chronic wounds in patients on aspirin therapy. A total of 97 patients who underwent split-thickness skin transplantation surgery of chronic wounds during a 2-year period were enrolled. They were categorized on the basis of aspirin therapies. The primary outcome was postoperative bleeding and bleeding complications. Univariate analysis was performed to examine the association between aspirin and bleeding complications. Among the 26 patients taking aspirin continuously in group A, there were 5 bleeding complications (19.23%). Among the 55 nonusers in group B, there were 10 bleeding complications (18.18%). Among the 16 discontinuous patients in group C, there were 3 bleeding complications (18.75%). No statistical differences were found among the groups ( P = .956). Univariate analysis showed that continuous aspirin use was not significantly associated with bleeding complications (odds ratio, 0.933; 95% confidence interval, 0.283-3.074; P = .910 in the aspirin and control groups) and that discontinuous aspirin use was not significantly associated with bleeding complications (odds ratio, 0.963; 95% confidence interval, 0.230-4.025; P = .959 in the aspirin and control groups; odds ratio, 0.969; 95% confidence interval, 0.198-4.752; P = .969 in the aspirin and discontinuous groups). Continuous aspirin use does not produce an additional bleeding risk in patients who undergo split-thickness skin transplantation repair of chronic wounds.

  1. Increasing the Dose of Autologous Chondrocytes Improves Articular Cartilage Repair: Histological and Molecular Study in the Sheep Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-García, Pedro; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; Guillén-Vicente, Isabel; Caballero-Santos, Rosa; Guillén-Vicente, Marta; Abelow, Stephen; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; López-Alcorocho, Juan Manuel

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that implanting cells in a chondral defect at a density more similar to that of the intact cartilage could induce them to synthesize matrix with the features more similar to that of the uninjured one. We compared the implantation of different doses of chondrocytes: 1 million (n = 5), 5 million (n = 5), or 5 million mesenchymal cells (n = 5) in the femoral condyle of 15 sheep. Tissue generated by microfracture at the trochlea, and normal cartilage from a nearby region, processed as the tissues resulting from the implantation, were used as references. Histological and molecular (expression of type I and II collagens and aggrecan) studies were performed. The features of the cartilage generated by implantation of mesenchymal cells and elicited by microfractures were similar and typical of a poor repair of the articular cartilage (presence of fibrocartilage, high expression of type I collagen and a low mRNA levels of type II collagen and aggrecan). Nevertheless, in the samples obtained from tissues generated by implantation of chondrocytes, hyaline-like cartilage, cell organization, low expression rates of type I collagen and high levels of mRNA corresponding to type II collagen and aggrecan were observed. These histological features, show less variability and are more similar to those of the normal cartilage used as control in the case of 5 million cells implantation than when 1 million cells were used. The implantation of autologous chondrocytes in type I/III collagen membranes at high density could be a promising tool to repair articular cartilage.

  2. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming Hua; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline K; Tarpy, David R; Rueppell, Olav

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked; considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and typically covaries with life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether stress-resistant, long-lived individuals avoid, repair, or tolerate molecular damage to survive longer than others. The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is an emerging model system that is well-suited to address this question. Furthermore, this species is the most economically important pollinator, whose health may be compromised by pesticide exposure, including oxidative stressors. Here, we develop a protocol for inducing oxidative stress in honey bee males (drones) via Paraquat injection. After injection, individuals from different colony sources were kept in common social conditions to monitor their survival compared to saline-injected controls. Oxidative stress was measured in susceptible and resistant individuals. Paraquat drastically reduced survival but individuals varied in their resistance to treatment within and among colony sources. Longer-lived individuals exhibited higher levels of lipid peroxidation than individuals dying early. In contrast, the level of protein carbonylation was not significantly different between the two groups. This first study of oxidative stress in male honey bees suggests that survival of an acute oxidative stressor is due to tolerance, not prevention or repair, of oxidative damage to lipids. It also demonstrates colony differences in oxidative stress resistance that might be useful for breeding stress-resistant honey bees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals

  4. Comparison of electrocautery incision with scalpel incision in midline abdominal surgery - A double blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Lalgudi Dorairajan; Balaji, Nitesh; Kumar, Sathasivam Suresh; Kate, Vikram

    2015-07-01

    To compare the electrocautery incision with scalpel incision in patients undergoing abdominal surgery using a midline incision with respect to incision time, blood loss during incision, postoperative incision site pain and wound infection. Patients undergoing midline abdominal surgery were randomized into electrocautery and scalpel groups. The incision dimensions, incision time and blood loss during incision were noted intraoperatively. Postoperative pain and wound infection were recorded on every postoperative day for one week. 41 patients in each of the two groups were analyzed. Gender and age distribution was similar in both the groups. The mean incision time per unit wound area in the electrocautery group and scalpel group was 9.40 ± 3.37 s/cm(2) and 9.07 ± 3.40 s/cm(2) (p = 0.87) respectively. The mean blood loss per unit wound area was significantly lower in the electrocautery group at 6.46 ± 3.94 ml when compared to that of 23.40 ± 15.28 ml in the scalpel group (p= electrocautery and scalpel groups (14.63% vs. 12.19%; p = 0.347). With a comparable Postoperative incision site pain, wound infection rate and significantly lower blood loss with the equal time taken for the incision, electrocautery can be considered safe and effective in making skin incision in midline laparotomy compared to scalpel incision. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Climate-sensitive feedbacks between hillslope processes and fluvial erosion in sediment-driven incision models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Daniel S.; Egholm, David L.

    2016-04-01

    Surface erosion and sediment production seem to have accelerated globally as climate cooled in the Late Cenozoic, [Molnar, P. 2004, Herman et al 2013]. Glaciers emerged in many high mountain ranges during the Quaternary, and glaciation therefore represents a likely explanation for faster erosion in such places. Still, observations and measurements point to increases in erosion rates also in landscapes where erosion is driven mainly by fluvial processes [Lease and Ehlers (2013), Reusser (2004)]. Flume experiments and fieldwork have shown that rates of incision are to a large degree controlled by the sediment load of streams [e.g. Sklar and Dietrich (2001), Beer and Turowski (2015)]. This realization led to the formulation of sediment-flux dependent incision models [Sklar and Dietrich (2004)]. The sediment-flux dependence links incision in the channels to hillslope processes that supply sediment to the channels. The rates of weathering and soil transport on the hillslopes are processes that are likely to respond to changing temperatures, e.g. because of vegetation changes or the occurrence of frost. In this study, we perform computational landscape evolution experiments, where the coupling between fluvial incision and hillslope processes is accounted for by coupling a sediment-flux-dependent model for fluvial incision to a climate-dependent model for weathering and hillslope sediment transport. The computational experiments first of all demonstrate a strong positive feedback between channel and hillslope processes. In general, faster weathering leads to higher rates of channel incision, which further increases the weathering rates, mainly because of hillslope steepening. Slower weathering leads to the opposite result. The experiments also demonstrate, however, that the feedbacks vary significantly between different parts of a drainage network. For example, increasing hillslope sediment production may accelerate incision in the upper parts of the catchment, while at

  6. Electrocautery skin incision for neurosurgery procedures--technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Naoki; Fukami, Tadateru; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The reluctance to incise skin with electrocautery is partly attributable to concerns about excessive scarring and poor wound healing. However, recently no difference was reported in wound complications between the cold scalpel and electrocautery scalpel. We assessed the safety and efficacy of electrocautery skin incision in 22 scalp incisions, including 4 cases of reoperation. Electrocautery skin incisions were created using a sharp needle electrode. The generator unit was set on cutting mode, with power of 6 W and 330 kHz sinusoid waveform. Subcutaneous dissections also used the sharp needle electrode, set on coagulating mode, with power of 10 W and 1 MHz pulse-modulated waveform. Galea incisions used a standard blade tip, set on coagulating mode, with power of 20 W and 1 MHz pulse-modulated waveform. Skin incision with the sharp needle electrode caused no charring of the wound. Little bleeding or oozing were observed and skin clips were not necessary. No wound complication such as necrosis or infection occurred. Electrocautery skin incisions for re-operations were also performed safely without complications. Electrocautery skin incision is sufficiently safe procedure not only for first operation but also for re-operation. Electrocautery skin incision is efficacious, especially for extended operation times, because of little blood loss from the edges of skin incision and possible avoidance of skin edge necrosis or alopecia caused by skin clips.

  7. Small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus Søgaard; Lyhne, Niels; Grauslund, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    surgery was 0.07 ± 0.03 (logMAR). However, 12 eyes (1.6 %) lost 2 or more lines of CDVA from before surgery to 3 months postoperatively. Simultaneous treatment of up to 3.00 D of astigmatism was not associated with less predictable refractive outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In the short term, SMILE seemed......PURPOSE: To study the outcomes of small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients treated for myopia or myopic astigmatism with SMILE, using a VisuMax(®) femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany...

  8. Sharp incision of the anterior mitral leaflet due to penetrating trauma - Report of a case and long-term follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, HD; Hamer, HPM; Ebels, T

    A case is described of sharp incision of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve, due to penetrating trauma to the chest with a knife. The lesion of the mitral leaflet was diagnosed with echocardiography and successfully repaired with autologous pericardial tissue. Follow up after 15 years showed

  9. Micrococcus luteus correndonucleases. III. Evidence for involvement in repair in vivo of two endonucleases specific for DNA containing pyrimidine dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riazuddin, S.; Grossman, L.; Mahler, I.

    1977-01-01

    Involvement of Py--Py correndonucleases I and II in repair of ultraviolet radiation damage in vivo by Micrococcus luteus has been demonstrated by their absence in the ultraviolet-sensitive mutant DB-7 derived by treatment of the wild type parent with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The necessity for their combined action in DNA repair in M. luteus is shown by: (a) reactivation of ultraviolet-damaged phiX174 RFI DNA in incision-defective hosts after in vivo treatment with both enzymes, (b) correlation between survival after ultraviolet irradiation and the level of the two enzymes, and (c) increased levels of repair synthesis after ultraviolet irradiation of toluenized cells DB-400 with wild type correndonuclease levels when compared with the transformant DB-200 and the mutant DB-7, which lack one or both enzymes

  10. Uptake of gallium-67 citrate in clean surgical incisions after colorectal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wanyu; Wang Shyhjen; Tsai Shihchuan; Chao Tehsin

    2001-01-01

    Non-specific accumulation of gallium-67 citrate (gallium) in uncomplicated surgical incisions is not uncommon. It is important to know the normal pattern of gallium uptake at surgical incision sites in order to properly interpret the gallium scan when investigating possible wound infection in patients who have undergone abdominal surgery. We studied 42 patients without wound infection after colorectal surgery and performed gallium scans within 40 days after surgery. Patients were divided into three groups according to the interval between the operation and the scan. In group A (26 patients) gallium scan was performed within 7 days after surgery, in group B (8 patients) between 8 and 14 days after surgery, and in group C (8 patients) between 15 and 40 days after surgery. Our data showed that in group A, 61.5% had gallium accumulation at the surgical incision site. In group B, 50% had accumulation of gallium at the surgical incision site, while in group C only one patient (12.5%) showed gallium uptake. It is concluded that the incidence of increased gallium uptake at clean surgical incision sites is high after colorectal surgery. Nuclear medicine physicians should bear in mind the high incidence of non-specific gallium uptake at such sites during the interpretation of possible wound infection in patients after colorectal surgery. (orig.)

  11. Flexible single-incision surgery: a fusion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, José F; Dolz, Carlos; Cuadrado, Angel; Olea, José; García, Juan

    2013-06-01

    The development of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery has led to other techniques, such as single-incision surgery. The use of the flexible endoscope for single-incision surgery paves the way for further refinement of both surgical methods. To describe a new, single-incision surgical technique, namely, flexible single-incision surgery. Assessment of the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic cholecystectomy in a series of 30 patients. This technique consists of a single umbilical incision through which a flexible endoscope is introduced and consists of 2 parallel entry ports that provide access to nonarticulated laparoscopic instruments. The technique was applied in all patients for whom it was prescribed. No general or surgical wound complications were noted. Surgical time was no longer than usual for single-port surgery. Flexible single-incision surgery is a new single-site surgical technique offering the same level of patient safety, with additional advantages for the surgeon at minimal cost.

  12. Single-incision laparoscopic bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chih-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bariatric surgery has been established as the best option of treatment for morbid obesity. In recent years single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS has emerged as another modality of carrying out the bariatric procedures. While SILS represents an advance, its application in morbid obesity at present is limited. In this article, we review the technique and results of SILS in bariatric surgery. Methods: The PubMed database was searched and totally 11 series reporting SILS in bariatric surgery were identified and analyzed. The case reports were excluded. Since 2008, 114 morbidly obese patients receiving SILS bariatric surgeries were reported. Results: The procedures performed included SILS gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass. No mortality was reported in the literatures. Sixteen patients (14.05% needed an additional incision for a liver retractor, a trocar or for conversion. Only one complication of wound infection was reported in these series. All the surgeons reported that the patients were highly satisfied with the scar. Conclusion: Because of abundant visceral and subcutaneous fat and multiple comorbidities in morbid obesity, it is more challenging for surgeons to perform the procedures with SILS. It is clear that extensive development of new instruments and technical aspects of these procedures as well as randomized studies to compare them with traditional laparoscopy are essential before these procedures can be utilized in day-to-day clinical practice.

  13. Restoration of u.v.-induced excision repair in Xeroderma D cells transfected with the denV gene of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrand, J.E.; Squires, S.; Bone, N.M.; Johnson, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The heritable DNA repair defect in human Xeroderma D cells, resulting in failure to incise at u.v. light-induced pyrimidine dimers, has been partially but stably corrected by transfection of immortalised cells with the denV pyrimidine dimer glycosylase gene of bacteriophage T4. Transfectants selected either for a dominant marker on the mammalian vector carrying the prokaryotic gene or for dominant marker plus resistance to killing by u.v. light, were shown to express the denV gene to varying degrees. denV expression results in significant phenotypic change in the initially repair-deficient, u.v.-hypersensitive cells. Increased resistance to u.v. light and more rapid recovery of replicative DNA synthesis following u.v. irradiation were correlated with improved repair DNA synthesis and with a novel dimer incision capability present in denV transfected Xeroderma cells but not as evident in transfected normal cells. Most transfectants contain a single integrated copy of the denV gene; increase in denV copy number does not result in either increased gene expression or enhanced survival to u.v. light. Results show that expression of a heterologous prokaryotic repair gene can partially compensate for the genetic defect in a human Xeroderma D cell. (author)

  14. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-long Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineurium was then sutured closed, requiring no stump anastomosis. In the control group, the sciatic nerve was completely transected, and the epineurium was repaired by anastomosis. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, Wallerian degeneration was observed in both groups. In the experimental group, at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, distinct medullary nerve fibers and axons were observed in the injured sciatic nerve. Regular, dense myelin sheaths were visible, as well as some scarring. By 12 weeks, the myelin sheaths were normal and intact, and a tight lamellar structure was observed. Functionally, limb movement and nerve conduction recovered in the injured region between 4 and 12 weeks. The present results demonstrate that longitudinal epineural incision with nerve transection can stably replicate a model of Sunderland grade IV peripheral nerve injury. Compared with the complete sciatic nerve transection model, our method reduced the difficulties of micromanipulation and surgery time, and resulted in good stump restoration, nerve regeneration, and functional recovery.

  15. Two-Step Incision for Periarterial Sympathectomy of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Bae Jeon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSurgical scars on the palmar surface of the hand may lead to functional and also aesthetic and psychological consequences. The objective of this study was to introduce a new incision technique for periarterial sympathectomy of the hand and to compare the results of the new two-step incision technique with those of a Koman incision by using an objective questionnaire.MethodsA total of 40 patients (17 men and 23 women with intractable Raynaud's disease or syndrome underwent surgery in our hospital, conducted by a single surgeon, between January 2008 and January 2013. Patients who had undergone extended sympathectomy or vessel graft were excluded. Clinical evaluation of postoperative scars was performed in both groups one year after surgery using the patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS and the Wake Forest University rating scale.ResultsThe total patient score was 8.59 (range, 6-15 in the two-step incision group and 9.62 (range, 7-18 in the Koman incision group. A significant difference was found between the groups in the total PS score (P-value=0.034 but not in the total observer score. Our analysis found no significant difference in preoperative and postoperative Wake Forest University rating scale scores between the two-step and Koman incision groups. The time required for recovery prior to returning to work after surgery was shorter in the two-step incision group, with a mean of 29.48 days in the two-step incision group and 34.15 days in the Koman incision group (P=0.03.ConclusionsCompared to the Koman incision, the new two-step incision technique provides better aesthetic results, similar symptom improvement, and a reduction in the recovery time required before returning to work. Furthermore, this incision allows the surgeon to access a wide surgical field and a sufficient exposure of anatomical structures.

  16. Increased sensitivity of UV-repair-deficient human cells to DNA bound platinum products which unlike thymine dimers are not recognised by an endonuclease extracted from Micrococcus luteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraval, H N.A.; Rawlings, C J; Roberts, J J [Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Cancer Hospital, Pollards Wood Research Station, Chalfont St. Giles, Bucks, UK

    1978-07-01

    The response of human cells in culture to cis platinum (II) diammine dichloride (cis Pt(II)) induced DNA damage has been studied. The survival data, measured as a function of cis Pt(II) dose were similar in a normal cell line (Human foetal lung) compared to a UV-sensitive, thymine dimer excision repair-deficient cell line (Xeroderma pigmentatosum). However, there was a marked difference between the two cell lines when binding to DNA was plotted against dose of cis Pt(II) given for 1 h. When these findings were expressed as cell survival versus binding to DNA, a 4.1-fold difference between the slopes of the survival curves for the two cell lines was obtained. These findings are consistent with the notion that normal cells are able to excise cis Pt(II) induced damage from their genome and thus increase their ability to survive as compared to excision deficient cells. An endonuclease preparation from Micrococcus luteus is able to recognise UV damage in DNA, but did not recognise cis Pt(II) induced damage. These results possibly indicate differences in the pathways of repair of damage caused by the two agents.

  17. DNA Repair Mechanism Gene, XRCC1A (Arg194Trp) but not XRCC3 (Thr241Met) Polymorphism Increased the Risk of Breast Cancer in Premenopausal Females: A Case–Control Study in Northeastern Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Jishan; Narain, Kanwar; Mukherjee, Kaustab; Majumdar, Gautam; Chenkual, Saia; Zonunmawia, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray repair cross complementary group gene is one of the most studied candidate gene involved in different types of cancers. Studies have shown that X-ray repair cross complementary genes are significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer in females. Moreover, studies have revealed that X-ray repair cross complementary gene polymorphism significantly varies between and within different ethnic groups globally. The present case–control study was aimed to investigate the association of X-ray repair cross complementary 1A (Arg194Trp) and X-ray repair cross complementary 3 (Thr241Met) polymorphism with the risk of breast cancer in females from northeastern region of India. The present case–control study includes histopathologically confirmed and newly diagnosed 464 cases with breast cancer and 534 apparently healthy neighborhood community controls. Information on sociodemographic factors and putative risk factors were collected from each study participant by conducting face-to-face interviews. Genotyping of X-ray repair cross complementary 1A (Arg194Trp) and X-ray repair cross complementary 3 (Thr241Met) was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. For statistical analysis, both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. We also performed stratified analysis to find out the association of X-ray repair cross complementary genes with the risk of breast cancer stratified based on menstrual status. This study revealed that tryptophan allele (R/W-W/W genotype) in X-ray repair cross complementary 1A (Arg194Trp) gene significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.97, P India which may be beneficial for prognostic purposes. PMID:29332455

  18. Lateral Nail Fold Incision Technique for Venous Anastomosis in Fingertip Replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byung-Joon; Yang, Jae-Won; Roh, Si Young; Ki, Sae Hwi; Lee, Dong Chul; Kim, Jin Soo

    2016-01-01

    Successful venous anastomosis is one of the most important factors in fingertip replantation. Volar veins in the fingertip course proximally in a random pattern, which makes it difficult to find out the exact locations. Although dorsal veins in the lateral nail fold have constant location and adequate diameter for anastomosis, they have been known as hard to dissect from the immobile subcutaneous tissue. The authors present a new lateral nail fold incision technique for venous anastomosis in the fingertip amputations. From February 2010 to October 2010, 9 replantations using the new incision and venous anastomosis technique were performed in 9 patients. The levels of amputations were from the nail base to half of the nail bed. After repairing the proper digital arteries, a skin incision was made along the junction between the lateral nail fold and nail bed. Careful dissection was performed to isolate the veins in the lateral nail fold. After evaluation of the suitability of the vessel, venous anastomosis was performed. Seven male and 2 female patients were enrolled in this study. Appropriate dorsal veins for anastomosis could be found in 8 of 9 patients. All the replanted stumps survived without venous congestion and following additional procedures. A sizable volar or dorsal vein could not be found in 1 patient. The salvage technique was required in this patient. Dorsal veins in the lateral nail fold can be found easily because of the constant anatomical location. The new incision on the lateral nail fold provides not only sufficient operative field for anastomosis but also additional opportunity of successful venous anastomosis in the selected cases. The authors, therefore, propose this technique as an effective method for an alternative venous anastomosis in the zone I replantation.

  19. Infectious morbidity, operative blood loss, and length of the operative procedure after cesarean delivery by method of placental removal and site of uterine repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magann, E F; Washburne, J F; Harris, R L; Bass, J D; Duff, W P; Morrison, J C

    1995-12-01

    This study was done to determine the impact of the method of placental removal and the site of uterine repair on postcesarean infectious morbidity rates in women receiving prophylactic antibiotics at cesarean delivery. This prospective study included 284 women who underwent cesarean delivery and who were randomly assigned to four groups based on the method of placental removal and the site of uterine repair: group 1, spontaneous placental removal and in situ uterine repair; group 2, spontaneous placental removal and exteriorized uterine repair; group 3, manual placental removal and in situ uterine repair; and group 4, manual placental removal with exteriorized uterine repair. Exclusion criteria were repeat cesarean deliveries without labor, active infection at the time of cesarean delivery, and patient refusal to participate. There was no significant difference among the groups in maternal age, race, parity, weight, the length of time from rupture of membranes (ROM) or the number of vaginal examinations from ROM to cesarean delivery, or preoperative hematocrit. Intraoperatively, the type of uterine incision, anesthesia administered, incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid, Apgar scores, and cord gases were similar between groups. The incidence of postcesarean endometritis was greater in group 4 (32 [45 percent] of 71, p = 0.003) compared with group 1 (17 [24 percent] of 71), group 2 (12 [30 percent] of 71); and group 3 (13 [18 percent] of 71). Manual placental removal and exteriorization of the uterus for repair of the surgical incision increases the infectious morbidity rate in women receiving prophylactic antibiotics at the time of cesarean delivery and increases the length of hospitalization.

  20. TGF-β1 Improves Biomechanical Strength by Extracellular Matrix Accumulation Without Increasing the Number of Tenogenic Lineage Cells in a Rat Rotator Cuff Repair Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Hitoshi; Shukunami, Chisa; Tokunaga, Takuya; Karasugi, Tatsuki; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Taniwaki, Takuya; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Yuji

    2017-08-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) positively regulates the tenogenic marker genes scleraxis ( Scx) and tenomodulin ( Tnmd) in mesenchymal progenitors in vitro. However, little is known about the effect of TGF-β1 on the expression of tenogenic markers during rotator cuff (RC) healing in rats. TGF-β1 improves the biomechanical properties and histological maturity of reparative tissue in a rat RC repair model by stimulating the growth of tenogenic cells. Controlled laboratory study. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 180) underwent unilateral supraspinatus tendon-to-bone surgical repair and were randomly treated with a gelatin hydrogel presoaked in TGF-β1 (100 ng) or phosphate-buffered saline. The effects of TGF-β1 on RC healing were investigated at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively by immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization or immunostaining for enthesis-related markers (SRY-box containing gene 9 [ Sox9], Scx, and Tnmd), and by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining for type I and III collagen. At 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively, biomechanical testing, micro-computed tomography, and biochemical analysis were also performed. At 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively, mesenchymal stem cell-related markers, phospho-Smad2, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and MMP-13 were assessed by immunostaining. The TGF-β1-treated group had significantly higher ultimate load to failure and tissue volume at 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively and a higher collagen content at 12 weeks compared with the saline group. Tendon-related gene expression, histological maturity, cell proliferation, and mesenchymal stem cell-related marker immunoreactivity were not affected by exogenously administrated TGF-β1 at all time points. In the TGF-β1-treated group, the percentage of phospho-Smad2-positive cells within the healing tissue increased

  1. Temporal versus Superior Limbal Incision: Any difference in visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To compare the visual outcome of a superiorly placed limbal incision with a temporal limbal incision in extracapsular cataract surgery. The main outcome measures are visual acuity and the degree of stigmatism based on refraction. Method: A retrospective non randomized comparative study. Medical records of 40 ...

  2. Transurethral incision of urethral diverticulum in the female

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, J; Honnens de Lichtenberg, M

    1989-01-01

    A new technique of transurethral incision of urethral diverticulum was successfully used in two women. The method described is safe, simple and shortens operating time.......A new technique of transurethral incision of urethral diverticulum was successfully used in two women. The method described is safe, simple and shortens operating time....

  3. Mini transverse versus longitudinal incision in carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, M.; Cepoglu, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of mini-transverse compared with mini-longitudinal incision for carpal tunnel release (CTR) with reference to postoperative functional capacity, symptom severity and complication rate. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Cumhuriyet University Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Tokat State Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Medical Park Tokat Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, from January 2007 to January 2009. Methodology: This study included 93 hands of 79 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), which were operated between 2007 and 2009. Patients were divided according to incision types into Group-1 (undergoing mini-longitudinal incision) and Group-2 (undergoing mini-transverse incision). Patients were evaluated initially and at 3 weeks after treatment according to symptom severity and functional status of Boston Questionnaire (BQ). Demographic and clinical data were analyzed and compared statistically between two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in BQ symptom and functional scores between the pre- and postoperative period (p < 0.0001). BQ symptom and functional scores at postoperative period were better in Group-1 than Group-2 (p = 0.044 and p = 0.023 respectively). The scar hypersensitivity (p = 0.258) and tenderness (p = 1.00) associated with the incision sites were not statistically different. Conclusion: Longitudinal incision is more effective on symptom and functional conditions than transverse incision. However, there was less scar formation with transverse incision. (author)

  4. Role of DNA repair in repair of cytogenetic damages. Slowly repaired DNA injuries involved in cytogenetic damages repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichkina, S.I.; Rozanova, O.M.; Aptikaev, G.F.; Ganassi, E.Eh.

    1989-01-01

    Caffeine was used to study the kinetics of cytogenetic damages repair in Chinese hamster fibroblasts. Its half-time (90 min) was shown to correlate with that of repair of slowly repaired DNA damages. The caffeine-induced increase in the number of irreparable DNA damages, attributed to inhibition of double-strand break repair, is in a quantitative correlation with the effect of the cytogenetic damage modification

  5. Effects of Bank Vegetation and Incision on Erosion Rates in an Urban Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Arnold

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Changing land-use associated with urbanization has resulted in shifts in riparian assemblages, stream hydraulics, and sediment dynamics leading to the degradation of waterways. To combat degradation, restoration and management of riparian zones is becoming increasingly common. However, the relationship between flora, especially the influence of invasive species, on sediment dynamics is poorly understood. Bank erosion and turbidity were monitored in the Tookany Creek and its tributary Mill Run in the greater Philadelphia, PA region. To evaluate the influence of the invasive species Reynoutria japonica (Japanese knotweed on erosion, reaches were chosen based on their riparian vegetation and degree of incision. Bank pins and turbidity loggers were used to estimate sediment erosion. Erosion calculations based on bank pins suggest greater erosion in reaches dominated by knotweed than those dominated by trees. For a 9.5-month monitoring period, there was 29 cm more erosion on banks that were also incised, and 9 cm more erosion in banks with little incision. Turbidity responses to storm events were also higher (77 vs. 54 NTU (nephelometric turbidity unit in reaches with knotweed, although this increase was found when the reach dominated by knotweed was also incised. Thus, this study linked knotweed to increased erosion using multiple methods.

  6. Addition of rectus sheath relaxation incisions to emergency midline laparotomy for peritonitis to prevent fascial dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwah, Sanjay; Marwah, Nisha; Singh, Mandeep; Kapoor, Ajay; Karwasra, Rajender Kumar

    2005-02-01

    The incidence of fascial dehiscence and incisional hernia after two methods for abdominal wound closure (rectus sheath relaxation incisions and conventional mass closure) was studied in a randomized prospective clinical trial in a consecutive series of 100 patients undergoing midline laparotomy for peritonitis. The two groups were well matched for etiologies of peritonitis, the surgical procedures performed, and the presence of known risk factors for fascial dehiscence. Fifty patients each were randomized either to the conventional continuous mass closure procedure or the rectus sheath relaxation incision technique (designed to increase wound elasticity and decrease tension in the suture line) using identical polypropylene sutures. The incidence of postoperative complications such as duration of ileus, chest infection, and wound infection were not statistically different between the two groups. The intensity of postoperative pain in the rectus sheath relaxation incision group was significantly less. The incidence of wound hematoma was significantly increased in the rectus sheath relaxation incision group. The incidences of fascial dehiscence (16% vs,28%; p cases of peritonitis using the rectus sheath relaxation technique is safe and less painful, provides increased wound elasticity and decreased tension on the suture line, and significantly decreases the incidence of wound dehiscence.

  7. Incisive canal deflation for correct implant placement: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spin-Neto, Rubens; Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; de Paula, Wagner Nunes; de Freitas, Rubens Moreno; de Oliveira Ramalho, Lizeti Toledo; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2009-12-01

    This article is a case report of a patient in whom the prosthetic planning indicated the necessity of an incisive canal deflation for the correct installation of an implant that is to be osseointegrated. In the reopening phase after the bone graft installation, the incisive canal deflation (biopsy of its content) was done and titanium implants were installed with one of them invading the anatomical space occupied previously by the incisive canal. The biopsy analysis showed fragments of the incisive artery and nerve, which are responsible for the anterior upper-tooth pulp, the periodontium vascularization and the innervation. From the anastomosis present along with other structures allied with the absence of teeth in the region, there was no detriment to the patient caused by the deflation. Incisive canal deflation is a viable technique in implantology. It can permit ideal prosthetic planning with no detriment to the patient.

  8. Vertical compared with transverse incisions in abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grantcharov, T P; Rosenberg, J

    2001-01-01

    , and late complications (incisional hernia). RESULTS: Eleven randomised controlled trials and seven retrospective studies were identified. The transverse incision offers as good an access to most intra-abdominal structures as a vertical incision. The transverse incision results in significantly less......OBJECTIVE: To reach an evidence-based consensus on the relative merits of vertical and transverse laparotomy incisions. DESIGN: Review of all published randomised controlled trials that compared the postoperative complications after the two main types of abdominal incisions, vertical and transverse....... SETTING: Teaching hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Patients undergoing open abdominal operations. INTERVENTIONS: For some of the variables (burst abdomen and incisional hernia) it was considered adequate to include retrospective studies. Studies were identified through Medline, Cochrane library, Embase...

  9. DNA repair in ultraviolet-irradiated spores of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.C.V.

    1976-01-01

    It has been shown previously by others that at least two independent repair mechanisms are present in Bacillus subtilis for removing ''spore photoproduct'' from DNA of ultraviolet (254 nm)-irradiated spores after germination. One of these, designated as ''spore repair,'' is shown in this study to restore ''spore photoproduct'' to two thymine residues, leaving the DNA backbone intact at the end of the process in vivo. The circumstances under which this repair can occur and some characteristics of its energy requirements have been clarified. The second repair process is identified as excision repair, which can excise both ''spore photoproduct'' from DNA of irradiated spores and cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers from DNA of irradiated vegetative cells. In this study it is shown that the gene hcr 1 affects an enzyme activity for the incision step initiating this repair, while the gene hcr 42 affects a step subsequent to incision in the mechanism. In addition a third, independent repair system, termed ''germinative excision repair,'' is discovered and shown to be specific for excising only cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers but not ''spore photoproduct.'' This repair system is responsible for the observed high ultraviolet-resistance and temporary capacity for host cell reactivation on recently germinated spores of Bacillus subtilis HCR - strains

  10. Increased left ventricular myocardial extracellular volume is associated with longer cardiopulmonary bypass times, biventricular enlargement and reduced exercise tolerance in children after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Luining, Wietske; Seed, Mike; Chungsomprasong, Paweena; Manlhiot, Cedric; Elders, Bernadette; McCrindle, Brian W; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2016-10-26

    Unfavorable left ventricular (LV) remodelling may be associated with adverse outcomes after Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. We sought to assess T1 cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) markers of diffuse LV myocardial fibrosis in children after TOF repair, and associated factors. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, native (=non-contrast) T1 times and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) were quantified in the LV myocardium using CMR. Results were related to ventricular volumes and function, degree of pulmonary regurgitation, as well as surgical characteristics, and exercise capacity. There was no difference in native T1 times or ECV between 31 TOF patients (age at CMR 13.9 ± 2.4 years, 19 male) and 15 controls (age at CMR 13.4 ± 2.6 years, 7 male). Female TOF patients had higher ECVs than males (25.2 ± 2.9 % versus 22.7 ± 3.3 %, p < 0.05). In the patient group, higher native T1 and ECV correlated with higher Z-Scores of right and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes, but not with reduced left and right ventricular ejection fraction or higher pulmonary regurgitation fraction. Longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp times at surgery correlated with increased native T1 times and ECVs (r = 0.48, p < 0.05 and r = 0.65, p < 0.01, respectively). Maximum workload (percent of predicted for normal) correlated inversely with ECV (r = -0.62, p < 0.05). Higher native T1 times correlated with worse LV longitudinal (r = 0.50, p < 0.05) and mid short axis circumferential strain (r = 0.38, p < 0.05). As compared to controls, TOF patients did not express higher markers of diffuse fibrosis. Longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp times at surgery as well as biventricular enlargement and reduced exercise tolerance are associated with markers of diffuse myocardial fibrosis after TOF repair. Female patients have higher markers of diffuse myocardial fibrosis than males.

  11. Outcomes of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in low myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Carp, Glenn I; Archer, Timothy J; Gobbe, Marine

    2014-12-01

    To report the visual and refractive outcomes of small incision lenticule extraction for low myopia using the VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). A retrospective analysis of 120 consecutive small incision lenticule extraction procedures was performed for low myopia. Inclusion criteria were preoperative spherical equivalent refraction up to -3.50 diopters (D), cylinder up to 1.50 D, and corrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better. Outcomes analysis was performed for all eyes with 1-year follow-up according to the Standard Graphs for Reporting Refractive Surgery, and also including mesopic contrast sensitivity. One-year data were available for 110 eyes (92%). Preoperatively, mean spherical equivalent refraction was -2.61 ± 0.54 D (range: -1.03 to -3.50 D) and mean cylinder was 0.55 ± 0.38 D (range: 0.00 to 1.50 D). Postoperatively, mean spherical equivalent refraction was -0.05 ± 0.36 D (range: -0.94 to +1.25 D) and mean cylinder was ± 0.50 D in 84% and ± 1.00 D in 99% of eyes. Uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 or better in 96% of eyes and 20/25 or better in 100% of eyes. One line of corrected distance visual acuity was lost in 9%, but no eyes lost two or more lines. There was an initial overcorrection in mean spherical equivalent refraction on day 1 (+0.37 D) as expected, which regressed to +0.10 D at 1 month and -0.05 D at 3 months, after which stability was reached (mean spherical equivalent refraction was -0.05 D at 1 year). Contrast sensitivity at 1 year was slightly increased at 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree (P < .05). Small incision lenticule extraction for low myopia was found to be safe and effective with outcomes similar to those previously reported for LASIK. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with increased mutation frequency due to inactivation of the DNA oxidative repair system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandsberg, Lotte F; Ciofu, Oana; Kirkby, N

    2009-01-01

    ,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine) than PAO1 after exposure to PMNs, and they developed resistance to antibiotics more frequently. The mechanisms of resistance were increased β-lactamase production and overexpression of the MexCD-OprJ efflux-pump. Mutations in either the mutT or the mutY gene were found...... in resistant HP clinical isolates from patients with CF, and complementation with wild-type genes reverted the phenotype. In conclusion, oxidative stress might be involved in the development of resistance to antibiotics. We therefore suggest the possible use of antioxidants for CF patients to prevent...

  13. Coupling of the nucleotide incision and 3' {yields} 5' exonuclease activities in Escherichia coli endonuclease IV: Structural and genetic evidences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Gali [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ishchenko, Alexander A. [Groupe Reparation de l' ADN, CNRS UMR 8126, Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, F-94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Khassenov, Bekbolat [National Center for Biotechnology, Astana (Kazakhstan); Shoham, Gil, E-mail: gil2@vms.huji.ac.il [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Saparbaev, Murat K., E-mail: smurat@igr.fr [Groupe Reparation de l' ADN, CNRS UMR 8126, Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, F-94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2010-03-01

    Aerobic respiration generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by-product of cellular metabolism which can damage DNA. The complex nature of oxidative DNA damage requires actions of several repair pathways. Oxidized DNA bases are substrates for two overlapping pathways: base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide incision repair (NIR). In the BER pathway a DNA glycosylase cleaves the N-glycosylic bond between the abnormal base and deoxyribose, leaving either an abasic site or single-stranded DNA break. Alternatively, in the NIR pathway, an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease incises duplex DNA 5' next to oxidatively damaged nucleotide. The multifunctional Escherichia coli endonuclease IV (Nfo) is involved in both BER and NIR pathways. Nfo incises duplex DNA 5' of a damaged residue but also possesses an intrinsic 3' {yields} 5' exonuclease activity. Herein, we demonstrate that Nfo-catalyzed NIR and exonuclease activities can generate a single-strand gap at the 5' side of 5,6-dihydrouracil residue. Furthermore, we show that Nfo mutants carrying amino acid substitutions H69A and G149D are deficient in both NIR and exonuclease activities, suggesting that these two functions are genetically linked and governed by the same amino acid residues. The crystal structure of Nfo-H69A mutant reveals the loss of one of the active site zinc atoms (Zn1) and rearrangements of the catalytic site, but no gross changes in the overall enzyme conformation. We hypothesize that these minor changes strongly affect the DNA binding of Nfo. Decreased affinity may lead to a different kinking angle of the DNA helix and this in turn thwart nucleotide incision and exonuclease activities of Nfo mutants but to lesser extent of their AP endonuclease function. Based on the biochemical and genetic data we propose a model where nucleotide incision coupled to 3' {yields} 5' exonuclease activity prevents formation of lethal double-strand breaks when repairing bi

  14. Influence of Incision Location on Transmitter Loss, Healing, Incision Lengths, Suture Retention, and Growth of Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panther, Jennifer L.; Brown, Richard S.; Gaulke, Greggory L.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2010-05-11

    In this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, we measured differences in survival and growth, incision openness, transmitter loss, wound healing, and erythema among abdominal incisions on the linea alba, lateral and parallel to the linea alba (muscle-cutting), and following the underlying muscle fibers (muscle-sparing). A total of 936 juvenile Chinook salmon were implanted with both Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Tracking System transmitters (0.43 g dry) and passive integrated transponder tags. Fish were held at 12°C (n = 468) or 20°C (n = 468) and examined once weekly over 98 days. We found survival and growth did not differ among incision groups or between temperature treatment groups. Incisions on the linea alba had less openness than muscle-cutting and muscle-sparing incisions during the first 14 days when fish were held at 12°C or 20°C. Transmitter loss was not different among incision locations by day 28 when fish were held at 12°C or 20°C. However, incisions on the linea alba had greater transmitter loss than muscle-cutting and muscle-sparing incisions by day 98 at 12°C. Results for wound closure and erythema differed among temperature groups. Results from our study will be used to improve fish-tagging procedures for future studies using acoustic or radio transmitters.

  15. Abdominal Manual Therapy Repairs Interstitial Cells of Cajal and Increases Colonic c-Kit Expression When Treating Bowel Dysfunction after Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of abdominal manual therapy (AMT on bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI, investigating interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs and related c-kit expression. Methods. Model rats were divided as SCI and SCI with drug treatment (intragastric mosapride, low-intensity (SCI + LMT; 50 g, 50 times/min, and high-intensity AMT (SCI + HMT; 100 g, 150 times/min. After 14 days of treatment, weight, improved Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB locomotor score, and intestinal movement were evaluated. Morphological structure of spinal cord and colon tissues were examined. Immunostaining, RT-PCR, and western blot were used to assess c-kit expression. Results. In SCI rats, AMT could not restore BBB, but it significantly increased weight, shortened time to defecation, increased feces amounts, and improved fecal pellet traits and colon histology. AMT improved the number, distribution, and ultrastructure of colonic ICCs, increasing colonic c-kit mRNA and protein levels. Compared with the SCI + Drug and SCI + LMT groups, the SCI + HMT group showed better therapeutic effect in improving intestinal transmission function and promoting c-kit expression. Conclusions. AMT is an effective therapy for recovery of intestinal transmission function. It could repair ICCs and increase c-kit expression in colon tissues after SCI, in a frequency-dependent and pressure-dependent manner.

  16. High transverse skin incisions may reduce wound complications in obese women having cesarean sections: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Robert B; Shnaekel, Kelsey L; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T; Napolitano, Peter G; Magann, Everett F

    2017-11-01

    Women having cesarean section have a high risk of wound complications. Our objective was to determine whether high transverse skin incisions are associated with a reduced risk of cesarean wound complications in women with BMI greater than 40. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken of parturients ages 18-45 with BMI greater than 40 having high transverse skin incisions from January 2010 to April 2015 at a tertiary maternity hospital. Temporally matched controls had low transverse skin incisions along with a BMI greater than 40. The primary outcome, wound complication, was defined as any seroma, hematoma, dehiscence, or infection requiring opening and evacuating/debriding the wound. Secondary outcomes included rates of endometritis, number of hospital days, NICU admission, Apgar scores, birth weight, and gestational age at delivery. Analysis of outcomes was performed using two-sample t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Thirty-two women had high transverse incisions and were temporally matched with 96 controls (low transverse incisions). The mean BMI was 49 for both groups. There was a trend toward reduced wound complications in those having high transverse skin incisions, but this did not reach statistical significance (15.63% versus 27.08%, p = .2379). Those having high transverse skin incisions had lower five minute median Apgar scores (8.0 versus 9.0, p = .0021), but no difference in umbilical artery pH values. The high transverse group also had increased NICU admissions (28.13% versus 5.21%, p = .0011), and early gestational age at delivery (36.8 versus 38.0, p = .0272). High transverse skin incisions may reduce the risk of wound complications in parturients with obesity. A study with more power should be considered.

  17. N-Butyrate alters chromatin accessibility to DNA repair enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the complex nature of mammalian chromatin can result in the concealment of DNA damage from repair enzymes and their co-factors. Recently it has been proposed that the acetylation of histone proteins in chromatin may provide a surveillance system whereby damaged regions of DNA become exposed due to changes in chromatin accessibility. This hypothesis has been tested by: (i) using n-butyrate to induce hyperacetylation in human adenocarcinoma (HT29) cells; (ii) monitoring the enzymatic accessibility of chromatin in permeabilised cells; (iii) measuring u.v. repair-associated nicking of DNA in intact cells and (iv) determining the effects of n-butyrate on cellular sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. The results indicate that the accessibility of chromatin to Micrococcus luteus u.v. endonuclease is enhanced by greater than 2-fold in n-butyrate-treated cells and that there is a corresponding increase in u.v. repair incision rates in intact cells exposed to the drug. Non-toxic levels of n-butyrate induce a block to G1 phase transit and there is a significant growth delay on removal of the drug. Resistance of HT29 cells to u.v.-radiation and adriamycin is enhanced in n-butyrate-treated cells whereas X-ray sensitivity is increased. Although changes in the responses of cells to DNA damaging agents must be considered in relation to the effects of n-butyrate on growth rate and cell-cycle distribution, the results are not inconsistent with the proposal that increased enzymatic-accessibility/repair is biologically favourable for the resistance of cells to u.v.-radiation damage. Overall the results support the suggested operation of a histone acetylation-based chromatin surveillance system in human cells

  18. Assessment of corneal astigmatism following frown and straight incision forms in sutureless manual small incision cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedo AO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Ofeibea Amedo, Kwadwo Amoah, Nana Yaa Koomson, David Ben Kumah, Eugene Appenteng Osae Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana Abstract: To investigate which of two tunnel incision forms (frown versus straight in sutureless manual small incision cataract surgery creates more corneal astigmatism. Sixty eyes of 60 patients who had consented to undergo cataract surgery and to partake in this study were followed from baseline through >12-week postoperative period. Values of preoperative and postoperative corneal astigmatism for the 60 eyes, measured with a Bausch and Lomb keratometer, were extracted from the patients’ cataract surgery records. Residual astigmatism was computed as the difference between preoperative and postoperative keratometry readings. Visual acuity was assessed during the preoperative period and at each postoperative visit with a Snellen chart at 6 m. Fifty eyes of 50 patients were successfully followed-up on. Overall, the mean residual astigmatism was 0.75±0.12 diopters. The differences in mean residual astigmatism between the two different incision groups were statistically significant (t [48]=6.33, P<0.05; frown incision group recorded 1.00±0.12 diopters, whereas the straight incision group recorded 0.50±0.12 diopters. No significant difference was observed between male and female groups (t [48]=0.24, P>0.05. Residual corneal astigmatism in the frown incision group was significantly higher than in the straight incision group. Fisher’s exact test did not reveal a significant association between incision forms and visual acuity during the entire postoperative period (P>0.05. Keywords: cataract, residual corneal astigmatism, frown incision, straight incision

  19. Human DNA repair and recombination genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Influence of different phacoemulsification incision on postoperative corneal astigmatism for cataract patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Rong Zeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effect of different phacoemulsification incision on postoperative corneal astigmatism for cataract patients. METHODS: The cataract patients were selected in our hospital. The patients were divided into control group(corneal limbus opposite curved scleral tunnel incision groupand observation group(above the top of cornea or temporal transparent corneal incision grouprandomly. At 1wk; 1 and 3mo after surgery, the change of corneal astigmatism and vision of the patients in two groups were compared and analyzed. RESULTS:Compared with control group, 1wk; 1 and 3mo after surgery, the average corneal astigmatism and surgically induced corneal astigmatism of the patients in observation group were decreased significantly. The visual acuity and corrected visual acuity were increased significantly. There was statistically significant(PPCONCLUSION: Center distance and small incision corneal phacoemulsification can reduce postoperative astigmatism and improve postoperative visual acuity for cataract patients. It provides guarantee for further strengthen the clinical treated effect for cataract patients.

  1. Characterization of oxidative guanine damage and repair in mammalian telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilong Wang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG are among the most common oxidative DNA lesions and are substrates for 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1-initiated DNA base excision repair (BER. Mammalian telomeres consist of triple guanine repeats and are subject to oxidative guanine damage. Here, we investigated the impact of oxidative guanine damage and its repair by OGG1 on telomere integrity in mice. The mouse cells were analyzed for telomere integrity by telomere quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (telomere-FISH, by chromosome orientation-FISH (CO-FISH, and by indirect immunofluorescence in combination with telomere-FISH and for oxidative base lesions by Fpg-incision/Southern blot assay. In comparison to the wild type, telomere lengthening was observed in Ogg1 null (Ogg1(-/- mouse tissues and primary embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs cultivated in hypoxia condition (3% oxygen, whereas telomere shortening was detected in Ogg1(-/- mouse hematopoietic cells and primary MEFs cultivated in normoxia condition (20% oxygen or in the presence of an oxidant. In addition, telomere length abnormalities were accompanied by altered telomere sister chromatid exchanges, increased telomere single- and double-strand breaks, and preferential telomere lagging- or G-strand losses in Ogg1(-/- mouse cells. Oxidative guanine lesions were increased in telomeres in Ogg1(-/- mice with aging and primary MEFs cultivated in 20% oxygen. Furthermore, oxidative guanine lesions persisted at high level in Ogg1(-/- MEFs after acute exposure to hydrogen peroxide, while they rapidly returned to basal level in wild-type MEFs. These findings indicate that oxidative guanine damage can arise in telomeres where it affects length homeostasis, recombination, DNA replication, and DNA breakage repair. Our studies demonstrate that BER pathway is required in repairing oxidative guanine damage in telomeres and maintaining telomere integrity

  2. River longitudinal profiles and bedrock incision models: Stream power and the influence of sediment supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Leonard; Dietrich, William E.

    The simplicity and apparent mechanistic basis of the stream power river incision law have led to its wide use in empirical and theoretical studies. Here we identify constraints on its calibration and application, and present a mechanistic theory for the effects of sediment supply on incision rates which spotlights additional limitations on the applicability of the stream power law. On channels steeper than about 20%, incision is probably dominated by episodic debris flows, and on sufficiently gentle slopes, sediment may bury the bedrock and prevent erosion. These two limits bound the application of the stream power law and strongly constrain the possible combination of parameters in the law. In order to avoid infinite slopes at the drainage divide in numerical models of river profiles using the stream power law it is commonly assumed that the first grid cell is unchanneled. We show, however, that the size of the grid may strongly influence the calculated equilibrium relief. Analysis of slope-drainage area relationships for a river network in a Northern California watershed using digital elevation data and review of data previously reported by Hack reveal that non-equilibrium profiles may produce well defined slope-area relationships (as expected in equilibrium channels), but large differences between tributaries may point to disequilibrium conditions. To explore the role of variations in sediment supply and transport capacity in bedrock incision we introduce a mechanistic model for abrasion of bedrock by saltating bedload. The model predicts that incision rates reach a maximum at intermediate levels of sediment supply and transport capacity. Incision rates decline away from the maximum with either decreasing supply (due to a shortage of tools) or increasing supply (due to gradual bed alluviation), and with either decreasing transport capacity (due to less energetic particle movement) or increasing transport capacity (due less frequent particle impacts per unit bed

  3. Channel Incision Driven by Suburbanization: Impacts to Riparian Groundwater Flow and Overbank Flow Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, C. J.; Lawrence, R. L.; Noll, C.; Hancock, G. S.

    2005-12-01

    Channel incision is a widely observed response to increased flow in urbanized watersheds, but the effects of channel lowering on riparian water tables is not well documented. In a rapidly incising suburban stream in the Virginia Coastal Plain, we hypothesize that stream incision has lowered floodplain water tables and decreased the overbank flow frequency. The monitored stream is a tributary to the James River draining 1.3 km2 of which 15% is impervious cover. Incision has occurred largely through upstream migration of a one meter high knickpoint at a rate of ~1.5 m/yr, primarily during high flow events. We installed 63 wells in six stream-perpendicular transects as well as a cluster of wells around the knickpoint to assess water table elevations beneath the floodplain adjacent to the incising stream. Two transects are located 30 and 50 m upstream of the knickpoint in the unincised floodplain, and the remainder are 5, 30, 70, and 100 m downstream in the incised floodplain. In one transect above and two below, pressure transducers attached to dataloggers provide a high-resolution record of water table changes. Erosion pins were installed and channel cross-sections surveyed to determine streambed stability. Significant differences are observed in bank morphology and groundwater flow above vs. below the knickpoint. Above the knickpoint, the banks are stable, ~3 m wide, and ~0.3 m deep, and widen and deepen slightly toward the knickpoint. The water table is relatively flat and is 0.2-0.4 m below the floodplain surface, and groundwater contours suggest flow is parallel to the stream direction. The water table responds immediately to precipitation events, and rises to the floodplain surface in significant rainfall events. Immediately downstream of the knickpoint, channel width increases by about a meter, and stream depth increases to ~1.5 meters. The water table immediately below the knickpoint possesses a steep gradient, and is up to one meter below the floodplain

  4. Induction of the early response protein EGR-1 in human tumour cells after ionizing radiation is correlated with a reduction of repair of lethal lesions and an increase of repair of sublethal lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Nicolaas A. P.; ten Cate, Rosemarie; van Bree, Chris; Haveman, Jaap

    2004-01-01

    The role of EGR-1 in potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) was studied. Induction of the early response protein EGR-1 and survival after ionizing radiation of two human tumour cell lines after culturing for 48 h in serum-deprived medium was investigated. The glioblastoma cell line (Gli-6) and a

  5. The way to improve the quality of domestic shipbuilding and ship repair for increasing economic presence of Russia in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenov V. P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main problems and ways to improve the efficiency and quality of military shipbuilding and ship repair in modern conditions have been presented. The necessity for state support of shipbuilding and ship repair and development of entrepreneurship in the industry has been pointed out; a number of modern ways of increasing the efficiency and quality of management has been defined. Представлены основные проблемы и направления повышения эффективности и качества военного судостроения и судоремонта в современных условиях. В контексте решения проблем выделена необходимость обеспечения государственной поддержки судостроения и судоремонта, развития предпринимательства в отрасли, определен ряд современных направлений повышения эффективности и развития менеджмента качества

  6. Removal of misincorporated ribonucleotides from prokaryotic genomes: an unexpected role for nucleotide excision repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaisman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stringent steric exclusion mechanisms limit the misincorporation of ribonucleotides by high-fidelity DNA polymerases into genomic DNA. In contrast, low-fidelity Escherichia coli DNA polymerase V (pol V has relatively poor sugar discrimination and frequently misincorporates ribonucleotides. Substitution of a steric gate tyrosine residue with alanine (umuC_Y11A reduces sugar selectivity further and allows pol V to readily misincorporate ribonucleotides as easily as deoxynucleotides, whilst leaving its poor base-substitution fidelity essentially unchanged. However, the mutability of cells expressing the steric gate pol V mutant is very low due to efficient repair mechanisms that are triggered by the misincorporated rNMPs. Comparison of the mutation frequency between strains expressing wild-type and mutant pol V therefore allows us to identify pathways specifically directed at ribonucleotide excision repair (RER. We previously demonstrated that rNMPs incorporated by umuC_Y11A are efficiently removed from DNA in a repair pathway initiated by RNase HII. Using the same approach, we show here that mismatch repair and base excision repair play minimal back-up roles in RER in vivo. In contrast, in the absence of functional RNase HII, umuC_Y11A-dependent mutagenesis increases significantly in ΔuvrA, uvrB5 and ΔuvrC strains, suggesting that rNMPs misincorporated into DNA are actively repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER in vivo. Participation of NER in RER was confirmed by reconstituting ribonucleotide-dependent NER in vitro. We show that UvrABC nuclease-catalyzed incisions are readily made on DNA templates containing one, two, or five rNMPs and that the reactions are stimulated by the presence of mispaired bases. Similar to NER of DNA lesions, excision of rNMPs proceeds through dual incisions made at the 8(th phosphodiester bond 5' and 4(th-5(th phosphodiester bonds 3' of the ribonucleotide. Ribonucleotides misinserted into DNA can therefore be

  7. Morphodynamic Model of Submarine Canyon Incision by Sandblasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Parker, G.; Izumi, N.; Cartigny, M.; Li, T.; Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are carved by turbidity currents under the deep sea. As opposed to subaerial canyons, the relevant processes are not easy to observe directly. Turbidity currents are bottom-hugging sediment gravity flows of that can incise or deposit on the seafloor to create submarine canyons or fans. The triggers of turbidity currents can be storms, edge waves, internal waves, canyon wall sapping, delta failure, breaching and hyperpycnal flows. The formation and evolution mechanisms of submarine canyons are similar to those of subaerial canyons, but have substantial differences. For example, sandblasting, rather than wear due to colliding gravel clasts is more likely to be the mechanism of bedrock incision. Submarine canyons incise downward, and often develop meander bends and levees within the canyon, so defining "fairways". Here we propose a simple model for canyon incision. The starting point of our model is the Macro Roughness Saltation Abrasion Alluviation model of Zhang et al. [2015], designed for bedrock incision by gravel clasts in mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers. We adapt this formulation to consider sandblasting as a means of wear. We use a layer-averaged model for turbidity current dynamics. The current contains a mixture of mud, which helps drive the flow but which does not cause incision, and sand, which is the agent of incision. We show that the model can successfully model channel downcutting, and indeed illustrate the early formation of net incisional cyclic steps, i.e. upstream-migrating undulations on the bed associated with transcritical (in the Froude sense) flow. These steps can be expected to abet the process of incision.

  8. Diathermy versus scalpel incisions for open cholecystectomy comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.A.; Niazi, W.A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to make a comparison between skin incisions made with electrocautery versus scalpel in terms of their safety, efficacy and post-operative complications. Design: A randomized controlled study. Setting: The study was conducted in Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Kharian, Pakistan airforce (PAF) Hospital Sargodha. Duration of Study: May 2008 to August 2011. Patients and Methods: Ninety seven patients who underwent open cholecystectomy were randomly divided into two groups on the basis of the use of electrocautery versus steel scalpel for making skin incision and sub-cutaneous tissue dissection. Parameters recorded were, time taken from skin incision to full incising of the peritoneum, length of the wound, amount of blood loss during this step of surgery in each group. Post-operative pain scoring using visual analogue scale was done. Wound complications such as infection, haematoma/seroma and dehiscence were noted too. One month of follow up was recorded in each group. Subsequently a comparison of these findings was done. Results: Incision time (sec/cm/sub 2/) was longer in scalpel group than in diathermy group (p = 0.001), whereas, incision blood loss (ml/cm/sub 2/) was significantly less in diathermy group than in scalpel group (p = 0.03). There was no difference in post-operative pain perception as delineated by visual pain analogue scoring system between the two groups (p = 0.57). Post-operative wound complications and the final healing of wound at 01 month of follow-up were almost similar in both groups. Conclusion: Electrocautery may be used safely without any untoward complication in making skin incision and sub-cutaneous tissue dissection with an advantage of reduced incision time and and less blood loss. (author)

  9. Water table and overbank flow frequency changes due to suburbanization-induced channel incision, Virginia Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G.; Mattell, N.; Christianson, E.; Wacksman, J.

    2004-12-01

    Channel incision is a widely observed response to increased flow in urbanized watersheds, but the effects of channel lowering on riparian water tables is not well documented. In a rapidly incising suburban stream in the Virginia Coastal Plain, we hypothesize that incision has lowered floodplain water tables and decreased the overbank flow frequency, and suggest these changes impact vegetation distribution in a diverse, protected riparian habitat. The monitored stream is a tributary to the James River draining 1.3 km2, of which 15% is impervious cover. Incision has occurred largely through upstream migration of a one m high knickpoint at a rate of 1-2 m/yr, primarily during high flow events. We installed 33 wells in six floodplain transects to assess water table elevations beneath the floodplain adjacent to the incising stream. To document the impacts of incision, two transects are located 30 and 50 m upstream of the knickpoint in unincised floodplain, and the remainder are 5, 30, 70, and 100 m downstream of the knickpoint in incised floodplain. In one transect above and two below, pressure transducers attached to dataloggers provide a high-resolution record of water table response to storm events. Significant differences have been observed in the water table above and below the knickpoint. Above the knickpoint, the water table is relatively flat and is 0.2-0.4 m below the floodplain surface. Water table response to precipitation events is nearly immediate, with the water table rising to the floodplain surface in significant rainfall events. In the transect immediately downstream of the knickpoint, the water table possesses a steep gradient, rising from ~1 m below the floodplain at the stream to 0.3 m below the surface within 20 m. In the most downstream transects, the water table is relatively flat, but is one m below the floodplain surface, equivalent to the depth of incision generated by knickpoint passage. Upstream of the knickpoint, overbank flooding occurs

  10. Surgeon leadership in the coding, billing, and contractual negotiations for fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair increases medical center contribution margin and physician reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Francesco; Durgin, Jonathan; Daniel, Vijaya; Messina, Louis; Doucet, Danielle; Simons, Jessica; Jenkins, James; Schanzer, Andres

    2017-10-01

    Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) allows endovascular treatment of thoracoabdominal and juxtarenal aneurysms previously outside the indications of use for standard devices. However, because of considerable device costs and increased procedure time, FEVAR is thought to result in financial losses for medical centers and physicians. We hypothesized that surgeon leadership in the coding, billing, and contractual negotiations for FEVAR procedures will increase medical center contribution margin (CM) and physician reimbursement. At the UMass Memorial Center for Complex Aortic Disease, a vascular surgeon with experience in medical finances is supported to manage the billing and coding of FEVAR procedures for medical center and physician reimbursement. A comprehensive financial analysis was performed for all FEVAR procedures (2011-2015), independent of insurance status, patient presentation, or type of device used. Medical center CM (actual reimbursement minus direct costs) was determined for each index FEVAR procedure and for all related subsequent procedures, inpatient or outpatient, 3 months before and 1 year subsequent to the index FEVAR procedure. Medical center CM for outpatient clinic visits, radiology examinations, vascular laboratory studies, and cardiology and pulmonary evaluations related to FEVAR were also determined. Surgeon reimbursement for index FEVAR procedure, related adjunct procedures, and assistant surgeon reimbursement were also calculated. All financial analyses were performed and adjudicated by the UMass Department of Finance. The index hospitalization for 63 FEVAR procedures incurred $2,776,726 of direct costs and generated $3,027,887 in reimbursement, resulting in a positive CM of $251,160. Subsequent related hospital procedures (n = 26) generated a CM of $144,473. Outpatient clinic visits, radiologic examinations, and vascular laboratory studies generated an additional CM of $96,888. Direct cost analysis revealed that grafts

  11. Treatment of bilateral mammary ptosis and pectus excavatum through the same incision in one surgical stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Passos Rocha

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Congenital deformities of the anterior thoracic wall are characterized by unusual development of the costal cartilages. All these medical conditions are frequently associated with a variety of breast deformities. Several surgical techniques have been described for correcting them, going from sternochondroplasty to, nowadays, minimally invasive techniques and silicone prosthesis implantation. CASE REPORT: The present article reports the case of a young female patient who presented bilateral mammary ptosis and moderate pectus excavatum that caused a protrusion between the eighth and the tenth ribs and consequent esthetic disharmony. The proposed surgical treatment included not only subglandular breast implants of polyurethane, but also resection of part of the rib cartilage and a bone segment from the eighth, ninth and tenth ribs by means of a single submammary incision in order to make the scar minimally visible. Correction through a single incision benefited the patient and provided an excellent esthetic result. CONCLUSIONS: The techniques used to repair bilateral mammary ptosis and pectus excavatum by plastic and thoracic surgery teams, respectively, have been shown to be efficient for correcting both deformities. An excellent esthetic and functional result was obtained, with consequent reestablishment of the patient's self-esteem.

  12. Meningocele repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is surgery to repair birth defects of the spine and spinal membranes. Meningocele and myelomeningocele ... is covered by a sterile dressing. Your child may then be transferred to a neonatal intensive ...

  13. Benzene-derived N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-deoxyguanosine adduct: UvrABC incision and its conformation in DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Bo; Rodriguez, Ben; Yang, Yanu; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed

    2010-06-14

    Benzene, a ubiquitous human carcinogen, forms DNA adducts through its metabolites such as p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) and hydroquinone (HQ). N(2)-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-4-HOPh-dG) is the principal adduct identified in vivo by (32)P-postlabeling in cells or animals treated with p-BQ or HQ. To study its effect on repair specificity and replication fidelity, we recently synthesized defined oligonucleotides containing a site-specific adduct using phosphoramidite chemistry. We here report the repair of this adduct by Escherichia coli UvrABC complex, which performs the initial damage recognition and incision steps in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. We first showed that the p-BQ-treated plasmid was efficiently cleaved by the complex, indicating the formation of DNA lesions that are substrates for NER. Using a 40-mer substrate, we found that UvrABC incises the DNA strand containing N(2)-4-HOPh-dG in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The specificity of such repair was also compared with that of DNA glycosylases and damage-specific endonucleases of E. coli, both of which were found to have no detectable activity toward N(2)-4-HOPh-dG. To understand why this adduct is specifically recognized and processed by UvrABC, molecular modeling studies were performed. Analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories showed that stable G:C-like hydrogen bonding patterns of all three Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds are present within the N(2)-4-HOPh-G:C base pair, with the hydroxyphenyl ring at an almost planar position. In addition, N(2)-4-HOPh-dG has a tendency to form more stable stacking interactions than a normal G in B-type DNA. These conformational properties may be critical in differential recognition of this adduct by specific repair enzymes.

  14. Comparison of the Keratometric Corneal Astigmatic Power after Phacoemulsification: Clear Temporal Corneal Incision versus Superior Scleral Tunnel Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi He

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This is prospective randomized control trial to compare the mean keratometric corneal astigmatism diopter power (not surgical induced astigmatism among preop and one-month and three-month postop phacoemulcification of either a clear temporal corneal incision or a superior scleral tunnel Incision, using only keratometric astigmatic power reading to evaluate the difference between the two cataract surgery incisions. Methods. 120 patients (134 eyes underwent phacoemulcification were randomly assigned to two groups: Group A, the clear temporal corneal incision group, and Group B, the superior scleral tunnel incision group. SPSS11.5 Software was used for statistical analysis to compare the postsurgical changes of cornea astigmatism on keratometry. Results. The changes of corneal astigmatic diopter in Groups A and B after 3 month postop from keratometric reading were 1.04 + 0.76 and 0.94 + 0.27, respectively (=.84>.05, which showed no statistic significance difference. Conclusion. The incision through either temporal clear cornea or superior scleral tunnel in phacoemulcification shows no statistic difference in astigmatism change on keratometry 3-month postop.

  15. Differences in the regulation by poly(ADP-ribose) of repair of DNA damage from alkylating agents and ultraviolet light according to cell type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Bodell, W.J.; Morgan, W.F.; Zelle, B.

    1983-08-10

    Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis by 3-aminobenzamide in various human and hamster cells influenced the responses to DNA damage from methyl methanesulfonate, but not from ultraviolet light. After exposure to methyl methanesulfonate, 3-aminobenzamide increased the strand break frequency in all cell types studied, but only stimulated repair replication in lymphoid and HeLa cells, suggesting these are independent effects. 3-Aminobenzamide also inhibited the pathway for de novo synthesis of DNA purines, suggesting that some of its effects may be due to disturbance of precursor pathways and irrelevant to the role of poly(ADP-ribose) in repair. Previous claims that 3-aminobenzamide stimulates repair synthesis after exposure to UV light are probably artifacts, because the stimulations are only observed in lymphocytes in the presence of a high concentration of hydroxyurea that itself inhibits repair. The initial inhibition of semiconservative DNA synthesis and the excision of the major alkylation products and pyrimidine dimers were unaffected by 3-aminobenzamide. In general poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis appears to be uniquely involved in regulating the ligation stage of repair of alkylation damage but not ultraviolet damage. By regulating the ligation efficiency, poly(ADP-ribosylation) modulates the dynamic balance between incision and ligation, so as to minimize the frequency of DNA breaks. The ligation stage of repair of UV damage appears different and is not regulated by poly(ADP-ribosylation).

  16. Laparoscopic repair of large suprapubic hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikar, Hasan Ediz; Çetin, Kenan; Eyvaz, Kemal; Kaptanoglu, Levent; Küçük, Hasan Fehmi

    2017-09-01

    Suprapubic hernia is the term to describe ventral hernias located less than 4 cm above the pubic arch in the midline. Hernias with an upper margin above the arcuate line encounter technical difficulties, and the differences in repair methods forced us to define them as large suprapubic hernias. To present our experience with laparoscopic repair of large suprapubic hernias that allows adequate mesh overlap. Nineteen patients with suprapubic incisional hernias who underwent laparoscopic repair between May 2013 and January 2015 were included in the study. Patients with laparoscopic extraperitoneal repair who had a suprapubic hernia with an upper margin below the arcuate line were excluded. Two men and 17 women, with a mean age of 58.2, underwent laparoscopic repair. Most of the incisions were midline vertical (13/68.4%). Twelve (63.1%) of the patients had previous incisional hernia repair (PIHR group); the mean number of previous incisional hernia repair was 1.4. Mean defect size of the PIHR group was higher than in patients without previous repair - 107.3 cm 2 vs. 50.9 cm 2 (p < 0.05). Mean operating time of the PIHR group was higher than in patients without repair - 126 min vs. 77.9 min (p < 0.05). Although all complications occurred in the PIHR group, there was no statistically significant difference. Laparoscopic repair of large suprapubic hernias can be considered as the first option in treatment. The low recurrence rates reported in the literature and the lack of recurrence, as observed in our study, support this view.

  17. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeeland, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this chapter a series of DNA repair pathways are discussed which are available to the cell to cope with the problem of DNA damaged by chemical or physical agents. In the case of microorganisms our knowledge about the precise mechanism of each DNA repair pathway and the regulation of it has been improved considerably when mutants deficient in these repair mechanisms became available. In the case of mammalian cells in culture, until recently there were very little repair deficient mutants available, because in almost all mammalian cells in culture at least the diploid number of chromosomes is present. Therefore the frequency of repair deficient mutants in such populations is very low. Nevertheless because replica plating techniques are improving some mutants from Chinese hamsters ovary cells and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells are now available. In the case of human cells, cultures obtained from patients with certain genetic diseases are available. A number of cells appear to be sensitive to some chemical or physical mutagens. These include cells from patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum, Ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi's anemia, Cockayne's syndrome. However, only in the case of xeroderma pigmentosum cells, has the sensitivity to ultraviolet light been clearly correlated with a deficiency in excision repair of pyrimidine dimers. Furthermore the work with strains obtained from biopsies from man is difficult because these cells generally have low cloning efficiencies and also have a limited lifespan in vitro. It is therefore very important that more repair deficient mutants will become available from established cell lines from human or animal origin

  18. Effects of two different incision phacoemulsification on corneal astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the effect of different incision in corneal astigmatism after phacoemulsification. METHODS: Totally 88 cases(122 eyeswith pure cataract were randomly divided into two groups. Forty cases(60 eyeswere clarity corneal incision in group A, and 48 cases(62 eyeswere sclera tunnel incision in group B. Mean corneal astigmatism, surgically induced astigmatism(SIA, uncorrected visual acuity(UCVAand best correct vision acuity(BCVAwere observed in pre- and post-operation at 1d; 1wk; 1mo.RESULTS: The mean astigmatism had statistically significant difference between two groups at 1d; 1wk; 1mo after operation(PPP>0.05. UCVA≥0.5 and BCVA≥0.8 had statistically significant difference at 1d; 1wk(PP>0.05.CONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification with scleral tunnel incision remove combined intraocular lens(IOLimplantation has small changes to corneal astigmatism. By selecting personalized corneal incision according to the corneal topography might be more beneficial.

  19. European Hernia Society guidelines on the closure of abdominal wall incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muysoms, F E; Antoniou, S A; Bury, K

    2015-01-01

    using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach and methodological guidance was taken from Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). The literature search included publications up to April 2014. The guidelines were written using the AGREE II...... of rapidly absorbable sutures. It is suggested using a slowly absorbable monofilament suture in a single layer aponeurotic closure technique without separate closure of the peritoneum. A small bites technique with a suture to wound length (SL/WL) ratio at least 4/1 is the current recommended method......, it is suggested using the smallest trocar size adequate for the procedure and closure of the fascial defect if trocars larger or equal to 10 mm are used. For single incision laparoscopic surgery, we suggest meticulous closure of the fascial incision to avoid an increased risk of incisional hernias....

  20. Local analgesic effect of tramadol is mediated by opioid receptors in late postoperative pain after plantar incision in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Junior, José Oswaldo; de Freitas, Milena Fernandes; Bullara de Andrade, Carolina; Chacur, Marucia; Ashmawi, Hazem Adel

    2016-01-01

    Tramadol is a drug used to treat moderate to severe pain. It is known to present a peripheral effect, but the local mechanisms underlying its actions remain unclear. The role of peripheral opioid receptors in postoperative pain is not well understood. In the present study, we examined the peripheral opioid receptors to determine the local effect of tramadol in a plantar incision pain model. Rats were subjected to plantar incision and divided into four groups on postoperative day (POD) 1: SF_SF, 0.9% NaCl injected into the right hindpaw; SF_TraI, 0.9% NaCl and tramadol injected into the right hindpaw; SF_TraC, 0.9% NaCl and tramadol injected into the contralateral hindpaw; and Nal_Tra, naloxone and tramadol injected into the ipsilateral hindpaw. To determine the animals' nociceptive threshold, mechanical hyperalgesia was measured before incision, on POD1 before treatment and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the incision. The same procedure was repeated on the POD2. The expression levels of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) were obtained through immunoblotting assays in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia (L3-L6) in naïve rats and 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after the incision. Our results showed that the plantar incision was able to cause an increase in mechanical hyperalgesia and that tramadol reversed this hyperalgesia on POD1 and POD2. Tramadol injections in the contralateral paw did not affect the animals' nociceptive threshold. Naloxone was able to antagonize the tramadol effect partially on POD1 and completely on POD2. The DOR expression increased on POD2, POD3, and POD7, whereas the MOR expression did not change. Together, our results show that tramadol promoted a local analgesic effect in the postoperative pain model that was antagonized by naloxone in POD2, alongside the increase of DOR expression.

  1. Laparoscopic hernia repair and bladder injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandri, K M; Bhoyrul, S; Mulvihill, S J

    2001-01-01

    Bladder injury is a complication of laparoscopic surgery with a reported incidence in the general surgery literature of 0.5% and in the gynecology literature of 2%. We describe how to recognize and treat the injury and how to avoid the problem. We report two cases of bladder injury repaired with a General Surgical Interventions (GSI) trocar and a balloon device used for laparoscopic extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. One patient had a prior appendectomy; the other had a prior midline incision from a suprapubic prostatectomy. We repaired the bladder injury, and the patients made a good recovery. When using the obturator and balloon device, it is important to stay anterior to the preperitoneal space and bladder. Prior lower abdominal surgery can be considered a relative contraindication to extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair. Signs of gas in the Foley bag or hematuria should alert the surgeon to a bladder injury. A one- or two-layer repair of the bladder injury can be performed either laparoscopically or openly and is recommended for a visible injury. Mesh repair of the hernia can be completed provided no evidence exists of urinary tract infection. A Foley catheter is placed until healing occurs.

  2. Recognition and repair of the CC-1065-(N3-Adenine)-DNA adduct by the UVRABC nuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, M.; Lee, C.S.; Doisy, R.; Ross, L.; Needham-VanDevanter, D.R.; Hurley, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    The recognition and repair of the helix-stabilizing and relatively nondistortive CC-1065-(N3-adenine)-DNA adduct by UVRABC nuclease has been investigated both in vivo with phi X174RFI DNA by a transfection assay and in vitro by a site-directed adduct in a 117 base pair fragment from M13mp1. CC-1065 is a potent antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces zelensis which binds within the minor groove of DNA through N3 of adenine. In contrast to the helix-destabilizing and distortive modifications of DNA caused by ultraviolet light or N-acetoxy-2-(acetylamino)fluorene, CC-1065 increases the melting point of DNA and decreases the S1 nuclease activity. Using a viral DNA-Escherichia coli transfection system, the authors have found that the uvrA, uvrB, and uvrC genes, which code for the major excision repair proteins for UV- and NAAAF-induced DNA damage, are also involved in the repair of CC-1065-DNA adducts. In contrast, the uvrD gene product, which has been found to be involved in the repair of UV damage, has no effect in repairing CC-1065-DNA adducts. Purified UVRA, UVRB, and UVRC proteins must work in concert to incise the drug-modified phi X174RFI DNA. Using a site-directed and multiple CC-1065 modified (MspI-BstNI) 117 base pair fragment from M13mp1, they have found that UVRABC nuclease incises at the eight phosphodiester bond on the 5' side of the CC-1065-DNA adduct on the drug-modified strand. The enzymes do not cut the noncovalently modified strand. The DNA sequence and/or helix-stabilizing effect of multiple adducts may determine the recognition and/or incision of the drug-DNA adduct by UVRABC nuclease. These results are discussed in relation to the structure of the CC-1065-DNA adduct and the effect of drug binding on local DNA structure

  3. Histomorphological and immunofluorescence evaluation of clear corneal incisions after microcoaxial phacoemulsification with 2.2 mm and 1.8 mm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Abhay R; Johar, Kaid; Praveen, Mamidipudi R; Vasavada, Viraj A; Arora, Anshul I

    2013-04-01

    To compare changes in the incision's histomorphology and denaturation of collagen I in rabbit eyes having microcoaxial phacoemulsification through 2.2 mm and 1.8 mm incision-compatible systems. Randomized experimental trial. Iladevi Cataract & IOL Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India. Thirty rabbit eyes were randomized into Group 1 (microcoaxial phacoemulsification through 2.2 mm incisions using Infiniti system [torsional ultrasound]) and Group 2 (microcoaxial phacoemulsification through 1.8 mm incisions using Stellaris system [longitudinal ultrasound]). Each group was then divided into 3 subgroups of 5 eyes each based on 1 of the 3 intervention options: phacoemulsification only, intraocular lens (IOL) insertion only, and phacoemulsification with IOL insertion. Left eyes were randomized for microcoaxial phacoemulsification, and right eyes were treated as controls. After phacoemulsification, eyes in Group 1 showed loss of epithelium at the roof of the incisions and Descemet membrane detachment at the floor of the incisions. These findings did not change after IOL insertion. After phacoemulsification, eyes in Group 2 showed loss of epithelium, but Descemet membrane remained attached. There was a longitudinal split in the incision's stroma in the direction of internal entry. The stromal damage increased after IOL implantation. Immunofluorescence studies showed no obvious irregularities in the arrangement of collagen I in either group. A dot blot analysis showed significant denaturation of collagen I in Group 2. The histomorphology of the 2.2 mm system incision showed localized Descemet membrane detachment and endothelial cell loss. The 1.8 mm system incision showed exaggerated stromal damage after IOL insertion. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical coherence tomography of the effects of stromal hydration on clear corneal incision architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calladine, Daniel; Tanner, Vaughan

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of stromal hydration on clear corneal incision (CCI) architecture immediately after surgery using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, United Kingdom. Clear corneal incisions in adult eyes were examined using a Visante AS-OCT imaging system within 1 hour of surgery. Half the CCIs had stromal hydration with a balanced salt solution and half did not. Incisions were made with a 2.75 mm steel keratome. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured within 90 minutes after surgery. The CCI length and corneal thickness at the CCI site were measured using software built into the AS-OCT system. Thirty CCIs were evaluated. Stromal hydration significantly increased the measured CCI length (Pthe result of a trend toward increased corneal thickness at the CCI site with hydration (PThe mean CCI length was 1.69 mm +/- 0.27 (SD) (range 1.31 to 2.32 mm) with hydration and 1.51 +/- 0.23 mm (range 1.30 to 1.95 mm) without hydration. The mean IOP was 20.9 +/- 8.18 mm Hg and 15.8 +/- 8.20 mm Hg, respectively. The IOP tended to be higher with hydration (Pthe eye with a higher early postoperative IOP, showing the importance of taking stromal hydration into account when designing similar OCT studies of CCI architecture.

  5. Modification of the Nuss Procedure: The Single-incision Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsushi Aizawa, MD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The Nuss procedure is a prevalent minimally invasive surgery for pectus excavatum. Although the Nuss procedure has the advantage of leaving less obtrusive scars, the standard technique requires at least 3 skin incisions to insert several instruments. We experienced 7 cases of the modified Nuss procedure using a single incision during a 7-year period. To facilitate passing of the bar, a traction guide was created according to our unique method. There was no need for a bar stabilizer, and no severe intraoperative complications occurred. All patients exhibited satisfactory short-term results; however, 1 patient suffered from bar rotation and required repeat surgery for fixation. Two patients underwent bar removal via the same single incision without any difficulties.

  6. Supra-transumbilical laparotomy (STL approach for small bowel atresia repair: Our experience and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Leva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supra-Transumbilical Laparotomy (STL has been used in paediatric surgery for a broad spectrum of abdominal procedures. We report our experience with STL approach for small bowel atresia repair in newborns and review previous published series on the topic. Patients and Methods: Fourteen patients with small bowel atresia were treated via STL approach at our Institution over a 5-year period and their charts were retrospectively reviewed. Results: STL procedure was performed at mean age of 3.1 day. No malrotation disorders were detected with pre-operative contrast enema. Eight patients (54.1% presented jejunal atresia, five (35.7% ileal atresia, and one (7.1% multiple ileal and jejunal atresias. Standard repair with primary end-to-back anastomosis was performed in all but one patient. In the newborn with multiple atresia, STL incision was converted in supra-umbilical transverse incision due to difficulty of exposition. After surgery, one patient developed anastomotic stricture, and another developed occlusion due to adhesions: Both infants required second laparotomy. No infections of the umbilical site were recorded, and cosmetic results were excellent in all patients. Conclusions: Increasing evidence suggests that STL approach for small bowel atresia is feasible, safe and provides adequate exposure for small bowel atresia surgery. When malrotation and colonic/multiple atresia are pre-operatively ruled out, STL procedure can be choosen as first approach.

  7. Minimizing surgical skin incision scars with a latex surgical glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Eun; Ryoo, Suk-Tae; Lim, So Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyung; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap-Sung; Mun, Goo-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    The current trend in minimally invasive surgery is to make a small surgical incision. However, the excessive tensile stress applied by the retractors to the skin surrounding the incision often results in a long wound healing time and extensive scarring. To minimize these types of wound problems, the authors evaluated a simple and cost-effective method to minimize surgical incision scars based on the use of a latex surgical glove. The tunnel-shaped part of a powder-free latex surgical glove was applied to the incision and the dissection plane. It was fixed to the full layer of the dissection plane with sutures. The glove on the skin surface then was sealed with Ioban (3 M Health Care, St. Paul, MN, USA) to prevent movement. The operation proceeded as usual, with the retractor running through the tunnel of the latex glove. It was possible to complete the operation without any disturbance of the visual field by the surgical glove, and the glove was neither torn nor separated by the retractors. The retractors caused traction and friction during the operation, but the extent of damage to the postoperative skin incision margin was remarkably less than when the operation was performed without a glove. This simple and cost-effective method is based on the use of a latex surgical glove to protect the surgical skin incision site and improve the appearance of the postoperative scar. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Simulation of channel sandstone architecture in an incised valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frykman, P.; Johannessen, P.; Andsbjerg, J.

    1998-12-31

    The present report describes a geostatistical modelling study that is aimed at reflecting the architecture of the channel sandstones in an incised valley fill. The example used for this study is a part of the Middle Jurassic sandy succession of the Bryne Formation in the Danish central Graben. The succession consists mainly of fluvial sediments in the lower part, overlain by tidal influenced sediments, which again is overlain by shallow marine sediments. The modelling study has been performed on a sequence of incised valley sediments in the upper part of the Bryne Formation overlying fluvial sediments. (au) EFP-96. 19 refs.

  9. Better outcome from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy than skin incisions only?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M; Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Nielsen, Sabrina Mai

    2018-01-01

    . In total, nine participants experienced 11 adverse events; six in the surgery group and three in the skin-incisions-only group. CONCLUSION: We found greater improvement from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy compared with skin incisions only at 2 years, with the statistical uncertainty of the between......-group difference including what could be considered clinically relevant. Because of the study being underpowered, nearly half in the sham group being non-blinded and one-third crossing over to surgery, the results cannot be generalised to the greater patient population. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01264991....

  10. Repair process and a repaired component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Simpson, Stanley F.

    2018-02-20

    Matrix composite component repair processes are disclosed. The matrix composite repair process includes applying a repair material to a matrix composite component, securing the repair material to the matrix composite component with an external securing mechanism and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component during the securing by the external securing mechanism. The matrix composite component is selected from the group consisting of a ceramic matrix composite, a polymer matrix composite, and a metal matrix composite. In another embodiment, the repair process includes applying a partially-cured repair material to a matrix composite component, and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component, an external securing mechanism securing the repair material throughout a curing period, In another embodiment, the external securing mechanism is consumed or decomposed during the repair process.

  11. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of surgical scalpel or diathermy in making abdominal skin incisions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Nasir Zaheer

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgical scalpels are traditionally used to make skin incisions. Diathermy incisions on contrary are less popular among the surgeons. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness of both techniques and address the common fallacies about diathermy incisions. METHODS: A literature search of MEDLINE and Cochrane databases was done, using the keywords diathermy, cold scalpel, and incisions. Eleven clinical trials comparing both methods of making skin incisions were selected for meta-analysis. The end points compared included postoperative wound infection, pain in first 24 hours after surgery, time taken to complete the incisions, and incision-related blood loss. RESULTS: Postoperative wound infection rate was comparable in both techniques (P = 0.147, odds ratio = 1.257 and 95% CI = 0.923-1.711). Postoperative pain was significantly less with diathermy incisions in first 24 hours (P = 0.031, weighted mean difference = 0.852 and 95% CI = 0.076-1.628). Similarly, the time taken to complete the incision and incision-related blood loss was significantly less with diathermy incisions (95% CI = 0.245-0.502 and 0.548-1.020, respectively). CONCLUSION: Diathermy incisions are equally prone to get wound infection, as do the incisions made with scalpel. Furthermore, lower incidence of early postoperative pain, swiftness of the technique, and a reduced blood loss are the encouraging facts supporting routine use of diathermy for abdominal skin incisions after taking careful precautions.

  12. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  13. Chemical weathering as a mechanism for the climatic control of bedrock river incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brendan P.; Johnson, Joel P. L.; Gasparini, Nicole M.; Sklar, Leonard S.

    2016-04-01

    Feedbacks between climate, erosion and tectonics influence the rates of chemical weathering reactions, which can consume atmospheric CO2 and modulate global climate. However, quantitative predictions for the coupling of these feedbacks are limited because the specific mechanisms by which climate controls erosion are poorly understood. Here we show that climate-dependent chemical weathering controls the erodibility of bedrock-floored rivers across a rainfall gradient on the Big Island of Hawai‘i. Field data demonstrate that the physical strength of bedrock in streambeds varies with the degree of chemical weathering, which increases systematically with local rainfall rate. We find that incorporating the quantified relationships between local rainfall and erodibility into a commonly used river incision model is necessary to predict the rates and patterns of downcutting of these rivers. In contrast to using only precipitation-dependent river discharge to explain the climatic control of bedrock river incision, the mechanism of chemical weathering can explain strong coupling between local climate and river incision.

  14. Review of various liver retraction techniques in single incision laparoscopic surgery for the exposure of hiatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivelu, Praveenraj; Patil, Kedar Pratap; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Viswambharan, Jaiganesh K; Senthilnathan, Palanisami; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy

    2015-01-01

    The main aspect of concern for upper GI procedures has been the retraction of the liver especially large left lobes as commonly encountered in Bariatric surgery. Not doing so would compromise the view of the hiatus, hence theoretically reducing the quality of the surgery and increasing the possibility of complications. The aim of this study was to review the various liver retraction techniques in single incision surgery being done at our institute and analyze them. A retrospective study of the various techniques and a subsequent analysis was made based on advantages and disadvantages of each method. Objectively a quantitative measure of hiatal exposure was done using a scoring system based on the grade of exposure after reviewing the surgical videos. From January 2011 to January 2013 total 104 patients underwent single incision surgery with the various liver retraction techniques with following grades of exposure -liver suspension tube technique with naso gastric tubing (2.11) and with corrugated drain (2.09) needlescopic method (1.2), Umbilical tape sling (1.95), crural stitch method (2.5). Needeloscopic method has the best grade of exposure and is the easiest to start with. The average time to create the liver retraction was 2.8 to 8.6 min.There was no procedure related morbidity or mortality. The mentioned liver retraction techniques are cost effective and easy to learn. We recommend using these techniques to have a good exposure of hiatus, without compromising the safety of surgery in single incision surgery.

  15. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, M.C.J.; Gidding, C.E.M.; Loeffen, J.; Wesseling, P.; Mensenkamp, A.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 8-year-old

  16. APE1 incision activity at abasic sites in tandem repeat sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengxia; Völker, Jens; Breslauer, Kenneth J; Wilson, David M

    2014-05-29

    Repetitive DNA sequences, such as those present in microsatellites and minisatellites, telomeres, and trinucleotide repeats (linked to fragile X syndrome, Huntington disease, etc.), account for nearly 30% of the human genome. These domains exhibit enhanced susceptibility to oxidative attack to yield base modifications, strand breaks, and abasic sites; have a propensity to adopt non-canonical DNA forms modulated by the positions of the lesions; and, when not properly processed, can contribute to genome instability that underlies aging and disease development. Knowledge on the repair efficiencies of DNA damage within such repetitive sequences is therefore crucial for understanding the impact of such domains on genomic integrity. In the present study, using strategically designed oligonucleotide substrates, we determined the ability of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) to cleave at apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in a collection of tandem DNA repeat landscapes involving telomeric and CAG/CTG repeat sequences. Our studies reveal the differential influence of domain sequence, conformation, and AP site location/relative positioning on the efficiency of APE1 binding and strand incision. Intriguingly, our data demonstrate that APE1 endonuclease efficiency correlates with the thermodynamic stability of the DNA substrate. We discuss how these results have both predictive and mechanistic consequences for understanding the success and failure of repair protein activity associated with such oxidatively sensitive, conformationally plastic/dynamic repetitive DNA domains. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. [Surgical treatment for incisions fat colliquation or infections at early stage after operation of lumbar disc herniation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ting-Jin; Zheng, Liang-Guo; Sun, Peng; Li, Xing-Xue

    2014-05-01

    To explore the reason, key diagnosic point and therapeutic method of the incisions fat colliquation or infections at early stage after operation of lumbar disc herniation. From July 2007 to May 2012, clinical data of 11 patients with incision fat liquefaction or early infection after lumbar discectomy were retrospectively analyzed. There were 5 males and 6 females with an average age of 43.1 years, and the mean time of incisions fat colliquation or infection was 5 days and a half after operation. The main clinical features included local wound pain aggravating, fervescence, fresh seepage in the wound, and blood inflammatory index increased, etc. The wound could heal at the first treatment stage or not was an evaluation standard of curative effect. All patients were followed up with an average period of 21 months. The wounds of 10 cases healed at the first stage without recurrence and complications. In 1 case infected by staphylococcus aureus, distal part of the wound present local red, swelling and with wave motion at 2 months after operation, staphylococcus aureus infection was confirmed after puncture and bacterial culture, and 1 thrum was found after local incision. The wound healed after change dressings for 1 week, without recurrence after followed up for 13 months. Preventing the risk factors before operation, minimizing invasive technique during operation reasonable antibiotics application for the lumbar operation reguiring placement objects, and correctly handling with wound after operation could prevent and reduce the incidence of incisions fat liquefaction or infection after operation of lumbar disc herniation. For incision fat liquefaction or infection, early diagnosis, debridement, VSD negative pressure irrigation and drainage, to choosing sensitive antibiotics according to the results of drug sensitivity, may contribute to wound early healing and decrease complication.

  18. Feasibility of Performing Total Skin-Sparing Mastectomy in Patients With Prior Circumareolar Mastopexy or Reduction Mammoplasty Incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Carolyn J; Peled, Anne Warren; Esserman, Laura J; Foster, Robert D

    2013-06-19

    Total skin-sparing mastectomy (TSSM) techniques with preservation of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) skin are becoming increasingly popular due to improved cosmesis without compromise in oncologic safety. However, these techniques are not routinely offered to patients who have undergone previous breast surgery involving circumareolar incisions due to concern for NAC viability. We reviewed the outcomes of TSSM in 11 patients who underwent 21 TSSM procedures at our institution between 2008 and 2011. All patients had undergone previous breast surgery including reduction mammaplasty (7 breasts), mastopexy (4 breasts), augmentation (3 breasts), and combined mastopexy-augmentation (7 breasts). Incisions from previous breast surgery included circumareolar (11 cases) and Wise pattern (10 cases) incisions. All patients underwent TSSM through an inframammary incision followed by immediate tissue expander reconstruction and subsequent implant exchange. Patient demographics, previous breast surgery details, tumor and treatment characteristics, and postoperative complications were reviewed. Mean patient age was 43 years (range, 35-53 years) and mean body mass index was 24 kg/m (range, 19-32 kg/m). Mean follow-up was 10.2 months (range, 3-20 months).Indications for TSSM included prophylactic risk reduction in 10 cases, in situ cancer in 2 cases, and invasive cancer in 9 cases. Mean time from previous breast surgery to mastectomy was 6.9 years (range, 6 months-26 years). Major complications requiring operative reintervention included 1 (4.8%) case of cellulitis requiring expander removal and 2 (9.5%) cases of wound breakdown requiring operative closure. There were no complications involving the NAC. Total skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate reconstruction can safely be performed in patients who have undergone previous breast surgery involving circumareolar incisions. Our preferred technique in this group of patients is to perform TSSM through an inframammary incision with 2

  19. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  20. WHERE MULTIFUNCTIONAL DNA REPAIR PROTEINS MEET: MAPPING THE INTERACTION DOMAINS BETWEEN XPG AND WRN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangaraj, K.; Cooper, P.K.; Trego, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid recognition and repair of DNA damage is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular survival. Multiple complex and interconnected DNA damage responses exist within cells to preserve the human genome, and these repair pathways are carried out by a specifi c interplay of protein-protein interactions. Thus a failure in the coordination of these processes, perhaps brought about by a breakdown in any one multifunctional repair protein, can lead to genomic instability, developmental and immunological abnormalities, cancer and premature aging. This study demonstrates a novel interaction between two such repair proteins, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G protein (XPG) and Werner syndrome helicase (WRN), that are both highly pleiotropic and associated with inherited genetic disorders when mutated. XPG is a structure-specifi c endonuclease required for the repair of UV-damaged DNA by nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mutations in XPG result in the diseases Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS). A loss of XPG incision activity results in XP, whereas a loss of non-enzymatic function(s) of XPG causes CS. WRN is a multifunctional protein involved in double-strand break repair (DSBR), and consists of 3’–5’ DNA-dependent helicase, 3’–5’ exonuclease, and single-strand DNA annealing activities. Nonfunctional WRN protein leads to Werner syndrome, a premature aging disorder with increased cancer incidence. Far Western analysis was used to map the interacting domains between XPG and WRN by denaturing gel electrophoresis, which separated purifi ed full length and recombinant XPG and WRN deletion constructs, based primarily upon the length of each polypeptide. Specifi c interacting domains were visualized when probed with the secondary protein of interest which was then detected by traditional Western analysis using the antibody of the secondary protein. The interaction between XPG and WRN was mapped to the C-terminal region of

  1. Angular (Gothic) aortic arch leads to enhanced systolic wave reflection, central aortic stiffness, and increased left ventricular mass late after aortic coarctation repair: evaluation with magnetic resonance flow mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Phalla; Celermajer, David S; Raisky, Olivier; Jolivet, Odile; Buyens, Fanny; Herment, Alain; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien; Mousseaux, Elie

    2008-01-01

    We sought to investigate the mechanism whereby a particular deformity of the aortic arch, an angulated Gothic shape, might lead to hypertension late after anatomically successful repair of aortic coarctation. Fifty-five normotensive patients with anatomically successful repair of aortic coarctation and either a Gothic (angulated) or a Romanesque (smooth and rounded) arch were studied with magnetic resonance angiography and flow mapping in both the ascending and descending aortas. Systolic waveforms, central aortic stiffness, and pulse velocity were measured. We hypothesized that arch angulation would result in enhanced systolic wave reflection with loss of energy across the aortic arch, as well as increased central aortic stiffness. Twenty patients were found to have a Gothic, and 35 a Romanesque, arch. Patients with a Gothic arch showed markedly augmented systolic wave reflection (12 +/- 6 vs 5 +/- 0.3 mL, P Gothic arch (5.6 +/- 1.1 vs 4.1 +/- 1 m/s, P Gothic aortic arch is associated with increased systolic wave reflection, as well as increased central aortic stiffness and left ventricular mass index. These findings explain (at least in part) the association between this pattern of arch geometry and late hypertension at rest and on exercise in subjects after coarctation repair.

  2. Minimal incision surgery in strabismus: Modified fornix-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, I

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the modified fornix-based technique as an approach for minimal incision surgery in strabismus. The medical records of all consecutive patients that underwent strabismus surgery with fornix-based conjunctival incision between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. As a primary variable, an analysis was made of the wound size depending on the number of stitches. A descriptive study was performed on the variables related to patients and to the type of strabismus and surgery. Out of 153patients identified, 138 with 294 surgeries were included. In 200 (68%) interventions, the incision was sutured with one stitch, in 77 (26.2%) with 2, in 13 (4.4%) with 3, and in 4 (1.4%) with 4, with the mean number of stitches being 1.39±0.64. The mean age of the patients was 39years (2-80), and 36 (26.1%) had previous strabismus surgery, with topical anaesthesia being used in 35 (25.4%) cases. At 3months after surgery deviation was ≤10DP in 114 (82.6%) patients. There were no wound-related complications. The modified fornix-based technique is an effective and safe approach for minimal incision surgery in strabismus, in patients at all ages, with previous history of strabismus surgery and with topical anaesthesia. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Phenomenon of mucous retention in the incisive canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, D A

    1979-11-01

    Mucous glands are rarely found in the anterior palate but may be observed in the incisive canal. A case history is presented of a lesion that resembled a nasopalatine cyst both clinically and radiographically but which was in fact an intra-bony extravasation phenomenon.

  4. Heterotopic ossification in abdominal incision : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Yoon Sik; Nam, Kung Sook; Hwang, Im Kyung; Kim, Heung Chul [College of Medicine, Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    Heterotopic ossification in abdominal incision is a rare post-surgical sequala and a subtype of myositis ossificans traumatica. Recognition of this rare condition is important because it may be misinterpreted as a retained foreign body or incisional neoplastic recurrence. We report a case involving a 59-year-old man who presented with a palpable epigastric mass and pronounced fatigability.

  5. Ultrasonic diagnosis and transurethral incision of ureterocele with hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, P; Miskowiak, J; Stage, P

    1991-01-01

    In a 65-year-old woman with right-sided loin pain, ultrasonography revealed a grossly dilated and obstructed right pyelogram due to a 50-mm ureterocele. After transurethral lateral incision of the ureterocele, there was complete recovery without vesicoureteric reflux. Ultrasonography is advantage...

  6. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy with needle graspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Kinjiro; Sato, Norihiro; Akagawa, Shin; Hirano, Tatsuya; Koikawa, Kazuhiro; Horioka, Kohei; Ozono, Keigo; Fujiwara, Kenji; Tanaka, Masao; Sada, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is a promising alternative to standard multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). However, generalization of SILC is still hampered by technical difficulties mainly associated with the lack of trocars used for retraction of the gallbladder. We therefore developed a modified method of SILC with the use of needle graspers (SILC-N) for optimal retraction and exposure. In addition to two trocars inserted through a single transumbilical incision, two needle ports were placed on the right subcostal and lateral abdominal wall, through which needle graspers were used for retraction of the gallbladder. Since December, 2009, 12 patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis were treated by SILC-N. SILC-N was successfully performed in all but one patient requiring a conversion to the 4-port LC with a mean operative time of 71.5 (48-107) minutes. None of the patients experienced intraoperative or postoperative complications. The transumbilical incision and pinholes for needle graspers were almost invisible on discharge. Our preliminary results suggest that SILC-N is a simple, safe and feasible technique of cholecystectomy offering similar postoperative recovery and better cosmetic outcome as compared to conventional LC.

  7. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery for pyloric stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Yury; Novogilov, Vladimir; Podkamenev, Alexey; Rasputin, Andrey; Weber, Irina; Solovjev, Alexey; Yurkov, Pavel

    2012-04-01

    Laparoscopy is the most common procedure for correction of congenital pyloric stenosis. The standard laparoscopic approach is based on the three-port technique. In contrast to the standard laparoscopic technique, the single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) requires only one incision. We report on our experience with this surgical approach. Between September 2009 and August 2010 a total of 24 children underwent a laparoscopic pyloromyotomy, 12 in SILS technique. The single incision was carried through the center of the umbilicus. The working instruments were introduced in a two-dimensional direction into the peritoneal cavity via the same umbilical incision. The two groups were compared for patients' demographics, operative report and early postoperative outcomes. All SILS procedures were performed successfully with no conversion rate. There were no differences in the preoperative parameters between the two groups regarding age before surgery and body weight at operation. Operative time and time of full enteral intake was similar to comparable procedures with usage of a standard laparoscopic approach. There were no operative or postoperative complications. The early experience described in this study confirms that SILS can be applied for treatment of pyloric stenosis with outcomes similar to the standard laparoscopic surgery.

  8. Cost assessment of instruments for single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Al-Tayar, Haytham; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Specially designed surgical instruments have been developed for single-incision laparoscopic surgery, but high instrument costs may impede the implementation of these procedures. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of operative implements used for elective cholecystectomy performed...

  9. Increased vascularization during early healing after biologic augmentation in repair of chronic rotator cuff tears using autologous leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF): a prospective randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumstein, Matthias A; Rumian, Adam; Lesbats, Virginie; Schaer, Michael; Boileau, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs using leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) in a standardized, modified protocol is technically feasible and results in a higher vascularization response and watertight healing rate during early healing. Twenty patients with chronic rotator cuff tears were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups. In the test group (N = 10), L-PRF was added in between the tendon and the bone during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The second group served as control (N = 10). They received the same arthroscopic treatment without the use of L-PRF. We used a double-row tension band technique. Clinical examinations including subjective shoulder value, visual analog scale, Constant, and Simple Shoulder Test scores and measurement of the vascularization with power Doppler ultrasonography were made at 6 and 12 weeks. There have been no postoperative complications. At 6 and 12 weeks, there was no significant difference in the clinical scores between the test and the control groups. The mean vascularization index of the surgical tendon-to-bone insertions was always significantly higher in the L-PRF group than in the contralateral healthy shoulders at 6 and 12 weeks (P = .0001). Whereas the L-PRF group showed a higher vascularization compared with the control group at 6 weeks (P = .001), there was no difference after 12 weeks of follow-up (P = .889). Watertight healing was obtained in 89% of the repaired cuffs. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with the application of L-PRF is technically feasible and yields higher early vascularization. Increased vascularization may potentially predispose to an increased and earlier cellular response and an increased healing rate. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Osteoinductive Polymer Composite for Cranial and Maxillofacial Bone Repair,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    a suitable level of anesthesia , a semi-lunar incision was made in the midline from the superior sagittal crest to the middle of the nasal bone. The...internal fixation of Fractures, and as intraosseous bone repair materials. A promising use for these polymers has been as carriers for osteogenic...acids. Oral Surg. 37:142, 1974. 7. Getter, L., Cutright, D.E., Bhaskar, S.N., and Augsburg, J.K. A biodegradable intraosseous apliance in the

  11. Inhibition of DNA repair by trifluoperazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charp, P.A.; Regan, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined the possible role of calmodulin in the excision repair of ultraviolet light-induced pyrimidine dimers in damaged DNA by means of specialized assay systems. These assays included bromodeoxyuridine photolysis, dimer chromatography and cytosine arabinoside incorporation in conjunction with hydroxyurea. The calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine, and the calcium-chelating agent, EGTA, were employed to ascertain what affect calmodulin played in the repair process. Normal human fibroblast cells are used in all studies described in this report. After exposure to 10 J/m2 of 254 nm light, the authors observed a decrease of about 30% in the number of single-strand breaks produced in the presence of 25 M trifluoperazine (1.9 vs. 3.3) in controls although the numbers of bases re-inserted in the repaired regions were similar (64 vs. 72). Measurement of thymine-containing dimers remaining throughout a 24 h time period indicated a 30% difference decrease in the number of cytosine arabinoside arrested repair sites in the presence of either EGTA or trifluoperazine. The results are discussed with relation to the possibility of calmodulin altering the initial incision by repair endonuclease. 27 references, 3 figures.

  12. The impact of homologous recombination repair deficiency on depleted uranium clastogenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells: XRCC3 protects cells from chromosome aberrations, but increases chromosome fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Amie L. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Joyce, Kellie [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Xie, Hong [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Falank, Carolyne [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); and others

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • The role of homologous recombination repair in DU-induced toxicity was examined. • Loss of RAD51D did not affect DU-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. • XRCC3 protects cell from DU-induced chromosome breaks and fusions. • XRCC3 plays a role in DU-induced chromosome fragmentation of the X chromosome. - Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is extensively used in both industry and military applications. The potential for civilian and military personnel exposure to DU is rising, but there are limited data on the potential health hazards of DU exposure. Previous laboratory research indicates DU is a potential carcinogen, but epidemiological studies remain inconclusive. DU is genotoxic, inducing DNA double strand breaks, chromosome damage and mutations, but the mechanisms of genotoxicity or repair pathways involved in protecting cells against DU-induced damage remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of homologous recombination repair deficiency on DU-induced genotoxicity using RAD51D and XRCC3-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Cells deficient in XRCC3 (irs1SF) exhibited similar cytotoxicity after DU exposure compared to wild-type (AA8) and XRCC3-complemented (1SFwt8) cells, but DU induced more break-type and fusion-type lesions in XRCC3-deficient cells compared to wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Surprisingly, loss of RAD51D did not affect DU-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. DU induced selective X-chromosome fragmentation irrespective of RAD51D status, but loss of XRCC3 nearly eliminated fragmentation observed after DU exposure in wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Thus, XRCC3, but not RAD51D, protects cells from DU-induced breaks and fusions and also plays a role in DU-induced chromosome fragmentation.

  13. The impact of homologous recombination repair deficiency on depleted uranium clastogenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells: XRCC3 protects cells from chromosome aberrations, but increases chromosome fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Amie L.; Joyce, Kellie; Xie, Hong; Falank, Carolyne

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The role of homologous recombination repair in DU-induced toxicity was examined. • Loss of RAD51D did not affect DU-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. • XRCC3 protects cell from DU-induced chromosome breaks and fusions. • XRCC3 plays a role in DU-induced chromosome fragmentation of the X chromosome. - Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is extensively used in both industry and military applications. The potential for civilian and military personnel exposure to DU is rising, but there are limited data on the potential health hazards of DU exposure. Previous laboratory research indicates DU is a potential carcinogen, but epidemiological studies remain inconclusive. DU is genotoxic, inducing DNA double strand breaks, chromosome damage and mutations, but the mechanisms of genotoxicity or repair pathways involved in protecting cells against DU-induced damage remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of homologous recombination repair deficiency on DU-induced genotoxicity using RAD51D and XRCC3-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Cells deficient in XRCC3 (irs1SF) exhibited similar cytotoxicity after DU exposure compared to wild-type (AA8) and XRCC3-complemented (1SFwt8) cells, but DU induced more break-type and fusion-type lesions in XRCC3-deficient cells compared to wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Surprisingly, loss of RAD51D did not affect DU-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. DU induced selective X-chromosome fragmentation irrespective of RAD51D status, but loss of XRCC3 nearly eliminated fragmentation observed after DU exposure in wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Thus, XRCC3, but not RAD51D, protects cells from DU-induced breaks and fusions and also plays a role in DU-induced chromosome fragmentation

  14. Formulation and Evaluation of Exotic Fat Based Cosmeceuticals for Skin Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Mandawgade, S. D.; Patravale, Vandana B.

    2008-01-01

    Mango butter was explored as a functional, natural supplement and active skin ingredient in skin care formulations. A foot care cream was developed with mango butter to evaluate its medicinal value and protective function in skin repair. Qualitative comparison and clinical case studies of the product were carried out. Wound healing potential of foot care cream was investigated on the rat excision and incision wound models. Results of the clinical studies demonstrated complete repair of worn a...

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Chitosan Nerve Guides with Regular or Increased Bendability for Acute and Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair: A Comprehensive Comparison with Autologous Nerve Grafts and Muscle-in-Vein Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stößel, Maria; Wildhagen, Vivien M; Helmecke, Olaf; Metzen, Jennifer; Pfund, Charlotte B; Freier, Thomas; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten

    2018-05-08

    Reconstruction of joint-crossing digital nerves requires the application of nerve guides with a much higher flexibility than used for peripheral nerve repair along larger bones. Nevertheless, collapse-resistance should be preserved to avoid secondary damage to the regrowing nerve tissue. In recent years, we presented chitosan nerve guides (CNGs) to be highly supportive for the regeneration of critical gap length peripheral nerve defects in the rat. Now, we evidently increased the bendability of regular CNGs (regCNGs) by developing a wavy wall structure, that is, corrugated CNGs (corrCNGs). In a comprehensive in vivo study, we compared both types of CNGs with clinical gold standard autologous nerve grafts (ANGs) and muscle-in-vein grafts (MVGs) that have recently been highlighted in the literature as a suitable alternative to ANGs. We reconstructed rat sciatic nerves over a critical gap length of 15 mm either immediately upon transection or after a delay period of 45 days. Electrodiagnostic measurements were applied to monitor functional motor recovery at 60, 90, 120, and 150 (only delayed repair) days postreconstruction. Upon explanation, tube properties were analyzed. Furthermore, distal nerve ends were evaluated using histomorphometry, while connective tissue specimens were subjected to immunohistological stainings. After 120 days (acute repair) or 150 days (delayed repair), respectively, compression-stability of regCNGs was slightly increased while it remained stable in corrCNGs. In both substudies, regCNGs and corrCNGs supported functional recovery of distal plantar muscles in a similar way and to a greater extent when compared with MVGs, while ANGs demonstrated the best support of regeneration. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The width of the incisive canal and labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal: an assessment on CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Yang Gyun; Jang, Hyun Seon; Kim, Byung Ock; Kim, Jin Soo

    2006-01-01

    To assess the width of the labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal and the width of the incisive canal on spiral computed tomographic images of the anterior portion of the maxilla. Study materials included 38 CT scans taken for preoperative planning of implant placement. Axial cross-sectioned image entirely showing the incisive canal at an orifice to the oral cavity, middle portion, and an orifice to the nasal cavity and the diameter of the incisive canal at the middle portion were determined by two specialist using Digora for Windows 2.1. The statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1. When the maxillary central incisors remained, the mean labial alveolar bone width were 6.81±1.41 mm, 6.46±1.33 mm, and 7.91±1.33 mm. When the maxillary central incisors were missed the mean width were 5.42±2.20 mm, 6.23±2.29 mm, and 7.89±2.13 mm. The labial alveolar bone width at middle portion and an orifice to the nasal cavity were of no statistical significant difference according to presence of the maxillary central incisors (P>0.05). The width between oral cavity and nasal cavity, middle portion and to masal cavity revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05)

  17. Incisional hernia after upper abdominal surgery: A randomised controlled trial of midline versus transverse incision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Halm (Jens); H. Lip (Harm); P.I.M. Schmitz (Paul); J. Jeekel (Hans)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To determine whether a transverse incision is an alternative to a midline incision in terms of incisional hernia incidence, surgical site infection, postoperative pain, hospital stay and cosmetics in cholecystectomy. Summary background data: Incisional hernias after midline

  18. The formation of double-strand breaks at multiply damaged sites is driven by the kinetics of excision/incision at base damage in eukaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozmin, S.G.; Sedletska, Y.; Reynaud-Angelin, A.; Sage, E.; Kozmin, S.G.; Sedletska, Y.; Reynaud-Angelin, A.; Sage, E.; Gasparutto, D.

    2009-01-01

    It has been stipulated that repair of clustered DNA lesions may be compromised, possibly leading to the formation of double-strand breaks (DSB) and, thus, to deleterious events. Using a variety of model multiply damaged sites (MDS), we investigated parameters that govern the formation of DSB during the processing of MDS. Duplexes carrying MDS were inserted into replicative or integrative vectors, and used to transform yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Formation of DSB was assessed by a relevant plasmid survival assay. Kinetics of excision/incision and DSB formation at MDS was explored using yeast cell extracts. We show that MDS composed of two uracils or abasic sites, were rapidly incised and readily converted into DSB in yeast cells. In marked contrast, none of the MDS carrying opposed oG and hU separated by 38 bp gave rise to DSB, despite the fact that some of them contained preexisting single-strand break (a 1-nt gap). Interestingly, the absence of DSB formation in this case correlated with slow excision/incision rates of lesions. We propose that the kinetics of the initial repair steps at MDS is a major parameter that direct towards the conversion of MDS into DSB. Data provides clues to the biological consequences of MDS in eukaryotic cells. (authors)

  19. Regulation of nucleotide excision repair through ubiquitination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Li; Audesh Bhat; Wei Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the most versatile DNA-repair pathway in all organisms.While bacteria require only three proteins to complete the incision step of NER,eukaryotes employ about 30 proteins to complete the same step.Here we summarize recent studies demonstrating that ubiquitination,a post-translational modification,plays critical roles in regulating the NER activity either dependent on or independent of ubiquitin-proteolysis.Several NER components have been shown as targets of ubiquitination while others are actively involved in the ubiquitination process.We argue through this analysis that ubiquitination serves to coordinate various steps of NER and meanwhile connect NER with other related pathways to achieve the efficient global DNA-damage response.

  20. Plantar Fascia Release Through a Single Lateral Incision in the Operative Management of a Cavovarus Foot: A Cadaver Model Analysis of the Operative Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskaddon, Eric M; Meeks, Brett D; Roberts, Joseph G; Laughlin, Richard T

    2018-04-04

    Plantar fascia release and calcaneal slide osteotomy are often components of the surgical management for cavovarus deformities of the foot. In this setting, plantar fascia release has traditionally been performed through an incision over the medial calcaneal tuberosity, and the calcaneal osteotomy through a lateral incision. Two separate incisions can potentially increase the operative time and morbidity. The purpose of the present study was threefold: to describe the operative technique, use cadaveric dissection to analyze whether a full release of the plantar fascia was possible through the lateral incision, and examine the proximity of the medial neurovascular structures to both the plantar fascia release and calcaneal slide osteotomy when performed together. In our cadaveric dissections, we found that full release of the plantar fascia is possible through the lateral incision with no obvious damage to the medial neurovascular structures. We also found that the calcaneal branch of the tibial nerve reliably crossed the osteotomy in all specimens. We have concluded that both the plantar fascia release and the calcaneal osteotomy can be safely performed through a lateral incision, if care is taken when completing the calcaneal osteotomy to ensure that the medial neurovascular structures remain uninjured. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA repair and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, Shakuntla; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Gaur, Sudha

    2012-01-01

    DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecule that encode it's genome. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as UV light and radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many one million individual molecular lesions per day. Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. Other lesions include potentially harmful mutation in cell's genome which affect the survival of it's daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. As a consequence, the DNA repair process is constantly active as it responds to damage in the DNA structure. Inherited mutation that affect DNA repair genes are strongly associated with high cancer risks in humans. Hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is strongly associated with specific mutation in the DNA mismatch repair pathway. BRCA1, BRCA2 two famous mutation conferring a hugely increased risk of breast cancer on carrier, are both associated with a large number of DNA repair pathway, especially NHEJ and homologous recombination. Cancer therapy procedures such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy work by overwhelming the capacity of the cell to repair DNA damage, resulting in cell death. Cells that are most rapidly dividing most typically cancer cells are preferentially affected. The side effect is that other non-cancerous but rapidly dividing cells such as stem cells in the bone marrow are also affected. Modern cancer treatment attempt to localize the DNA damage to cells and tissue only associated with cancer, either by physical means (concentrating the therapeutic agent in the region of the tumor) or by biochemical means (exploiting a feature unique to cancer cells in the body). (author)

  2. Proteomics reveals dynamic assembly of repair complexes during bypass of DNA cross-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räschle, Markus; Smeenk, Godelieve; Hansen, Rebecca K

    2015-01-01

    DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) block replication fork progression by inhibiting DNA strand separation. Repair of ICLs requires sequential incisions, translesion DNA synthesis, and homologous recombination, but the full set of factors involved in these transactions remains unknown. We devised ...

  3. What can we learn from fluvial incision in high mountains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Margret; Gloaguen, Richard; Krbetschek, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    High and actively deforming mountain ranges attract the attention of geoscientists as they provide natural laboratories of fast evolving process-response systems. Tectonic compressional settings, often linked to perpendicular extension, control the topographic growth and hence, erosion, transport pathways and sedimentation. High altitude differences within short horizontal distances promote material re-organisation and high rates of surface processes. Furthermore, high mountains constitute orographic barriers that affect atmospheric circulations as well as host different climate regimes similar to those of widely separated latitudinal belts. Both cause a high sensitivity of surface processes to changes in climatic conditions. However, feedbacks between climatic and tectonic forcing are complex. Additionally, the dominance of one or the other varies in space and also over time, inheriting various traces of the paleo-morphodynamic conditions to the subsequent process regimes. To unravel the forces driving the evolution of relief in active mountains, numerous studies employ the drainage network of the corresponding mountains as a proxy of landscape evolution. Especially the rates of river incision provide a powerful tool to characterize the surface response and infer causes behind it. Several parameters of river incision are available to describe the fluvial incision at individual sites (e.g. terrace incision rates), along the river course (e.g. longitudinal river profiles, Hack index) and in its perpendicular dimension (e.g. valley cross sections, valley shape ratios). But they require careful interpretation. They are sensitive to both, climatic and tectonic forcing. Therefore, the synopsis of such indices for fluvial incision is essential to evaluate the role of climatic versus tectonic forcing. Here, we use the Panj river system, the major river draining the Pamir mountains of Central Asia, as an example. The Panj experiences high altitude changes of more than 4000

  4. Channel incision and suspended sediment delivery at Caspar Creek, Mendocino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Dewey; Thomas E. Lisle; Leslie M. Reid

    2003-01-01

    Tributary and headwater valleys in the Caspar Creek watershed,in coastal Mendocino County, California,show signs of incision along much of their lengths.An episode of incision followed initial-entry logging which took place between 1860 and 1906. Another episode of incision cut into skid-trails created for second-entry logging in the 1970's.

  5. Rapid channel incision of the lower Pearl River (China since the 1990s as a consequence of sediment depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. X. Lu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported a dramatic channel incision (>10 m in the deepest cut during the past 10 y or so in the lower Pearl River, the second largest river in terms of water discharge in China. The channel incision had caused changes both in the channel geometry as well as in the river hydraulics. Also, the water exchange between the two major tributaries of the Pearl River, the Xijiang and Beijiang, had been significantly changed due to the channel incision. The rapid channel incision was principally the result of extensive sand mining in the lower Pearl River and the delta region due to the booming economy in the Pearl Delta region. Slight increase of water discharge and significant decrease of sediment load since the early 1990s in both the Xijiang and Beijiang also likely contributed to the observed dramatic river bed downcutting to some extent. This has important implications for river management, as the large Chinese rivers have seen a dramatic depletion of sediment fluxes due to the combined effects of declining rainfall, dam constructions, water diversion, reforestation and afforestation, and sediment mining over the recent decades.

  6. Penetrating and Intrastromal Corneal Arcuate Incisions in Rabbit and Human Cadaver Eyes: Manual Diamond Blade and Femtosecond Laser-Created Incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Brad; Binder, Perry S; Huang, Ling C; Hill, Jim; Salvador-Silva, Mercedes; Gwon, Arlene

    2016-07-01

    To compare morphologic differences between freehand diamond or femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating and intrastromal arcuate incisions. Freehand diamond blade, corneal arcuate incisions (180° apart, 60° arc lengths) and 150 kHz femtosecond laser (80% scheimpflug pachymetry depth corneal thickness) arcuate incisions were performed in rabbits. Intrastromal arcuate incisions (100 μm above Descemet's membrane, 100 μm below epithelium) were performed in rabbit corneas (energy 1.2 μJ, spot line separation 3 × 3 μm, 90° side cut angle). Eyes were examined by slit lamp and light microscopy up to 47 days post-procedure. Freehand diamond blade penetrating incisions, and femtosecond laser penetrating and intrastromal arcuate incisions (energy 1.8 μJ, spot line separation 2 × 2 μm) were performed in cadaver eyes. Optical coherence tomography was performed immediately after surgery and the corneas were fixed for light scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The rabbit model showed anterior stromal inflammation with epithelial hyperplasia in penetrating blade and laser penetrating wounds. The laser intrastromal and penetrating incisions showed localized constriction of the stromal layers of the cornea near the wound. In cadaver eyes, penetrating wound morphology was similar between blade and laser whereas intrastromal wounds did not affect the cornea above or below incisions. Penetrating femtosecond laser arcuate incisions have more predictable and controlled outcomes shown by less post-operative scarring than incisions performed with a diamond blade. Intrastromal incisions do not affect uncut corneal layers as demonstrated by histopathology. The femtosecond laser has significant advantages in its ability to make intrastromal incisions which are not achievable by traditional freehand or mechanical diamond blades.

  7. Metabolic modulation of mammalian DNA excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    First, ultraviolet light (UVL)- and dimethylsulfate (DMS)-induced excision repair was examined in quiescent and lectin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes. Upon mitogenic stimulation, UVL-induced repair increased by a factor of 2 to 3, and reached this maximum 2 days before the onset of DNA replication. However, DMS-induced repair increased sevenfold in parallel with DNA replication. Repair patch sizes were smaller for DMS-induced damage reflecting patches of 7 nucleotides in quiescent lymphocytes compared to 20 nucleotides induced by UVL. The patch size increased during lymphocyte stimulation until one day prior to the peak of DNA replication when patch sizes of 45 and 35 nucleotides were produced in response to UVL- and DMS-induced damage, respectively. At the peak of DNA replication, the patch sizes were equal for both damaging agents at 34 nucleotides. In the second study, a small amount of repair replication was observed in undamaged quiescent and concanavalin A-stimulated bovine lymphocytes as well as in human T98G glioblastoma cells. Repair incorporation doubled in the presence of hydroxyurea. Thirdly, the enhanced repair replication induced by the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, 3-aminobenzamide, (3-AB), could not be correlated either with an increased rate of repair in the presence of 3-AB or with the use of hydroxyurea in the repair protocol. Finally, treatment of unstimulated lymphocytes with hyperthermia was accompanied by decreased repair replication while the repair patches remained constant at 20 nucleotides.

  8. Tissue repair capacity and repair kinetics deduced from multifractionated or continuous irradiation regimens with incomplete repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D. Jr.; Peters, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    A model is proposed for cell survival after multiple doses, when the interfraction interval is insufficient for complete Elkind repair. In the limit of ever-increasing number of ever-smaller fractional doses, the model transforms into the accumulation model of survival after continuous irradiation. When adapted to describe tissue responses to isoeffective multifractionated regimens, wherein repair is incomplete, a generalization of the usually linear plot of reciprocal total dose versus dose per fraction is obtained, in which downward curvature is evident. There is an advantage in studying tissue responses to multifractionated regimens with incomplete repair in the interfraction intervals, or continuous exposures at various dose rates since, in addition to determination of repair capacity, there is an estimate of repair kinetics. Results of analyses of previously published data are presented as illustration. Estimated from the response of three acutely responding normal tissues in the mouse (jejunum, colon and bone marrow), repair halftimes ranged from 0.3-0.9 h and values of β/delta were approximately 0.1 Gy -1 . From the response of mouse lung (LD50 for pneumonitis) to multifractionated regimens with incomplete repair, the repair halftime was estimated at 1.5 h and β/delta was 0.27 Gy -1 . In the rat spinal cord β/delta was 0.7 Gy -1 and Tsub(1/2) was 1.5 h. (U.K.)

  9. Incisive papilla and positions of maxillary anterior teeth among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: One hundred and twelve maxillary casts generated from participants aged 18-35 years (mean age 22.39±2.00 years), with well aligned arches were studied. The maxillary central incisor exhibited a mean of 14.93±1.52mm from the posterior limit of the incisive papilla while the inter-canine line scored a mean of ...

  10. Two Late Pleistocene climate-driven incision/aggradation rhythms in the middle Dnieper River basin, west-central Russian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, Andrei; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Matlakhova, Ekaterina; Moska, Piotr; Novenko, Elena

    2017-06-01

    warm climate phases - late MIS 3, post-LGM warming including the Bølling-Allerød interstadial. Anomalously large size of the preserved river palaeochannels prove that the post-LGM incision phase was induced by a climatically forced large increase of water runoff. Considerable increase of water discharges is considered the most probably cause for the late MIS 4 incision phase also. Therefore river incision seems to have been governed rather by changing water runoff that oscillated in phase shift with the thermal regime.

  11. Manual small incision extracapsular cataract surgery in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Lourens; Kahawita, Shyalle; Goggin, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Examination of the results and describing the technique of manual small incision extracapsular cataract extraction on patients with advanced cataracts in urban Australia. A descriptive case series. Thirty-eight patients at three public hospitals, one tertiary and two secondary ophthalmic units in urban Australia. Forty eyes with dense mature cataracts with hand movement vision or worse underwent a planned manual small incision extracapsular cataract extraction instead of traditional phaco-emulsification. Postoperative visual aquity, surgically induced astigmatism and complications. Seventy-eight per cent of patients had an uncorrected visual acuity of 6/12 or better on the first postoperative day. Eighty-three per cent of patients had a distance corrected visual acuity of 6/9 or better 3 months postoperatively. One case was complicated by a posterior capsule rupture. No cases of endophthalmitis were reported. The summated vector mean of the surgically induced astigmatism was 0.089D at 93°. Manual small incision extracapsular cataract extraction is an efficacious cataract surgery technique with good visual outcome and is a safe alternative to phaco-emulsification in suitable cases in a first-world setting. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  12. Single incision thoracoscopic sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Baram

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary hyperhidrosis is characterized by excessive sweating beyond physiological needs. It is a common disease (incidence 2.8% that causes intense discomfort for patients. In the last decade, advantages of Single-Incision Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy have become clear, particularly in decreasing morbidity of sympathectomy. Patients and methods: From January 2010 to December 2012, 39 patients (29 females and 10 males with primary palmar or axillary hyperhidrosis were treated by thoracoscopic sympathectomy. The age ranged from 18 to 40 years with a mean of 26.28 years. We used single incision thoracoscopic electrocoagulation through 10 mm incision for thoracic sympathetic chain (T2–T4. Results: The mean follow-up was 23.6 ± 14.2 months (range = 4–24 months. A total of 97.42% of patients were satisfied with the results. A total of 72.5% of patients had cure, one patient (2.5% and another patient (2.5% presented with recurrent axillary hyperhidrosis. The morbidity was 10.2% with no mortality. Percentage of compensatory sweating and gustatory sweating were 5.1% (p = .353 and 2.5% (p = .552, respectively. The result of sympathectomy in patients with both palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis was significantly better (17, 43.58% compared to palmar type (14, 35.89% or axillary type (7, 17.94%. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic sympathectomy is a simple, safe, and cost-effective therapy with good results and low complications.

  13. Influence of repair length on residual stress in the repair weld of a clad plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wenchun; Xu, X.P.; Gong, J.M.; Tu, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Residual stress in the repair weld of a stainless steel clad plate is investigated. ► The effect of repair length on residual stress has been studied. ► Large tensile residual stress is generated in the repair weld and heat affected zone. ► With the increase of repair length, transverse stress is decreased. ► Repair length has little effect on longitudinal stress. - Abstract: A 3-D sequential coupling finite element simulation is performed to investigate the temperature field and residual stress in the repair weld of a stainless steel clad plate. The effect of repair length on residual stress has been studied, aiming to provide a reference for repairing the cracked clad plate. The results show that large tensile residual stresses are generated in the repair weld and heat affected zone (HAZ), and then decrease gradually away from the weld and HAZ. The residual stresses through thickness in the clad layer are relative uniform, while they are non-uniform in the base metal. A discontinuous stress distribution is generated across the interface between weld metal and base metal. The repair length has a great effect on transverse stress. With the increase of repair length, the transverse stress is decreased. When the repair length is increased to 14 cm, the peak of transverse stress has been decreased below yield strength, and the transverse stress in the weld and HAZ has also been greatly decreased. But the repair length has little effect on longitudinal stress.

  14. Modeling Long-Term Fluvial Incision : Shall we Care for the Details of Short-Term Fluvial Dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lague, D.; Davy, P.

    2008-12-01

    Fluvial incision laws used in numerical models of coupled climate, erosion and tectonics systems are mainly based on the family of stream power laws for which the rate of local erosion E is a power function of the topographic slope S and the local mean discharge Q : E = K Qm Sn. The exponents m and n are generally taken as (0.35, 0.7) or (0.5, 1), and K is chosen such that the predicted topographic elevation given the prevailing rates of precipitation and tectonics stay within realistic values. The resulting topographies are reasonably realistic, and the coupled system dynamics behaves somehow as expected : more precipitation induces increased erosion and localization of the deformation. Yet, if we now focus on smaller scale fluvial dynamics (the reach scale), recent advances have suggested that discharge variability, channel width dynamics or sediment flux effects may play a significant role in controlling incision rates. These are not factored in the simple stream power law model. In this work, we study how these short- term details propagate into long-term incision dynamics within the framework of surface/tectonics coupled numerical models. To upscale the short term dynamics to geological timescales, we use a numerical model of a trapezoidal river in which vertical and lateral incision processes are computed from fluid shear stress at a daily timescale, sediment transport and protection effects are factored in, as well as a variable discharge. We show that the stream power law model might still be a valid model but that as soon as realistic effects are included such as a threshold for sediment transport, variable discharge and dynamic width the resulting exponents m and n can be as high as 2 and 4. This high non-linearity has a profound consequence on the sensitivity of fluvial relief to incision rate. We also show that additional complexity does not systematically translates into more non-linear behaviour. For instance, considering only a dynamical width

  15. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  16. Repair of abasic sites in DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianov, Grigory L.; Sleeth, Kate M.; Dianova, Irina I.; Allinson, Sarah L

    2003-10-29

    Repair of both normal and reduced AP sites is activated by AP endonuclease, which recognizes and cleaves a phosphodiester bond 5' to the AP site. For a short period of time an incised AP site is occupied by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and then DNA polymerase {beta} adds one nucleotide into the repair gap and simultaneously removes the 5'-sugar phosphate. Finally, the DNA ligase III/XRCC1 complex accomplishes repair by sealing disrupted DNA ends. However, long-patch BER pathway, which is involved in the removal of reduced abasic sites, requires further DNA synthesis resulting in strand displacement and the generation of a damage-containing flap that is later removed by the flap endonuclease. Strand-displacement DNA synthesis is accomplished by DNA polymerase {delta}/{epsilon} and DNA ligase I restores DNA integrity. DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase {delta}/{epsilon} is dependent on proliferating cell nuclear antigen, which also stimulates the DNA ligase I and flap endonuclease. These repair events are supported by multiple protein-protein interactions.

  17. In vivo architectural analysis of clear corneal incisions using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Monod, Sylvère; Labbé, Antoine; Fayol, Nicolas; Chassignol, Alexis; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Baudouin, Christophe

    2009-03-01

    To use anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to analyze the in vivo architecture of clear corneal incisions after phacoemulsification using different techniques. Department of Ophthalmology, Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris, France. This prospective observational study analyzed clear corneal incisions used in phacoemulsification. All wounds were evaluated 1 day and 8 days postoperatively by AS-OCT (Visante). Incision architecture and pachymetry at the wound level were analyzed. Thirty-five clear corneal incisions were analyzed. Six eyes had 2.75 mm coaxial phacoemulsification, 19 had 2.20 mm microincision coaxial phacoemulsification, and 10 had 1.30 mm bimanual microincision phacoemulsification. The 1.30 mm incision had a straight-line configuration. The 2.20 mm and 2.75 mm incisions had an arcuate configuration. The angles of incidence of 1.30 mm incisions were greater than those of 2.20 mm incisions (P<.001). All incisions had slight corneal edema limited to the incision area. The edema was slightly greater around 1.30 mm incisions (mean pachymetry 1143 microm +/- 140 [SD]) than around 2.20 mm incisions (mean 1012 +/- 101 microm) (P = .001). Bimanual procedures had satisfactory endothelial apposition in the enlarged areas, where stromal edema was less than that surrounding the unenlarged 1.30 mm incisions. The 3 phacoemulsification techniques induced gaping of the endothelial edge, minor inadequate endothelial apposition, and mild stromal edema in the area of the clear corneal incisions. Bimanual microincision sleeveless phacoemulsification may alter the wound slightly more than coaxial 2.75 mm and microcoaxial 2.20 mm sleeved-tip phacoemulsification.

  18. Review of various liver retraction techniques in single incision laparoscopic surgery for the exposure of hiatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveenraj Palanivelu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main aspect of concern for upper GI procedures has been the retraction of the liver especially large left lobes as commonly encountered in Bariatric surgery. Not doing so would compromise the view of the hiatus, hence theoretically reducing the quality of the surgery and increasing the possibility of complications. The aim of this study was to review the various liver retraction techniques in single incision surgery being done at our institute and analyze them. Material and Methods: A retrospective study of the various techniques and a subsequent analysis was made based on advantages and disadvantages of each method. Objectively a quantitative measure of hiatal exposure was done using a scoring system based on the grade of exposure after reviewing the surgical videos. From January 2011 to January 2013 total 104 patients underwent single incision surgery with the various liver retraction techniques with following grades of exposure -liver suspension tube technique with naso gastric tubing (2.11 and with corrugated drain (2.09 needlescopic method (1.2, Umbilical tape sling (1.95, crural stitch method (2.5. Needeloscopic method has the best grade of exposure and is the easiest to start with. The average time to create the liver retraction was 2.8 to 8.6 min.There was no procedure related morbidity or mortality. Conclusions: The mentioned liver retraction techniques are cost effective and easy to learn. We recommend using these techniques to have a good exposure of hiatus, without compromising the safety of surgery in single incision surgery.

  19. Current Biomechanical Concepts for Rotator Cuff Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For the past few decades, the repair of rotator cuff tears has evolved significantly with advances in arthroscopy techniques, suture anchors and instrumentation. From the biomechanical perspective, the focus in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. To accomplish these objectives, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. In addition, the healing response may be compromised by intrinsic factors such as decreased vascularity, hypoxia, and fibrocartilaginous changes or aforementioned extrinsic compression factors. Furthermore, it is well documented that torn rotator cuff muscles have a tendency to atrophy and become subject to fatty infiltration which may affect the longevity of the repair. Despite all the aforementioned factors, initial fixation strength is an essential consideration in optimizing rotator cuff repair. Therefore, numerous biomechanical studies have focused on elucidating the strongest devices, knots, and repair configurations to improve contact characteristics for rotator cuff repair. In this review, the biomechanical concepts behind current rotator cuff repair techniques will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:23730471

  20. T-Fix endoscopic meniscal repair: technique and approach to different types of tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, G R; Richardson, K; Koenig, V

    1995-04-01

    Endoscopic meniscus repair using the T-Fix suture device (Acufex Microsurgical, Inc, Mansfield, MA) allows ease of suture placement for meniscus stability without the problems associated with ancillary incisions such as neurovascular compromise. It is ideal for the central posterior horn tears that are difficult using conventional techniques. Vertical tears, bucket handle tears, flap tears, and horizontal tears can be approached using a temporary "anchor stitch" to stabilize the meniscus before T-Fix repair. The basic method of repair and our approach to these different types of tears is presented.

  1. Association between age and repair of oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We isolated PBMCs from subjects aged 18-83 years, as part of a health survey of the Danish population that focussed on lifestyle factors. The level of DNA repair activity was measured as incisions on potassium bromate-damaged DNA by the comet...... assay. There was an inverse association between age and DNA repair activity with a 0.65% decline in activity per year from age 18 to 83 (95% confidence interval: 0.16-1.14% per year). Univariate regression analysis also indicated inverse associations between DNA repair activity and waist-hip ratio (P...

  2. [Drainage of amoebic liver abscess by single incision laparoscopic surgery. Report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telich-Tarriba, José Eduardo; Parrao-Alcántara, Iris Jocelyn; Montes-Hernández, Jesús Manuel; Vega-Pérez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Single incision laparoscopic surgery has increased recently due to successful results, achieved in several procedures. The aim of the present work is to present the first case in which single incision laparoscopy is used for the drainage of an amoebic liver abscess. A 44-year-old man presented with intense right upper quadrant pain, generalised jaundice, tachycardia, fever, hepatomegaly and a positive Murphy's sign. Laboratory results revealed an increased plasma bilirubin, elevated alkaline phosphatase and transaminases, leucocytosis, negative viral panel for hepatitis, and positive antibodies against Entamoeba histolytica. On an abdominal computed tomography a 15 × 12.1 cm hypodense lesion was observed in the patient's liver, identified as an amoebic liver abscess. Analgesics and antibiotics were started and subsequently the patient was submitted to laparoscopic drainage of the abscess using a single port approach. Drainage and irrigation of the abscess was performed. Four days later the patient was discharged without complications. Management of amoebic liver abscess is focused on the elimination of the infectious agent and obliteration of the abscess cavity in order to prevent its complications, especially rupture. Laparoscopic surgery has proved to be a safe and effective way to manage this entity. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultraviolet and chemical induced DNA repair in human cells assayed by bromodeoxyuridine photolysis or cytosine arabinoside arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, J.D.; Dunn, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    The bromodeoxyuridine photolysis assay of DNA damage in human cells permits an estimate of both the number of repaired regions in the DNA and the size of the average repaired region - the patch size. The antineoplastic agent arabinofuranosyl cytosine (ara-C) can also be employed to assay the magnitude of repair since this agent appears to block rejoining of single-strand incisions made in the DNA during the initial step of repair. Thus, the number of incisions can be accumulated. The ara-C effect is dependent on the presence of hydroxyurea. Both assays can be employed for the study of physical or chemical DNA damages. Results comparing these assays are presented

  4. Signatures of Late Pleistocene fluvial incision in an Alpine landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Fox, Matthew; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2018-02-01

    Uncertainty regarding the relative efficacy of fluvial and glacial erosion has hindered attempts to quantitatively analyse the Pleistocene evolution of alpine landscapes. Here we show that the morphology of major tributaries of the Rhone River, Switzerland, is consistent with that predicted for a landscape shaped primarily by multiple phases of fluvial incision following a period of intense glacial erosion after the mid-Pleistocene transition (∼0.7 Ma). This is despite major ice sheets reoccupying the region during cold intervals since the mid-Pleistocene. We use high-resolution LiDAR data to identify a series of convex reaches within the long-profiles of 18 tributary channels. We propose these reaches represent knickpoints, which developed as regional uplift raised tributary bedrock channels above the local fluvial baselevel during glacial intervals, and migrated upstream as the fluvial system was re-established during interglacial periods. Using a combination of integral long-profile analysis and stream-power modelling, we find that the locations of ∼80% of knickpoints in our study region are consistent with that predicted for a fluvial origin, while the mean residual error over ∼100 km of modelled channels is just 26.3 m. Breaks in cross-valley profiles project toward the elevation of former end-of-interglacial channel elevations, supporting our model results. Calculated long-term uplift rates are within ∼15% of present-day measurements, while modelled rates of bedrock incision range from ∼1 mm/yr for low gradient reaches between knickpoints to ∼6-10 mm/yr close to retreating knickpoints, typical of observed rates in alpine settings. Together, our results reveal approximately 800 m of regional uplift, river incision, and hillslope erosion in the lower half of each tributary catchment since 0.7 Ma.

  5. The extended minimal incision approach to midface rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, Allison T; Williams, Edwin F

    2005-08-01

    Recent major advancements in comprehensive facial rejuvenation have focused on management of midfacial aging. Multiple techniques have been described to treat the aging midface; the mere nature of so many approaches is evidence that no one technique has prevailed. Although the nasolabial region remains a challenge to correct, the approach described herein provides comprehensive rejuvenation of the midface, lateral brow, and jawline. The technique is performed via a minimal incision brow-lift approach and has been performed (with minor modifications) by the senior author in more than 650 patients over the past 9 years. The technique has proven to be safe, reliable, and effective.

  6. Assessment and reduction of diaphragmatic tension during hiatal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Daniel Davila; Louie, Brian E; Farivar, Alexander S; Wilshire, Candice L; Baik, Peter U; Aye, Ralph W

    2015-04-01

    During hiatal hernia repair there are two vectors of tension: axial and radial. An optimal repair minimizes the tension along these vectors. Radial tension is not easily recognized. There are no simple maneuvers like measuring length that facilitate assessment of radial tension. The aims of this project were to: (1) establish a simple intraoperative method to evaluate baseline tension of the diaphragmatic hiatal muscle closure; and, (2) assess if tension is reduced by relaxing maneuvers and if so, to what degree. Diaphragmatic characteristics and tension were assessed during hiatal hernia repair with a tension gage. We compared tension measured after hiatal dissection and after relaxing maneuvers were performed. Sixty-four patients (29 M:35F) underwent laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. Baseline hiatal width was 2.84 cm and tension 13.6 dag. There was a positive correlation between hiatal width and tension (r = 0.55) but the strength of association was low (r (2) = 0.31). Four different hiatal shapes (slit, teardrop, "D", and oval) were identified and appear to influence tension and the need for relaxing incision. Tension was reduced by 35.8 % after a left pleurotomy (12 patients); by 46.2 % after a right crural relaxing incision (15 patients); and by 56.1 % if both maneuvers were performed (6 patients). Tension on the diaphragmatic hiatus can be measured with a novel device. There was a limited correlation with width of the hiatal opening. Relaxing maneuvers such as a left pleurotomy or a right crural relaxing incision reduced tension. Longer term follow-up will determine whether outcomes are improved by quantifying and reducing radial tension.

  7. Gamma-ray induced inhibition of DNA synthesis in ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts is a function of excision repair capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.J.; Paterson, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The extent of the deficiency in γ-ray induced DNA repair synthesis in an ataxia telangiectasia (AT) human fibroblast strain was found to show no oxygen enhancement, consistent with a defect in the repair of base damage. Repair deficiency, but not repair proficiency, in AT cells was accompanied by a lack of inhibition of DNA synthesis by either γ-rays or the radiomimetic drug bleomycin. Experiments with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide indicated that lack of inhibition was specific for radiogenic-type damage. Thus excision repair, perhaps by DNA strand incision or chromatin modification, appears to halt replicon initiation in irradiated repair proficient cells whereas in repair defective AT strains this putatively important biological function is inoperative

  8. Scarf Repair of Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zonghong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of composite materials, such as carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites, aero-structures has led to an increased need of advanced assembly joining and repair technologies. Adhesive bonded repairs as an alternative to recover full or part of initial strength were investigated. Tests were conducted with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of techniques used for repairing damage fiber reinforced laminated composites. Failure loads and failure modes were generated and compared with the following parameters: scarf angles, roughness of grind tool and number of external plies. Results showed that scarf angle was the critical parameter and the largest tensile strength was observed with the smallest scarf angle. Besides, the use of external plies at the outer surface could not increase the repairs efficiency for large scarf angle. Preparing the repair surfaces by sanding them with a sander ranging from 60 to 100 grit number had significant effect on the failure load. These results allowed the proposal of design principles for repairing CFRP structures.

  9. The influence of lip form on incisal display with lips in repose on the esthetic preferences of dentists and lay people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee; Topolski, Richard; Dickinson, Douglas; Ramos, Van

    2017-09-01

    Information is lacking for viewer preferences for incisal display with lips in repose. The purpose of this online survey was to establish measurement parameters to classify and define a lip form and to evaluate the influence of lip form on dentists' and laypersons' preferences for the amount of incisal display with lips in repose. Computer-generated male and female models were created using 3 different lip forms each, straight, moderate, and high. Three images of these models (frontal full face, zoomed-in frontal around the mouth, and oblique zoomed-in image of the mouth) were arranged in an interactive survey that was disseminated on the Websites Facebook, Instagram, DentalTown and by word-of-mouth. Respondents manipulated the incisal display of all 3 images in unison, using a slide bar, and the resulting incisal display was measured in millimeters and served as the primary dependent measure. Survey demographic data were obtained from an online survey site. Data were assessed for skewness, kurtosis, and outliers and analyzed with 5-way ANOVA: 2 sex levels for model, 2 levels for sex of respondent, 3 levels for lip height, 3 levels for occupation, and 5 levels of ethnicity, with multiple comparisons corrected with Bonferroni adjustments and post hoc comparisons performed using the Scheffé test (α=.05 for all comparisons). A total of 1039 individuals consented to the study. A final sample size of 687 respondents was obtained after excluding 352 who failed to complete the survey. The results indicated that lip form affected the esthetic perception of incisal display significantly (P<.001), with a preference for a greater amount of incisal display corresponding with increasing lip forms. Sex of the model was also significant, with greater incisal display being preferred for female faces. A significant difference was found for respondents' ethnicity, with African Americans generally preferring smaller incisal displays than other ethnic groups. No other main effects

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis of electrocautery versus scalpel for surgical skin incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Lisa N F; Brown, Carl J

    2012-08-01

    The creation of surgical skin incisions has historically been performed using a cold scalpel. The use of electrocautery for this purpose has been controversial with respect to patient safety and surgical efficacy. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to compare skin incisions made by electrocautery and a scalpel. A systematic electronic literature search was performed using 2 electronic databases (MEDLINE and PubMed), and the methodological quality of included publications was evaluated. Six RCTs were identified comparing electrocautery (n = 606) and a scalpel (n = 628) for skin incisions. No significant difference in wound infection rates or scar cosmesis was identified between the treatment groups. Electrocautery significantly reduced the incision time and postoperative wound pain. A trend toward less incisional blood loss from skin incisions made with electrocautery was noted. Electrocautery is a safe and effective method for performing surgical skin incisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Single incision laparoscopic liver resection (SILL – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzing, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, minimally invasive liver resections for both benign and malignant tumors are routinely performed. Recently, some authors have described single incision laparoscopic liver resection (SILL procedures. Since SILL is a relatively young branch of laparoscopy, we performed a systematic review of the current literature to collect data on feasibility, perioperative results and oncological outcome.Methods: A literature research was performed on Medline for all studies that met the eligibility criteria. Titles and abstracts were screened by two authors independently. A study was included for review if consensus was obtained by discussion between the authors on the basis of predefined inclusion criteria. A thorough quality assessment of all included studies was performed. Data were analyzed and tabulated according to predefined outcome measures. Synthesis of the results was achieved by narrative review. Results: A total of 15 eligible studies were identified among which there was one prospective cohort study and one randomized controlled trial comparing SILL to multi incision laparoscopic liver resection (MILL. The rest were retrospective case series with a maximum of 24 patients. All studies demonstrated convincing results with regards to feasibility, morbidity and mortality. The rate of wound complications and incisional hernia was low. The cosmetic results were good.Conclusions: This is the first systematic review on SILL including prospective trials. The results of the existing studies reporting on SILL are favorable. However, a large body of scientific evidence on the field of SILL is missing, further randomized controlled studies are urgently needed.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of incision healing after cesarean sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicle, O. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey); Kuecuekler, C. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey); Pirnar, T. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey); Erata, Y. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey); Posaci, C. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey)

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the healing period of incision scar in myometrial wall and the normal pelvis after cesarean sections by means of MRI. In this study 17 voluntary women were examined after their first delivery with cesarean section in the early postpartum period (first 5 days), and following this, three more times in 3-month intervals. The MRI examinations were performed on a 1.0-T system (Magnetom, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), and sagittal T1-weighted (550/17 TR/TE) and T2-weighted (2000/80 TR/TE) spin-echo (SE) images of the pelvis were obtained. During follow-up examinations incision scar tissues lost their signals within the first 3 months on both SE sequences, and little alteration was observed in the subsequent tests. Zonal anatomy of the uterus reappeared completely 6 months after cesarean sections. The time for the involution of the uterus was independent of the zonal anatomy recovery, and the maximum involution was inspected within the first 3 months. In conclusion, the maturation time of myometrial scar tissue in uncomplicated cesarean sections, which can be evaluated by the signal alterations in MRI, is approximately 3 months, whereas the complete involution and the recovery of the zonal anatomy need at least 6 months. (orig.). With 6 figs.

  13. Muscle sparing lateral thoracotomy: the standard incision for thoracic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Dumitrescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lateral thoracotomy is a versatile approach with many variations and is currently the most widely used incision in thoracic surgery. In the current article we are presenting the muscle-sparing lateral thoracotomy in the lateral decubitus position which we consider to be the “standard” for lateral thoracotomies. Indications, surgical technique and pitfalls are described alongside our experience with thoracic drainage. Although there is no consensus regarding the name of this incision, some authors call it “axillary thoracotomy” while others call it a “modified lateral thoracotomy”, they all agree on one aspect – the importance of muscle sparing – which makes it the go-to thoracotomy for both small and large procedures involving the lung. Lateral muscle sparing thoracotomy allows for good exposure of the pulmonary hilum, fissures, apex and diaphragm. The approach is easy and quick to perform while at the same time ensuring faster postoperative recovery by sparing the latissimus dorsi muscle, better cosmetics and lower postoperative pain score when compared to the posterolateral or classical lateral thoracotomies.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of incision healing after cesarean sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicle, O.; Kuecuekler, C.; Pirnar, T.; Erata, Y.; Posaci, C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the healing period of incision scar in myometrial wall and the normal pelvis after cesarean sections by means of MRI. In this study 17 voluntary women were examined after their first delivery with cesarean section in the early postpartum period (first 5 days), and following this, three more times in 3-month intervals. The MRI examinations were performed on a 1.0-T system (Magnetom, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), and sagittal T1-weighted (550/17 TR/TE) and T2-weighted (2000/80 TR/TE) spin-echo (SE) images of the pelvis were obtained. During follow-up examinations incision scar tissues lost their signals within the first 3 months on both SE sequences, and little alteration was observed in the subsequent tests. Zonal anatomy of the uterus reappeared completely 6 months after cesarean sections. The time for the involution of the uterus was independent of the zonal anatomy recovery, and the maximum involution was inspected within the first 3 months. In conclusion, the maturation time of myometrial scar tissue in uncomplicated cesarean sections, which can be evaluated by the signal alterations in MRI, is approximately 3 months, whereas the complete involution and the recovery of the zonal anatomy need at least 6 months. (orig.). With 6 figs

  15. Fluvial incision by the Qingyijiang River on the northern fringe of Mt. Huangshan, eastern China: Responses to weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunsheng; Liu, Shaochen; Hu, Chenqi; Xu, Guanglai; Zhou, Yingqiu

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on climatic and tectonic controls to determine their relative importance to the Quaternary fluvial incision by the Qingyijiang River, eastern China. The Qingyijiang, which is one of longest tributaries of the lower Yangtze River, drains the northern piedmont of Mt. Huangshan. A field survey focused on three natural sections of the Qingyijiang in the Jingxian basin, where a well-preserved sequence of one alluvial platform (P) and three fluvial terraces (T3, T2, and T1) is presented. The heights of the platform and the terraces above river level are 65, 40, 20, and 7 m respectively. In this study, electron spin resonance (ESR), optical stimulated luminescence (OSL), and palaeomagnetic dating were applied to reconstruct the fluvial incision history of the Qingyijiang and evaluate the possible influence of tectonic uplift and/or climate change on the fluvial incision. The main results show that (1) the ages of P, T3, T2, and T1 were determined to be ∼ 1300, ∼ 900, ∼ 600, and ∼ 1.5 ka respectively, corresponding to four incision events in the Qingyijiang; (2) the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) experienced four significant weakening events at 1300, 900, 600, and ∼ 1.5 ka, according to previous research. Correspondingly, we propose that four significant increased periods of regional precipitation occurred at 1300, 900, 600, and ∼ 1.5 ka in the study area because of the negative correlation between the intensity of the EASM and regional precipitation from 1960 to 2012; and (3) fluvial incision by the Qingyijiang arose as a result of the weakening of the EASM in combination with tectonic uplift, determined by matching fluvial incision history of the Qingyijiang with tectonic movement and EASM change. In addition, the weakening of the EASM climatically triggered fluvial incision by the Qingyijiang. This study supports the conclusion that major fluvial incision has been climatically triggered; however, it also suggests that the mechanism of

  16. Discussion on the Relevant Factors of General Surgery Incision Infection and Prevention Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Baotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons that can lead to incision infection of general surgical patients. The main reasons include weight, age, body albumin level, surgical time, observation ward, etc. This paper analyzes the clinic data of patients with incision infection after general surgery based on clinic practice and study on the reasons that have impact on general surgical incision infection and gives relevant prevention countermeasures.

  17. Sonographic Appearance of Abdominal Wall at the Left Flank of Laparotomy Incision Site in Ettawah Grade Does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ulum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the sonographic appearance of abdominal wall at the left flank of laparotomy incision site in 11 mated Ettawah grade does. Brightness-mode ultrasound examination by using transducer with frequency of 5.0-6.0 MHz was conducted to grouping the does based on their pregnancy statuses. The incision site of the abdominal wall at left flank laparotomy was transcutaneous-scanned as long as 8 cm vertically. The sonographic appearance of the laparotomy wall thickness showed that in all groups of does were similar and not different statistically. The thickness of oblique external and oblique internal abdominal muscles increased in the pregnant does as compared to non-pregnant does (P<0.05.

  18. Short-term pre- and post-operative stress prolongs incision-induced pain hypersensitivity without changing basal pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Wang, Po-Kai; Tiwari, Vinod; Liang, Lingli; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Zang, Wei-Dong; Kaufman, Andrew G; Bekker, Alex; Gao, Xiao-Qun; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-12-02

    Chronic stress has been reported to increase basal pain sensitivity and/or exacerbate existing persistent pain. However, most surgical patients have normal physiological and psychological health status such as normal pain perception before surgery although they do experience short-term stress during pre- and post-operative periods. Whether or not this short-term stress affects persistent postsurgical pain is unclear. In this study, we showed that pre- or post-surgical exposure to immobilization 6 h daily for three consecutive days did not change basal responses to mechanical, thermal, or cold stimuli or peak levels of incision-induced hypersensitivity to these stimuli; however, immobilization did prolong the duration of incision-induced hypersensitivity in both male and female rats. These phenomena were also observed in post-surgical exposure to forced swimming 25 min daily for 3 consecutive days. Short-term stress induced by immobilization was demonstrated by an elevation in the level of serum corticosterone, an increase in swim immobility, and a decrease in sucrose consumption. Blocking this short-term stress via intrathecal administration of a selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU38486, or bilateral adrenalectomy significantly attenuated the prolongation of incision-induced hypersensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and cold stimuli. Our results indicate that short-term stress during the pre- or post-operative period delays postoperative pain recovery although it does not affect basal pain perception. Prevention of short-term stress may facilitate patients' recovery from postoperative pain.

  19. Midline versus transverse incision for cesarean delivery in low-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Aabakke, Anna J M; Secher, Niels J

    2014-01-01

    While transverse incision is the recommended entry technique for cesarean delivery in high-income countries, it is our experience that midline incision is still used routinely in many low-income settings. Accordingly, international guidelines lack uniformity on this matter. Although evidence...... is limited, the literature suggests important advantages of the transverse incision, with lower risk of long-term disabilities such as wound disruption and hernia. Also, potential extra time spent on this incision appears not to impact neonatal outcome. Therefore, we suggest that it is time for a change...

  20. Diathermy vs. scalpel skin incisions in general surgery: double-blind, randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2009-08-01

    This prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was designed to compare the outcome of diathermy incisions versus scalpel incisions in general surgery. A total of 369 patients who underwent diathermy incision (group A: 185 patients) or scalpel incision (group B: 184 patients) were analyzed. Variables analyzed were: surgical wound classification, length and depth of incision, incision time, duration of operation, incisional blood loss, postoperative pain, duration of hospital stay, duration of healing, and postoperative complications. The inclusion criteria were all patients who underwent elective or emergency general surgery. The exclusion criteria were only cases with incomplete patients' data and patients who were lost to follow-up. This study was conducted at Fatima Hospital-Baqai Medical University and Shamsi Hospital (Karachi), from January 2006 to December 2007. Incision time was significantly longer for patients in group B (p = 0.001). Incisional blood loss also was more for patients in group B (p = 0.000). Pain perception was found to be markedly reduced during the first 48 h in group A (p = 0.000). Total period of hospital stay (p = 0.129) and time for complete wound healing (p = 0.683) were almost the same for both groups. Postoperative complication rate by wound classification did not differ markedly between the two groups (p = 0.002 vs. p = 0.000). Diathermy incision has significant advantages compared with the scalpel because of reduced incision time, less blood loss, & reduced early postoperative pain.

  1. Removable thermoplastic appliances modified by incisal cuts show altered biomechanical properties during tipping of a maxillary central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Phillipp; Kramer, Katharina; Böhrnsen, Florian; Gruber, Rudolf Matthias; Batschkus, Sarah; Rödig, Tina; Hahn, Wolfram

    2017-08-28

    The present study aimed to evaluate the force delivery of removable thermoplastic appliances (RTAs), modified by different sized incisal cuts, during tipping of a maxillary central incisor in palatal and vestibular direction. Forty-five RTAs from three different materials (Biolon®, Erkodur®, Ideal Clear®) of the same thickness (1 mm) were used. Analysis was performed on a separated maxillary central incisor which was part of a resin model with a complete dentition. In 15 RTAs, of different material, a cut was inserted at the incisal edge of tooth 11. In 15 other appliances, the cut was extended to teeth 12 and 21. Fifteen aligners remained uncut. The experimental tooth was tipped starting from the zero position in 0.05° steps to a maximal deflection of ± 0.42° of the incisal edge in vestibular and palatal direction, after positioning the RTA onto the model. The horizontal (Fx) and the vertical (Fz) force components were decreased by approximately half with increasing cut size. Fz values changed during palatal tipping from a weak intrusive force, for aligners without cut, to an extrusive force with increasing cut size. Compared to both other materials used (Erkodur® and Ideal Clear®), the Biolon® aligners showed significantly higher Fx and Fz values (p < 0.0001, respectively). RTAs modified by different sized incisal cuts show altered biomechanical properties and an inversion of the vertical force component, during tipping of a maxillary central incisor.

  2. Removable thermoplastic appliances modified by incisal cuts show altered biomechanical properties during tipping of a maxillary central incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipp Brockmeyer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed to evaluate the force delivery of removable thermoplastic appliances (RTAs, modified by different sized incisal cuts, during tipping of a maxillary central incisor in palatal and vestibular direction. Methods Forty-five RTAs from three different materials (Biolon®, Erkodur®, Ideal Clear® of the same thickness (1 mm were used. Analysis was performed on a separated maxillary central incisor which was part of a resin model with a complete dentition. In 15 RTAs, of different material, a cut was inserted at the incisal edge of tooth 11. In 15 other appliances, the cut was extended to teeth 12 and 21. Fifteen aligners remained uncut. The experimental tooth was tipped starting from the zero position in 0.05° steps to a maximal deflection of ± 0.42° of the incisal edge in vestibular and palatal direction, after positioning the RTA onto the model. Results The horizontal (Fx and the vertical (Fz force components were decreased by approximately half with increasing cut size. Fz values changed during palatal tipping from a weak intrusive force, for aligners without cut, to an extrusive force with increasing cut size. Compared to both other materials used (Erkodur® and Ideal Clear®, the Biolon® aligners showed significantly higher Fx and Fz values (p < 0.0001, respectively. Conclusions RTAs modified by different sized incisal cuts show altered biomechanical properties and an inversion of the vertical force component, during tipping of a maxillary central incisor.

  3. Urinary function after Snodgrass repair of distal hypospadias: comparison with the Mathieu repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Maria Grazia; Castagnetti, Marco; Berrettini, Alfredo; Rigamonti, Waifro; Musi, Luciano

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate urinary function in patients with distal hypospadias undergoing repair by the tubularized incised-plate urethroplasty (TIP or Snodgrass), compare the results with those in patients treated by the Mathieu technique, and show the potential issues inherent to the evaluation of such results. A cross-sectional assessment was performed of uncomplicated distal hypospadias operated on during a 3-year period, already toilet trained, and able to void volitionally. Evaluation included clinical assessment urinary symptoms and urinary stream, and uroflowmetry. Out of 83 patients operated on during the study period, 10 (12%) developed complication and 32 were not toilet trained or refused to participate in the study. Median follow-up in the remaining 41 patients included in the study was 20 (3-36) months. None of these patients presented voiding symptoms or urinary stream abnormalities. Uroflowmetry was normal in 30 cases and obstructive in 11 (27%). An obstructive flow pattern was more common in patients undergoing TIP versus Mathieu repair, 8 of 19 (42%) versus 3 of 22 (14%), respectively (P = 0.07). Four TIP cases with an obstructive uroflow pattern were managed conservatively. Although both the TIP and the Mathieu repair allow good results in terms of urinary function after distal hypospadias repairs, the TIP technique seems more likely to be associated with urine flow pattern abnormalities. The actual clinical relevance of this finding remains ill defined.

  4. Advantages of the modified double ring areolar incision over the traditional areolar incision in multicentric breast fibroadenoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Shen, Gongjin; Zhang, Song; Cui, Zhen; Qian, Jun

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the clinical advantages of modified double ring areola incision (MDRAI) compared to ordinary areola incision (OAI) in multicentric breast fibroadenoma in women. Sixty cases of multicentric benign breast tumor were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College from January to December 2016. The cases were divided into two groups according to surgical approach: MDRAI (n = 20) and OAI (n = 40). The operation duration, intraoperative blood loss, drainage time, and postoperative recurrence rate in the first six months were compared. The mean age and tumor locations were not statistically different between the groups (P > 0.05). However, more lesions and larger tumor diameter were found in the MDRAI group than in the OAI group, with statistical difference (P  0.05). However, the intraoperative blood loss was statistically different between the two groups (P < 0.05). All 60 cases received six months of follow-up. Eight recurrent cases were found in the OAI group, but none in the MDRAI group. The recurrence rate was significantly different (χ 2  = 4.62, P < 0.05). Compared with OAI, MDRAI offers greater advantages in the aspects of blood loss and recurrence for the treatment of breast benign tumor, especially for multicentric larger lesions. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  6. Effect of electroacupuncture on the cervicospinal P2X7 receptor/fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway in a rat neck-incision pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y H; Li, C W; Wang, J Y; Tan, L H; Duanmu, C L; Jing, X H; Chang, X R; Liu, J L

    2017-06-01

    Increasing evidence supports that acupuncture intervention is an effective approach for intraoperative and postoperative pain. Neuron-microglia crosstalk, mediated by the purinergic P2X7 receptor (R)/fractalkine/CX3CR1 cascade in the spinal cord dorsal horn, plays a pivotal role in pain processing. However, its involvement in the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) remains unclear. In this study, a rat neck-incision pain model was established by making a longitudinal incision along the midline of the neck and subsequent repeated mechanical stimulation. EA stimulation was applied to bilateral LI18, LI4-PC6, or ST36-GB34. The thermal pain threshold, cervicospinal ATP concentration, expression levels of purinergic P2XR and P2YR subunits mRNAs, and fractalkine, CX3CR1 and p38 MAPK proteins, were detected separately. The neck incision induced strong thermal hyperalgesia and upregulation of spinal ATP within 48 h. No significant change was found in thermal hyperalgesia after a single session of EA intervention. However, a single session of EA dramatically enhanced the neck incision-induced upregulation of ATP and upregulated the expression of P2X7R, which was reversed by two sessions of EA. Two sessions of EA at bilateral LI18 or LI4-PC6 attenuated hyperalgesia significantly, accompanied with downregulation of P2X7R/fractalkine/ CX3CR1 signaling after three sessions of EA. EA stimulation of LI18 or LI4-PC6 alleviates thermal hyperalgesia in neck-incision pain rats, which may be associated with its effects in regulating the neck incision-induced increase of ATP and P2X7R and subsequently suppressing fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling in the cervical spinal cord.

  7. Immediate and repair induced DNA double strand breaks in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    It seems logical to postulate that double strand breaks (dsb) arising both at the time of irradiation and via repair processes are potentially equally damaging for a cell in terms of the potential to induce chromosomal aberrations. However, in some cell systems the repair of double es or es-ssb sites may run concurrently with the incision so that these lesions do not remain open for long: hence the lack of accumulation of dsb during repair. The rate of incision will thus determine both the accumulation and the probability of exchanges leading to chromosomal aberrations between these and other frank dsb. Rapid incision leading to a large additional pool of dsb appears to be the case in Chinese hamster V79 cells. Some evidence also exists for the conversion of base damage, via dsb, into deletion type chromatid aberrations which accumulate in irradiated G2 human cells treated with ara C. A small fraction of dsb, probably arising both at the time of irradiation as well as enzymatically during repair of base or sugar damage, appears to be either left unrepaired, yielding deletion type chromosomal aberrations, or is misrepaired, yielding exchange aberrations. The induction of these aberrations appears to be of central importance in the biological effects of ionizing radiation such as mutations, oncogenic transformation, and cell death. 52 refs., 5 figs

  8. Mouse preferential incising force orientation changes during jaw closing muscle hyperalgesia and is sex dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, C G; Morris-Wiman, J

    2016-12-01

    Mouse incising is controlled by a central pattern generator and this activity can change in the presence of pain. The incising frequency and maximum force generation decreases with pain. In this study, we used repetitive acidic injections in the left masseter muscle of male and female mice to determine differences between baseline and jaw muscle pain conditions and the effect of sex on preferential incising direction. A within subject design was used to evaluate data previously acquired using multi-axis force data (X, Y and Z) from the 4th baseline recording day and day 7 post-injection (day of maximal pain response) for each mouse of each sex. A total of 34 female and male (age 3-9months) CD-1 mice were evaluated. After mathematically rotating the X and Y axes to align the Y axis to be parallel to the wire struts of the cage top, data were analyzed to determine incising direction preference during baseline (non-pain) and pain (day 7) conditions and between sex. Radar plots of X-Y, X-Z and Y-Z axes depicted the average direction of incising preference between baseline and pain conditions for each sex. Statistical differences among groups were tested using a mixed model ANOVA. Similar to previous findings, female mice had a more robust difference in incising direction preference when comparing male and female pain conditions and this was most evident in the X-Z axes. The incising frequencies most commonly affected were 5.3, 6.2 and 7.6Hz. Male mice varied little in their incising direction preference between the baseline and pain conditions. In addition, statistical comparison of ratios of the percent of time spent incising in the Z versus X axes for each incising frequency found that the incising preference was not different when comparing 5.3 and 7.6Hz frequencies. Finally, female mice used a novel approach to minimize pain while incising by rotating their head and body nearly 180 degrees while males did not use this strategy as frequently. The preferred incising

  9. Clear corneal incision leakage after phacoemulsification--detection using povidone iodine 5%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Soon-Phaik

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the incidence of clear corneal wound leakage at the conclusion of standard co-axial phacoemulsification in a prospective observational series of 100 consecutive cataract cases in a single surgeon's institutional practice. At the conclusion of standard co-axial phacoemulsification using a 2.75 mm temporal single plane clear corneal incision with a 1 mm clear corneal side-port incision, the wounds were hydrated and checked for water-tightness. Povidone iodine 5% (P-I) was then evenly dripped over the cornea and the wounds were inspected visually. Any leakage of aqueous observed was recorded. The amount of leakage was graded as small or large from each wound. Leaky wounds were further hydrated and retested with P-I until sealed. Wound integrity was reassessed on the first postoperative day by use of fluorescein. Of the 100 cases, wound leakage was observed for 31 eyes (31%)-ten main incisions, nineteen side-port incisions, and both incisions in two cases. Wound leakage was easily detected as a ribbon of clear fluid streaming from the incision amid a pool of brown solution. Povidone iodine was not observed within the tract in any incision. All wound leakage was small except for one from the main incision and two from the side-port incision. None of the eyes developed wound leakage the day after surgery and none developed endophthalmitis. In conclusion, leakage from clear corneal incisions at the conclusion of phacoemulsification occurs in almost a third of cases, predominantly from the side incision. It is easily detected by use of the P-I test.

  10. Laparoscopic repair for vesicouterine fistulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Maioli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this video is to present the laparoscopic repair of a VUF in a 42-year-old woman, with gross hematuria, in the immediate postoperative phase following a cesarean delivery. The obstetric team implemented conservative management, including Foley catheter insertion, for 2 weeks. She subsequently developed intermittent hematuria and cystitis. The urology team was consulted 15 days after cesarean delivery. Cystoscopy indicated an ulcerated lesion in the bladder dome of approximately 1.0cm in size. Hysterosalpingography and a pelvic computed tomography scan indicated a fistula. Materials and Methods: Laparoscopic repair was performed 30 days after the cesarean delivery. The patient was placed in the lithotomy position while also in an extreme Trendelenburg position. Pneumoperitoneum was established using a Veress needle in the midline infra-umbilical region, and a primary 11-mm port was inserted. Another 11-mm port was inserted exactly between the left superior iliac spine and the umbilicus. Two other 5-mm ports were established under laparoscopic guidance in the iliac fossa on both sides. The omental adhesions in the pelvis were carefully released and the peritoneum between the bladder and uterus was incised via cautery. Limited cystotomy was performed, and the specific sites of the fistula and the ureteral meatus were identified; thereafter, the posterior bladder wall was adequately mobilized away from the uterus. The uterine rent was then closed using single 3/0Vicryl sutures and two-layer watertight closure of the urinary bladder was achieved by using 3/0Vicryl sutures. An omental flap was mobilized and inserted between the uterus and the urinary bladder, and was fixed using two 3/0Vicryl sutures, followed by tube drain insertion. Results: The operative time was 140 min, whereas the blood loss was 100ml. The patient was discharged 3 days after surgery, and the catheter was removed 12 days after surgery

  11. Median sternotomy - gold standard incision for cardiac surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Matache

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sternotomy is the gold standard incision for cardiac surgeons but it is also used in thoracic surgery especially for mediastinal, tracheal and main stem bronchus surgery. The surgical technique is well established and identification of the correct anatomic landmarks, midline tissue preparation, osteotomy and bleeding control are important steps of the procedure. Correct sternal closure is vital for avoiding short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. The two sternal halves have to be well approximated to facilitate healing of the bone and to avoid instability, which is a risk factor for wound infection. New suture materials and techniques would be expected to be developed to further improve the patients evolution, in respect to both immediate postoperative period and long-term morbidity and mortality

  12. Mandibular incisive canal in relation to periapical surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kani Bilginaylar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to emphasize the importance of the mandibular interforaminal neurovascular bundle with a case and make a warning to dentists and surgeons during oral and maxillofacial surgeries, such as implant replacement, bone harvesting, genioplasty, open reduction of a mandibular fracture, and cyst enucleations at this region. In this paper, we present a 58-year-old male who referred with pain and a tingling sensation on the left lower lip. After radiographical, extraoral and intraoral examinations, findings indicated the lesion to be a cyst which was related with a periapical lesion of the canine tooth and extracted socket of first premolar tooth. After removal of a cyst, the mandibular incisive nerve was documented which was in relation to cyst cavity.

  13. Incisiones verticales en SARPE Vertical incisions in SARPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gonzalez Lagunas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La expansión rápida de paladar asistida quirúrgicamente (SARPE es una de las opciones terapeuticas de los transtornos transversales del maxilar superior. Presentamos nuestra experiencia inicial con una variante técnica consistente en una corticotomía de la pared lateral del maxilar combinada con una osteotomía palatina media transincisal, y efectuadas a través de tres pequeñas incisiones verticales.Surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE is one of the therapeutic options for the correction of transverse maxillary collapse. We present our initial experience with a technique consisting in a lateral corticotomy of the maxilla plus a transincisal midpalatal osteotomy, both performed through minimal vertical incisions.

  14. A case of bifocal endometriosis involving a pfannenstiel incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsen, Mehmet Sidik; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Yalinkaya, Ahmet; Firat, Ugur; Caca, Fatma Nur

    2011-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for atypical cyclic pain and masses at both ends of a Pfannenstiel incision scar. Ultrasound of the anterior abdominal wall showed two masses. Both masses were hypoechoic, heterogeneous lesions located at opposite ends of the scar. The lesions were surgically excised with. Microscopic examination revealed endometrial gland structures with endometrial stroma in fibroadipose tissue in sections of both specimens indicative of endometriosis. Incisional endometriosis (IE) is a form of extrapelvic endometriosis especially in scars of obstetric or gynecologic surgery IE may be multifocal at surgical scars. We report the a case of bifocal incisional endometriosis in Pfannesteil scar. Whole scar evaluation should be done for incisional endometriosis and surgical excision should be performed for treatment.

  15. Induced repair and mutagenesis in animal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, Koichi

    1981-01-01

    Induced repair and mutagenesis of animal cells against UV were studied in contrast with SOS repair of E. coli primarily by the use of viruses. Since UV-enhanced reactivation is a phenomenon similar to UV-reactivation (mutagenesis) and the presence of lesion bypass synthsis has been suggested, UV-enhanced reactivation has several common aspects with SOS reactivation of E. coli. However, correlation is not necessarily noted between increase in the viral survival rate and mutagenesis, nor do protease blockers exert any effect. Therefore, SOS repair of E. coli may have different mechansms from induced repair and mutagenesis in animal cells. (Ueda, J.)

  16. Canyon incision chronology based on ignimbrite stratigraphy and cut-and-fill sediment sequences in SW Peru documents intermittent uplift of the western Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gunnell, Yanni; Jicha, Brian R.; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Braucher, Régis

    2017-12-01

    Based on an 40Ar/39Ar- and U/Pb-based chronostratigraphy of ignimbrite sheets and the geomorphological features of watersheds, river profiles and slope deposits in the Ocoña-Cotahuasi-Marán (OCM) and Colca valleys of southwest Peru, we reconstruct the valley incision history of the western Central Andes over the last c. 25 Myr. We further document the Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of deep valleys on the basis of 14 10Be surface-exposure ages obtained on debris-avalanche deposits and river straths. The data suggest that uplift was gradual over the past 25 Myr, but accelerated after c. 9 Ma. Valley incision started around 11-9 Ma and accelerated between 5 and 4 Ma. Incision was followed by several pulses of valley cut-and-fill after 2.3 Ma. Evidence presented suggest that the post-5 Ma sequence of accelerated canyon incision probably resulted from a combination of drainage piracy from the Cordilleran drainage divide towards the Altiplano, accentuated flexural tilting of the Western Cordillera towards the SE, and increased rainfall on the Altiplano after late Miocene uplift of the Eastern Cordillera. The valley deepening and slope steepening driven by tectonic uplift gave rise to large occurrences of rockslope failure. The collapsed rock masses periodically obstructed the canyons, thus causing abrupt changes in local base levels and interfering with the steadiness of fluvial incision. As a result, channel aggradation has prevailed in the lower-gradient, U-shaped Pacific-rim canyons, whereas re-incision through landslide deposits has occurred more rapidly across the steeper V-shaped, upper valleys. Existing canyon knickpoints are currently arrested at the boundary between the plutonic bedrock and widespread outcrops of middle Miocene ignimbritic caprock, where groundwater sapping favouring rock collapse may be the dominant process driving headward erosion.

  17. EXPERIENCE WITH THE OPEN TENSION-FREE HERNIA REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Rakovec

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. All old techniques of herniorrhaphy involve approximation of tissues under tension, which accounts for their unreliability. Therefore the recovery time is long and the recurrence rate unacceptably high. The new methods using a mesh patch of polypropylene allow for a tensionfree repair, which is much more reliable. So they are associated with a shorter recovery time and carry a low probability of recurrence. The tension-free repair can be accomplished in an open manner, by placing the mesh through an open incision, or by the endoscopic technique, which involves placing the mesh from within by laparoscopic instruments. The open tension-free procedures can be performed with the use of stitches (according to Lichtenstein or without them (sutureless techniques. Stitching the mesh may cause problems due to maldistribution of tension between the mesh and the patient’s tissues, the occurrence of neuralgia or the development of inflammatory granuloma. Therefore sutureless procedures are increasingly performed. They usually require, besides the use of a mesh patch, also the use of a dart plug made of the same material.Methods. The open tension-free methods of hernia repair have been used at our Department since 1994. The first 77 operations were performed by Lichtenstein technique. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.4 days and the mean work restriction period was 3 weeks. In the middle of the year 1995, we shifted to suturless technique. By the end of the year 2000, we had performed 768 operations. The average postoperative hospital stay was 1.2 days and the average recovery time was 10 days.Results. In the first group of 77 hernia repairs performed by the Lichtenstein procedure serious complications were noted in six patients: bleeding in one, long-lasting neuralgia in two, and purulent granuloma, appearing long after discharge from the hospital, in three. There were no recurrences. In the second group of 768 hernia repairs

  18. Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collision Repair Campaign targets meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source category to reduce air toxic emissions in their communities. The Campaign also helps shops to work towards early compliance with the Auto Body Rule.

  19. Retinal detachment repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines Problems breathing You may not recover full vision. ... detachments can be repaired. Failure to repair the retina always results in loss of vision to some degree. After surgery, the quality of ...

  20. Performance of fast-absorbable suture and histo-glue in closing incisions in Brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Larsen, Martin Hage; Aarestrup, Kim

    2017-01-01

    , growth, tag expulsion rate and incision healing was compared among three groups of dummy transmitter-tagged wild brown trout Salmo trutta where incisions were closed with two types of suture material (absorbable vs. fast absorbable) and Histo-glue. The tagged fish were kept in semi-natural ponds for 20...

  1. Rehabilitation of an Incised Stream Using Plant Materials: the Dominance of Geomorphic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Douglas. Shields, Jr.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of potentially species-rich stream ecosystems in physically unstable environments is challenging, and few attempts have been evaluated scientifically. Restoration approaches that involve living and dead native vegetation are attractive economically and from an ecological standpoint. A 2-km reach of an incised, sand-bed stream in northern Mississippi was treated with large wood structures and willow plantings to trigger responses that would result in increasing similarity with a lightly degraded reference stream. Experimental approaches for stream bank and gully stabilization were also examined. Although the project was initially successful in producing improved aquatic habitat, after 4 yr it had failed to effectively address issues related to flashy watershed hydrology and physical instability manifest by erosion and sedimentation. The success of ecosystem rehabilitation was thus governed by landscape-scale hydrological and geomorphological processes.

  2. 26 CFR 1.162-4 - Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the cost of acquisition or production or the gain or loss basis of the taxpayer's plant, equipment, or other property, as the case may be, is not increased by the amount of such expenditures. Repairs in the... incidental repairs which neither materially add to the value of the property nor appreciably prolong its life...

  3. Repairing the brain with physical exercise: Cortical thickness and brain volume increases in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors in response to a structured exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc-Lerch, Kamila U; Timmons, Brian W; Bouffet, Eric; Laughlin, Suzanne; de Medeiros, Cynthia B; Skocic, Jovanka; Lerch, Jason P; Mabbott, Donald J

    2018-01-01

    There is growing evidence that exercise induced experience dependent plasticity may foster structural and functional recovery following brain injury. We examined the efficacy of exercise training for neural and cognitive recovery in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with radiation. We conducted a controlled clinical trial with crossover of exercise training (vs. no training) in a volunteer sample of 28 children treated with cranial radiation for brain tumors (mean age = 11.5 yrs.; mean time since diagnosis = 5.7 yrs). The endpoints were anatomical T1 MRI data and multiple behavioral outcomes presenting a broader analysis of structural MRI data across the entire brain. This included an analysis of changes in cortical thickness and brain volume using automated, user unbiased approaches. A series of general linear mixed effects models evaluating the effects of exercise training on cortical thickness were performed in a voxel and vertex-wise manner, as well as for specific regions of interest. In exploratory analyses, we evaluated the relationship between changes in cortical thickness after exercise with multiple behavioral outcomes, as well as the relation of these measures at baseline. Exercise was associated with increases in cortical thickness within the right pre and postcentral gyri. Other notable areas of increased thickness related to training were present in the left pre and postcentral gyri, left temporal pole, left superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. Further, we observed that compared to a separate cohort of healthy children, participants displayed multiple areas with a significantly thinner cortex prior to training and fewer differences following training, indicating amelioration of anatomical deficits. Partial least squares analysis (PLS) revealed specific patterns of relations between cortical thickness and various behavioral outcomes both after training and at baseline. Overall, our results indicate that

  4. Repairing the brain with physical exercise: Cortical thickness and brain volume increases in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors in response to a structured exercise intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila U. Szulc-Lerch

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that exercise induced experience dependent plasticity may foster structural and functional recovery following brain injury. We examined the efficacy of exercise training for neural and cognitive recovery in long-term pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with radiation.We conducted a controlled clinical trial with crossover of exercise training (vs. no training in a volunteer sample of 28 children treated with cranial radiation for brain tumors (mean age = 11.5 yrs.; mean time since diagnosis = 5.7 yrs. The endpoints were anatomical T1 MRI data and multiple behavioral outcomes presenting a broader analysis of structural MRI data across the entire brain. This included an analysis of changes in cortical thickness and brain volume using automated, user unbiased approaches. A series of general linear mixed effects models evaluating the effects of exercise training on cortical thickness were performed in a voxel and vertex-wise manner, as well as for specific regions of interest. In exploratory analyses, we evaluated the relationship between changes in cortical thickness after exercise with multiple behavioral outcomes, as well as the relation of these measures at baseline.Exercise was associated with increases in cortical thickness within the right pre and postcentral gyri. Other notable areas of increased thickness related to training were present in the left pre and postcentral gyri, left temporal pole, left superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. Further, we observed that compared to a separate cohort of healthy children, participants displayed multiple areas with a significantly thinner cortex prior to training and fewer differences following training, indicating amelioration of anatomical deficits. Partial least squares analysis (PLS revealed specific patterns of relations between cortical thickness and various behavioral outcomes both after training and at baseline.Overall, our results

  5. Fragile DNA Repair Mechanism Reduces Ageing in Multicellular Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Juul, Jeppe Søgaard; Trusina, Ala

    2012-01-01

    increases the amount of unrepaired DNA damage. Despite this vicious circle, we ask, can cells maintain a high DNA repair capacity for some time or is repair capacity bound to continuously decline with age? We here present a simple mathematical model for ageing in multicellular systems where cells subjected...... to DNA damage can undergo full repair, go apoptotic, or accumulate mutations thus reducing DNA repair capacity. Our model predicts that at the tissue level repair rate does not continuously decline with age, but instead has a characteristic extended period of high and non-declining DNA repair capacity......DNA damages, as well as mutations, increase with age. It is believed that these result from increased genotoxic stress and decreased capacity for DNA repair. The two causes are not independent, DNA damage can, for example, through mutations, compromise the capacity for DNA repair, which in turn...

  6. Thermal study of bare tips with various system parameters and incision sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osher, Robert H; Injev, Valentine P

    2006-05-01

    To identify major and minor surgeon-controlled parameters that affect incision temperature when performing microincision lens removal using the Alcon Infiniti Vision System. In vitro research and development laboratory, Alcon Research, Irvine, California, USA. Phacoemulsification was performed in eye-bank cadaver eyes and the following parameters evaluated: incision, duty cycle, ultrasound (US) power, aspiration flow rate (AFR), vacuum, pulse, bottle height and balanced salt solution temperature, and tip design/size. Each parameter was varied while the others remained constant. The resulting temperature of the incision and US tip was measured using a thermal camera. Major contributors to elevated incision temperature included incision size, US power, duty cycle, AFR, vacuum setting, tip design, and presence of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD). Minor contributors included pulse frequency, bottle height, and temperature of the infusate. Microincision lens removal can be performed at safe temperatures with the knowledgeable selection of surgeon-controlled parameters.

  7. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery through an ostomy site: a natural approach by an unnatural orifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Nicole E; Peterson, Carrie Y; Ramamoorthy, Sonia L; McLemore, Elisabeth C; Sedrak, Michael F; Lowy, Andrew M; Horgan, Santiago; Talamini, Mark A; Sicklick, Jason K

    2015-02-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is gaining popularity for a wide variety of surgical operations and capitalizes on the benefits of traditional laparoscopic surgery without incurring multiple incision sites. Traditionally, SILS is performed by a midline periumbilical approach. However, such a minimally invasive approach may be utilized in patients who already have an abdominal incision. Our series retrospectively reviews 7 cases in which we utilized the fascial defect at the time of after ostomy reversal as our SILS incision site. In turn, we performed a variety of concurrent intra-abdominal procedures with excellent technical success and outcomes. Our study is the largest single-institution case series of this novel approach and suggests that utilizing an existing ostomy-site abdominal incision is a safe and effective location for SILS port placement and should be considered in patients undergoing concurrent procedures.

  8. Unplanned return to operating room after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (EVAR) is associated with increased risk of hospital readmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Ferranti, Katelynn; Lehman, Erik B

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Hospital readmissions after surgical operations are considered serious events. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) consider surgical readmissions as preventable and hold hospitals responsible for them. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (EVAR) has become the first line modality of treatment for suitable patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The purpose of this study is to retrospectively review the factors associated with hospital readmission after EVAR. Methods The 2013 EVAR targeted American College of Surgeons (ACS-NSQIP) database and generalized 2013 general and vascular surgery ACS-NSQIP participant use files were used for this study. Patient, diagnosis, and procedure characteristics of patients undergoing EVAR surgery were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent risk factors for hospital readmission within 30 days after surgery. Results A total of 2277 patients (81% males, 19% females) underwent EVAR operations in the year 2013. Indications for operations included: asymptomatic large diameter (79%), symptomatic (5.7%), rupture without hypotension (4.3%), and rupture with hypotension (2.8%). Among these patients, 178 (7.8%) were readmitted to the hospital within 30 days after surgery. About 53% of all readmissions were within two weeks after the discharge. Risk factors, associated with readmission included: body mass index (per 5-units, OR 1.23, CI 1.06-1.42, p readmission for patients with presence of all these seven factors was 99.9%. Conclusions Readmission after EVAR is a serious occurrence. Various factors predispose a patient at a high risk for readmission. Unplanned return to operating room after EVAR is associated with a 11-fold increase in hospital readmission.

  9. Assay of repair enzyme activity by reactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated infective viral DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeda, K; Nakatsu, Y; Sekiguchi, M [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan).Faculty of Science

    1980-05-01

    Treatment of OeX174 replicative form (RF) DNA, pre-exposed to ultraviolet light, with T4 endonuclease V led to a marked increase of infectivity of the RF when the activity was assayed on CaCl/sub 2/-treated cells of Escherichia coli strain defective in uvrA gene. The reaction was specific and the extent of the reactivation was proportional to the concentration of the enzyme. Based on this finding, we developed a procedure to assay endonuclease activities specific for ultraviolet-damaged DNA, that might be involved in the incision step of excision repair of pyrimidine dimers. To find conditions suitable for accurate and rapid assays, we examined conditions affecting transfection with OeX174 RF. The maximum transfection was achieved when more than 2 x 10/sup 8/ CaCl/sub 2/-treated cells, which had been prepared from bacteria harvested during the early or mid-logarithmic phase of growth in L broth, were incubated with the DNA at 0/sup 0/C for 20 min in 50 mM CaCl/sub 2/. Incubation of the cell-DNA mixture at 37/sup 0/C decreased the transfection efficiency to about 30% of the optimal level; thus, heat shock, a step regarded as necessary in the conventional CaCl/sub 2/ methods for transfection and transformation, was eliminated. The CaCl/sub 2/-treated cells remained viable and competent after storage at -20/sup 0/C in a solution containing 15% glycerol. By using the procedure thus established, repair endonuclease activities in crude extracts of T4-infected E. coli and of Micrococcus luteus were determined. The procedure should be of use in assaying and purifying repair enzymes of other organisms.

  10. Results of distal hypospadias repair after pediatric urology fellowship training: A comparison of junior surgeons with their mentor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, N C; Barber, T D; Dajusta, D; Prieto, J C; Ziada, A; Snodgrass, W

    2016-06-01

    Teaching and learning hypospadias repair is a major component of pediatric urology fellowship training. Educators must transfer skills to fellows, without increasing patient complications. Nevertheless, few studies report results of surgeons during their first years of independent practice. To review outcomes of distal hypospadias repairs performed during the same 2-year period by consecutive, recently matriculated, surgeons in independent practice, and to compare them to results by their mentor (with >20 years of experience). Exposure to hypospadias surgery during fellowship was determined from case logs of five consecutive fellows completing training from 2007-2011. TIP was the only technique used to repair distal hypospadias. No fellow operated independently or performed complete repairs under supervision. Instead, the first 3 months were spent assisting their mentor, observing surgical methodology and decision-making. Then, each performed selected portions under direct supervision, including: degloving, penile straightening, developing glans wings, incising and tubularizing the urethral plate, creating a barrier layer, sewing the glansplasty, and skin closure. Overall fellow participation in each case was mentor, with Fisher's exact contingency test. Training logs indicated fellow participation ranged from 76-134 hypospadias repairs, including distal, proximal and reoperative surgeries. Post-graduation case volumes ranged from 25-68 by junior surgeons versus 136 by the mentor. With similar mean follow-up, urethroplasty complication rates were statistically the same between the former fellows, and between them versus the mentor, ranging from 5-13%. Nearly all were fistulas or glans dehiscence. Junior surgeons reported they performed TIP as learned during fellowship, with one exception who used 7-0 polydioxanone rather than polyglactin for urethroplasty. This is the first study directly comparing hypospadias surgical outcomes by recently graduated fellows in

  11. DNA Damage, Repair, and Cancer Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Marc-Olivier; Perry, Nicholas J. S.; Poulogiannis, George

    2018-01-01

    Although there has been a renewed interest in the field of cancer metabolism in the last decade, the link between metabolism and DNA damage/DNA repair in cancer has yet to be appreciably explored. In this review, we examine the evidence connecting DNA damage and repair mechanisms with cell metabolism through three principal links. (1) Regulation of methyl- and acetyl-group donors through different metabolic pathways can impact DNA folding and remodeling, an essential part of accurate double strand break repair. (2) Glutamine, aspartate, and other nutrients are essential for de novo nucleotide synthesis, which dictates the availability of the nucleotide pool, and thereby influences DNA repair and replication. (3) Reactive oxygen species, which can increase oxidative DNA damage and hence the load of the DNA-repair machinery, are regulated through different metabolic pathways. Interestingly, while metabolism affects DNA repair, DNA damage can also induce metabolic rewiring. Activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) triggers an increase in nucleotide synthesis and anabolic glucose metabolism, while also reducing glutamine anaplerosis. Furthermore, mutations in genes involved in the DDR and DNA repair also lead to metabolic rewiring. Links between cancer metabolism and DNA damage/DNA repair are increasingly apparent, yielding opportunities to investigate the mechanistic basis behind potential metabolic vulnerabilities of a substantial fraction of tumors. PMID:29459886

  12. Penatalaksanaan Repair Palatoplasty dengan Teknik Furlow Double Opposing Z Plasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingky Krisna Arindra

    2015-06-01

    metode Furlow double opposing z plasty dengan kombinasi insisi lateral, dan didapatkan hasil menutupnya celah di palatum mole sampai dengan uvula. Telah dilakukan operasi repair palatoplasi dengan metode Furlow double opposing z plasty. Teknik ini dilakukan untuk menghindari insisi yang terlalu luas dikarenakan terdapatnya jaringan fibrous yang tebal pada mukosa palatum pasca operasi sebelumnya. Tujuan studi kasus adalah untuk mengetahui kemampuan teknik Furlow Double Opposing Z Plasty sebagai prosedur repair palatoplasty.   Repair Palatoplasty Management with Furlow Double Opposing Z Plasty Technique. Cases of cleft lip and palate are one of the deformity disorders that often occur. There are variety of clinical appearance ranging from incomplete to complete cases. Clinical appearance with different width requires proper surgical technique. Patients with cleft lip and palate had undergone surgical intervention, so that they needed surgical correction to repair the result or failure of the previous surgery. A Four year old boy complain there was cleft on the soft palate. The patient was diagnosed with labiognatopalatoscisis. The patient had undergone two stages of cleft lip surgery and twice of cleft palate surgery with pushback method and repair with z plasty, however the result was unsatisfactory. Further, the patient underwent repair palatoplasty surgery with Furlow double opposing z plasty method combined with lateral relaxing insicion. The result in the post surgery was the closure of cleft soft palate up to uvula. Repair palataplasty surgery has been done with Furlow double opposing z plasty method. This technique could avoid extended incision due to thick fibrous tissue on the palatum mucosa as the result of serial previous surgery. The aim of this case case study is to determine the technical capabilities of Furlow Double Opposing Z Plasty as palatoplasty repair procedure.

  13. Plio-Quaternary river incision rates inferred from burial dating (Al-26/Be-10) of in cave-deposited alluvium in the Meuse catchment (E Belgium): new insights into the uplift history of the Ardennes massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis; Peeters, Alexandre; Demoulin, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Although the Late Cenozoic uplift of the intraplate Variscan Ardennes/Rhenish massif (N Europe) has been long studied, its causes, shape and timing are still under debate (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). This is mainly due to the scarcity of reliable ages for uplift markers, such as Quaternary terrace staircases along the deeply-incised valleys or Late Tertiary planation surfaces. In parallel, multi-level cave systems in limestone rocks, wherein abandoned phreatic passages filled with alluvium represent former phases of fluvial base-level stability, record the history of regional river incision (Anthony & Granger, 2007). Here, we present new burial ages (Al-26/Be-10) from fluvial gravels washed in a multi-level cave system developed in Devonian limestones of the lower Ourthe valley (main Ardennian tributary of the Meuse). Our results highlight a significant increase of incision rates from the Middle Pleistocene on, and allow reconstructing the incision history in the northern part of the Ardennes over the last 3.4 Ma. These long-term incision rates derived from burial ages are then discussed in relation to the existing studies dealing with river incision and/or tectonic uplift of the Ardennes/Rhenish massif (e.g. Demoulin & Hallot, 2009; Rixhon et al., 2011). Our cosmogenic nuclide ages thus enlarge the data pool required to explore the spatio-temporal characteristics of the drainage system's incision response to combined tectonic and climatic signals. References Anthony, D., Granger, D.E., 2007. A new chronology for the age of Appalachian erosional surfaces determined by cosmogenic nuclides in cave sediments. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 874-887 Demoulin, A., Hallot, E., 2009. Shape and amount of the Quaternary uplift of the western Rhenish shield and the Ardennes (western Europe). Tectonophysics 474, 696-708. Rixhon, G., et al., 2011. Quaternary river incision in NE Ardennes (Belgium): Insights from Be-10/Al-26 dating of rive terraces. Quaternary Geochronology 6

  14. Factors impacting arthroscopic rotator cuff repair operational throughput time at an ambulatory care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Curry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying patient factors influencing operational throughput time is becoming more imperative due to an increasing focus on value and cost savings in healthcare. The primary objective of this study was to determine patient factors influencing throughput time for primary rotator cuff repairs. Demographic information, medical history and operative reports of 318 patients from one ambulatory care center were retrospectively reviewed. Operating room set up, incision to closure and recovery room time were collected from anesthesia records. Univariate analysis was performed for both continuous and categorical variables. A stepwise, multivariable regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with operating room time (incision to closure and recovery room time. Of the 318 patients, the mean age was 54.4±10.0 and 197 (61% were male. Male patients had a significantly longer OR time than females (115.5 vs. 100.8 minutes; P<0.001. Furthermore, patients set up in the beach chair position had a significantly longer OR time than patients positioned lateral decubitus (115.8 vs. 89.6 mins, P<0.0001. Number of tendons involved, and inclusion of distal clavicle excision, biceps tenodesis and labral debridement also added significant OR time. Type and number of support staff present also significantly affected OR time. Recovery room time was significantly longer patients who had surgery in the beach chair position (+9.61 minutes and for those who had a cardiac-related medical comorbidity (+11.7 minutes. Our study found that patients positioned in a beach chair spent significantly more time in the operating and recovery rooms. While ease of set up has been a stated advantage ofbeach chair position, we found the perceived ease of set up does not result in more efficient OR throughput.

  15. [Expression of cannabinoid receptor I during mice skin incised wound healing course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen-bin; Guan, Da-wei; Liu, Wei-wei; Wang, Tao; Fan, Yan-yan; Cheng, Zi-hui; Zheng, Ji-long; Hu, Geng-yi

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the expression of cannabinoid receptor I (CB1R) during mice skin incised wound healing course and time-dependent changes of CB1R in wound age determination. The changes of CBIR expression in skin incised wound were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The control group showed a low expression of CB1R detected mainly in epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous gland and dermomuscular layer. CB1R expression was undetectable in neutrophils in the wound specimens from 6h to 12h post-injury. CB1R positive cells were mostly mononuclear cells (MNCs) and fibroblastic cells (FBCs) from 1 d to 5 d post-injury. CB1R positive cells were mostly FBCs from 7 d to 14d post-injury. The ratio of the CB1R positive cells increased gradually in the wound specimens from 6 h to 3 d post-injury, reached peak level at 5 d, and then decreased gradually from 7d to 14 d post-injury. The positive bands of CB1R were observed in all time points of the wound healing course by Western blotting. The expression peak showed at 5 d post-injury. CB1R is activated during the wound healing course. The expression of CB1R is found in mononuclear cells, which could be involved in inflammation reaction. CBIR is observed in fibroblastic cells, which could participate in the wound healing. CB1R may be a potentially useful marker for determination of wound healing age.

  16. Laparoendoscopic single-site extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: initial experience in 10 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Minh; Liatsikos, Evangelos; Beatty, John; Haefner, Tim; Dunn, Ian; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2011-06-01

    Recent technical advances and a trend toward laparoscopic single incision surgery have led us to explore the feasibility of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) hernia repair. We present our technique and initial experience with LESS extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair in 10 consecutive men with unilateral inguinal hernias. Age range was 43.7 (28-64) years. Mean body mass index was 28 (range 24-30). Six were left inguinal hernias. There were six indirect and four direct hernias. Three patients had undergone previous open appendectomy. Incarcerated or bilateral hernias were excluded from our initial series. All cases were performed by three surgeons who were experienced in conventional totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair as well as experienced in LESS. A literature review of current single-port inguinal hernia repair data is also presented. The mean operative time was 53 minutes (range 45-65  min). The average length of skin incision was 2.8  cm (range 2.3-3.2  cm). No drain was necessary in any of the patients, while no recordable bleeding was observed. There were no intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications. Hospitalization period was 2 days for all patients. After a limited follow-up of 1 month, there have been no recurrences and no complaints of testicular pain. The results of the current series compare favorably with those found in a literature review. LESS extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair is both feasible and safe, although more technically demanding than its conventional laparoscopic counterpart. Although the cosmetic result with the former approach may prove superior, there are standing questions regarding the complications and long-term outcome. Randomized and if possible blinded trials that compare conventional and single-incision laparoscopic hernia repair may help to distinguish the most advantageous technique.

  17. Laser-activated nano-biomaterials for tissue repair and controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteini, P; Ratto, F; Rossi, F; Pini, R

    2014-01-01

    We present recent achievements of minimally invasive welding of biological tissue and controlled drug release based on laser-activated nano-biomaterials. In particular, we consider new advancements in the biomedical application of near-IR absorbing gold nano-chromophores as an original solution for the photothermal repair of surgical incisions and as nanotriggers of controlled drug release from hybrid biopolymer scaffolds. (laser biophotonics)

  18. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MR exams of human subjects are associated with significant increases in the DNA repair marker 53BP1, but not the damage marker γH2AX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S McDonald

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging is considered low risk, yet recent studies have raised a concern of potential damage to DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes. This prospective Institutional Review Board-approved study examined potential double-strand DNA damage by analyzing changes in the DNA damage and repair markers γH2AX and 53BP1 in patients who underwent a 1.5 T gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (MR exam. Sixty patients were enrolled (median age 55 years, 39 males. Patients with history of malignancy or who were receiving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or steroids were excluded. MR sequence data were recorded and blood samples obtained immediately before and after MR exposure. An automated immunofluorescence assay quantified γH2AX or 53BP1 foci number in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Changes in foci number were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinical and MR procedural characteristics were compared between patients who had a >10% increase in γH2AX or 53BP1 foci numbers and patients who did not. The number of γH2AX foci did not significantly change following cardiac MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.11, post-MR = 0.11, p = .90, but the number of 53BP1 foci significantly increased following MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.46, post-MR = 0.54, p = .0140. Clinical and MR characteristics did not differ significantly between patients who had at least a 10% increase in foci per cell and those who did not. We conclude that MR exposure leads to a small (median 25% increase in 53BP1 foci, however the clinical relevance of this increase is unknown and may be attributable to normal variation instead of MR exposure.

  19. The current state of eukaryotic DNA base damage and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nicholas C; Corbett, Anita H; Doetsch, Paul W

    2015-12-02

    DNA damage is a natural hazard of life. The most common DNA lesions are base, sugar, and single-strand break damage resulting from oxidation, alkylation, deamination, and spontaneous hydrolysis. If left unrepaired, such lesions can become fixed in the genome as permanent mutations. Thus, evolution has led to the creation of several highly conserved, partially redundant pathways to repair or mitigate the effects of DNA base damage. The biochemical mechanisms of these pathways have been well characterized and the impact of this work was recently highlighted by the selection of Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar and Paul Modrich as the recipients of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their seminal work in defining DNA repair pathways. However, how these repair pathways are regulated and interconnected is still being elucidated. This review focuses on the classical base excision repair and strand incision pathways in eukaryotes, considering both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, and extends to some important questions and challenges facing the field of DNA base damage repair. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. True Lies: The Double Life of the Nucleotide Excision Repair Factors in Transcription and DNA Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Le May

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide excision repair (NER is a major DNA repair pathway in eukaryotic cells. NER removes structurally diverse lesions such as pyrimidine dimers, arising upon UV irradiation or bulky chemical adducts, arising upon exposure to carcinogens and some chemotherapeutic drugs. NER defects lead to three genetic disorders that result in predisposition to cancers, accelerated aging, neurological and developmental defects. During NER, more than 30 polypeptides cooperate to recognize, incise, and excise a damaged oligonucleotide from the genomic DNA. Recent papers reveal an additional and unexpected role for the NER factors. In the absence of a genotoxic attack, the promoters of RNA polymerases I- and II-dependent genes recruit XPA, XPC, XPG, and XPF to initiate gene expression. A model that includes the growth arrest and DNA damage 45α protein (Gadd45α and the NER factors, in order to maintain the promoter of active genes under a hypomethylated state, has been proposed but remains controversial. This paper focuses on the double life of the NER factors in DNA repair and transcription and describes the possible roles of these factors in the RNA synthesis process.

  1. The interaction of fentanyl on the Cp50 of propofol for loss of consciousness and skin incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C; McEwan, A I; Jhaveri, R; Wilkinson, M; Goodman, D; Smith, L R; Canada, A T; Glass, P S

    1994-10-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane at 1 atm that is required to prevent movement in 50% of patients or animals exposed to a maximal noxious stimulus is markedly reduced by increasing fentanyl concentrations. Total intravenous anesthesia with propofol is increasing in popularity, yet the propofol concentrations required for total intravenous anesthesia or the interaction between propofol and fentanyl have not yet been defined. Propofol and fentanyl were administered via computer-assisted continuous infusion to provide pseudo-steady-state concentrations and allow equilibration between plasma-blood concentration and their biophase concentration. For the induction of anesthesia patients were randomly allocated to receive propofol only or propofol plus fentanyl 0.2, 0.8, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 ng/ml. In each group patients were randomized to target propofol concentrations of 1.5-10 micrograms/ml. At 7 and 10 min arterial blood samples were taken for subsequent measurement of propofol and fentanyl concentrations. At 10 min loss of consciousness was assessed by the patients' ability to respond to a simple verbal command. Thereafter a new target concentration of propofol was entered to ensure loss of consciousness, and succinylcholine was administered to facilitate tracheal intubation. Patients were rerandomized to a new target concentration of propofol (1-19 micrograms/ml) until skin incision. Before skin incision and 1 min after skin incision, arterial blood samples were again obtained for subsequent measurement of fentanyl and propofol concentrations. At skin incision and for 1 min the patient was observed for purposeful movement. Only samples in which the pre- and poststimulus drug concentrations were within 35% of each other were included. The propofol blood concentration at which 50% or 95% of patients did not respond to verbal command (Cp50s and Cp95s, respectively) and to skin incision (Cp50i and Cp95i, respectively

  2. An Overview of Corroded Pipe Repair Techniques Using Composite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Lim; S. N. A. Azraai; N. M. Noor; N. Yahaya

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric composites are being increasingly used as repair material for repairing critical infrastructures such as building, bridge, pressure vessel, piping and pipeline. Technique in repairing damaged pipes is one of the major concerns of pipeline owners. Considerable researches have been carried out on the repair of corroded pipes using composite materials. This article attempts a short review of the subject matter to provide insight into various techniques used in repa...

  3. Investigations of DNA-repair in New Zealand mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschl, H; Kovac, R; Altmann, H

    1974-09-01

    DNA repair was investigated in New Zealand mice strains which developed murine lupus and compared with Swiss control mice. Unscheduled DNA synthesis demonstrated by autoradiography was used to measure the repair capacity of spleen cells. After gamma-irradiation DNA repair was decreased in the autoimmune strains, while it was significantly increased after UV-irradiation. A possible relationship between repair capacity after gamma-respectively UV-irradiation and the etiologic factor of autoimmunity is discussed. (auth)

  4. Analysis for a two-dissimilar-component cold standby repairable system with repair priority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kit Nam Francis; Zhang Yuanlin; Lai, Kin Keung

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a cold standby repairable system consisting of two dissimilar components and one repairman is studied. Assume that working time distributions and repair time distributions of the two components are both exponential, and Component 1 has repair priority when both components are broken down. After repair, Component 1 follows a geometric process repair while Component 2 obeys a perfect repair. Under these assumptions, using the perfect repair model, the geometric process repair model and the supplementary variable technique, we not only study some important reliability indices, but also consider a replacement policy T, under which the system is replaced when the working age of Component 1 reaches T. Our problem is to determine an optimal policy T* such that the long-run average loss per unit time (i.e. average loss rate) of the system is minimized. The explicit expression for the average loss rate of the system is derived, and the corresponding optimal replacement policy T* can be found numerically. Finally, a numerical example for replacement policy T is given to illustrate some theoretical results and the model's applicability. - Highlights: → A two-dissimilar-component cold standby system with repair priority is formulated. → The successive up/repair times of Component 1 form a decreasing/increasing geometric process. → Not only some reliability indices but also a replacement policy are studied.

  5. De Qeurvian Tenosynovitis: Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Treatment with Longitudinal and Transverse Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arefah Dehghani Tafti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: De Quervain disease is a mechanical tenosynovitis due to inadequacy volume between abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis and their tunnel. Treatment methods include immobilization, steroid injections, and operation. For the first time Fritz De Quervain described surgical treatment of this disease. Since then, various ways of treatment have been reported. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes of a longitudinal incision with a transverse incision in De Quervain disease.Methods: This was a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted in three hospitals in Iran, Yazd from March 2003 to September 2008. One hundred-twenty patients with De Quervain disease who did not respond to conservative treatment were operated with two different incisions. The patients were followed for three months to compare the surgical outcomes.Results: During a three month follow-up, a significant difference was shown between the two methods (p=0.03. Results of surgical treatment with longitudinal incision were excellent (only 5 hypertrophic scars, but there were 13 postoperative complaints with transverse incision.Conclusion: According to our findings, longitudinal incision in surgical treatment of De Quervain disease is better than transverse incision.

  6. Nuclear management in manual small incision cataract surgery by snare technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debasish

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual small incision cataract surgery has evolved into a popular method of cataract surgery in India. However, in supra hard cataract, bringing out the whole nucleus through the sclerocorneal flap valve incision becomes difficult. A bigger incision required in such cataracts loses its value action, as the internal incision and corneal valve slips beyond the limbus into sclera. Struggling with the supra hard cataracts through a regular small incision. Phacofracture in the anterior chamber becomes a useful option in these cases. In the snare technique, a stainless steel wire loop when lassoed around the nucleus in the anterior chamber constricts from the equator, easily dividing the hardest of the nuclei into two halves. The wire loop constricts in a controlled way when the second cannula of snare is pulled. The divided halves can easily be brought out by serrated crocodile forceps. This nuclear management can be safely performed through a smaller sclerocorneal flap valve incision where the corneal valve action is retained within the limbus without sutures, and the endothelium or the incision is not disturbed. However, the technique requires space in the anterior chamber to maneuver the wire loop and anterior chamber depth more than 2.5 mm is recommended. Much evidence to this wonderful technique is not available in literature, as its popularity grew through live surgical workshops and small interactive conferences.

  7. Hepatopancreaticobiliary Values after Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Darrell; Coselli, Joseph S.; Johnson, Michael L.; LeMaire, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: After thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair, blood tests assessing hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) organs commonly have abnormal results. The clinical significance of such abnormalities is difficult to determine because the expected postoperative levels have not been characterized. Therefore, we sought to establish expected trends in HPB laboratory values after TAAA repair. Methods: This 5-year study comprised 155 patients undergoing elective Crawford extent II TAAA repair. In accordance with a prospective study protocol, all repairs involved left-sided heart bypass, selective visceral perfusion, and cold renal perfusion. Blood levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total bilirubin, amylase, and lipase were measured before TAAA repair and for 7 days afterward. Ratios between postoperative and baseline levels were compared for each time point with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Temporal patterns for the laboratory values varied greatly. Amylase, lipase, and AST underwent significant early increases before decreasing to preoperative levels. LDH increased immediately and remained significantly elevated, whereas ALT increased more gradually. GGT remained near baseline through postoperative day 4, and then increased to more than twice baseline. Total bilirubin never differed significantly from baseline. After adjusted analysis, the ischemic time predicted the maximum AST, lipase, GGT, and LDH values. Conclusions: Although most HPB laboratory values increase significantly after elective TAAA repair, the temporal trends for different values vary substantially. The ischemic time predicts the maximum AST, lipase, GGT, and LDH levels. These trends should be considered when laboratory values are assessed after TAAA repair. PMID:26798731

  8. Complications of femtosecond laser corneal small incision lenticule extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hong Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the safety and complications of femtosecond laser corneal small incision lenticule extraction(SMILEprocedure and discuss the prevention and treatment.METHODS: We retrospectively studied the complications of 403 patients(799 eyeswith myopia and myopic astigmatism treated by SMILE.RESULTS: All the patients underwent the operation successfully. Only 1 case(1 eyesuffered from dark spot and changed to femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK(FS-LASIK, 5 cases(5 eyes, 0.6%suffered from the suction loss, 11 cases(17 eyes, 2.1%developed opaque bubble layer. All patients gained perfect uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA(20/20. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVAdid not decrease after operations. The incidence of haze and diffuse lamellar keratitis was low(0.3% and 0.4%, respectivelyand no other complications were observed. There was 9 eyes in 6 patients(1.1%found regression of refraction at 6mo after surgery, while the UCVA of rest patients reached 1.0 at 3mo after surgery.CONCLUSION: The SMILE procedure has high safety for myopia and myopic astigmatism. Effective prevention and management of the complications is the key to achieve the satisfactory visual acuity.

  9. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Sterilization of the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Marthinus J; Monnet, Eric; Kirberger, Robert M; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Schulman, Martin L; Stander, Jana A; Stegmann, George F; Schoeman, Johan P

    2015-07-01

    To describe laparoscopic ovariectomy and salpingectomy in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) using single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). Prospective cohort. Female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) (n = 21). Cheetahs were randomly divided to receive either ovariectomy (n = 11) or salpingectomy (n = 10). The use and complications of a SILS port was evaluated in all of cheetahs. Surgery duration and insufflation volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) were recorded and compared across procedures. Laparoscopic ovariectomy and salpingectomy were performed without complications using a SILS port. The poorly-developed mesosalpinx and ovarian bursa facilitated access to the uterine tube for salpingectomy in the cheetah. The median surgery duration for ovariectomy was 24 minutes (interquartile range 3) and for salpingectomy was 19.5 minutes (interquartile range 3) (P = .005). The median volume of CO2 used for ovariectomy was 11.25 L (interquartile range 3.08) and for salpingectomy was 4.90 L (interquartile range 2.52), (P = .001) CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic ovariectomy and salpingectomy can be performed in the cheetah using SILS without perioperative complications. Salpingectomy is faster than ovariectomy and requires less total CO2 for insufflation. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. A geometric process repair model for a repairable cold standby system with priority in use and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Wang Guanjun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a deteriorating cold standby repairable system consisting of two dissimilar components and one repairman is studied. For each component, assume that the successive working times form a decreasing geometric process while the consecutive repair times constitute an increasing geometric process, and component 1 has priority in use and repair. Under these assumptions, we consider a replacement policy N based on the number of repairs of component 1 under which the system is replaced when the number of repairs of component 1 reaches N. Our problem is to determine an optimal policy N* such that the average cost rate (i.e. the long-run average cost per unit time) of the system is minimized. The explicit equation of the average cost rate of the system is derived and the corresponding optimal replacement policy N* can be determined analytically or numerically. Finally, a numerical example with Weibull distribution is given to illustrate some theoretical results in this paper.

  11. A simple novel technique [PUIT] for closure of urethrocutaneous fistula after hypospadias repair: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Urethrocutaneous fistula is a common complication of urethroplasty for severe hypospadias, even when a microsurgical technique is applied, the closure of the fistula is a challenging problem. We present a simple surgical procedure, posterior urethral incision technique [PUIT] to close the fistula in our department. Between February 2001 and December 2004 we prospectively evaluated 32 patients, 26 patients with initial hypospadias fistulas and 6 with recurrent fistulas who underwent closure of urethrocutaneous fistula after hypospadias repair. The mean age of patients was 5 years, the operation consisted of trimming the fistula edge after mobilization of the skin all-around then a midline posterior urethral incision was done 2 mm above and 2 mm below the fistula opening then re-approximation of the urethral edges using 6/0 vicryl sutures with loop magnification. The timing of fistula repair was between 6 and 13 months after it was formed, all of these were effectively closed except three cases with stricture and fistula. Of these, two were completely relieved after repeated urethral dilatation, three times a week for 2 weeks. The third failed case will need another sitting after 6 months. The posterior midline urethral incision gives a good opportunity for repair without tension with a good cosmetic outcome. This may be done under local anesthesia in adults. The procedure is considered simple rapid and easy to be done for variable fistulas types whatever of its site and the age.

  12. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the healing of ventral midline abdominal incisions in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D A; Badertscher, R R; Boero, M J; Baker, G J; Foreman, J H

    1989-06-01

    Ultrasonography was used to evaluate the ventral midline incisions of 21 ponies following exploratory laparotomy. The incisions were evaluated before surgery and at weekly intervals from one to seven weeks after surgery. Both 5.0 and 7.5 MHz linear array and 7.5 MHz sector transducers were used for the evaluations. The incisional complications observed were drainage, oedema, suture sinus formation, suture abscess, superficial dehiscence and incisional hernia. Ultrasonographic imaging of the ventral midline incision was an easy, reliable and objective method for detecting and monitoring the progression of incisional complications in a non-invasive manner.

  13. Towards achieving small-incision cataract surgery 99.8% of the time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A surgical approach designed to reliably attain the modern goal of small incision cataract surgery 99.8% of the time is described. Phacoemulsification as well as a manual small incision technique is utilised to achieve the desired outcome as often as possible and for all types of cataracts. The logic, and required surgical steps are described and illustrated. This surgical technique allows the advantages of small incision surgery to be reliably achieved. The method is flexible and allows decisions and steps to be modified depending on the skill and comfort zone of the individual surgeon.

  14. Techniques for creating inconspicuous face-lift scars: avoiding visible incisions and loss of temporal hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridel, Russell W H; Liu, Edmund S

    2003-01-01

    Patients seeking rhytidectomy desire an improved neckline, jawline, and midface, but rarely at the price of signs that betray a face-lift, namely, visible incisions. We describe our face-lift incisional planning and the rationale behind specific surgical maneuvers for preventing unwanted sequelae. The telltale signs of poorly placed incisions include temporal hair loss, conspicuous scars, an unnatural appearance to the tragus, and a posterior hairline distorsion. Special considerations are given to the male patient and to the salvage of readily visible incision lines from previous surgery.

  15. Transverse versus Longitudinal Incisions for Femoral Artery Exposure in Treating Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Punam P; Rubio, Gustavo A; Patel, Kunal; Gupta, Kapil; Jones, Keith; Rey, Jorge; Robinson, Handel

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluates differences in wound complication rate when transverse versus longitudinal incision is utilized to expose femoral vessels in managing patients with peripheral vascular disease. A retrospective review from 2013 to 2015 was conducted of 150 patients undergoing 156 lower extremity revascularizations with femoral artery exposure through a groin incision. Patients were stratified into 2 groups, transverse versus longitudinal groin incision. Data were reviewed for 3 surgeons that utilize either transverse or longitudinal groin incision in patients undergoing common or iliofemoral endarterectomies, or where femoral artery was used as inflow and/or outflow vessel for limb revascularization. Each group had a comparative outcomes analysis based on incision type. The primary outcome was wound complication, defined as any wound infection, lymphocele, hematoma, dehiscence, pseudoaneurysm, or necrosis. Other outcomes studied included unplanned return to operating room for wound complication, wound vacuum therapy, and soft-tissue flap closure. Data were analyzed using 2-tailed chi-squared test and Student's t-test. Patients in the transverse (n = 85 cases) versus longitudinal (n = 71 cases) cohorts were similar in relation to demographics and comorbidities. Overall mean follow-up was 220 days. Patients with a transverse as compared to longitudinal incision had a significantly lower overall wound complication rate, 7% vs. 42%, respectively (P transverse incisions were associated with lower incidence of unplanned return to the operating room to manage wound complications than patients with a longitudinal incision (5% vs. 23%, respectively; P Transverse versus longitudinal incisions were also associated with significantly lower need for wound vacuum therapy (6% vs. 15%, respectively; P Transverse groin incisions for femoral artery exposure may offer a lower risk of wound complications for open procedures as compared to a longitudinal incision

  16. Sports hernia repair with adductor tenotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, J N; Brody, F

    2017-02-01

    Sports hernias, or athletic pubalgia, is common in athletes, and primarily involves injury to the fascia, muscles, and tendons of the inguinal region near their insertion onto the pubic bone. However, management varies widely, and rectus and adductor tenotomies have not been adequately described. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate a suture repair and a rectus and adductor longus tenotomy technique for sports hernias. After magnetic-resonance-imaging confirmation of sports hernias with rectus and adductor tendonitis, 22 patients underwent a suture herniorrhaphy with adductor tenotomy. The procedure is performed through a 4-cm incision, and a fascial release of the rectus abdominis and adductor tenotomy is performed to relieve the opposing vector forces on the pubic bone. All 22 patients returned to their respective sports and regained their ability to perform at a high level, including professional status. No further surgery was required. In athletes with MRI confirmation of rectus and adductor longus injuries, tenotomies along with a herniorraphy may improve outcomes. A suture repair to reinforce the inguinal floor prevents mesh-related complications, especially in young athletes.

  17. Expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Donghong; Ma, Xinrong; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Lingfeng; Zhu, Baozhen

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the feasibility and clinical efficacy of expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma. From March 2000 to April 2011, 13 cases of facial cicatrices left by radiotherapy of hemangioma have been treated with implantation surgery of facial skin dilator under local anesthesia. After water flood expansion for 1-2 months, resection of facial scar was performed, and wound repairing with expansion flap transfer was done. Thirteen patients were followed up from 5 months to 3 years. All patients tolerated flap transfer well; no contracture occurred during the facial expansion flap transfer. The incision scar was not obvious, and its color and texture were identical to surrounding skin. In conclusion, the use of expanded flap transfer to repair the facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma is advantageous due to its simplicity, flexibility, and large area of repairing. This method does not affect the subsequent facial appearance.

  18. Incomplete excision repair process after UV-irradiation in MUT-mutants of Proteus mirabillis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoerl, K.

    1977-01-01

    MUT-mutants of P. mirabilis seem to be able to perform the incision step in the course of excision repair. In contrast to the corresponding wildtype strains with MUT-mutants the number of single-strand breaks formed after UV-irradiation is independent of the UV-dose up to about 720 erg/mm 2 . Incubation in minimal medium over a longer time does not result in completion of excision repair; about 3-6 single-strand breaks in the DNA of these mutants remain open. Likewise, the low molecular weight of the newly synthesized daughter DNA confirms an incompletely proceeding or delayed repair process. As a possible reason for the mutator phenotype an alteration of the DNA-polymerase playing a role in excision and resynthesis steps of excision repair is discussed. (author)

  19. Ex vivo evaluation of femtosecond pulse laser incision of urinary tract tissue in a liquid environment: implications for endoscopic treatment of benign ureteral strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun-Hao; Kang, Jian; Pan, Yu-Long; Zhang, Liang; Qi, Jun

    2011-08-01

    The femtosecond (FS) pulse laser incises soft tissues with minimal peripheral damage and is a promising cutting tool for ureteroscopic endoureterotomy of benign ureteral strictures. To evaluate the feasibility of applying the FS laser to ureteroscopic endoureterotomy. A commercial Ti:Sapphire regenerative amplifier system (Coherent, RegA 9050, USA) was used in this study. Normal saline, 5% glucose solution, 4% mannitol solution, distilled water, and a 1% (v/v) suspension of whole blood with each of these solutions were tested for their attenuation rate (AR) of the FS laser's power. Bladder specimens from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used as a surrogate model. The laser incised slots of 2 mm in length at bladder samples using three power grades (5×, 10×, and 20× the threshold power) combined with five effective pulse rates (40, 20, 10, 5, and 2.5 kHz), both in air and in normal saline. After samples were processed with standard hematoxylin-eosin staining procedures, the incision depth and collateral damage range were determined microscopically. The ARs of blood suspensions with each of the three isosmotic solutions were significantly higher than the other five solutions (P laser's cutting depth and the collateral damage were increased with the laser power or power density but the collateral damages were less than 100 µm. Microbubble formation was detected in the liquid environments tested and influenced the effective laser power. Endoscopic application of the FS laser is feasible. Microbubble formation with the laser incision, however, may influence cutting effects. Proposed methods to address these issues include increasing the irrigation rate, using distilled water as irrigation or using gas insufflation instead of irrigation. It is necessary to evaluate these methods, as well as the long-term biologic response to laser incision, on living animal models in endoscopic settings before use on humans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Inroads into base excision repair I. The discovery of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease. "An endonuclease for depurinated DNA in Escherichia coli B," Canadian Journal of Biochemistry, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas; Verly, W G; Paquette Y

    2004-11-02

    DNA treated with alkylating agents is incised at sites of damage by cell extracts. A key component of this DNA repair function was shown by Verly and co-workers to be an endonuclease acting at secondary lesions, apurinic sites, rather than directly at alkylated nucleotide residues.

  1. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  2. Iodine-impregnated incision drape and bacterial recolonization in simulated total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milandt, Nikolaj; Nymark, Tine; Jørn Kolmos, Hans; Emmeluth, Claus; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Iodine-impregnated incision drapes (IIIDs) are used to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). However, there is some evidence to suggest a potential increase in SSI risk as a result of IIID use, possibly from promotion of skin recolonization. A greater number of viable bacteria in the surgical field of an arthroplasty, and surgery in general, may increase the infection risk. We investigated whether IIID use increases bacterial recolonization compared to no drape use under conditions of simulated total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods - 20 patients scheduled for TKA were recruited. Each patient had 1 knee randomized for draping with IIID, while the contralateral knee was left bare. The patients thus served as their own control. The operating room conditions and perioperative procedures of a TKA were simulated. Cylinder samples were collected from the skin of each knee prior to disinfection, and again on 2 occasions after skin preparation-75 min apart. Quantities of bacteria were estimated using a spread plate technique under aerobic conditions. Results - We found similar quantities of bacteria on the intervention and control knees immediately after skin disinfection and after 75 min of simulated surgery. These quantities had not increased at the end of surgery when compared to baseline, so no recolonization was detected on the draped knees or on the bare knees. Interpretation - The use of IIIDs did not increase bacterial recolonization in simulated TKA. This study does not support the hypothesis that IIIDs promote bacterial recolonization and postoperative infection risk.

  3. [Application of the xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane application used in the postoperative tissue shortage repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanxia; Yan, Liying; Zhang, Shaoqiang; Shao, Yuan; Yao, Xiaobao; Li, Honghui; Zhao, Ruimin; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To observe the short-term and long-term curative effect of the xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane (or joint muscle flap transfer) application used in the 82 cases postoperative tissue shortage repair that after the head neck carcinoma resection. To held the 82 cases head neck carcinoma postoperative mucosa shortage repaired after resection by the xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane (or joint muscle flap transfer), 65 cases mucosa shortage wound be directly covered by the repair membrane and the other 17 cases mucosa shortage wound be repaired by the tranfered muscle tissue flap with the repair membrane covered; 53 cases underwent additional postoperative radiotherapy between 2-4 weeks and follow-up in 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, 60 months and observed the operation site repair process through the electronic laryngoscope, observed the patients respiration, swallow, phonation function. Seventy-seven cases patients operation incision reached I phase healing standard, another 5 cases patients operation incision reached II phase healing standard because of the wound infection and fully-recovered through the local wound drainage,dressing process. All the patients tracheal cannula,the stomach tube be extubated successfully and without the local cicatricial constriction occurred. Seventy-eight cases follow up period reached 1 year including 53 cases who underwent postoperative radiotherapy, 49 cases follow up period reached 3 years including 32 cases who underwent postoperative radiotherapy, 14 cases follow up period reached 5 years including 12 cases who underwent postoperative radiotherapy. The patients with static local lesions discovered no reaction such as exclusion, allergy. The application of xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane (or joint muscle flap transfer used in in the postoperative tissue shortage repair that after the head neck carcinoma resection have several advantage such as comparatively easily implementation, operation safety

  4. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  5. Mesh Plug Repair of Inguinal Hernia; Single Surgeon Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Serdar Karaca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mesh repair of inguinal hernia repairs are shown to be an effective and reliable method. In this study, a single surgeon%u2019s experience with plug-mesh method performs inguinal hernia repair have been reported. Material and Method: 587 patients with plug-mesh repair of inguinal hernia, preoperative age, body / mass index, comorbid disease were recorded in terms of form. All of the patients during the preoperative and postoperative hernia classification of information, duration of operation, antibiotics, perioperative complications, and later, the early and late postoperative complications, infection, recurrence rates and return to normal daily activity, verbal pain scales in terms of time and postoperative pain were evaluated. Added to this form of long-term pain ones. The presence of wound infection was assessed by the presence of purulent discharge from the incision. Visual analog scale pain status of the patients was measured. Results: 587 patients underwent repair of primary inguinal hernia mesh plug. One of the patients, 439 (74% of them have adapted follow-ups. Patients%u2019 ages ranged from 18-86. Was calculated as the mean of 47±18:07. Follow-up period of the patients was found to be a minimum of 3 months, maximum 55 months. Found an average of 28.2±13.4 months. Mean duration of surgery was 35.07±4.00 min (min:22mn-max:52mn, respectively. When complication rates of patients with recurrence in 2 patients (0.5%, hematoma development (1.4% in 6 patients, the development of infection in 11 patients (2.5% and long-term groin pain in 4 patients (0.9% appeared. Discussion: In our experience, the plug-mesh repair of primary inguinal hernia repair safe, effective low recurrence and complication rates can be used.

  6. Postoperative ocular higher-order aberrations and contrast sensitivity: femtosecond lenticule extraction versus pseudo small-incision lenticule extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Deborah K L; Tay, Wan Ting; Chan, Cordelia; Tan, Donald T H; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate and compare changes in contrast sensitivity and ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) after femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) and pseudo small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore. Retrospective case series. Patients had femtosecond lenticule extraction (Group 1) or pseudo small-incision lenticule extraction (Group 2) between March 2010 and December 2011. The main outcome measures were manifest refraction, HOAs, and contrast sensitivity 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Fifty-two consecutive patients (102 eyes) were recruited, 21 patients (42 eyes) in Group 1 and the 31 patients (60 eyes) in Group 2. The uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities were significantly better in Group 2 than in Group 1 at 12 months (P = .032). There was no significant increase in 3rd- or 4th-order aberrations at 1 year and no significant difference between the 2 groups preoperatively or postoperatively. At 1 year, there was a significant increase in mesopic contrast sensitivity in Group 2 at 1.5 cycles per degree (cpd) (P = .008) that was not found in Group 1, and photopic contrast sensitivity at 6.0 cpd was higher in Group 2 (P = .027). These results indicate that refractive lenticule extraction is safe and effective with no significant induction of HOAs or deterioration in contrast sensitivity at 1 year. Induction of HOAs was not significantly different between both variants of refractive lenticule extraction. However, there was significant improvement in photopic contrast sensitivity after pseudo small-incision lenticule extraction, which persisted through 1 year. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phacoemulsification versus small incision cataract surgery in patients with uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bhargava

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the safety and efficacy of phacoemulsification and small incision cataract surgery (SICS in patients with uveitic cataract.METHODS:In aprospective, randomized multi-centric study, consecutive patients with uveitic cataract were randomized to receive phacoemulsification or manual SICS by either of two surgeons well versed with both the techniques. A minimum inflammation free period of 3mo (defined as less than 5 cells per high power field in anterior chamber was a pre-requisite for eligibility for surgery. Superior scleral tunnel incisions were used for both techniques. Improvement in visual acuity post-operatively was the primary outcome measure and the rate of post-operative complications and surgical time were secondary outcome measures, respectively. Means of groups were compared using t-tests. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used when there were more than two groups. Chi-square tests were used for proportions. Kaplan Meyer survival analysis was done and means for survival time was estimated at 95% confidence interval (CI. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.RESULTS:One hundred and twenty-six of 139 patients (90.6% completed the 6-month follow-up. Seven patients were lost in follow up and another six excluded due to either follow-up less than six months (n=1 or inability implant an intraocular lens (IOL because of insufficient capsular support following posterior capsule rupture (n=5. There was significant improvement in vision after both the procedures (paired t-test; P<0.001. On first postoperative day, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA was 20/63 or better in 31 (47% patients in Phaco group and 26 (43.3% patients in SICS group (P=0.384. The mean surgically induced astigmatism (SIA was 0.86±0.34 dioptres (D in the phacoemulsification group and 1.16±0.28 D in SICS group. The difference between the groups was significant (t-test, P=0.002. At 6mo, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA

  8. Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy using the one-incision three-trocar technique with all straight instruments: how I do it?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyi Cui

    2011-01-01

    Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a novel minimally invasive surgical technique that is gaining popularity around the world.One of the most commonly performed procedures is single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC).Most reported techniques utilize special purpose-made access port and articulating instruments,rendering the procedure costly and difficult to learn.This article provides a stepwise description of SILC technique using all straight instruments without the need for a special port.It aims to shorten the learning curve for surgeons wishing to adopt a safe and cost-effective SILC technique to their practice.

  9. Comparison of Radiofrequency and Electrocautery With Conventional Scalpel Incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasar, Zafer Burak; Ozmeric, Nurdan; Ozdemir, Burcu; Gökmenoğlu, Ceren; Baris, Emre; Altan, Gökçen; Kahraman, Sevil

    2016-11-01

    The disadvantages of conventional scalpels, including insufficient control of bleeding, prompted us to search for new alternative methods such as electrosurgery and radiosurgery. In this study, the conventional scalpel was compared with radiosurgery and electrosurgery for wound healing with assessment of lateral heat production, inflammation, and instrument performance. Incisions were made in the palatal mucosa of 42 Wistar rats using a scalpel, electrocautery instrument, or radiofrequency instrument. Postoperative hemostasis, tissue coagulation, and tissue sticking were measured, and pain evaluation through weight loss was recorded. Gingival biopsy specimens from the surgical area were obtained at the time of surgery and 2, 4, 7, and 14 days postoperatively and were evaluated immunohistochemically for inducible nitric oxide synthase and heat shock protein 70. Kruskal-Wallis, 1-way analysis of variance, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical evaluation. The rats in the electrosurgery and radiosurgery groups had aggressively greater weight loss when compared with the scalpel group in the first 7 days. Hemostasis was better in the electrocautery group, tissue coagulation was greater in the radiofrequency group (P < .001), and tissue sticking was lesser in the scalpel group (P < .001) compared with the other groups. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and heat shock protein 70 expression were similar in all 3 groups. Electrosurgery performed better regarding hemostasis, whereas a scalpel was superior in terms of tissue sticking and tissue coagulation. Radiosurgery was superior regarding hemostasis when compared with a conventional scalpel, but it was not as successful as electrosurgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Repair kinetics in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Monoexponential repair kinetics is based on the assumption of a single, dose-independent rate of repair of sublethal injury in the target cells for tissue injury after exposure to ionizing radiation. Descriptions of the available data based on this assumption have proved fairly successful for both acutely responding (skin, lip mucosa, gut) and late-responding (lung, spinal cord) normal tissues. There are indications of biphasic exponential repair in both categories, however. Unfortunately, the data usually lack sufficient resolution to permit unambiguous determination of the repair rates. There are also indications that repair kinetics may depend on the size of the dose. The data are conflicting on this account, however, with suggestions of both faster and slower repair after larger doses. Indeed, experiments that have been explicitly designed to test this hypothesis show either no effect (gut, spinal cord), faster repair after higher doses (lung, kidney), or slower repair after higher doses (skin). Monoexponential repair appears to be a fairly accurate description that provides an approximation to a more complicated picture, the elucidation of whose details will, however, require very careful and extensive experimental study. (author). 30 refs.; 1 fig

  11. Kualitas Pengeringan Kayu Mahoni pada Berbagai Variasi Kerapatan Incising dengan Dua Skedul Pengeringan Suhu tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomy Listyanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh interaksi variasi kerapatan incising dan dua skedul pengeringan terhadap kecepatan dan cacat-cacat pengeringan kayu mahoni, serta mengetahui pengaruh variasi kerapatan incising terhadap kekuatan lengkung statik kayu mahoni yang telah dikeringkan. Tiga pohon mahoni (Swietenia mahagony berdiameter 300-350 mm ditebang dan selanjutnya dibelah dan dibuat menjadi balok dengan ukuran 60 mm × 100 mm dengan panjang 500 mm untuk dijadikan sampel pengeringan. Di antara masing-masing bagian tersebut, dibuat sampel ukuran 20 mm × 20 mm × 25 mm, yang digunakan untuk penentu kadar air awal dan distribusinya. Sampel pengeringan selanjutnya dibagi menjadi 5 variasi kerapatan incising, yaitu 0 lubang/m2 (tanpa incising, 1000 lubang/m2, 2000 lubang/m2, 3000 lubang/m2, dan 4000 lubang/m2. Setiap variasi kerapatan incising selanjutnya akan dikeringkan dengan 2 skedul pengeringan, yaitu suhu pengeringan 100°C sampai tercapai kadar air akhir 12% dan suhu 60°C pada 8 jam pertama dan selanjutnya dilanjutkan 100°C, sampai tercapai kadar air akhir 12%. Paramater yang diamati adalah kecepatan pengeringan, cacat retak permukaan, dan distribusi kadar air akhir. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa kerapatan incising 3000-4000 lubang/m2 memberikan pengaruh yang cukup nyata di dalam mempercepat proses pengeringan dan distribusi kadar air akhir. Skedul pengeringan dan variasi kerapatan incising tidak berpengaruh pada retak permukaan. Pra perlakuan incising sampai batas 4000 lubang/m2 ini dapat diterapkan untuk mempercepat proses pengeringan dengan penurunan nilai modulus elastisitas dan modulus patah yang tidak berbeda nyata. Kata kunci: incising, pengeringan suhu tinggi, mahoni, lengkung statik, skedul pengeringan   Drying Quality of Mahoni Wood in Various Incising Densities and Two High Temperature-Drying Schedules Abstract The aims of this research were to investigate the effects of interaction

  12. Relaxation incisions of venomous snake "Japanese mamushi" bites to the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugamata A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Akira Sugamata, Naoki Yoshizawa, Takahiro OkadaDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Gloydius blomhoffii, commonly known as Japanese mamushi, is a venomous viper species found widely in Japan. The most frequently bitten regions are the fingers and toes, and severe swelling causes compression of peripheral arteries and/or compartment syndrome of the extremities. We experienced four cases of mamushi bites to the hand, and undertook relaxation incision in the hands of three of these patients. As a result, the patients who underwent relaxation incision did not show any skin necrosis or permanent sensory disturbance in the affected fingers. Relaxation incision can be useful to not only decompress subcutaneous and compartment pressure of the hand, but also to wash out the venom from the bitten region by improving venous and lymphatic drainage.Keywords: mamushi, snakebite, viper, relaxation incision

  13. Treatment for incarcerated indirect hernia with "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xue-Qiang; Yang, Jun; Zheng, Nan-Nan; Kuang, Hou-Fang; Duan, Xu-Fei; Bian, Hong-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the utility of the "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision for the surgical treatment of incarcerated indirect hernia (IIH) complicated with severe abdominal distension. Patients of IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension were reviewed retrospectively. All patients received operation through the "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision. There were totally 13 patients were included, male to female ratio was 9-4. The time for patients to resume oral feeding varying from 2 to 5 days after operation, no complications include delayed intestinal perforation, intra-abdominal abscess, and incision infection happened. Average postoperative hospital stay was 5.2 days. All cases were followed up for 6-18 months. No recurrence or iatrogenic cryptorchidism happened. "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision is a simple, safe, and reliable surgical method to treat pediatric IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension.

  14. Treatment for incarcerated indirect hernia with “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qiang Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to evaluate the utility of the “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision for the surgical treatment of incarcerated indirect hernia (IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension. Materials and Methods: Patients of IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension were reviewed retrospectively. All patients received operation through the “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision. Results: There were totally 13 patients were included, male to female ratio was 9-4. The time for patients to resume oral feeding varying from 2 to 5 days after operation, no complications include delayed intestinal perforation, intra-abdominal abscess, and incision infection happened. Average postoperative hospital stay was 5.2 days. All cases were followed up for 6–18 months. No recurrence or iatrogenic cryptorchidism happened. Conclusion: “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision is a simple, safe, and reliable surgical method to treat pediatric IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension.

  15. Cochlear implantation with Pulsar Med El: a novel small incision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, D

    2009-04-01

    Although still widely implanted, Pulsar Med-El is rarely considered for small incision approach. Overall, 30 teen-age and adult patients were operated upon with a novel small incision (4-5 cm). Full insertion of the electrode array was achieved in all cases. No major intra-operative complications occurred. At follow-up, no flap-related complications and no migration of the receiver-stimulator were observed in the "device suture" (14 patients) or "no device suture" groups (16 patients). All patients are full-time users of the device. In conclusion, a small incision for the Pulsar Med-El cochlear implant is feasible, safe and reproducible. Ligature fixation of the device is not critical with this operation. Also with this device, in adult and teen-age patients, it is, therefore, possible to retain several typical advantages of small incision approaches.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair, open repair, and conservative management of splenic artery aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, Wouter; Lavida, Anthi; Hunink, M. G Myriam; Moll, Frans L.; Geroulakos, George; Muhs, Bart E.; Sumpio, Bauer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Open repair (OPEN) and conservative management (CONS) have been the treatments of choice for splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) for many years. Endovascular repair (EV) has been increasingly used with good short-term results. In this study, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of OPEN, EV, and

  17. Evaluation of a new disposable silicon limbal relaxing incision knife by experienced users

    OpenAIRE

    Parvu Valentin; Dugue Geoffrey; Albanese John; Bajart Ann M; Lee Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that the silicon BD Atomic Edge™ knife has superior performance characteristics when compared to a metal knife and performance similar to diamond knife when making various incisions. This study was designed to determine whether a silicon accurate depth knife has equivalent performance characteristics when compared to a diamond limbal relaxing incision (LRI) knife and superior performance characteristics when compared to a steel accurate dept...

  18. Type of incision does not predict abdominal wall outcome after emergency surgery for colonic anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Oma, Erling; Harling, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    for anastomotic leakage were included with a median follow-up of 5.4 years. Incisional hernia occurred in 41 of 227 (15.3%) patients undergoing midline incision compared with 14 of 81 (14.7%) following transverse incision, P = 1.00. After adjusting for confounders, there was no association between the type...... not predict abdominal wall outcome after emergency surgery for colonic anastomotic leakage....

  19. Laser incising of wood: Impregnation of columns with water-soluble dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, N.; Ando, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakamura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To know whether or not laser incising is a useful pre-treatment technique in impregnating a chemical fluid into lumber, pin holes were made in columns of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.), sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don), karamatsu (Larix leptolepis Gordon) and douglas-fir (Pseudo-tsuga menziesii Franco) with 1.7 kW CO2 laser, and a water-soluble dye was impregnated into these columns with a local pressure impregnation device. Retentions, and lengths and widths of penetrations from each hole were measured quantitatively. Referring to the results of the preparatory experiment mentioned above, incising patterns for sugi and douglas-fir were designed, and the same water-soluble dye was impregnated into the laser-incised columns as well as into non-incised ones with the vacuum-pressure method to obtain penetrated layers with the target depths completely. As a result, a retention of 200 kg/m3 of dye could be achieved for a column of douglas-fir even if it is a species difficult to impregnate. The penetrated layer also could be formed completely at the depth of the laser incision. Therefore, it is concluded that laser incising can be used for the pre-treatment before impregnation of wood columns. (author)

  20. Evaluation of a new disposable silicon limbal relaxing incision knife by experienced users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, John; Dugue, Geoffrey; Parvu, Valentin; Bajart, Ann M; Lee, Edwin

    2009-12-21

    Previous research has suggested that the silicon BD Atomic Edge knife has superior performance characteristics when compared to a metal knife and performance similar to diamond knife when making various incisions. This study was designed to determine whether a silicon accurate depth knife has equivalent performance characteristics when compared to a diamond limbal relaxing incision (LRI) knife and superior performance characteristics when compared to a steel accurate depth knife when creating limbal relaxing incision. Sixty-five ophthalmic surgeons with limbal relaxing incision experience created limbal relaxing incisions in ex-vivo porcine eyes with silicon and steel accurate depth knives and diamond LRI knives. The ophthalmic surgeons rated multiple performance characteristics of the knives on Visual Analog Scales. The observed differences between the silicon knife and diamond knife were found to be insignificant. The mean ratio between the performance of the silicon knife and the diamond knife was shown to be greater than 90% (with 95% confidence). The silicon knife's mean performance was significantly higher than the performance of the steel knife for all characteristics. (p-value knife was found to be equivalent in performance to the diamond LRI knife and superior to the steel accurate depth knife when making limbal relaxing incisions in ex vivo porcine eyes. Disposable silicon LRI knives may be an alternative to diamond LRI knives.

  1. Evaluation of a new disposable silicon limbal relaxing incision knife by experienced users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvu Valentin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that the silicon BD Atomic Edge™ knife has superior performance characteristics when compared to a metal knife and performance similar to diamond knife when making various incisions. This study was designed to determine whether a silicon accurate depth knife has equivalent performance characteristics when compared to a diamond limbal relaxing incision (LRI knife and superior performance characteristics when compared to a steel accurate depth knife when creating limbal relaxing incision. Methods Sixty-five ophthalmic surgeons with limbal relaxing incision experience created limbal relaxing incisions in ex-vivo porcine eyes with silicon and steel accurate depth knives and diamond LRI knives. The ophthalmic surgeons rated multiple performance characteristics of the knives on Visual Analog Scales. Results The observed differences between the silicon knife and diamond knife were found to be insignificant. The mean ratio between the performance of the silicon knife and the diamond knife was shown to be greater than 90% (with 95% confidence. The silicon knife's mean performance was significantly higher than the performance of the steel knife for all characteristics. (p-value Conclusions For experienced users, the silicon accurate depth knife was found to be equivalent in performance to the diamond LRI knife and superior to the steel accurate depth knife when making limbal relaxing incisions in ex vivo porcine eyes. Disposable silicon LRI knives may be an alternative to diamond LRI knives.

  2. Association between incision technique for hamstring tendon harvest in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and the risk of injury to the infra-patellar branch of the saphenous nerve: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Alberto; Perdisa, Francesco; Samuelsson, Kristian; Svantesson, Eleonor; Romagnoli, Matteo; Raggi, Federico; Gaziano, Teide; Mosca, Massimiliano; Ayeni, Olufemi; Zaffagnini, Stefano

    2018-02-08

    To determine how the incision technique for hamstring tendon (HT) harvest in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction affects the risk of injury to the IPBSN and clinical outcome. A systematic literature search of the MEDLINE/Pubmed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EBSCOhost electronic databases and clinicaltrials.gov for unpublished studies was performed to identify comparative studies investigating injury to the IPBSN after HT ACL reconstruction by comparing at least two different incision techniques. Data were extracted for the number of patients with evidence of any neurologic deficit corresponding to injury to the IPBSN, area of sensory deficit, the Lysholm score and patient satisfaction. The mean difference (MD) in study outcome between incision groups was assessed. The relative risk (RR) and the number needed to treat (NNT) were calculated. The Chi-square and Higgins' I 2 tests were applied to test heterogeneity. Data were pooled using a Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model if the statistical heterogeneity was > 50% and a fixed-effects model if the statistical heterogeneity was < 50%. The risk of bias was evaluated according to the Cochrane Database questionnaire and the quality of evidence was graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. A total of eight studies (three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five comparative studies) were included, of which six compared vertical and oblique incisions, one horizontal and vertical incisions, and one compared all three techniques. HT harvest was performed through a vertical incision in 329 patients, through an oblique incision in 195 patients and through a horizontal incision in 151 patients. Considering the meta-analysis of the RCTs, the performance of a vertical incision significantly increased the risk of causing IPBSN deficiency compared with both oblique and horizontal incision [RR 1.65 (CI 1

  3. Snowmobile Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Stephen S.; Conrad, Rex

    This teacher's guide contains 14 units on snowmobile repair: (1) introduction to snowmobile repair; (2) skis, front suspension, and steering; (3) drive clutch; (4) drive belts; (5) driven clutch; (6) chain drives; (7) jackshafts and axles; (8) rear suspension; (9) tracks; (10) shock absorbers; (11) brakes; (12) engines; (13) ignition and…

  4. DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimyo, Mitsuoki

    1995-01-01

    Fission yeast S. pombe is assumed to be a good model for cloning of human DNA repair genes, because human gene is normally expressed in S. pombe and has a very similar protein sequence to yeast protein. We have tried to elucidate the DNA repair mechanisms of S. pombe as a model system for those of mammals. (J.P.N.)

  5. Recruitment and positioning determine the specific role of the XPF-ERCC1 endonuclease in interstrand crosslink repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Douwel, Daisy; Hoogenboom, Wouter S; Boonen, Rick Acm; Knipscheer, Puck

    2017-07-14

    XPF-ERCC1 is a structure-specific endonuclease pivotal for several DNA repair pathways and, when mutated, can cause multiple diseases. Although the disease-specific mutations are thought to affect different DNA repair pathways, the molecular basis for this is unknown. Here we examine the function of XPF-ERCC1 in DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair. We used Xenopus egg extracts to measure both ICL and nucleotide excision repair, and we identified mutations that are specifically defective in ICL repair. One of these separation-of-function mutations resides in the helicase-like domain of XPF and disrupts binding to SLX4 and recruitment to the ICL A small deletion in the same domain supports recruitment of XPF to the ICL, but inhibited the unhooking incisions most likely by disrupting a second, transient interaction with SLX4. Finally, mutation of residues in the nuclease domain did not affect localization of XPF-ERCC1 to the ICL but did prevent incisions on the ICL substrate. Our data support a model in which the ICL repair-specific function of XPF-ERCC1 is dependent on recruitment, positioning and substrate recognition. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. Equipment for construction and repair of pipework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehrich, H.

    1987-01-01

    More stringent requirements on the integrity of safety-related components in power plants with a view to ensuring the availability of these installations and to rationalizing in-service inspections and repairs have resulted in rapid enhancement of the inspection and repair methods used. Piping systems are increasingly being visually inspected, tested and possibly subjected to remote-control repair from the interior using remotely controlled inspection vehicles. This calls for machines with high levels of reliability which may be operated by means of remote control. Technical developments make it possible nowadays to perform operations that were largely out of the question a decade ago. (orig.) [de

  7. The origin and significance of sinuosity along incising bedrock rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Jonathan Ross

    Landscapes evolve through processes acting at the earth's surface in response to tectonics and climate. Rivers that cut into bedrock are particularly important since they set the local baselevel and communicate changes in boundary conditions across the landscape through erosion and deposition; the pace of topographic evolution depends on both the rate of change of the boundary conditions and the speed of the bedrock channel network response. Much of the work so far has considered the effects of tectonically-controlled changes in slope and climatically-controlled changes in discharges to the rate of channel bed erosion while considering bank erosion, if active at all, to be of at best secondary importance to landscape evolution. Sprinkled throughout the literature of the past century are studies that have recognized lateral activity along incising rivers, but conflicting interpretations have left many unanswered questions about how to identify and measure horizontal erosion, what drives it, what effect it has on the landscape, and how it responds to climate and tectonics. In this thesis, I begin to answer some of these questions by focusing on bedrock river sinuosity and its evolution through horizontal erosion of the channel banks. An analysis of synoptic scale topography and climatology of the islands of eastern Asia reveals a quantitative signature of storm frequency in a regional measure of mountain river sinuosity. This is partly explained through a study of the hydro- and morphodynamics of a rapidly evolving bedrock river in Taiwan which shows how the erosive forces vary along a river to influence the spatiotemporal distribution of downcutting, sidecutting, and sediment transport. Through these analyses, I also present evidence that suggests that the relative frequency of erosive events is far more important than the absolute magnitude of extreme events in setting the erosion rate, and I show that the horizontal erosion of bedrock rivers is an important

  8. Phosphate steering by Flap Endonuclease 1 promotes 5′-flap specificity and incision to prevent genome instability

    KAUST Repository

    Tsutakawa, Susan E.

    2017-06-27

    DNA replication and repair enzyme Flap Endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is vital for genome integrity, and FEN1 mutations arise in multiple cancers. FEN1 precisely cleaves single-stranded (ss) 5\\'-flaps one nucleotide into duplex (ds) DNA. Yet, how FEN1 selects for but does not incise the ss 5\\'-flap was enigmatic. Here we combine crystallographic, biochemical and genetic analyses to show that two dsDNA binding sites set the 5\\'polarity and to reveal unexpected control of the DNA phosphodiester backbone by electrostatic interactions. Via phosphate steering\\', basic residues energetically steer an inverted ss 5\\'-flap through a gateway over FEN1\\'s active site and shift dsDNA for catalysis. Mutations of these residues cause an 18,000-fold reduction in catalytic rate in vitro and large-scale trinucleotide (GAA) repeat expansions in vivo, implying failed phosphate-steering promotes an unanticipated lagging-strand template-switch mechanism during replication. Thus, phosphate steering is an unappreciated FEN1 function that enforces 5\\'-flap specificity and catalysis, preventing genomic instability.

  9. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  10. No difference in incidence of port-site hernia and chronic pain after single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Brandt, Erik; Oehlenschläger, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    and matched 1:2 with patients subjected to CLC using pre-defined criteria. Follow-up data were obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry, mailed patient questionnaires, and clinical examination. A port-site hernia was defined as a repair for a port-site hernia or clinical hernia located at one......BACKGROUND: Conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) is regarded as the gold standard for cholecystectomy. However, single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC) has been suggested to replace CLC. This study aimed at comparing long-term incidences of port-site hernia and chronic pain...... after SLC versus CLC. METHODS: We conducted a matched cohort study based on prospective data (Jan 1, 2009-June 1, 2011) from the Danish Cholecystectomy Database with perioperative information and clinical follow-up. Consecutive patients undergoing elective SLC during the study period were included...

  11. Comparative analysis of corneal morphological changes after transversal and torsional phacoemulsification through 2.2 mm corneal incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Ahmed; Roshdy, Maged Maher

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares and evaluates the corneal morphological changes occurring after cataract surgery through a 2.2 mm corneal incision. We use two platforms for comparison and evaluation, transversal and torsional phacoemulsification. This study includes 139 consecutive cataractous eyes (nuclear color 2-4, according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III [LOCSIII]) of 82 patients undergoing cataract surgery through a 2.2 mm corneal incision. Two different phacoemulsification platforms were used and assigned randomly: we used the WhiteStar Signature(®) system with the Ellips™ FX transversal continuous ultrasound (US) mode for group I (mean age: 65.33 ± 6.97 years), and we used the Infiniti(®) system with the OZil(®) Intelligent Phaco (IP) torsional US mode for group II (mean age: 64.02 ± 7.55 years). The corneal endothelium and pachymetry were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively. Incision size changes were also evaluated. All surgeries were uneventful. Before intraocular lens implantation, the mean incision size was 2.24 ± 0.06 mm in both groups (P = 0.75). In terms of corneal endothelial cell density, neither preoperative (I vs II: 2304.1 ± 122.5 cell/mm(2) vs 2315.6 ± 83.1 cell/mm(2), P = 0.80) nor postoperative (I vs II: 2264.1 ± 124.3 cell/mm(2) vs 2270.3 ± 89.9 cell/mm(2), P = 0.98) differences between the groups were statistically significant. The mean endothelial cell density loss was 1.7% ± 1.6% and 2.0% ± 1.4% in groups I and II, respectively. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups I and II were found preoperatively (P = 0.40) and postoperatively (P = 0.68) in central pachymetry. With surgery, the mean increase in central pachymetry was 28.1 ± 23.6 μm and 24.0 ± 24.0 μm in groups I and II, respectively (P = 0.1). Ellips™ FX transversal and OZil(®) IP torsional phacoemulsification modes are safe for performing cataract surgery, inducing minimal corneal thickness and endothelial changes.

  12. Comparative analysis of corneal morphological changes after transversal and torsional phacoemulsification through 2.2 mm corneal incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Assaf, Maged Maher RoshdyOphthalmology Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: This paper compares and evaluates the corneal morphological changes occurring after cataract surgery through a 2.2 mm corneal incision. We use two platforms for comparison and evaluation, transversal and torsional phacoemulsification.Patients and methods: This study includes 139 consecutive cataractous eyes (nuclear color 2–4, according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III [LOCSIII] of 82 patients undergoing cataract surgery through a 2.2 mm corneal incision. Two different phacoemulsification platforms were used and assigned randomly: we used the WhiteStar Signature® system with the Ellips™ FX transversal continuous ultrasound (US mode for group I (mean age: 65.33 ± 6.97 years, and we used the Infiniti® system with the OZil® Intelligent Phaco (IP torsional US mode for group II (mean age: 64.02 ± 7.55 years. The corneal endothelium and pachymetry were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively. Incision size changes were also evaluated.Results: All surgeries were uneventful. Before intraocular lens implantation, the mean incision size was 2.24 ± 0.06 mm in both groups (P = 0.75. In terms of corneal endothelial cell density, neither preoperative (I vs II: 2304.1 ± 122.5 cell/mm2 vs 2315.6 ± 83.1 cell/mm2, P = 0.80 nor postoperative (I vs II: 2264.1 ± 124.3 cell/mm2 vs 2270.3 ± 89.9 cell/mm2, P = 0.98 differences between the groups were statistically significant. The mean endothelial cell density loss was 1.7% ± 1.6% and 2.0% ± 1.4% in groups I and II, respectively. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups I and II were found preoperatively (P = 0.40 and postoperatively (P = 0.68 in central pachymetry. With surgery, the mean increase in central pachymetry was 28.1 ± 23.6 µm and 24.0 ± 24.0 µm in groups I and II, respectively (P = 0.1.Conclusion: Ellips™ FX transversal and OZil® IP torsional

  13. Short-term outcomes of small incision cataract surgery provided by a regional population in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz; Vellara, Hans; Lolokabaira, Salome; Murray, Neil; Sikivou, Biu; McGhee, Charles

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to describe patient demographics, visual and surgical outcomes of a cohort undergoing small incision cataract surgery at a Pacific regional ophthalmic training facility. This is a prospective, longitudinal study conducted at the Pacific Eye Institute, Fiji. One hundred fifty-six patients underwent small incision cataract surgery. Preoperatively, a complete ophthalmic examination, including pachymetry and macular optical coherence tomography performed by two independent investigators. Temporal small incision cataract surgery with intraocular lens insertion was performed by ophthalmologists, and trainee ophthalmologists. Follow-up occurred at day one, four weeks and 3 months. Patient characteristics, visual outcomes including surgically induced astigmatism and complications. Ninety-one per cent (142/156) attended 3-month follow-up with median age 63 years (range 19-82), 52% female (81/156) and 58% (90/156) Fijian ethnicity. In 37% (57/156), the contralateral eye was pseudophakic. Mean preoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was logMAR 1.44 (6/165). At 3 months, 74% (105/142) achieved ≥6/18 unaided vision (94% [133/142] best spectacle-corrected visual acuity). Mean postoperative spherical equivalent was -0.78 (SD 0.95) D and mean surgically induced astigmatism 1.04 (0.57) D. Complications included posterior capsular rupture with vitreous loss (4% [6/156]), optical coherence tomography confirmed macular oedema (8% [12/152] at 4 weeks), significant posterior capsular opacity (23% [31/136]) and >5% increase in preoperative pachymetry (1% [1/142]) at 3 months. Reduction in preoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity occurred in 2% (3/142). No cases of endophthalmitis. Small incision cataract surgery provided to a regional population is effective with 94% achieving the World Health Organisation's definition of 'Good Vision' (≥6/18). Refinements in biometric and surgical techniques may allow a greater proportion of patients to

  14. Efficient Composite Repair Methods for Launch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polymer matrix composites are increasingly replacing traditional metallic materials in NASA launch vehicles. However, the repair and subsequent inspection methods...

  15. Long-term Results of Small-incision Lenticule Extraction in High Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yıldırım

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate two-year results of small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE for correction of high myopia. Materials and Methods: Forty-five eyes of 35 patients with mean spherical equivalent (SE of -7.10±0.95 D who underwent routine SMILE by a single surgeon and were followed for at least 2 years were analyzed by retrospective chart review. SMILE was performed with a Visumax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany. Follow-up intervals were at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Uncorrected and best corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, corneal wavefront measurements, and all complications were recorded. Results: After 2 years, 86% of eyes with plano target had an uncorrected distant visual acuity (VA of 20/20 or better. Two percent of eyes lost 1 line of CDVA, while 32% gained 1 line. The mean SE after 2 years was -0.30±0.50 D. Corneal total high-order aberrations (HOA increased from 0.43 to 0.92 μm at postoperative 12 months. There were metallic foreign bodies at the corneal interface in 1 eye of 1 patient which caused no decrease in VA. Conclusion: SMILE for high myopia seems safe and effective in light of two-year follow-up results. The procedure caused a moderate increase in HOA.

  16. Surgically induced astigmatism after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal clear corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hwan Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the corneal refractive changes induced after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: This prospective study comprised a consecutive case series of 60 eyes from 30 patients with bilateral phacoemulsification that were implanted with a 6.0 mm foldable intraocular lens through a 3.0 mm horizontal clear corneal incision (temporal in the right eyes, nasal in the left eyes. The outcome measures were surgically induced astigmatism (SIA and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA 1 and 3 months, post-operatively. Results: At 1 month, the mean SIA was 0.81 diopter (D for the temporal incisions and 0.92 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.139. At 3 months, the mean SIA were 0.53 D for temporal incisions and 0.62 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.309. The UCVA was similar in the 2 incision groups before surgery, and at 1 and 3 months post-operatively. Conclusion: After bilateral cataract surgery using 3.0 mm temporal and nasal horizontal corneal incisions, the induced corneal astigmatic change was similar in both incision groups. Especially in Asian eyes, both temporal and nasal incisions (3.0 mm or less would be favorable for astigmatism-neutral cataract surgery.

  17. Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    that it could apply to ongoing maintenance work. According to Schuh, "SMART standardized and streamlined many shuttle repair processes, saving time and money while increasing safety and the quality of repairs." Maintenance technicians and engineers now had a tool that kept them in the field, and because SMART is capable of continually evolving, each time an engineer put it to use, it would enrich the Agency-wide knowledge base. "If an engineer sees something in the work environment that they could improve, a repair process or a procedure, SMART can incorporate that data for use in future operations," says Belson.

  18. Initial experience of laparoscopic incisional hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razman, J; Shaharin, S; Lukman, M R; Sukumar, N; Jasmi, A Y

    2006-06-01

    Laparoscopic repair of ventral and incisional hernia has become increasingly popular as compared to open repair. The procedure has the advantages of minimal access surgery, reduction of post operative pain and the recurrence rate. A prospective study of laparoscopic incisional hernia repair was performed in our center from August 2002 to April 2004. Eighteen cases (n: 18) were performed during the study period. Fifteen cases (n: 15) had open hernia repair previously. Sixteen patients (n: 16) had successful repair of the hernia with the laparoscopic approach and two cases were converted to open repair. The mean hernia defect size was 156cm2. There was no intraoperative or immediate postoperative complication. The mean operating time was 100 +/- 34 minutes (75 - 180 minutes). The postoperative pain was graded as mild to moderate according to visual analogue score. The mean day of discharge after surgery was two days (1 - 3 days). During follow up, three patients (16.7%) developed seroma at the hernia sac which was resolved with conservative management after three weeks. One (5.6%) patient developed recurrence six months after surgery. In conclusion, laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia particularly recurrent hernia has been shown to be safe and effective in our centre. However, careful patient selection and acquiring the necessary advanced laparoscopic surgical skills coupled with the proper use of equipment are mandatory before embarking on this procedure.

  19. High performance repairing of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskhakov, I.; Ribakov, Y.; Holschemacher, K.; Mueller, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Steel fibered high strength concrete is effective for repairing concrete elements. ► Changing fibers’ content, required ductility of the repaired element is achieved. ► Experiments prove previously developed design concepts for two layer beams. -- Abstract: Steel fibered high strength concrete (SFHSC) is an effective material that can be used for repairing concrete elements. Design of normal strength concrete (NSC) elements that should be repaired using SFHSC can be based on general concepts for design of two-layer beams, consisting of SFHSC in the compressed zone and NSC without fibers in the tensile zone. It was previously reported that such elements are effective when their section carries rather large bending moments. Steel fibers, added to high strength concrete, increase its ultimate deformations due to the additional energy dissipation potential contributed by fibers. When changing the fibers’ content, a required ductility level of the repaired element can be achieved. Providing proper ductility is important for design of structures to dynamic loadings. The current study discusses experimental results that form a basis for finding optimal fiber content, yielding the highest Poisson coefficient and ductility of the repaired elements’ sections. Some technological issues as well as distribution of fibers in the cross section of two-layer bending elements are investigated. The experimental results, obtained in the frame of this study, form a basis for general technological provisions, related to repairing of NSC beams and slabs, using SFHSC.

  20. Advanced repair methods for enhanced reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornfeldt, H.

    1993-01-01

    A few innovative concepts are described of the ABB Atom Service Division for repair and mitigation techniques for primary systems in nuclear power plants. The concepts are based on Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) technology. A basic feature of all methods is that welding and component replacement is being avoided and the radiation dose imposed on maintenance personnel reduced. The SMA-based repair methods give plant operators new ways to meet increased safety standards and rising maintenance costs. (Z.S.) 4 figs

  1. Does pilonidal abscess heal quicker with off-midline incision and drainage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P M; Wysocki, A P

    2011-06-01

    No clinical trials have been done to guide the surgeon in the optimal technique of draining a pilonidal abscess. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the location of the incision influences wound healing. Electronic records from the surgical database at our 200-bed district general hospital were reviewed for operative technique (midline vs. lateral) for patients who underwent incision and drainage for acute pilonidal abscess between January 2003 and February 2010. These patients were admitted from the Emergency Department with a pilonidal abscess, underwent operative drainage, and returned for follow-up. The main outcome measure was wound healing time. Two hundred and forty-three pilonidal abscesses were drained, 134 with a lateral and 74 with a midline incision. All patients underwent simple longitudinal incision. No patient underwent de-roofing, marsupialisation, or closure. Forty-eight patients with midline drainage who returned for follow-up were matched for gender, age, and microbiology culture results with patients who underwent lateral drainage. Almost all were drained under general anesthesia with a median postoperative stay of 1 day. The overall length of follow-up was the same in both groups (P = 0.13). Abscesses that did not heal were followed-up for the same period of time irrespective of incision type (P = 0.48). Abscesses that healed after midline incision took approximately 3 weeks longer than those drained via a lateral incision (P = 0.02). Our study has limitations since it was a retrospective study that did not capture patients whose abscess drained spontaneously or were drained in the emergency department. Pilonidal abscess should be drained away from the midline.

  2. A study of incisive canal using a cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the anatomical structure of the incisive canal radiographically by a cone beam computed tomography. 38 persons (male 26, female 12) were chosen to take images of maxillary anterior region in dental CT mode using a cone beam computed tomography. The tube voltage were 65, 67, and 70 kVp, the tube current was 7 mA, and the exposure time was 13.3 seconds. The FH plane of each person was parallel to the floor. The images were analysed on the CRT display. The mean length of incisive canal was 15.87 mm ± 2.92. The mean diameter at the side of palate and nasal fossa were 3.49 mm ± 0.76 and 3.89 mm ± 1.06, respectively. In the cross-sectional shape of incisive canal, 50% were round, 34.2% were ovoid, and 15.8% were lobulated. 87% of incisive canal at the side of nasal fossa have one canal, 10.4% have two canals, and 2.6% have three canals, but these canals were merged into one canal in the middle portion of palate. The mean angles of the long axis of incisive canal and central incisor to the FH plane were 110.3 ± 6.96 and 117.45 ± 7.41, respectively. The angles of the long axis of incisive canal and central incisor to the FH plane were least correlated (r 0.258). This experiment suggests that a cone beam computed radiography will be helpful in surgery or implantation on the maxillary incisive area.

  3. A study of incisive canal using a cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To investigate the anatomical structure of the incisive canal radiographically by a cone beam computed tomography. 38 persons (male 26, female 12) were chosen to take images of maxillary anterior region in dental CT mode using a cone beam computed tomography. The tube voltage were 65, 67, and 70 kVp, the tube current was 7 mA, and the exposure time was 13.3 seconds. The FH plane of each person was parallel to the floor. The images were analysed on the CRT display. The mean length of incisive canal was 15.87 mm {+-} 2.92. The mean diameter at the side of palate and nasal fossa were 3.49 mm {+-} 0.76 and 3.89 mm {+-} 1.06, respectively. In the cross-sectional shape of incisive canal, 50% were round, 34.2% were ovoid, and 15.8% were lobulated. 87% of incisive canal at the side of nasal fossa have one canal, 10.4% have two canals, and 2.6% have three canals, but these canals were merged into one canal in the middle portion of palate. The mean angles of the long axis of incisive canal and central incisor to the FH plane were 110.3 {+-} 6.96 and 117.45 {+-} 7.41, respectively. The angles of the long axis of incisive canal and central incisor to the FH plane were least correlated (r 0.258). This experiment suggests that a cone beam computed radiography will be helpful in surgery or implantation on the maxillary incisive area.

  4. Repairable-conditionally repairable damage model based on dual Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, B K; Persson, L M; Edgren, M R; Hedlöf, I; Brahme, A

    2003-09-01

    The advent of intensity-modulated radiation therapy makes it increasingly important to model the response accurately when large volumes of normal tissues are irradiated by controlled graded dose distributions aimed at maximizing tumor cure and minimizing normal tissue toxicity. The cell survival model proposed here is very useful and flexible for accurate description of the response of healthy tissues as well as tumors in classical and truly radiobiologically optimized radiation therapy. The repairable-conditionally repairable (RCR) model distinguishes between two different types of damage, namely the potentially repairable, which may also be lethal, i.e. if unrepaired or misrepaired, and the conditionally repairable, which may be repaired or may lead to apoptosis if it has not been repaired correctly. When potentially repairable damage is being repaired, for example by nonhomologous end joining, conditionally repairable damage may require in addition a high-fidelity correction by homologous repair. The induction of both types of damage is assumed to be described by Poisson statistics. The resultant cell survival expression has the unique ability to fit most experimental data well at low doses (the initial hypersensitive range), intermediate doses (on the shoulder of the survival curve), and high doses (on the quasi-exponential region of the survival curve). The complete Poisson expression can be approximated well by a simple bi-exponential cell survival expression, S(D) = e(-aD) + bDe(-cD), where the first term describes the survival of undamaged cells and the last term represents survival after complete repair of sublethal damage. The bi-exponential expression makes it easy to derive D(0), D(q), n and alpha, beta values to facilitate comparison with classical cell survival models.

  5. Wide Panel Testing Technique for Evaluating Repair Weld Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Patrick R.; Bynum, Julian E.; Shah, Sandeep R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a new tensile testing technique for evaluating the overall effect of a repair weld on the strength of a welded joint. Previously, repair weld strengths have been evaluated using one-inch width tensile specimens, but this technique does not capture all of the effects that result from a repair. The new technique involves testing of "wide panel" tensile specimens which contain the full length of a repair weld within a longer initial weld, allowing the specimen to capture the combined effects of residual stresses, local strength degradation, and load redistribution around a repair. The development of strains in the repair area of standard aluminum alloy specimens and new high-performance aluminum-lithium alloy specimens was observed and evaluated using photoelastic material. The results of this evaluation show an increased sensitivity to repair welding residual stresses in the aluminum-lithium alloy specimens.

  6. An analysis of the repair processes in ultraviolet-irradiated Micrococcus luteus using purified ultraviolet-endonuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomilin, N.V.; Zherebtsov, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of the frequency of endonucleolytic incisions in ultraviolet-irradiated DNA serves as the test for the presence of pyrimidine dimers. In accordance with this approach, the lysates of three Micrococcus luteus strains containing radioactively labeled chromosomes were treated with purified M. luteus ultraviolet-endonuclease to trace segregation of dimers amongst parental and newly synthesized DNA and their removal during postreplication and excision DNA repair. A considerable proportion of the dimers in all strains tested proved to be insensitive to the action of exogenous incising enzyme. The use of chloramphenicol as an inhibitor of postirradiation protein synthesis in combination with ultraviolet-endonuclease treatment of DNA allowed to reveal at least two alternative pathways of postreplication repair: constitutively active recombinational pathway and inducible nonrecombinational one. (Auth.)

  7. DNA excision repair in permeable human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, W.K.; Bodell, W.J.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    U.v. irradiation of confluent human fibroblasts activated DNA repair, aspects of which were characterized in the cells after they were permeabilized. Incubation of intact cells for 20 min between irradiation and harvesting was necessary to obtain a maximum rate of reparative DNA synthesis. Cells harvested immediately after irradiation before repair was initiated displayed only a small stimulation of DNA synthesis, indicating that permeable cells have a reduced capacity to recognize pyrimidine dimers and activate repair. The distribution of sizes of DNA strands labeled during 10 min of reparative DNA synthesis resembled that of parental DNA. However, during a 60-min incubation of permeable cells at 37 degrees C, parental DNA and DNA labeled by reparative DNA synthesis were both cleaved to smaller sizes. Cleavage also occurred in unirradiated cells, indicating that endogenous nuclease was active during incubation. Repair patches synthesized in permeable cells displayed increased sensitivity to digestion by micrococcal nuclease. However, the change in sensitivity during a chase with unlabeled DNA precursors was small, suggesting that reassembly of nucleosome structure at sites of repair was impaired. To examine whether this deficiency was due to a preponderance of incomplete or unligated repair patches, 3H-labeled (repaired) DNA was purified, then digested with exonuclease III and nuclease S1 to probe for free 3' ends and single-stranded regions. About 85% of the [3H]DNA synthesized during a 10-min pulse resisted digestion, suggesting that a major fraction of the repair patches that were filled were also ligated. U.v. light-activated DNA synthesis in permeable cells, therefore, appears to represent the continuation of reparative gap-filling at sites of excision repair activated within intact cells. Gap-filling and ligation were comparatively efficient processes in permeable cells

  8. Two sides of the same coin: TFIIH complexes in transcription and DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhovmer, Alexander; Oksenych, Valentyn; Coin, Frédéric

    2010-04-13

    TFIIH is organized into a seven-subunit core associated with a three-subunit Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) module. TFIIH has roles in both transcription initiation and DNA repair. During the last 15 years, several studies have been conducted to identify the composition of the TFIIH complex involved in DNA repair. Recently, a new technique combining chromatin immunoprecipitation and western blotting resolved the hidden nature of the TFIIH complex participating in DNA repair. Following the recruitment of TFIIH to the damaged site, the CAK module is released from the core TFIIH, and the core subsequently associates with DNA repair factors. The release of the CAK is specifically driven by the recruitment of the DNA repair factor XPA and is required to promote the incision/excision of the damaged DNA. Once the DNA lesions have been repaired, the CAK module returns to the core TFIIH on the chromatin, together with the release of the repair factors. These data highlight the dynamic composition of a fundamental cellular factor that adapts its subunit composition to the cell needs.

  9. Two Sides of the Same Coin: TFIIH Complexes in Transcription and DNA Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zhovmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TFIIH is organized into a seven-subunit core associated with a three-subunit Cdk-activating kinase (CAK module. TFIIH has roles in both transcription initiation and DNA repair. During the last 15 years, several studies have been conducted to identify the composition of the TFIIH complex involved in DNA repair. Recently, a new technique combining chromatin immunoprecipitation and western blotting resolved the hidden nature of the TFIIH complex participating in DNA repair. Following the recruitment of TFIIH to the damaged site, the CAK module is released from the core TFIIH, and the core subsequently associates with DNA repair factors. The release of the CAK is specifically driven by the recruitment of the DNA repair factor XPA and is required to promote the incision/excision of the damaged DNA. Once the DNA lesions have been repaired, the CAK module returns to the core TFIIH on the chromatin, together with the release of the repair factors. These data highlight the dynamic composition of a fundamental cellular factor that adapts its subunit composition to the cell needs.

  10. Repairing fuel for reinsertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukshenk, A.

    1986-01-01

    Eqiupment for nuclear reactor fuel assembly repairing produced by Westinghouse and Brawn Bovery companies is described. Repair of failed fuel assemblies replacement of defect fuel elements gives a noticeable economical effect. Thus if the cost of a new fuel assembly is 450-500 thousand dollars, the replacement of one fuel element in it costs approximately 40-60 thousand dollars. In simple cases repairing includes either removal of failed fuel elements from a fuel assembly and its reinsertion with the rest of fuel elements into the reactor core (reactor refueling), or replacement of unfailed fuel elements from one fuel assembly to a new one (fuel assembly overhaul and reconditioning)

  11. Targeting abnormal DNA double strand break repair in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rassool, Feyruz V.; Tomkinson, Alan E.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in cancer treatment is the development of therapies that target cancer cells with little or no toxicity to normal tissues and cells. Alterations in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair in cancer cells include both elevated and reduced levels of key repair proteins and changes in the relative contributions of the various DSB repair pathways. These differences can result in increased sensitivity to DSB-inducing agents and increased genomic instability. The development of agent...

  12. SILC for SILC: Single Institution Learning Curve for Single-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Wei Tay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We report the single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC learning experience of 2 hepatobiliary surgeons and the factors that could influence the learning curve of SILC. Methods. Patients who underwent SILC by Surgeons A and B were studied retrospectively. Operating time, conversion rate, reason for conversion, identity of first assistants, and their experience with previous laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC were analysed. CUSUM analysis is used to identify learning curve. Results. Hundred and nineteen SILC cases were performed by Surgeons A and B, respectively. Eight cases required additional port. In CUSUM analysis, most conversion occurred during the first 19 cases. Operating time was significantly lower (62.5 versus 90.6 min, P = 0.04 after the learning curve has been overcome. Operating time decreases as the experience increases, especially Surgeon B. Most conversions are due to adhesion at Calot’s triangle. Acute cholecystitis, patients’ BMI, and previous surgery do not seem to influence conversion rate. Mean operating times of cases assisted by first assistant with and without LC experience were 48 and 74 minutes, respectively (P = 0.004. Conclusion. Nineteen cases are needed to overcome the learning curve of SILC. Team work, assistant with CLC experience, and appropriate equipment and technique are the important factors in performing SILC.

  13. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Gidding, Corrie E; Loeffen, Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Mensenkamp, Arjen; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. An 8-year-old girl was diagnosed with CMMR-D syndrome after she developed a brain tumour at the age of 4 and a T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma at the age of 6. She had multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and died of myelodysplastic syndrome at the age of 11. In children with cancer CMMR-D syndrome can be recognized particularly if there are multiple primary malignancies and skin hyperpigmentations and hypopigmentations. The parents of these children are at high risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer (Lynch syndrome), amongst others.

  14. Force modeling for incisions into various tissues with MRF haptic master

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyunghwa; Kim, Soomin; Park, Young-Dai; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-03-01

    This study proposes a new model to predict the reaction force that occurs in incisions during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The reaction force is fed back to the manipulator by a magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) haptic master, which is featured by a bi-directional clutch actuator. The reaction force feedback provides similar sensations to laparotomy that cannot be provided by a conventional master for surgery. This advantage shortens the training period for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery and can improve the accuracy of operations. The reaction force modeling of incisions can be utilized in a surgical simulator that provides a virtual reaction force. In this work, in order to model the reaction force during incisions, the energy aspect of the incision process is adopted and analyzed. Each mode of the incision process is classified by the tendency of the energy change, and modeled for realistic real-time application. The reaction force model uses actual reaction force information with three types of actual tissues: hard tissue, medium tissue, and soft tissue. This modeled force is realized by the MRF haptic master through an algorithm based on the position and velocity of a scalpel using two different control methods: an open-loop algorithm and a closed-loop algorithm. The reaction forces obtained from the proposed model are compared with a desired force in time domain.

  15. Panoramic radiographs underestimate extensions of the anterior loop and mandibular incisive canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Brito, Ana Caroline Ramos; Nejaim, Yuri; De Freitas, Deborah Queiroz [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Division of Oral Radiology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); De Oliveira Santos, Christiano [Dept. of Stomatology, Public Oral Health and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to detect the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal in panoramic radiographs (PAN) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, as well as to determine the anterior/mesial extension of these structures in panoramic and cross-sectional reconstructions using PAN and CBCT images. Images (both PAN and CBCT) from 90 patients were evaluated by 2 independent observers. Detection of the anterior loop and the incisive canal were compared between PAN and CBCT. The anterior/mesial extension of these structures was compared between PAN and both cross-sectional and panoramic CBCT reconstructions. In CBCT, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were observed in 7.7% and 24.4% of the hemimandibles, respectively. In PAN, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were detected in 15% and 5.5% of cases, respectively. PAN presented more difficulties in the visualization of structures. The anterior/mesial extensions ranged from 0.0 mm to 19.0 mm on CBCT. PAN underestimated the measurements by approximately 2.0 mm. CBCT appears to be a more reliable imaging modality than PAN for preoperative workups of the anterior mandible. Individual variations in the anterior/mesial extensions of the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal mean that is not prudent to rely on a general safe zone for implant placement or bone surgery in the interforaminal region.

  16. Microincision versus small-incision coaxial cataract surgery using different power modes for hard nuclear cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Chul; Byun, Yong Soo; Kim, Man Soo

    2011-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of microincision and small-incision coaxial phacoemulsification in treating hard cataracts using different ultrasound power modes. Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Randomized clinical trial. Eyes with hard cataract were randomized to have an initial incision of 1.80 mm, 2.20 mm, or 2.75 mm. The eyes in each group were equally randomized to treatment with burst, pulse, or continuous mode. Ultrasound time (UST), mean cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), surgically induced corneal astigmatism, incisional and central corneal thickness (CCT), and endothelial cell counts were evaluated. The study enrolled 180 eyes, 60 in each group. Two months postoperatively, there were no statistically significant differences in UST, CDE, CDVA, CCT, or percentage endothelial cell loss between the 3 incision groups. The 2.75 mm incision induced more astigmatism at 2 months and less incisional corneal edema at 1 week than the 1.80 mm or 2.20 mm incision (Phard cataract. The intraoperative energy use and ocular damage was less with the pulse and burst modes than with the continuous mode. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Single incision laparoscopic pancreas resection for pancreatic metastasis of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaros, Umut; Sümer, Aziz; Demirel, Tugrul; Karakullukçu, Nazlı; Batman, Burçin; Içscan, Yalın; Sarıçam, Gülay; Serin, Kürçsat; Loh, Wei-Liang; Dinççağ, Ahmet; Mercan, Selçuk

    2010-01-01

    Transumbilical single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) offers excellent cosmetic results and may be associated with decreased postoperative pain, reduced need for analgesia, and thus accelerated recovery. Herein, we report the first transumbilical single incision laparoscopic pancreatectomy case in a patient who had renal cell cancer metastasis on her pancreatic corpus and tail. A 59-year-old female who had metastatic lesions on her pancreas underwent laparoscopic subtotal pancreatectomy through a 2-cm umbilical incision. Single incision pancreatectomy was performed with a special port (SILS port) and articulated equipment. The procedure lasted 330 minutes. Estimated blood loss was 100mL. No perioperative complications occurred. The patient was discharged on the seventh postoperative day with a low-volume (20mL/day) pancreatic fistula that ceased spontaneously. Pathology result of the specimen was renal cell cancer metastases. This is the first reported SILS pancreatectomy case, demonstrating that even advanced surgical procedures can be performed using the SILS technique in well-experienced centers. Transumbilical single incision laparoscopic pancreatectomy is feasible and can be performed safely in experienced centers. SILS may improve cosmetic results and allow accelerated recovery for patients even with malignancy requiring advanced laparoscopic interventions.

  18. Panoramic radiographs underestimate extensions of the anterior loop and mandibular incisive canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Brito, Ana Caroline Ramos; Nejaim, Yuri; De Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; De Oliveira Santos, Christiano

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal in panoramic radiographs (PAN) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, as well as to determine the anterior/mesial extension of these structures in panoramic and cross-sectional reconstructions using PAN and CBCT images. Images (both PAN and CBCT) from 90 patients were evaluated by 2 independent observers. Detection of the anterior loop and the incisive canal were compared between PAN and CBCT. The anterior/mesial extension of these structures was compared between PAN and both cross-sectional and panoramic CBCT reconstructions. In CBCT, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were observed in 7.7% and 24.4% of the hemimandibles, respectively. In PAN, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were detected in 15% and 5.5% of cases, respectively. PAN presented more difficulties in the visualization of structures. The anterior/mesial extensions ranged from 0.0 mm to 19.0 mm on CBCT. PAN underestimated the measurements by approximately 2.0 mm. CBCT appears to be a more reliable imaging modality than PAN for preoperative workups of the anterior mandible. Individual variations in the anterior/mesial extensions of the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal mean that is not prudent to rely on a general safe zone for implant placement or bone surgery in the interforaminal region

  19. Incision and stress regulation in borderline personality disorder: neurobiological mechanisms of self-injurious behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Sarah; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Niedtfeld, Inga; Knorz, Teresa; Lis, Stefanie; Paret, Christian; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder frequently show non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). In these patients, NSSI often serves to reduce high levels of stress. Investigation of neurobiological mechanisms of NSSI in borderline personality disorder. In total, 21 women with borderline personality disorder and 17 healthy controls underwent a stress induction, followed by either an incision into the forearm or a sham treatment. Afterwards participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging while aversive tension, heart rate and heart rate variability were assessed. We found a significant influence of incision on subjective and objective stress levels with a stronger decrease of aversive tension in the borderline personality disorder group following incision than sham. Amygdala activity decreased more and functional connectivity with superior frontal gyrus normalised after incision in the borderline personality disorder group. Decreased stress levels and amygdala activity after incision support the assumption of an influence of NSSI on emotion regulation in individuals with borderline personality disorder and aids in understanding why these patients use self-inflicted pain to reduce inner tension. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  20. Circumareolar incision-subdermal tunneling dissection for excision of multiple breast fibroadenomata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Agodirin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excision of multiple fibroadenomas (MF in separate breast quadrants presents difficulties of number and location of incision(s and extent of tissue dissection and may be associated with more complications and poorer cosmetic outcome. This is a report of excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast using a modification of subcutaneous dissection technique dubbed the circumareolar incision and subdermal tunneling (CAST dissection. After exposure of the superficial fascia with circumareolar incision, subdermal cone-wise dissection was made to allow mobilization of the segment bearing the lump(s. The lump(s were enucleated and removed. MF were removed from four breasts in three young unmarried females. The first patient had multiple adenomas removed from three quadrants of both breasts: 14 on the right and six on the left. The second patient had excision of three lumps in three separate quadrants, and the third patient had excision of two lumps in two separate quadrants. All patients had edema and bruising. One breast had wound infection and dehiscence. There were no skin necrosis, no nipple loss, and no breast distortion. All ensuing scars were camouflaged. CAST dissection was used for excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast with preservation of excellent cosmetic outcome of a single circumareolar incision.

  1. Force modeling for incisions into various tissues with MRF haptic master

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Pyunghwa; Kim, Soomin; Park, Young-Dai; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a new model to predict the reaction force that occurs in incisions during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The reaction force is fed back to the manipulator by a magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) haptic master, which is featured by a bi-directional clutch actuator. The reaction force feedback provides similar sensations to laparotomy that cannot be provided by a conventional master for surgery. This advantage shortens the training period for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery and can improve the accuracy of operations. The reaction force modeling of incisions can be utilized in a surgical simulator that provides a virtual reaction force. In this work, in order to model the reaction force during incisions, the energy aspect of the incision process is adopted and analyzed. Each mode of the incision process is classified by the tendency of the energy change, and modeled for realistic real-time application. The reaction force model uses actual reaction force information with three types of actual tissues: hard tissue, medium tissue, and soft tissue. This modeled force is realized by the MRF haptic master through an algorithm based on the position and velocity of a scalpel using two different control methods: an open-loop algorithm and a closed-loop algorithm. The reaction forces obtained from the proposed model are compared with a desired force in time domain. (paper)

  2. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA molecule which makes it ideal for storage and propagation of genetic information. ... of these errors are broadly referred to as DNA repair. DNA can ... changes occur in the human genome per day. ..... nails, frequent physical and mental.

  3. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  4. Ventral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incarcerated) in the hernia and become impossible to push back in. This is usually painful. The blood supply ... you are lying down or that you cannot push back in. Risks The risks of ventral hernia repair ...

  5. Omphalocele repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100033.htm Omphalocele repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect at the base ...

  6. Is laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair more effective than open repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, O.; Green, A.; Joy, M.; Wong, C.H.; Malik, M

    2011-01-01

    To systematically review randomized controlled trials, (RCT) evidence comparing Lichtenstein to total extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair in terms of clinical and cost effectiveness. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at University of Abderdeen, U.K. Methodology: A comprehensive online literature search was undertaken using databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and Springerlink. Studies were then short listed according to the selection criteria (RCT with over 100 subject and English language publications from 1995 onwards) and appraised using the SIGN Methodology Checklist. A meta analysis of the data was also performed using RevMan software. Results: Analysis of reported data shows that TEP has less postoperative pain and return to work than Lichtenstein method. Operation time is shown to be longer in the TEP but this difference is shortened with increasing surgeon experience. The meta-analysis of the data on complications shows that there are no significant differences between the two types of procedures. TEP causes more short-term recurrences which are attributed to the learning curve effect. Long term recurrence rates on the other hand show no significant differences. At present TEP is slightly more expensive than Lichtenstein repair. Conclusion: Both TEP and Lichtenstein repair are clinically effective procedures. The choice between them should be made on a case-by-case basis; which depends on the patient's preference and characteristics such as age, work and health status. (author)

  7. Celebrating DNA's Repair Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-12-03

    This year, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar, and Paul Modrich for their seminal studies of the mechanisms by which cells from bacteria to man repair DNA damage that is generated by normal cellular metabolism and stress from the environment. These studies beautifully illustrate the remarkable power of DNA repair to influence life from evolution through disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced radiosensitivity and defective DNA repair in cultured fibroblasts derived from Rothmund Thomson syndrome patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P J; Paterson, M C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, Ontario. Radiation Biology Branch

    1982-01-01

    Rothmund Thomson syndrome (RTS) is an oculocutaneous and cancer-prone disorder in which enhanced carcinogen sensitivity, mediated through abnormal DNA metabolism, may be an associated factor. Cultured fibroblasts from 4 RTS patients have been examined for their colony-forming abilities and DNA repair capacities following ..gamma..-irradiation. 2 of the 4 RTS strains showed enhanced sensitivity following hypoxic ..gamma..-irradiation, and 1 of these 2 strains also showed enhanced sensitivity under oxic conditions. Defective DNA repair was implicated in the above abnormal responses to ..gamma..-radiation since both strains displayed reduced levels of repair synthesis and slow removal of radiogenic DNA lesions (assayed by their sensitivity to strand-incising activities present in protein extracts of Micrococcus luteus cells). A hypothesis is presented to rationalize the origin and heterogeneity of these laboratory phenotypes of RTS.

  9. Repair of ultraviolet radiation damage in xeroderma pigmentosum cells belonging to complementation group F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, H.; Ishizaki, K.; Yagi, T.; Takebe, H.; Inoue, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Kyoto Univ.

    1981-01-01

    DNA-repair characteristics of xeroderma pigmentosum belonging to complementation group F were investigated. The cells exhibited an intermediate level of repair as measured in terms of (1) disappearance of T4 endonuclease-V-susceptible sites from DNA, (2) formation of ultraviolet-induced strand breaks in DNA, and (3) ultraviolet-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis during post-irradiation incubation. The impaired ability of XP3YO to perform unscheduled DNA synthesis was restored, to half the normal level, by the concomitant treatment with T4 endonuclease V and ultraviolet-inactivated Sendai virus. It is suggested that xeroderma pigmentosum cells of group F may be defective, at least in part, in the incision step of excision repair. (orig.)

  10. Oral subcutaneous midline leiomyomatous hamartoma presenting as congenital incisive papilla overgrowth in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Loomba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital soft-tissue tumors of oral cavity are mostly hyperplastic and benign in nature. This article presents an unusual case of congenital subcutaneous hamartoma of incisive papilla in a 2-year-old female child causing feeding and breathing difficulty. Total excisional biopsy was done under local anesthesia. Histopathology of tissue in reticulin-stained slide showed the presence of immature muscle fibers whereas Masson's trichrome stain revealed collagen fibers and smooth muscles confirming the diagnosis of oral midline subcutaneous smooth muscle (leiomyomatous hamartoma of incisive papilla. It is important for dental professionals to be aware of this oral lesion present from birth mimicking overgrowth of incisive papilla, by its presentation, differential diagnosis, histopathology, and management.

  11. Incision of the heart during meat inspection of fattening pigs - A risk-profile approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leps, J; Fries, R

    2009-01-01

    Meat inspection in the EU is based on Regulation (EC) 854/2004. Accordingly a risk based meat inspection should be implemented. In this paper, the incision of the heart in pig meat inspection is discussed with respect to efficacy. The incision especially can reveal the presence of endocarditis. Here, Erysipelothrixrhusiopathiae (E. rhusiopathiae) and/or Streptococcussuis (S. suis) are of particular concern. Both agents are regarded to be zoonotic agents. There is some evidence for infection of humans via an alimentary pathway. Hence, the occurrence of E. rhusiopathiae and S. suis is a concern of public health (PH) as well as veterinary public health (VPH). However, other measures, including on-farm disease prevention and diagnosis, seem to be more important for food safety. It is concluded that the incision and inspection of the heart is not justifiable with respect to PH aspects.

  12. The contemporary role of 1 vs. 2-stage repair for proximal hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dason, Shawn; Wong, Nathan; Braga, Luis H

    2014-12-01

    This review discusses the most commonly employed techniques in the repair of proximal hypospadias, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of single versus staged surgical techniques. Hypospadias can have a spectrum of severity with a urethral meatus ranging from the perineum to the glans. Associated abnormalities are commonly found with proximal hypospadias and encompass a large spectrum, including ventral curvature (VC) up to 50 degrees or more, ventral skin deficiency, a flattened glans, penile torsion and penoscrotal transposition. Our contemporary understanding of hypospadiology is comprised of a foundation built by experts who have described a number of techniques and their outcomes, combined with survey data detailing practice patterns. The two largest components of hypospadias repair include repair of VC and urethroplasty. VC greater than 20 degrees is considered clinically relevant to warrant surgical correction. To repair VC, the penis is first degloved-a procedure that may reduce or remove curvature by itself in some cases. Residual curvature is then repaired with dorsal plication techniques, transection of the urethral plate, and/or ventral lengthening techniques. Urethroplasty takes the form of 1- or 2-stage repairs. One-stage options include the tubularized incised urethroplasty (TIP) or various graft or flap-based techniques. Two-stage options also include grafts or flaps, including oral mucosal and preputial skin grafting. One stage repairs are an attractive option in that they may reduce cost, hospital stay, anesthetic risks, and time to the final result. The downside is that these repairs require mastery of multiple techniques may be more complex, and-depending on technique-have higher complication rates. Two-stage repairs are preferred by the majority of surveyed hypospadiologists. The 2-stage repair is versatile and has satisfactory outcomes, but necessitates a second procedure. Given the lack of clear high-quality evidence supporting the

  13. Optimizing pressurized contact area in rotator cuff repair: the diamondback repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Stephen S; Denard, Patrick J; Obopilwe, Elifho; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare tendon-bone footprint contact area over time under physiologic loads for 4 different rotator cuff repair techniques: single row (SR), triangle double row (DR), chain-link double row (CL), and diamondback double row (DBK). A supraspinatus tear was created in 28 human cadavers. Tears were fixed with 1 of 4 constructs: SR, DR, CL, or DBK. Immediate post-repair measurements of pressurized contact area were taken in neutral rotation and 0° of abduction. After a static tensile load, pressurized contact area was observed over a 160-minute period after repair. Cyclic loading was then performed. The DBK repair had the highest pressurized contact area initially, as well as the highest pressurized contact area and lowest percentage decrease in pressurized contact area after 160 minutes of testing. The DBK repair had significantly larger initial pressurized contact than CL (P = .003) and SR (P = .004) but not DR (P = .06). The DBK technique was the only technique that produced a pressurized contact area that exceeded the native footprint both at initial repair (P = .01) and after 160 minutes of testing (P = .01). DBK had a significantly larger mean pressurized contact area than all the repairs after 160 minutes of testing (P = .01). DBK had a significantly larger post-cyclic loading pressurized contact area than CL (P = .01) and SR (P = .004) but not DR (P = .07). This study showed that a diamondback repair (a modification of the transosseous repair) can significantly increase the rotator cuff pressurized contact area in comparison with other standard rotator cuff repair constructs when there is sufficient tendon mobility to perform a double-row repair without excessive tension on the repair site. The persistent pressurized contact area of a DBK repair may be desirable to enhance healing potential when there is sufficient tendon mobility to perform a double-row repair, particularly for large or massive rotator cuff tears where it is

  14. Small incision corneal refractive surgery using the small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) procedure for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism: results of a 6 month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekundo, Walter; Kunert, Kathleen S; Blum, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    This 6 month prospective multi-centre study evaluated the feasibility of performing myopic femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) through a small incision using the small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) procedure. Prospective, non-randomised clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS; Ninety-one eyes of 48 patients with myopia with and without astigmatism completed the final 6 month follow-up. The patients' mean age was 35.3 years. Their preoperative mean spherical equivalent (SE) was −4.75±1.56 D. A refractive lenticule of intrastromal corneal tissue was cut utilising a prototype of the Carl Zeiss Meditec AG VisuMax femtosecond laser system. Simultaneously two opposite small ‘pocket’ incisions were created by the laser system. Thereafter, the lenticule was manually dissected with a spatula and removed through one of incisions using modified McPherson forceps. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) after 6 months, objective and manifest refraction as well as slit-lamp examination, side effects and a questionnaire. Six months postoperatively the mean SE was −0.01 D±0.49 D. Most treated eyes (95.6%) were within ±1.0 D, and 80.2% were within ±0.5 D of intended correction. Of the eyes treated, 83.5% had an UCVA of 1.0 (20/20) or better, 53% remained unchanged, 32.3% gained one line, 3.3% gained two lines of BSCVA, 8.8% lost one line and 1.1% lost ≥2 lines of BSCVA. When answering a standardised questionnaire, 93.3% of patients were satisfied with the results obtained and would undergo the procedure again. SMILE is a promising new flapless minimally invasive refractive procedure to correct myopia.

  15. Impact of selective pituitary gland incision or resection on hormonal function after adenoma or cyst resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhoudarian, Garni; Cutler, Aaron R; Yost, Sam; Lobo, Bjorn; Eisenberg, Amalia; Kelly, Daniel F

    2015-12-01

    With the resection of pituitary lesions, the anterior pituitary gland often obstructs transsphenoidal access to the lesion. In such cases, a gland incision and/or partial gland resection may be required to obtain adequate exposure. We investigate this technique and determine the associated risk of post-operative hypopituitarism. All patients who underwent surgical resection of a pituitary adenoma or Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) between July 2007 and January 2013 were analyzed for pre- and post-operative hormone function. The cohort of patients with gland incision/resection were compared to a case-matched control cohort of pituitary surgery patients. Total hypophysectomy patients were excluded from outcome analysis. Of 372 operations over this period, an anterior pituitary gland incision or partial gland resection was performed in 79 cases (21.2 %). These include 53 gland incisions, 12 partial hemi-hypophysectomies and 14 resections of thinned/attenuated anterior gland. Diagnoses included 64 adenomas and 15 RCCs. New permanent hypopituitarism occurred in three patients (3.8 %), including permanent DI (3) and growth hormone deficiency (1). There was no significant difference in the rate of worsening gland dysfunction nor gain of function. Compared to a control cohort, there was a significantly lower incidence of transient DI (1.25 vs. 11.1 %, p = 0.009) but no significant difference in permanent DI (3.8 vs. 4.0 %) in the gland incision group. Selective gland incisions and gland resections were performed in over 20 % of our cases. This technique appears to minimize traction on compressed normal pituitary gland during removal of large lesions and facilitates better visualization and removal of cysts, microadenomas and macroadenomas.

  16. Efficiency of soft tissue incision with a novel 445-nm semiconductor laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Kettner, Moritz; Berthold, Michael; Wenzler, Johannes-Simon; Heymann, Paul Günther Baptist; Frankenberger, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Using a 445-nm semiconductor laser for tissue incision, an effective cut is expected due to the special absorption properties of blue laser light in soft tissues. The aim of the present study was the histological evaluation of tissue samples after incision with a 445-nm diode laser. Forty soft tissue specimens were obtained from pork oral mucosa and mounted on a motorized linear translation stage. The handpiece of a high-frequency surgery device, a 970-nm semiconductor laser, and a 445-nm semiconductor laser were connected to the slide, allowing a constant linear movement (2 mm/s) and the same distance of the working tip to the soft tissue's surface. Four incisions were made each: (I) 970-nm laser with conditioned fiber tip, contact mode at 3-W cw; (II-III): 445-nm laser with non-conditioned fiber tip, contact mode at 2-W cw, and non-contact mode (1 mm) at 2 W; and (IV): high-frequency surgery device with straight working tip, 90° angulation, contact mode at 50 W. Histological analysis was performed after H&E staining of the embedded specimens at 35-fold magnification. The comparison of the incision depths showed a significant difference depending on the laser wavelength and the selected laser parameters. The highest incision depth was achieved with the 445-nm laser contact mode (median depth 0.61 mm, min 0.26, max 1.17, interquartile range 0.58) (p laser, a higher cutting efficiency can be expected when compared with a 970-nm diode laser and high-frequency surgery. Even the 445-nm laser application in non-contact mode shows clinically acceptable incision depths without signs of extensive soft tissue denaturation.

  17. The effect of kidney morcellation on operative time, incision complications, and postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso H. Camargo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compare the outcomes between kidney morcellation and two types of open specimen extraction incisions, several covariates need to be taken into consideration that have not yet been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 153 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy at our institution, 107 who underwent specimen morcellation and 46 with intact specimen removal, either those with connected port sites with a muscle-cutting incision and those with a remote, muscle-splitting incision. Operative time, postoperative analgesia requirements, and incisional complications were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis, comparing variables such as patient age, gender, body mass index (BMI, laterality, benign versus cancerous renal conditions, estimated blood loss, specimen weight, overall complications, and length of stay. RESULTS: There was no significant difference for operative time between the 2 treatment groups (p = 0.65. Incision related complications occurred in 2 patients (4.4% from the intact specimen group but none in the morcellation group (p = 0.03. Overall narcotic requirement was lower in patients with morcellated (41 mg compared to intact specimen retrieval (66 mg on univariate (p = 0.03 and multivariate analysis (p = 0.049. Upon further stratification, however, there was no significant difference in mean narcotic requirement between the morcellation and muscle-splitting incision subgroup (p = 0.14. CONCLUSION: Morcellation does not extend operative time, and is associated with significantly less postoperative pain compared to intact specimen retrieval overall, although this is not statistically significant if a remote, muscle-splitting incision is made. Morcellation markedly reduces the risk of incisional-related complications.

  18. Cutting electrocautery versus scalpel for surgical incisions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ammar; Abushouk, Abdelrahman Ibrahim; Elmaraezy, Ahmed; Menshawy, Amr; Menshawy, Esraa; Ismail, Mahmoud; Samir, Esraa; Khaled, Anas; Zakarya, Hagar; El-Tonoby, Abdelrahman; Ghanem, Esraa

    2017-12-01

    Although cutting electrocautery can be superior to the scalpel in reducing blood loss and incisional time, several reports associated electrocautery with higher rates of wound infection, impaired healing, and worse cosmesis. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to compare cutting electrocautery versus scalpel for surgical incisions. We conducted a computerized literature search of five electronic databases and included all published original studies comparing cutting electrocautery and scalpel surgical incisions. Relevant data were extracted from eligible studies and pooled as odds ratios (ORs) or standardized mean difference (SMD) values in a meta-analysis model, using RevMan and Comprehensive Meta-analysis software. Forty-one studies (36 randomized trials, four observational, and one quasirandom study) were included in the pooled analysis (6422 participants). Compared with the scalpel incision, cutting electrocautery resulted in significantly less blood loss (SMD = -1.16, 95% CI [-1.60 to -0.72]), shorter incisional (SMD = -0.63, 95% CI [-0.96 to -0.29]) and operative times (SMD = -0.59, 95% CI [-1.12 to -0.05]), and lower pain scores (SMD = -0.91, 95% CI [-1.27 to -0.55]) with no significant differences in terms of wound infection rates (OR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.74-1.15]) or overall subjective scar score (SMD = -0.49, 95% CI [-1.72 to 0.75]). Surgical incision using electrocautery can be quicker with less blood loss and postoperative pain scores than the scalpel incision. No statistically significant difference was found between both techniques in terms of postoperative wound complications, hospital stay duration, and wound cosmetic characteristics. Therefore, we recommend routine use of cutting electrocautery for surgical incisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous demonstration of UV-type and ionizing radiation-type DNA repair by the nucleoid sedimentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldenhoff, P.; Sperling, K.

    1984-01-01

    The nucleoid sedimentation technique is one of the most sensitive methods for measuring DNA excision repair. With this technique, it is shown that both UV- and ionizing radiation-type repair (the latter induced by bleomycin) can be discriminated in HeLa and normal diploid cells using 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine. The latter compound inhibits UV-type repair synthesis, and thus causes DNA breaks due to enzymic incision to persist, but has no effect on rejoining DNA after ionizing radiation-type damage. It was then possible to prove that 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide induces both types of lesions which are repaired simultaneously. This effect could be demonstrated in HeLa and normal human diploid cells in a single experimental set-up. (Auth.)

  20. Mechanical characterization of composite repairs for fiberglass wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Tanveer Singh

    While in service, wind turbine blades experience various modes of loading. An example is impact loading in the form of hail or bird strikes, which might lead to localized damage or formation of cracks a few plies deep on the blade surface. One of the methods to conduct repairs on wind turbine blades that are damaged while in service is hand lay-up of the repair part after grinding out the damaged portion and some of its surrounding area. The resin used for such repairs usually differs from the parent plate resin in composition and properties such as gel time, viscosity, etc. As a result the properties of the repaired parts are not the same as that of the undamaged blades. Subsequent repetitive loading can be detrimental to weak repairs to such an extent so as to cause delamination at the parent-repair bondline causing the repairs to eventually fall off the blade. Thus the strength and toughness of the repair are of critical importance. Initial part of this work consists of an effort to increase repair strength by identifying an optimum hand layup repair resin for fiberglass wind turbine blades currently being manufactured by a global company. As delamination of the repair from the parent blade is a major concern and unidirectional glass fibers along with a polymer resin are used to manufacture blades under consideration, testing method detailed in ASTM D 5528 (Test Method for Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites) was followed to determine propagation fracture toughness values of the prospective vinyl ester repair resin candidates. These values were compared to those for a base polyester repair resin used by the company. Experimental procedure and results obtained from the above mentioned testing using double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens are detailed. Three new repair resins were shortlisted through mode I testing. It was also found that variation in the depth of the ground top ply of the parent part

  1. Incision of the Jezero Crater Outflow Channel by Fluvial Sediment Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holo, S.; Kite, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    Jezero crater, the top candidate landing site for the Mars 2020 rover, once possessed a lake that over-spilled and eroded a large outflow channel into the Eastern rim. The Western deltaic sediments that would be the primary science target of the rover record a history of lake level, which is modulated by the inflow and outflow channels. While formative discharges for the Western delta exist ( 500 m3/s), little work has been done to see if these flows are the same responsible for outflow channel incision. Other models of the Jezero outflow channel incision assume that a single rapid flood (incision timescales of weeks), with unknown initial hydraulic head and no discharge into the lake (e.g. from the inflow channels or the subsurface), incised an open channel with discharge modulated by flow over a weir. We present an alternate model where, due to an instability at the threshold of sediment motion, the incision of the outflow channel occurs in concert with lake filling. In particular, we assume a simplified lake-channel-valley system geometry and that the channel is hydraulically connected to the filling/draining crater lake. Bed load sediment transport and water discharge through the channel are quantified using the Meyer-Peter and Mueller relation and Manning's law respectively. Mass is conserved for both water and sediment as the lake level rises/falls and the channel incises. This model does not resolve backwater effects or concavity in the alluvial system, but it does capture the non-linear feedbacks between lake draining, erosion rate, channel flow rate, and slope relaxation. We identify controls on incision of the outflow channel and estimate the time scale of outflow channel formation through a simple dynamical model. We find that the observed 300m of channel erosion can be reproduced in decades to centuries of progressive bed load as the delta forming flows fill the lake. This corresponds to time scales on the order of or smaller than the time scale

  2. Fingertip replantation using a single volar arteriovenous anastomosis and drainage with a transverse tip incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, T; Muraoka, M; Motomura, H; Ozawa, T

    2001-11-01

    Four cases of fingertip replantation using a single volar arteriovenous anastomosis and drainage with a transverse tip incision are reported. Because of lack of suitable arteries for anastomosis in the amputated finger, in each case a volar radial vein was anastomosed to the proximal digital artery and external drainage was performed through a transverse tip incision. In 3 cases the replanted fingertip survived completely; partial necrosis occurred in 1 case. Because veins are more superficial and larger than arteries, they are more available for anastomosis. The results indicate that this method is a useful alternative in fingertip replantation.

  3. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  4. Adaptive repair induced by small doses of γ radiation in repair-defective human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasukhina, G.D.; L'vova, G.N.; Vasil'eva, I.M.; Sinel'shchikova, T.A.; Semyachkina, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive repair induced by small doses of gamma radiation was studied in repair-defective xeroderma pigmentosum, gout, and homocystinuria cells. The adaptation of cells induced by small doses of radiation was estimated after subsequent exposure to gamma radiation, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine by three methods: (1) by the reduction in DNA breaks; (2) by induction of resistant DNA synthesis; and (3) by increased reactivation of vaccinia virus. The three cell types in response to the three different mutagens revealed differences in the mechanism of cell defense in excision repair, in the adaptive response, and in Weigl reactivation

  5. Comparison of the effects of 23-gauge and 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy blade designs on incision architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Makoto Inoue,1 Dina Joy K Abulon,2 Akito Hirakata1 1Kyorin Eye Center, School of Medicine, Kyorin University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Alcon Research, Ltd., Irvine, CA, USA Purpose: To compare the effects of different 23- and 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy trocar cannula entry systems on incision architecture.Methods: We tested one ridged microvitreoretinal (MVR, one non-ridged MVR, one pointed beveled, and one round-tipped beveled blade (n=10 per blade design per incision type. Each blade’s straight and oblique incision architecture was assessed in a silicone disc simulating the sclera. Wound leakage under pressure and endoscopic observations were conducted on sclerotomy sites of isolated porcine eyes (n=4 per blade design after simulated vitrectomy.Results: Differences in blade design created distinct incision architecture. Incisions were linear with the ridged MVR blade, flattened “M-shaped” with the non-ridged MVR blade, asymmetrical chevron-shaped with the pointed beveled blade, and curved with the round-tipped beveled blade. With the exception of oblique entry incision thickness, both MVR blade designs created thinner incisions than the beveled blades at entry and exit sites. Only the ridged MVR blade created incisions with no leakage. Vitreous incarceration was observed with all trocar cannula systems.Conclusion: Wound closure in porcine eyes was similar with all blades despite differences in incision architecture. Wound leakage occurred at low to moderate infusion pressures with most blades; no wound leakage was observed with ridged MVR blades. Keywords: entry system, incision closure, leakage, pars plana incision, sclerotomy, trocar blade 

  6. Free Biceps Tendon Autograft to Augment Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Obma, Padraic R.

    2013-01-01

    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs have become the standard of treatment for all sizes of tears over the past several years. Current healing rates reported in the literature are quite good, but improving the healing potential of rotator cuff repairs remains a challenging problem. There has been an increase recently in the use of augmentation of rotator cuff repairs with xenografts or synthetics for large and massive tears. Biceps tenodesis is often indicated as part of the treatment plan while...

  7. Evaluation of tensile strength of tissue adhesives and sutures for clear corneal incisions using porcine and bovine eyes, with a novel standardized testing platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Simon Kaja, Daryl L Goad, Fatima Ali, Ashley Abraham, R Luke Rebenitsch, Savak Teymoorian, Rohit Krishna, Peter KoulenVision Research Center and Department of Ophthalmology, University of Missouri-Kansas City, School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USABackground: Tissue adhesives for ophthalmologic applications were proposed almost 50 years ago, yet to date no adequate tissue glues have been identified that combine strong sealing properties with adequate safety and absence of postsurgical side effects. In recent years, cataract surgeries and Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty procedures have significantly increased the number of clear corneal incisions performed. One of the obstacles to discovery and development of novel tissue adhesives has been the result of nonstandardized testing of potential tissue glues.Methods: We developed an instrument capable of controlling intraocular pressure in explanted porcine and bovine eyes in order to evaluate sealants, adhesives, and surgical closure methods used in ophthalmic surgery in a controlled, repeatable, and validated fashion. We herein developed and validated our instrument by testing the adhesive properties of cyanoacrylate glue in both porcine and bovine explant eyes.Results: The instrument applied and maintained intraocular pressure through a broad range of physiological intraocular pressures. Cyanoacrylate-based glues showed significantly enhanced sealing properties of clear corneal incisions compared with sutured wounds.Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility of our instrument for reliable and standardized testing of tissue adhesive for ophthalmological surgery.Keywords: manometer, intraocular pressure, applanation tonometry, clear corneal incision, tissue adhesive, ocular surgery

  8. [A modified Onizuka cheiloplasty for repairing the unilateral cleft lip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Qiang; Li, Zengjian; Xu, Xianyi

    2011-08-01

    To explore the surgical technique of a modified Onizuka cheiloplasty for repairing the unilateral cleft lip. 24 patients with unilateral cleft lip were repaired by modified Onizuka cheiloplasty. The rotation flap ended at the midpoint of nasal columella crease. A small triangle skin flap was formed above the vermilion border of the advancement flap. The small triangle flap was inserted to the medial side after the Cupid's bow was built. The skin of the flap C was denuded along the nasal columella crease and the muscle was sutured to the alar base for augmentation of nostril floor on the cleft side. The tip of the advancement flap was sutured at the midpoint of nasal columella crease and the skin of nasal floor was trimmed to hide the incision line around the nasal columella base. It was found that the Cupid's bow was rebuilt in a natural form and the configuration of the upper lip was reconstructed symmetrically. The long term follow up studies showed that the philtrum column was not disturbed by the small triangle flap and the nasal floor was rebuilt without obvious scars. The modified Onizuka cheiloplasty is an easy learning technique and efficient for repairing the unilateral cleft lip. This technique can satisfy the patients by reducing the length of scar as well as rebuilding a natural form of upper lip and nostril floor.

  9. [TECHNIQUES IN MITRAL VALVE REPAIR VIA A MINIMALLY INVASIVE APPROACH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshiaki

    2016-03-01

    In mitral valve repair via a minimally invasive approach, resection of the leaflet is technically demanding compared with that in the standard approach. For resection and suture repair of the posterior leaflet, premarking of incision lines is recommended for precise resection. As an alternative to resection and suture, the leaflet-folding technique is also recommended. For correction of prolapse of the anterior leaflet, neochordae placement with the loop technique is easy to perform. Premeasurement with transesophageal echocardiography or intraoperative measurement using a replica of artificial chordae is useful to determine the appropriate length of the loops. Fine-tuning of the length of neochordae is possible by adding a secondary fixation point on the leaflet if the loop is too long. If the loop is too short, a CV5 Gore-Tex suture can be passed through the loop and loosely tied several times to stack the knots, with subsequent fixation to the edge of the leaflet. Finally, skill in the mitral valve replacement technique is necessary as a back-up for surgeons who perform minimally invasive mitral valve repair.

  10. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty reduces the risk of fistula and meatal stenosis for proximal hypospadias: a report of 63 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, Hamid; Sabetkish, Shabnam; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    To report the feasibility of modified tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty technique for proximal hypospadias in 63 cases. From January 2004 to March 2010, 63 patients underwent one-stage TIP urethroplasty (modified Snodgrass technique repair) using 2-3 of three covering layers (corpus spongiosum, dartos, and tunica vaginalis). The primary meatus was proximal penile, penoscrotal, scrotal, and perineal in 38, 13, 10, and 2 patients, respectively. All patients had chordee that was corrected with dorsal plication. Glanuloplasty was performed in all cases. Complications and cosmetic results were documented after 6-72 months of follow-up. A total of 63 boys with proximal hypospadias underwent Snodgrass hypospadias repair at a mean age of 8.5 months (range 6-54). Mean operative time was 210 ± 35 min. Patients were followed up with 6-month intervals for up to 6 years postoperatively. After 6 years of follow-up, nine urethrocutaneous fistulae, four bleeding, four meatal stenoses, and one urethral stricture were reported. Cosmetic result was satisfactory according to parent's opinion and another surgeon. No residual chordee was observed in any cases (without artificial correction). In conclusion, this preliminary report can be estimated as an alternative technique with acceptable complication and cosmetic results for proximal hypospadias correction.

  11. The Gift Box Open Achilles Tendon Repair Method: A Retrospective Clinical Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Sameh A; Hoffler, C Edward; Shah, Jay N; Rolf, Robert H; Tingan, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Previous biomechanical studies have shown that the gift box technique for open Achilles tendon repair is twice as strong as a Krackow repair. The technique incorporates a paramedian skin incision with a midline paratenon incision, and a modification of the Krackow stitch is used to reinforce the repair. The wound is closed in layers such that the paratenon repair is offset from paramedian skin incision, further protecting the repair. The present study retrospectively reviews the clinical results for a series of patients who underwent the gift box technique for treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures from March 2002 to April 2007. The patients completed the Foot Function Index and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale. The tendon width and calf circumference were measured bilaterally and compared using paired t tests with a 5% α level. A total of 44 subjects, mean age 37.5 ± 8.6 years, underwent surgery approximately 10.8 ± 6.5 days after injury. The response rate was 35 (79.54%) patients for the questionnaire and 20 (45.45%) for the examination. The mean follow-up period was 35.7 ± 20.1 months. The complications included one stitch abscess, persistent pain, and keloid formation. One (2.86%) respondent reported significant weakness. Five (14.29%) respondents indicated persistent peri-incisional numbness. The range of motion was full or adequate. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scale score was 93.2 ± 6.8) and the mean Foot Function Index score was 7.0 ± 10.5. The calf girth and tendon width differences were statistically significantly between the limbs. The patients reported no repeat ruptures, sural nerve injuries, dehiscence, or infections. We present the outcomes data from patients who had undergone this alternative technique for Achilles tendon repair. The technique is reproducible, with good patient satisfaction and return to activity. The results compared well with the historical

  12. Excision repair in ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi's anemia, Cockayne syndrome, and Bloom's syndrome after treatment with ultraviolet radiation and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.E.; Setlow, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Excision repair of damage due to ultraviolet radiation, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and a combination of both agents was studied in normal human fibroblasts and various cells from cancer prone patients (ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi's anemia, Cockayne syndrome and Bloom's syndrome). Three methods giving similar results were used: unscheduled DNA synthesis by radioautography, photolysis of bromodeoxyuridine incorporated into parental DNA during repair, and loss of sites sensitive to an ultraviolet endonuclease. All cell lines were proficient in repair of ultraviolet and acetoxy acetylaminofluorene damage and at saturation doses of both agents repair was additive. We interpret these data as indicating that the rate limiting step in excision repair of ultraviolet and acetoxy acetylaminofluorene is different and that there are different enzyme(s) working on incision of both types of damages. (Auth.)

  13. Delayed Cerebral Ischemia following to Repair of Penetrating Trauma to External Carotid artery Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eskandarlou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Penetrating trauma to anterior neck can induce cerebral ischemia due to carotid artery injury. Brain ischemia also can present after surgical carotid repairs. Early diagnosis and suitable treatment modality prevent from permanent neurologic deficit post operatively. Case Report: A 30 years old man with stab wound to zone two left side of neck underwent exploration and penrose insertion. Due to excessive bleeding through drain tube, patient was transferred to Besat Hospital of Hamadan. Surgical repair of external carotid artery successfully was done. Four days later patient developed right hemiparesis suddenly. According to MRI and color Doppler sonography finding of thrombosis of left common and internal carotid artery, reoperation was done. After thrombectomy cerebral ischemia and hemi-paralysis improved. Conclusions: Surgical approach to symptomatic penetrating neck trauma is oblique cervical incision, control of bleeding, repair of internal carotid, repair or ligature of external carotid artery base on some factors and preferential repair of internal jugular vein. Meticulous and fine surgical technique for both vascular repair and protection of adjacent normal vessels for avoiding to blunt trauma or compression with retractors is noticeable. Exact postoperative care as repeated clinical examination with goal of early diagnosis of internal carotid artery thrombosis and rapid diagnostic and treatment planning of this complication are important factors for taking of good result in treatment of penetrating trauma to carotid. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016; 22 (4 :353-357

  14. Both base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair in humans are influenced by nutritional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Asgeir; Karlsen, Anette; Azqueta, Amaya; Tirado, Anna Estaban; Blomhoff, Rune; Collins, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Lack of reliable assays for DNA repair has largely prevented measurements of DNA repair from being included in human biomonitoring studies. Using newly developed modifications of the comet assay we tested whether a fruit- and antioxidant-rich plant-based intervention could affect base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) in a group of 102 male volunteers. BER and NER repair capacities were measured in lymphocytes before and after a dietary intervention lasting 8 weeks. The study had one control group, one group consuming three kiwifruits per day and one group consuming a variety of antioxidant-rich fruits and plant products in addition to their normal diet. DNA strand breaks were reduced following consumption of both kiwifruits (13%, p = 0.05) and antioxidant-rich plant products (20%, p = 0.02). Increased BER (55%, p = 0.01) and reduced NER (-39%, p plant products. Reduced NER was also observed in the kiwifruit group (-38%, p = 0.05), but BER was not affected in this group. Here we have demonstrated that DNA repair is affected by diet and that modified versions of the comet assay can be used to assess activity of different DNA repair pathways in human biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Radiobiological significance of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    A short outline is given on the history of the problem relating to the repair of radiation injuries, specifically its molecular mechanisms. The most urgent problems which currently confront the researchers are noted. This is a further study on the role of DNA repair in post-radiation recovery, search for ways to activate and suppress DNA repair, investigations into the activity balance of various repair enzymes as well as the problem of errors in the structure of repairing DNA. An important role is attached to the investigations of DNA repair in solving a number of practical problems

  16. Rapid fluvial incision of a late Holocene lava flow: Insights from LiDAR, alluvial stratigraphy, and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kristin; Roering, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions fundamentally alter landscapes, paving over channels, decimating biota, and emplacing fresh, unweathered material. The fluvial incision of blocky lava flows is a geomorphic puzzle. First, high surface permeability and lack of sediment should preclude geomorphically effective surface runoff and dissection. Furthermore, past work has demonstrated the importance of extreme floods in driving incision via column toppling and plucking in columnar basalt, but it is unclear how incision occurs in systems where surface blocks are readily mobile. We examine rapid fluvial incision of the Collier lava flow, an andesitic Holocene lava flow in the High Cascades of Oregon. Since lava flow emplacement ∼1600 yr ago, White Branch Creek has incised bedrock gorges up to 8 m deep into the coherent core of the lava flow and deposited >0.2 km3 of sediment on the lava flow surface. Field observation points to a bimodal discharge regime in the channel, with evidence for both annual snowmelt runoff and outburst floods from Collier glacier, as well as historical evidence of vigorous glacial meltwater. To determine the range of discharge events capable of incision in White Branch Creek, we used a mechanistic model of fluvial abrasion. We show that the observed incision implies that moderate flows are capable of both initiating channel formation and sustaining incision. Our results have implications for the evolution of volcanic systems worldwide, where glaciation and/or mass wasting may accelerate fluvial processes by providing large amounts of sediment to otherwise porous, sediment-starved landscapes.

  17. Recombinational repair: workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard-Flanders, P.

    1983-01-01

    Recombinational repair may or may not be synonymous with postreplication repair. Considerable progress has been made in the study of the relevant enzymes, particularly those from bacteria. In this workshop we focus on the recombination enzyme RecA protein. What structural changes take place in the protein and in DNA during repair. How does homologous pairing take place. How is ATP hydrolysis coupled to the stand exchange reaction and the formation of heteroduplx DNA. Turning to another enzyme needed for certain kinds of bacterial recombination, we will ask whether the purified recB protein and recC protein complement each other and are sufficient for exonuclease V activity. In higher cells, we would like to know whether sister exchanges, which occur in bacteria after uv irradiation, are also seen in animal cells

  18. Comparison of incision and drainage against needle aspiration for the treatment of breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad; Rahimnajjad, Muhammad Kazim; Rahimnajjad, Nasir Ali; Ahmed, Qazi Jalaluddin; Fazel, Pyar Ali; Owais, Muhammad

    2012-11-01

    We aim to compare the incision and drainage against ultrasound-guided aspiration for the treatment of breast abscesses. Sixty-four patients were randomly allocated to Group A (incision and drainage) and Group B (needle aspiration). Incision and drainage was done under general, whereas aspiration was done under local anesthesia with antibiotic coverage after the pus sample was taken for cultures. Time taken to resolve symptoms including point tenderness, erythema and hyperthermia, recurrence of breast abscess, and healing time was recorded. Patients were followed until 8 weeks. Culture and sensitivity of the pus were done. Data were analyzed in SPSS 16.0. The mean difference of healing time was significant (P = 0.001). A total of 93.3 per cent were healed in Group B and 76.6 per cent in Group A (P = 0.033). Twenty-two samples (34.37%) had no bacterial yield and the remaining 42 samples (65.6%) yielded 11 anaerobic cultures (17.18%) and 31 aerobic cultures (48.4%). Ultrasound-guided aspiration of breast abscesses with the judicious use of antibiotics is a better treatment modality than incision and drainage.

  19. Modelling channel incision and alpine hillslope development using laser altimetry data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anders, N.S.; Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; Bouten, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to simulate drainage basin evolution and demonstrates that high resolution elevation data can be used as useful tool for a dynamic simulation of Alpine landscape development, in which channel incision is incorporated in high spatial detail. A vector channel

  20. The Evolution of the Appendectomy: From Open to Laparoscopic to Single Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah J. Switzer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with its initial description by Fitz in the 19th century, acute appendicitis has been a significant long-standing medical challenge; today it remains the most common gastrointestinal emergency in adults. Already in 1894, McBurney advocated for the surgical removal of the inflamed appendix and is credited with the initial description of an Open Appendectomy (OA. With the introduction of minimally invasive surgery, this classic approach evolved into a procedure with multiple, smaller incisions; a technique termed Laparoscopic Appendectomy (LA. There is much literature describing the advantages of this newer approach. To name a few, patients have significantly less wound infections, reduced pain, and a reduction in ileus compared with the OA. In the past few years, Single Incision Laparoscopic Appendectomy (SILA has gained popularity as the next major evolutionary advancement in the removal of the appendix. Described as a pioneer in the era of “scarless surgery,” it involves only one transumbilical incision. Patients are postulated to have reduced post-operative complications such as infection, hernias, and hematomas, as well as a quicker recovery time and less post-operative pain scores, in comparison to its predecessors. In this review, we explore the advancement of the appendectomy from open to laparoscopic to single incision.

  1. Computed tomography contrast media extravasation: treatment algorithm and immediate treatment by squeezing with multiple slit incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sue Min; Cook, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Il Jae; Park, Dong Ha; Park, Myong Chul

    2017-04-01

    In our hospital, an adverse event reporting system was initiated that alerts the plastic surgery department immediately after suspecting contrast media extravasation injury. This system is particularly important for a large volume of extravasation during power injector use. Between March 2011 and May 2015, a retrospective chart review was performed on all patients experiencing contrast media extravasation while being treated at our hospital. Immediate treatment by squeezing with multiple slit incisions was conducted for a portion of these patients. Eighty cases of extravasation were reported from approximately 218 000 computed tomography scans. The expected extravasation volume was larger than 50 ml, or severe pressure was felt on the affected limb in 23 patients. They were treated with multiple slit incisions followed by squeezing. Oedema of the affected limb disappeared after 1-2 hours after treatment, and the skin incisions healed within a week. We propose a set of guidelines for the initial management of contrast media extravasation injuries for a timely intervention. For large-volume extravasation cases, immediate management with multiple slit incisions is safe and effective in reducing the swelling quickly, preventing patient discomfort and decreasing skin and soft tissue problems. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Normalized Urinary Flow at Puberty after Tubularized Incised Plate Urethroplasty for Hypospadias in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marie; Doroszkiewicz, Monika; Arfwidsson, Charlotte; Abrahamsson, Kate; Sillén, Ulla; Holmdahl, Gundela

    2015-11-01

    An obstructive urinary flow pattern is frequently seen after tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for hypospadias. However, the significance of this finding has not been determined and long-term results are few. We describe postoperative long-term uroflowmetry results after puberty in males who underwent tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in childhood. A total of 126 boys underwent tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for distal penile to mid shaft hypospadias at Queen Silvia Children's Hospital in Gothenburg between 1999 and 2003. Of the patients 48 were toilet trained at surgery. We report on 40 patients who had data available at 2 and 12 months postoperatively, 7 years postoperatively and at puberty (median age 15.0 years, range 13.7 to 17.1). Of the patients 31 had distal and 9 had mid penile hypospadias. Clinical examination, urinary medical history, uroflowmetry and ultrasound measuring residual urine were performed. Maximum urinary flow was correlated to age and voided volume, using Miskolc nomograms for comparison of percentiles. At 1 year postoperatively 15 boys (37.5%) had normal urinary flow (above 25th percentile), compared to 16 (40%) at 7 years and 38 (95%) at puberty (p puberty for boys with hypospadias treated with tubularized incised plate urethroplasty. Unless symptoms occur, a conservative approach seems preferable. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Full-Thickness Retinochoroidal Incision in the Management of Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Ni Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO treated with full-thickness retinochoroidal incisions and to compare whether there is difference in treatment response in ischemic and nonischemic CRVO. Methods. Retrospective study of patients of CRVO receiving full-thickness retinochoroidal incisions in Changhua Christian Hospital. Fluorescein angiography (FA, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect funduscopy, best corrected visual acuity, and central macular thickness (CMT measured by optical coherence tomography were performed pre- and postoperatively. Patients were divided into an ischemic and nonischemic group according to the findings of FA. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year. Results. Twenty-eight eyes (14 ischemic and 14 nonischemic CRVO were included. Functional retinochoroidal venous anastomosis (RCVA was achieved in 48 of the 65 retinochoroidal incisions (73.8%. Central macular thickness (CMT and retinal hemorrhage decreased significantly after the surgery. Significant visual gain was observed postoperatively in the nonischemic group, but not in the ischemic group. Postoperative complications included vitreous hemorrhage (17.8%, neovascular glaucoma (7.1%, and preretinal fibrovasular membrane (10.7%, all of which were in the ischemic group. Conclusions. RCVA formation induced by retinochoroidal incisions could improve venous flow, and decrease CMT and retinal hemorrhage. However, only eyes with nonischemic CRVO showed visual improvement.

  4. Outcomes of single-stage total arch replacement via clamshell incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizaka Toru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of complex aortic pathologies involving the transverse arch with extensive involvement of the descending aorta remains a surgical challenge. Since clamshell incision provides superior exposure of the entire thoracic aorta, we evaluated the use of this technique for single-stage total arch replacement by arch vessel reconstruction. Methods The arch-first technique combined with clamshell incision was used in 38 cases of aneurysm and aortic disease in 2008 and 2009. Extensive total arch replacement was used with clamshell incision for reconstruction of arch vessels under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Results Overall 30-day mortality was 13%. The mean operating time was approximately 8 hours. Deep hypothermia resulted in mean CPB time exceeding 4.5 hours and mean duration of circulatory arrest was 25 minutes. The overall postoperative temporary and permanent neurologic dysfunction rates were 3% and 3% for elective and 3% and 0% for emergency surgery, respectively. All patients except the five who died in hospital were discharged without nursing care after an average post-operative hospital stay of 35 days. Conclusions The arch-first technique, combined with clamshell incision, provides expeditious replacement of the thoracic aorta with an acceptable duration of hypothermic circulatory arrest and minimizes the risk of retrograde atheroembolism by using antegrade perfusion.

  5. Seismic evidence of glacial-age river incision into the Tahaa barrier reef, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Michael; Woodruff, Jonathan D.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Perron, J. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Rivers have long been recognized for their ability to shape reef-bound volcanic islands. On the time-scale of glacial–interglacial sea-level cycles, fluvial incision of exposed barrier reef lagoons may compete with constructional coral growth to shape the coastal geomorphology of ocean islands. However, overprinting of Pleistocene landscapes by Holocene erosion or sedimentation has largely obscured the role lowstand river incision may have played in developing the deep lagoons typical of modern barrier reefs. Here we use high-resolution seismic imagery and core stratigraphy to examine how erosion and/or deposition by upland drainage networks has shaped coastal morphology on Tahaa, a barrier reef-bound island located along the Society Islands hotspot chain in French Polynesia. At Tahaa, we find that many channels, incised into the lagoon floor during Pleistocene sea-level lowstands, are located near the mouths of upstream terrestrial drainages. Steeper antecedent topography appears to have enhanced lowstand fluvial erosion along Tahaa's southwestern coast and maintained a deep pass. During highstands, upland drainages appear to contribute little sediment to refilling accommodation space in the lagoon. Rather, the flushing of fine carbonate sediment out of incised fluvial channels by storms and currents appears to have limited lagoonal infilling and further reinforced development of deep barrier reef lagoons during periods of highstand submersion.

  6. 1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine is cytotoxic in quiescent normal lymphocytes undergoing DNA excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kawai, Yasukazu; Ueda, Takanori [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We have sought to clarify the potential activity of the S-phase-specific antileukemic agent 1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C), an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, in quiescent cells that are substantially non-sensitive to nucleoside analogues. It was hypothesized that the combination of ara-C with DNA damaging agents that initiate DNA repair will expand ara-C cytotoxicity to non-cycling cells. The repair kinetics, which included incision of damaged DNA, gap-filling by DNA synthesis and rejoining by ligation, were evaluated using the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay and the thymidine incorporation assay. When normal lymphocytes were treated with ultraviolet C or with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), the processes of DNA excision repair were promptly initiated and rapidly completed. When the cells were incubated with ara-C prior to irradiation or BCNU treatment, the steps of DNA synthesis and rejoining in the repair processes were both inhibited. The ara-C-mediated inhibition of the repair processes was concentration-dependent, with the effect peaking at 10{mu}M. The combination of ara-C with these DNA repair initiators exerted subsequent cytotoxicity, which was proportional to the extent of the repair inhibition in the presence of ara-C. In conclusion, ara-C was cytotoxic in quiescent cells undergoing DNA repair. This might be attributed to unrepaired DNA damage that remained in the cells, thereby inducing lethal cytotoxicity. Alternatively, ara-C might exert its own cytotoxicity by inhibiting DNA synthesis in the repair processes. Such a strategy may be effective against a dormant subpopulation in acute leukemia that survives chemotherapy. (author)

  7. 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine is cytotoxic in quiescent normal lymphocytes undergoing DNA excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kawai, Yasukazu; Ueda, Takanori

    2002-01-01

    We have sought to clarify the potential activity of the S-phase-specific antileukemic agent 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C), an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, in quiescent cells that are substantially non-sensitive to nucleoside analogues. It was hypothesized that the combination of ara-C with DNA damaging agents that initiate DNA repair will expand ara-C cytotoxicity to non-cycling cells. The repair kinetics, which included incision of damaged DNA, gap-filling by DNA synthesis and rejoining by ligation, were evaluated using the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay and the thymidine incorporation assay. When normal lymphocytes were treated with ultraviolet C or with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), the processes of DNA excision repair were promptly initiated and rapidly completed. When the cells were incubated with ara-C prior to irradiation or BCNU treatment, the steps of DNA synthesis and rejoining in the repair processes were both inhibited. The ara-C-mediated inhibition of the repair processes was concentration-dependent, with the effect peaking at 10μM. The combination of ara-C with these DNA repair initiators exerted subsequent cytotoxicity, which was proportional to the extent of the repair inhibition in the presence of ara-C. In conclusion, ara-C was cytotoxic in quiescent cells undergoing DNA repair. This might be attributed to unrepaired DNA damage that remained in the cells, thereby inducing lethal cytotoxicity. Alternatively, ara-C might exert its own cytotoxicity by inhibiting DNA synthesis in the repair processes. Such a strategy may be effective against a dormant subpopulation in acute leukemia that survives chemotherapy. (author)

  8. Phage T4 endonuclease V stimulates DNA repair replication in isolated nuclei from ultraviolet-irradiated human cells, including xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    The repair mode of DNA replication has been demonstrated in isolated nuclei from uv-irradiated human cells. Nuclei are incubated in a mixture containing [ 3 H]thymidine triphosphate and bromodeoxyuridine triphosphate in a 1:5 ratio. The 3 H at the density of parental DNA in alkaline CsCl density gradients is then a measure of repair. In nuclei prepared from WI38 cells 30 min after irradiation, repair replication is uv-dependent and proceeds at approximately the in vivo rate for 5 min. Repair replication is reduced in irradiated nuclei or in nuclei prepared immediately after irradiation. It is Mg 2+ -dependent and stimulated by added ATP and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. No repair replication is observed in nuclei from xeroderma pigmentosum (complementation group A) cells. However, upon addition of coliphage T4 endonuclease V, which specifically nicks DNA containing pyrimidine dimers, repair replication is observed in nuclei from irradiated xeroderma pigmentosum cells and is stimulated in WI38 nuclei. The reaction then persists for an hour and is dependent upon added ATP and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. The repair label is in stretches of roughly 35 nucleotides, as it is in intact cells. Added pancreatic DNase does not promote uv-dependent repair synthesis. Our results support the view that xeroderma pigmentosum (group A) cells are defective in the incision step of the DNA excision repair pathway, and demonstrate the utility of this system for probing DNA repair mechanisms

  9. Laparoscopic surgery for esophageal achalasia: Multiport vs single-incision approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Makino, Tomoki; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Yamasaki, Makoto; Miyata, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2016-02-01

    SILS can potentially improve aesthetic outcomes without adversely affecting treatment outcomes, but these outcomes are uncertain in laparoscopic Heller-Dor surgery. We determined if the degree of patient satisfaction with aesthetic outcomes progressed with the equivalent treatment outcomes after the introduction of a single-incision approach to laparoscopic Heller-Dor surgery. We retrospectively reviewed 20 consecutive esophageal achalasia patients (multiport approach, n = 10; single-incision approach, n = 10) and assessed the treatment outcomes and patient satisfaction with the aesthetic outcomes. In the single-incision approach, thin supportive devices were routinely used to gain exposure to the esophageal hiatus. No statistically significant differences in the operating time (210.2 ± 28.8 vs 223.5 ± 46.3 min; P = 0.4503) or blood loss (14.0 ± 31.7 vs 16.0 ± 17.8 mL; P = 0.8637) were detected between the multiport and single-incision approaches. We experienced no intraoperative complications. Mild dysphagia, which resolved spontaneously, was noted postoperatively in one patient treated with the multiport approach. The reduction rate of the maximum lower esophageal sphincter pressure was 25.1 ± 34.4% for the multiport approach and 21.8 ± 19.2% for the single-incision approach (P = 0.8266). Patient satisfaction with aesthetic outcomes was greater for the single-incision approach than for the multiport approach. When single-incision laparoscopic Heller-Dor surgery was performed adequately and combined with the use of thin supportive devices, patient satisfaction with the aesthetic outcomes was higher and treatment outcomes were equivalent to those of the multiport approach. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Cell sensitivity to irradiation and DNA repair processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new model of oxygen effect realisation is proposed for E.coli cells. The model explains differencies in oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) between wild type cells and repair deficient mutants. These differencies are logically linked to corresponding defects in repair systems. A quantitative analysis has been performed. The dependence of OER and cell sensitivity on the properties of cultivation medium is considered, too. Decreasing OER and increasing sensitivity in poor conditions are explained as the consequence of the shift of repair capacity from slow to fast repair system

  11. DNA repair systems as targets of cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Gatzidou, Elisavet; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a potent carcinogen implicated in tumor development through occupational and environmental exposure. Recent evidence suggests that proteins participating in the DNA repair systems, especially in excision and mismatch repair, are sensitive targets of Cd toxicity. Cd by interfering and inhibiting these DNA repair processes might contribute to increased risk for tumor formation in humans. In the present review, the information available on the interference of Cd with DNA repair systems and their inhibition is summarized. These actions could possibly explain the indirect contribution of Cd to mutagenic effects and/or carcinogenicity

  12. Biological radiolesions and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    In 7 chapters, the book answers the following questions: 1) What reactions are induced in biological matter by absorption of radiation energy. 2) In what parts of the cell do the radiation-induced reactions with detectable biological effects occur. 3) In which way are these cell components changed by different qualities of radiation. 4) What are the cell mechanisms by which radiation-induced changes can be repaired. 5) What is the importance of these repair processes for man, his life and evolution. At the end of each chapter, there is a bibliography of relevant publications in this field. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Amilal; Gandhi, Ajay; Saxena, Gajendra; Choudhary, Gautam Ram

    2010-10-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and results of preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) in patients of proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature. Twenty-seven patients of proximal hypospadias who underwent preputioplasty with TIP were evaluated retrospectively. Ventral curvature was corrected by mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum and the proximal urethra; dorsal plication was added according to the severity of curvature. Feasibility of preputial reconstruction was assessed by applying 3 stay sutures-the first to fix the skin at the corona, the second at the junction of the inner and outer preputial skin for pulling up the skin over the glans, and the third stay on penile skin at the level of the corona for retracting the skin. Preputial reconstruction consisted of a standard 3 layered re-approximation of the margins of the dorsal hood. Age of the patients varied from 10 months to 21 years with an average of 6 years and 4 months. Ventral curvature (mild 10, moderate 13, and severe 4 cases) was corrected by the mobilization of the urethral plate and spongiosum in 14 patients, 11 cases had mobilization of the proximal urethra in addition and 2 patients required single stitch dorsal plication with the above-mentioned steps. Two patients developed urethral fistula and 1 had preputial dehiscence. Preputioplasty with TIP is feasible in proximal hypospadias with curvature without increasing the complication rate. Postoperative phimosis can be prevented by on-table testing of the adequacy of preputial skin by 3 stay sutures.

  14. A novel nomogram for the treatment of astigmatism with femtosecond-laser arcuate incisions at the time of cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharozian CJ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Connor J Baharozian,1 Christian Song,2,3 Kathryn M Hatch,2,3 Jonathan H Talamo2,3 1Boston University School of Medicine, 2Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine an arcuate incision (AI nomogram to treat astigmatism during femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective, cohort study. Femtosecond laser (FSL-assisted transepithelial AIs were created at a 9.0 mm optical zone, 80% depth, centered on the limbus. We modified the manual Donnenfeld limbal relaxing incision nomogram to 70% for with-the-rule (WTR, 80% for oblique (OBL, and 100% for against-the-rule (ATR astigmatism. The correction index (CI equaled AI-induced astigmatism/target-induced astigmatism. Measures included preoperative keratometric corneal cylinder (Pre Kcyl, postoperative Kcyl (Post Kcyl, and postoperative residual refractive astigmatism (Post RRA. Results: Mean Pre Kcyl and 1–2 months Post RRA in 161 eyes of 116 patients were 0.626±0.417 diopters (D (range 0.5–2 D, and 0.495±0.400 D (range 0–1.5 D, respectively. Mean absolute astigmatic changes (Pre Kcyl–Post Kcyl without accounting for axis change in the WTR, ATR, and OBL groups were 0.165±0.383 D (P<0.001, 0.374±0.536 D (P<0.001, and 0.253±0.416 D (P=0.02, respectively. Mean absolute astigmatic changes using RRA as the postoperative measurement (Pre Kcyl–Post RRA without accounting for axis change were 0.440±0.461 D (P<0.001, 0.238±0.571 D (P<0.05, 0.154±0.450 (P=0.111 in WTR, ATR, and OBL groups, respectively. CIs for WTR, ATR, and OBL were 0.53, 1.01, and 0.95, respectively. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications related to the AIs.Conclusion: Transepithelial FSL-AIs using the modified Donnenfeld nomogram show potential for management of mild to moderate corneal astigmatism. An increase in the magnitude or reduction of the optical zone

  15. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: gold standard in bilateral hernia repair? Results of more than 2800 patients in comparison to literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauschkuhn, Constantin Aurel; Schwarz, Jochen; Boekeler, Ulf; Bittner, Reinhard

    2010-12-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of open and endoscopic hernia surgery are still being discussed. Until now there has been no study that evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of bilateral hernia repair in a large number of patients. Our prospectively collected database was analyzed to compare the results of laparoscopic bilateral with laparoscopic unilateral hernia repair. We then compared these results with the results of a literature review regarding open and laparoscopic bilateral hernia repair. From April 1993 to December 2007 there were 7240 patients with unilateral primary hernia (PH) and 2880 patients with bilateral hernia (5760 hernias) who underwent laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal patch plastic (TAPP). Of the 10,120 patients, 28.5% had bilateral hernias. Adjusted for the number of patients operated on, the mean duration of surgery for unilateral hernia repair was shorter than that for bilateral repair (45 vs. 70 min), but period of disability (14 vs. 14 days) was the same. Adjusted for the number of hernias repaired, morbidity (1.9 vs. 1.4%), reoperation (0.5 vs. 0.43%), and recurrence rate (0.63 vs. 0.42%) were similar for unilateral versus bilateral repair, respectively. The review of the literature shows a significantly shorter time out of work after laparoscopic bilateral repair than after the bilateral open approach. Simultaneous laparoscopic repair of bilateral inguinal hernias does not increase the risk for the patient and has an equal length of down time compared with unilateral repair. According to literature, recovery after laparoscopic repair is faster than after open simultaneous repair. Laparoscopic/endoscopic inguinal hernia repair of bilateral hernias should be recommended as the gold standard.

  16. Biomechanical Analysis of an Arthroscopic Broström Ankle Ligament Repair and a Suture Anchor-Augmented Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Eric; Whitlow, Scott R; Williams, Brady T; Acevedo, Jorge I; Mangone, Peter G; Haytmanek, C Thomas; Curry, Eugene E; Turnbull, Travis Lee; LaPrade, Robert F; Wijdicks, Coen A; Clanton, Thomas O

    2015-07-01

    Secondary surgical repair of ankle ligaments is often indicated in cases of chronic lateral ankle instability. Recently, arthroscopic Broström techniques have been described, but biomechanical information is limited. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the biomechanical properties of an arthroscopic Broström repair and augmented repair with a proximally placed suture anchor. It was hypothesized that the arthroscopic Broström repairs would compare favorably to open techniques and that augmentation would increase the mean repair strength at time zero. Twenty (10 matched pairs) fresh-frozen foot and ankle cadaveric specimens were obtained. After sectioning of the lateral ankle ligaments, an arthroscopic Broström procedure was performed on each ankle using two 3.0-mm suture anchors with #0 braided polyethylene/polyester multifilament sutures. One specimen from each pair was augmented with a 2.9-mm suture anchor placed 3 cm proximal to the inferior tip of the lateral malleolus. Repairs were isolated and positioned in 20 degrees of inversion and 10 degrees of plantarflexion and loaded to failure using a dynamic tensile testing machine. Maximum load (N), stiffness (N/mm), and displacement at maximum load (mm) were recorded. There were no significant differences between standard arthroscopic repairs and the augmented repairs for mean maximum load and stiffness (154.4 ± 60.3 N, 9.8 ± 2.6 N/mm vs 194.2 ± 157.7 N, 10.5 ± 4.7 N/mm, P = .222, P = .685). Repair augmentation did not confer a significantly higher mean strength or stiffness at time zero. Mean strength and stiffness for the arthroscopic Broström repair compared favorably with previous similarly tested open repair and reconstruction methods, validating the clinical feasibility of an arthroscopic repair. However, augmentation with an additional proximal suture anchor did not significantly strengthen the repair. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of open versus arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adla, Deepthi N; Rowsell, Mark; Pandey, Radhakant

    2010-03-01

    Economic evaluation of surgical procedures is necessary in view of more expensive newer techniques emerging in an increasingly cost-conscious health care environment. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of open rotator cuff repair with arthroscopic repair for moderately size tears. This was a prospective study of 30 consecutive patients, of whom 15 had an arthroscopic repair and 15 had an open procedure. Clinical effectiveness was assessed using Oxford and Constant shoulder scores. Costs were estimated from departmental and hospital financial data. At last follow-up, no difference Oxford and Constant shoulder scores was noted between the 2 methods of repair. There was no significant difference between the groups in the cost of time in the operating theater, inpatient time, amount of postoperative analgesia, number of postoperative outpatient visits, physiotherapy costs, and time off work. The incremental cost of each arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was pound675 ($1248.75) more than the open procedure. This was mainly in the area of direct health care costs, instrumentation in particular. Health care policy makers are increasingly demanding evidence of cost-effectiveness of a procedure. This study showed both methods of repair provide equivalent clinical results. Open cuff repair is more cost-effective than arthroscopic repair and is likely to have lower cost-utility ratio. In addition, the tariff for the arthroscopic procedure in some health care systems is same as open repair. Copyright 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Flexural strength of structural concrete repaired with HBPMM cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, G.H.; Khaskheli, G.B.; Kumar, A.

    2009-01-01

    To repair damaged concrete structures, Dadabhoy Cement Factory in Sindh has launched a product known as HBPMM (Hi-Bond Polymer Modified Mortar) cement. HBPMM is used to repair various concrete structures in Pakistan but the experimental back up regarding the real performance of the product, as far as flexural strength of concrete is concerned, is not well known yet. This study is thus aimed to investigate the flexural strength of structural concrete repaired with HBPMM compared to that repaired with OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement). In total 32 concrete beams (6x6x18) having compressive strength of 3000 and 5000 psi were manufactured. To obtain flexural strength of the beams, these were splitted by using a UTM (Universal Testing Machine). Beams were then repaired with different applications of HBPMM and OPC. After 28 days of curing, the repaired beams were re-splitted to determine the flexural strength of repaired beams. Results show that both HBPMM and OPC are not very effective. However, the performance of HBPMM remained slightly better than that of OPC. Both OPC and HBPMM remained more efficient in case of 5000 psi concrete than that of 3000 psi concrete. Flexural strength of repaired beams could be increased by increasing application of the repairing material. (author)

  19. A new technique, combined plication-incision (CPI, for correction of penile curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Abdalla Hamed

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction Penile curvature (PC can be surgically corrected by either corporoplasty or plication techniques. These techniques can be complicated by post-operative: penile shortening, recurrent PC, painful/palpable suture knots and erectile dysfunction. Objective To avoid the complications of corporoplasty and plication techniques using a new technique: combined plication-incision (CPI. Materials and Methods Two groups (1&2 were operated upon: group 1 using CPI and group 2 using the 16-dot technique. In CPI, dots were first marked as in 16 dot technique. In each group of 4 dots the superficial layer of tunica albuginea was transversely incised (3-6mm at the first and last dots. Ethibond 2/0, passed through the interior edge of the first incision plicating the intermediate 2 dots and passed out of the interior edge of the last incision, was tightened and ligated. Vicryle 4/0, passed through the exterior edges of the incisions, was tightened and ligated to cover the ethibond knot. Results Twelve (57.1 % participants in group 2 complained of a bothering palpable knot compared to none in group 1 with statistically significant difference (P=0.005. Postoperative shortening (5mm of erect penis, encountered in 9 participants, was doubled in group 2 but with insignificant difference (P>0.05. Post-operative recurrence of PC, was encountered in only 1 (4.8% participant in group 2, compared to none in group 1, with insignificant difference (P>0.05. Post-operative erectile rigidity was normally maintained in all participants. Conclusion The new technique was superior to the 16-dot technique for correction of PC.

  20. [Is there a relation between mammaplasties incisions and the final shape of the breast?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufarrège, R; Dionyssopoulos, A; Aymeric, A; Sauvageau, J

    2010-04-01

    The results of reduction mammoplasty and mastopexy demonstrate a great variety of shapes derived from the particularities inherent to each technique. More precisely, it has become apparent to us that the usage of an abnormally long vertical scar leads to a suboptimal final shape of the breast due to the excessive projection compared to its height. Although our clientele continually asks to minimize scars, we have noticed a resurgence in the literature of vertical incision mammoplasty techniques albeit with a scar of an excessive length. The multitude of publications leads to an evident and consistent conclusion: breasts reconstructed with an overly long vertical incision all suffer the same deformity characterized by a banana or squash-shaped breast. We studied the totality of publications on vertical incision technique mammoplasty from the last 15 years and realised they all presented the same problem: an abnormally low height/projection ratio. These numbers have been confronted by the golden ratio established by the first author (2005) [1]. The breast's golden ratio developed by Moufarrège is optimal at a number close to, or superior to 2. Results between 2 and 1.5 are acceptable. All height/projection ratios inferior to 1.5 correspond to suboptimal breast shapes. Furthermore, the totality of results in the vertical scar mammoplasty technique which displayed unsatisfying results had a height/projection ratio inferior to 1.5. Those who promote the vertical incision have the greatest drive to encourage other plastic surgeons to abandon the traditional mutilating boat anchor scar. Nevertheless, they should always remember the deforming effect caused by exaggerated vertical incisions which may be avoided by transforming it into an inverted T with short horizontal branches, a small price to pay to obtain a superior aesthetic result. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Potentially lethal damage and its repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Two forms termed fast-and slow-potentially lethal lethal damage (PLD) are introduced and discussed. The effect on the survival of x-irradiated Chinese hamster cells (V79) of two different post-treatments is examined in plateau- and in log-phases of growth. The postirradiation treatments used : a) incubation in hypertonic solution, and b) incubation in conditioned medium obtained from plateau-phase. Similar reduction in survival was caused by postirradiation treatment with hypertonic phosphate buffered saline, and similar increased in survival was effected by treatment in conditioned medium in plateau- and in log-phases cells. However, repair of PLD sensitive to hypertonic treatment was faster (half time, 5-10 min)(f-PLD repair) and independent from the repair of PLD (half time, 1-2 hour)(s-PLD repair) observed in conditioned medium. The results indicate the induction of two forms of PLD by radiation. Induction of both PLD was found to decrease with increasing LET of the radiation used. Identification of the molecular processes underlying repair and fixation of PLD is a task of particular interest, since it may allow replacement of a phenomenological definition with a molecular definition. Evidence is reviewed indicating the DNA double strand breaks (directly or indirectly induced) may be the DNA lesions underlying PLD. (author)

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to L-carnitine and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise (ID 738, 1492, 1493), skeletal muscle tissue repair (ID 738, 1492, 1493), increase in endurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to L-carnitine and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise, skeletal muscle tissue repair, increase in endurance capacity, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, contribution to normal spermatogenesis, “energy metabolism”, and increasing L...

  3. Composite Repair System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GTL has developed an innovative composite repair methodology known as the Composite Repair System (CRS). In this phase I effort, CRS is being developed for the...

  4. About the Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed the Collision Repair Campaign to focus on meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source sector to complement ongoing community air toxics work and attain reductions at a faster rate.

  5. Vesicovaginal Fistula Repair During Pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vesicovaginal Fistula Repair During Pregnancy: A Case Report ... Abstract. We report a repair of Vesicovaginal fistula during pregnancy that was aimed at preventing another spontaneous ... practices that encourage teenage marriage and girl.

  6. Ship Repair Workflow Cost Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDevitt, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The effects of intermittent work patterns and funding on the costs of ship repair and maintenance were modeled for the San Diego region in 2002 for Supervisor of Shipbuilding and Repair (SUPSHIP) San Diego...

  7. Transvaginal Excision of an Eroded Sacrocolpopexy Mesh by Using Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Franziska; Imboden, Sara; Kuhn, Annette; Mueller, Michael D

    To show a new technique of using single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) equipment in vaginal surgery to create a "pneumovagina." Explanatory video demonstrating the technique and intraoperative findings. University hospital. The 68-year-old patient was referred with a vaginal mesh erosion that resulted in abscess formation at the vaginal apex. The patient was symptomatic with an increasingly foul-smelling vaginal discharge for about 1 year. She had a laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy in a remote hospital 22 months before the current operation and had a total abdominal hysterectomy 15 years ago. The, patient's history was uneventful without dyspareunia, incontinence or voiding difficulties, and she was otherwise content with the sacrocolpopexy result. The local institutional review board granted exemption for this publication. Frequently, pelvic organ prolapse can only be effectively treated if the surgical procedure comprises support of the central compartment. Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy shows superior outcomes for this indication, with success rates of up to 96%. However, a rare side effect of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy is mesh erosion, occurring in up to 2.4% [1]. These erosions are usually treated laparoscopically [2]. In this video we show an alternative route for excision of a symptomatic exposed mesh by using a transvaginal approach: The SILS trocar is used vaginally for abscess irrigation and mesh excision with minimally invasive instruments. For treatment of the abscess and removal of the exposed mesh, the SILS trocar was placed vaginally, and laparoscopic instruments were used. The abscess was incised, cleansed and irrigated, debrided, and the mesh excised. Because no mesh material was exposed after excision, the vagina was not closed to avoid creating a cavity with the risk of promoting reabscess formation, and secondary wound healing was anticipated. Laparoscopy was used to confirm that no intra-abdominal lesion coexisted or occurred. There were

  8. Competition between replicative and translesion polymerases during homologous recombination repair in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Kane

    Full Text Available In metazoans, the mechanism by which DNA is synthesized during homologous recombination repair of double-strand breaks is poorly understood. Specifically, the identities of the polymerase(s that carry out repair synthesis and how they are recruited to repair sites are unclear. Here, we have investigated the roles of several different polymerases during homologous recombination repair in Drosophila melanogaster. Using a gap repair assay, we found that homologous recombination is impaired in Drosophila lacking DNA polymerase zeta and, to a lesser extent, polymerase eta. In addition, the Pol32 protein, part of the polymerase delta complex, is needed for repair requiring extensive synthesis. Loss of Rev1, which interacts with multiple translesion polymerases, results in increased synthesis during gap repair. Together, our findings support a model in which translesion polymerases and the polymerase delta complex compete during homologous recombination repair. In addition, they establish Rev1 as a crucial factor that regulates the extent of repair synthesis.

  9. Social repair of relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian Relsted

    2017-01-01

    organisations, friends and family, and communities. These social relations are viewed as the foundation of citizenship as experienced and practised. Focusing on how two dimensions of lived citizenship, namely rights-responsibilities and belonging, are affected by the social repairs, the chapter shows how...

  10. Comprehensive Small Engine Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hires, Bill; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains the basic information needed to repair all two- and four-stroke cycle engines. The curriculum covers four areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction that include performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and students, information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, visual aids,…

  11. Patent urachus repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair - series—Normal anatomy URL of this ...

  12. Patent urachus repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  13. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thanks to the pioneering research work of Lindahl, Sancar, Modrich and their colleagues, we now have an holistic awareness of how DNA damage occurs and how the damage is rectified in bacteria as well as in higher organisms including human beings. A comprehensive understanding of DNA repair has proven crucial ...

  14. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  15. DNA repair in neurons: So if they don't divide what's to repair