Sample records for repair incision activity

  1. Genetic and biochemical characterization of human AP endonuclease 1 mutants deficient in nucleotide incision repair activity.

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    Aurore Gelin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 is a key DNA repair enzyme involved in both base excision repair (BER and nucleotide incision repair (NIR pathways. In the BER pathway, APE1 cleaves DNA at AP sites and 3'-blocking moieties generated by DNA glycosylases. In the NIR pathway, APE1 incises DNA 5' to a number of oxidatively damaged bases. At present, physiological relevance of the NIR pathway is fairly well established in E. coli, but has yet to be elucidated in human cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We identified amino acid residues in the APE1 protein that affect its function in either the BER or NIR pathway. Biochemical characterization of APE1 carrying single K98A, R185A, D308A and double K98A/R185A amino acid substitutions revealed that all mutants exhibited greatly reduced NIR and 3'-->5' exonuclease activities, but were capable of performing BER functions to some extent. Expression of the APE1 mutants deficient in the NIR and exonuclease activities reduced the sensitivity of AP endonuclease-deficient E. coli xth nfo strain to an alkylating agent, methylmethanesulfonate, suggesting that our APE1 mutants are able to repair AP sites. Finally, the human NIR pathway was fully reconstituted in vitro using the purified APE1, human flap endonuclease 1, DNA polymerase beta and DNA ligase I proteins, thus establishing the minimal set of proteins required for a functional NIR pathway in human cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these data further substantiate the role of NIR as a distinct and separable function of APE1 that is essential for processing of potentially lethal oxidative DNA lesions.

  2. Nucleotide excision repair in intact cells contrasts with high dual incision activity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Olsen, A.K.; Wiger, R.; Naegeli, H.; Boer, de P.; Hoeven, van der F.; Holme, J.A.; Brunborg, G.; Mullenders, L.


    The acquisition of genotoxin-induced mutations in the mammalian germline is detrimental to the stable transfer of genomic information. In somatic cells, nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a major pathway to counteract the mutagenic effects of DNA damage. Two NER subpathways have been identified, gl

  3. Conserved structural chemistry for incision activity in structurally non-homologous apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 and endonuclease IV DNA repair enzymes.

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    Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Shin, David S.; Mol, Clifford D.; Izum, Tadahide; Arvai, Andrew S.; Mantha, Anil K.; Szczesny, Bartosz; Ivanov, Ivaylo N.; Hosfield, David J.; Maiti, Buddhadev; Pique, Mike E.; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hitomi, Kenichi; Cunningham, Richard P.; Mitra, Sankar; Tainer, John A.


    Non-coding apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA form spontaneously and as DNA base excision repair intermediates are the most common toxic and mutagenic in vivo DNA lesion. For repair, AP sites must be processed by 5' AP endonucleases in initial stages of base repair. Human APE1 and bacterial Nfo represent the two conserved 5' AP endonuclease families in the biosphere; they both recognize AP sites and incise the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the lesion, yet they lack similar structures and metal ion requirements. Here, we determined and analyzed crystal structures of a 2.4 ? resolution APE1-DNA product complex with Mg(2+) and a 0.92 Nfo with three metal ions. Structural and biochemical comparisons of these two evolutionarily distinct enzymes characterize key APE1 catalytic residues that are potentially functionally similar to Nfo active site components, as further tested and supported by computational analyses. We observe a magnesium-water cluster in the APE1 active site, with only Glu-96 forming the direct protein coordination to the Mg(2+). Despite differences in structure and metal requirements of APE1 and Nfo, comparison of their active site structures surprisingly reveals strong geometric conservation of the catalytic reaction, with APE1 catalytic side chains positioned analogously to Nfo metal positions, suggesting surprising functional equivalence between Nfo metal ions and APE1 residues. The finding that APE1 residues are positioned to substitute for Nfo metal ions is supported by the impact of mutations on activity. Collectively, the results illuminate the activities of residues, metal ions, and active site features for abasic site endonucleases.

  4. Dual daughter strand incision is processive and increases the efficiency of DNA mismatch repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hermans (Nicolaas); C. Laffeber; M. Cristovao (Michele); Artola-Borán, M. (Mariela); Mardenborough, Y. (Yannicka); P. Ikpa (Pauline); Jaddoe, A. (Aruna); H.H.K. Winterwerp (Herrie); C. Wyman (Claire); J. Jiricny (Josef); R. Kanaar (Roland); P. Friedhoff (Peter); J.H.G. Lebbink (Joyce)


    textabstractDNA mismatch repair (MMR) is an evolutionarily-conserved process responsible for the repair of replication errors. In Escherichia coli, MMR is initiated by MutS and MutL, which activate MutH to incise transiently-hemimethylated GATC sites. MMR efficiency depends on the distribution of th

  5. Open femoral hernia repair: one skin incision for all

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    El-Masry Nabil S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral hernias are relatively uncommon, however they are the most common incarcerated abdominal hernia, with strangulation of a viscus carrying significant mortality. Classically three approaches are described to open femoral hernia repair: Lockwood's infra-inguinal, Lotheissen's trans-inguinal and McEvedy's high approach. Each approach describes a separate skin incision and dissection to access the femoral sac. The decision as to which approach to adopt, predominantly dependent on the suspicion of finding strangulated bowel, is often a difficult one and in our opinion an unnecessary one. Methods We propose a technique for open femoral hernia repair that involves a single skin incision 1 cm above the medial half of the inguinal ligament that allows all of the above approaches to the hernia sac depending on the operative findings. Thus the repair of simple femoral hernias can be performed from below the inguinal ligament. If found, inguinal hernias can be repaired. More importantly, resection of compromised bowel can be achieved by accessing the peritoneal cavity with division of the linea semilunaris 4 cm above the inguinal ligament. This avoids compromise of the inguinal canal, and with medial retraction of the rectus abdominis muscle enables access to the peritoneal cavity and compromised bowel. Discussion This simple technique minimises the preoperative debate as to which incision will allow the best approach to the femoral hernia sac, allow for alteration to a simple inguinal hernia repair if necessary, and more importantly obviate the need for further skin incisions if compromised bowel is encountered that requires resection.

  6. Repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernias through umbilical skin incisions. (United States)

    Uehara, Shuichiro; Usui, Noriaki; Kamiyama, Masafumi; Masahata, Kazunori; Nara, Keigo; Ueno, Takehisa; Soh, Hideki; Oue, Takaharu; Fukuzawa, Masahiro


    The use of thoracoscopy and laparoscopy in the treatment of congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDHs) has been recently reported; however, the use of these procedures still remains controversial due to CO2 insufflation and limited working space. In addition, because of difficult techniques, it has not been widely accepted. Among CDH patients, mild cases whose lung is not hypoplastic, and not associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PPHN) often develop small defects in the diaphragm that can be repaired using "direct closure." Because direct closure does not require as wide an operative field as that needed for patch closure, we repaired CDH through umbilical skin windows in two neonates with mild CDH to minimize the wounds. With the creation of additional radical small incisions, the surgeries were successfully performed without any intra- or postoperative complications, and the wounds were cosmetically pleasing. The repair of CDHs through umbilical skin windows is a feasible and useful approach in neonates with mild CDH.

  7. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Repair of Spigelian Hernia (United States)

    Tran, Kim; Zajkowska, Marta; Lam, Vincent; Hawthorne, Wayne J.


    Introduction: Spigelian hernias represent only 1% to 2% of all abdominal wall hernias. The treatment, however, remains controversial but depends on institutional expertise. This case series reports the first experience with single-incision laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal (SILTEP) repair of Spigelian hernias with telescopic extraperitoneal dissection in combination with inguinal hernia repair. Methods: From February 2013 to April 2014, all patients referred with inguinal or Spigelian hernias, without histories of extraperitoneal intervention, underwent SILTEP repair with telescopic extraperitoneal dissection. A single-port device, 5.5 mm/52 cm/30° angled laparoscope, and conventional straight dissecting instruments were used for all cases. Extraperitoneal dissection was performed under direct vision with preservation of preperitoneal fascia overlying retroperitoneal nerves. Inguinal herniorrhaphy was performed with lightweight mesh that covered low-lying Spigelian defects. High-lying Spigelian defects were repaired with additional mesh. Results: There were 131 patients with 186 (92 direct) inguinal hernias and 7 patients with 8 Spigelian hernias (6 incidental, including 1 bilateral and 2 preoperatively diagnosed), with a mean age of 51.3 years and a mean body mass index of 25.1 kg/m2. An additional piece of mesh was used for 3 hernias. All Spigelian hernias were associated with direct inguinal hernias, and 8 combined inguinal and Spigelian hernias were successfully repaired with SILTEP repair with telescopic extraperitoneal dissection as day cases. There were no clinical recurrences during a mean follow-up period of 6 months (range, 1–15 months). Conclusions: Combined Spigelian and inguinal hernias can be successfully treated with SILTEP herniorrhaphy with telescopic extraperitoneal dissection. The high incidence of Spigelian hernias associated with direct inguinal hernias suggests a high index of suspicion for Spigelian hernias during laparoscopic inguinal

  8. Use of tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for secondary hypospadias repair or repair in circumcised patients



    PURPOSE: To retrospectively review our experience of the tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty in a series of re-operative hypospadias repairs or circumcised children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 2001 and September 2007, 17 children (mean 4.6 years, range 7 months to 15 years), were referred for hypospadias re-operation. Some of these patients had previously undergone circumcision and missed hypospadias. In all cases, the TIP urethroplasty was covered with an additional l...

  9. Comparison of three incisions to repair complete unilateral cleft lip.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, S.; Reddy, R.R.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Prasad, R.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Berge, S.J.


    BACKGROUND: The incision design for correcting a unilateral cleft lip is important because all subsequent stages of surgery depend on the access and maneuverability of the incision. This prospective cohort study compares the aesthetic and functional outcomes of three different skin incisions for pri

  10. Comparison of three incisions to repair complete unilateral cleft lip.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, S.; Reddy, R.R.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Prasad, R.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Berge, S.J.


    BACKGROUND: The incision design for correcting a unilateral cleft lip is important because all subsequent stages of surgery depend on the access and maneuverability of the incision. This prospective cohort study compares the aesthetic and functional outcomes of three different skin incisions for pri

  11. A new incision for unilateral cleft lip repair developed using animated simulation of repair on computer

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    Sahay A


    Full Text Available Background: Unilateral cleft lip repair continues to leave behind some amount of dissatisfaction, as a scope for further improvement is always felt. Most surgeons do not like to deviate from the standard Millard′s/ triangular techniques, or their minor modifications, as no one likes to experiment on the face for fear of unfavourable outcomes. The computer can be utilized as a useful tool in the analysis and planning of surgery and new methods can be developed and attempted subsequently with greater confidence. Aim: We decided to see if an improved lip repair could be developed with the use of computers. Materials and Methods: Analysis of previous lip repairs was done to determine where an improvement was required. Movement of tissues, by simulating an ideal repair, using image warping software, on digital images of cleft lip was studied in animation sequences. A repair which could reproduce these movements was planned. A new incision emerged, which had combined the principles of Millard′s and Randall / Tennyson repairs, with additional features. The new method was performed on 30 cases. Conclusions: The results were encouraging as the shortcomings of these methods were minimized, and the advantages maximized.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells promote incision wound repair in a mouse ...

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    Full-thickness cutaneous wounds (4 × 2 cm) were made by incision on the dorsal side of the mice. The wound was then ..... on age as well as the type and size of injury. In .... stem cells favour healing of the cutaneous radiation syndrome in a ...

  13. Use of tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for secondary hypospadias repair or repair in circumcised patients

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    Seyed A. Mousavi


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To retrospectively review our experience of the tubularized incised plate (TIP urethroplasty in a series of re-operative hypospadias repairs or circumcised children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 2001 and September 2007, 17 children (mean 4.6 years, range 7 months to 15 years, were referred for hypospadias re-operation. Some of these patients had previously undergone circumcision and missed hypospadias. In all cases, the TIP urethroplasty was covered with an additional layer of subcutaneous tissue or dartos flap. The original location, associated complications and results were recorded. RESULTS: There were 4 (30.7%, incidences of complications of TIP re-operation, 2 meatal stenosis, one stenosis with small fistula and one dehiscence. Re-operation was necessary in only one patient of our series (7.6% and the others were cured by dilatation. No complications occurred in the circumcised patents. CONCLUSION: Using TIP urethroplasty as described by Snodgrass, is a suitable method for treating primary and re-operative cases. It can also be used successfully in patients, who do not have a healthy skin flap and in circumcised patients when there is a lack of foreskin.

  14. Use of a Bicortical Button to Safely Repair the Distal Biceps in a Two-Incision Approach: A Cadaveric Analysis. (United States)

    Barlow, Jonathan D; McNeilan, Ryan J; Speeckaert, Amy; Beals, Corey T; Awan, Hisham M


    No consensus has been reached on the most effective anatomic approach or fixation method for distal biceps repair. It is our hypothesis that, using a cortical biceps button through a 2-incision technique, the distal biceps can be safely and anatomically repaired. A 2-incision biceps button distal biceps repair was completed on 10 fresh-frozen cadavers. The proximity of the guide pin to the critical structures of the forearm, including the posterior interosseous nerve and recurrent radial artery, was measured. The location of repair was mapped and compared with anatomic insertion. The average distance from the tip of the guide pin to the posterior interosseous nerve was 11.4 mm (range, 8-14 mm). The average distance from the tip of the guide pin to the recurrent radial artery was 12.5 mm (range, 8-19 mm). The distal biceps tendon was repaired to the anatomic insertion site on the tuberosity using the biceps button technique in all specimens. The 2-incision biceps button repair described here allows safe and accurate repair of the tendon to the radial tuberosity in this cadaveric study. The goal of distal biceps repair is to safely, securely, and anatomically repair the torn biceps tendon to the radial tuberosity. The most commonly performed techniques (single anterior incision with cortical button and the double-incision procedure with bone tunnels and trough) have limitations. A 2-incision button repair safely and anatomically repairs the distal biceps tendon. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Is Early Nasal Shaping With a Limited Alar Base Incision Possible in the Repair of Cleft Lips? (United States)

    Kapi, Emin; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Ozer, Torun; Celik, Mehmet Yusuf


    The repair of cleft lips has an important place in plastic and reconstructive surgery. In the treatment of these deformities, the aim was to restore the normal lip morphology in the cleft area as well as repairing any coexisting nasal deformities. Various methods are in use for this purpose. One of the most commonly employed surgical methods is Millard repair. However, this method may lead to additional scarring in the alar base on the cleft side subsequent to the incision. In this study, the results obtained from a group who have been applied alar base incisions during the modified Millard repair are compared to a group who have undergone intranasal wide dissections.The patients enrolled in the study were randomized into 2 groups. The first group were applied the modified Millard repair. In the second group, the rotation, advancement, and C-flaps were prepared according to Millard surgical repair technique; however, instead of an alar base and nasofacial groove incision on the cleft side, a nasal and maxillary supraperiosteal wide dissection was made through the incision in the mucosa of the nostril.The intranasal dissection performed during the study was observed to provide the targeted outcome and a more satisfactory cosmetic result through the modified Millard repair. In conclusion, the authors are of the opinion that the limited alar base incision and the wide supraperiosteal dissection performed in patients with cleft lips is an alternative method that can be employed in a wide range of patients.

  16. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Repair for the Treatment of Multiple Recurrent Inguinal Hernias (United States)

    Tran, Kim; Zajkowska, Marta; Lam, Vincent; Hawthorne, Wayne


    Introduction: Despite an exponential rise in laparoscopic surgery for inguinal herniorrhaphy, overall recurrence rates have remained unchanged. Therefore, an increasing number of patients present with recurrent hernias after having failed anterior and laparoscopic repairs. This study reports our experience with single-incision laparoscopic (SIL) intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) repair for these hernias. Materials and methods: All patients referred with multiply recurrent inguinal hernias underwent SIL-IPOM from November 1 2009 to October 30 2013. A 2.5-cm infraumbilical incision was made and a SIL surgical port was placed intraperitoneally. Modified dissection techniques, namely, “chopsticks” and “inline” dissection, 5.5 mm/52 cm/30° angled laparoscope and conventional straight dissecting instruments were used. The peritoneum was incised above the symphysis pubis and dissection continued laterally and proximally raising an inferior flap, below a previous extraperitoneal mesh, while reducing any direct/indirect/femoral/cord lipoma before placement of antiadhesive mesh that was fixed into the pubic ramus as well as superiorly with nonabsorbable tacks before fixing its inferior border with fibrin sealant. The inferior peritoneal flap was then tacked back onto the mesh. Results: There were 9 male patients who underwent SIL-IPOM. Mean age was 55 years old and mean body mass index was 26.8 kg/m2. Mean mesh size was 275 cm2. Mean operation time was 125 minutes with hospital stay of 1 day and umbilical scar length of 21 mm at 4 weeks' follow-up. There were no intraoperative/postoperative complications, port-site hernias, chronic groin pain, or recurrence with mean follow-up of 20 months. Conclusions: Multiply recurrent inguinal hernias after failed conventional anterior and laparoscopic repairs can be treated safely and efficiently with SIL-IPOM. PMID:25392643

  17. Landscape evolution due to river incision in active mountains (United States)

    Lavé, L.; Attal, A.


    It is commonly accepted that fluvial network incision control the local base level for hillslopes and therefore controls the rate of landscape denudation, and thus the way the landscape will respond to tectonic or climatic forcings. For that reason, many studies have focused for the last ten years in quantifying fluvial incision rates and the mechanisms of fluvial incision into bedrock. In many morphotectonic settings the shear stress model has been widely used and provided satisfactory first order description of the river incision in active mountains. Across the Siwaliks range in front of the Himalaya, the shear stress model (that also includes bedload mean pebble size and explicit channel width variations), provides a good proxy to estimate incision and uplift rate, that can be measured independently from fluvial terraces studies. By transposition and after calibration to more resistant crystalline lithologies, this model helped to define the incision rate profiles across the whole Himalayan ranges. These profiles were found coherent with current seismotectonic model, sediment budget, fluvial terrace studies and geochronology results. More importantly, the incision model was found to provide good results in two other active regions: across the Nanga Parbat massif in Pakistan, and in the San Gabriel Ranges in California, with only minor required changes of the erodibility coefficient despite very different hydroclimatic setting. However, this semi-empirical model is not mechanically satisfying: in many settings, river bedload fluxes exert an important control on incision rates, by limiting bedrock exposure or by providing an efficient tool for river mechanical abrasion. A reappraisal of the former examples as thus conducted in order to test different models including the role of sediment fluxes. General results and models will be first discussed in light of their physical consistency with field and experimental data on pebble and bedrock abrasion, and second in

  18. Minimal Incision Scar-Less Open Umbilical Hernia Repair in Adults - Technical Aspects and Short Term Results

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    Sanoop Koshy Zachariah


    Full Text Available Background: There is no gold standard technique for umbilical hernia repair .Conventional open umbilical hernia repair often produces an undesirable scar. Laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair requires multiple incisions beyond the umbilicus, specialized equipments, and expensive tissue separating mesh. We describe our technique of open umbilical hernia repair utilizing a small incision. The technique was derived from our experience with single incision laparoscopy. We report the technical details and short term results. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the first 20 patients who underwent minimal incision scar-less open umbilical hernia repair, from June 2011 to February 2014. A single intra-umbilical curved incision was used to gain access to the hernia sac. Primary suture repair was performed for defects upto 2cm.Larger defects were repaired using an onlay mesh. In patients with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater, onlay mesh hernioplasty was performed irrespective of the defect size.Results: A total of 20 patients, 12 males and 8 females underwent the procedure. Mean age was 50 (range 29 - 82 years. Mean BMI was 26.27 (range 20. -33.1 kg/m2. Average size of the incision was 1.96 range (1.5 to 2.5 cm. Mesh hernioplasty was done in 9 patients. 11 patients underwent primary suture repair alone. There were no postoperative complications associated with his technique. Average post operative length of hospital stay was 3.9 (range 2-10 days. Mean follow-up was 29.94 months, (2 weeks to 2.78 years. On follow up there was no externally visible scar in any of the patients. There were no recurrences on final follow up. Conclusion: This technique provides a similar cosmetic effect as obtained from single port laparoscopy. It is easy to perform safe, offers good cosmesis, does not require incisions beyond the umbilicus and cost effective, with encouraging results on short term follow up. Further research is needed to assess the true potential of the

  19. Clinical outcomes of single incision laparoscopic surgery and conventional laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair (United States)

    Ece, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Yormaz, Serdar; Sahin, Mustafa


    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery has been a frequently performed method for inguinal hernia repair. Studies have demonstrated that the laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approach is an appropriate choice for inguinal hernia repair. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) was developed to improve the cosmetic effects of conventional laparoscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of SILS-TAPP compared with TAPP technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 148 patients who underwent TAPP or SILS-TAPP in our surgery clinic between December 2012 and January 2015 were enrolled. Data including patient demographics, hernia characteristics, operative time, intraoperative and postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and recurrence rate were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: In total, 60 SILS-TAPP and 88 TAPP procedures were performed in the study period. The two groups were similar in terms of gender, type of hernia, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification score. The patients in the SILS-TAPP group were younger when compared the TAPP group. Port site hernia (PSH) rate was significantly high in the SILS-TAPP group, and all PSHs were recorded in patients with severe comorbidities. The mean operative time has no significant difference in two groups. All SILS procedures were completed successfully without conversion to conventional laparoscopy or open repair. No intraoperative complication was recorded. There was no recurrence during the mean follow-up period of 15.2 ± 3.8 months. CONCLUSION: SILS TAPP for inguinal hernia repair seems to be a feasible, safe method, and is comparable with TAPP technique. However, randomized trials are required to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:27251835

  20. Complications from a Distal Bicep Repair: A Meta-Analysis of a Single Incision Versus Double Incision Surgical Technique


    Toossi, Nader; Amin, Nirav Hasmukh; Cerynik, Douglas L.; Jones, Morgan H.


    Objectives: Anatomical reinsertion of the distal biceps is critical for restoring elbow flexion and forearm supination strength. Surgical techniques utilizing one and two incisions have been reported in the literature, describing complications and outcomes. However, which technique is associated with a lower complication rate remains unclear. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed, Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), SPORTSDiscus, a...

  1. Acute Achilles tendon rupture: Mini-incision repair with double-Tsuge loop suture vs. open repair with modified Kessler suture. (United States)

    Fu, Chongyang; Qu, Wei


    Achilles tendon rupture is a common injury of the foot and ankle. However, the optimal treatment strategy for Achilles tendon rupture is still not established. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and complications of mini-incision repair with double-Tsuge loop sutures and open repair with modified Kessler sutures. We evaluated data from 60 patients with acute closed Achilles tendon ruptures who underwent mini-incision repair with double-Tsuge loop sutures (n = 30) or open repair with modified Kessler sutures (n = 30) from 2006 to 2010 in an ongoing prospective study conducted by us and have finished at least 18-month follow-up or finished the study. The AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot score, ATRS, maximal ankle range of motion and the time to achieve 20 continuous single heel raises after operation were recorded to compare the efficacy. The complications were also evaluated. During a mean follow-up of 25 months after surgery, the time to achieve 20 continuous single heel raises after operation of patients in Group Mini was significantly shorter than patients in Group Open. Moreover, the mini-incision with double-Tsuge repair was associated with a significantly shorter operating time, smaller incision length, and lower rate of complications. The mini-incision with double-Tsuge suture method in our study was shown to provide earlier strength recovery, as well as shorter operation time, less complications and improved cosmetic appearance. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparision study of therapeutic effection between laparosccopical incision henia repair and open incision henia repair%腹腔镜切口疝修补术与开放式切口疝修补术的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 刘昶; 许军


    目的:比较腹腔镜切口疝修补术(LVHR)与开放切口疝修补术(OVHR)的临床疗效.方法:总结我院2005年1月-2011年1月治疗的腹壁切口疝(VIH)72例患者的临床资料,其中OVHR组32例,LVHR组40例.结果:OVHR组手术时间60~ 145min,平均手术时间(90±35)min;术中出血25~200 m L,平均(95±15)mL;住院时间4~35 d,平均(7.5±5.8)d,术区感染3例.LVHR组手术时间35~135 min,平均手术时间(82±32)min;术中出血15~160 mL,平均(85±12)mL,术区感染0例;住院时间3~8d,平均(5.5±1.6)d.患者随访3个月~5年,OVHR组复发2例(6.3%),LVHR组复发3例(7.5%).结论:WHR同OVHR同样安全有效,但LVHR可明显降低切口感染并发症、减少术后疼痛、缩短术后住院时间.%Objeetive: To compare the safety and benefits of laparoscopic(LVHR) and open incision hernia repai (OVHR). Methods: The clinical data of 72 patients with incision hernia receiving incision hernia repair in the Fourth Hospital of Harbin Medical University were analyzed among 40 cases which received laparoscopic incision hernia repair and 32 cases received open incision hernia repair. Results: The operative time was 60 ~ 145 min (mean 90 ± 35 min)and 35 -135 min(mean 82 ± 32 min)in OVHR group and LVHR group respectively- The blood losses were 25 ~ 200 mL(mean 95 ± 15 mL) and 5 ~ 160 mL(mean 85 ± 12 mL) in OVHR group and LVHR group respectively. Postoperative stay was 4 ~ 35 d (mean 7.5 ± 5.8 d) and 3 ~ 8 d (mean 5.5 ± 1.6 d) (P<0.05)in OVHR group and LVHR group respectively. Incision infection appeared 3 cases in OVHR group and no in LVHR group (P<0.05). Recurrence occurred in 2 cases and 3cases in OVHR group and LVHR group respectively during follow up period of 3 months to 5 years. Conclusions The laparoscopic inci-sional hernia repair is a safe and effective method as open incision hernia repair, and laparoscopic incisional hernia repair has less incision infection,can lessen pains and shorten postoperative

  3. A new, simple operative approach for bilateral inguinal hernia repair in girls: A single transverse supra-pubic incision

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    Abdalla E Zarroug


    Full Text Available Background: Inguinal hernia repair remains one of the most common operations performed by pediatric surgeons. We described a new surgical approach for treating bilateral inguinal hernias in girls through a small single transverse supra-pubic incision. Materials and Methods: A new approach was performed on female children 12-years-old and younger with bilateral inguinal hernias between January 2005 and April 2012. Technique: A single transverse suprapubic incision (1-1.5 cm was made. Using sharp and blunt dissection bilateral hernias were exposed and repaired using a standard high ligation. Results: Ninety-nine girls with a preoperative clinical diagnosis of bilateral inguinal hernia were included. Median age was 2 years (range: 1 month to 12 years. All patients underwent general anesthesia. Median operative time was 12 minutes (range 5-22. There were no intra-operative complications or misdiagnosis. Two patients had bilateral sliding hernias and the remainder had indirect hernias. Post-operatively two patients developed non-expanding small hematomas, both treated non-operatively without sequelae. There were zero hernia recurrence and median follow-up was 5 years (range: 1-8 years on 99% of patients. Conclusion: We described a new, safe, simple, and rapid approach for bilateral inguinal hernia repair in female pediatric population. A single transverse suprapubic skin incision was adequate for exposing both inguinal regions with excellent postoperative results.

  4. Repair of a submucous cleft palate by W-pushback and levator repositioning without incision to the nasal mucosa. (United States)

    Hwang, Kun


    The author created an innovative method of W-pushback and levator repositioning without having to make an incision to the nasal mucosa for submucous cleft palate repair.The W-shaped mucoperiosteal flap is outlined where the 2 peaks of W are the alveolar processes of both canine teeth and the midpoint of W is the anterior limit of the cleft notch of the hard palate. A short incision, medial to and behind the maxillary tuberosity and curved forward onto the palate and extended forward just medial to the alveolar process, is joined by a second incision from the apex of the cleft to the region of the canine tooth. The W-shaped mucoperiosteal flap is raised until the midline notch of the hard palate is exposed. The nasal mucosa and abnormally inserted levator veli palatini muscle to the posterior border of the hard palate bone are detached. By leaving the nasal mucosa intact, the detached levator veli palatini muscle is approximated at the midline and so the zona pellucida is obliterated. The cleft uvulas are cut in half and closed. The approximated W-flap is joined to the small anterior flap by 1 or more sutures (the W-pushback).Three patients were operated on with this technique without serious complications.The author believes that this method can make the levator sling and increase the length of the soft palate without making an incision to the nasal mucosa.

  5. New insights in the removal of the hydantoins, oxidation product of pyrimidines, via the base excision and nucleotide incision repair pathways. (United States)

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Couve, Sophie; Mazouzi, Abdelghani; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Gasparutto, Didier; Saparbaev, Murat


    Oxidative damage to DNA, if not repaired, can be both miscoding and blocking. These genetic alterations can lead to mutations and/or cell death, which in turn cause cancer and aging. Oxidized DNA bases are substrates for two overlapping repair pathways: base excision (BER) and nucleotide incision repair (NIR). Hydantoin derivatives such as 5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-Hyd) and 5-methyl-5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-5Me-Hyd), major products of cytosine and thymine oxidative degradation pathways, respectively, have been detected in cancer cells and ancient DNA. Hydantoins are blocking lesions for DNA polymerases and excised by bacterial and yeast DNA glycosylases in the BER pathway. However little is known about repair of pyrimidine-derived hydantoins in human cells. Here, using both denaturing PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS analyses we report that the bacterial, yeast and human AP endonucleases can incise duplex DNA 5' next to 5OH-Hyd and 5OH-5Me-Hyd thus initiating the NIR pathway. We have fully reconstituted the NIR pathway for these lesions in vitro using purified human proteins. Depletion of Nfo in E. coli and APE1 in HeLa cells abolishes the NIR activity in cell-free extracts. Importantly, a number of redundant DNA glycosylase activities can excise hydantoin residues, including human NTH1, NEIL1 and NEIL2 and the former protein being a major DNA glycosylase activity in HeLa cells extracts. This study demonstrates that both BER and NIR pathways can compete and/or back-up each other to remove hydantoin DNA lesions in vivo.

  6. New insights in the removal of the hydantoins, oxidation product of pyrimidines, via the base excision and nucleotide incision repair pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Redrejo-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage to DNA, if not repaired, can be both miscoding and blocking. These genetic alterations can lead to mutations and/or cell death, which in turn cause cancer and aging. Oxidized DNA bases are substrates for two overlapping repair pathways: base excision (BER and nucleotide incision repair (NIR. Hydantoin derivatives such as 5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-Hyd and 5-methyl-5-hydroxyhydantoin (5OH-5Me-Hyd, major products of cytosine and thymine oxidative degradation pathways, respectively, have been detected in cancer cells and ancient DNA. Hydantoins are blocking lesions for DNA polymerases and excised by bacterial and yeast DNA glycosylases in the BER pathway. However little is known about repair of pyrimidine-derived hydantoins in human cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, using both denaturing PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS analyses we report that the bacterial, yeast and human AP endonucleases can incise duplex DNA 5' next to 5OH-Hyd and 5OH-5Me-Hyd thus initiating the NIR pathway. We have fully reconstituted the NIR pathway for these lesions in vitro using purified human proteins. Depletion of Nfo in E. coli and APE1 in HeLa cells abolishes the NIR activity in cell-free extracts. Importantly, a number of redundant DNA glycosylase activities can excise hydantoin residues, including human NTH1, NEIL1 and NEIL2 and the former protein being a major DNA glycosylase activity in HeLa cells extracts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that both BER and NIR pathways can compete and/or back-up each other to remove hydantoin DNA lesions in vivo.

  7. Operative procedures of single-incision laparoscopic repair of pediatric epigastric hernia have become simple and feasible with the use of a novel suture-assisting needle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoichi Deie


    Full Text Available We describe a simple and feasible procedure for single-incision laparoscopic repair of a pediatric epigastric hernia using a novel suture-assisting needle. A multichannel port was inserted through the umbilical vertical incision. After the orifice of the hernia was identified, a suture-assisting needle, which can hold a suture at its tip, with a 2-0 thread was pierced through the skin into one side of the rectus muscle sheath into the abdominal cavity. Next, after releasing the thread, the needle was pulled out to the subcutis and pierced through another side of the rectus muscle sheath. The needle, grasping the thread again, was subsequently pulled out through the abdominal wall outside, and the thread was tied extracorporeally. This knot was buried subcutaneously. Operative procedures of single-incision laparoscopic repair of an epigastric hernia have become simple and feasible with the use of a novel suture-assisting needle with an excellent cosmetic result.

  8. Structural and Functional Studies on Nucleotide Excision Repair From Recognition to Incision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Kisker


    Maintenance of the correct genetic information is crucial for all living organisms because mutations are the primary cause of hereditary diseases, as well as cancer and may also be involved in aging. The importance of genomic integrity is underscored by the fact that 80 to 90% of all human cancers are ultimately due to DNA damage. Among the different repair mechanisms that have evolved to protect the genome, nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a universal pathway found in all organisms. NER removes a wide variety of bulky DNA adducts including the carcinogenic cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers induced by UV radiation, benzo(a)pyrene-guanine adducts caused by smoking and the guanine-cisplatin adducts induced by chemotherapy. The importance of this repair mechanism is reflected by three severe inherited diseases in humans, which are due to defects in NER: xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne's syndrome and trichothiodystrophy.

  9. [Repairing severe cicatricial contracture deformity in web-space by kite-like incision combined with full-thickness skin grafting]. (United States)

    Liang, Liming; Chai, Jiake; Jia, Xiaoming; Wang, Yirong; Meng, Suyu; Liu, Tao


    To investigate the effectiveness of repairing severe cicatricial contracture deformity in the web-space by kite-like incision combined with full-thickness skin grafting. Between June 2008 and September 2011, 31 patients (87 web-spaces) with severe cicatricial contracture deformities in the web-spaces were treated. There were 24 males and 7 females, aged 5-43 years (median, 22 years). The causes of injuries were flame burn (26 cases), scald (3 cases), electric arc burn (1 case), and chemical burn (1 case). The degree of burn was deep second degree (14 cases) and third degree (17 cases). The interval time from injury to operation was 10 months to 17 years (median, 2.2 years). The kite-like incision was marked on the scar in the web-space. The rhombic scar between the adjacent metacarpophalangeal joints was excised, and cicatricial contracture was released completely. The secondary wound in the web-space was repaired with full-thickness autogeneic skin grafting. The secondary wound at donor site was directly sutured. All full-thickness skin grafts survived well. The incisions at donor sites healed primarily. Of 31 patients, 29 (82 web-spaces) were followed up 6-18 months (mean, 13 months). The sizes and depths of reconstructed web-spaces were similar to those of normal ones. No secondary cicatricial contracture was observed, and the function of fingers recovered well. The short-term effectiveness is satisfactory by kite-like incision combined with full-thickness skin grafting for repairing severe cicatricial contracture deformities in the web-space, while the long-term effectiveness needs further observation.

  10. OSL dating of fluvial terraces for incision rate estimation and indication of neotectonic activity in Pamir (United States)

    Fuchs, M. C.; Gloaguen, R.; Krbetschek, M.; Szulc, A.


    ThePamir owes its special attraction for geo-scientists to being among Earth's largest intra-continental orogens and to display some of the highest uplift rates as well as to host among the most powerful river systems on the planet. The evolution of the drainage network as a proxy for the landscape's response to tectonic signals provides a powerful tool to study neotectonics. The relation between tectonic forcing and surface response is indicated by structural anomalies (e.g. river-capture, river-reversal or -deflection) and spatial differences of process rates (e.g. incision rates). We combine OSL dating with remote sensing tectonic geomorphology in order to determine the zones of active deformation in the Quaternary. The local drainage system of the study region aligns mainly to the east-west-trending belts of shortening, which results from the ongoing northward propagation of the Indian plate. In contrast the major trunk river, the Panj, is unusual in that it deflects northwards and then doubles back to the southwest, cutting the southern and central Pamir doming and several other major Cenozoic deformation zones. We use fluvial terraces along the deflected north-south orientated part including the doubled back prolongation of the more or less normal orientated Panj. These sediment bodies are used as a geomorphic record to reveal changes in the balance between sediment flux and discharge. Dating these fluvial terraces by OSL provides the burial ages of the sediments indicating periods of sedimentation. The remains of those periods are far from equally distributed and mark the time of local conditions for sedimentation as especially the close neighbourhood of most of the terraces from the two youngest periods demonstrate. Precise measurements of the heights of the dated terraces with respect to the present river level based on relative kinematic GPS quantify the total vertical incision of the river subsequent to the sedimentation and abandonment. Incision rates

  11. Laser-activated nano-biomaterials for tissue repair and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteini, P; Ratto, F; Rossi, F; Pini, R [Institute of Applied Physics ' Nello Carrara' , National Research Council, via Madonna del Piano 10 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)


    We present recent achievements of minimally invasive welding of biological tissue and controlled drug release based on laser-activated nano-biomaterials. In particular, we consider new advancements in the biomedical application of near-IR absorbing gold nano-chromophores as an original solution for the photothermal repair of surgical incisions and as nanotriggers of controlled drug release from hybrid biopolymer scaffolds. (laser biophotonics)

  12. Surgical Repair of a Median Cleft of the Upper Lip via a Pfeifer Incision: A Case Report (United States)

    Pandey, Rajeev; Gupta, Rajat; Bhagat, Nitin; Verma, Aviral


    Median cleft is the midline cleft of the lip. It develops due to incomplete or failed fusion of the median nasal prominence. It can present with minimal deformities such as involvement of the vermilion border, or complex clefting of the midline structures and brain. Median clefts are broadly classified as true and false clefts. This case report describes a rare case of median cleft of the upper lip involving the white roll, which was not associated with any other deformities. Treatment included reconstruction of the philtrum and the cupid's bow while maintaining vermilion fullness and continuity, and minimizing scar formation. Various techniques have been advocated for treatment of this type of median upper lip cleft. Here we describe a technique using Pfeifer incision to correct our patient's defect. Pfeifer incision consists of wavy lines and its use has been advocated for correction of various craniofacial abnormalities. PMID:27928243

  13. Effect of Relaxing Incisions on the Maxillary Growth after Primary Unilateral Cleft Palate Repair in Mild and Moderate Cases: A Randomized Clinical Trial (United States)

    Cotrina-Rabanal, Omar; Figallo-Hudtwalcker, Olga; Gonzalez-Vereau, Alicia


    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the use of relaxing incisions and maxillary growth disturbance after primary palatoplasty in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial study with ethical committee approval between 2 groups of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate who were operated on using the two-flap and one-flap techniques from 2008 to 2011. Two groups of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate were operated on using the mentioned techniques by the Outreach Surgical Center Program Lima since 2008. Data collection was accomplished by evaluation of maxillary arch dimensions and dental arch relationships (scored using the 5-year-olds’ index). Results: The mean score for the 5-year-olds’ index was 2.57 for two-flap technique and 2.80 for one-flap technique without statistical significant differences (P = 0.71). Our comparative study did not find statistically significant differences in maxillary arch dimensions between the studied techniques for unilateral cleft palate repair. Good levels of agreement were observed according to the κ statistics. Conclusions: The results arising from this clinical trial do not provide statistical evidence that one technique let us obtain better maxillary development than the other at 5 years. The use of relaxing incisions was not associated with maxillary growth impairment. A technique with limited relaxing incisions does not has better maxillary growth. Additional longer term study is necessary to confirm this preliminary report. PMID:28203502

  14. Local Morphological Response of the Distal Femoral Articular–Epiphyseal Cartilage Complex of Young Foals to Surgical Stab Incision and Potential Relevance to Cartilage Injury and Repair in Children (United States)

    Hendrickson, Eli H.S.; Ekman, Stina; Carlson, Cathy S.; Dolvik, Nils I.


    Objective: Describe the local morphological response of the articular–epiphyseal cartilage complex to surgical stab incision in the distal femur of foals, with emphasis on the relationship between growth cartilage injury, enchondral ossification, and repair. Design: Nine foals were induced into general anesthesia at the age of 13 to 15 days. Four full-thickness stab incision defects were created in the cartilage on the lateral aspect of the lateral trochlear ridge of the left distal femur. Follow-up examination was carried out from 1 to 49 days postoperatively, including examination of intact bones, sawed slabs, and histological sections. Results: Incision defects filled with cells displaying fibroblast-, chondrocyte-, and osteoblast-like characteristics, potentially validating the rationale behind the drilling of stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans lesions in children. Incisions induced necrosis within the cartilage on the margins at all depths of the defects. Sharp dissection may therefore be contraindicated in cartilage repair in young individuals. Incisions caused a focal delay in enchondral ossification in 2 foals, apparently related to the orientation of the incision defect relative to the direction of ossification. Defects became progressively surrounded by subchondral bone, in which granulation tissue containing clasts and foci of osteoblast-like cells was observed. Continued enchondral ossification was therefore likely to result in healing of uncomplicated defects to morphologically normal bone. Conclusions: Epiphyseal growth cartilage injury had the potential to exert a negative effect on enchondral ossification. Enchondral ossification exerted a beneficial effect on repair. This relationship warrants consideration in future studies of cartilage injury and repair within the articular–epiphyseal cartilage complex of all species. PMID:26069670

  15. Arthroscope-assisted Small Incision Approach of Rotator Cuff Repair%关节镜辅助小切口治疗肩袖损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海涛; 刘志远; 邹明


    Objective To explore the technique and effect of arthroscope-assisted rotator cuff repair via a small incision approach.Methods From March 2008 to December 2011,22 cases of rotator cuff tear were treated by arthroscope-assisted repair with a small incision,including 16 of full-thickness rotator cuff tear and 6 of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears.Accurate positioning,completely subacromial decompression was carried out with a small incision assisted by arthroscopy guide.16 cases of full-thickness and 2 cases of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears were repaired with double anchor.The other 4 cases of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears were performed arthroscopic debridement.There were 7 cases combined with SLAP lesion.Results The operation time was 120 minutes in one case combined with type Ⅱ of SLAP injury,and ranged from 51 to 70 minutes (mean 62) in other cases.The time of acromioplasty and rotator cuff repair was 12 to 20 minutes (mean 17).The length of assisted small incision was 2 to 3.5 cm with an average of 2.8 cm.No nerve injury,limb swelling and fluid leakage was found.All patients were followed up for 10 to 18 months with an average of 13.2 months.The ASES score revealed excellence in 12 cases,good in 7 cases,fair in 3,and the fineness rate was 86.4% ;And the UCLA score was excellence in 9,good in 11,fair in 2,and the fineness rate was 90.9%.The ASES score and UCLC score of 10 months after the operation was 91 ± 12.5 and 33.2 ±3.5 respectively,both were improved significantly than 57 ± 9.6 and 12.9 ± 3.8 respectively of pre-operation(P < 0.05).Conclusions Arthroscopy plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff tears.Arthroscope-assisted rotator cuff repair with a small incision approach can achieve a reliable result with advantages as comprehensive and accurate diagnosis,minimal invasion,early rehabilitation and rapid recovery.%目的 探讨关节镜辅助小切口治疗肩袖损伤的方法和疗效.

  16. Small incision inguinla hernia mesh repair%小切口腹股沟疝补片修补术应用价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余俊英; 黄顺荣; 冯泽荣; 麦威; 钟晓刚; 张馨


    目的:探讨小切口腹股沟疝补片修补术的应用价值。方法前瞻性随机对照研究176例成人腹股沟疝手术,其中58例行小切口腹股沟疝补片修补术,65例行疝环充填式无张力疝修补术( MPH),53例行全腹膜外腹腔镜疝修补术( TEP),比较三组病例的切口长度、手术时间、住院费用、术后恢复时间、手术并发症、复发率等。结果三组病例的切口长度、术后复发率、手术时间、住院费用和术后恢复时间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),小切口腹股沟疝补片修补组平均切口长度(3.7±0.8)cm,术后复发率最低;MPH组切口最长、手术时间最短;TEP组手术时间最长、费用最高,但切口最短、术后恢复时间最短。三组的手术并发症发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论三种手术方式各有特点,对不适于TEP而腹横筋膜薄弱并有高度复发因素的腹股沟疝患者,尤其老年瘦弱者,小切口腹股沟疝补片修补术是更好的选择。%Objective To explore the value of small incision inguinal hernia mesh repair .Methods One hundred and seventy-six cases who underwent inguinal herniorrhaphy from January 2012 to January 2014 were includ-ed in this prospective controlled study, with 58 cases in small incision inguinal hernia mesh repair ( SIIHMR)group, 65 cases in mesh plug hernioplasty(MPH) group and 53 cases in total extraperitoneal(TEP) group.The effectivness, complications and cost of varied approachs of inguinal hernia repair were analyzed and compared among the three groups.Results The incision length, recurrence,operating time, cost and recovery time were significantly different among the three groups ( P0.05 ) .Conclusion The three kinds of hernio-plasty have their own characteristics , SIIHMR is suitable for the patients who have inguinal hernia with weak trans-verse fascia or high recurrence risk , especially elderly patients .

  17. Activated conduction by small incision and moderate stimulation for treatment of cerebral palsy in 182 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenying Wang; Jianhua Shi; Mingjiang Yu; Dazhi Zhang


    BACKGROUND: Internationally, methods to treat cerebral palsy (CP) are basically the same, including correction of deformity with orthopaedic operation, selective posterior rhizotomy(SPR), rehabilitation therapy and so on. Domestic methods to treat CP are basically close to the international methods. Traditional Chinese medical therapies, such as, acupuncture and moxibustion, acupoint injection, massage and so on, also have good curative effects.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of activated conduction by small incision and moderate stimulation (ACSIMS) on limb function and living ability in patients with spastic CP at different degrees. DESIGN: Retrospective case analysis.SETTING: Department of Medical Education, Shanxi Medical College for Continuing Education. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 182 patients with CP, including 97 males and 85 females, aged 3 to 23 years, who received treatment in Beijing Haidian District Diaoyutai Hospital during October 1996 to September 2005, were involved in this trial. The involved patients met the diagnostic criteria proposed in 2004 National Special Seminar of Cerebral Palsy. According to typing criteria of CP purposed in 1990 Brioni International Conference, the involved patients were typed: 117 with spastic CP, 14 with involuntary movement CP, 19 with defective coordination CP, 5 with hypotonia CP and 27 with mixed type CP. The guardians of underage patients and adult patients themselves were all informed of the therapeutic regimens. METHODS: ①According to CP typing assessment quantitative criteria of Li, the involved patients were assigned from limb position, daily living and movement 3 aspects: mild 23, moderate 75, severe 62 and extremely severe 22. ② Operation methods: The lower limb of moderate spastic CP patient was taken as an example. A median incision or paramedian incision was made between L2 and S1, and it was also the first incision in lower limb. The secorid incision was made at the center of buttock or at the

  18. Direct inhibition of excision/synthesis DNA repair activities by cadmium: Analysis on dedicated biochips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candeias, S., E-mail: [CEA, INAC, SCIB, UJF and CNRS, LCIB (UMR-E 3 CEA-UJF and FRE 3200), Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CEA, DSV, iRTSV, LBBSI, UMR 5092 CNRS, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Pons, B.; Viau, M.; Caillat, S.; Sauvaigo, S. [CEA, INAC, SCIB, UJF and CNRS, LCIB (UMR-E 3 CEA-UJF and FRE 3200), Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)


    The well established toxicity of cadmium and cadmium compounds results from their additive effects on several key cellular processes, including DNA repair. Mammalian cells have evolved several biochemical pathways to repair DNA lesions and maintain genomic integrity. By interfering with the homeostasis of redox metals and antioxidant systems, cadmium promotes the development of an intracellular environment that results in oxidative DNA damage which can be mutagenic if unrepaired. Small base lesions are recognised by specialized glycosylases and excised from the DNA molecule. The resulting abasic sites are incised, and the correct sequences restored by DNA polymerases using the opposite strands as template. Bulky lesions are recognised by a different set of proteins and excised from DNA as part of an oligonucleotide. As in base repair, the resulting gaps are filled by DNA polymerases using the opposite strands as template. Thus, these two repair pathways consist in excision of the lesion followed by DNA synthesis. In this study, we analysed in vitro the direct effects of cadmium exposure on the functionality of base and nucleotide DNA repair pathways. To this end, we used recently described dedicated microarrays that allow the parallel monitoring in cell extracts of the repair activities directed against several model base and/or nucleotide lesions. Both base and nucleotide excision/repair pathways are inhibited by CdCl{sub 2}, with different sensitivities. The inhibitory effects of cadmium affect mainly the recognition and excision stages of these processes. Furthermore, our data indicate that the repair activities directed against different damaged bases also exhibit distinct sensitivities, and the direct comparison of cadmium effects on the excision of uracile in different sequences even allows us to propose a hierarchy of cadmium sensibility within the glycosylases removing U from DNA. These results indicate that, in our experimental conditions, cadmium is a

  19. Wound healing activities of different extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and burn wound models: an experimental animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somboonwong Juraiporn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of Centella asiatica for incision and burn wounds are not fully understood. Here, we report the wound healing activities of sequential hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and partial-thickness burn wound models in rats. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into incision and burn wound groups. Each group was stratified into seven subgroups: (1 untreated; (2 NSS-; (3 Tween 20®- (vehicle control; (4 hexane extract-; (5 ethyl acetate extract-; (6 methanol extract-; and (7 aqueous extract-treated groups. The test substances were applied topically once daily. The tensile strength of the incision wound was measured on the seventh day after wound infliction. The general appearance and degree of wound healing of the burn wound were assessed on Days 3, 7, 10 and 14 after burn injury and prior to histopathological evaluation. Results On the seventh day after wound infliction, the tensile strength of incision wound in all extract-treated groups was significantly higher than that of the vehicle control (Tween 20®, but comparable to the NSS-treated group. The degrees of healing in the burn wound with the four extracts were significantly higher than that of the control on Days 3, 10 and 14. Histopathological findings on Day 14 after burn injury revealed prominent fibrinoid necrosis and incomplete epithelialization in the control and untreated groups, whereas fully developed epithelialization and keratinization were observed in all extract-treated groups. Analysis by thin layer chromatography demonstrated that the phyto-constituents β-sitosterol, asiatic acid, and asiaticoside and madecassocide were present in the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions All extracts of Centella asiatica facilitate the wound healing process in both incision and burn wounds. Asiatic acid in the ethyl acetate extract seemed to

  20. DNA repair phenotype and dietary antioxidant supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarnieri, Serena; Loft, Steffen; Riso, Patrizia


    -release vitamin C tablets had increased DNA repair activity (27 (95 % CI 12, 41) % higher incision activity). These subjects also benefited from the supplementation by reduced levels of oxidised guanines in MNBC. In conclusion, nutritional status, DNA repair activity and DNA damage are linked, and beneficial...

  1. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de, E-mail:


    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin.

  2. Late Quaternary incision and deposition in an active volcanic setting: The Volturno valley fill, southern Italy (United States)

    Amorosi, Alessandro; Pacifico, Annamaria; Rossi, Veronica; Ruberti, Daniela


    Extensive illustration of depositional facies, ostracod and foraminiferal assemblages, and Late Quaternary stratigraphic architecture is offered for the first time from beneath the modern coastal plain of Volturno River, the longest river in southern Italy. Proximity to an active volcanic district, including quiescent Vesuvius Volcano, provides an easily identifiable stratigraphic marker (Campania Grey Tuff or CGT), up to 55 m thick, emplaced 39 ky cal BP by a large-volume explosive pyroclastic eruption. Identification of top CGT to a maximum depth of 30 m allows tracing out the shape of a 15-20 km wide Late Quaternary palaeovalley incised by Volturno River into the thick ignimbritic unit immediately after its deposition. A terraced palaeotopography of the valley flanks is reconstructed on the basis of core data. Above the basal fluvial deposits, the early Holocene transgressive facies consist of a suite of estuarine (freshwater to brackish) deposits. These are separated from overlying transgressive barrier sands by a distinctive wave ravinement surface. Upwards, a distinctive shallowing-upward succession of middle-late Holocene age is interpreted to reflect initiation and subsequent progradation of a wave-dominated delta system, with flanking strandplains, in response to reduced rate of sea-level rise. The turnaround from transgressive to highstand conditions is identified on the basis of subtle changes in the meiofauna. These enable tracking of the maximum flooding surface into its updip (lagoonal/estuarine) counterpart, thus highlighting the role of refined palaeontological criteria as a powerful tool for high-resolution sequence-stratigraphic studies.

  3. Eocene activity on the Western Sierra Fault System and its role incising Kings Canyon, California (United States)

    Sousa, Francis J.; Farley, Kenneth A.; Saleeby, Jason; Clark, Marin


    Combining new and published apatite (U-Th)/He and apatite 4He/3He data from along the Kings River canyon, California we rediscover a west-down normal fault on the western slope of the southern Sierra Nevada, one of a series of scarps initially described by Hake (1928) which we call the Western Sierra Fault System. Integrating field observations with apatite (U-Th)/He data, we infer a single fault trace 30 km long, and constrain the vertical offset across this fault to be roughly a kilometer. Thermal modeling of apatite 4He/3He data documents a pulse of footwall cooling near the fault and upstream in the footwall at circa 45-40 Ma, which we infer to be the timing of a kilometer-scale incision pulse resulting from the fault activity. In the context of published data from the subsurface of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, our data from the Western Sierra Fault System suggests an Eocene tectonic regime dominated by low-to-moderate magnitude extension, surface uplift, and internal structural deformation of the southern Sierra Nevada and proximal Great Valley forearc.

  4. Evaluation of a new range of light-activated surgical adhesives for tissue repair in a porcine model (United States)

    Riley, Jill N.; Hodges, Diane E.; March, Keith L.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.


    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using a new range of light-activated surgical adhesives for incision repair in a wide range of tissue types. Biodegradable polymer membranes of controlled porosity were fabricated with poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and salt particles using a solvent-casting and particulate- leaching technique. The porous membranes were doped with protein solder composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5 mg/ml indocyanine green (ICG) dye mixed in deionized water. Tissue incisions were repaired using the surgical adhesive in conjunction with an 805-nm diode laser. Nine organs were tested ranging from skin to liver to the small intestine, as well as the coronary, pulmonary, carotid, femoral and splenetic arteries. Acute breaking strengths were measured and the data were analyzed by Student's T-test. Repairs formed on the small intestine were most successful followed by spleen, atrium, kidney, muscle and skin. The strongest vascular repairs were achieved in the carotid artery and femoral artery. The new surgical adhesive could possibly be used as a simple and effective method to stop bleeding and repair tissue quickly in an emergency situation, or as a substitute to mechanical staples or sutures in many clinical applications.

  5. Clinical Experience of Tension Free Hernia Repair in the Treatment of Large Incision Hernia%无张力疝修补术治疗巨大切口疝临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨无张力疝修补术治疗巨大切口疝患者的临床疗效。方法选取我院2014年1月~2015年9月接收的巨大切口疝患者36例,均给予无张力疝修补术治疗,观察其疗效。结果36例患者平均手术时间(107.55±30.02)min;平均住院时间(14.50±3.75)d;并发症发生率为19.44%,均经对症处理后恢复;复发率为0。结论巨大切口疝患者采用无张力疝修补术治疗,可有效提高患者治疗效率,降低并发症发生率和病情复发率。%Objective To explore the diagnosis and treatment without tension hernia repair huge incision hernia patients clinical curative effect. Methods36 patients with huge incision hernia were chosen in our hospital from January 2014 to September 2015, are given without tension hernia repair treatment, the curative effect was observed.Results 36 patients average operation time (107.55±30.02) min, the average length of hospital stay (14.50±3.75) d, the incidence of complications was 19.44%, after symptomatic treatment recovery, the recurrence rate is 0.Conclusion Huge incision hernia patients without tension hernia repair treatment, can effectively improve the efifciency of patients, reduce the incidence of complications and the recurrence rate illness.

  6. Optimizing Computation of Repairs from Active Integrity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Filipe, Luís


    Active integrity constraints (AICs) are a form of integrity constraints for databases that not only identify inconsistencies, but also suggest how these can be overcome. The semantics for AICs defines different types of repairs, but deciding whether an inconsistent database can be repaired...

  7. SIRT1 promotes DNA repair activity in response to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae-Min; Lee, Kee-Ho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Human SIRT1 controls various physiological responses including cell fate, stress, and aging, through deacetylation of its specific substrate protein. In processing DNA damage signaling, SIRT1 attenuates a cellular apoptotic response by deacetylation of p53 tumor suppressor. Ectopically over-expressed SIRT1 resulted in the increase of repair of DNA strand breakages produced by radiation. On the other hand, repression of endogenous SIRT1 expression by SIRT1 siRNA led to the decrease of this repair activity, indicating that SIRT1 can regulate DNA repair capacity of cells with DNA strand breaks.

  8. Single incision laparoscopic primary and incisional ventral hernia repair as the standard of care in the ambulatory setting; Does less equal better outcomes; Case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross O. Downes


    Conclusion: SILS prosthetic repair of primary and incisional ventral hernia is easily feasible. In our series, SILS ventral hernia repair appears to be safe and effective. It may decrease parietal trauma augmenting its use in the ambulatory setting. Technology will continue to improve the wide applicability of this technique. Larger randomized trial studies are required to determine the rates of port-site incisional hernia compared with multiport laparoscopy.

  9. Local anesthesia downlink evaluation of the clinical effect of small incision repairing inguinal hernia%局麻下行小切口修补腹股沟疝的临床效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective: To explore small incision under local anesthesia inguinal hernia clinical results.Methods: September 2011 to September 2013 in our hospital 88 cases of inguinal hernia patients for the study were randomly divided into a control group and treatment group and control group 44 cases treated with conventional surgery, the treatment group 44 cases given small incision under local anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair treatment, compared two groups of clinical effect.Results: Compared with the control group, the treatment group operative time and postoperative recovery was excellent, signiifcant differences between two groups, with statistical signiifcance (P <0.05).Conclusion:Small incision under local anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair rapid postoperative recovery, the exact clinical effect, therefore, worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨局麻下行小切口修补腹股沟疝的临床效果。方法:选取2011年9月至2013年9月收治的88例腹股沟疝患者为研究对象,将其随机分为对照组和治疗组,对照组44例给予常规手术治疗,治疗组44例给予局麻下行小切口修补腹股沟疝治疗,对比两组临床治疗效果。结果:与对照组相比,治疗组手术时间以及术后恢复明显较优,两组对比差异明显,具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:局麻下行小切口修补腹股沟疝术后恢复快,临床效果确切,因此,值得临床推广应用。

  10. Preperitoneal tension-free inguinal hernia repair via hypogastric midline incision%下腹正中切口入路腹膜前腹股沟疝修补术临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春富; 宫金伟; 许军


    Objective To explore the value of preperitoneal tension-free inguinal hernia repair via hypogastric midline incision. Methods The clinical data of 120 cases of inguinal hernia underwent the tension-free hernia repair with 3D-Max patch from April 2010 to October 2012 in Department of General Surgery,the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University were analyzed retrospectively. Among them,there were 98 cases of unilateral hernia,22 cases of bilateral hernia, 85 cases of inguinal hernia,30 cases of direct hernia,5 cases of recurrent hernia. Operation time, degree of comfort,complications and recurrence rate were recorded. Results The operation time was 20 min to 60 min. The mean operative time was 30 min for the cases with unilateral hernia and 50 min for the cases with both sides. The mean time of ambulation was 6 h. The mean hospitalization days were 4 days. Incision effusion occurred in 2 cases. Neither scrotal hematoma nor scrotal effusion nor urinary retention occurred. No recurrence occurred during follow-up for 6 months to 2 years. Conclusion Preperitoneal tension-free inguinal hernia repair via hypogastric midline incision has many advantages with short learning curve,simple operation,high safety,low recurrence rate,quick recovery after operation,mild foreign body discomfort and low incidence of chronic pain after a hernia repair,which is suitable for bilateral hernia and recurrent hernia especially.%目的:探讨下腹正中切口入路腹膜前间隙腹股沟疝无张力修补术的临床应用价值。方法回顾性分析2010年4月至2012年10月哈尔滨医科大学附属第四医院普外科收治的120例腹股沟疝病人的临床资料,均采用补片行下腹正中切口入路腹膜前间隙腹股沟疝无张力修补术。其中,单侧疝98例,双侧疝22例;斜疝85例,直疝30例,复发疝5例。观察手术时间、术后舒适性、并发症和复发率。结果120例病人手术时间为20~60 min,单侧疝平均30

  11. 骨髓间充质干细胞移植促进大鼠子宫创伤修复%Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation promotes regeneration repair of uterine incision in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦伟; 郑飞云; 杨孝军


    Objective To investigate the growth and differentiation of adenovirus-green fluorescent protein labelled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in uterus incision, and to discuss its potential regeneration repair effect on uterine incision in rat. Methods BM-MSCs were collected by density gradient centrifugation and cultured for fourth generations, then transfected and labelled with adenovirus-green fluorescent protein. Fourty female SD rats were divided equally into control and experimental group, followed with the establishment of uterine wound model. After two weeks, adenovirus-green labelled BM-MSCs were transplanted directly into uterus at previous incision, with the control group only received normal saline injection. Then, one month later, CTGF, CD34 and Masson were used to detect the outcome of the transplanted BM-MSCs. Results The transplanted BM-MSCs can growth well and showed some extent of differentiation toward smooth muscle cells. Significant difference existed for CTGF and Masson between experimental and control samples (both P < 0. 01). Conclusions BM-MSCs transplantation is a promising technique and can be used to promote regeneration repair of uterine incision.%目的 探讨移植骨髓间充质干细胞移植(BM-MSCs)后在子宫切口部位的生长分化及其在大鼠子宫创伤后再生修复中的作用.方法 分离和培养大鼠BM-MSCs,传代扩增至第4代利用腺病毒-绿色荧光蛋白感染干细胞并继续培养.取雌性SD大鼠40只,分为对照组及实验组,建立子宫损伤动物模型,实验组移植BM-MSCs,对照组注射0.9%氯化钠注射液,2周后观察干细胞在移植部位的生长、分化,并通过检测局部CTGF、CD34的表达及Masson染色的情况比较瘢痕愈合情况.结果 移植后的干细胞在移植部位能很好的生长,并可向平滑肌细胞方向分化.在一定程度上可以降低局部的胶原纤维沉积,减轻瘢痕愈合.实验组CTGF的表达及Masson染色分别为0.0706

  12. Transient fluvial incision as an indicator of active faulting and surface uplift in the Moroccan High Atlas. (United States)

    Boulton, Sarah; Stokes, Martin; Mather, Anne


    Quantifying the extent to which geomorphic features can be used to extract tectonic signals is a key challenge for the Earth Sciences. Here, we analyse the long profiles of rivers that drain southwards across the Southern Atlas Fault (SAF), a segmented thrust fault that forms the southern margin of the High Atlas Mountains in Morocco, with the aim of deriving new data on the recent activity of this little known fault system. River long profiles were extracted for the 32 major rivers that drain southwards into the Ouarzazate foreland basin. Of these, twelve exhibit concave-up river profiles with a mean concavity (Θ) of 0.61 and normalized steepness indices (Ksn) in the range 42-219; these are interpreted as rivers at or near steady-state. By contrast, 20 rivers are characterised by the presence of at least one knickpoint upstream of the thrust front. Knickzone height (the vertical distance between the knickpoint and the fault) varies from 100 - 1300 m, with calculated amounts of uplift at the range bounding fault ranging from 1040 - 80 m. In map view, knickpoint locations generally plot along sub-parallel lines to the thrust front and there are no obvious relationships with specific lithological units or boundaries. Furthermore, drainage areas upstream of the knickpoints range over several orders of magnitude indicating that they are not pinned at threshold drainage areas. Therefore, these features are interpreted as a transient response to base-level change. However, three distinct populations of knickpoints can be recognised based upon knickpoint elevation, these are termed K1, K2 and K3 and channel reaches are universally steeper below knickpoints than above. K1 and K2 knickpoints share common characteristics in that the elevation of the knickpoints, calculated incision and ksn all increase from west to east. Whereas, K3 knickpoints show little systematic variation along the range front, are observed at the lowest altitudes with calculated incision of < 200 m

  13. Speech outcomes at age 5 and 10 years in unilateral cleft lip and palate after one-stage palatal repair with minimal incision technique - a longitudinal perspective. (United States)

    Nyberg, Jill; Peterson, Petra; Lohmander, Anette


    To investigate speech outcomes in 5- and 10-year-old children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) treated according to minimal incision technique (MIT) - a one-stage palatal method. A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study of a consecutive series of 69 patients born with UCLP, treated with MIT (mean age 13 months) was included. Forty-two children (43%) received a velopharyngeal flap; 12 before 5 years and another 18 before 10 years of age. Cleft speech variables were rated from standardized audio recordings at 5 and 10 years of age, independently by three experienced, external speech-language pathologists, blinded to the material. The prevalences of cleft speech characteristics were determined, and inter- and intra-rater agreement calculated. More than mild hypernasality, weak pressure consonants and perceived incompetent velopharyngeal function were present in 19-22% of the children at 5 years, but improved to less than 5% at 10 years. However, audible nasal air leakage, prevalent in 23% at 5 years, did not improve by age 10. Thirty percent had frequent or almost always persistent compensatory articulation at 5 years, and 6% at age 10. The general impression of speech improved markedly, from 57% giving a normal impression at 5 years to 89% at 10 years. A high prevalence of distorted/s/was found at both 5 and 10 years of age. A high occurrence of speech deviances at 5 years of age after MIT was markedly reduced at 10 years in this study of children with unilateral cleft lip and palate. The high pharyngeal flap rate presumably accounted for the positive speech development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement of DNA base and nucleotide excision repair activities in mammalian cells and tissues using the comet assay--a methodological overview. (United States)

    Azqueta, Amaya; Langie, Sabine A S; Slyskova, Jana; Collins, Andrew R


    There is an increasing demand for phenotyping assays in the field of human functional genetics. DNA repair activity is representative of this functional approach, being seen as a valuable biomarker related to cancer risk. Repair activity is evaluated by incubating a cell extract with a DNA substrate containing lesions specific for the DNA repair pathway of interest. Enzymic incision at the lesion sites can be measured by means of the comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis). The assay is particularly applicable for evaluation of base and nucleotide excision repair pathways (BER and NER). Substrate DNA containing oxidised purines gives a measure of BER, while UV-induced photolesions are the substrate for NER. While applications of comet-based DNA repair assays continue to increase, there are no commonly accepted standard protocols, which complicates inter-laboratory comparisons of results. Here we provide a comprehensive summary of protocols for the comet-based BER- and NER-specific in vitro DNA repair assays that can be applied to a wide spectrum of biological material--cultured cell lines, blood cells, animal tissue samples and human biopsies. Our intention is to provide a detailed and user-friendly account of the assays, including practical tips and recommendations to help in setting them up. By proposing standard protocols, we hope to facilitate comparison of results obtained in different laboratories.

  15. Vaginal pressure during daily activities before and after vaginal repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, L; Hulbaek, M; Brostrøm, S


    The objective of the study was to measure vaginal pressure during various daily activities in patients before and after vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, searching data for evidence-based activity guidelines. Vaginal pressure (VP) was studied in 23 patients during activities such as rest......, pelvic floor contraction (PFC), coughing, Valsalva, rising from sitting to standing and lifting 2 and 5 kg with four different lifting techniques. VP was measured before, 1-5 days and 4-6 weeks after vaginal repair. Mean VP was four to five times higher during coughing and Valsalva compared to PFC...... was not related to the type of vaginal repair. The results imply that post-operative counselling should concentrate more on treating chronic cough and constipation than restrictions of moderate physical activities....

  16. Transient fluvial incision and spatial distribution of active rock uplift in the Uspallata-Calingasta-Iglesia Valley, Central Argentina. (United States)

    Val, P.; Hoke, G. D.


    In the southern portion of the Pampean flat-slab subduction zone, a narrow, elongate intermontane depression separates the Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt from the Frontal and Principal Cordilleras of the high Andes. This depression, the Uspallata-Callingasta-Iglesia Valley, is divided into three catchments based on drainage divides between three large, transverse rivers. These catchments have their headwaters in the western Precordillera, Frontal Cordillera and Principal Cordillera ranges. Deformation is thought to have ceased near the core of the range (Frontal and Principal Cordilleras) and propagated to the east during the Miocene to present. In this study, river profiles and knickpoint topographic data are assessed to determine the distribution of active rock uplift and amount of fluvial incision in the Calingasta and Iglesia valleys. Slope-area data extracted from a digital elevation model consistently show slope-break knickpoints separating distinct sections of river profiles, which suggests relative bedrock uplift. Catchment-wide, normalized steepness indices (ksn) - using a concavity index of 0.45 (common in steady state profiles in the study area) - for both basins revealed consistently high ksn signals (>300) in the main stems and tributaries draining the Frontal Cordillera and the western Precordillera. The highest ksn values are situated in an elevation range of 2500 to 4000 m, west of the fold and thrust belt in the Principal and Frontal Cordilleras. Slope-break knickpoints are not clustered in elevation and there is no obvious correlation between upstream drainage area at knickpoints and respective distance from the tributaries' mouths, which suggests that they are not part of an upstream migrating wave of knickpoints. The data presented here indicate active rock uplift in the eastern edge of the Frontal Cordillera, which was previously considered inactive.

  17. Histoacryl tissue glues in application study of tension - free inguinal hernia repair incision%组织胶水在腹股沟疝无张力修补术切口的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴维; 彭文定; 陈念平; 方涛


    目的:通过对应用 Histoacryl 组织胶水比较传统缝合法在腹股沟疝无张力修补术中切口的愈合效果,探讨 Histo-acryl 组织胶水促进皮肤切口愈合的临床价值。方法:对278例腹股沟疝择期局部麻醉下行无张力修补术患者随机分为:组织胶水组和传统缝合两组,传统缝合组(135例)采用传统皮内缝合切口,组织胶水组(143例)采用 Histoacryl 组织胶水黏合切口,对比分析两组患者手术切口的愈合情况、住院时间、切口美观度、术后疼痛程度(VAS 疼痛评分)及并发症。结果:两组切口甲级愈合无差异(P ﹥0.05);术后6 h、12 h 胶水组疼痛评分低于缝合组(P ﹤0.05),术后24 h 两组疼痛评分差异无统计学意义(P ﹥0.05)。胶水组患者住院时间较传统缝合组明显缩短(P ﹤0.05);应用 Histoacryl 组织胶水黏合切口患者对切口愈合满意度优于传统缝合组(P ﹤0.05)。结论:Histoacryl 组织胶水在择期腹股沟疝无张力修补术中的切口应用能更好地缓解患者术后早期疼痛,缩短患者住院时间,提高患者对手术切口外观的满意度,具有临床应用价值。%Objective By Histoacryl tissue glues compared with conventional suture in tension - free inguinal hernia repair in wound healing effects,Histoacryl discussed clinical value of tissue glues skin wound healing. Method On 278 cases groin hernia elective under lo-cal anesthesia downward no tension patch operation patients random were randomly divided into:Organization glue group and traditional su-ture group,traditional suture Group(135 cases)used traditional intradermal suture incision,organization glue Group(143 cases)used Histoacryl organization glue bonded incision,compared analysis two group patients surgery incision of healing situation,and hospital time, and incision beautiful degrees,and operation Hou pain degree(VAS pain score)and the complications

  18. A nondeforming rhytidectomy incision. (United States)

    Talamas, I


    A new incision for facial rhytidectomy is presented that completely avoids deformation of the frame of the hair and allows the hair to be combed back without showing the scar, which becomes almost completely invisible in most patients if the incision is made at exactly the specified level. Several authors have tried to maintain the normal hairline, but some of their incisions deform the frame of the hair on the sides, higher than the level of the outer corner of the eye, and others go even higher than this point outside of the hairline, making the scar quite visible! The indications and contraindications for this operation and its designed incisions are discussed. These incisions encourage plastic surgeons not to remove any scalp in the rhytidectomy, but only the skin, because it is precisely the removal of scalp instead of skin that deforms the face, unless the amount of scalp tissue removed is very small. These same incisions are indicated for men.

  19. Survey of Active Structural Control and Repair Using Piezoelectric Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abuzaid


    Full Text Available The piezoelectric actuator has gained popularity over the last few years. Attention has been directed towards the study of their electromechanical response in active repair and the control of damaged structures. This has been made possible through the development of various numerical and analytical techniques for such studies. The shift of focus towards the piezoelectric based approaches has been due to their advantages, which include strategic cost benefits in maintenance, as well as an increase in the life cycle of the repaired structures. Furthermore, adhesively bonded joints are widely used in the manufacturing and repairing of structures in many industries, especially automotive and aerospace engineering. This is due to the requirement for lightweight materials as well as the potential adhesive used to join materials with different characteristics. The piezoelectric actuator has also shown the capacity in controlling and lowering the shear stress concentration and joint edge peel in adhesively bonded joint systems. The structure’s control of stress and repair can generally be viewed as a reinforcement that influences the structure’s damage tolerance. Therefore, the interest of this review is on the applications of the piezoelectric actuators in both structural damage and the bonded adhesive joint system. The specific goal is to recognize the contemporary scientific challenges, including future opportunities.

  20. Outcome of early active mobilization after extensor tendon repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Narender


    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally the repaired extensor tendons have been treated postoperatively in static splints for several weeks, leading to formation of adhesions and prolonged rehabilitation. Early mobilization using dynamic splints is common, but associated with many shortcomings. We attempted to study the results of early active mobilization, using a simple static splint, and easy-to-follow rehabilitation plan. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study 26 cases of cut extensor tendons in Zone V to VIII were treated with primary or delayed primary repair. Following this, early active mobilization was undertaken, using an easy-to-follow rehabilitation plan. The results were assessed according to the criteria of Dargan at six weeks and one year. Results: All the 26 patients were followed up for one year. 20 out of 26 patients were below 30 years of age, involving the dominant hand more commonly (16 patients, 62%. Agriculture instruments were the most common mode of injury (13 patients, 50%. The common site for injury was extensor zone VI (42%, n = 11. Conclusion: Rehabilitation done for repaired extensor tendon injuries by active mobilization plan using a simple static splint has shown good results.

  1. Vaginal pressure during daily activities before and after vaginal repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, L; Hulbaek, M; Brostrøm, S


    The objective of the study was to measure vaginal pressure during various daily activities in patients before and after vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, searching data for evidence-based activity guidelines. Vaginal pressure (VP) was studied in 23 patients during activities such as rest......, pelvic floor contraction (PFC), coughing, Valsalva, rising from sitting to standing and lifting 2 and 5 kg with four different lifting techniques. VP was measured before, 1-5 days and 4-6 weeks after vaginal repair. Mean VP was four to five times higher during coughing and Valsalva compared to PFC...

  2. Vaginal pressure during daily activities before and after vaginal repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, L; Hulbaek, M; Brostrøm, S


    , pelvic floor contraction (PFC), coughing, Valsalva, rising from sitting to standing and lifting 2 and 5 kg with four different lifting techniques. VP was measured before, 1-5 days and 4-6 weeks after vaginal repair. Mean VP was four to five times higher during coughing and Valsalva compared to PFC......The objective of the study was to measure vaginal pressure during various daily activities in patients before and after vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, searching data for evidence-based activity guidelines. Vaginal pressure (VP) was studied in 23 patients during activities such as rest...

  3. Preferential repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae rad mutants after induction of interstrand cross-links by 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA. (United States)

    Meniel, V; Magaña-Schwencke, N; Averbeck, D


    The gene specific induction and the incision step of the removal of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus UVA-induced interstrand cross-links (ICL) was measured in repair mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Events were examined at the MAT alpha and HML alpha loci in mutants deficient in the repair of ICL, namely rad1, rad2 delta, rad52, pso2 and the rad16 mutant which is impaired in the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the silent HML alpha locus. Previously, we observed in a wild-type strain (K107) preferential repair concerning the incision of 8-MOP photo-induced ICL. The present study indicates that the two mutants rad1 and rad2 delta show no repair in either locus, due presumably to their deficiency in the incision step of ICL repair. The rad52 mutant which is defective in recombination, is proficient in the preferential incision of ICL at the MAT alpha locus versus the HML alpha locus. The same is true for the pso2 mutant which also lacks the ability to perform complete repair of ICL. The rad16 mutant is unable to repair ICL in the silent locus HML alpha but is proficient in repair (i.e. the incision of ICL) in the transcriptionally active MAT alpha locus.

  4. Invisible incision technology in the cleft lip repair of application%隐形切口技术在唇裂唇鼻畸形整复术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      在对唇裂鼻唇畸形解剖学认识的基础上,以及在对唇裂整复术中上唇皮肤解剖标志点几何学移动规律研究与应用的过程中,笔者提出了按照“由内至外”的唇鼻畸形矫治原理,开发设计了系列用于初期与鼻唇继发畸形的隐形切口技术,现已用于临床,获得了较好的临床效果。改变了传统鼻唇继发畸形矫治中“由外及内”畸形整复的原则,深化了对唇鼻畸形矫治的认识。%  This paper puts forward the principle of lip and nasal deformity correction according to the“from inside to outside” norm in the cleft lip and nasal deformity, which originates from the deep understanding of cleft lip and nasal anatomy, as well as the study and application process to of anatomical points in regularly geometri-cal movement of lip skin. The development and design of a series of technology to primary and secondary correc-tion of cleft lip and nose with invisible lip incision have been formed achieved, and they have been employed in clinical process, having good clinical effects. The traditional process of cleft lip and nose repair carried out from“the outside to the inside?” was improved now and the understanding of lip and nasal deformity correction has been more thorough.

  5. Single incision endoscopic surgery for lumbar hernia. (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Ishikawa, Norihiko; Shimizu, Satsuki; Shin, Hisato; Matsunoki, Aika; Watanabe, Go


    Single Incision Endoscopic Surgery (SIES) has emerged as a less invasive surgery among laparoscopic surgeries, and this approach for incisional hernia was reported recently. This is the first report of SIES for an incisional lumbar hernia. A 66-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our institution because of a left flank hernia that developed after left iliac crest bone harvesting. A 20-mm incision was created on the left side of the umbilicus and all three trocars (12, 5, and 5 mm) were inserted into the incision. The hernial defect was 14 × 9 cm and was repaired with intraperitoneal onlay mesh and a prosthetic graft. The postoperative course was uneventful. SIES for lumbar hernia offers a safe and effective outcome equivalent compared to laparoscopic surgery. In addition, SIES is less invasive and has a cosmetic benefit.

  6. Nuclear translocation contributes to regulation of DNA excision repair activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Lützen, Anne;


    , it is evident that proteins from the different DNA repair pathways interact [Y. Wang, D. Cortez, P. Yazdi, N. Neff, S.J. Elledge, J. Qin, BASC, a super complex of BRCA1-associated proteins involved in the recognition and repair of aberrant DNA structures, Genes Dev. 14 (2000) 927-939; M. Christmann, M......DNA mutations are circumvented by dedicated specialized excision repair systems, such as the base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways. Although the individual repair pathways have distinct roles in suppressing changes in the nuclear DNA.......T. Tomicic, W.P. Roos, B. Kaina, Mechanisms of human DNA repair: an update, Toxicology 193 (2003) 3-34; N.B. Larsen, M. Rasmussen, L.J. Rasmussen, Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA repair: similar pathways? Mitochondrion 5 (2005) 89-108]. Protein interactions are not only important for function, but also...

  7. Cosmetic selection of skin incision for resection of choledochal cyst in young female patients (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Woo; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan


    Backgrounds/Aims Open surgery for choledochal cyst has a disadvantage of skin incision scar from operative wound, which can be a definite disadvantage especially in young female patients. This study focused on the cosmetic aspect of skin incision for resection of choledochal cyst in young female patients. Methods During a 2-year study period, 11 adult female patients aged less than 40 years underwent primary resection of choledochal cyst by a single surgeon. The cosmetic effect of two types of skin incision was evaluated. Results The patients underwent mini-laparotomy through either a right subcostal incision (n=8) or an upper midline incision (n=3). The mean length of skin incision was 10 cm for right subcostal incisions and 9 cm for upper midline incisions. It took approximately 1 hour to repair the operative wound meticulously in both groups. At the 6 month to 1 year follow-up, a slight bulge on the skin scar was observed in 3 (37.5%) patients of the right subcostal incision group and 1 (33.3%) patient of the upper midline incision group. Conclusions The results of this preliminary study support the claim that cosmetic effect of the upper midline incision for CCD surgery appears to be non-inferior to that of the right subcostal incision if the incision is placed accurately and repaired very meticulously. PMID:27621750

  8. DNA repair activity in fish and interest in ecotoxicology: a review. (United States)

    Kienzler, Aude; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain


    The knowledge of DNA repair in a target species is of first importance as it is the primary line of defense against genotoxicants, and a better knowledge of DNA repair capacity in fish could help to interpret genotoxicity data and/or assist in the choice of target species, developmental stage and tissues to focus on, both for environmental biomonitoring studies and DNA repair testing. This review focuses in a first part on what is presently known on a mechanistic basis, about the various DNA repair systems in fish, in vivo and in established cell lines. Data on base excision repair (BER), direct reversal with O⁶-alkylguanine transferase and double strand breaks repair, although rather scarce, are being reviewed, as well as nucleotide excision repair (NER) and photoreactivation repair (PER), which are by far the most studied repair mechanisms in fish. Most of these repair mechanisms seem to be strongly species and tissue dependent; they also depend on the developmental stage of the organisms. BER is efficient in vivo, although no data has been found on in vitro models. NER activity is quite low or even inexistent depending on the studies; however this lack is partly compensated by a strong PER activity, especially in early developmental stage. In a second part, a survey of the ecotoxicological studies integrating DNA repair as a parameter responding to single or mixture of contaminant is realized. Three main approaches are being used: the measurement of DNA repair gene expression after exposure, although it has not yet been clearly established whether gene expression is indicative of repair capacity; the monitoring of DNA damage removal by following DNA repair kinetics; and the modulation of DNA repair activity following exposure in situ, in order to assess the impact of exposure history on DNA repair capacity. Since all DNA repair processes are possible targets for environmental pollutants, we can also wonder at which extent such a modulation of repair capacities

  9. Mammalian Base Excision Repair: Functional Partnership between PARP-1 and APE1 in AP-Site Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    Full Text Available The apurinic/apyrimidinic- (AP- site in genomic DNA arises through spontaneous base loss and base removal by DNA glycosylases and is considered an abundant DNA lesion in mammalian cells. The base excision repair (BER pathway repairs the AP-site lesion by excising and replacing the site with a normal nucleotide via template directed gap-filling DNA synthesis. The BER pathway is mediated by a specialized group of proteins, some of which can be found in multiprotein complexes in cultured mouse fibroblasts. Using a DNA polymerase (pol β immunoaffinity-capture technique to isolate such a complex, we identified five tightly associated and abundant BER factors in the complex: PARP-1, XRCC1, DNA ligase III, PNKP, and Tdp1. AP endonuclease 1 (APE1, however, was not present. Nevertheless, the complex was capable of BER activity, since repair was initiated by PARP-1's AP lyase strand incision activity. Addition of purified APE1 increased the BER activity of the pol β complex. Surprisingly, the pol β complex stimulated the strand incision activity of APE1. Our results suggested that PARP-1 was responsible for this effect, whereas other proteins in the complex had no effect on APE1 strand incision activity. Studies of purified PARP-1 and APE1 revealed that PARP-1 was able to stimulate APE1 strand incision activity. These results illustrate roles of PARP-1 in BER including a functional partnership with APE1.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



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  11. DNA-repair measurements by use of the modified comet assay: an inter-laboratory comparison within the European Comet Assay Validation Group (ECVAG). (United States)

    Godschalk, Roger W L; Ersson, Clara; Riso, Patrizia; Porrini, Marisa; Langie, Sabine A S; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan; Azqueta, Amaya; Collins, Andrew R; Jones, George D D; Kwok, Rachel W L; Phillips, David H; Sozeri, Osman; Allione, Alessandra; Matullo, Giuseppe; Möller, Lennart; Forchhammer, Lykke; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter


    The measurement of DNA-repair activity by extracts from cells or tissues by means of the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay has a high potential to become widely used in biomonitoring studies. We assessed the inter-laboratory variation in reported values of DNA-repair activity on substrate cells that had been incubated with Ro19-8022 plus light to generate oxidatively damaged DNA. Eight laboratories assessed the DNA-repair activity of three cell lines (i.e. one epithelial and two fibroblast cell lines), starting with cell pellets or with cell extracts provided by the coordinating laboratory. There was a large inter-laboratory variation, as evidenced by the range in the mean level of repair incisions between the laboratory with the lowest (0.002incisions/10(6)bp) and highest (0.988incisions/10(6)bp) incision activity. Nevertheless, six out of eight laboratories reported the same cell line as having the highest level of DNA-repair activity. The two laboratories that reported discordant results (with another cell line having the highest level of DNA-repair activity) were those that reported to have little experience with the modified comet assay to assess DNA repair. The laboratories were also less consistent in ordering the repair activity of the other two cell lines, probably because the DNA-repair activity by extracts from these cell lines were very similar (on average approximately 60-65% of the cell line with the highest repair capacity). A significant correlation was observed between the repair activity found in the provided and the self-made cell extracts (r=0.71, Pcomet assay for base-excision repair.

  12. UV-induced DNA incision and proliferating cell nuclear antigen recruitment to repair sites occur independently of p53-replication protein A interaction in p53 wild type and mutant ovarian carcinoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, F.; Zuco, V.; Vink, A.A.; Supino, R.; Prosperi, E.


    The tumour suppressor gene TP53 plays an important role in the regulation of DNA repair, and particularly of nucleotide excision repair. The influence of p53 status on the efficiency of the principal steps of this repair pathway was investigated after UV-C irradiation in the human ovarian carcinoma

  13. Human transcriptional coactivator PC4 stimulates DNA end joining and activates DSB repair activity. (United States)

    Batta, Kiran; Yokokawa, Masatoshi; Takeyasu, Kunio; Kundu, Tapas K


    Human transcriptional coactivator PC4 is a highly abundant nuclear protein that is involved in diverse cellular processes ranging from transcription to chromatin organization. Earlier, we have shown that PC4, a positive activator of p53, overexpresses upon genotoxic insult in a p53-dependent manner. In the present study, we show that PC4 stimulates ligase-mediated DNA end joining irrespective of the source of DNA ligase. Pull-down assays reveal that PC4 helps in the association of DNA ends through its C-terminal domain. In vitro nonhomologous end-joining assays with cell-free extracts show that PC4 enhances the joining of noncomplementary DNA ends. Interestingly, we found that PC4 activates double-strand break (DSB) repair activity through stimulation of DSB rejoining in vivo. Together, these findings demonstrate PC4 as an activator of nonhomologous end joining and DSB repair activity.

  14. Single incision laparoscopic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun; Prasad


    As a complement to standard laparoscopic surgery and a safe alternative to natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery,single incision laparoscopic surgery is gaining popularity.There are expensive ports,disposable hand instruments and flexible endoscopes that have been suggested to do this surgery and would increase the cost of operation.For a simple surgery like laparoscopic cholecystectomy,these extras are not needed and the surgery can be performed using standard ports,instruments and telescopes.Tri...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Hyperthermia specifically inhibits the repair of UV-induced DNA photolesions in transcriptionally active genes, To define more precisely which mechanisms underlie the heat-induced inhibition of repair of active genes, removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) was studied in human fibroblasts w

  16. Pain during sexual activity before and after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolver, Mette A; Rosenberg, Jacob


    BACKGROUND: Sexual life may be impaired by pain during sexual activity in patients with inguinal hernia. On the other hand, inguinal hernia repair has also been reported to cause sexual dysfunction in terms of pain during sexual activity and ejaculation. The primary aim of this study...... was to estimate the prevalence of pain during sexual activity before and after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, and the secondary, to describe pain location, frequency of pain during sexual activity, and to which degree sexual life was affected by the pain. Furthermore, to examine whether preoperative pain...... during sexual activity was a risk factor for postoperative pain during sexual activity. METHODS: A prospective questionnaire study before and 6 months after hernia repair was conducted. Men (age 18-85 years) undergoing laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair were included. RESULTS: In total, 160 men were...

  17. Secondary rhinoplasty: reconstitution of the allar cartillages by a rhinoplasty with an external incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ishida

    Full Text Available Presentation of 62 cases of secondary nasal deformities treated by external incision. Several types of endonasal deformities were observed, properly classified and repaired. When excessive ressection was observed, local cartillage graft, septonasal or conchal types were employed.

  18. Tubularized incised plate technique for recurrent hypospadias: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primary techniques are unsatisfactory. ... TIP urethroplasty in the management of recurrent ... was used for quantitative data. .... erection and the risk of infection, especially in patients .... currently considered the best tool for complicated .... 10 Mustafa M. The concept of tubularized incised plate hypospadias repair for different ...

  19. Formulation and Evaluation of Exotic Fat Based Cosmeceuticals for Skin Repair


    Mandawgade S; Patravale Vandana


    Mango butter was explored as a functional, natural supplement and active skin ingredient in skin care formulations. A foot care cream was developed with mango butter to evaluate its medicinal value and protective function in skin repair. Qualitative comparison and clinical case studies of the product were carried out. Wound healing potential of foot care cream was investigated on the rat excision and incision wound models. Results of the clinical studies demonstrated complete repair of worn a...

  20. Minimally invasive "pocket incision" aortic valve surgery. (United States)

    Yakub, M A; Pau, K K; Awang, Y


    A minimally invasive approach to aortic valve surgery through a transverse incision ("pocket incision") at the right second intercostal space was examined. Sixteen patients with a mean age of 30 years underwent this approach. The third costal cartilage was either excised (n = 5) or dislocated (n = 11). The right internal mammary artery was preserved. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was established with aortic-right atrial cannulation in all except the first case. Aortic valve replacements (AVR) were performed in 15 patients and one had aortic valve repair with concomitant ventricular septal defect closure. There was no mortality and no major complications. The aortic cross-clamp, CPB and operative times were 72 +/- 19 mins, 105 +/- 26 mins and 3 hrs 00 min +/- 29 mins respectively. The mean time to extubation was 5.7 +/- 4.0 hrs, ICU stay of 27 +/- 9 hrs and postoperative hospital stay of 5.1 +/- 1.2 days. Minimally invasive "pocket incision" aortic valve surgery is technically feasible and safe. It has the advantages of central cannulation for CPB, preservation of the internal mammary artery and avoiding sternotomy. This approach is cosmetically acceptable and allows rapid patient recovery.

  1. UV exposed electronically activated damage and photoreactivation repair (United States)

    Bohr, Henrik; Malik, Bary


    An investigation of the possible physics underlying the damage caused to DNA by UV radiation and its subsequent repair via a photoreactivation mechanism is presented in this study. An electronic pathway starting from the initial damage to the final repair process is proposed. UV radiation is absorbed to create a hole-excited thymine or other pyrimidine that subsequently is responsible for the formation of the thymine dimer. The negative-ion of the cofactor riboflavin, FADH-, formed by the exposure of the photolyase protein to visible light interacts with the hole-excited electronic orbital of the thymine dimer inducing a photon-less Auger transition, which restores the two thymines to the ground state, thereby detaching the lesion and repairing the DNA. Due to energy balance, the process has to involve an electronic excited state (s). The mechanism involves the least amount of energy dissipation and is charge neutral. It also avoids radiation damage in the repair process, that is, is a radiationless process.

  2. Preferential repair of DNA double-strand break at the active gene in vivo. (United States)

    Chaurasia, Priyasri; Sen, Rwik; Pandita, Tej K; Bhaumik, Sukesh R


    Previous studies have demonstrated transcription-coupled nucleotide/base excision repair. We report here for the first time that DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is also coupled to transcription. We generated a yeast strain by introducing a homing (Ho) endonuclease cut site followed by a nucleotide sequence for multiple Myc epitopes at the 3' end of the coding sequence of a highly active gene, ADH1. This yeast strain also contains the Ho cut site at the nearly silent or poorly active mating type α (MATα) locus and expresses Ho endonuclease under the galactose-inducible GAL1 promoter. Using this strain, DSBs were generated at the ADH1 and MATα loci in galactose-containing growth medium that induced HO expression. Subsequently, yeast cells were transferred to dextrose-containing growth medium to stop HO expression, and the DSB repair was monitored at the ADH1 and MATα loci by PCR, using the primer pairs flanking the Ho cut sites. Our results revealed a faster DSB repair at the highly active ADH1 than that at the nearly silent MATα locus, hence implicating a transcription-coupled DSB repair at the active gene in vivo. Subsequently, we extended this study to another gene, PHO5 (carrying the Ho cut site at its coding sequence), under transcriptionally active and inactive growth conditions. We found a fast DSB repair at the active PHO5 gene in comparison to its inactive state. Collectively, our results demonstrate a preferential DSB repair at the active gene, thus supporting transcription-coupled DSB repair in living cells.

  3. The inverted Batman incision: a new incision in transcolumellar incision for open rhinoplasty. (United States)

    Nakanishi, Yuji; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Shimizu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Junpei; Fukuta, Keizo; Kishi, Kazuo


    Columellar and nostril shapes often present irregularity after transcolumellar incision for open rhinoplasty, because of the contracture of the incised wound. The present study introduces a new technique to prevent this complication, and verifies its efficacy in improving cosmetic appearance. In our new method, a zig-zag incision with three small triangular flaps is made on the columella and in the pericolumellar regions of the bilateral nostril rims. Since the shape of the incision resembles the contour of an inverted "batman", we term our new method the "Inverted Batman" incision. To verify the effectiveness of the Inverted Batman incision, aesthetic evaluation was conducted for 21 patients operated on using the conventional transcolumellar incision (Conventional Group) and 19 patients operated on using the Inverted Batman incision (Inverted Batman Group). The evaluation was performed by three plastic surgeons, using a four-grade scale to assess three separate items: symmetry of bilateral soft triangles, symmetry of bilateral margins of the columella, and evenness of the columellar surface. The scores of the two groups for these three items were compared using a non-parametric test (Mann-Whitney U-test). With all three items, the Inverted Batman group patients present higher scores than Conventional Group patients. The Inverted Batman incision is effective in preserving the correct anatomical structure of the columella, soft triangle, and nostril rims. Hence, we recommend the Inverted Batman incision as a useful technique for open rhinoplasty.

  4. Complement activation in the context of stem cells and tissue repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingrid; U; Schraufstatter; Sophia; K; Khaldoyanidi; Richard; G; DiScipio


    The complement pathway is best known for its role in immune surveillance and inflammation. However,its ability of opsonizing and removing not only pathogens,but also necrotic and apoptotic cells,is a phylogenetically ancient means of initiating tissue repair. The means and mechanisms of complement-mediated tissue repair are discussed in this review. There is increasing evidence that complement activation contributes to tissue repair at several levels. These range from the chemo-attraction of stem and progenitor cells to areas of complement activation,to increased survival of various cell types in the presence of split products of complement,and to the production of trophic factors by cells activated by the anaphylatoxins C3 a and C5 a. This repair aspect of complement biology has not found sufficient appreciation until recently. The following will examine this aspect of complement biology with an emphasis on the anaphylatoxins C3 a and C5 a.

  5. Craniosynostosis incision: scalpel or cautery? (United States)

    Wood, Jeyhan S; Kittinger, Benjamin J; Perry, Victor L; Adenola, Adeyemi; van Aalst, John A


    There is an ongoing debate regarding the optimal instrument for scalp incisions: the scalpel or electrocautery. The argument generally focuses on improved healing after an incision made with a knife and decreased bleeding when using electrocautery. This study compares the use of scalpel and electrocautery in making coronal incisions for patients undergoing surgical correction of craniosynostosis. The outcome metric used is wound healing within 6 months after surgery. All patients presenting to the University of North Carolina Children's Hospital with craniosynostosis between July 1, 2007 and January 1, 2010 requiring a coronal incision for surgical correction were prospectively enrolled. In all of these patients, half of the coronal incision was made with knife; the other half, with needle tip cautery. Side of the incision was specified at the time of surgery in the operative report. Patients were excluded from the study if the instrument for incision was not specified or if only 1 modality was used for the entire incision. Sixty-eight patients underwent cranial vault reconstruction, of which 58 met inclusion criteria. Of the 58 matched pairs, 55 were analyzed statistically. The 3 excluded cases were those who had midline complications. There were 17 wound complications (15%): 8 in the knife group, 6 in the cautery group, and 3 at midline (with indeterminate side for the problem). We found no statistically significant difference in wound healing between incisions made with a knife or with electrocautery.

  6. Complement activation in coronary artery bypass grafting patients without cardiopulmonary bypass - The role of tissue injury by surgical incision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; Mariani, MA; Boonstra, PW; Grandjean, JG; van Oeveren, W


    Study objectives: Complement activation is a trigger in inducing inflammation in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and is usually thought to be induced by the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), In this study, we examined whether tissue injury caused by chest surgical inci

  7. Clinical study of preperitoneal tension-free hernia repair and totally extra peritoneal hernia repair via Lower abdominal median incision%下腹部正中切口腹膜前无张力疝修补术与完全腹膜外疝修补术临床对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘平东; 钟强文; 池宇明


    目的:探讨经下腹正中切口腹膜前无张力疝修补术(后入路组)和完全腹膜外疝修补术(TEP 组)在成人腹股沟疝治疗中的临床效果。方法回顾性分析2012年1月至2013年12月,嘉应学院医学院附属医院85例腹股沟疝患者的临床资料,根据手术方式分为二组,后入路组43例, TEP 组42例。比较二组患者手术时间、住院时间、术后疼痛评分、住院费用、围手术期并发症(切口感染、阴囊血肿、尿潴留等)发生情况及复发情况。结果二组手术均顺利完成,TEP 组患者的住院时间、术后疼痛评分均低于后入路组,差异有统计学意义(t =3.070、6.006,P =0.007、0.000),而手术时间和住院费用高于后入路组,差异有统计学意义(t =6.730、7.890,P =0.003、0.000)。二组患者并发症发生率比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.079,P =0.778)。随访6~24个月,平均(19±4)个月,TEP 组分别于术后1年和15个月各复发1例,后入路组术后3个月复发1例,均再次手术后治愈。结论TEP 患者术后疼痛轻,下床活动早,住院时间短。经下腹部正中切口腹膜前无张力疝修补术费用低、技术易掌握,对双侧腹股沟疝、常规前进路的开放术后复发疝更为适合,值得基层医院推广。%Objective To investigate the clinical outcome of the open preperitoneal tension-free hernia repair via lower abdominal median incision (posterior approach group)and totally extraperitoneal hernia repair (TEP group)in treatment of adult inguinal hernia.Methods The clinical data of 85 patients from January 201 2 to December 201 3 in Affiliated Hospital of Medicine College of Jiaying University were retrospectively analyzed,including 42 cases in TEP group and 43 cases in posterior group.The two groups were compared with operation time,hospitalization time,postoperative pain score,hospital cost and

  8. Numerical analysis of piezoelectric active repair in the presence of frictional contact conditions. (United States)

    Alaimo, Andrea; Milazzo, Alberto; Orlando, Calogero; Messineo, Antonio


    The increasing development of smart materials, such as piezoelectric and shape memory alloys, has opened new opportunities for improving repair techniques. Particularly, active repairs, based on the converse piezoelectric effect, can increase the life of a structure by reducing the crack opening. A deep characterization of the electromechanical behavior of delaminated composite structures, actively repaired by piezoelectric patches, can be achieved by considering the adhesive layer between the host structure and the repair and by taking into account the frictional contact between the crack surfaces. In this paper, Boundary Element (BE) analyses performed on delaminated composite structures repaired by active piezoelectric patches are presented. A two-dimensional boundary integral formulation for piezoelectric solids based on the multi-domain technique to model the composite host damaged structures and the bonded piezoelectric patches is employed. An interface spring model is also implemented to take into account the finite stiffness of the bonding layers and to model the frictional contact between the delamination surfaces, by means of an iterative procedure. The effect of the adhesive between the plies of piezoelectric bimorph devices on the electromechanical response is first pointed out for both sensing and actuating behavior. Then, the effect of the frictional contact condition on the fracture mechanics behavior of actively repaired delaminated composite structures is investigated.

  9. Dynamics and Mechanism of Efficient DNA Repair Reviewed by Active-Site Mutants (United States)

    Tan, Chuang; Liu, Zheyun; Li, Jiang; Guo, Xunmin; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping


    Photolyases repair the UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in damage DNA via a photoreaction which includes a series of light-driven electron transfers between the two-electron-reduced flavin cofactor FADH^- and the dimer. We report here our systematic studies of the repair dynamics in E. coli photolyase with mutation of several active-site residues. With femtosecond resolution, we observed the significant change in the forward electron transfer from the excited FADH^- to the dimer and the back electron transfer from the repaired thymines by mutation of E274A, R226A, R342A, N378S and N378C. We also found that the mutation of E274A accelerates the bond-breaking of the thymine dimer. The dynamics changes are consistent with the quantum yield study of these mutants. These results suggest that the active-site residues play a significant role, structurally and chemically, in the DNA repair photocycle.

  10. Extravehicular Activity Probabilistic Risk Assessment Overview for Thermal Protection System Repair on the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (United States)

    Bigler, Mark; Canga, Michael A.; Duncan, Gary


    The Shuttle Program initiated an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assess the risks associated with performing a Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) repair during the Space Transportation System (STS)-125 Hubble repair mission as part of risk trades between TPS repair and crew rescue.

  11. Enzymic and structural aspects of repair DNA synthesis activation in mammalian chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyakova, N.V.; Naryzhnyj, S.N.; Filatov, M.V.; Krutyakov, V.M. (AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    Analysis was made of the enzymic and structural factors responsible for activation of repair DNA synthesis in ..gamma..-irradiated chromatin isolated from rat liver or some human cells. The results obtained prompted us to reduce by 10-12 times the dose of radiation used before. With doses of 30 Gy and 10 Gy, the value of the original repair synthesis was doubled in the chromatin of rat liver and HeLa cells, respectively.

  12. Passive self repairing and active self sensing in multifunctional polymer composites (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn


    The goal of the research since the early 1990s has been to develop self-repairing and self sensing composites. Our revolutionary approach involves the autonomous release of repair chemicals from within the composite matrix itself and the active sensing to assess that action utilizing the same tube structure. The repair agents are contained in hollow, structural fibers that are embedded within the matrix. Under stress, the composite senses external environmental factors and reacts by releasing the repair agents from within the hollow vessels. This passive autonomous response occurs wherever and whenever cracking, debonding or other matrix damage transpires. Superior performance over the life of the composite is achieved through this self-repairing mechanism. The active sensing measures volume of voided repair chemical and location of voiding reveals the location and amount of damage to the laminate. This health monitoring of composites is important for their widespread use in life safety applications such as structures. The focus of the research being the implementation of active sensors and passive actuators which by using the same structure of glass tubes provide large area coverage without adding much parasitic weight. The development is a novel, voiding based sensor for damage detection with composite structures. This consists of a inspection guide produced from glass reinforcing fibers which release repair chemical when damaged.. The sensor was shown to be sensitive to very low impact energies, but also capable of revealing more extensive damage caused by high energy impacts. This unique combination of active sensing and passive repair serves as an example of combination for autonomous systems that can consist of various approaches in one integrated system.

  13. Heart bypass surgery incision (image) (United States)

    ... the left part of the chest between the ribs. This incision is much less traumatic than the traditional heart bypass surgery incision which separates the breast bone. Minimally invasive heart bypass surgery allows the patient less pain and a faster recovery.

  14. Are valve repairs associated with better outcomes than replacements in patients with native active valve endocarditis? (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Zhang, Benqing


    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether valve replacement was associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates than valve repair in patients with native active valve endocarditis. Altogether 662 papers were found using the reported search, of which 7 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Traditionally, valve replacement has been the standard therapy for valve endocarditis when surgical treatment is indicated. But now valve repair is increasingly used as an alternative, which may avoid disadvantages of anticoagulation, lower the risk of prosthetic infection and improve postoperative survival. To compare outcomes of these two treatments between studies can be difficult because most of related papers contain raw data on prosthetic valve endocarditis or healed endocarditis, which were excluded from our manuscript. Studies only analysing the outcomes of either of these treatments without the comparison of valve repair and replacement were also excluded. Finally, seven papers were identified. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology 2006 valvular guidelines recommended that mitral valve repair should be performed instead of replacement when at all possible. In three of the seven studies, there were significant differences between valve repair and replacement in long-term survival. One study found that aortic valve repair offered better outcomes in freedom from reoperation at 5 years (P = 0.021) and in survival at 4 years (repair vs replacement 88 vs 65%; P = 0.047). One study reported that there was improved event-free survival at 10 years in the mitral valve repair group (P = 0.015), although there was more previous septic embolization in this group. In one study, early and late mortality

  15. Treatment of senile femoral neck fractures using bipolar hemiarthroplasty with enhanced repair of a U-shaped capsular flap via a modified posterior mini-incision%改良后路微创切口并强化修复“U”形关节囊瓣的双极头置换治疗高龄股骨颈骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪明; 刘彬; 吴润柏; 王智; 莫新发; 刘先银


    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of bipolar hemiarthroplasty with cnhanced repair of a U-shaped capsular flap via a modified posterior mini-incision for senile femoral neck fractures.Methods Between June 2008 and June 2013,86 senile patients with femoral neck fracture were treated operatively.They were 20 males and 66 females,80 to 95 years of age (mean,84.6 years).There were 70 cases of Garden type Ⅲ and 16 cases of Garden type Ⅳ.They all underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty via a modified posterior mini-incision.A U-shaped posterior capsular flap with its base close to the acetabulum was made before exposure of the hip joint.Next this flap and short external rotators were repaired particularly after the bipolar prostheses were implanted.Incision length,surgical time,iotra-operative loss of blood,and length of lower limb were measured.Malposition of prosthesis,hip dislocation and other complications were monitored.The outcomes were assessed according to Harris hip score at the last follow-up.Results The mean incision length was 9.2 cm (range,8 to 12 cm).The mean surgical time was 75.2 min (range,55 to 130 min).The mean intra-operative loss of blood was 250.1 mL (range,120 to 620 mL).The proximal skin margin of the incision was bruised in 3 cases,deep venous thrombosis occurred at the lower limb 3 weeks postoperatively in one case,and length discrepancy between bilateral lower limbs was observed in 6 cases.No dislocation,incision infection,sciatic nerve injury,or component malpositioning happened in this group.All patients were evaluated after a mean follow-up period of 14 months(from 12 to 35 months).One patient died from lung cancer one year postoperatively.According to the Harris hip scores at the last follow-up,68 cases were excellent,15 good and 3 fair,giving an excellent to good rate of 96.5%.Conclusions The modified posterior mini-incision for localization of body surface is accurate,reliable and simple for senile femoral neck fractures.The bipolar

  16. On-bead fluorescent DNA nanoprobes to analyze base excision repair activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gines, Guillaume; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Gasparutto, Didier, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •On magnetic beads fluorescent enzymatic assays. •Simple, easy, non-radioactive and electrophoresis-free functional assay. •Lesion-containing hairpin DNA probes are selective for repair enzymes. •The biosensing platform allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or within cell free extracts. -- Abstract: DNA integrity is constantly threatened by endogenous and exogenous agents that can modify its physical and chemical structure. Changes in DNA sequence can cause mutations sparked by some genetic diseases or cancers. Organisms have developed efficient defense mechanisms able to specifically repair each kind of lesion (alkylation, oxidation, single or double strand break, mismatch, etc). Here we report the adjustment of an original assay to detect enzymes’ activity of base excision repair (BER), that supports a set of lesions including abasic sites, alkylation, oxidation or deamination products of bases. The biosensor is characterized by a set of fluorescent hairpin-shaped nucleic acid probes supported on magnetic beads, each containing a selective lesion targeting a specific BER enzyme. We have studied the DNA glycosylase alkyl-adenine glycosylase (AAG) and the human AP-endonuclease (APE1) by incorporating within the DNA probe a hypoxanthine lesion or an abasic site analog (tetrahydrofuran), respectively. Enzymatic repair activity induces the formation of a nick in the damaged strand, leading to probe's break, that is detected in the supernatant by fluorescence. The functional assay allows the measurement of DNA repair activities from purified enzymes or in cell-free extracts in a fast, specific, quantitative and sensitive way, using only 1 pmol of probe for a test. We recorded a detection limit of 1 μg mL{sup −1} and 50 μg mL{sup −1} of HeLa nuclear extracts for APE1 and AAG enzymes, respectively. Finally, the on-bead assay should be useful to screen inhibitors of DNA repair

  17. Lipid raft-dependent plasma membrane repair interferes with the activation of B lymphocytes. (United States)

    Miller, Heather; Castro-Gomes, Thiago; Corrotte, Matthias; Tam, Christina; Maugel, Timothy K; Andrews, Norma W; Song, Wenxia


    Cells rapidly repair plasma membrane (PM) damage by a process requiring Ca(2+)-dependent lysosome exocytosis. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) released from lysosomes induces endocytosis of injured membrane through caveolae, membrane invaginations from lipid rafts. How B lymphocytes, lacking any known form of caveolin, repair membrane injury is unknown. Here we show that B lymphocytes repair PM wounds in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Wounding induces lysosome exocytosis and endocytosis of dextran and the raft-binding cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). Resealing is reduced by ASM inhibitors and ASM deficiency and enhanced or restored by extracellular exposure to sphingomyelinase. B cell activation via B cell receptors (BCRs), a process requiring lipid rafts, interferes with PM repair. Conversely, wounding inhibits BCR signaling and internalization by disrupting BCR-lipid raft coclustering and by inducing the endocytosis of raft-bound CTB separately from BCR into tubular invaginations. Thus, PM repair and B cell activation interfere with one another because of competition for lipid rafts, revealing how frequent membrane injury and repair can impair B lymphocyte-mediated immune responses.

  18. Macrophage activation and its role in repair and pathology after spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Gensel, John C; Zhang, Bei


    The injured spinal cord does not heal properly. In contrast, tissue repair and functional recovery occur after skin or muscle injuries. The reason for this dichotomy in wound repair is unclear but inflammation, and specifically macrophage activation, likely plays a key role. Macrophages have the ability to promote the repair of injured tissue by regulating transitions through different phase of the healing response. In the current review we compare and contrast the healing and inflammatory responses between spinal cord injuries and tissues that undergo complete wound resolution. Through this comparison, we identify key macrophage phenotypes that are inaptly triggered or absent after spinal cord injury and discuss spinal cord stimuli that contribute to this maladaptive response. Sequential activation of classic, pro-inflammatory, M1 macrophages and alternatively activated, M2a, M2b, and M2c macrophages occurs during normal healing and facilitates transitions through the inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling phases of repair. In contrast, in the injured spinal cord, pro-inflammatory macrophages potentiate a prolonged inflammatory phase and remodeling is not properly initiated. The desynchronized macrophage activation after spinal cord injury is reminiscent of the inflammation present in chronic, non-healing wounds. By refining the role macrophages play in spinal cord injury repair we bring to light important areas for future neuroinflammation and neurotrauma research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Channel incision and water quality (United States)

    Shields, F. D.


    Watershed development often triggers channel incision that leads to radical changes in channel morphology. Although morphologic evolution due to channel incision has been documented and modeled by others, ecological effects, particularly water quality effects, are less well understood. Furthermore, environmental regulatory frameworks for streams frequently focus on stream water quality and underemphasize hydrologic and geomorphic issues. Discharge, basic physical parameters, solids, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), chlorophyll and bacteria were monitored for five years at two sites along a stream in a mixed cover watershed characterized by rapid incision of the entire channel network. Concurrent data were collected from two sites on a nearby stream draining a watershed of similar size and cultivation intensity, but without widespread incision. Data sets describing physical aquatic habitat and fish fauna of each stream were available from other studies. The second stream was impacted by watershed urbanization, but was not incised, so normal channel-floodplain interaction maintained a buffer zone of floodplain wetlands between the study reach and the urban development upstream. The incised stream had mean channel depth and width that were 1.8 and 3.5 times as large as for the nonincised stream, and was characterized by flashier hydrology. The median rise rate for the incised stream was 6.4 times as great as for the nonincised stream. Correlation analyses showed that hydrologic perturbations were associated with water quality degradation, and the incised stream had levels of turbidity and solids that were two to three times higher than the nonincised, urbanizing stream. Total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl N, and chlorophyll a concentrations were significantly higher in the incised stream, while nitrate was significantly greater in the nonincised, urbanizing stream (p Ecological engineering of stream corridors must focus at least as much energy on mediating hydrologic

  20. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes neurovascular repair after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-shan Ran


    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in angiogenesis and endothelial cell formation, but it remains unclear whether it is involved in vascular repair by endothelial progenitor cells after traumatic brain injury. Therefore, in the present study, we controlled the Notch signaling pathway using overexpression and knockdown constructs. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway by Notch1 or Jagged1 overexpression enhanced the migration, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endothelial progenitor cells. Suppression of the Notch signaling pathway with Notch1 or Jagged1 siRNAs reduced the migratory capacity, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endothelial progenitor cells. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway in vivo in a rat model of mild traumatic brain injury promoted neurovascular repair. These findings suggest that the activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes blood vessel formation and tissue repair after brain trauma.

  1. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes neurovascular repair after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-shan Ran; Yun-hu Yu; Xiao-hong Fu; Yuan-chao Wen


    The Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in angiogenesis and endothelial cell formation, but it remains unclear whether it is involved in vascular repair by endothelial progenitor cells after traumatic brain injury. Therefore, in the present study, we controlled the Notch signaling path-way using overexpression and knockdown constructs. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway by Notch1 or Jagged1 overexpression enhanced the migration, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endothelial progenitor cells. Suppression of the Notch signaling pathway with Notch1 or Jagged1 siRNAs reduced the migratory capacity, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endo-thelial progenitor cells. Activation of the Notch signaling pathwayin vivo in a rat model of mild traumatic brain injury promoted neurovascular repair. These ifndings suggest that the activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes blood vessel formation and tissue repair after brain trauma.

  2. Base excision repair activities differ in human lung cancer cells and corresponding normal controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahalil, Bensu; Bohr, Vilhelm A; De Souza-Pinto, Nadja C


    Oxidative damage to DNA is thought to play a role in carcinogenesis by causing mutations, and indeed accumulation of oxidized DNA bases has been observed in samples obtained from tumors but not from surrounding tissue within the same patient. Base excision repair (BER) is the main pathway...... for the repair of oxidized modifications both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In order to ascertain whether diminished BER capacity might account for increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in cancer cells, the activities of BER enzymes in three different lung cancer cell lines and their non......-cancerous counterparts were measured using oligonucleotide substrates with single DNA lesions to assess specific BER enzymes. The activities of four BER enzymes, OGG1, NTH1, UDG and APE1, were compared in mitochondrial and nuclear extracts. For each specific lesion, the repair activities were similar among the three...

  3. Single-incision laparoscopy surgery: a systematic review (United States)

    far, Sasan Saeed; Miraj, Sepide


    Background Laparoscopic surgery is a modern surgical technique in which operations are performed far from their location through small incisions elsewhere in the body. Objective This systematic review is aimed to overview single-incision laparoscopy surgery. Methods This systematic review was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases. The initial search strategy identified about 87 references. In this study, 54 studies were accepted for further screening and met all our inclusion criteria [in English, full text, therapeutic effects of single-incision laparoscopy surgery and dated mainly from the year 1990 to 2016]. The search terms were “single-incision,” “surgery,” and “laparoscopy.” Results Single-incision laparoscopy surgery is widely used for surgical operations in cholecystectomy, sleeve gastrectomy, cholecystoduodenostomy, hepatobiliary disease, colon cancer, obesity, appendectomy, liver surgery, rectosigmoid cancer, vaginal hysterectomy, vaginoplasty, colorectal lung metastases, pyloroplasty, endoscopic surgery, hernia repair, nephrectomy, rectal cancer, colectomy and uterus-preserving repair, bile duct exploration, ileo-ileal resection, lymphadenectomy, incarcerated inguinal hernia, anastomosis, congenital anomaly, colectomy for cancer. Conclusion Based on the findings, single-incision laparoscopy surgery is a scarless surgery with minimal access. Although it possesses lots of benefits, including less incisional pain and scars, cosmesis, and the ability to convert to standard multiport laparoscopic surgery, it has some disadvantages, for example, less freedom of movement, fewer number of ports that can be used, and the proximity of the instruments to each other during the operation. PMID:27957308

  4. Genomically amplified Akt3 activates DNA repair pathway and promotes glioma progression. (United States)

    Turner, Kristen M; Sun, Youting; Ji, Ping; Granberg, Kirsi J; Bernard, Brady; Hu, Limei; Cogdell, David E; Zhou, Xinhui; Yli-Harja, Olli; Nykter, Matti; Shmulevich, Ilya; Yung, W K Alfred; Fuller, Gregory N; Zhang, Wei


    Akt is a robust oncogene that plays key roles in the development and progression of many cancers, including glioma. We evaluated the differential propensities of the Akt isoforms toward progression in the well-characterized RCAS/Ntv-a mouse model of PDGFB-driven low grade glioma. A constitutively active myristoylated form of Akt1 did not induce high-grade glioma (HGG). In stark contrast, Akt2 and Akt3 showed strong progression potential with 78% and 97% of tumors diagnosed as HGG, respectively. We further revealed that significant variations in polarity and hydropathy values among the Akt isoforms in both the pleckstrin homology domain (P domain) and regulatory domain (R domain) were critical in mediating glioma progression. Gene expression profiles from representative Akt-derived tumors indicated dominant and distinct roles for Akt3, consisting primarily of DNA repair pathways. TCGA data from human GBM closely reflected the DNA repair function, as Akt3 was significantly correlated with a 76-gene signature DNA repair panel. Consistently, compared with Akt1 and Akt2 overexpression models, Akt3-expressing human GBM cells had enhanced activation of DNA repair proteins, leading to increased DNA repair and subsequent resistance to radiation and temozolomide. Given the wide range of Akt3-amplified cancers, Akt3 may represent a key resistance factor.

  5. Longitudinal Incision in Midaxillary Line in Nuss Procedure for Repairing Congenital Pectus Excavatum in Children%经腋中线直切口行Nuss手术纠治小儿漏斗胸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫宪刚; 沈晟; 贾兵; 陈张根


    Objective To summarize the effect and technique of longitudinal incision at midaxillary line in Nuss procedure for children with congenital pectus excavatum.Metbods Nuss procedure were performed using the longitudinal incision at midaxillary line in 18 patients with congenital pectus excavatum from June 2010 to January 2012 in our hospital.The age of the patients ranged from 5 years and 2 months to 11 years and 8 months with an average of 7 years and 3 months.11 patients were symmetric pectus excavatum and 7 patients were asymmetric pectus excavatum according to Park' s classification.The Haller index ranged from 3.3 to 10.8 with a mean of (4.68 ± 1.73).Results All operations were successful.The operation time was 30-55 min with a mean of (42.2 ± 6.5) min,and the blood loss was less than 10 ml.One patient suffered from pneumothorax in early postoperative period and recovered after conservative treatment.The hospital stay was (5.1 ± 1.0) d.Three months of out-patient follow-up showed that 14 patients (77.8%) had excellent recovery and 4 patients (22.2%) had good results 3 months after the surgery.All patients were followed up for 3 to 18 months with a mean of (10.0 ±4.5) months (5 cases for more than 12 months).All steel support bars were in the original position without displacement.All patients had satisfactory deformity correction results with normal chest shape.The longitudinal incision was unable to be detected in the front and lateral side when arm was drooping.Conclusions The longitudinal incision at midaxillary line in Nuss procedure is a safe and reliable modified technique to be used clinically,especially suitable for female patients to avoid the impairment of their mammogenesis.%目的 总结经腋中线直切口行Nuss手术纠治小儿漏斗胸的手术技巧和疗效. 方法 2010年6月~2012年1月,对18例先天性漏斗胸采用两侧腋中线直切口进行胸腔镜辅助下Nuss手术,手术年龄5岁2个月~11岁8个月,平均7岁3

  6. Systematic analysis of DNA damage induction and DNA repair pathway activation by continuous wave visible light laser micro-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Muster


    Full Text Available Laser micro-irradiation can be used to induce DNA damage with high spatial and temporal resolution, representing a powerful tool to analyze DNA repair in vivo in the context of chromatin. However, most lasers induce a mixture of DNA damage leading to the activation of multiple DNA repair pathways and making it impossible to study individual repair processes. Hence, we aimed to establish and validate micro-irradiation conditions together with inhibition of several key proteins to discriminate different types of DNA damage and repair pathways using lasers commonly available in confocal microscopes. Using time-lapse analysis of cells expressing fluorescently tagged repair proteins and also validation of the DNA damage generated by micro-irradiation using several key damage markers, we show that irradiation with a 405 nm continuous wave laser lead to the activation of all repair pathways even in the absence of exogenous sensitization. In contrast, we found that irradiation with 488 nm laser lead to the selective activation of non-processive short-patch base excision and single strand break repair, which were further validated by PARP inhibition and metoxyamine treatment. We conclude that these low energy conditions discriminated against processive long-patch base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair as well as double strand break repair pathways.

  7. DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice Is Directed by Distinct MRE11 Nuclease Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Shibata (Atsushi); D. Moiani (Davide); A.S. Arvai (Andrew); J. Perry (Jefferson); S.M. Harding (Shane); M.-M. Genois (Marie-Michelle); R. Maity (Ranjan); S.E. van Rossum-Fikkert (Sari); A. Kertokalio (Aryandi); F. Romoli (Filippo); A. Ismail (Amani); E. Ismalaj (Ermal); E. Petricci (Elena); M.J. Neale (Matthew); R.G. Bristow (Robert); J.-Y. Masson (Jean-Yves); C. Wyman (Claire); P.A. Jeggo (Penny); J.A. Tainer (John)


    textabstractMRE11 within the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex acts in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR), detection, and signaling; yet, how its endo- and exonuclease activities regulate DSBR by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) versus homologous recombination (HR) remains enigmatic. Here, we employ

  8. DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice Is Directed by Distinct MRE11 Nuclease Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Shibata (Atsushi); D. Moiani (Davide); A.S. Arvai (Andrew); J. Perry (Jefferson); S.M. Harding (Shane); M.-M. Genois (Marie-Michelle); R. Maity (Ranjan); S.E. van Rossum-Fikkert (Sari); A. Kertokalio (Aryandi); F. Romoli (Filippo); A. Ismail (Amani); E. Ismalaj (Ermal); E. Petricci (Elena); M.J. Neale (Matthew); R.G. Bristow (Robert); J.-Y. Masson (Jean-Yves); C. Wyman (Claire); P.A. Jeggo (Penny); J.A. Tainer (John)


    textabstractMRE11 within the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex acts in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR), detection, and signaling; yet, how its endo- and exonuclease activities regulate DSBR by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) versus homologous recombination (HR) remains enigmatic. Here, we

  9. Nerve transection repair using laser-activated chitosan in a rat model. (United States)

    Bhatt, Neel K; Khan, Taleef R; Mejias, Christopher; Paniello, Randal C


    Cranial nerve transection during head and neck surgery is conventionally repaired with microsuture. Previous studies have demonstrated recovery with laser nerve welding (LNW), a novel alternative to microsuture. LNW has been reported to have poorer tensile strength, however. Laser-activated chitosan, an adhesive biopolymer, may promote nerve recovery while enhancing the tensile strength of the repair. Using a rat posterior tibial nerve injury model, we compared four different methods of nerve repair in this pilot study. Animal study. Animals underwent unilateral posterior tibial nerve transection. The injury was repaired by potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser alone (n = 20), KTP + chitosan (n = 12), microsuture + chitosan (n = 12), and chitosan alone (n = 14). Weekly walking tracks were conducted to measure functional recovery (FR). Tensile strength (TS) was measured at 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, KTP laser alone had the best recovery (FR = 93.4% ± 8.3%). Microsuture + chitosan, KTP + chitosan, and chitosan alone all showed good FR (87.4% ± 13.5%, 84.6% ± 13.0%, and 84.1% ± 10.0%, respectively). One-way analysis of variance was performed (F(3,56) = 2.6, P = .061). A TS threshold of 3.8 N was selected as a control mean recovery. Three groups-KTP alone, KTP + chitosan, and microsuture + chitosan-were found to meet threshold 60% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.1%-88.3%), 75% (95% CI: 46.8%-91.1%), and 100% (95% CI: 75.8%-100.0%), respectively. In the posterior tibial nerve model, all repair methods promoted nerve recovery. Laser-activated chitosan as a biopolymer anchor provided good TS and appears to be a novel alternative to microsuture. This repair method may have surgical utility following cranial nerve injury during head and neck surgery. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E253-E257, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Salidroside stimulates DNA repair enzyme Parp-1 activity in mouse HSC maintenance. (United States)

    Li, Xue; Sipple, Jared; Pang, Qishen; Du, Wei


    Salidroside is a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from the medicinal plant Rhodiola rosea, which has potent antioxidant properties. Here we show that salidroside prevented the loss of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in mice under oxidative stress. Quiescent HSCs were recruited into cell cycling on in vivo challenge with oxidative stress, which was blocked by salidroside. Surprisingly, salidroside does not prevent the production of reactive oxygen species but reduces hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA-strand breaks in bone marrow cells enriched for HSCs. We tested whether salidroside enhances oxidative DNA damage repair in mice deficient for 5 DNA repair pathways known to be involved in oxidative DNA damage repair; we found that salidroside activated poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a component of the base excision repair pathway, in mouse bone marrow HSCs as well as primary fibroblasts and human lymphoblasts. PARP-1 activation by salidroside protects quiescent HSCs from oxidative stress-induced cycling in native animals and self-renewal defect in transplanted recipients, which was abrogated by genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibition of PARP-1. Together, these findings suggest that activation of PARP-1 by salidroside could affect the homeostasis and function of HSCs and contribute to the antioxidant effects of salidroside.

  11. Regulation of nucleotide excision repair through ubiquitination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Li; Audesh Bhat; Wei Xiao


    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the most versatile DNA-repair pathway in all organisms.While bacteria require only three proteins to complete the incision step of NER,eukaryotes employ about 30 proteins to complete the same step.Here we summarize recent studies demonstrating that ubiquitination,a post-translational modification,plays critical roles in regulating the NER activity either dependent on or independent of ubiquitin-proteolysis.Several NER components have been shown as targets of ubiquitination while others are actively involved in the ubiquitination process.We argue through this analysis that ubiquitination serves to coordinate various steps of NER and meanwhile connect NER with other related pathways to achieve the efficient global DNA-damage response.

  12. Repair of large tympanic membrane perforation with inner graft using Portmann' s posterior-superior incision retro-auricular approach: a report of 45 cases%Portmann氏耳后上进路全翻内植法修补鼓膜大穿孔45例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董和霞; 王晓辉


    目的 探讨Portmann氏耳后上进路全翻内植法修补鼓膜大穿孔的方法及疗效.方法 采用耳后上进路,自体颞肌筋膜作为移植材料,对45例鼓膜大穿孔病人进行全翻外耳道后壁皮瓣鼓膜成形术,并对其临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 术后6个月随访,43例鼓膜穿孔愈合,2例出现鼓膜中央小穿孔,听力均有不同程度的提高.结论 本术式术野暴露清晰,取颞肌筋膜在同一切口进行,修补鼓膜大穿孔成功率高,具有较高的临床应用价值.%Objective To report techniques and effects of myringoplasty using Portmann' s posterior-superior incision retro-auricular approach with complete tympanic membrane elevation and inner graft for repair large size perforations. Methods Myringoplasty was performed in 45 patients. Following tympanic membrane elevation, temporal fascia was used as the autograft and placed on the inner side. Results Forty-three cases acheieved first stage healing of perforation At six month follow up, the tympanic membrane remained healed in 43 cases and showed small central perforation in 2 cases. Hearing in all patients was improved after operations. Conclusion This operative approach allows clear visualization and harvesting of temporal fascia in the same field. The success rate of repairing large perforation with this technique is higher, deserving extensive use.

  13. Fuzzy Activity Based Life Cycle Costing For Repairable Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulubrhan Freselam


    Full Text Available Life-cycle cost (LCC is the much known method used for decision making that considers all costs in the life of a system or equipment. Predicting LCCs is fraught with potential errors, owing to the uncertainty in future events, future costs, interest rates, and even hidden costs. These uncertainties have a direct impact on the decision making. Activity based LCC is used to identify the activities and cost drivers in acquisition, operation and maintenance phase. This activity based LCC is integrated with fuzzy set theory and interval mathematics to model these uncertainties. Day–Stout–Warren (DSW algorithm and the vertex method are then used to evaluate competing alternatives. A case of two pumps (Pump A and Pump B are taken and their LCC is analysed using the developed model. The equivalent annual cost of Pump B is greater than Pump A, which leads the decision maker to choose Pump A over Pump B.

  14. Afroze incision for functional cheiloseptoplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, G.S.; Reddy, R.R.; Pagaria, N.; Berge, S.J.


    Repair of unilateral cleft lip is a fascinating and challenging procedure. Although a great number of operations have been described for the unilateral cleft lip repair, none fulfill all the plastic surgical criteria, and in most cases, cleft lip repairs require secondary operations in an attempt to

  15. FACT Assists Base Excision Repair by Boosting the Remodeling Activity of RSC. (United States)

    Charles Richard, John Lalith; Shukla, Manu Shubhdarshan; Menoni, Hervé; Ouararhni, Khalid; Lone, Imtiaz Nisar; Roulland, Yohan; Papin, Christophe; Ben Simon, Elsa; Kundu, Tapas; Hamiche, Ali; Angelov, Dimitar; Dimitrov, Stefan


    FACT, in addition to its role in transcription, is likely implicated in both transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair and DNA double strand break repair. Here, we present evidence that FACT could be directly involved in Base Excision Repair and elucidate the chromatin remodeling mechanisms of FACT during BER. We found that, upon oxidative stress, FACT is released from transcription related protein complexes to get associated with repair proteins and chromatin remodelers from the SWI/SNF family. We also showed the rapid recruitment of FACT to the site of damage, coincident with the glycosylase OGG1, upon the local generation of oxidized DNA. Interestingly, FACT facilitates uracil-DNA glycosylase in the removal of uracil from nucleosomal DNA thanks to an enhancement in the remodeling activity of RSC. This discloses a novel property of FACT wherein it has a co-remodeling activity and strongly enhances the remodeling capacity of the chromatin remodelers. Altogether, our data suggest that FACT may acts in concert with RSC to facilitate excision of DNA lesions during the initial step of BER.

  16. Benzene-derived N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-deoxyguanosine adduct: UvrABC incision and its conformation in DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Bo; Rodriguez, Ben; Yang, Yanu; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed


    Benzene, a ubiquitous human carcinogen, forms DNA adducts through its metabolites such as p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) and hydroquinone (HQ). N(2)-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-4-HOPh-dG) is the principal adduct identified in vivo by (32)P-postlabeling in cells or animals treated with p-BQ or HQ. To study its effect on repair specificity and replication fidelity, we recently synthesized defined oligonucleotides containing a site-specific adduct using phosphoramidite chemistry. We here report the repair of this adduct by Escherichia coli UvrABC complex, which performs the initial damage recognition and incision steps in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. We first showed that the p-BQ-treated plasmid was efficiently cleaved by the complex, indicating the formation of DNA lesions that are substrates for NER. Using a 40-mer substrate, we found that UvrABC incises the DNA strand containing N(2)-4-HOPh-dG in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The specificity of such repair was also compared with that of DNA glycosylases and damage-specific endonucleases of E. coli, both of which were found to have no detectable activity toward N(2)-4-HOPh-dG. To understand why this adduct is specifically recognized and processed by UvrABC, molecular modeling studies were performed. Analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories showed that stable G:C-like hydrogen bonding patterns of all three Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds are present within the N(2)-4-HOPh-G:C base pair, with the hydroxyphenyl ring at an almost planar position. In addition, N(2)-4-HOPh-dG has a tendency to form more stable stacking interactions than a normal G in B-type DNA. These conformational properties may be critical in differential recognition of this adduct by specific repair enzymes.

  17. Replication stress activates DNA repair synthesis in mitosis. (United States)

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Ying, Songmin; Bjerregaard, Victoria A; Bursomanno, Sara; Aleliunaite, Aiste; Wu, Wei; Mankouri, Hocine W; Shen, Huahao; Liu, Ying; Hickson, Ian D


    Oncogene-induced DNA replication stress has been implicated as a driver of tumorigenesis. Many chromosomal rearrangements characteristic of human cancers originate from specific regions of the genome called common fragile sites (CFSs). CFSs are difficult-to-replicate loci that manifest as gaps or breaks on metaphase chromosomes (termed CFS 'expression'), particularly when cells have been exposed to replicative stress. The MUS81-EME1 structure-specific endonuclease promotes the appearance of chromosome gaps or breaks at CFSs following replicative stress. Here we show that entry of cells into mitotic prophase triggers the recruitment of MUS81 to CFSs. The nuclease activity of MUS81 then promotes POLD3-dependent DNA synthesis at CFSs, which serves to minimize chromosome mis-segregation and non-disjunction. We propose that the attempted condensation of incompletely duplicated loci in early mitosis serves as the trigger for completion of DNA replication at CFS loci in human cells. Given that this POLD3-dependent mitotic DNA synthesis is enhanced in aneuploid cancer cells that exhibit intrinsically high levels of chromosomal instability (CIN(+)) and replicative stress, we suggest that targeting this pathway could represent a new therapeutic approach.

  18. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes neurovascular repair after traumatic brain injury



    The Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in angiogenesis and endothelial cell formation, but it remains unclear whether it is involved in vascular repair by endothelial progenitor cells after traumatic brain injury. Therefore, in the present study, we controlled the Notch signaling pathway using overexpression and knockdown constructs. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway by Notch1 or Jagged1 overexpression enhanced the migration, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endothelial pr...

  19. Incision for pleural tissue biopsy (image) (United States)

    ... the pleural tissue is removed through a surgical incision in the chest. After the sample is obtained, a chest tube is placed and the incision is closed with stitches. Abnormal results may indicate ...

  20. SMART micro-scissors based precise incision (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Cheol; Yeo, Chaebeom; Song, Cheol


    Hand tremor reduction is important to achieve stable micro manipulation of the tool tip. A micro-scissors can be used for cutting delicate tissues safely. Here, we implement an OCT distance sensor guided SMART micro-scissors which could incise micro-surgical targets precisely and horizontally. Compared to freehand incision, it demonstrates enhanced incision performance on dry phantoms with great tremor suppression.

  1. Discovery of Novel Small Molecules that Activate Satellite Cell Proliferation and Enhance Repair of Damaged Muscle. (United States)

    Billin, Andrew N; Bantscheff, Marcus; Drewes, Gerard; Ghidelli-Disse, Sonja; Holt, Jason A; Kramer, Henning F; McDougal, Alan J; Smalley, Terry L; Wells, Carrow I; Zuercher, William J; Henke, Brad R


    Skeletal muscle progenitor stem cells (referred to as satellite cells) represent the primary pool of stem cells in adult skeletal muscle responsible for the generation of new skeletal muscle in response to injury. Satellite cells derived from aged muscle display a significant reduction in regenerative capacity to form functional muscle. This decrease in functional recovery has been attributed to a decrease in proliferative capacity of satellite cells. Hence, agents that enhance the proliferative abilities of satellite cells may hold promise as therapies for a variety of pathological settings, including repair of injured muscle and age- or disease-associated muscle wasting. Through phenotypic screening of isolated murine satellite cells, we identified a series of 2,4-diaminopyrimidines (e.g., 2) that increased satellite cell proliferation. Importantly, compound 2 was effective in accelerating repair of damaged skeletal muscle in an in vivo mouse model of skeletal muscle injury. While these compounds were originally prepared as c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK-1) inhibitors, structure-activity analyses indicated JNK-1 inhibition does not correlate with satellite cell activity. Screening against a broad panel of kinases did not result in identification of an obvious molecular target, so we conducted cell-based proteomics experiments in an attempt to identify the molecular target(s) responsible for the potentiation of the satellite cell proliferation. These data provide the foundation for future efforts to design improved small molecules as potential therapeutics for muscle repair and regeneration.

  2. The effect of exercise types for rotator cuff repair patients on activities of shoulder muscles and upper limb disability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Moon, Young-Jun; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Park, Jun-Su


    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect on activities, shoulder muscle fatigue, upper limb disability of two exercise types performed by patients in the post- immobilization period of rotator cuff repair...

  3. Base excision repair activities in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation. (United States)

    Rolseth, Veslemøy; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Neurauter, Christine Gran; Yndestad, Arne; Luna, Luisa; Aukrust, Pål; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Bjørås, Magnar


    The capacity for DNA repair is likely to be one of the factors that determine the vulnerability of neurons to ischemic stress and may influence the pathological outcome of stroke. In this report, initiation of base excision repair (BER) was assessed by analysis of enzyme activity and gene expression level of DNA glycosylases and AP-endonucleases in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) - an in vitro model of stroke. Under basal conditions, AP-endonuclease activity and base removal of ethenoadenine and 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) were higher (by approximately 20-35 %) in CA3/fascia dentata (FD) than in CA1. Base removal of uracil did not differ between the two hippocampal regions, while removal of 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU) was slightly less efficient in CA3/FD than in CA1. Analyses performed immediately after 30 min of OGD revealed a decreased AP-endonuclease activity (by approximately 20%) in CA1 as well as CA3/FD, and an increased ethenoadenine activity (by approximately 25%) in CA1. Activities for 8-oxoG, 5-OHU and uracil showed no significant changes at this time point. At 8h after OGD, none of the enzyme activities differed from control values. Real-time RT-PCR showed that transcription of DNA glycosylases, including Ogg1, Nth1, Ung, Aag, Neil1 and Neil2 were not changed in response to OGD treatment (t=0 h). The hippocampal expression of Neil2 was low compared with the other DNA glycosylases. These data indicate that CA1 has a lower capacity than CA3/FD for removal of base lesions under basal conditions. The relatively low capacity for BER in basal conditions and the apparent failure to upregulate repair of oxidative damage after OGD might contribute to the high vulnerability of CA1 to ischemic injury.

  4. Tunica vaginalis flap following ′Tubularised Incised Plate′ urethroplasty to prevent urethrocutaneous fistulaa



    Introduction: Surgery for hypospadias has been continuously evolving, implying thereby that no single technique is perfect and suitable for all types of hypospadias. Snodgrass technique is presently the most common surgical procedure performed for hypospadias. Materials and Methods: We analysed the results of tunica vaginalis flap (TVF) as an additional cover to the tubularised incised plate (TIP) repair. Results: A total of 35 patients of hypospadias were repaired using TIP urethroplasty and...


    ABAID, Rafael Antoniazzi; CECCONELLO, Ivan; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno


    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has traditionally been performed with four incisions to insert four trocars, in a simple, efficient and safe way. Aim To describe a simplified technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with two incisions, using basic conventional instrumental. Technique In one incision in the umbilicus are applied two trocars and in epigastrium one more. The use of two trocars on the same incision, working in "x" does not hinder the procedure and does not require special instruments. Conclusion Simplified laparoscopic cholecystectomy with two incisions is feasible and easy to perform, allowing to operate with ergonomy and safety, with good cosmetic result. PMID:25004296

  6. Rev1 is a base excision repair enzyme with 5′-deoxyribose phosphate lyase activity (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Poltoratsky, Vladimir; Hou, Esther W.; Wilson, Samuel H.


    Rev1 is a member of the Y-family of DNA polymerases and is known for its deoxycytidyl transferase activity that incorporates dCMP into DNA and its ability to function as a scaffold factor for other Y-family polymerases in translesion bypass events. Rev1 also is involved in mutagenic processes during somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. In light of the mutation pattern consistent with dCMP insertion observed earlier in mouse fibroblast cells treated with a base excision repair-inducing agent, we questioned whether Rev1 could also be involved in base excision repair (BER). Here, we uncovered a weak 5′-deoxyribose phosphate (5′-dRP) lyase activity in mouse Rev1 and demonstrated the enzyme can mediate BER in vitro. The full-length Rev1 protein and its catalytic core domain are similar in their ability to support BER in vitro. The dRP lyase activity in both of these proteins was confirmed by NaBH4 reduction of the Schiff base intermediate and kinetics studies. Limited proteolysis, mass spectrometry and deletion analysis localized the dRP lyase active site to the C-terminal segment of Rev1's catalytic core domain. These results suggest that Rev1 could serve as a backup polymerase in BER and could potentially contribute to AID-initiated antibody diversification through this activity. PMID:27683219

  7. Early active mobilisation versus immobilisation after extrinsic extensor tendon repair: A prospective randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Patil


    Full Text Available Background: Whether to splint the extensor tendon repairs or to mobilise them early is debatable. Recently, mobilisation has shown favourable results in a few studies. This study was aimed to compare the two favoured protocols (immobilisation vs. early active motion in Indian population. Patients and Methods: Between June 2005 and June 2007, patients with extensor tendon injuries in zones V-VIII were randomly distributed in two groups: Group A, early active motion; and group B, immobilisation. Their results at 8 and 12 weeks and 6 months were compared. Results: Patients in early active motion group were found to have better total active motion and early return to work. This difference was statistically significant up to 12 weeks, but not at 6 months. Conclusion: Early active motion following extensor tendon repair hastens patients′ recovery and helps patients to gain complete range of motion at earlier postoperative period. With improved grip strength, the early return to work is facilitated, though these advantages are not sustained statistically significantly over long term.

  8. Right parasternal incision: a uniform minimally invasive approach for valve operations. (United States)

    Lazzara, R R; Kidwell, F E


    The right parasternal incision can be used for replacing or repairing cardiac valves. A specialized retractor system produces excellent exposure and helps avoid groin cannulation. The approach reduces surgical dissection and trauma, does not require sacrifice of mammary arteries, prevents rib spreading, avoids sternotomy, reduces the risk of cardiac injury at subsequent redo operations, and does not require specialized video or thoracoscopic equipment.

  9. An RNA Polymerase II-coupled function for histone H3K36 methylation in checkpoint activation and DSB repair


    Jha, Deepak Kumar; Brian D Strahl


    Histone modifications are major determinants of DNA double-strand break (DSB) response and repair. Here we elucidate a DSB repair function for transcription-coupled Set2 methylation at H3 lysine 36 (H3K36me). Cells devoid of Set2/H3K36me are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents and site-specific DSBs, fail to properly activate the DNA-damage checkpoint, and show genetic interactions with DSB-sensing and repair machinery. Set2/H3K36me3 is enriched at DSBs, and loss of Set2 results in altered ...

  10. Exercise capacity, physical activity, and obesity in adults with repaired aortic coarctation. (United States)

    Buys, Roselien; Budts, Werner; Delecluse, Christophe; Vanhees, Luc


    Patients with aortic coarctation (COA) have a reduced exercise capacity and seem to be more prone to adopt a sedentary lifestyle. During clinical practice, we often observe that patients seem to be overweight. However, data on physical activity and weight status in this population are currently not available. This study aimed to describe weight status, self-reported physical activity levels, and self-perceived health status in adults with repaired COA in comparison with healthy counterparts and to investigate the relationships among exercise capacity, physical activity, weight status, and perceived health status. We studied 103 COA patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and who completed the Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire and the short-form 36 health survey questionnaire. Patients with COA show a significantly lower exercise tolerance than what would be expected in healthy persons (P physical activity (P physical activity are related to exercise capacity (total energy expenditure: r = 0.278, P = .0015). The more active COA patients report higher scores of perceived physical functioning, general health, and mental health. Overweight patients did not perform significantly different than patients with a healthy weight did. Adults with repaired COA have a reduced exercise tolerance, which is related to low physical activity levels. Up to one-third of the COA patients we studied are overweight. As a poor exercise capacity identifies patients at risk for hospitalization and death and obesity might adversely influence the development of cardiovascular disease, it is important to improve the exercise capacity in these patients. Guiding patients toward more physical activity in daily life might therefore be the number 1 preventive measure to be taken in this patient group.

  11. DNA damage and repair activity after broccoli intake in young healthy smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Patrizia; Martini, Daniela; Møller, Peter;


    Cruciferous vegetables contain compounds with antioxidant properties (e.g. carotenoids, vitamin C and folates) and can alter the activity of xenobiotic metabolism (i.e. isothiocyanates). These constituents may be particularly important for subjects who are exposed to free radicals and genotoxic....... Blood was collected before and after each period. The level of oxidatively damaged DNA lesions (formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase-sensitive sites), resistance to ex vivo H(2)O(2) treatment and repair of oxidised DNA lesions were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also measured...

  12. Ruptured human Achilles tendon has elevated metabolic activity up to 1 year after repair. (United States)

    Eliasson, Pernilla; Couppé, Christian; Lonsdale, Markus; Svensson, René B; Neergaard, Christian; Kjær, Michael; Friberg, Lars; Magnusson, S Peter


    Following Achilles tendon rupture, running is often allowed after 6 months. However, tendon healing is slow and the metabolic status of the tendon at this point is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate tendon metabolism (glucose uptake) and vascularization at 3, 6 and 12 months after Achilles tendon rupture as measured using PET and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS). The study group comprised 23 patients with surgically repaired Achilles tendon rupture who were investigated at 3 months (n = 7), 6 months (n = 7) and 12 months (n = 9) after surgery. The triceps surae complex was loaded over 20 min of slow treadmill walking while a radioactive tracer ((18)F-FDG) was administered prior to PET. Vascularization was measured in terms of PDUS flow activity, and patient-reported outcomes were scored using the Achilles tendon rupture score (ATRS) and sports assessment (VISA-A) questionnaire. Relative glucose uptake ((18)F-FDG) was higher in repaired tendons than in intact tendons at all time-points (6, 3 and 1.6 times higher at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively; P ≤ 0.001), and was also higher in the tendon core than in the periphery at 3 and 6 months (P ≤ 0.02), but lower at 12 months (P = 0.06). Relative glucose uptake was negatively related to ATRS at 6 months after repair (r = -0.89, P ≤ 0.01). PDUS flow activity was higher in repaired tendons than in intact tendons at 3 and 6 months (P tendon. Indeed, metabolic activity remained elevated for more than 1 year after injury despite normalized vascularization. The robust negative correlation between tendon metabolism and patient-reported outcome suggests that a high metabolic activity 6 months after the injury may be related to a poor clinical healing outcome.

  13. Neutrophil activation during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and repair in mice and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. David; Bajt, Mary Lynn [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Sharpe, Matthew R. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States); McGill, Mitchell R. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Farhood, Anwar [Department of Pathology, St. David' s North Austin Medical Center, Austin, TX 78756 (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)


    Following acetaminophen (APAP) overdose there is an inflammatory response triggered by the release of cellular contents from necrotic hepatocytes into the systemic circulation which initiates the recruitment of neutrophils into the liver. It has been demonstrated that neutrophils do not contribute to APAP-induced liver injury, but their role and the role of NADPH oxidase in injury resolution are controversial. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to APAP overdose and neutrophil activation status was determined during liver injury and liver regeneration. Additionally, human APAP overdose patients (ALT: > 800 U/L) had serial blood draws during the injury and recovery phases for the determination of neutrophil activation. Neutrophils in the peripheral blood of mice showed an increasing activation status (CD11b expression and ROS priming) during and after the peak of injury but returned to baseline levels prior to complete injury resolution. Hepatic sequestered neutrophils showed an increased and sustained CD11b expression, but no ROS priming was observed. Confirming that NADPH oxidase is not critical to injury resolution, gp91{sup phox}−/− mice following APAP overdose displayed no alteration in injury resolution. Peripheral blood from APAP overdose patients also showed increased neutrophil activation status after the peak of liver injury and remained elevated until discharge from the hospital. In mice and humans, markers of activation, like ROS priming, were increased and sustained well after active liver injury had subsided. The similar findings between surviving patients and mice indicate that neutrophil activation may be a critical event for host defense or injury resolution following APAP overdose, but not a contributing factor to APAP-induced injury. - Highlights: • Neutrophil (PMN) function increases during liver repair after acetaminophen overdose. • Liver repair after acetaminophen (APAP)-overdose is not dependent on NADPH oxidase. • Human PMNs do not appear

  14. Activating Akt1 mutations alter DNA double strand break repair and radiosensitivity (United States)

    Oeck, S.; Al-Refae, K.; Riffkin, H.; Wiel, G.; Handrick, R.; Klein, D.; Iliakis, G.; Jendrossek, V.


    The survival kinase Akt has clinical relevance to radioresistance. However, its contributions to the DNA damage response, DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and apoptosis remain poorly defined and often contradictory. We used a genetic approach to explore the consequences of genetic alterations of Akt1 for the cellular radiation response. While two activation-associated mutants with prominent nuclear access, the phospho-mimicking Akt1-TDSD and the clinically relevant PH-domain mutation Akt1-E17K, accelerated DSB repair and improved survival of irradiated Tramp-C1 murine prostate cancer cells and Akt1-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts in vitro, the classical constitutively active membrane-targeted myrAkt1 mutant had the opposite effects. Interestingly, DNA-PKcs directly phosphorylated Akt1 at S473 in an in vitro kinase assay but not vice-versa. Pharmacological inhibition of DNA-PKcs or Akt restored radiosensitivity in tumour cells expressing Akt1-E17K or Akt1-TDSD. In conclusion, Akt1-mediated radioresistance depends on its activation state and nuclear localization and is accessible to pharmacologic inhibition. PMID:28209968

  15. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia. (United States)

    Lau, H; Lee, F; Patil, N G


    A 75-year-old man developed an incisional hernia over the upper abdomen following a wedge resection of a gastric stromal tumour in 1996. This is the first published report of a successful repair of an incisional hernia via a laparoscopic intraperitoneal on-lay technique using GORE-TEX DualMesh material in Hong Kong. Compared with conventional open repair of incisional hernia, long incisions and wound tension are avoided using the laparoscopic approach. This translates into a reduced risk of wound-related complications and facilitates recovery. In selected cases, minimally invasive surgery is a safe technique for the repair of incisional hernias.

  16. First Report: Linear Incision for Placement of a Magnetically Coupled Bone-Anchored Hearing Implant. (United States)

    Barry, Jonnae Y; Reghunathan, Saranya; Jacob, Abraham


    Discuss use of a linear incision for placement of a magnetically coupled bone anchored hearing implant. Case series. Two patients underwent placement of magnetically coupled bone-anchored hearing implants (BAHI) through linear incisions. The first, a 40-year-old female with congenital single-sided deafness, previously had successful implantation of a percutaneous bone anchored hearing implant through a linear incision; unfortunately, she developed pain and intermittent drainage at her abutment site with time, resulting in a request for removal of her device. As an alternative to complete removal, we offered to replace the percutaneous implant with a magnetically coupled BAHI, employing the same linear incision previously. The second patient, a 53-year-old obese female with limited neck mobility and mixed hearing loss, underwent primary placement of a magnetically coupled BAHI through a linear incision. Limitations in neck mobility and patient body habitus precluded use of a traditional C-shaped incision. Both patients underwent surgery successfully, healed without incident, had their devices activated 6 weeks after their procedures, and are able to wear their implants more than 8 hours per day without discomfort. Surgical techniques for bone-anchored implants continue to evolve. Though manufacturers of magnetically coupled devices recommend using C-shaped incisions with large skin flaps, our first reported cases suggest that a small linear incision immediately overlying the implant magnet may be an acceptable alternative. Potential benefits include a smaller incision, less hair removal, smaller flap, decreased surgical time, and less postoperative pain.

  17. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF contributes to the pain hypersensitivity following surgical incision in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian-Yi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenic role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the incisional pain is poorly understood. The present study explores the role of the BDNF in the incision-induced pain hypersensitivity. Methods A longitudinal incision was made in one plantar hind paw of isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Dorsal root ganglias (DRG and spinal cords were removed at various postoperative times (1–72 h. Expression pattern of BDNF was determined by immunohistochemistry and double-labeling immunofluorescence. Lidocaine-induced blockade of sciatic nerve function was used to determine the importance of afferent nerve activity on BDNF expression in the DRG and spinal cord after incision. BDNF antibody was administered intrathecally (IT or intraperitoneal (IP to modulate the spinal BDNF or peripheral BDNF after incision. Results After hind-paw incision, the BDNF was upregulated in the ipsilateral lumbar DRG and spinal cord whereas thoracic BDNF remained unchanged in response to incision. The upregulated BDNF was mainly expressed in the large-sized neurons in DRG and the neurons and the primary nerve terminals in the spinal cord. Sciatic nerve blockade prevented the increase of BDNF in the DRG and spinal cord. IT injection of BDNF antibody greatly inhibited the mechanical allodynia induced by incision whereas IP administration had only marginal effect. Conclusion The present study showed that incision induced the segmental upregulation of BDNF in the DRG and spinal cord through somatic afferent nerve transmission, and the upregulated BDNF contributed to the pain hypersensitivity induced by surgical incision.

  18. Flavonoid Compound Icariin Activates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α in Chondrocytes and Promotes Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Wang

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage has poor capability for repair following trauma or degenerative pathology due to avascular property, low cell density and migratory ability. Discovery of novel therapeutic approaches for articular cartilage repair remains a significant clinical need. Hypoxia is a hallmark for cartilage development and pathology. Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α has been identified as a key mediator for chondrocytes to response to fluctuations of oxygen availability during cartilage development or repair. This suggests that HIF-1α may serve as a target for modulating chondrocyte functions. In this study, using phenotypic cellular screen assays, we identify that Icariin, an active flavonoid component from Herba Epimedii, activates HIF-1α expression in chondrocytes. We performed systemic in vitro and in vivo analysis to determine the roles of Icariin in regulation of chondrogenesis. Our results show that Icariin significantly increases hypoxia responsive element luciferase reporter activity, which is accompanied by increased accumulation and nuclear translocation of HIF-1α in murine chondrocytes. The phenotype is associated with inhibiting PHD activity through interaction between Icariin and iron ions. The upregulation of HIF-1α mRNA levels in chondrocytes persists during chondrogenic differentiation for 7 and 14 days. Icariin (10-6 M increases the proliferation of chondrocytes or chondroprogenitors examined by MTT, BrdU incorporation or colony formation assays. Icariin enhances chondrogenic marker expression in a micromass culture including Sox9, collagen type 2 (Col2α1 and aggrecan as determined by real-time PCR and promotes extracellular matrix (ECM synthesis indicated by Alcian blue staining. ELISA assays show dramatically increased production of aggrecan and hydroxyproline in Icariin-treated cultures at day 14 of chondrogenic differentiation as compared with the controls. Meanwhile, the expression of chondrocyte catabolic

  19. Harnessing neural activity to promote repair of the damaged corticospinal system after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Martin


    As most spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are incomplete, an important target for promoting neural repair and recovery of lost motor function is to promote the connections of spared descending spinal pathways with spinal motor circuits. Among the pathways, the corticospinal tract (CST) is most associated with skilled voluntary functions in humans and many animals. CST loss, whether at its origin in the motor cortex or in the white matter tracts subcortically and in the spinal cord, leads to movement impairments and paraly-sis. To restore motor function after injury will require repair of the damaged CST. In this review, I discuss how knowledge of activity-dependent development of the CST—which establishes connectional speci-ifcity through axon pruning, axon outgrowth, and synaptic competition among CST terminals—informed a novel activity-based therapy for promoting sprouting of spared CST axons after injur in mature animals. This therapy, which comprises motor cortex electrical stimulation with and without concurrent trans-spi-nal direct current stimulation, leads to an increase in the gray matter axon length of spared CST axons in the rat spinal cord and, after a pyramidal tract lesion, restoration of skilled locomotor movements. I discuss how this approach is now being applied to a C4 contusion rat model.

  20. Harnessing neural activity to promote repair of the damaged corticospinal system after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Martin


    Full Text Available As most spinal cord injuries (SCIs are incomplete, an important target for promoting neural repair and recovery of lost motor function is to promote the connections of spared descending spinal pathways with spinal motor circuits. Among the pathways, the corticospinal tract (CST is most associated with skilled voluntary functions in humans and many animals. CST loss, whether at its origin in the motor cortex or in the white matter tracts subcortically and in the spinal cord, leads to movement impairments and paralysis. To restore motor function after injury will require repair of the damaged CST. In this review, I discuss how knowledge of activity-dependent development of the CST-which establishes connectional specificity through axon pruning, axon outgrowth, and synaptic competition among CST terminals-informed a novel activity-based therapy for promoting sprouting of spared CST axons after injur in mature animals. This therapy, which comprises motor cortex electrical stimulation with and without concurrent trans-spinal direct current stimulation, leads to an increase in the gray matter axon length of spared CST axons in the rat spinal cord and, after a pyramidal tract lesion, restoration of skilled locomotor movements. I discuss how this approach is now being applied to a C 4 contusion rat model.

  1. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane


    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  2. Supra-Pubic Single Incision Cholecystectomy


    Hagen, Monika E.; Wagner, Oliver J.; Thompson, Kari; Jacobsen, Garth; Spivack, Adam; Wong, Brian; Talamini, Mark; Horgan, Santiago


    Introduction Surgery is moving towards less invasive and cosmetically superior approaches such as single incision laparoscopy (SIL). While trans-umbilical SIL is gaining popularity, incisions may lead to post-operative deformations of the umbilicus and the possibility of an increased rate of incisional hernias. Access within the pubic hairline allows preservation of the umbilicus and results in a scar which is concealed within the pubic hair. Methods Supra-pubic single incision cholecystectom...

  3. Laparoscopic morgagni hernia repair using single-site umbilical and full-thickness abdominal wall repair: Technical report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L van Niekerk


    Full Text Available Single incision laparoscopic surgery is used in many centres for routine cases such as appendisectomy, splenectomy and cholecystectomy. Morgagni hernias are uncommon and account for 1-2% of all congenital diaphragmatic hernia. We report our first laparoscopic repair of two Morgagni hernias, using a single umbilical incision and full-thickness abdominal wall repair with standard straight laparoscopic instruments. Operative time was short and compared favourably with the laparoscopic repair.

  4. Laparoscopic Morgagni hernia repair using single-site umbilical and full-thickness abdominal wall repair: technical report of two cases. (United States)

    van Niekerk, Martin L


    Single incision laparoscopic surgery is used in many centres for routine cases such as appendectomy, splenectomy and cholecystectomy. Morgagni hernias are uncommon and account for 1-2% of all congenital diaphragmatic hernia. We report our first laparoscopic repair of two Morgagni hernias, using a single umbilical incision and full-thickness abdominal wall repair with standard straight laparoscopic instruments. Operative time was short and compared favourably with the laparoscopic repair.

  5. Combined epigastric hernia repair and mini-abdominoplasty. Case report. (United States)

    Grella, Roberto; Razzano, Sergio; Lamberti, Rossella; Trojaniello, Biagio; D'Andrea, Francesco; Nicoletti, Giovanni Francesco


    The objectives of abdominal hernia repair are to restore the structural integrity of the abdominal wall. Current techniques include primary closure, staged repair and the use of prosthetic materials. Techniques for mini-abdominoplasty include the use of the transverse lower abdominal incision and the resection of excess skin. We report a case of epigastric hernia repair through a transverse lower abdominal incision with the resection of excess of skin. Our purpose is to evaluate the results of the procedure by incorporating these aspects into an epigastric hernia repair, we found out that the procedures are made safer and the results are improved. Proper indication and details of the technique are described.

  6. Active Achilles tendon kinesitherapy accelerates Achilles tendon repair by promoting neurite regeneration☆ (United States)

    Jielile, Jiasharete; Aibai, Minawa; Sabirhazi, Gulnur; Shawutali, Nuerai; Tangkejie, Wulanbai; Badelhan, Aynaz; Nuerduola, Yeermike; Satewalede, Turde; Buranbai, Darehan; Hunapia, Beicen; Jialihasi, Ayidaer; Bai, Jingping; Kizaibek, Murat


    Active Achilles tendon kinesitherapy facilitates the functional recovery of a ruptured Achilles tendon. However, protein expression during the healing process remains a controversial issue. New Zealand rabbits, aged 14 weeks, underwent tenotomy followed immediately by Achilles tendon microsurgery to repair the Achilles tendon rupture. The tendon was then immobilized or subjected to postoperative early motion treatment (kinesitherapy). Mass spectrography results showed that after 14 days of motion treatment, 18 protein spots were differentially expressed, among which, 12 were up-regulated, consisting of gelsolin isoform b and neurite growth-related protein collapsing response mediator protein 2. Western blot analysis showed that gelsolin isoform b was up-regulated at days 7–21 of motion treatment. These findings suggest that active Achilles tendon kinesitherapy promotes the neurite regeneration of a ruptured Achilles tendon and gelsolin isoform b can be used as a biomarker for Achilles tendon healing after kinesitherapy. PMID:25317130

  7. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in osteoarthritis: advanced tissue repair or intervention with smouldering synovial activation? (United States)

    van Lent, Peter L E M; van den Berg, Wim B


    Although it is generally accepted that osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition of the cartilage, other tissues such as synovium in which immunological and inflammatory reactions occur contribute to the development of joint pathology. This sheds new light on the potential mechanism of action of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in osteoarthritis. Rather than tissue repair due to local transformation of injected mesenchymal stem cells to chondrocytes and filling defects in cartilage, such treatment might suppress synovial activation and indirectly ameliorate cartilage damage. Desando and co-workers report in Arthritis Research & Therapy that intra-articular delivery of adipose-derived stem cells attenuates progression of synovial activation and joint destruction in osteoarthritis in an experimental rabbit model. Clinical studies are warranted to see whether this approach might be a novel way to combat development of joint destruction in inflammatory subtypes of osteoarthritis.

  8. Active Achilles tendon kinesitherapy accelerates Achilles tendon repair by promoting neurite regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiasharete Jielile; Beicen Hunapia; Ayidaer Jialihasi; Jingping Bai; Murat Kizaibek; Minawa Aibai; Gulnur Sabirhazi; Nuerai Shawutali; Wulanbai Tangkejie; Aynaz Badelhan; Yeermike Nuerduola; Turde Satewalede; Darehan Buranbai


    Active Achilles tendon kinesitherapy facilitates the functional recovery of a ruptured Achilles tendon. However, protein expression during the healing process remains a controversial issue. New Zealand rabbits, aged 14 weeks, underwent tenotomy followed immediately by Achilles tendon microsurgery to repair the Achilles tendon rupture. The tendon was then immobilized or subjected to postoperative early motion treatment (kinesitherapy). Mass spectrography results showed that after 14 days of motion treatment, 18 protein spots were differentially expressed, among which, 12 were up-regulated, consisting of gelsolin isoform b and neurite growth-related protein collapsing response mediator protein 2. Western blot analysis showed that gelsolin isoform b was up-regulated at days 7–21 of motion treatment. These findings suggest that active Achilles tendon kinesitherapy promotes the neurite regeneration of a ruptured Achilles tendon and gelsolin isoform b can be used as a biomarker for Achilles tendon healing after kinesitherapy.

  9. Activation and self-repairing effectiveness of lubrication with nano-tin as additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Yun-hui; TAO De-hua; WEI Xi-cheng


    Micron grade Sn powder, VG32 oil and active pharmaceutical were mixed and the Nanometer Sn lubricant additives were prepared. Nanometer additives with different Sn concentrations were used in Steel-brass Tribo-pair for friction and wear test. The activating method to nano-Sn and surface of brass samples was investigated, and the method to form relatively thick friction coating on samples was discussed. Surface elemental distribution, coating thickness and its surface appearance were analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), auger electron spectrum (AES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) respectively. The result shows that the ultra-thick friction coating (approx 20 μm), with abundant tin and well combined with substrate, has formed on the brass sample. The friction coating revealed superior performance of friction reducing and anti-wear properties. Therefore, the results possess practical significance to self-repair usage on steel-brass tribo-pair in mechanical systems.

  10. 膝后内侧小切口带线锚钉固定加早期康复锻炼治疗后交叉韧带胫骨止点骨折%Postmedial Approach for Repairing Fracture of Tibial Insertion of Posterior Cruciate Ligament by Small Incision Fixation with the Suture Anchor and Early Rehabilitation Exercises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛梅圣; 邹季


    目的:观察膝后内侧小切口带线锚钉固定加早期康复锻炼治疗后交叉韧带胫骨止点骨折的临床效果。方法采取回顾性分析对两种治疗方法治疗后交叉韧带胫骨止点骨折48例患者的近期疗效进行比较。结果所有病例均获随访,术后 X 线片显示骨折均解剖复位,均达骨折愈合。术后6个月,治疗组临床疗效均明显高于对照组(P <0.05)。结论膝后内侧小切口带线锚钉固定加早期康复锻炼治疗后交叉韧带胫骨止点骨折,操作简便,创伤小,疗效满意。%Abstracts:Objective To study the clinical application of postmedial approach to the knee with small incision fixation with the suture anchor and early rehabilitation exercise for repairing fracture of tibial insertion of posterior cruciate ligament .Methods 48 patients with two therapeutic methods were retrospectively analyzed in 2011 January to 2014 January,then the short -term efficacy was compared.Results All the cases were followed up, X -ray examination of which showed anatomical reduction occurred in all the fractures ,and healed completely. After 6 months,the clinical efficacy of treatment group were significantly higher than the control group , the difference was statistically signifi-cant (P <0.05).Conclusion The operative method has superiority of little trauma , simple operation and satisfactory functional recovery of the affected extremities.

  11. Cadmium and copper inhibit both DNA repair activities of polynucleotide kinase. (United States)

    Whiteside, James R; Box, Clare L; McMillan, Trevor J; Allinson, Sarah L


    Human exposure to heavy metals is of increasing concern due to their well-documented toxicological and carcinogenic effects and rising environmental levels through industrial processes and pollution. It has been widely reported that such metals can be genotoxic by several modes of action including generation of reactive oxygen species and inhibition of DNA repair. However, although it has been observed that certain heavy metals can inhibit single strand break (SSB) rejoining, the effects of these metals on SSB end-processing enzymes has not previously been investigated. Accordingly, we have investigated the potential inhibition of polynucleotide kinase (PNK)-dependent single strand break repair by six metals: cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. It was found that micromolar concentrations of cadmium and copper are able to inhibit the phosphatase and kinase activities of PNK in both human cell extracts and purified recombinant protein, while the other metals had no effect at the concentrations tested. The inhibition of PNK by environmentally and physiologically relevant concentrations of cadmium and copper suggests a novel means by which these toxic heavy metals may exert their carcinogenic and neurotoxic effects. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of an assay to measure mutagenic non-homologous end-joining repair activity in mammalian cells. (United States)

    Bindra, Ranjit S; Goglia, Alexander G; Jasin, Maria; Powell, Simon N


    Double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways are critical for the maintenance of genomic integrity and the prevention of tumorigenesis in mammalian cells. Here, we present the development and validation of a novel assay to measure mutagenic non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair in living cells, which is inversely related to canonical NHEJ and is based on the sequence-altering repair of a single site-specific DSB at an intrachromosomal locus. We have combined this mutagenic NHEJ assay with an established homologous recombination (HR) assay such that both pathways can be monitored simultaneously. In addition, we report the development of a ligand-responsive I-SceI protein, in which the timing and kinetics of DSB induction can be precisely controlled by regulating protein stability and cellular localization in cells. Using this system, we report that mutagenic NHEJ repair is suppressed in growth-arrested and serum-deprived cells, suggesting that end-joining activity in proliferating cells is more likely to be mutagenic. Collectively, the novel DSB repair assay and inducible I-SceI will be useful tools to further elucidate the complexities of NHEJ and HR repair.

  13. An RNA polymerase II-coupled function for histone H3K36 methylation in checkpoint activation and DSB repair. (United States)

    Jha, Deepak Kumar; Strahl, Brian D


    Histone modifications are major determinants of DNA double-strand break (DSB) response and repair. Here we elucidate a DSB repair function for transcription-coupled Set2 methylation at H3 lysine 36 (H3K36me). Cells devoid of Set2/H3K36me are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents and site-specific DSBs, fail to properly activate the DNA-damage checkpoint, and show genetic interactions with DSB-sensing and repair machinery. Set2/H3K36me3 is enriched at DSBs, and loss of Set2 results in altered chromatin architecture and inappropriate resection during G1 near break sites. Surprisingly, Set2 and RNA polymerase II are programmed for destruction after DSBs in a temporal manner--resulting in H3K36me3 to H3K36me2 transition that may be linked to DSB repair. Finally, we show a requirement of Set2 in DSB repair in transcription units--thus underscoring the importance of transcription-dependent H3K36me in DSB repair.

  14. A scaffold-enhanced light-activated surgical adhesive technique: surface selection for enhanced tensile strength in wound repair (United States)

    Soller, Eric C.; Hoffman, Grant T.; Heintzelman, Douglas L.; Duffy, Mark T.; Bloom, Jeffrey N.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.


    An ex vivo study was conducted to determine the effect of the irregularity of the scaffold surface on the tensile strength of repairs formed using our Scaffold-Enhanced Biological Adhesive (SEBA). Two different scaffold materials were investigated: (i) a synthetic biodegradable material fabricated from poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid); and (ii) a biological material, small intestinal submucosa, manufactured by Cook BioTech. The scaffolds were doped with protein solder composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5mg/ml indocyanine green dye mixed in deionized water, and activated with an 808-nm diode laser. The tensile strength of repairs performed on bovine thoracic aorta, liver, spleen, small intestine and lung, using the smooth and irregular surfaces of the above scaffold-enhanced materials were measured and the time-to-failure was recorded. The tensile strength of repairs formed using the irregular surfaces of the scaffolds were consistently higher than those formed using the smooth surfaces of the scaffolds. The largest difference was observed on repairs formed on the aorta and small intestine, where the repairs were, on average, 50% stronger using the irregular versus the smooth scaffold surfaces. In addition, the time-to-failure of repairs formed using the irregular surfaces of the scaffolds were between 50% and 100% longer than that achieved using the smooth surfaces of the scaffolds. It has previously been shown that distributing or dispersing the adhesive forces over the increased surface area of the scaffold, either smooth or irregular, produces stronger repairs than albumin solder alone. The increase in the absolute strength and longevity of repairs seen in this new study when the irregular surfaces of the scaffolds are used is thought to be due to the distribution of forces between the many independent micro-adhesions provided by the irregular surfaces.

  15. Positive regulation of DNA double strand break repair activity during differentiation of long life span cells: the example of adipogenesis.

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    Aline Meulle

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the ability of terminally differentiated cells to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks (DSBs, and one might reasonably speculate that efficient DNA repair of these threatening DNA lesions, is needed in cells of long life span with no or limited regeneration from precursor. Few tissues are available besides neurons that allow the study of DNA DSBs repair activity in very long-lived cells. Adipocytes represent a suitable model since it is generally admitted that there is a very slow turnover of adipocytes in adult. Using both Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE and the disappearance of the phosphorylated form of the histone variant H2AX, we demonstrated that the ability to repair DSBs is increased during adipocyte differentiation using the murine pre-adipocyte cell line, 3T3F442A. In mammalian cells, DSBs are mainly repaired by the non-homologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ that relies on the DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK activity. During the first 24 h following the commitment into adipogenesis, we show an increase in the expression and activity of the catalytic sub-unit of the DNA-PK complex, DNA-PKcs. The increased in DNA DSBs repair activity observed in adipocytes was due to the increase in DNA-PK activity as shown by the use of DNA-PK inhibitor or sub-clones of 3T3F442A deficient in DNA-PKcs using long term RNA interference. Interestingly, the up-regulation of DNA-PK does not regulate the differentiation program itself. Finally, similar positive regulation of DNA-PKcs expression and activity was observed during differentiation of primary culture of pre-adipocytes isolated from human sub-cutaneous adipose tissue. Our results show that DNA DSBs repair activity is up regulated during the early commitment into adipogenesis due to an up-regulation of DNA-PK expression and activity. In opposition to the general view that DNA DSBs repair is decreased during differentiation, our results demonstrate

  16. The recombination protein RAD52 cooperates with the excision repair protein OGG1 for the repair of oxidative lesions in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Maynard, Scott; Hashiguchi, Kazunari;


    activities and RAD52 stimulates OGG1 incision activity, likely increasing its turnover rate. RAD52 colocalizes with OGG1 after oxidative stress to cultured cells, but not after the direct induction of double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation. Human cells depleted of RAD52 via small interfering RNA...... to repair oxidative DNA damage and enhances the cellular resistance to oxidative stress. Our observations suggest a coordinated action between these proteins that may be relevant when oxidative lesions positioned close to strand breaks impose a hindrance to RAD52 catalytic activities....

  17. Patient Satisfaction with Postaural Incision Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Barrett


    Full Text Available Introduction. Controversy exists over the optimum incision placement when performing ear surgery via the postauricular approach. Little is known about the impact of incision placement on future comfort in wearing audio or visual aids or the effect on the minor auricular muscles cut in the approach. Objective. (1 To establish patient satisfaction with their postauricular surgical incision, and to establish the impact on comfort wearing hearing or visual aids. (2 To establish whether patients’ voluntary ear movements were affected by surgery. Materials and Methods. In January 2014, questionnaires were sent to 81 patients who underwent mastoid surgery requiring a postauricular incision between January 2004 and December 2012. The incision placement was broadly the same for all patients as they were operated on by the same surgeon (or under his supervision. The incision is sited far posteriorly at the hairline. Results. 42 (52% of the patients contacted responded. 80% of patients wearing glasses reported no discomfort or problems associated with their incision. 82% of patients who wear hearing aids were comfortable. Only 1 of the 5 patients who could move their ears preoperatively noticed a change afterwards. Conclusion. A hairline incision is well tolerated by most of the patients.

  18. Hillslope-derived blocks retard river incision (United States)

    Shobe, Charles M.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Anderson, Robert S.


    The most common detachment-limited river incision models ignore the effects of sediment on fluvial erosion, yet steep reaches of mountain rivers often host clusters of large (>1 m) blocks. We argue that this distribution of blocks is a manifestation of an autogenic negative feedback in which fast vertical river incision steepens adjacent hillslopes, which deliver blocks to the channel. Blocks inhibit incision by shielding the bed and enhancing form drag. We explore this feedback with a 1-D channel-reach model in which block delivery by hillslopes depends on the river incision rate. Results indicate that incision-dependent block delivery can explain the block distribution in Boulder Creek, Colorado. The proposed negative feedback may significantly slow knickpoint retreat, channel adjustment, and landscape response compared to rates predicted by current theory. The influence of hillslope-derived blocks may complicate efforts to extract base level histories from river profiles.

  19. Reconstruction of Posterior Interosseous Nerve Injury Following Biceps Tendon Repair: Case Report and Cadaveric Study


    Mokhtee, David B.; Brown, Justin M.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Tung, Thomas H.


    Surgical repair of distal biceps tendon rupture is a technically challenging procedure that has the potential for devastating and permanently disabling complications. We report two cases of posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) injury following successful biceps tendon repair utilizing both the single-incision and two-incision approaches. We also describe our technique of posterior interosseous nerve repair using a medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve graft (MABC) and a new approach to the termin...

  20. Ruptured human Achilles tendon has elevated metabolic activity up to 1 year after repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasson, Pernilla; Couppé, Christian; Lonsdale, Markus


    PURPOSE: Following Achilles tendon rupture, running is often allowed after 6 months. However, tendon healing is slow and the metabolic status of the tendon at this point is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate tendon metabolism (glucose uptake) and vascularization at 3, 6 and 12...... months after Achilles tendon rupture as measured using PET and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS). METHODS: The study group comprised 23 patients with surgically repaired Achilles tendon rupture who were investigated at 3 months (n = 7), 6 months (n = 7) and 12 months (n = 9) after surgery. The triceps...... surae complex was loaded over 20 min of slow treadmill walking while a radioactive tracer ((18)F-FDG) was administered prior to PET. Vascularization was measured in terms of PDUS flow activity, and patient-reported outcomes were scored using the Achilles tendon rupture score (ATRS) and sports assessment...

  1. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized, methacrylate resin composition with antimicrobial activities and self-repair potential (United States)

    Gong, Shi-qiang; Niu, Li-na; Kemp, Lisa K.; Yiu, Cynthia K.Y.; Ryou, Heonjune; Qi, Yi-pin; Blizzard, John D.; Nikonov, Sergey; Brackett, Martha G.; Messer, Regina L.W.; Wu, Christine D.; Mao, Jing; Brister, L. Bryan; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Arola, Dwayne D.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.


    Design of antimicrobial polymers for enhancing healthcare issues and minimizing environmental problems is an important endeavor with both fundamental and practical implications. Quaternary ammonium silane-functionalized methacrylate (QAMS) represents an example of antimicrobial macromonomers synthesized by a sol-gel chemical route; these compounds possess flexible Si-O-Si bonds. In present work, a partially-hydrolyzed QAMS copolymerized with bis-GMA is introduced. This methacrylate resin was shown to possess desirable mechanical properties with both a high degree of conversion and minimal polymerization shrinkage. Kill-on-contact microbiocidal activities of this resin were demonstrated using single-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 36558), Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). Improved mechanical properties after hydration provided the proof-of-concept that QAMS-incorporated resin exhibits self-repair potential via water-induced condensation of organic modified silicate (ormosil) phases within the polymerized resin matrix. PMID:22659173

  2. Influence of different inhibitors on the activity of the RAD54 dependent step of DNA repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siede, W.; Obermaier, S.; Eckhardt, F.


    The recombinagenic pathway of DNA repair in yeast was characterized by the effect of different inhibitors on the temperature-dependent survival after ..gamma..-irradiation in haploid cells of the thermoconditional mutant rad54-3. Blocking protein synthesis with cycloheximide in replicating cells caused partial inhibition of the RAD54 dependent function but some repair activity remained detectable. This indicates that ..gamma..-rays can induce RAD54 activity above some constitutive level of function. Inhibition of DNA replication by hydroxyurea efficiently blocked the RAD54 dependent function in stationary-phase cells but not in logarithmic-phase cells. In logarithmic-phase cells, the authors found a strong inhibitory effect of caffeine on the RAD54 mediated repair process.

  3. Axonal outgrowth is associated with increased ERK 1/2 activation but decreased caspase 3 linked cell death in Schwann cells after immediate nerve repair in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanje Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2 is activated by nerve damage and its activation precedes survival and proliferation of Schwann cells. In contrast, activation of caspase 3, a cysteine protease, is considered as a marker for apoptosis in Schwann cells. In the present study, axonal outgrowth, activation of ERK1/2 by phosphorylation (p-ERK 1/2 and immunoreactivity of cleaved caspase 3 were examined after immediate, delayed, or no repair of transected rat sciatic nerves. Results Axonal outgrowth, detected by neurofilament staining, was longer after immediate repair than after either the delayed or no repair conditions. Immediate repair also showed a higher expression of p-ERK 1/2 and a lower number of cleaved caspase 3 stained Schwann cells than after delayed nerve repair. If the transected nerve was not repaired a lower level of p-ERK 1/2 was found than in either the immediate or delayed repair conditions. Axonal outgrowth correlated to p-ERK 1/2, but not clearly with cleaved caspase 3. Contact with regenerating axons affected Schwann cells with respect to p-ERK 1/2 and cleaved caspase 3 after immediate nerve repair only. Conclusion The decreased regenerative capacity that has historically been observed after delayed nerve repair may be related to impaired activation of Schwann cells and increased Schwann cell death. Outgrowing axons influence ERK 1/2 activation and apoptosis of Schwann cells.

  4. Use of the Taguchi method for biomechanical comparison of flexor-tendon-repair techniques to allow immediate active flexion. A new method of analysis and optimization of technique to improve the quality of the repair. (United States)

    Singer, G; Ebramzadeh, E; Jones, N F; Meals, R


    The current trend toward early active flexion after repair of the flexor tendons necessitates a stronger repair than that provided by a modified Kessler technique with use of 4-0 nylon suture. The purpose of the current study was to determine, with use of the Taguchi method of analysis, the strongest and most consistent repair of the flexor tendons. Flexor tendons were obtained from fresh-frozen hands of human cadavera. Eight flexor tendons initially were repaired with the modified Kessler technique with use of 4-0 nylon core suture and 6-0 nylon epitenon suture. A test matrix was used to analyze a total of twenty variables in sixty-four tests. These variables included eight techniques for core-suture repair, four types of core suture, two sizes of core suture, four techniques for suture of the epitenon, and two distances from the repair site for placement of the core suture. After each repair, the specimens were mounted in a servohydraulic mechanical testing machine for tension-testing to failure. The optimum combination of variables was determined, with the Taguchi method, to be an augmented Becker technique with use of 3-0 Mersilene core suture, placed 0.75 centimeter from the cut edge with volar epitenon suture. The four-strand, double modified Kessler technique provided the second strongest repair. Five tendons that had been repaired with use of the optimum combination then were tested and compared with tendons that had been repaired with the standard modified Kessler technique. With the optimum combination of variables, the strength of the repair improved from a mean (and standard deviation) of 17.2 +/- 2.9 to 128 +/- 5.6 newtons, and the stiffness improved from a mean of 4.6 to 16.2 newtons per millimeter.

  5. Tissue-type plasminogen activator deficiency delays bone repair: roles of osteoblastic proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor. (United States)

    Kawao, Naoyuki; Tamura, Yukinori; Okumoto, Katsumi; Yano, Masato; Okada, Kiyotaka; Matsuo, Osamu; Kaji, Hiroshi


    Further development in research of bone regeneration is necessary to meet the clinical demand for bone reconstruction. Recently, we reported that plasminogen is crucial for bone repair through enhancement of vessel formation. However, the details of the role of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in the bone repair process still remain unknown. Herein, we examined the effects of plasminogen activators on bone repair after a femoral bone defect using tPA-deficient (tPA(-/-)) and uPA-deficient (uPA(-/-)) mice. Bone repair of the femur was delayed in tPA(-/-) mice, unlike that in wild-type (tPA(+/+)) mice. Conversely, the bone repair was comparable between wild-type (uPA(+/+)) and uPA(-/-) mice. The number of proliferative osteoblasts was decreased at the site of bone damage in tPA(-/-) mice. Moreover, the proliferation of primary calvarial osteoblasts was reduced in tPA(-/-) mice. Recombinant tPA facilitated the proliferation of mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The proliferation enhanced by tPA was antagonized by the inhibition of endogenous annexin 2 by siRNA and by the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Vessel formation as well as the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were decreased at the damaged site in tPA(-/-) mice. Our results provide novel evidence that tPA is crucial for bone repair through the facilitation of osteoblast proliferation related to annexin 2 and ERK1/2 as well as enhancement of vessel formation related to VEGF and HIF-1α at the site of bone damage. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Presence of base excision repair enzymes in the wheat aleurone and their activation in cells undergoing programmed cell death. (United States)

    Bissenbaev, Amangeldy K; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Taipakova, Sabira M; Saparbaev, Murat K


    Cereal aleurone cells are specialized endosperm cells that produce enzymes to hydrolyze the starchy endosperm during germination. Aleurone cells can undergo programmed cell death (PCD) when incubated in the presence of gibberellic acid (GA) in contrast to abscisic acid (ABA) which inhibits the process. The progression of PCD in aleurone layer cells of wheat grain is accompanied by an increase in deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activities and the internucleosomal degradation of nuclear DNA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased during PCD in the aleurone cells owing to the β-oxidation of triglycerides and inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes possibly leading to extensive oxidative damage to DNA. ROS generate mainly non-bulky DNA base lesions which are removed in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, initiated by the DNA glycosylases. At present, very little is known about oxidative DNA damage repair in cereals. Here, we study DNA repair in the cell-free extracts of wheat aleurone layer incubated or not with phytohormones. We show, for the first time, the presence of 8-oxoguanine-DNA and ethenoadenine-DNA glycosylase activities in wheat aleurone cells. Interestingly, the DNA glycosylase and AP endonuclease activities are strongly induced in the presence of GA. Based on these data we propose that GA in addition to activation of nuclear DNases also induces the DNA repair activities which remove oxidized DNA bases in the BER pathway. Potential roles of the wheat DNA glycosylases in GA-induced oligonucleosomal fragmentation of DNA and metabolic activation of aleurone layer cells via repair of transcribed regions are discussed.

  7. Activation of homologous recombination DNA repair in human skin fibroblasts continuously exposed to X-ray radiation. (United States)

    Osipov, Andreyan N; Grekhova, Anna; Pustovalova, Margarita; Ozerov, Ivan V; Eremin, Petr; Vorobyeva, Natalia; Lazareva, Natalia; Pulin, Andrey; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Klokov, Dmitry; Eremin, Ilya


    Molecular and cellular responses to protracted ionizing radiation exposures are poorly understood. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we studied the kinetics of DNA repair foci formation in normal human fibroblasts exposed to X-rays at a dose rate of 4.5 mGy/min for up to 6 h. We showed that both the number of γH2AX foci and their integral fluorescence intensity grew linearly with time of irradiation up to 2 h. A plateau was observed between 2 and 6 h of exposure, indicating a state of balance between formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks. In contrast, the number and intensity of foci formed by homologous recombination protein RAD51 demonstrated a continuous increase during 6 h of irradiation. We further showed that the enhancement of the homologous recombination repair was not due to redistribution of cell cycle phases. Our results indicate that continuous irradiation of normal human cells triggers DNA repair responses that are different from those elicited after acute irradiation. The observed activation of the error-free homologous recombination DNA double-strand break repair pathway suggests compensatory adaptive mechanisms that may help alleviate long-term biological consequences and could potentially be utilized both in radiation protection and medical practices.

  8. Lamin A Is an Endogenous SIRT6 Activator and Promotes SIRT6-Mediated DNA Repair

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    Shrestha Ghosh


    Full Text Available The nuclear lamins are essential for various molecular events in the nucleus, such as chromatin organization, DNA replication, and provision of mechanical support. A specific point mutation in the LMNA gene creates a truncated prelamin A termed progerin, causing Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS. SIRT6 deficiency leads to defective genomic maintenance and accelerated aging similar to HGPS, suggesting a potential link between lamin A and SIRT6. Here, we report that lamin A is an endogenous activator of SIRT6 and facilitates chromatin localization of SIRT6 upon DNA damage. Lamin A promotes SIRT6-dependent DNA-PKcs (DNA-PK catalytic subunit recruitment to chromatin, CtIP deacetylation, and PARP1 mono-ADP ribosylation in response to DNA damage. The presence of progerin jeopardizes SIRT6 activation and compromises SIRT6-mediated molecular events in response to DNA damage. These data reveal a critical role for lamin A in regulating SIRT6 activities, suggesting that defects in SIRT6 functions contribute to impaired DNA repair and accelerated aging in HGPS.

  9. p53 modulation of TFIIH-associated nucleotide excision repair activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.W. Wang (Xin Wei); H. Yeh; L. Schaeffer; R. Roy (R.); V. Moncollin; J-M. Egly (Jean-Marc); Z. Wang (Z.); E.C. Friedberg (Errol); M.K. Evans; B.G. Taffe; V.A. Bohr; G. Weeda (Geert); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); K. Forrester; C.C. Harris


    textabstractp53 has pleiotropic functions including control of genomic plasticity and integrity. Here we report that p53 can bind to several transcription factor IIH−associated factors, including transcription−repair factors, XPD (Rad3) and XPB, as well as CSB involved in strand−specific DNA repair,

  10. Evaluation of wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on incision and excision wound models in Wister albino rats

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    H. N. Nagesh


    Conclusion: The study revealed promising wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of A. indica and provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use in the management of wounds. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1178-1182


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    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperthrophic scar and keloid is a big problem after many operation. Hypertrophic scar depended on many factor one of them is Incision. Method: This is a randomized clinical trial and sequential sampling in Alzahra hospital and Kashani hospital. we selected two groups, one group we used S shape incision and observed group linear incision. Age was between 10-30 years and dermatological problems and cigaret smoking was Negative in two groups perforated and secondly skin closure was excluded in our study. patient divided in two group each group was twenty and fllowed for one year. Patients satisfaction and skin collor normality and itchiny was evaluated in two groups. Results: Appearance of scar was different in collor much and shape. Normality for collor of incision in s shape groups were 68.4% but in linar incision was 31.6% (Pvalue= 0.026 with statically meaningful. Mean of scar width: In 5-shape =1.33+0.49mm in Linear shape = 2.23+0.92. P = 0.001. Prevalence of itching was same in both groups. Discussion: patients overall satisfaction and itching were the same for both groups. skin color normality was 68.4% in 5 shape incision groups versus 31.6% in linear incision groups which has been shown to be statistically meaningful using chi-square test so it seems reasonable to conclude that calor mathing is more favorable in 5 shape incisions rather than linear incision. Mean of scare width in licear incision group was 2.23+0.92 mm versus 1.32+0.49 mm in 5 shape incision group. this difference is also statistically meaningful using T test. 50 it can be concluded that using 5 shape incision is better because post operative scar is smaller and exposure is like linear incision.

  12. MR imaging and T2 measurements in peripheral nerve repair with activation of Toll-like receptor 4 of neurotmesis

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    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Wen, Xuehua; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)


    To investigate the role of MR imaging in neurotmesis combined with surgical repair and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Forty-eight rats received subepineurial microinjection of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS, n = 24) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, n = 24) immediately after surgical repair of the transected sciatic nerve. Sequential fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging and quantitative T2 measurements were obtained at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery, with histologic assessments performed at regular intervals. T2 relaxation times and histological quantification of the distal stumps were measured and compared. The distal stumps of transected nerves treated with LPS or PBS both showed persistent enlargement and hyperintense signal. T2 values of the distal stumps showed a rapid rise to peak level followed by a rapid decline pattern in nerves treated with LPS, while exhibiting a slow rise to peak value followed by a slow decline in nerves treated with PBS. Nerves treated with LPS exhibited more prominent macrophage recruitment, faster myelin debris clearance and more pronounced nerve regeneration. Nerves treated with TLR4 activation had a characteristic pattern of T2 value change over time. Longitudinal T2 measurements can be used to detect the enhanced repair effect associated with TLR4 activation in the surgical repair of neurotmesis. (orig.)

  13. The role of biologically active peptides in tissue repair using umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. (United States)

    Cabrera, Carlos; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Pierinelli, Chiara; Reinoso, Nancy; Arias-Stella, Javier; Paino, Javier


    The role of bioactive compounds in wound repair is critical. The preliminary work described herein includes the study of the effects of second degree burns in a Rex rabbit model and the action of human umbilical cord cells on the regulation and secretion of bioactive compounds. When applied on blood scaffolds as heterograft matrices, fibroblasts proliferate from these primary cultures and release biologically active peptides under tight control. Our work in progress indicates that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated therapy provides better quality and more efficient burn reepithelialization of injured tissues by controlling the release of these peptides. Improvement of wound aesthetics is achieved in less time than without MSC-mediated therapy. Well-organized epidermal regeneration and overall better quality of reepithelialization, with no rejection, can be demonstrated consistently with periodic biopsies. Our studies indicate that MSCs have the capacity to produce, regulate, and deliver biologically active peptides that result in superior regeneration, compared with conventional treatments. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Single Incision Laparoscopic Splenectomy: Our First Experiences

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    Umut Barbaros


    Full Text Available Objective: Most laparoscopic surgeons have attempted to reduce incisional morbidity and improve cosmetic outcomes by using less and smaller trocars. Single incision laparoscopic splenectomy is a new laparoscopic procedure. Herein we would like to present our experiences.Material and Methods: Between January 2009 and June 2009, data of the 7 patients who underwent single incision laparoscopic splenectomy were evaluated retrospectively.Results: There were 7 patients (5 females and 2 males with a mean age of 29.9 years. The most common splenectomy indication was idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Single incision laparoscopic splenectomy was performed successfully in 6 patients. In one patient the operation was converted to an open procedure.Conclusion: With surgeons experienced in minimally invasive surgery, single incision laparoscopic splenectomy could be performed successfully. However, in order to demonstrate the differneces between standard laparoscopic splenectomy and SILS splenetomy, prospective randomized comparative studies are required.

  15. Single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy

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    Sinha Rakesh


    Full Text Available Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is an alternative to conventional multiport laparoscopy. Single-access laparoscopy using a transumbilical port affords maximum cosmetic benefits because the surgical incision is hidden in the umbilicus. The advantages of single-access laparoscopic surgery may include less bleeding, infection, and hernia formation and better cosmetic outcome and less pain. The disadvantages and limitations include longer surgery time, difficulty in learning the technique, and the need for specialized instruments. Ongoing refinement of the surgical technique and instrumentation is likely to expand its role in gynecologic surgery in the future. We perform single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy using three ports in the single transumbilical incision.

  16. Activated c-Kit receptor in the heart promotes cardiac repair and regeneration after injury (United States)

    Di Siena, S; Gimmelli, R; Nori, S L; Barbagallo, F; Campolo, F; Dolci, S; Rossi, P; Venneri, M A; Giannetta, E; Gianfrilli, D; Feigenbaum, L; Lenzi, A; Naro, F; Cianflone, E; Mancuso, T; Torella, D; Isidori, A M; Pellegrini, M


    The role of endogenous c-Kit receptor activation on cardiac cell homeostasis and repair remains largely unexplored. Transgenic mice carrying an activating point mutation (TgD814Y) in the kinase domain of the c-Kit gene were generated. c-KitTgD814Y receptor was expressed in the heart during embryonic development and postnatal life, in a similar timing and expression pattern to that of the endogenous gene, but not in the hematopoietic compartment allowing the study of a cardiac-specific phenotype. c-KitTgD814Y mutation produced a constitutive active c-Kit receptor in cardiac tissue and cells from transgenic mice as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, which are the main downstream molecular effectors of c-Kit receptor signaling. In adult transgenic hearts, cardiac morphology, size and total c-Kit+ cardiac cell number was not different compared with wt mice. However, when c-KitTgD814Y mice were subjected to transmural necrotic heart damage by cryoinjury (CI), all transgenic survived, compared with half of wt mice. In the sub-acute phase after CI, transgenic and wt mice showed similar heart damage. However, 9 days after CI, transgenic mice exhibited an increased number of c-Kit+CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells surrounding the necrotic area. At later follow-up, a consistent reduction of fibrotic area, increased capillary density and increased cardiomyocyte replenishment rate (as established by BrdU incorporation) were observed in transgenic compared with wt mice. Consistently, CD45−c-Kit+ cardiac stem cells isolated from transgenic c-KitTgD814Y mice showed an enhanced endothelial and cardiomyocyte differentiation potential compared with cells isolated from the wt. Constitutive activation of c-Kit receptor in mice is associated with an increased cardiac myogenic and vasculogenic reparative potential after injury, with a significant improvement of survival. PMID:27468693

  17. Tousled kinase activator, gallic acid, promotes homologous recombinational repair and suppresses radiation cytotoxicity in salivary gland cells. (United States)

    Timiri Shanmugam, Prakash Srinivasan; Nair, Renjith Parameshwaran; De Benedetti, Arrigo; Caldito, Gloria; Abreo, Fleurette; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan


    Accidental or medical radiation exposure of the salivary glands can gravely impact oral health. Previous studies have shown the importance of Tousled-like kinase 1 (TLK1) and its alternate start variant TLK1B in cell survival against genotoxic stresses. Through a high-throughput library screening of natural compounds, the phenolic phytochemical, gallic acid (GA), was identified as a modulator of TLK1/1B. This small molecule possesses anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging properties, but in this study, we report that in vitro it promotes survival of human salivary acinar cells, NS-SV-AC, through repair of ionizing radiation damage. Irradiated cells treated with GA show improved clonogenic survival compared to untreated controls. And, analyses of DNA repair kinetics by alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis and γ-H2AX foci immunofluorescence indicate rapid resolution of DNA breaks in drug-treated cells. Study of DR-GFP transgene repair indicates GA facilitates homologous recombinational repair to establish a functional GFP gene. In contrast, inactivation of TLK1 or its shRNA knockdown suppressed resolution of radiation-induced DNA tails in NS-SV-AC, and homology directed repair in DR-GFP cells. Consistent with our results in culture, animals treated with GA after exposure to fractionated radiation showed better preservation of salivary function compared to saline-treated animals. Our results suggest that GA-mediated transient modulation of TLK1 activity promotes DNA repair and suppresses radiation cytoxicity in salivary gland cells.

  18. Mast Quadrant-assisted Minimally Invasive Modified Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Single Incision Versus Double Incision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Lei Xia; Hong-Li Wang; Fei-Zhou Lyu; Li-Xun Wang; Xiao-Sheng Ma; Jian-Yuan Jiang


    Background:The concept of minimally invasive techniques is to make every effort to reduce tissue damage.Certainly,reducing skin incision is an important part of these techniques.This study aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility of Mast Quadrant-assisted modified transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with a small single posterior median incision.Methods:During the period of March 2011 to March 2012,34 patients with single-segment degenerative lumbar disease underwent the minimally invasive modified TLIF assisted by Mast Quadrant with a small single posterior median incision (single incision group).The cases in this group were compared to 37 patients with single-segment degenerative lumbar disease in the double incision group.The perioperative conditions of patients in these two groups were statistically analyzed and compared.The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores,Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores,and sacrospinalis muscle damage evaluation indicators before operation and 3,12 months postoperation were compared.Results:A total of 31 and 35 cases in the single incision and double incision groups,respectively,completed at least 12 months of systemic follow-up.The differences in perioperative conditions between the two groups were not statistically significant.The incision length of the single incision group was significantly shorter than that of the double incision group (P < 0.01).The ODI and VAS scores of patients in both groups improved significantly at 3 and 12 months postoperation.However,these two indicators at 3 and 12 months postoperation and the sacrospinalis muscle damage evaluation indicators at 3 months postoperation did not differ significantly between the two groups (P ≥ 0.05).Conclusions:Mast Quadrant-assisted modified TLIF with a small single posterior median incision has excellent clinical feasibility compared to minimally invasive TLIF with a double paramedian incision.

  19. Mast Quadrant-assisted Minimally Invasive Modified Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Single Incision Versus Double Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Lei Xia


    Full Text Available Background: The concept of minimally invasive techniques is to make every effort to reduce tissue damage. Certainly, reducing skin incision is an important part of these techniques. This study aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility of Mast Quadrant-assisted modified transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF with a small single posterior median incision. Methods: During the period of March 2011 to March 2012, 34 patients with single-segment degenerative lumbar disease underwent the minimally invasive modified TLIF assisted by Mast Quadrant with a small single posterior median incision (single incision group. The cases in this group were compared to 37 patients with single-segment degenerative lumbar disease in the double incision group. The perioperative conditions of patients in these two groups were statistically analyzed and compared. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI scores, Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores, and sacrospinalis muscle damage evaluation indicators before operation and 3, 12 months postoperation were compared. Results: A total of 31 and 35 cases in the single incision and double incision groups, respectively, completed at least 12 months of systemic follow-up. The differences in perioperative conditions between the two groups were not statistically significant. The incision length of the single incision group was significantly shorter than that of the double incision group (P < 0.01. The ODI and VAS scores of patients in both groups improved significantly at 3 and 12 months postoperation. However, these two indicators at 3 and 12 months postoperation and the sacrospinalis muscle damage evaluation indicators at 3 months postoperation did not differ significantly between the two groups (P ≥ 0.05. Conclusions: Mast Quadrant-assisted modified TLIF with a small single posterior median incision has excellent clinical feasibility compared to minimally invasive TLIF with a double paramedian incision.

  20. Drosophila brca2 is required for mitotic and meiotic DNA repair and efficient activation of the meiotic recombination checkpoint.

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    Martha Klovstad


    Full Text Available Heterozygous mutations in the tumor suppressor BRCA2 confer a high risk of breast and other cancers in humans. BRCA2 maintains genome stability in part through the regulation of Rad51-dependent homologous recombination. Much about its precise function in the DNA damage responses is, however, not yet known. We have made null mutations in the Drosophila homolog of BRCA2 and measured the levels of homologous recombination, non-homologous end-joining, and single-strand annealing in the pre-meiotic germline of Drosophila males. We show that repair by homologous recombination is dramatically decreased in Drosophila brca2 mutants. Instead, large flanking deletions are formed, and repair by the non-conservative single-strand annealing pathway predominates. We further show that during meiosis, Drosophila Brca2 has a dual role in the repair of meiotic double-stranded breaks and the efficient activation of the meiotic recombination checkpoint. The eggshell patterning defects that result from activation of the meiotic recombination checkpoint in other meiotic DNA repair mutants can be strongly suppressed by mutations in brca2. In addition, Brca2 co-immunoprecipitates with the checkpoint protein Rad9, suggesting a direct role for Brca2 in the transduction of the meiotic recombination checkpoint signal.

  1. Fission yeast Pxd1 promotes proper DNA repair by activating Rad16XPF and inhibiting Dna2.

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    Jia-Min Zhang


    Full Text Available Structure-specific nucleases play crucial roles in many DNA repair pathways. They must be precisely controlled to ensure optimal repair outcomes; however, mechanisms of their regulation are not fully understood. Here, we report a fission yeast protein, Pxd1, that binds to and regulates two structure-specific nucleases: Rad16XPF-Swi10ERCC1 and Dna2-Cdc24. Strikingly, Pxd1 influences the activities of these two nucleases in opposite ways: It activates the 3' endonuclease activity of Rad16-Swi10 but inhibits the RPA-mediated activation of the 5' endonuclease activity of Dna2. Pxd1 is required for Rad16-Swi10 to function in single-strand annealing, mating-type switching, and the removal of Top1-DNA adducts. Meanwhile, Pxd1 attenuates DNA end resection mediated by the Rqh1-Dna2 pathway. Disabling the Dna2-inhibitory activity of Pxd1 results in enhanced use of a break-distal repeat sequence in single-strand annealing and a greater loss of genetic information. We propose that Pxd1 promotes proper DNA repair by differentially regulating two structure-specific nucleases.

  2. DNA Methylation Modulates Nociceptive Sensitization after Incision.

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    Yuan Sun

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling DNA accessibility and gene expression. Blockade of DNA methylation can significantly affect pain behaviors implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of DNA methylation with regard to postoperative pain has not yet been explored. In this study we sought to investigate the role of DNA methylation in modulating incisional pain and identify possible targets under DNA methylation and contributing to incisional pain. DNA methyltranferase (DNMT inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine significantly reduced incision-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal sensitivity. Aza-2'-deoxycytidine also reduced hindpaw swelling after incision, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Global DNA methylation and DNMT3b expression were increased in skin after incision, but none of DNMT1, DNMT3a or DNMT3b was altered in spinal cord or DRG. The expression of proopiomelanocortin Pomc encoding β-endorphin and Oprm1 encoding the mu-opioid receptor were upregulated peripherally after incision; moreover, Oprm1 expression was further increased under DNMT inhibitor treatment. Finally, local peripheral injection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone significantly exacerbated incision-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These results suggest that DNA methylation is functionally relevant to incisional nociceptive sensitization, and that mu-opioid receptor signaling might be one methylation regulated pathway controlling sensitization after incision.

  3. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit genotoxicity and impair DNA repair activity in A549 cells. (United States)

    Jugan, Mary-Line; Barillet, Sabrina; Simon-Deckers, Angelique; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Sauvaigo, Sylvie; Douki, Thierry; Carriere, Marie


    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)-NPs) are produced in large quantities, raising concerns about their impact for human health. The aim of this study was to deeply characterize TiO(2)-NPs genotoxic potential to lung cells, and to link genotoxicity to physicochemical characteristics, e.g., size, specific surface area, crystalline phase. A549 cells were exposed to a panel of TiO(2)-NPs with diameters ranging from 12 to 140 nm, either anatase or rutile. A set of complementary techniques (comet and micronucleus assays, gamma-H2AX immunostaining, 8-oxoGuanine analysis, H2-DCFDA, glutathione content, antioxidant enzymes activities) allowed us to demonstrate that small and spherical TiO(2)-NPs, both anatase and rutile, induce single-strand breaks and oxidative lesions to DNA, together with a general oxidative stress. Additionally we show that these NPs impair cell ability to repair DNA, by inactivation of both NER and BER pathways. This study thus confirms the genotoxic potential of TiO(2)-NPs, which may preclude their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity.

  4. A baculovirus photolyase with DNA repair activity and circadian clock regulatory function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biernat, M.A.; Eker, A.P.M.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Horst, van der G.T.J.; Chaves, I.


    Cryptochromes and photolyases belong to the same family of flavoproteins but, despite being structurally conserved, display distinct functions. Photolyases use visible light to repair ultraviolet-induced DNA damage. Cryptochromes, however, function as blue-light receptors, circadian photoreceptors,

  5. Mesh Plug Repair of Inguinal Hernia; Single Surgeon Experience

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    Ahmet Serdar Karaca


    Full Text Available Aim: Mesh repair of inguinal hernia repairs are shown to be an effective and reliable method. In this study, a single surgeon%u2019s experience with plug-mesh method performs inguinal hernia repair have been reported. Material and Method: 587 patients with plug-mesh repair of inguinal hernia, preoperative age, body / mass index, comorbid disease were recorded in terms of form. All of the patients during the preoperative and postoperative hernia classification of information, duration of operation, antibiotics, perioperative complications, and later, the early and late postoperative complications, infection, recurrence rates and return to normal daily activity, verbal pain scales in terms of time and postoperative pain were evaluated. Added to this form of long-term pain ones. The presence of wound infection was assessed by the presence of purulent discharge from the incision. Visual analog scale pain status of the patients was measured. Results: 587 patients underwent repair of primary inguinal hernia mesh plug. One of the patients, 439 (74% of them have adapted follow-ups. Patients%u2019 ages ranged from 18-86. Was calculated as the mean of 47±18:07. Follow-up period of the patients was found to be a minimum of 3 months, maximum 55 months. Found an average of 28.2±13.4 months. Mean duration of surgery was 35.07±4.00 min (min:22mn-max:52mn, respectively. When complication rates of patients with recurrence in 2 patients (0.5%, hematoma development (1.4% in 6 patients, the development of infection in 11 patients (2.5% and long-term groin pain in 4 patients (0.9% appeared. Discussion: In our experience, the plug-mesh repair of primary inguinal hernia repair safe, effective low recurrence and complication rates can be used.

  6. True Lies: The Double Life of the Nucleotide Excision Repair Factors in Transcription and DNA Repair

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    Nicolas Le May


    Full Text Available Nucleotide excision repair (NER is a major DNA repair pathway in eukaryotic cells. NER removes structurally diverse lesions such as pyrimidine dimers, arising upon UV irradiation or bulky chemical adducts, arising upon exposure to carcinogens and some chemotherapeutic drugs. NER defects lead to three genetic disorders that result in predisposition to cancers, accelerated aging, neurological and developmental defects. During NER, more than 30 polypeptides cooperate to recognize, incise, and excise a damaged oligonucleotide from the genomic DNA. Recent papers reveal an additional and unexpected role for the NER factors. In the absence of a genotoxic attack, the promoters of RNA polymerases I- and II-dependent genes recruit XPA, XPC, XPG, and XPF to initiate gene expression. A model that includes the growth arrest and DNA damage 45α protein (Gadd45α and the NER factors, in order to maintain the promoter of active genes under a hypomethylated state, has been proposed but remains controversial. This paper focuses on the double life of the NER factors in DNA repair and transcription and describes the possible roles of these factors in the RNA synthesis process.

  7. Global endometrial transcriptomic profiling: transient immune activation precedes tissue proliferation and repair in healthy beef cows

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    Foley Cathriona


    Full Text Available Abstract Background All cows experience bacterial contamination and tissue injury in the uterus postpartum, instigating a local inflammatory immune response. However mechanisms that control inflammation and achieve a physiologically functioning endometrium, while avoiding disease in the postpartum cow are not succinctly defined. This study aimed to identify novel candidate genes indicative of inflammation resolution during involution in healthy beef cows. Previous histological analysis of the endometrium revealed elevated inflammation 15 days postpartum (DPP which was significantly decreased by 30 DPP. The current study generated a genome-wide transcriptomic profile of endometrial biopsies from these cows at both time points using mRNA-Seq. The pathway analysis tool GoSeq identified KEGG pathways enriched by significantly differentially expressed genes at both time points. Novel candidate genes associated with inflammatory resolution were subsequently validated in additional postpartum animals using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Results mRNA-Seq revealed 1,107 significantly differentially expressed genes, 73 of which were increased 15 DPP and 1,034 were increased 30 DPP. Early postpartum, enriched immune pathways (adjusted P P SAA1/2, GATA2, IGF1, SHC2, and SERPINA14 genes were significantly elevated 30 DPP and are functionally associated with tissue repair and the restoration of uterine homeostasis postpartum. Conclusions The results of this study reveal an early activation of the immune response which undergoes a temporal functional change toward tissue proliferation and regeneration during endometrial involution in healthy postpartum cows. These molecular changes mirror the activation and resolution of endometrial inflammation during involution previously classified by the degree of neutrophil infiltration. SAA1/2, GATA2, IGF1, SHC2, and SERPINA14 genes may become potential markers for resolution of endometrial inflammation in

  8. Repair activity of oxidatively damaged DNA and telomere length in human lung epithelial cells after exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghini, Andrea; Roursgaard, Martin; Andreassi, Maria Grazia;


    the cells toward replicative senescence, assessed by attrition of telomeres. To investigate this, H2O2 and KBrO3 were used to induce DNA damage in the cells and the effect of pre-exposure to MWCNT tested for a change in repair activity inside the cells or in the extract of treated cells. The effect of MWCNT...... exposure on telomere length was investigated for concentration and time response. We report a significantly increased repair activity in A549 cells exposed to MWCNTs compared to non-exposed cells, suggesting that DNA repair activity may be influenced by exposure to MWCNTs. The telomere length was decreased...

  9. Scarless laparoscopic repair of epigastric hernia in children



    Background Despite the small size of the incision, the scar left by open repair of epigastric hernia in children is unaesthetic. Few laparoscopic approaches to epigastric hernia repair have been previously proposed, but none has gain wide acceptance from pediatric surgeons. In this study, we present our experience with a scarless laparo- scopic approach using a percutaneous suturing technique for epigastric hernia repair in children. Methods Ten consecutive patients presenting with ep...

  10. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in various incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery

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    Nidhi Jauhari


    Full Text Available AIM:To determine the surgically induced astigmatism (SIA in Straight, Frown and Inverted V shape (Chevron incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS.METHODS:A prospective cross sectional study was done on a total of 75 patients aged 40y and above with senile cataract. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (25 each. Each group received a particular type of incision (Straight, Frown or Inverted V shape incisions. Manual SICS with intraocular lens (IOL implantation was performed. The patients were compared 4wk post operatively for uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and SIA. All calculations were performed using the SIA calculator version 2.1, a free software program. The study was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 statistical analysis software.RESULTS:The study found that 89.5% of patients in Straight incision group, 94.2% in Frown incision group and 95.7% in Inverted V group attained BCVA post-operatively in the range of 6/6 to 6/18. Mean SIA was minimum (-0.88±0.61D×90 degrees with Inverted V incision which was statistically significant.CONCLUSION:Inverted V (Chevron incision gives minimal SIA.

  11. Requirement for PBAF in transcriptional repression and repair at DNA breaks in actively transcribed regions of chromatin


    Kakarougkas, Andreas; Ismail, Amani; Chambers, Anna; Riballo, Queti; Herbert, Alex; Kunzel, Julia; Lobrich, Markus; Jeggo, Penny; Downs, Jessica


    Summary Actively transcribed regions of the genome are vulnerable to genomic instability. Recently, it was discovered that transcription is repressed in response to neighboring DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). It is not known whether a failure to silence transcription flanking DSBs has any impact on DNA repair efficiency or whether chromatin remodelers contribute to the process. Here, we show that the PBAF remodeling complex is important for DSB-induced transcriptional silencing and promotes ...

  12. The ATPase activity of Fml1 is essential for its roles in homologous recombination and DNA repair (United States)

    Nandi, Saikat; Whitby, Matthew C.


    In fission yeast, the DNA helicase Fml1, which is an orthologue of human FANCM, is a key component of the machinery that drives and governs homologous recombination (HR). During the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by HR, it limits the occurrence of potentially deleterious crossover recombinants, whereas at stalled replication forks, it promotes HR to aid their recovery. Here, we have mutated conserved residues in Fml1’s Walker A (K99R) and Walker B (D196N) motifs to determine whether its activities are dependent on its ability to hydrolyse ATP. Both Fml1K99R and Fml1D196N are proficient for DNA binding but totally deficient in DNA unwinding and ATP hydrolysis. In vivo both mutants exhibit a similar reduction in recombination at blocked replication forks as a fml1Δ mutant indicating that Fml1’s motor activity, fuelled by ATP hydrolysis, is essential for its pro-recombinogenic role. Intriguingly, both fml1K99R and fml1D196N mutants exhibit greater sensitivity to genotoxins and higher levels of crossing over during DSB repair than a fml1Δ strain. These data suggest that without its motor activity, the binding of Fml1 to its DNA substrate can impede alternative mechanisms of repair and crossover avoidance. PMID:22844101

  13. Single incision laparoscopic colorectal resection: Our experience

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    Chinnusamy Palanivelu


    Full Text Available Background: A prospective case series of single incision multiport laparoscopic colorectal resections for malignancy using conventional laparoscopic trocars and instruments is described. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients (seven men and four women with colonic or rectal pathology underwent single incision multiport laparoscopic colectomy/rectal resection from July till December 2010. Four trocars were placed in a single transumblical incision. The bowel was mobilized laparoscopically and vessels controlled intracorporeally with either intra or extracorporeal anastomosis. Results: Three patients had carcinoma in the caecum, one in the hepatic flexure, two in the rectosigmoid, one in the descending colon, two in the rectum and two had ulcerative pancolitis (one with high grade dysplasia and another with carcinoma rectum. There was no conversion to standard multiport laparoscopy or open surgery. The median age was 52 years (range 24-78 years. The average operating time was 130 min (range 90-210 min. The average incision length was 3.2 cm (2.5-4.0 cm. There were no postoperative complications. The average length of stay was 4.5 days (range 3-8 days. Histopathology showed adequate proximal and distal resection margins with an average lymph node yield of 25 nodes (range 16-30 nodes. Conclusion: Single incision multiport laparoscopic colorectal surgery for malignancy is feasible without extra cost or specialized ports/instrumentation. It does not compromise the oncological radicality of resection. Short-term results are encouraging. Long-term results are awaited.

  14. Sigmoid volvulus treated by mini-incision. (United States)

    Seow-En, I; Seow-Choen, F


    Definitive surgical management of sigmoid volvulus is usually via a midline laparotomy or laparoscopy. We report our experience with a series of five consecutive cases over a 10-year period. All patients had definitive surgery via a left iliac fossa mini-incision after prior decompression. For four patients, it was the first episode of sigmoid volvulus and one patient had a recurrent sigmoid volvulus after previous sigmoid colectomy. The latter patient had pan colonic megacolon diagnosed at initial surgery. All five cases were surgically treated successfully via a mini-incision on the left iliac fossa. There were no instances of recurrence at a median follow-up duration of 95 months (range 7-132 months). A left iliac fossa mini-incision is sufficient for the definitive management of non-perforated sigmoid volvulus. Larger studies are warranted to draw definitive conclusions.

  15. Posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal graft

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    G. Bernard Taylor


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. Secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measured and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage II or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (PelvicolTM CR Bard Covington, GA USA. The incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence was compared. A secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method TM 0133 and ASTM bending and resistance protocols. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of patients (21/127 who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71 of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078. Four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. Neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively. There was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20. CONCLUSION: Perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.

  16. TGFβ1 protects cells from γ-IR by enhancing the activity of the NHEJ repair pathway. (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Ra; Lee, Jeeyong; An, You Sun; Jin, Yeung Bae; Park, In-Chul; Chung, Eunkyung; Shin, Incheol; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Yi, Jae Youn


    Several groups have reported that TGFβ1 regulates cellular responses to γ-irradiation; however, the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the current study, the role of TGFβ1 in cellular responses to γ-irradiation was investigated in detail. The data indicate that TGFβ1 pretreatment decreased the aftermath of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage in a SMAD-dependent manner. To determine the underlying mechanism for these effects, the extent of IR-induced DNA repair activity in the presence or absence of TGFβ1 was examined. Studies reveal that TGFβ1 upregulated DNA ligase IV (Lig4), augmented IR-induced nuclear retention of the DNA ligase, and enhanced nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair activity. In addition, knockdown of Lig4 reduced the TGFβ1-induced protection against IR. Overall, these data indicate that TGFβ1 facilitates the NHEJ repair process upon γ-irradiation and thereby enhances long-term survival. These findings provide new insight and a possible approach to controlling genotoxic stress by the TGFβ signaling pathway. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. High pulse pressure is not associated with abnormal activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in repaired aortic coarctation. (United States)

    Pedersen, T A L; Pedersen, E B; Munk, K; Hjortdal, V E; Emmertsen, K; Andersen, N H


    We investigated the relationship between pulse pressure (PP)--a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness-and activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in adult patients with repaired coarctation and normal left ventricular (LV) function. A total of 114 patients (44 (26-74) years, 13 (0.1-40) years at repair) and 20 healthy controls were examined with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography, vasoactive hormone levels and magnetic resonance of the thoracic aorta. Forty-one patients (36%) were taking antihypertensives (28 RAAS inhibitors). Fifty-one had mean 24-h blood pressures >130/80 mm Hg. Hypertension was not associated with age at repair (P=0.257). Patients had higher PP and LV mass compared with controls (52±11 vs. 45±5 mm Hg and 221±71 vs. 154±55 g, respectively; both Pcoarctation have increased PP and LV mass compared with controls. PP increased with increasing recoarctation. Hypertension was present also in the absence of recoarctation. These changes could not be explained by abnormal activation of the RAAS.

  18. Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health Effects from Lead During Renovation, Repair, and Painting Activities in Public and Commercial Buildings (United States)

    Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health Effects from Lead During Renovation, Repair, and Painting Activities in Public and Commercial Buildings” (Technical Approach Document). Also available for public review and comment are two supplementary documents: the detai...

  19. Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health Effects from Lead Due to Renovation Repair and Painting Activities in Public and Commercial Buildings (United States)

    Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health Effects from Lead Due to Renovation Repair and Painting Activities in Public and Commercial Buildings: links to documents at, links to PDFs related to Approach document

  20. Use of a molecular beacon to track the activity of base excision repair protein OGG1 in live cells. (United States)

    Mirbahai, Leda; Kershaw, Rachael M; Green, Richard M; Hayden, Rachel E; Meldrum, Rosalind A; Hodges, Nikolas J


    An abundant form of DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine for which the base excision repair protein 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) is a major repair enzyme. To assess the location and intracellular activity of the OGG1 protein in response to oxidative stress, we have utilised a fluorescence-quench molecular beacon switch containing a 8-oxo-dG:C base pair and a fluorescent and quencher molecule at opposite ends of a hairpin oligonucleotide. Oxidative stress was induced by treatment with potassium bromate. Flow cytometry demonstrated a concentration-dependent increase in the activity of OGG1 that was detected by the fluorescence produced when the oligonucleotide was cleaved in the cells treated with potassium bromate. This signal is highly specific and not detectable in OGG1 knock out cells. Induction of OGG1 activity is not a result of induction of OGG1 gene expression as assessed by qPCR suggesting a role for protein stabilisation or increased OGG1 catalytic activity. High resolution confocal microscopy pinpointed the location of the fluorescent molecular beacon in live cells to perinuclear regions that were identified as mitochondria by co-staining with mitotracker dye. There is no evidence of cut beacon within the nuclear compartment of the cell. Control experiments with a positive control beacon (G:C base pair and lacking the DAB quencher) did not result in mitochondrial localisation of fluorescence signal indicating that the dye does not accumulate in mitochondria independent of OGG1 activity. Furthermore, faint nuclear staining was apparent confirming that the beacon structure is able to enter the nucleus. In conclusion, these data indicate that the mitochondria are the major site for OGG1 repair activity under conditions of oxidative stress.

  1. Overnight urethral stenting after tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for distal hypospadias. (United States)

    Ritch, Chad R; Murphy, Alana M; Woldu, Solomon L; Reiley, Elizabeth A; Hensle, Terry W


    The duration of urethral stenting after tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty for hypospadias varies among surgeons. Typically the catheter is left for up to 7 days with the goal of minimizing post-operative complications. We describe our experience with overnight stenting for distal TIP hypospadias repair. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent TIP hypospadias repair from 2003 to 2008. Patients who had their urethral catheter overnight were included in this analysis. Outcomes analyzed were the rates of: urethrocutaneous fistula, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture and urinary tract infections. A total of 64 patients underwent outpatient TIP hypospadias repair. Forty-nine patients had overnight urethral stenting with at least 12 months follow-up and were included in the analysis. Five of the 49 patients (10.2%) developed urethrocutaneous fistula. Of these five patients, two had undergone re-do hypospadias repair. The fistula rate in primary repairs was 3/45 (6.7%). There were no incidences of meatal stenosis, urinary tract infections or urethral strictures. In our experience, overnight urethral stenting for TIP hypospadias repair does not significantly affect the rates of urethrocutaneous fistula, meatal stenosis and urinary tract infections. Patients who have had a primary TIP hypospadias repair may have their urethral catheter removed safely on post-operative day one.

  2. Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS with Clear Corneal Incision and SICS with Scleral Incision – A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shafiqul Alam


    Full Text Available Background: Age related cataract is the leading cause of blindness and visual impairment throughout the world. With the advent of microsurgical facilities simple cataract extraction surgery has been replaced by small incision cataract surgery (SICS with posterior chamber intra ocular lens implant, which can be done either with clear corneal incision or scleral incision. Objective: To compare the post operative visual outcome in these two procedures of cataract surgery. Materials and method: This comparative study was carried out in the department of Ophthalmology, Delta Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period of January 2010 to December 2012. Total 60 subjects indicated for age related cataract surgery irrespective of sex with the age range of 40-80 years with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly and equally distributed in 2 groups; Group A for SICS with clear corneal incision and group B for SICS with scleral incision. Post operative visual out come was evaluated by determining visual acuity and astigmatism in different occasions and was compared between groups. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS for windows version12. Results: The highest age incidence (43.3% was found between 61 to 70 years of age group. Among study subjects 40 were male and 20 were female. Preoperative visual acuity and astigmatism were evenly distributed between groups. Regarding postoperative unaided visual outcome, 6/12 or better visual acuity was found in 19.98% cases in group A and 39.6% cases in group B at 1st week. At 6th week 6/6 vision was found in 36.3% in Group A and 56.1% in Group B and 46.2% in group A and 66% in group B without and with correction respectively. With refractive correction, 6/6 vision was attained in 60% subjects of group A and 86.67% of group B at 8th week. Post operative visual acuity was statistically significant in all occasions. Postoperative astigmatism of

  3. Antimutagenic activity of casein against MNNG in the E. coli DNA repair host-mediated assay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Goeptar, A.R.; Alink, G.M.


    The effect of caseinate and soy protein in the diet on the mutagenicity induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was assessed in-vivo and ex-vivo in the DNA-repair host-mediated assay and liquid suspension assay, respectively. Of the two proteins only casein showed a strong antimutagen

  4. 76 FR 3151 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Record of Vessel Foreign Repair or Equipment Purchase (United States)


    ... requirement concerning the Record of Vessel Foreign Repair or Equipment Purchase (CBP Form 226). This request... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information should be directed to Tracey Denning, U.S..., or materials purchased for the vessel in a foreign country. This information enables CBP to assess...

  5. Acetylation regulates WRN catalytic activities and affects base excision DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muftuoglu, Meltem; Kusumoto, Rika; Speina, Elzbieta


    The Werner protein (WRN), defective in the premature aging disorder Werner syndrome, participates in a number of DNA metabolic processes, and we have been interested in the possible regulation of its function in DNA repair by post-translational modifications. Acetylation mediated by histone...

  6. Right sided double inferior vena cava with obstructed retrocaval ureter: Managed with single incision multiple port laparoscopic technique using "Santosh Postgraduate Institute tacking ureteric fixation technique". (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Shivanshu; Garg, Nitin


    Right double inferior vena cava with obstructed retrocaval ureter is an extremely rare anomaly with only a few reported cases in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing ureteric repair by use of a single-incision laparoscopic technique. In addition, this report addresses the underlying surgical challenges of this repair and provides a brief review of the embryology of this anomaly. The "Santosh Postgraduate Institute ureteric tacking fixation technique" provides ease of end-to-end uretero-ureteric anastomosis in a single-incision laparoscopic surgery.

  7. Optimality in DNA repair. (United States)

    Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro


    DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge.

  8. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Total Colectomy (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwatosin J.; Carne, David; Guyton, Daniel


    Background and Objectives: To present our experience with a single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy, along with a literature review of all published cases on single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy. Methods: A total of 22 cases were published between 2010 and 2011, with our patient being case 23. These procedures were performed in the United States and United Kingdom. Surgical procedures included total colectomy with end ileostomy, proctocolectomy with ileorectal anastomosis, and total proctocolectomy with ileopouch-anal anastomosis. Intraoperative and postoperative data are analyzed. Results: Twenty-two of the 23 cases were performed for benign cases including Crohns, ulcerative colitis, and familial adenomatous polyposis. One case was performed for adenocarcinoma of the cecum. The mean age was 35.3 years (range, 13 to 64), the mean body mass index was 20.1 (range, 19 to 25), mean operative time was 175.9 minutes (range, 139 to 216), mean blood loss was 95.3mL (range, 59 to 200), mean incision length was 2.61cm (range, 2 to 3). Average follow-up was 4.6 months with 2 reported complications. Conclusions: Single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy is feasible and safe in the hands of an experienced surgeon. It has been performed for both benign and malignant cases. It is comparable to the conventional multi-port laparoscopic total colectomy. PMID:22906326

  9. Channel Incision and Suspended Sediment Delivery at Caspar Creek, Mendocino County, California. (United States)

    Dewey, N. J.; Lisle, T. E.; Reid, L. M.


    Tributary and headwater valleys in the Caspar Creek watershed, in coastal Mendocino County, California, show signs of incision along much of their lengths. An episode of incision followed initial-entry logging which took place between 1860 and 1906. Another episode of incision cut into skid-trails created for second-entry logging in the 1970's. Gullies resulting from both of these episodes of incision are sensitive to hydrologic fluctuations and feature active headcuts, deepening plungepools, and unstable banks, which continue to contribute sediment to the Caspar Creek channel network. Headcuts are numerous in each channel. In some cases headcuts define the upstream extent of an incised reach; in many cases headcuts migrate up previously incised reaches, increasing the depth of incision. Surveys indicate that bank retreat, plunge pool deepening, and headcut retreat all contributed sediment to the channels between 2000 and 2003. Since bank walls have considerably more surface area than headwalls per given length of channel, and headcuts have largely migrated into positions temporarily constrained by resistant lips, bankwall retreat appears to be a more significant chronic source of sediment than headwall retreat. Stream gage records show that some channels consistently deliver higher levels of suspended sediment than others. In comparing channels, ongoing levels of suspended sediment delivery correlate well with total amount of exposed channel bank (depth of incision integrated over length of channel) in the reaches upstream of stream gages. On an annual to decadal time-scale, rates of suspended sediment delivery per unit area of catchment correlate better with the amount of exposed bank area in reaches upstream of stream gages, than with the volume of sediment delivered by landslide events, with total catchment area, or with peak storm flow per unit area. The correlation between amount of exposed bank area and ongoing levels of suspended sediment delivery is

  10. Radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, In One; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Gook Myung; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Kwang Myung; Choi, Hwang [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jung Eun [Chungmu General Hospital, Chungmu (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Eul Hye [Seran General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Joo Hee [Green General Hospital, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Choi, Guk Myung [Halla General Hospital, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)


    Endoscopic incision of ureterocele is considered a simple and safe method for decompression of urinary tract obstruction above ureterocele. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele. We retrospectively reviewed the radiological findings (ultrasonography (US), intravenous urography, and voiding cystourethrography(VCU)) in 16 patients with ureterocele who underwent endoscopic incision (mean age at surgery, 15 months; M:F 3:13; 18 ureteroceles). According to the postoperative results, treatment was classified as successful when medical treatment was still required, and second operation when additional surgical treatment was required. Postoperative US (n=10) showed that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction was relieved: the kidney parenchima was thicker and the ureterocele was smaller. Intravenous urography (n=8), demonstrated that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction and the excretory function of the kidney had improved. Postoperative VCU indicated that in 92% of patients (12 of 13), endoscopic incision of the ureterocele led to vesicoureteral reflux(VUR). Of these twelve, seven (58%) showed VUR of more than grade 3, while newly developed VUR was seen in five of eight patients (63%) who had preoperative VCU. Surgery was successful in four patients (25%), partially successful in three (19%), and a second operation-on account of recurrent urinary tract infection and VUR of more than grase 3 during the follow-up period-was required by nine (56%). Although endoscopic incision of a ureterocele is a useful way of relieving urinary tract obstruction, an ensuing complication may be VUR. Postoperative US and intravenous urography should be used to evaluate parenchymal change in the kidney and improvement of uronary tract obstructon, while to assess the extend of VUR during the follow-up period , postoperative VCU is required.

  11. Medial canthopexy using Y-V epicanthoplasty incision in the correction of telecanthus. (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Gon; Chung, Kyu-Jin; Kim, Yong-Ha; Lim, Jong-Hyo; Lee, Jun-Ho


    Telecanthus occurs because of the disruption of the medial canthal tendon (MCT). The deformity of medial canthus can result from nasoorbitoethmoid fractures, tumor resection, craniofacial exposure, congenital malposition, or aging. Repair of the MCT using transnasal wiring is regarded as a method of choice to treat telecanthus. We have introduced an oblique transnasal wiring using Y-V epicanthoplasty incision rather than the well-known classical bicoronal approach. Eight patients with telecanthus were treated with this method. Through the medial canthal horizontal and periciliary incision, we could have an access to the medial orbital wall and the MCT. An oblique transnasal wiring was performed with the following steps: (1) after slit skin incision on the nasal recession of the contralateral frontoglabella area, 2 drill holes were made from this point to the superior and posterior region of the lacrimal fossa of the affected orbit; (2) a 2-0 wire was passed through the MCT and the holes; (3) the wire was pulled and tightened until the MCT was ensured and was twisted in the contralateral side. After the repositioning of the MCT, the skin was simply sutured. The excess skin was trimmed, and then the skin was sutured with nylon 7-0. The remaining "dog ear" in the lateral portion can be removed by additional periciliary skin incision and excision. All the patients achieved an improvement and a prompt recovery. The interepicanthal distance was decreased by 6.3 mm on average compared with that in the preoperative condition. All patients had no complication associated with surgeries. Of posttraumatic telecanthus, 5 patients were much satisfied with the outcomes, and 1 patient had recurrence on postoperative month 3. In cases of congenital anomaly or neoplasm, the telecanthus was also improved. An oblique transnasal wiring using Y-V epicanthoplasty incision could be a simple, safe method to correct the telecanthus with the following advantages: first, we could fix the MCT

  12. Repair activities on the LHC cryogenic distribution line in charge of TS/MME

    CERN Document Server

    Atieh, S; CERN. Geneva. TS Department


    The Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL), running inside the machine tunnel parallel to the regular lattice of superconducting quadrupole and dipole magnets of LHC, transports the refrigeration power produced by the refrigerators over long distances. With a total length of about 25.8 km, QRL consists of a modular set-up of pipe and Service Modules (SM), Vacuum Barriers (VB), Fixed Points (FP), steps and elbows. TS department was charged to replace non-conform sliding tables included in the Cryogenic Distribution Line QRL. For this repair work, based on technologically advanced methods, TS/MME imposed a high level of quality assurance and follow-up for mechanical repair works as well as for the metrological measurements carried out which an innovative polyarticulated arm, a portable measuring device, and leak testing by argon.

  13. The Effect of Funding Scheme on the Performance of Navy Repair Activities (United States)


    3 3 Figure 16: Relation of Cartier Funding Flow with Regional Repair Centers at TRF ...... 34 Figure...hours a worker has worked directly on that customer’s job. One argument for promoting NWCF has been that it would bring free market forces to bear in...this is necessary for a "free market " enterprise. But it is not sufficient. The thing that makes the "free market " free is missing. Neither the

  14. Three-dimensionally Specific Inhibition of DNA Repair-Related Genes by Activated KRAS in Colon Crypt Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Tsunoda


    Full Text Available Growth and differentiation of colonic epithelium are regulated in the three-dimensional (3D physiological architecture, colonic crypt, and deregulation of 3D interactions is involved in tumorigenesis. Cell-based 3D culture systems provide a suitable approach bridging the gap between two-dimensional (2D culture and animal models. KRAS mutations are found at high frequencies in human colorectal cancer (CRC; however, KRAS-targeted cancer therapy has not been developed. Here, we have established a 3D cell culture model resembling the colonic crypt by use of HKe3 cells, human CRC HCT116 cells disrupted at activated KRAS. In this 3D colonic crypt model, HKe3 cells showed the features of time course-dependent transit-amplifying and terminal-differentiated stages, which are characteristic of normal colonic crypt. On the basis of the features of HCT116 cells, activated KRAS inhibited normal cell polarity and apoptosis in 3D culture. The expression of DNA repair-related tumor suppressor genes including TP53, BRCA1, BRCA2, and EXO-1 was markedly suppressed by activated KRAS in 3D culture but not in 2D culture. These results together suggest that activated KRAS plays critical roles in the accumulation of genetic alterations through inhibition of DNA repair genes and apoptosis and that this 3D culture model will provide a useful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of CRC development.

  15. Activation of Type II Cells into Regenerative Stem Cell Antigen-1+ Cells during Alveolar Repair (United States)

    Kumar, Varsha Suresh; Zhang, Wei; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.


    The alveolar epithelium is composed of two cell types: type I cells comprise 95% of the gas exchange surface area, whereas type II cells secrete surfactant, while retaining the ability to convert into type I cells to induce alveolar repair. Using lineage-tracing analyses in the mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced lung injury, we identified a population of stem cell antigen (Sca)-1–expressing type II cells with progenitor cell properties that mediate alveolar repair. These cells were shown to be distinct from previously reported Sca-1–expressing bronchioalveolar stem cells. Microarray and Wnt reporter studies showed that surfactant protein (Sp)-C+Sca-1+ cells expressed Wnt signaling pathway genes, and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling prevented the regenerative function of Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells in vitro. Thus, P. aeruginosa–mediated lung injury induces the generation of a Sca-1+ subset of type II cells. The progenitor phenotype of the Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells that mediates alveolar epithelial repair might involve Wnt signaling. PMID:25474582

  16. Mating-type suppression of the DNA-repair defect of the yeast rad6 delta mutation requires the activity of genes in the RAD52 epistasis group. (United States)

    Yan, Y X; Schiestl, R H; Prakash, L


    The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for post-replication repair of UV-damaged DNA, UV mutagenesis, and sporulation. Here, we show that the radiation sensitivity of a MATa rad6 delta strain can be suppressed by the MAT alpha 2 gene carried on a multicopy plasmid. The a1-alpha 2 suppression is specific to the RAD6 pathway, as mutations in genes required for nucleotide excision repair or for recombinational repair do not show such mating-type suppression. The a1-alpha 2 suppression of the rad6 delta mutation requires the activity of the RAD52 group of genes, suggesting that suppression occurs by channelling of post-replication gaps present in the rad6 delta mutant into the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway. The a1-alpha 2 repressor could mediate this suppression via an enhancement in the expression, or the activity, of recombination genes.

  17. Longitudinal incision in surgical release of De Quervain disease. (United States)

    Gundes, Hakan; Tosun, Bilgehan


    The objective of this paper is to contrast the use of a longitudinal incision in surgical decompression of De Quervain disease with a transverse incision. The advantages are ease in recognition of compartment variations and superficial branches of radial nerve and prevention of palmar tendon subluxation by permitting a more dorsal release of the compartment sheath. Since 2002, we have used a longitudinal skin incision instead of the classic transverse incision to release the first dorsal compartment.

  18. Tendon repair (United States)

    Repair of tendon ... Tendon repair can be performed using: Local anesthesia (the immediate area of the surgery is pain-free) ... a cut on the skin over the injured tendon. The damaged or torn ends of the tendon ...

  19. Differential blockade to assess surgical repair by intraoperative active mobilization in knee injuries-Beyond labour analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Vijay Anand


    Full Text Available Motor-sparing selective epidural analgesia has long been practised in the field of labour analgesia. However, the utility of such techniques in other fields remain limited. We present the successful use of a similar technique of differential blockade in a case of quadriceps plasty with realignment of patella for recurrent dislocation of patella. A very low concentration of bupivacaine and fentanyl was used through continous epidural. The adequacy of repair was assessed intraoperatively by active movement of operated limb by patient himself.

  20. c-MYC Generates Repair Errors via Increased Transcription of Alternative-NHEJ Factors, LIG3 and PARP1, in Tyrosine Kinase-Activated Leukemias. (United States)

    Muvarak, Nidal; Kelley, Shannon; Robert, Carine; Baer, Maria R; Perrotti, Danilo; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Civin, Curt; Scheibner, Kara; Rassool, Feyruz V


    Leukemias expressing the constitutively activated tyrosine kinases (TK) BCR-ABL1 and FLT3/ITD activate signaling pathways that increase genomic instability through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), and error-prone repair. The nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway is a major pathway for DSB repair and is highly aberrant in TK-activated leukemias; an alternative form of NHEJ (ALT-NHEJ) predominates, evidenced by increased expression of DNA ligase IIIα (LIG3) and PARP1, increased frequency of large genomic deletions, and repair using DNA sequence microhomologies. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the TK target c-MYC plays a role in transcriptional activation and subsequent expression of LIG3 and PARP1 and contributes to the increased error-prone repair observed in TK-activated leukemias. c-MYC negatively regulates microRNAs miR-150 and miR-22, which demonstrate an inverse correlation with LIG3 and PARP1 expression in primary and cultured leukemia cells and chronic myelogenous leukemia human patient samples. Notably, inhibition of c-MYC and overexpression of miR-150 and -22 decreases ALT-NHEJ activity. Thus, BCR-ABL1 or FLT3/ITD induces c-MYC expression, leading to genomic instability via augmented expression of ALT-NHEJ repair factors that generate repair errors. In the context of TK-activated leukemias, c-MYC contributes to aberrant DNA repair through downstream targets LIG3 and PARP1, which represent viable and attractive therapeutic targets. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Feasibility of externally activated self-repairing concrete with epoxy injection network and Cu-Al-Mn superelastic alloy reinforcing bars (United States)

    Pareek, Sanjay; Shrestha, Kshitij C.; Suzuki, Yusuke; Omori, Toshihiro; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Araki, Yoshikazu


    This paper studies the effectiveness of an externally activated self-repairing technique for concrete members with epoxy injection network and Cu-Al-Mn superelastic alloy (SEA) reinforcing bars (rebars). Compared to existing crack self-repairing and self-healing techniques, the epoxy injection network has the following strengths: (1) Different from the self-repairing methods using brittle containers or tubes for adhesives, the proposed self-repair process can be performed repeatedly and is feasible for onsite concrete casting. (2) Different from the autogenic self-healing techniques, full strength recovery can be achieved in a shorter time period without the necessity of water. This paper attempts to enhance the self-repairing capability of the epoxy injection network by reducing residual cracks by using cost-effective Cu-based SEA bars. The effectiveness of the present technique is examined using concrete beam specimens reinforced by 3 types of bars. The first specimen is reinforced by steel deformed bars, the second by steel threaded bars, and finally by SEA threaded rebars. The tests were performed with a 3 point cyclic loading with increasing amplitude. From the test results, effective self-repairing was confirmed for small deformation levels irrespective of the reinforcement types. Effective self-repairing was observed in the SEA reinforced specimen even under much larger deformations. Nonlinear finite element analysis was performed to confirm the experimental findings.

  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of 1-Incision, 2-Incision, 3-Incision, and 4-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Workflow Comparison Study. (United States)

    Bartnicka, Joanna; Zietkiewicz, Agnieszka A; Kowalski, Grzegorz J


    A comparison of 1-port, 2-port, 3-port, and 4-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy techniques from the point of view of workflow criteria was made to both identify specific workflow components that can cause surgical disturbances and indicate good and bad practices. As a case study, laparoscopic cholecystectomies, including manual tasks and interactions within teamwork members, were video-recorded and analyzed on the basis of specially encoded workflow information. The parameters for comparison were defined as follows: surgery time, tool and hand activeness, operator's passive work, collisions, and operator interventions. It was found that 1-port cholecystectomy is the worst technique because of nonergonomic body position, technical complexity, organizational anomalies, and operational dynamism. The differences between laparoscopic techniques are closely linked to the costs of the medical procedures. Hence, knowledge about the surgical workflow can be used for both planning surgical procedures and balancing the expenses associated with surgery.

  3. Transverse Skin Crease versus Vertical Midline Incision versus Laparoscopy for Right Hemicolectomy: A Systematic Review—Current Status of Right Hemicolectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Santoro


    Full Text Available Purpose. The right hemicolectomy may be conducted through laparoscopic or laparotomic surgery, transverse or midline incisions. The transverse laparotomy offers some advantages compared to the midline laparotomy and laparoscopy. A literature review was performed to evaluate the possible advantages of the transverse incision versus midline incision or laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. Methods. A systematic research was performed in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, BioMed Central, and the Science Citation Index. Results. Laparotomic right hemicolectomy with transverse incision is preferable to laparotomic hemicolectomy with midline incision. A transverse incision offers a lessened postoperative pain following physical activity, a lessened need to administer analgesic therapy during the post-operative time, better aesthetic results, and a better post-operative pulmonary function. Open surgery with transverse or midline incision ensured a shorter operative time, lower costs and a greater length of the incision compared to the laparoscopic. However, there are no differences in the oncological outcomes. Conclusions. It was not possible to identify significant differences between the open right hemicolectomy with transverse incision versus the open right hemicolectomy with midline incision or laparoscopic hemicolectomy.

  4. Neck incision planning for total laryngectomy: A finite element analysis. (United States)

    Feng, Allen L; Clark, James H; Agrawal, Nishant; Moussa, Walied; Richmon, Jeremy D


    Post-operative complications can be attributed to technical aspects of surgery, yet no studies have investigated the mechanics behind commonly used incisions for total laryngopharyngectomies (TLP). This procedure, seen in head and neck cancer patients, necessitates free tissue transfer to construct a neo-pharynx, creating an inherently greater risk of complications. We sought to investigate the impact of neck incision location on these post-operative complications for TLP using finite element analysis (FEA). A nonlinear hyperelastic 2-D finite element model was used to evaluate the stress and strain along the incision line of two separate neck incision models commonly used for TLP: low-neck apron (LNA) incisions that incorporate the patient׳s tracheostoma and mid-neck apron (MNA) incisions that do not communicate with the tracheostoma. A constant displacement was applied to the incision to simulate normal neck extension experienced during the post-operative phase. Each neck incision was also modeled at varying strain energy densities to simulate various stages of wound healing. For a constant displacement of 40mm, the principal von Mises stress of the LNA incision varied between 5.87 and 6.41MPa, depending on the hyperelastic properties of the healing incision. This stress was concentrated at the junction of the incision and the fixed tracheostomal edge. The MNA model demonstrated a principal von Mises stress that varied between 0.558 and 0.711MPa and was concentrated along the midline of the neck incision. MNA incisions for TL patients result in principal von Mises stresses which are up to 11 times lower than those seen in LNA incisions. These results coincided with clinical observations from a concurrent study that showed a decrease in rate of wound dehiscence for patients undergoing TLP with an MNA incision.

  5. Formulation and evaluation of exotic fat based cosmeceuticals for skin repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandawgade S


    Full Text Available Mango butter was explored as a functional, natural supplement and active skin ingredient in skin care formulations. A foot care cream was developed with mango butter to evaluate its medicinal value and protective function in skin repair. Qualitative comparison and clinical case studies of the product were carried out. Wound healing potential of foot care cream was investigated on the rat excision and incision wound models. Results of the clinical studies demonstrated complete repair of worn and cracked skin in all the human volunteers. Furthermore, foot care cream exhibited significant healing response in both the wound models. The project work could be concluded as establishment of high potential for mango butter to yield excellent emolliency for better skin protection. Improving the product features and medicinal functionality further validate mango butter as a specialty excipient in development of cosmeceuticals and has an immense value for its commercialization.

  6. Petit lumbar hernia--a double-layer technique for tension-free repair. (United States)

    Bigolin, André Vicente; Rodrigues, André Petter; Trevisan, Camila Gueresi; Geist, Ana Brochado; Coral, Roberto Viña; Rinaldi, Natalino; Coral, Roberto Pelegrini


    This report describes an alternative technique for Petit hernia repair. The treatment of lumbar hernias should follow the concept of tension-free surgery, and the preperitoneal space can be the best place for prosthesis placement. An obese patient had a bulge in the right lumbar region, which gradually grew and became symptomatic, limiting her daily activities and jeopardizing her quality of life. She had previously undergone 2 surgical procedures with different incisions. We created a preperitoneal space and attached a mesh in this position. Another prosthesis was placed on the muscles, with a suitable edge beyond the limits of the defect. There were no complications. It has been described as a safe and tension-free repair for Petit hernia. In larger defects, a second mesh can be used to prevent further enlargement of the triangle and also to provide additional protection beyond the bone limits.

  7. Large myelomeningocele repair

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    Farideh Nejat


    Full Text Available Background: Wound closure is accomplished in most cases of myelomeningocele (MMC by undermining of the skin edges surrounding the defect. However, large defects cannot be closed reliably by this simple technique. Due to the technical challenge associated with large MMC, surgeons have devised different methods for repairing large defects. In this paper, we report our experience of managing large defects, which we believe bears a direct relationship to decrease the incidence of wound complications. Materials and Methods: Forty children with large MMCs underwent surgical repair and represent our experience. We recommend using all hairy skin around the defect as a way to decrease the tension on the edges of the wound and the possible subsequent necrosis. It is our experience that vertical incision on one or two flanks parallel to the midline can decrease the tension of the wound. Moreover, ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for children who developed hydrocephalus was performed simultaneously, which constitutes another recommendation for preventing fluid collection and build up of pressure on the wound. Results: Patients in this study were in the age range of 2 days to 8 years. The most common location of MMC was in the thoracolumbar area. All but four patients had severe weakness in lower extremities. We used as much hairy skin around the MMC sac as possible in all cases. Vertical incisions on one or both flanks and simultaneous shunt procedure were performed in 36 patients. We treated children with large MMC defects with acceptable tension-free closure. Nonetheless, three patients developed superficial skin infection and partial wound dehiscence, and they were managed conservatively. Conclusions: We recommend using all hairy skin around the MMC defect for closure of large defects. In cases that were expected to be at a higher risk to develop dehiscence release incisions on one or two flanks towards the fascia were found to be useful. Simultaneous

  8. The assessment of cold hyperalgesia after an incision. (United States)

    Scherer, Moritz; Reichl, Sylvia U; Augustin, Miriam; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther M; Zahn, Peter K


    Although cold hypersensitivity is a well-documented phenomenon in animals and humans with inflammatory and neuropathic pain, little is known about the presence of cold hyperalgesia after surgery. Therefore, we studied primary cold hyperalgesia after a surgical incision in mice. Before and after plantar incision, inflammation with complete Freund adjuvant, and spared nerve ligation, unrestrained male animals were placed on a Peltier-cooled cold plate with a surface temperature of 0 degrees C and withdrawal latencies were measured. Additionally, incision-induced cold hyperalgesia was also assessed in female animals. Furthermore, skin temperature before and after plantar incision and inflammation were assessed by using infrared thermography (Varioscan LW 3011; Infratec, Dresden, Germany). Cold hyperalgesia to a noxious cold stimulus was observed after inflammation and nerve injury but not after a surgical incision. Similar results were demonstrated for female animals after incision. Furthermore, a significant increase in skin temperature was recorded after inflammation but not after incision, indicating that a surgery evokes only minor inflammatory effects. The present data give strong evidence that a surgical incision does not cause cold hyperalgesia. Furthermore, a lack of cold hyperalgesia in unrestrained male and female mice after incision was not due to increased skin temperature after incision. Finally, we demonstrated that in contrast to a surgical incision, inflammation and nerve injury generate intense cold hyperalgesia and an increase in skin temperature, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in surgical and inflammatory or neuropathic pain.

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors selectively target homology dependent DNA repair defective cells and elevate non-homologous endjoining activity.

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    Stephanie Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously used the ATAD5-luciferase high-throughput screening assay to identify genotoxic compounds with potential chemotherapeutic capabilities. The successful identification of known genotoxic agents, including the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi trichostatin A (TSA, confirmed the specificity of the screen since TSA has been widely studied for its ability to cause apoptosis in cancer cells. Because many cancers have acquired mutations in DNA damage checkpoints or repair pathways, we hypothesized that these cancers may be susceptible to treatments that target compensatory pathways. Here, we used a panel of isogenic chicken DT40 B lymphocyte mutant and human cell lines to investigate the ability of TSA to define selective pathways that promote HDACi toxicity. RESULTS: HDACi induced a DNA damage response and reduced viability in all repair deficient DT40 mutants although ATM-nulls were least affected. The most dramatic sensitivity was observed in mutants lacking the homology dependent repair (HDR factor BLM or the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ and HDR factors, KU/RAD54, suggesting an involvement of either HDR or NHEJ in HDACi-induced cell death. To extend these findings, we measured the frequencies of HDR and NHEJ after HDACi treatment and monitored viability in human cell lines comparably deficient in HDR or NHEJ. Although no difference in HDR frequency was observed between HDACi treated and untreated cells, HDR-defective human cell lines were clearly more sensitive than wild type. Unexpectedly, cells treated with HDACis showed a significantly elevated NHEJ frequency. CONCLUSIONS: HDACi targeting drugs induced significant increases in NHEJ activity in human cell lines but did not alter HDR frequency. Moreover, HDR is required for cellular resistance to HDACi therapy; therefore, NHEJ does not appear to be a critical axis for HDACi resistance. Rather, HDACi compounds induced DNA damage, most likely double strand breaks

  10. Endogenous repair by the activation of cell survival signalling cascades during the early stages of rat Parkinsonism.

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    Nga-Ping Lui

    Full Text Available Here we report a previously unknown self repair mechanism during extremely early stages of rat Parkinsonism. Two important cell survival signaling cascades, Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K/Akt pathway and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK pathway, could be responsible for this potential endogenous rescue system. In the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat, the phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK and its downstream target, the phosphorylated Bad at Ser 112, were up-regulated at post-lesion day 3 and lasted for a couple of weeks. Although the change in the phosphorylated Akt kinase was negligible throughout the studied period, its downstream target, the phosphorylated Bad at 136, was increased from post-lesion day 3 to post-lesion day 14. In the mean time, nestin-positive reactive astrocytes with low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF appeared at post-lesion day 3 in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat. BDNF was expressed in both striatum and substantia nigra whereas GDNF was displayed in striatum only. At post-lesion day 14, nestin, BDNF and GDNF expressions were diminished. These neurotrophic factors were believed to initiate the above anti-apoptotic signal transduction cascades as we could see that their expression patterns were similar. The data strongly suggest that there is an endogenous repair effort by evoking the cell survival signaling and possibly via the releases of BDNF and GDNF from nestin-immunoreactive reactive astrocytes. ERK/MAPK pathway was proposed to be the key endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms, particularly in early stages of rat Parkinsonism. However, the self repair effort is only functional within an extremely short time window immediately after onset.

  11. Enhanced excision repair and lack of PSII activity contribute to higher UV survival of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells in dark. (United States)

    Chaudhari, Vishalsingh R; Vyawahare, Aniket; Bhattacharjee, Swapan K; Rao, Basuthkar J


    Plant cells are known to differentiate their responses to stress depending up on the light conditions. We observed that UVC sensitive phenotype of light grown asynchronous Chlamydomonas reinhardtii culture (Light culture: LC) can be converted to relatively resistant form by transfer to dark condition (Dark culture: DC) before UVC exposure. The absence of photosystem II (PSII) function, by either atrazine treatment in wild type or in D1 (psbA) null mutant, conferred UV protection even in LC. We provide an indirect support for involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling by showing higher UV survival on exposures to mild dose of H2O2 or Methyl Viologen. Circadian trained culture also showed a rhythmic variation in UV sensitivity in response to alternating light-dark (12 h:12 h) entrainment, with maximum UV survival at the end of 12 h dark and minimum at the end of 12 h light. This rhythm failed to maintain in "free running" conditions, making it a non-circadian phenotype. Moreover, atrazine strongly inhibited rhythmic UV sensitivity and conferred a constitutively high resistance, without affecting internal circadian rhythm marker expression. Dampening of UV sensitivity rhythm in Thymine-dimer excision repair mutant (cc-888) suggested the involvement of DNA repair in this phenomenon. DNA excision repair (ER) assays in cell-free extracts revealed that dark incubated cells exhibit higher ER compared to those growing in light, underscoring the role of ER in conferring differential UV sensitivity in dark versus light incubation. We suggest that multiple factors such as ROS changes triggered by differences in PSII activity, concomitant with differential ER efficiency collectively contribute to light-dark (12 h: 12 h) rhythmicity in C. reinhardtii UV sensitivity.

  12. Closed incision management with negative pressure wound therapy (CIM): biomechanics. (United States)

    Wilkes, Robert Peyton; Kilpad, Deepak V; Zhao, Yabin; Kazala, Richard; McNulty, Amy


    A novel closed incision management with negative pressure wound therapy (CIM) has been developed for convenient use with closed incisions that has the potential to be beneficial for patients at risk for postoperative complications. Incisions are typically under lateral tension. This study explored the biomechanical mechanisms by which integrity of the incisional closure is enhanced by CIM. CIM was hypothesized to affect local stresses around closed incisions in a beneficial manner. Finite element analyses (FEA) indicated that application of CIM decreased the lateral stresses ~50% around the incision and changed the direction of the stresses to a distribution that is typical of intact tissue. Bench evaluations corroborated findings that CIM significantly increased the force required to disrupt the closed incision by ~50% as compared with closure alone. In conclusion, using 2 FEAs and bench modeling, CIM was shown to reduce and normalize tissue stresses and bolster appositional forces at the incision.

  13. The use of a surgical incision management system on vascular surgery incisions: a pilot study. (United States)

    Weir, Gregory


    Health care-associated infections in hospitals, including surgical site infections, contribute significantly to morbidity as well as mortality. Surgical incision management (SIM) using negative pressure wound therapy (Prevena™ Incision Management System, Kinetic Concepts, Inc., San Antonio, TX, USA) is designed to cover and protect closed surgical incisions from external factors including infectious sources and local trauma, while negative pressure removes fluid and infectious material from the surgical incision. A prospective case-control study assessed wound complications in patients undergoing vascular bypass procedures, where both femoral areas were incised to gain access to the femoral arteries. SIM was placed on one femoral area while a standard postoperative wound dressing was placed on the contralateral femoral area. Eight patients were included in this pilot study. All of them required bilateral femoral artery access. During the follow-up period patients were monitored for wound complications. All wound complications requiring surgical intervention were considered significant. No significant wound complications occurred in wounds treated with SIM, compared with three significant complications in control wounds. These preliminary data would suggest a potential reduction in wound complications and no observed increase in haemorrhage in high-risk patients with severe co-morbidities undergoing vascular surgery.

  14. Right Kocher’s incision: a feasible and effective incision for right hemicolectomy: a retrospective study

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    Theodosopoulos Theodosios


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice of surgical incision is determined by access to the surgical field, particularly when an oncological resection is required. Special consideration is also given to other factors, such as postoperative pain and its sequelae, fewer complications in the early postoperative period and a lower occurrence of incisional hernias. The purpose of this study is to compare the right Kocher’s and the midline incision, for patients undergoing right hemicolectomy, by focusing on short- and longterm results. Methods Between 1995 and 2009, hospital records for 213 patients that had undergone a right hemicolectomy for a right- sided adenocarcinoma were retrospectively studied. 113 patients had been operated via a Kocher’s and 100 via a midline incision. Demographic details, operative data (explorative access to the peritoneal cavity, time of operation, recovery parameters (time with IV analgesic medication, time to first oral fluid intake, time to first solid meal, time to discharge, and oncological parameters (lymph node harvest, TNM stage and resection margins were analyzed. Postoperative complications were also recorded. The two groups were retrospectively well matched with respect to demographic parameters and oncological status of the tumor. Results The median length of the midline incision was slightly longer (12 vs. 10 cm, p  Conclusions The Kocher’s incision approach for right- sided colon cancer is technically feasible, safe and overall very well tolerated. It can achieve the same standards of tumor resection and surgical field accessibility as the midline approach, while reducing postoperative recovery.

  15. Combined epigastric hernia repair and mini-abdominoplasty. Case report

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    Grella Roberto


    Full Text Available The objectives of abdominal hernia repair are to restore the structural integrity of the abdominal wall. Current techniques include primary closure, staged repair and the use of prosthetic materials. Techniques for mini-abdominoplasty include the use of the transverse lower abdominal incision and the resection of excess skin. We report a case of epigastric hernia repair through a transverse lower abdominal incision with the resection of excess of skin. Our purpose is to evaluate the results of the procedure by incorporating these aspects into an epigastric hernia repair, we found out that the procedures are made safer and the results are improved. Proper indication and details of the technique are described.

  16. Microhomology-mediated end joining is activated in irradiated human cells due to phosphorylation-dependent formation of the XRCC1 repair complex. (United States)

    Dutta, Arijit; Eckelmann, Bradley; Adhikari, Sanjay; Ahmed, Kazi Mokim; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Pandey, Arvind; Hegde, Pavana M; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Tainer, John A; Weinfeld, Michael; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Mitra, Sankar


    Microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ), an error-prone pathway for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, is implicated in genomic rearrangement and oncogenic transformation; however, its contribution to repair of radiation-induced DSBs has not been characterized. We used recircularization of a linearized plasmid with 3΄-P-blocked termini, mimicking those at X-ray-induced strand breaks, to recapitulate DSB repair via MMEJ or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). Sequence analysis of the circularized plasmids allowed measurement of relative activity of MMEJ versus NHEJ. While we predictably observed NHEJ to be the predominant pathway for DSB repair in our assay, MMEJ was significantly enhanced in preirradiated cells, independent of their radiation-induced arrest in the G2/M phase. MMEJ activation was dependent on XRCC1 phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 (CK2), enhancing XRCC1's interaction with the end resection enzymes MRE11 and CtIP. Both endonuclease and exonuclease activities of MRE11 were required for MMEJ, as has been observed for homology-directed DSB repair (HDR). Furthermore, the XRCC1 co-immunoprecipitate complex (IP) displayed MMEJ activity in vitro, which was significantly elevated after irradiation. Our studies thus suggest that radiation-mediated enhancement of MMEJ in cells surviving radiation therapy may contribute to their radioresistance and could be therapeutically targeted. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Bladder exstrophy repair (United States)

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... Bladder exstrophy repair involves two surgeries. The first surgery is to repair the bladder and the second one is to attach ...

  18. Canyon incision, volcanic fill, and re-incision rates in southwest Peru: proxies for quantifying uplift in the Central Andes (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gunnell, Yanni; de La Rupelle, Aude


    canyon system is still adjusting its course through large Pleistocene debris-avalanche deposits. Three knickzones occur along the length of the canyon. Upstream, V-shaped bedrock gorges of Cotahuasi give way to a ~1 km-wide braided channel of Ocoña, confirming asynchronous incision. Successive waves of knickpoint migration can be evidenced by breaks in slope when reconstructing Pliocene longitudinal valley profiles, when the 4.9-3.6 Ma Sencca ignimbrites filled the canyon. Longitudinal incision and lateral slope processes collaborated to shape distinct canyon reaches. No volcanic rocks older than some 2.27 Ma valley-floor lava flows have been preserved on the steep walls of the lower Rio Ocoña valley. In contrast, in the upper reaches of the Ocoña and Cotahuasi, two Sencca ignimbrites, 4.9-3.6 and 2.34-1.6 Ma old, cap two sets of rock plat-forms cut in slopes 400-600 m above the present-day channel. The 3390 km2 canyon catchment area has undergone 0.2 km3 Myr-1 of averaged bulk erosion since 13 Ma. This relatively low rate for an active orogen can be explained by the long-term prevalence of arid climatic conditions. Runoff and erosion were nevertheless enhanced after 6 Ma by bedrock being driven through increasingly higher altitudinal belts, eventually permitting glacier-fed runoff after 2 Ma. Erosion has been intermittent, alternately enhanced or hindered by slope instability. Large debris avalanches and mass flows caused ponding and subsequent lake-breakout debris flows, which slowed down the successive waves of knickpoint propagation. Clastic fill having repeatedly altered local relief in the canyon, the mass balance of valley incision has thus been more complex than any impression of a steady removal of bedrock in response to crustal uplift might suggest.

  19. Clinical Use of a Drain Incision Placed Below and Bilaterial to Near Total Thyroidectomy Incision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-guo; ZHAO Qi-kang; CHEN Rong-rui; LI Ming-qiang; WANG Jian-jun


    Objective:To design a new draining method for near total thyroidectomy at the lower two sides of the neck.Methods:Near total thyroidectomies in 63 cases were performed with new drain incisions at the lower two sides of the neck between December 1998 and July 2004. Results:All the draining operative procedures were performed smoothly,and all produced cosmetic scars were effective. The mean amount drained was 38 ml(minimum 10 ml,maximum 120 ml)and no patient developed wound infection. Conclusion:The drain incision for near total thyroidectomy placed at the lower sides of the neck results in a cosmetic scar which is easily covered by the collar,and was safe and efiective.We thereby recommend the use of this drain incision for near total thyroidectomy.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝国; 王斌; 张乃嵩


    Objective: To design a new draining method for hemithyroidectomy at the lower side of the neck. Methods:Hemithyroidectomies of 235 cases were performed with the new drain incision at the lower side of the neck between December 1998 and July 2003. Results: All the draining operative procedures were performed smoothly, and produced a cosmeticulous scar. The mean amount drained was 20 ml (minimum 5 ml, maximum 80 ml) and no patients developed wound infection. Conclusion: The drain incision for hemithyroidectomy placed at the lower side of the neck results in a cosmeticulous scar which is easily covered by the collar and was safe and effective. We thereby recommend the use of this drain incision for hemithyroidectomy.

  1. Evidence for preferential repair of 3-carbethoxypsoralen plus UVA induced DNA lesions in the active MAT alpha locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the UvrABC assay. (United States)

    Méniel, V; Brouwer, J; Averbeck, D


    The occurrence of preferential repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the active MAT alpha locus compared with the inactive HML alpha locus was confirmed after 254 nm UV irradiation. Experiments carried out using the UvrABC excinuclease assay with the monofunctional furocoumarin 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPs) plus UVA radiation which induce mainly monoadducts in DNA demonstrated preferential repair of the active MAT alpha locus compared with the inactive HML alpha locus in a SIR+ strain. However, as after 254 nm UV irradiation, no difference in the rate of removal of 3-CPs plus UVA induced lesions was observed between the two loci in the sir-3 mutant in which both loci are active. Thus, it appears that 3-CPs plus UVA induced monoadducts as well as pyrimidine dimers are subject to preferential repair.

  2. Xeroderma pigmentosum group F caused by a defect in a structure-specific DNA repair endonuclease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Sijbers (Anneke); W.L. de Laat (Wouter); R.A. Ariza (Rafael); M. Biggerstaff (Maureen); Y-F. Wei; J.G. Moggs (Jonathan); K.C. Carter (Kenneth); B.K. Shell (Brenda); E. Evans (Elizabeth); M.C. de Jong (Mariska); S. Rademakers (Suzanne); J.D. de Rooij (Johan); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R.D. Wood (Richard)


    textabstractNucleotide excision repair, which is defective in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), involves incision of a DNA strand on each side of a lesion. We isolated a human gene homologous to yeast Rad1 and found that it corrects the repair defects of XP group F as well as rodent groups 4 and 11. Causa

  3. Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han [Division of Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • No mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). • A reduced fecundity of Brachionus koreanus at over 150 Gy with a decrease in lifespan. • Dose-dependent ROS increase with GST enzyme activity at sub-lethal doses. • Significant impact on life table parameters, particularly fecundity. • Significant up-regulation of DNA repair-associated genes at sublethal doses. - Abstract: To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size.

  4. Minimum-incision metatarsal ray resection: an observational case series. (United States)

    Roukis, Thomas S


    This report describes the results of 17 metatarsal ray resections performed through a minimal incision in 13 consecutive patients. Each patient underwent minimum-incision metatarsal ray resection for either definitive treatment or as the index incision and drainage procedure followed by transmetatarsal amputation. There were 10 male and 3 female patients with a mean age of 68.8 +/- 8.5 years (range, 59-83 years). Twelve patients had diabetes mellitus and 7 had critical limb ischemia. There were 11 right feet and 6 left feet involved, and 3 second, 3 third, 3 fourth, and 8 fifth minimum-incision metatarsal ray resections performed. Direct primary-incision closure was performed 7 times (1 with adjacent percutaneous metatarsal osteotomy), delayed primary closure was performed 4 times (1 with external fixation), and conversion to a transmetatarsal amputation was performed 2 times. Fourteen of 17 minimum-incision metatarsal ray resections were deemed successful. Two failures occurred when skin necrosis developed from excessive tension along the incision line requiring conversion to a transmetatarsal amputation, and the other occurred in a patient with unreconstructed critical limb ischemia who underwent multiple repeated incision and drainage procedures and vascular bypass with ultimate healing via secondary intent. When properly performed in patients with adequate vascular inflow, minimum-incision metatarsal ray resection as the definitive procedure or in conjunction with an incision and drainage for unsalvageable toe infection or gangrene represents a safe, simple, useful technique.

  5. Reconstruction of posterior interosseous nerve injury following biceps tendon repair: case report and cadaveric study. (United States)

    Mokhtee, David B; Brown, Justin M; Mackinnon, Susan E; Tung, Thomas H


    Surgical repair of distal biceps tendon rupture is a technically challenging procedure that has the potential for devastating and permanently disabling complications. We report two cases of posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) injury following successful biceps tendon repair utilizing both the single-incision and two-incision approaches. We also describe our technique of posterior interosseous nerve repair using a medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve graft (MABC) and a new approach to the terminal branches of the posterior interosseous nerve that makes this reconstruction possible. Finally, we advocate consideration for identification of the posterior interosseous nerve prior to reattachment of the biceps tendon to the radial tuberosity.

  6. Chronic morphine administration enhances nociceptive sensitivity and local cytokine production after incision

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    Angst Martin S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background - The chronic use of opioids prior to surgery leads to lowered pain thresholds and exaggerated pain levels after these procedures. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this heightened sensitivity commonly termed opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH. Most of these proposed mechanisms involve plastic events in the central or peripheral nervous systems. Alterations in the abundance of peripheral mediators of nociception have not previously been explored. Results - In these experiments mice were treated with saline (control or ascending daily doses of morphine to generate a state of OIH followed by hind paw incision. In other experiments morphine treatment was initiated at the time of incision. Both mechanical allodynia and peri-incisional skin cytokine levels were measured. Myeloperoxidase (MPO assays were used to determine neutrophil activity near the wounds. The cytokine production inhibitor pentoxifylline was used to determine the functional significance of the excess cytokines in previously morphine treated animals. Mice treated chronically treated with morphine prior to incision were found to have enhanced skin levels of IL-1β, IL-6, G-CSF, KC and TNFα after incision at one or more time points compared to saline pretreated controls. The time courses of individual cytokines followed different patterns. There was no discernable effect of chronic morphine treatment on wound area neutrophil infiltration. Pentoxifylline reduced cytokine levels and reversed the excess mechanical sensitization caused by chronic morphine administration prior to incision. Morphine treatment initiated at the time of incision did not lead to a generalized enhancement of cytokine production or nociceptive sensitization in excess of the levels observed after incision alone. Conclusion - The enhanced level of nociceptive sensitization seen after incision in animals chronically exposed to morphine is associated with elevated levels of several

  7. Controls on aggradation and incision in the NE Negev, Israel, since the middle Pleistocene (United States)

    Matmon, A.; Elfassi, S.; Hidy, A.; Geller, Y.; Porat, N.


    We investigated the mid-Pleistocene to recent aggradation-incision pattern of two drainage systems (Nahal Peres and Nahal Tahmas) in the hyperarid north eastern Negev desert, southern Israel. Although these drainage systems drain into the tectonically active Dead Sea basin, lake level fluctuations cannot account for the aggradation-incision pattern as bedrock knickpoints disconnect the investigated parts of these drainage systems from base level influence. We applied geomorphic mapping, soil stratigraphy, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and cosmogenic (in situ 10Be) exposure dating to reconstruct cycles of aggradation and incision of alluvial terraces and to study their temporal association with regional periods of humidity and aridity and global glacial-interglacial cycles. The spatial and temporal relationships between the alluvial units suggest changes in the drainage system behavior since the middle Pleistocene, and show a pattern in which prolonged periods of sediment aggradation alternated with short periods of rapid and intense degradation through erosion and incision into sediment and bedrock. We obtain ages for several Pleistocene-Holocene periods of incision: ~ 1.1 Ma, ~ 300 ka, ~ 120 ka, ~ 20 ka, ~ 12 ka and ~ 2 ka. Although broadly synchronous, the Nahal Peres and Nahal Tahmas systems exhibit temporal differences in aggradation and incision. Hyperarid conditions have persisted in the region at least since the middle Pleistocene, as evidenced by gypsic-salic soils that ubiquitously cap the investigated alluvial terraces. This observation is consistent with other observations throughout the Negev indicating prolonged aridity. Thus, alternation between sediment aggradation and degradation cannot be correlated in a simple and straightforward way to climatic changes. We explain the temporal differences in aggradation and incision between Nahal Peres and Nahal Tahmas as resulting from the differences in stream gradient, basin hypsometry, and drainage

  8. A single incision transaxillary thoracoscopic sympathectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Primary hyperhidrosis causes are unknown. The disorder begins in early childhood. It intensifies in puberty and maturity. It is equally present in both sexes. The symptoms exacerbate when the body temperature rises and due to emotional stimuli affecting the sympathetic nerve system. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that videoassisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS sympathectomy is a method for primary focal hyperhidrosis permanent treatment. The single incision method in properly selected patients maximizes the intervention effectiveness and minimizes aesthetic side effects. Methods. This prospective study analysed the findings in patients who had been operated on due to primary focal hyperhidrosis (face, palms, and armpits using a single small transaxilarry incision in the third inter-rib space at the level of the anterior axillary line with two 5 mm flexible ports. All the patients, with T2-T5 thoracoscopic sympathectomy of the sympathetic chain using a single small incision in the third inter-rib space in the anterior axillary line, were analysed in the period from September 2009 to November 2010 regarding the postoperative morbidity and outcomes of the operation (clinical evaluation and visual analogue scale with a view to assessing the effectiveness of the surgery conducted in this manner. Results. A total of 47 patients (18 men, 29 women, 18 to 48 years old (29 on average had underwent 94 bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomies. The sympathectomy was indicated in cases of facial blushing and sweating (6.38%, palmary sweating (34.04%, axillary sweating (14.89% or both palmary and axillary sweating (44.68%. The largest percentage of patients (98.6% had left the hospital the following day. The postoperative 30 day’s mortality was 0 and the conversion into open surgery was not necessary. As for complications, there had been an occurrence of partial pneumothorax in two patients treated by means of

  9. Small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus Søgaard; Lyhne, Niels; Grauslund, Jakob


    PURPOSE: To study the outcomes of small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients treated for myopia or myopic astigmatism with SMILE, using a VisuMax(®) femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany...... surgery was 0.07 ± 0.03 (logMAR). However, 12 eyes (1.6 %) lost 2 or more lines of CDVA from before surgery to 3 months postoperatively. Simultaneous treatment of up to 3.00 D of astigmatism was not associated with less predictable refractive outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In the short term, SMILE seemed...

  10. Transanal polypectomy using single incision laparoscopic instruments. (United States)

    Dardamanis, Dimitrios; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Theodoropoulos, George; Larentzakis, Andreas; Natoudi, Maria; Doulami, Georgia; Zoumpouli, Christina; Markogiannakis, Haridimos; Katsaragakis, Stylianos; Zografos, George C


    Transanal excision of rectal polyps with laparoscopic instrumentation and a single incision laparoscopic port is a novel technique that uses technology originally developed for abdominal procedures from the natural orifice of the rectum. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a well established surgical approach for certain benign or early malignant lesions of the rectum, under specific indications. Our technique is a hybrid technique of transanal surgery, a reasonable method for polyp resection without the need of the sophisticated and expensive instrumentation of TEM which can be applied whenever endoscopic or conventional transanal surgical removal is not feasible.

  11. Parasympathetic nervous system activity predicts mood repair use and its effectiveness among adolescents with and without histories of major depression. (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Bylsma, Lauren M; Jennings, J Richard; George, Charles; Baji, Ildikó; Benák, István; Dochnal, Roberta; Halas, Kitti; Kapornai, Krisztina; Kiss, Enikő; Makai, Attila; Varga, Hedvig; Vetró, Ágnes; Kovacs, Maria


    Depressive disorders that onset in the juvenile years have been linked to far-reaching adverse consequences, making it imperative to elucidate key mechanisms and contributory factors. Excessive use of regulatory responses that exacerbate sadness (maladaptive mood repair) or insufficient use of regulatory responses that reduce it (adaptive mood repair) may reflect behavioral mechanisms of depression risk. Cardiac vagal control, indexed by patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), has received attention as a putative physiological risk factor for depression. Although mood repair and RSA are related, the nature of this relationship is not well characterized in the context of depression risk. Therefore, we tested alternative models of the relationships between RSA patterns (at rest and in response to a sad film), trait mood repair, and the effectiveness of a mood repair response in the laboratory (state mood repair) among adolescents with depression histories (n = 210) and emotionally healthy peers (n = 161). In our data, a mediation model best explained the association between the key constructs: Adolescents with normative RSA patterns exhibited lower levels of depression and trait maladaptive mood repair, and benefited more from instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. By contrast, adolescents with atypical RSA patterns exhibited higher levels of depression and dispositional maladaptive mood repair, which, in turn, mediated the relations of RSA patterns and depression symptoms. Atypical RSA patterns also predicted reduced benefits from laboratory mood repair.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan


    liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. In lieu of a field installation on an abandoned pipeline, a preliminary nondestructive testing protocol is being developed to determine the success or failure of the fiber-reinforced liner pipeline repairs. Optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repair methods are ongoing.

  13. P-glycoprotein attenuates DNA repair activity in multidrug-resistant cells by acting through the Cbp-Csk-Src cascade. (United States)

    Lin, Li-Fang; Wu, Ming-Hsi; Pidugu, Vijaya Kumar; Ho, I-Ching; Su, Tsann-Long; Lee, Te-Chang


    Recent studies have demonstrated that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression impairs DNA interstrand cross-linking agent-induced DNA repair efficiency in multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells. To date, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying how P-gp interferes with Src activation and subsequent DNA repair activity remain unclear. In this study, we determined that the C-terminal Src kinase-binding protein (Cbp) signaling pathway involved in the negative control of Src activation is enhanced in MDR cells. We also demonstrated that cells that ectopically express P-gp exhibit reduced activation of DNA damage response regulators, such as ATM, Chk2, Braca1 and Nbs1 and hence attenuated DNA double-strand break repair capacity and become more susceptible than vector control cells to DNA interstrand cross-linking (ICL) agents. Moreover, we demonstrated that P-gp can not only interact with Cbp and Src but also enhance the formation of inhibitory C-terminal Src kinase (Csk)-Cbp complexes that reduce phosphorylation of the Src activation residue Y416 and increase phosphorylation of the Src negative regulatory residue Y527. Notably, suppression of Cbp expression in MDR cells restores cisplatin-induced Src activation, improves DNA repair capacity, and increases resistance to ICL agents. Ectopic expression of Cbp attenuates cisplatin-induced Src activation and increases the susceptibility of cells to ICL agents. Together, the current results indicate that P-gp inhibits DNA repair activity by modulating Src activation via Cbp-Csk-Src cascade. These results suggest that DNA ICL agents are likely to have therapeutic potential against MDR cells with P-gp-overexpression.

  14. Single incision laparoscopic TAPP with standard laparoscopic instruments and suturing of flaps: A continuing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Sinha


    Full Text Available Background: Single incision laparoscopic surgery, especially transumbilical, should be the closest to replicate the minimal access results achieved by natural orifice endoscopic surgery (NOTES. This study of single incision transabdominal preperitoneal (SITAPP inguinal hernia repair is a continuing study exploring the peroperative variables and short and long term complications of this procedure. Patients and Methods: All the 183 patients were operated by the same surgeon through a horizontal transumbilical incision positioned across the lower third of the umbilicus. Port access was through three separate transfacial punctures. Routine rigid instruments were used and the peritoneal flaps were either tacked or sutured into place. Patients with irreducible hernia and obstructed hernia were included, while those with strangulated hernia were excluded. Results: All the patients were male with an average age of 41.4 years. Twenty four patients had bilateral hernia, 15 patients had irreducible and 6 patients had obstructed hernia. The mean operating time was 38.3 mins for unilateral hernias completed with tackers and 42.8 mins in those with intracorporeal suturing. The corresponding operating time for bilateral hernias was 53.2 and 62.7 minutes. There was minimal serous discharge from the umbilicus in 8 patients, port site infection in 1 patient and recurrence in 2 patients over a 36 months period. Conclusions: SITAPP for groin hernias, performed with conventional instruments is feasible, easy to learn, has a very high patient acceptance and is cosmetically superior to conventional TAPP. The use of tackers reduces the operating time significantly.

  15. Orchestrating the nucleases involved in DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair. (United States)

    Sengerová, Blanka; Wang, Anderson T; McHugh, Peter J


    DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) pose a significant threat to genomic and cellular integrity by blocking essential cellular processes, including replication and transcription. In mammalian cells, much ICL repair occurs in association with DNA replication during S phase, following the stalling of a replication fork at the block caused by an ICL lesion. Here, we review recent work showing that the XPF-ERCC1 endonuclease and the hSNM1A exonuclease act in the same pathway, together with SLX4, to initiate ICL repair, with the MUS81-EME1 fork incision activity becoming important in the absence of the XPF-SNM1A-SLX4-dependent pathway. Another nuclease, the Fanconi anemia-associated nuclease (FAN1), has recently been implicated in the repair of ICLs, and we discuss the possible ways in which the activities of different nucleases at the ICL-stalled replication fork may be coordinated. In relation to this, we briefly speculate on the possible role of SLX4, which contains XPF and MUS81- interacting domains, in the coordination of ICL repair nucleases.

  16. DNA Repair Cofactors ATMIN and NBS1 Are Required to Suppress T Cell Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Prochazkova


    Full Text Available Proper development of the immune system is an intricate process dependent on many factors, including an intact DNA damage response. The DNA double-strand break signaling kinase ATM and its cofactor NBS1 are required during T cell development and for the maintenance of genomic stability. The role of a second ATM cofactor, ATMIN (also known as ASCIZ in T cells is much less clear, and whether ATMIN and NBS1 function in synergy in T cells is unknown. Here, we investigate the roles of ATMIN and NBS1, either alone or in combination, using murine models. We show loss of NBS1 led to a developmental block at the double-positive stage of T cell development, as well as reduced TCRα recombination, that was unexpectedly neither exacerbated nor alleviated by concomitant loss of ATMIN. In contrast, loss of both ATMIN and NBS1 enhanced DNA damage that drove spontaneous peripheral T cell hyperactivation, proliferation as well as excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, leading to a highly inflammatory environment. Intriguingly, the disease causing T cells were largely proficient for both ATMIN and NBS1. In vivo this resulted in severe intestinal inflammation, colitis and premature death. Our findings reveal a novel model for an intestinal bowel disease phenotype that occurs upon combined loss of the DNA repair cofactors ATMIN and NBS1.

  17. DNA Repair Cofactors ATMIN and NBS1 Are Required to Suppress T Cell Activation. (United States)

    Prochazkova, Jana; Sakaguchi, Shinya; Owusu, Michel; Mazouzi, Abdelghani; Wiedner, Marc; Velimezi, Georgia; Moder, Martin; Turchinovich, Gleb; Hladik, Anastasiya; Gurnhofer, Elisabeth; Hayday, Adrian; Behrens, Axel; Knapp, Sylvia; Kenner, Lukas; Ellmeier, Wilfried; Loizou, Joanna I


    Proper development of the immune system is an intricate process dependent on many factors, including an intact DNA damage response. The DNA double-strand break signaling kinase ATM and its cofactor NBS1 are required during T cell development and for the maintenance of genomic stability. The role of a second ATM cofactor, ATMIN (also known as ASCIZ) in T cells is much less clear, and whether ATMIN and NBS1 function in synergy in T cells is unknown. Here, we investigate the roles of ATMIN and NBS1, either alone or in combination, using murine models. We show loss of NBS1 led to a developmental block at the double-positive stage of T cell development, as well as reduced TCRα recombination, that was unexpectedly neither exacerbated nor alleviated by concomitant loss of ATMIN. In contrast, loss of both ATMIN and NBS1 enhanced DNA damage that drove spontaneous peripheral T cell hyperactivation, proliferation as well as excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, leading to a highly inflammatory environment. Intriguingly, the disease causing T cells were largely proficient for both ATMIN and NBS1. In vivo this resulted in severe intestinal inflammation, colitis and premature death. Our findings reveal a novel model for an intestinal bowel disease phenotype that occurs upon combined loss of the DNA repair cofactors ATMIN and NBS1.

  18. Concerted Activities of Distinct H4K20 Methyltransferases at DNA Double-Strand Breaks Regulate 53BP1 Nucleation and NHEJ-Directed Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creighton T. Tuzon


    Full Text Available Although selective binding of 53BP1 to dimethylated histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me2 at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs is a necessary and pivotal determinant of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ-directed repair, the enzymes that generate H4K20me2 at DSBs were unclear. Here, we determined that the PR-Set7 monomethyltransferase (H4K20me1 regulates de novo H4K20 methylation at DSBs. Rapid recruitment of PR-Set7 to DSBs was dependent on the NHEJ Ku70 protein and necessary for NHEJ-directed repair. PR-Set7 monomethyltransferase activity was required, but insufficient, for H4K20me2 and 53BP1 nucleation at DSBs. We determined that PR-Set7-mediated H4K20me1 facilitates Suv4-20 methyltransferase recruitment and catalysis to generate H4K20me2 necessary for 53BP1 binding. The orchestrated and concerted activities of PR-Set7 and Suv4-20 were required for proficient 53BP1 nucleation and DSB repair. This report identifies PR-Set7 as an essential component of NHEJ and implicates PR-Set7 as a central determinant of NHEJ-directed repair early in mammalian DSB repair pathway choice.

  19. [Incisions for biaxial and coaxial microincision cataract surgery]. (United States)

    Müller, M; Kohnen, T


    Microincision cataract surgery (MICS) represents a new level in the development of cataract surgery. Phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation via incisions of phaco tip (C-MICS), or by the biaxial approach, with separation of the phaco tip and irrigation (B-MICS). Compared with standard small-incision cataract surgery, the advantages of MICS are less corneal astigmatism and fewer corneal surface irregularities, with favorable implications for visual quality and early rehabilitation. In the effort toward smaller incisions, special interest should be given to wound integrity, especially regarding the risk of endophthalmitis. With limited corneal elastic capacity, irreversible expansion of the incision with tissue laceration may occur. Smaller incisions are superior only if they cause less trauma. This requires an optimized relationship between incision size and manipulation during IOL implantation as well as attention to safety issues. MICS offers a platform for new benchmarks in phacoemulsification.

  20. Vertical compared with transverse incisions in abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grantcharov, T P; Rosenberg, J


    OBJECTIVE: To reach an evidence-based consensus on the relative merits of vertical and transverse laparotomy incisions. DESIGN: Review of all published randomised controlled trials that compared the postoperative complications after the two main types of abdominal incisions, vertical and transverse......, and late complications (incisional hernia). RESULTS: Eleven randomised controlled trials and seven retrospective studies were identified. The transverse incision offers as good an access to most intra-abdominal structures as a vertical incision. The transverse incision results in significantly less.......0001), and regarding late incisional hernia the pooled odds ratio was 1.68 (95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.57. p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Transverse incisions in abdominal surgery are based on better anatomical and physiological principles. They should be recommended, as the early postoperative period is associated...

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage and repair responses: The activations of NHEJ, BER and NER via ATM-p53 signaling axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Hui; Shi, Qiong; Song, Xiufang; Fu, Juanli; Hu, Lihua; Xu, Demei; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang, E-mail:


    Our previous studies demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) quinone induced oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. To promote genomic integrity, DNA damage response (DDR) coordinates cell-cycle transitions, DNA repair and apoptosis. PCB quinone-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis have been documented, however, whether PCB quinone insult induce DNA repair signaling is still unknown. In this study, we identified the activation of DDR and corresponding signaling events in HepG2 cells upon the exposure to a synthetic PCB quinone, PCB29-pQ. Our data illustrated that PCB29-pQ induces the phosphorylation of p53, which was mediated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase. The observed phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci and the elevation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) indicated that DDR was stimulated by PCB29-pQ treatment. Additionally, we found PCB29-pQ activates non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) signalings. However, these repair pathways are not error-free processes and aberrant repair of DNA damage may cause the potential risk of carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. - Highlights: • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. • The elevation of γ-H2AX and 8-OHdG indicates the activation of DNA damage response. • ATM-p53 signaling acts as the DNA damage sensor and effector. • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone activates NHEJ, BER and NER signalings.

  2. Clinical Outcomes and Complications of Percutaneous Achilles Repair System Versus Open Technique for Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures. (United States)

    Hsu, Andrew R; Jones, Carroll P; Cohen, Bruce E; Davis, W Hodges; Ellington, J Kent; Anderson, Robert B


    Limited incision techniques for acute Achilles tendon ruptures have been developed in recent years to improve recovery and reduce postoperative complications compared with traditional open repair. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the clinical outcomes and postoperative complications between acute Achilles tendon ruptures treated using a percutaneous Achilles repair system (PARS [Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL]) versus open repair and evaluate the overall outcomes for operatively treated Achilles ruptures. Between 2005 and 2014, 270 consecutive cases of operatively treated acute Achilles tendon ruptures were reviewed (101 PARS, 169 open). Patients with Achilles tendinopathy, insertional ruptures, chronic tears, or less than 3-month follow-up were excluded. Operative treatment consisted of a percutaneous technique (PARS) using a 2-cm transverse incision with FiberWire (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL) sutures or open repair using a 5- to 8-cm posteromedial incision with FiberWire in a Krackow fashion reinforced with absorbable sutures. Patient demographics were recorded along with medical comorbidities, activity at injury, time from injury to surgery, length of follow-up, return to baseline activities by 5 months, and postoperative complications. The most common activity during injury for both groups was basketball (PARS: 39%, open: 47%). A greater number of patients treated with PARS were able to return to baseline physical activities by 5 months compared with the open group (PARS: 98%, open: 82%; P = .0001). There were no significant differences (P > .05) between groups in rates of rerupture (P = 1.0), sural neuritis (P = .16), wound dehiscence (P = .74), superficial (P = .29) and/or deep infection (P = .29), or reoperation (P = .13). There were no deep vein thromboses (DVTs) or reruptures in either group. In the PARS group, there were no cases of sural neuritis, 3 cases (3%) of superficial wound dehiscence, and 2 reoperations (2%) for superficial

  3. Single-incision laparoscopic bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chih-Kun


    Full Text Available Background: Bariatric surgery has been established as the best option of treatment for morbid obesity. In recent years single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS has emerged as another modality of carrying out the bariatric procedures. While SILS represents an advance, its application in morbid obesity at present is limited. In this article, we review the technique and results of SILS in bariatric surgery. Methods: The PubMed database was searched and totally 11 series reporting SILS in bariatric surgery were identified and analyzed. The case reports were excluded. Since 2008, 114 morbidly obese patients receiving SILS bariatric surgeries were reported. Results: The procedures performed included SILS gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass. No mortality was reported in the literatures. Sixteen patients (14.05% needed an additional incision for a liver retractor, a trocar or for conversion. Only one complication of wound infection was reported in these series. All the surgeons reported that the patients were highly satisfied with the scar. Conclusion: Because of abundant visceral and subcutaneous fat and multiple comorbidities in morbid obesity, it is more challenging for surgeons to perform the procedures with SILS. It is clear that extensive development of new instruments and technical aspects of these procedures as well as randomized studies to compare them with traditional laparoscopy are essential before these procedures can be utilized in day-to-day clinical practice.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary


    liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. The first round of optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repairs are complete. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  5. Current Status of Single-incision Laparoscopic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Irfan; Ciancio, Fabio; Ferrara, Vincenzo;


    Recent advances in minimally invasive surgery have centered on reducing the number of incisions required, which has led to the development of the single-incision laparoscopic technique. A panel of European single-incision laparoscopy experts met to discuss the current status of, and the future...... expectations for, the technique. The experts reached agreement on a number of statements and recommendations, which will support surgeons in adopting the technique. The panel agreed that the single-incision technique may offer a number of benefits to patients; however, further clinical data need...

  6. Effects of combinatorial treatment with pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide and human mesenchymal stem cells on spinal cord tissue repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Min Fang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand if human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs and neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP have synergistic protective effect that promotes functional recovery in rats with severe spinal cord injury (SCI. To evaluate the effect of delayed combinatorial therapy of PACAP and hMSCs on spinal cord tissue repair, we used the immortalized hMSCs that retain their potential of neuronal differentiation under the stimulation of neurogenic factors and possess the properties for the production of several growth factors beneficial for neural cell survival. The results indicated that delayed treatment with PACAP and hMSCs at day 7 post SCI increased the remaining neuronal fibers in the injured spinal cord, leading to better locomotor functional recovery in SCI rats when compared to treatment only with PACAP or hMSCs. Western blotting also showed that the levels of antioxidant enzymes, Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and peroxiredoxin-1/6 (Prx-1 and Prx-6, were increased at the lesion center 1 week after the delayed treatment with the combinatorial therapy when compared to that observed in the vehicle-treated control. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that co-culture with hMSCs in the presence of PACAP not only increased a subpopulation of microglia expressing galectin-3, but also enhanced the ability of astrocytes to uptake extracellular glutamate. In summary, our in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that delayed transplantation of hMSCs combined with PACAP provides trophic molecules to promote neuronal cell survival, which also foster beneficial microenvironment for endogenous glia to increase their neuroprotective effect on the repair of injured spinal cord tissue.

  7. Effect of gene modified mesenchymal stem cells overexpression human receptor activity modified protein 1 on inflammation and cardiac repair in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) overexpressing human receptor activity modified protein 1(hRAMP1) by adenovirus vector on infarction related inflammation and cardiac repair in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction(MI)

  8. Health physics activities in support of the thermal shield removal/disposal and core support barrel repair at the St. Lucie Nuclear Power Plant. (United States)

    Maisler, J J; Buchanan, H F


    The health physics activities related to the removal and disposal of a thermal shield at a nuclear power plant and subsequent repairs to the core support barrel required increased planning relative to a normal refueling/maintenance outage. The repair of the core support barrel was a "first" in the nuclear power industry. Pre-job planning was of great concern because of extremely high radiation levels associated with the irradiated stainless steel thermal shield and core support barrel. ALARA techniques used in the preparation of the thermal shield for removal and shipment to the disposal site are discussed.

  9. Effect of Content of Sulfate Groups in Seaweed Polysaccharides on Antioxidant Activity and Repair Effect of Subcellular Organelles in Injured HK-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Ma


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the repair effect of subcellular structure injuries of the HK-2 cells of four degraded seaweed polysaccharides (DSPs, namely, the degraded Porphyra yezoensis, Gracilaria lemaneiformis, Sargassum fusiform, and Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharides. The four DSPs have similar molecular weight, but with different content of sulfate groups (i.e., 17.9%, 13.3%, 8.2%, and 5.5%, resp.. The damaged model was established using 2.8 mmol/L oxalate to injure HK-2 cells, and 60 μg/mL of various DSPs was used to repair the damaged cells. With the increase of sulfate group content in DSPs, the scavenging activity of radicals and their reducing power were all improved. Four kinds of DSPs have repair effect on the subcellular organelles of damaged HK-2 cells. After being repaired by DSPs, the release amount of lactate dehydrogenase was decreased, the integrity of cell membrane and lysosome increased, the Δψm increased, the cell of G1 phase arrest was inhibited, the proportion of S phase increased, and cell apoptotic and necrosis rates were significantly reduced. The greater the content of sulfate group is, the stronger is the repair ability of the polysaccharide. These DSPs, particularly the polysaccharide with higher sulfate group content, may be a potential drug for the prevention and cure of kidney stones.

  10. Release of Ku and MRN from DNA ends by Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1 is required for homologous recombination repair of double-strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Langerak


    Full Text Available The multifunctional Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN protein complex recruits ATM/Tel1 checkpoint kinase and CtIP/Ctp1 homologous recombination (HR repair factor to double-strand breaks (DSBs. HR repair commences with the 5'-to-3' resection of DNA ends, generating 3' single-strand DNA (ssDNA overhangs that bind Replication Protein A (RPA complex, followed by Rad51 recombinase. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX complex is critical for DSB resection, although the enigmatic ssDNA endonuclease activity of Mre11 and the DNA-end processing factor Sae2 (CtIP/Ctp1 ortholog are largely unnecessary unless the resection activities of Exo1 and Sgs1-Dna2 are also eliminated. Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1/CtIP are essential for DSB repair in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammals. To investigate DNA end resection in Schizo. pombe, we adapted an assay that directly measures ssDNA formation at a defined DSB. We found that Mre11 and Ctp1 are essential for the efficient initiation of resection, consistent with their equally crucial roles in DSB repair. Exo1 is largely responsible for extended resection up to 3.1 kb from a DSB, with an activity dependent on Rqh1 (Sgs1 DNA helicase having a minor role. Despite its critical function in DSB repair, Mre11 nuclease activity is not required for resection in fission yeast. However, Mre11 nuclease and Ctp1 are required to disassociate the MRN complex and the Ku70-Ku80 nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ complex from DSBs, which is required for efficient RPA localization. Eliminating Ku makes Mre11 nuclease activity dispensable for MRN disassociation and RPA localization, while improving repair of a one-ended DSB formed by replication fork collapse. From these data we propose that release of the MRN complex and Ku from DNA ends by Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1 is a critical step required to expose ssDNA for RPA localization and ensuing HR repair.

  11. Phosphate steering by Flap Endonuclease 1 promotes 5′-flap specificity and incision to prevent genome instability

    KAUST Repository

    Tsutakawa, Susan E.


    DNA replication and repair enzyme Flap Endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is vital for genome integrity, and FEN1 mutations arise in multiple cancers. FEN1 precisely cleaves single-stranded (ss) 5\\'-flaps one nucleotide into duplex (ds) DNA. Yet, how FEN1 selects for but does not incise the ss 5\\'-flap was enigmatic. Here we combine crystallographic, biochemical and genetic analyses to show that two dsDNA binding sites set the 5\\'polarity and to reveal unexpected control of the DNA phosphodiester backbone by electrostatic interactions. Via phosphate steering\\', basic residues energetically steer an inverted ss 5\\'-flap through a gateway over FEN1\\'s active site and shift dsDNA for catalysis. Mutations of these residues cause an 18,000-fold reduction in catalytic rate in vitro and large-scale trinucleotide (GAA) repeat expansions in vivo, implying failed phosphate-steering promotes an unanticipated lagging-strand template-switch mechanism during replication. Thus, phosphate steering is an unappreciated FEN1 function that enforces 5\\'-flap specificity and catalysis, preventing genomic instability.

  12. Removal of misincorporated ribonucleotides from prokaryotic genomes: an unexpected role for nucleotide excision repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaisman


    Full Text Available Stringent steric exclusion mechanisms limit the misincorporation of ribonucleotides by high-fidelity DNA polymerases into genomic DNA. In contrast, low-fidelity Escherichia coli DNA polymerase V (pol V has relatively poor sugar discrimination and frequently misincorporates ribonucleotides. Substitution of a steric gate tyrosine residue with alanine (umuC_Y11A reduces sugar selectivity further and allows pol V to readily misincorporate ribonucleotides as easily as deoxynucleotides, whilst leaving its poor base-substitution fidelity essentially unchanged. However, the mutability of cells expressing the steric gate pol V mutant is very low due to efficient repair mechanisms that are triggered by the misincorporated rNMPs. Comparison of the mutation frequency between strains expressing wild-type and mutant pol V therefore allows us to identify pathways specifically directed at ribonucleotide excision repair (RER. We previously demonstrated that rNMPs incorporated by umuC_Y11A are efficiently removed from DNA in a repair pathway initiated by RNase HII. Using the same approach, we show here that mismatch repair and base excision repair play minimal back-up roles in RER in vivo. In contrast, in the absence of functional RNase HII, umuC_Y11A-dependent mutagenesis increases significantly in ΔuvrA, uvrB5 and ΔuvrC strains, suggesting that rNMPs misincorporated into DNA are actively repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER in vivo. Participation of NER in RER was confirmed by reconstituting ribonucleotide-dependent NER in vitro. We show that UvrABC nuclease-catalyzed incisions are readily made on DNA templates containing one, two, or five rNMPs and that the reactions are stimulated by the presence of mispaired bases. Similar to NER of DNA lesions, excision of rNMPs proceeds through dual incisions made at the 8(th phosphodiester bond 5' and 4(th-5(th phosphodiester bonds 3' of the ribonucleotide. Ribonucleotides misinserted into DNA can therefore be

  13. Eukaryotic nucleotide excision repair: from understanding mechanisms to influencing biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah C Shuck; Emily A Short; John J Turchi


    Repair of bulky DNA adducts by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is one of the more versatile DNA repair pathways for the removal of DNA lesions. There are two subsets of the NER pathway, global genomic-NER (GG-NER) and transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER), which differ only in the step involving recognition of the DNA lesion. Following recognition of the damage, the sub-pathways then converge for the incision/excision steps and subsequent gap filling and ligation steps. This review will focus on the GGR sub-pathway of NER while the TCR sub-pathway will be covered in another article in this issue. The ability of the NER pathway to repair a wide array of adducts stems, in part, from the mechanisms involved in the initial recognition step of the damaged DNA and results in NER impacting an equally wide array of human physiological responses and events. In this review, the impact of NER on carcinogenesis, neurological function, sensitivity to environmental factors and sensitivity to cancer therapeutics will be discussed. The knowledge generated in our understanding of the NER pathway over the past 40 years has resulted from advances in the fields of animal model systems, mammalian genetics and in vitro biochemistry, as well as from reconstitution studies and structural analyses of the proteins and enzymes that participate in this pathway. Each of these avenues of research has contributed significantly to our understanding of how the NER pathway works and how alterations in NER activity, both positive and negative, influence human biology.

  14. Laparoscopic vs mini-incision open appendectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatih; ?ift?i


    AIM: To compare laparoscopic vs mini-incision open appendectomy in light of recent data at our centre.METHODS: The data of patients who underwen appendectomy between January 2011 and June 2013 were collected. The data included patients’ demographic data, procedure time, length of hospital stay, the need for pain medicine, postoperative visual analog scale o pain, and morbidities. Pregnant women and patients with previous lower abdominal surgery were excluded Patients with surgery converted from laparoscopic appendectomy(LA) to mini-incision open appendectomy(MOA) were excluded. Patients were divided into two groups: LA and MOA done by the same surgeon. The patients were randomized into MOA and LA groups a computer-generated number. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made by the surgeon with physica examination, laboratory values, and radiological tests(abdominal ultrasound or computed tomography). Al operations were performed with general anaesthesia The postoperative vision analog scale score was recorded at postoperative hours 1, 6, 12, and 24. Patients were discharged when they tolerated normal food and passed gas and were followed up every week for three weeks as outpatients.RESULTS: Of the 243 patients, 121(49.9%) underwen MOA, while 122(50.1%) had laparoscopic appendectomy There were no significant differences in operation time between the two groups(P = 0.844), whereas the visua analog scale of pain was significantly higher in the open appendectomy group at the 1st hour(P = 0.001), 6th hour(P = 0.001), and 12 th hour(P = 0.027). The need for analgesic medication was significantly higher in the MOA group(P = 0.001). There were no differences between the two groups in terms of morbidity rate(P = 0.599)The rate of total complications was similar between the two groups(6.5% in LA vs 7.4% in OA, P = 0.599). Al wound infections were treated non-surgically. Six ou of seven patients with pelvic abscess were successfully treated with percutaneous drainage; one

  15. UV-induced endonuclease III-sensitive sites at the mating type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are repaired by nucleotide excision repair: RAD7 and RAD16 are not required for their removal from HML alpha. (United States)

    Reed, S H; Boiteux, S; Waters, R


    Ultraviolet irradiation of DNA induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) 6-4'-(pyrimidine 2'-one) pyrimidines and pyrimidine hydrates. The dimer is the major photoproduct, and is specifically recognized by endonuclease V of phage T4. Pyrimidine hydrates represent a small fraction of the total photoproducts, and are substrates for endonuclease III of Escherichia coli. We used these enzymes to follow the fate of their substrates in the mating type loci of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In a RAD strain, CPSs in the transcriptionally active MAT alpha locus are preferentially repaired relative to the inactive HML alpha locus, whilst repair of endonuclease III-sensitive sites is not preferential. The rad1, 2, 3 and 4 mutants, which lack factors that are essential for the incision step of nucleotide excision repair (NER), repair neither CPDs nor endonuclease III-sensitive sites, clearly showing that these lesions are repaired by by NER pathway. Previously it had been shown that the products of the RAD7 and RAD16 genes are required for the NER of CPDs from the HML alpha locus. We show that, in the same locus, these gene products are not needed for removal of endonuclease III-sensitive sites by the same mechanism. This indicates that the components required for NER differ depending on either the type of lesion encountered or on the specific location of the lesion within the genome.

  16. Single site and conventional totally extraperitoneal techniques for uncomplicated inguinal hernia repair: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Araujo


    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the feasibility of endoscopic extraperitoneal single site (EESS inguinal hernia repair and compare it outcomes with the conventional totally extraperitoneal (TEP technique. Background : TEP inguinal hernia repair is a widely accepted alternative to conventional open technique with several perioperative advantages. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic singlesite surgery (LESS is an emerging approach and has been reported for a number of surgical procedures with superior aesthetic results but other advantages need to be proven. Patients and Methods : Thirty-eight uncomplicated inguinal hernias were repaired by EESS approach between January 2010 and January 2011. All procedures were performed through a 25 cm infraumbilical incision using the Alexis wound retractor attached to a surgical glove and three trocars. Body mass index, age, operative time, blood loss, complications, conversion rate, analgesia requirement, hospital stay, return to normal activities and patient satisfaction with aesthetic results were analysed and compared with the last 38 matched-pair group of patients who underwent a conventional TEP inguinal hernia repair by the same surgeon. Results: All procedures were performed successfully with no conversion. In both unilateral and bilateral EESS inguinal repairs, the mean operative time was longer than conventional TEP (55± 20 vs. 40± 15 min, P = 0.049 and 70± 15 vs. 55± 10 min, P = 0.014. Aesthetic result was superior in the EESS group (2.88± 0.43 vs. 2.79± 0.51, P = 0.042. There was no difference between the two approaches regarding blood loss, complications, hospital stay, time until returns to normal activities and analgesic requirement. Conclusion: EESS inguinal hernia repair is safe and effective, with superior cosmetic results in the treatment of uncomplicated inguinal hernias. Other advantages of this new technique still need to be proven.

  17. Early Steps in the DNA Base Excision Repair Pathway of a Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoichiro Kanamitsu


    Full Text Available DNA base excision repair (BER accounts for maintaining genomic integrity by removing damaged bases that are generated endogenously or induced by genotoxic agents. In this paper, we describe the roles of enzymes functioning in the early steps of BER in fission yeast. Although BER is an evolutionarily conserved process, some unique features of the yeast repair pathway were revealed by genetic and biochemical approaches. AP sites generated by monofunctional DNA glycosylases are incised mainly by AP lyase activity of Nth1p, a sole bifunctional glycosylase in yeast, to leave a blocked 3′ end. The major AP endonuclease Apn2p functions predominantly in removing the 3′ block. Finally, a DNA polymerase fills the gap, and a DNA ligase seals the nick (Nth1p-dependent or short patch BER. Apn1p backs up Apn2p. In long patch BER, Rad2p endonuclease removes flap DNA containing a lesion after DNA synthesis. A UV-specific endonuclease Uve1p engages in an alternative pathway by nicking DNA on the 5′ side of oxidative damage. Nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination are involved in repair of BER intermediates including the AP site and single-strand break with the 3′ block. Other enzymes working in 3′ end processing are also discussed.

  18. Isolated subtalar arthrodesis through minimal incision surgery. (United States)

    Carranza-Bencano, A; Tejero-García, S; Del Castillo-Blanco, G; Fernández-Torres, J J; Alegrete-Parra, A


    In recent years there has been an increase in the use of minimally invasive techniques, such as arthroscopy, percutaneous, and minimally invasive incisions, for foot and ankle surgery. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fusion rate and clinical results of isolated subtalar arthrodesis (ISA) using the novel and original technique of minimal incision surgery (MIS). There were a total of 77 feet in 76 patients who underwent ISA and were followed for 50 months on average (range, 15-108). The first 30 cases were evaluated retrospectively, and 47 cases were evaluated prospectively. MIS without tourniquet was used in all cases and fusion was assessed radiographically and clinically. Clinical outcome measures used were the Angus and Cowell Scoring System, AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot, the SF-36, and a patient satisfaction questionnaire 12 months after the intervention. Radiographic and clinical consolidation was achieved in 92% of cases. Main outcomes were "good" in 57 patients as determined by the Angus and Cowell criteria, with 13 "fair" and 7 "poor" results. In the prospective group, AOFAS scores improved by 47.6 points (95% CI: 50.7-42.5) 12 months after surgical intervention. SF-36 outcomes improved by 14.5 points (95% CI: 11.58-17.31) in the mental summary component and 4.2 points (95% CI: 2.2-6.1) in the physical summary component. We recorded no cases of early complications such as wound infections, neurovascular damage, or delayed wound healing. To our knowledge, the present series represents the largest study on subtalar arthrodesis using minimally invasive surgery. The data obtained showed a similar rate of bony union and clinical outcomes compared with the literature, but without early wound complications. ISA using the MIS technique was a good option for patients at greater risk of wound healing complications. Level IV, case series.

  19. Hypospadias repair (United States)

    ... the problem. If the repair is not done, problems may occur later on such as: Difficulty controlling and directing urine stream A curve in the penis during erection Decreased fertility Embarrassment about appearance of penis Surgery ...

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D Hutchins

    Full Text Available Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies.

  1. Activated astrocytes enhance the dopaminergic differentiation of stem cells and promote brain repair through bFGF. (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Yunhui; Tu, Jie; Wan, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Bifeng; Chen, Shanping; Zhou, Jiawei; Mu, Yangling; Wang, Liping


    Astrocytes provide neuroprotective effects against degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and play a fundamental role in DA differentiation of neural stem cells. Here we show that light illumination of astrocytes expressing engineered channelrhodopsin variant (ChETA) can remarkably enhance the release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and significantly promote the DA differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro. Light activation of transplanted astrocytes in the substantia nigra (SN) also upregulates bFGF levels in vivo and promotes the regenerative effects of co-transplanted stem cells. Importantly, upregulation of bFGF levels, by specific light activation of endogenous astrocytes in the SN, enhances the DA differentiation of transplanted stem cells and promotes brain repair in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Our study indicates that astrocyte-derived bFGF is required for regulation of DA differentiation of the stem cells and may provide a strategy targeting astrocytes for treatment of PD.

  2. The mismatch repair system modulates curcumin sensitivity through induction of DNA strand breaks and activation of G2-M checkpoint. (United States)

    Jiang, Zhihua; Jin, ShunQian; Yalowich, Jack C; Brown, Kevin D; Rajasekaran, Baskaran


    The highly conserved mismatch (MMR) repair system corrects postreplicative errors and modulates cellular responses to genotoxic agents. Here, we show that the MMR system strongly influences cellular sensitivity to curcumin. Compared with MMR-proficient cells, isogenically matched MMR-deficient cells displayed enhanced sensitivity to curcumin. Similarly, cells suppressed for MLH1 or MSH2 expression by RNA interference displayed increased curcumin sensitivity. Curcumin treatment generated comparable levels of reactive oxygen species and the mutagenic adduct 8-oxo-guanine in MMR-proficient and MMR-deficient cells; however, accumulation of gammaH2AX foci, a marker for DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), occurred only in MMR-positive cells in response to curcumin treatment. Additionally, MMR-positive cells showed activation of Chk1 and induction of G(2)-M cell cycle checkpoint following curcumin treatment and inhibition of Chk1 by UCN-01 abrogated Chk1 activation and heightened apoptosis in MMR-proficient cells. These results indicate that curcumin triggers the accumulation of DNA DSB and induction of a checkpoint response through a MMR-dependent mechanism. Conversely, in MMR-compromised cells, curcumin-induced DSB is significantly blunted, and as a result, cells fail to undergo cell cycle arrest, enter mitosis, and die through mitotic catastrophe. The results have potential therapeutic value, especially in the treatment of tumors with compromised MMR function.

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms. (United States)

    Hutchins, Elizabeth D; Markov, Glenn J; Eckalbar, Walter L; George, Rajani M; King, Jesse M; Tokuyama, Minami A; Geiger, Lauren A; Emmert, Nataliya; Ammar, Michael J; Allen, April N; Siniard, Ashley L; Corneveaux, Jason J; Fisher, Rebecca E; Wade, Juli; DeNardo, Dale F; Rawls, J Alan; Huentelman, Matthew J; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne; Kusumi, Kenro


    Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies.

  4. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS Assisted Sigma Resection Via Pfannenstiel Incision for Complicated Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Dietrich


    Results: The operation time ranged from 89 to 280 min. There were no conversions, and no additional trocars were used. The postoperative hospital stay ranged from 5 to 14 days. All patients were discharged without any intraoperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions: SILS sigma or anterior rectum resection for complicated diverticulitis can be performed via a Pfannenstiel incision. This approach provides direct visualization and access into the pelvis as well as the option to benefit from open surgery devices. The Pfannenstiel incision may generally be recommended for the favorable cosmetic effect and the very low rate of incisional hernias, as reported in the literature. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(1.000: 10-15

  5. Transurethral incision of urethral diverticulum in the female

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, J; Honnens de Lichtenberg, M


    A new technique of transurethral incision of urethral diverticulum was successfully used in two women. The method described is safe, simple and shortens operating time.......A new technique of transurethral incision of urethral diverticulum was successfully used in two women. The method described is safe, simple and shortens operating time....

  6. The stream channel incision syndrome and water quality (United States)

    Watershed development often triggers channel incision, which accounts for 60-90% of sediments leaving many disturbed watersheds. Impacts of such incision on water quality processes and the implication of such impairment on stream biota are relevant to issues associated with establishing total maxim...

  7. Cost assessment of instruments for single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Al-Tayar, Haytham; Rosenberg, Jacob;


    Specially designed surgical instruments have been developed for single-incision laparoscopic surgery, but high instrument costs may impede the implementation of these procedures. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of operative implements used for elective cholecystectomy performed...... as conventional laparoscopic 4-port cholecystectomy or as single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy....

  8. Modeling the Evolution of Incised Streams: III. Model Application (United States)

    Incision and ensuing widening of alluvial stream channels is widespread in the midsouth and midwestern United States and represents an important form of channel adjustment. Two accompanying papers have presented a robust computational model for simulating the long-term evolution of incised and resto...

  9. SMA Syndrome Treated by Single Incision Laparoscopic Duodenojejunostomy. (United States)

    Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Min, Young-Don


    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a mechanical duodenal obstruction by the SMA. The traditional approach to SMA syndrome was open bypass surgery. Nowadays, a conventional approach has been replaced by laparoscopic surgery. But single incision laparoscopic approach for SMA syndrome is rare. Herein, we report the first case of SMA syndrome patient who was treated by single incision laparoscopic duodenojejunostomy.

  10. Single incision laparoscopic right hemicolectomy:different approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Tak-man; DAY Weida; KWOK Shu-yan; LAU Ying-yu Patrick; YIP Wai-chun Andrew


    Background Single incision laparoscopic colectomy has been performed in recent years,and has been shown to be feasible and safe.This study was to assess the feasibility of single incision laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and to compare the differences in different approaches.Methods This retrospective study included eighteen patients with carcinoma of caecum and ascending colon,undergoing single incision laparoscopic right hemicolectomy.This study also compared single incision laparoscopic right hemicolectomy using different approaches:(1) single incision multiport,(2) single access port and (3) glove port.Results There was no statistical difference in surgical outcomes.Concerning the surgeon's satisfaction toward three methods,overcrowding and durability were similar but the single incision multiport was associated with the highest gas-leak and the "glove" port was associated with poor durability.However,the method of single incision multiport has the lowest average cost of the special trocar or port in each operation.The operative time and blood loss of the operations in this study were comparable to previous publications.Conclusion There was no significant difference between different approaches of single incision laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for colonic cancer in right side colon.

  11. In normal human fibroblasts variation in DSB repair capacity cannot be ascribed to radiation-induced changes in the localisation, expression or activity of major NHEJ proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Vronskaja, Svetlana; Overgaard, Jens


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to test whether for normal human fibroblasts the variation in double-strand break (DSB) repair capacity results from radiation-induced differences in localisation, expression or activity of major non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) proteins....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed with 11 normal human fibroblast strains AF01-11. NHEJ proteins were determined by Western blot and DNA-PK activity by pulldown-assay. RESULTS: The four NHEJ proteins tested (Ku70, Ku80, XRCC4 and DNA-PKcs) were found to be localised almost exclusively...... in the activity of the DNA-PK complex induced upon irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: For normal human fibroblasts, the level or activity of NHEJ proteins measured prior to or after irradiation cannot be used to predict the DSB repair capacity or cellular radiosensitivity. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  12. First Canadian experience with robotic single-incision pyeloplasty: Comparison with multi-incision technique (United States)

    Law, Jeffrey; Rowe, Neal; Archambault, Jason; Nastis, Sofia; Sener, Alp; Luke, Patrick P.


    Introduction: We compared the outcomes of single-incision, robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty vs. multiple-incision pyeloplasty using the da Vinci robotic system. Methods: We reviewed all consecutive robotic pyeloplasties by a single surgeon from January 2011 to August 2015. A total of 30 procedures were performed (16 single:14 multi-port). Two different single-port devices were compared: the GelPort (Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA) and the Intuitive single-site access port (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). Results: Patient demographics were similar between the two groups. Mean operating time was similar among the single and multi-port groups (225.2 min vs. 198.9 minutes [p=0.33]). There was no significant difference in length of hospital stay in either group (86.2 hr vs. 93.2 hr [p=0.76]). There was no difference in success rates or postoperative complications among groups. Conclusions: Single-port robotic pyeloplasty is non-inferior to multiple-incision robotic surgery in terms of operative times, hospitalization time, success rates, and complications. Verifying these results with larger cohorts is required prior to the wide adoption of this technique. Ongoing objective measurements of cosmesis and patient satisfaction are being evaluated. PMID:27217850

  13. A Protective Mechanism of Visible Red Light in Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts: Enhancement of GADD45A-Mediated DNA Repair Activity. (United States)

    Kim, Yeo Jin; Kim, Hyoung-June; Kim, Hye Lim; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Tae Ryong; Shin, Dong Wook; Seo, Young Rok


    The phototherapeutic effects of visible red light on skin have been extensively investigated, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. We aimed to elucidate the protective mechanism of visible red light in terms of DNA repair of UV-induced oxidative damage in normal human dermal fibroblasts. The protective effect of visible red light on UV-induced DNA damage was identified by several assays in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cell culture systems. With regard to the protective mechanism of visible red light, our data showed alterations in base excision repair mediated by growth arrest and DNA damage inducible, alpha (GADD45A). We also observed an enhancement of the physical activity of GADD45A and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) by visible red light. Moreover, UV-induced DNA damages were diminished by visible red light in an APE1-dependent manner. On the basis of the decrease in GADD45A-APE1 interaction in the activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2)-knockdown system, we suggest a role for ATF2 modulation in GADD45A-mediated DNA repair upon visible red light exposure. Thus, the enhancement of GADD45A-mediated base excision repair modulated by ATF2 might be a potential protective mechanism of visible red light. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Of Heart & Kidneys: Hands-On Activities for Demonstrating Organ Function & Repair (United States)

    Kao, Robert M.


    A major challenge in teaching organ development and disease is deconstructing a complex choreography of molecular and cellular changes over time into a linear stepwise process for students. As an entry toward learning developmental concepts, I propose two inexpensive hands-on activities to help facilitate learning of (1) how to identify defects in…

  15. Of Heart & Kidneys: Hands-On Activities for Demonstrating Organ Function & Repair (United States)

    Kao, Robert M.


    A major challenge in teaching organ development and disease is deconstructing a complex choreography of molecular and cellular changes over time into a linear stepwise process for students. As an entry toward learning developmental concepts, I propose two inexpensive hands-on activities to help facilitate learning of (1) how to identify defects in…

  16. Physical activity modulates nerve plasticity and stimulates repair after Achilles tendon rupture. (United States)

    Bring, Daniel K-I; Kreicbergs, Andris; Renstrom, Per A F H; Ackermann, Paul W


    In a rat model of tendon rupture using semiquantitative methodology, healing was assessed according to the diameter of newly organized collagen and the occurrence of the sensory neuropeptides (SP, CGRP) in relation to different levels of physical activity. Normally, innervation of the Achilles tendon is confined to the paratenon. After rupture new nerve fibers grow into the tendon proper, but disappear after healing. In a first experiment to establish peak tissue and nerve regeneration after rupture, tendon tissues from freely moving rats were collected consecutively over 16 weeks. A peak increase in organized collagen and nerve ingrowth was observed between week 2 to 4 post rupture. Therefore, in a second experiment week 4 was chosen to assess the effect of physical activity on tendon healing in three groups of rats, that is, wheel running, plaster treated, and freely moving (controls). In the wheel-running group, the diameter of newly organized collagen was 94% ( p = 0.001) greater than that in the plaster-treated group and 48% ( p = 0.02) greater than that in the controls. Inversely, the neuronal occurrence of CGRP in the tendon proper was 57% ( p = 0.02) lower in the wheel-running group than that in the plaster-treated group and 53% ( p = 0.02) lower than that in the controls, suggesting an earlier neuronal in-growth and disappearance in the more active group. Physical activity speeds up tendon healing, which may prove to be linked to accelerated neuronal plasticity.

  17. Protozoan ALKBH8 Oxygenases Display both DNA Repair and tRNA Modification Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zdżalik, Daria; Vågbø, Cathrine B; Kirpekar, Finn


    , interestingly, two protozoan ALKBH8s also catalyzed wobble uridine modification of tRNA, thus displaying a dual in vitro activity. Also, we found the modification status of tRNAGly(UCC) to be unaltered in an ALKBH8 deficient mutant of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, indicating that bacterial ALKBH8s have a function...

  18. Influence of Incision Location on Transmitter Loss, Healing, Incision Lengths, Suture Retention, and Growth of Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panther, Jennifer L.; Brown, Richard S.; Gaulke, Greggory L.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deters, Katherine A.


    In this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, we measured differences in survival and growth, incision openness, transmitter loss, wound healing, and erythema among abdominal incisions on the linea alba, lateral and parallel to the linea alba (muscle-cutting), and following the underlying muscle fibers (muscle-sparing). A total of 936 juvenile Chinook salmon were implanted with both Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Tracking System transmitters (0.43 g dry) and passive integrated transponder tags. Fish were held at 12°C (n = 468) or 20°C (n = 468) and examined once weekly over 98 days. We found survival and growth did not differ among incision groups or between temperature treatment groups. Incisions on the linea alba had less openness than muscle-cutting and muscle-sparing incisions during the first 14 days when fish were held at 12°C or 20°C. Transmitter loss was not different among incision locations by day 28 when fish were held at 12°C or 20°C. However, incisions on the linea alba had greater transmitter loss than muscle-cutting and muscle-sparing incisions by day 98 at 12°C. Results for wound closure and erythema differed among temperature groups. Results from our study will be used to improve fish-tagging procedures for future studies using acoustic or radio transmitters.

  19. Improvement of in vitro physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of calcium sulfate cement for bone repair by dicalcium silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Cheng [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chien-Wen [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Nai-Shuo [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Ding, Shinn-Jyh, E-mail: [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 402, Taiwan (China)


    Highlights: • Dicalcium silicate can improve osteogenic activity of calcium sulfate cement. • The higher the calcium sulfate content, the shorter the setting time in the composite cement. • The results were useful for designing calcium-based cement with optimal properties. -- Abstract: An ideal bone graft substitute should have the same speed of degradation as formation of new bone tissue. To improve the properties of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) featured for its rapid resorption, a low degradation material of dicalcium silicate (DCS) was added to the CSH cement. This study examined the effect of DCS (20, 40, 60 and 80 wt%) on the in vitro physicochemical properties and osteogenic activities of the calcium-based composite cements. The diametral tensile strength, porosity and weight loss of the composite cements were evaluated before and after soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The osteogenic activities, such as proliferation, differentiation and mineralization, of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded on cement surfaces were also examined. As a result, the greater the DCS amount, the higher the setting time was in the cement. Before soaking in SBF, the diametral tensile strength of the composite cements was decreased due to the introduction of DCS. On 180-day soaking, the composite cements containing 20, 40, 60 and 80 wt% DCS lost 80%, 69%, 61% and 44% in strength, respectively. Regarding in vitro bioactivity, the DCS-rich cements were covered with clusters of apatite spherulites after soaking for 7 days, while there was no formation of apatite spherulites on the CSH-rich cement surfaces. The presence of DCS could reduce the degradation of the CSH cements, as evidenced in the results of weight loss and porosity. More importantly, DCS may promote effectively the cell proliferation, proliferation and mineralization. The combination of osteogenesis of DCS and degradation of CSH made the calcium-based composite cements an attractive choice for

  20. Partial loss of the DNA repair scaffolding protein, Xrcc1, results in increased brain damage and reduced recovery from ischemic stroke in mice. (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Canugovi, Chandrika; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Wilson, David M; Croteau, Deborah L; Mattson, Mark P; Bohr, Vilhelm A


    Oxidative DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair (BER). Previously, our laboratory showed that mice lacking the BER glycosylases 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) or nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (Neil1) recover more poorly from focal ischemic stroke than wild-type mice. Here, a mouse model was used to investigate whether loss of 1 of the 2 alleles of X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (Xrcc1), which encodes a nonenzymatic scaffold protein required for BER, alters recovery from stroke. Ischemia and reperfusion caused higher brain damage and lower functional recovery in Xrcc1(+/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Additionally, a greater percentage of Xrcc1(+/-) mice died as a result of the stroke. Brain samples from human individuals who died of stroke and individuals who died of non-neurological causes were assayed for various steps of BER. Significant losses of thymine glycol incision, abasic endonuclease incision, and single nucleotide incorporation activities were identified, as well as lower expression of XRCC1 and NEIL1 proteins in stroke brains compared with controls. Together, these results suggest that impaired BER is a risk factor in ischemic brain injury and contributes to its recovery.

  1. Ebselen attenuates oxidative DNA damage and enhances its repair activity in the thalamus after focal cortical infarction in hypertensive rats. (United States)

    He, Meixia; Xing, Shihui; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Liqun; Hua, Haiying; Liang, Zhijian; Zhou, Wenliang; Zeng, Jinsheng; Pei, Zhong


    Oxidative DNA damage has been proposed to be a major contributor to focal cerebral ischemic injury. However, little is known about the role of oxidative DNA damage in remote damage secondary to the primary infarction. In the present study, we investigated oxidative damage within the ventroposterior nucleus (VPN) after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in hypertensive rats. We also examined the possible protective effect of ebselen, one glutathione peroxidase mimic, on delayed degeneration in the VPN after distal MCAO. Neuronal damage in the ipsilateral VPN was examined by Nissl staining. Oxidative DNA damage and base repair enzyme activity were assessed by analyzing immunoreactivity of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-ohdG) and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), respectively. The number of intact neurons in the ipsilateral VPN decreased by 52% compared to the contralateral side in ischemia group 2 weeks after distal cerebral cortical infarction. The immunoreactivity of 8-ohdG significantly increased while OGG1 immunoreactivity significantly decreased in the ipsilateral VPN 2 weeks after distal cortical infarction (all pVPN (all pVPN region following distal MCAO. Furthermore, ebselen protects against the delayed damage in the VPN when given at 24 h following distal MCAO.

  2. Shiga Toxin 1, as DNA Repair Inhibitor, Synergistically Potentiates the Activity of the Anticancer Drug, Mafosfamide, on Raji Cells

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    Piero Sestili


    Full Text Available Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1, produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli, targets a restricted subset of human cells, which possess the receptor globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer/CD77, causing hemolytic uremic syndrome. In spite of the high toxicity, Stx1 has been proposed in the treatment of Gb3Cer/CD77-expressing lymphoma. Here, we demonstrate in a Burkitt lymphoma cell model expressing this receptor, namely Raji cells, that Stx1, at quasi-non-toxic concentrations (0.05–0.1 pM, inhibits the repair of mafosfamide-induced DNA alkylating lesions, synergistically potentiating the cytotoxic activity of the anticancer drug. Conversely, human promyelocytic leukemia cells HL-60, which do not express Gb3Cer/CD77, were spared by the toxin as previously demonstrated for CD34+ human progenitor cells, and hence, in this cancer model, no additive nor synergistic effects were observed with the combined Stx1/mafosfamide treatment. Our findings suggest that Stx1 could be used to improve the mafosfamide-mediated purging of Gb3Cer/CD77+ tumor cells before autologous bone marrow transplantation.

  3. Prolongation of PR interval is associated with endothelial dysfunction and activation of vascular repair in high-risk cardiovascular patients. (United States)

    Chan, Yap-Hang; Siu, Chung-Wah; Yiu, Kai-Hang; Yiu, Yuen-Fung; Lau, Kui-Kai; Lam, Tai-Hing; Lau, Chu-Pak; Tse, Hung-Fat


    Epidemiological studies showed that PR prolongation is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated the relations of PR interval with indices of vascular function and endothelial repair as the underlying mechanisms. The study comprised 348 high-risk patients with prior coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and/or diabetes mellitus recruited from medical outpatient clinics and 150 healthy subjects without such a history. PR interval was considered prolonged if >200 ms, as determined from resting 12-lead electrocardiogram. Vascular function was assessed by brachial flow-meditated dilatation (FMD) using high-resolution ultrasound. Circulating CD133(+)/KDR(+) endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) levels were measured by flow cytometry. Among healthy subjects, PR interval was inversely associated with FMD (R = -0.20, P = 0.015), but not with the level of circulating CD133(+)/KDR(+) EPC (R = 0.05, P = 0.58). Among high-risk cardiovascular patients, PR prolongation >200 ms was more common compared with healthy subjects (45/348 (13 %) versus 4/150 (3 %), P PR interval was associated inversely with FMD (R = -0.14, P = 0.01) and positively with circulating CD133(+)/KDR(+) EPC level (R = +0.14, P = 0.009). Circulating CD133(+)/KDR(+) EPC level was significantly increased in patients with PR prolongation >200 ms (0.87 ± 0.37 versus 0.68 ± 0.42 (log, ×10(-3)/ml), P = 0.005). Adjusted for potential confounders, increased PR interval remained independently associated with increased CD133(+)/KDR(+) EPC by +0.002 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.000 to 0.004 (log, ×10(-3)/ml), P = 0.011) and depressed FMD (B = -0.014 %, 95 % CI -0.027 to -0.002, P = 0.026). PR prolongation is associated with endothelial dysfunction and evidence of endothelial repair activation in patients with high cardiovascular risk.

  4. River longitudinal profiles and bedrock incision models: Stream power and the influence of sediment supply (United States)

    Sklar, Leonard; Dietrich, William E.

    area). We use this model to predict longitudinal profiles under varying boundary conditions and sediment supply rates and find that even in actively downcutting rivers, the river slope needed to maintain incision may be only slightly greater than the slope required to transport the imposed load. Hence, the channel slope-drainage area relationships of rivers actively cutting through bedrock may predominately reflect the grain size and supply rate of sediment and only secondarily the influence of bedrock resistance to erosion.

  5. Assessment of corneal astigmatism following frown and straight incision forms in sutureless manual small incision cataract surgery

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    Amedo AO


    Full Text Available Angela Ofeibea Amedo, Kwadwo Amoah, Nana Yaa Koomson, David Ben Kumah, Eugene Appenteng Osae Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana Abstract: To investigate which of two tunnel incision forms (frown versus straight in sutureless manual small incision cataract surgery creates more corneal astigmatism. Sixty eyes of 60 patients who had consented to undergo cataract surgery and to partake in this study were followed from baseline through >12-week postoperative period. Values of preoperative and postoperative corneal astigmatism for the 60 eyes, measured with a Bausch and Lomb keratometer, were extracted from the patients’ cataract surgery records. Residual astigmatism was computed as the difference between preoperative and postoperative keratometry readings. Visual acuity was assessed during the preoperative period and at each postoperative visit with a Snellen chart at 6 m. Fifty eyes of 50 patients were successfully followed-up on. Overall, the mean residual astigmatism was 0.75±0.12 diopters. The differences in mean residual astigmatism between the two different incision groups were statistically significant (t [48]=6.33, P<0.05; frown incision group recorded 1.00±0.12 diopters, whereas the straight incision group recorded 0.50±0.12 diopters. No significant difference was observed between male and female groups (t [48]=0.24, P>0.05. Residual corneal astigmatism in the frown incision group was significantly higher than in the straight incision group. Fisher’s exact test did not reveal a significant association between incision forms and visual acuity during the entire postoperative period (P>0.05. Keywords: cataract, residual corneal astigmatism, frown incision, straight incision

  6. Reduced Activity of Double-Strand Break Repair Genes in Prostate Cancer Patients With Late Normal Tissue Radiation Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oorschot, Bregje van, E-mail: [Laboratory for Experimental Oncology and Radiobiology (LEXOR), Center for Molecular Medicine (CEMM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hovingh, Suzanne E. [Laboratory for Experimental Oncology and Radiobiology (LEXOR), Center for Molecular Medicine (CEMM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Moerland, Perry D. [Bioinformatics Laboratory, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Medema, Jan Paul; Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Laboratory for Experimental Oncology and Radiobiology (LEXOR), Center for Molecular Medicine (CEMM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrieling, Harry [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Franken, Nicolaas A.P. [Laboratory for Experimental Oncology and Radiobiology (LEXOR), Center for Molecular Medicine (CEMM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Purpose: To investigate clinical parameters and DNA damage response as possible risk factors for radiation toxicity in the setting of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Clinical parameters of 61 prostate cancer patients, 34 with (overresponding, OR) and 27 without (non-responding, NR) severe late radiation toxicity were assembled. In addition, for a matched subset the DNA damage repair kinetics (γ-H2AX assay) and expression profiles of DNA repair genes were determined in ex vivo irradiated lymphocytes. Results: Examination of clinical data indicated none of the considered clinical parameters to be correlated with the susceptibility of patients to develop late radiation toxicity. Although frequencies of γ-H2AX foci induced immediately after irradiation were similar (P=.32), significantly higher numbers of γ-H2AX foci were found 24 hours after irradiation in OR compared with NR patients (P=.03). Patient-specific γ-H2AX foci decay ratios were significantly higher in NR patients than in OR patients (P<.0001). Consequently, NR patients seem to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) more efficiently than OR patients. Moreover, gene expression analysis indicated several genes of the homologous recombination pathway to be stronger induced in NR compared with OR patients (P<.05). A similar trend was observed in genes of the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway (P=.09). This is congruent with more proficient repair of DNA DSBs in patients without late radiation toxicity. Conclusions: Both gene expression profiling and DNA DSB repair kinetics data imply that less-efficient repair of radiation-induced DSBs may contribute to the development of late normal tissue damage. Induction levels of DSB repair genes (eg, RAD51) may potentially be used to assess the risk for late radiation toxicity.

  7. Femoral hernia repair (United States)

    Femorocele repair; Herniorrhaphy; Hernioplasty - femoral ... During surgery to repair the hernia, the bulging tissue is pushed back in. The weakened area is sewn closed or strengthened. This repair ...

  8. Undescended testicle repair (United States)

    Orchidopexy; Inguinal orchidopexy; Orchiopexy; Repair of undescended testicle; Cryptorchidism repair ... first year of life without treatment. Undescended testicle repair surgery is recommended for patients whose testicles do ...

  9. The effects of altered fractionation schedules on the survival of human cell lines differing in their proliferative activity and repair capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konefal, J.B.; Taylor, Y.C. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))


    Plateau phase cultures of human cell lines were used as model systems to study the relative influences of proliferation and repair on the effectiveness of altered fractionation schedules. A human normal diploid fibroblast cell line (AG1522) which has a high capacity to repair potentially lethal radiation damage (PLD) and very little proliferative activity when grown to confluence was compared to human tumor cell lines which maintain significant cell-cycle activity in plateau phase. The human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080, used in the present study exhibited a much greater rate of turnover than the normal fibroblasts as determined from tritiated thymidine incorporation (5 day labeling index of 66% vs 20%) and no PLD repair, as determined by delayed plating experiments, in plateau phase. Twenty Gy were delivered to both cell lines over 5 days in 3 regimens: one 4 Gy fraction/day, two 2 Gy fractions/day with a 2 hr interval between doses, and two 2 Gy fractions/day with a 6 hr interval between doses. Although the normal fibroblasts demonstrated the greatest sparing between acute single doses and one 4 Gy fraction/day, there was little additional benefit (increased survival) from the increased dose fractionation. In contrast, the twice daily fractionation schedules resulted in significant differential sparing of the fibrosarcoma cells compared to the normal fibroblasts. With the 6 hr interval between doses, the survival advantages of the cell line with the slow turnover rate and high PLD repair capacity were completely lost. Split-dose experiments indicated slightly less sublethal damage repair in the fibrosarcoma cell line, but for both cell lines recovery was complete in 2 hr. DNA distributions were measured by flow cytometry and long term labeling index measurements performed in parallel with the multifraction radiation survival studies.


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    Rangaraj, K.; Cooper, P.K.; Trego, K.S.


    The rapid recognition and repair of DNA damage is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular survival. Multiple complex and interconnected DNA damage responses exist within cells to preserve the human genome, and these repair pathways are carried out by a specifi c interplay of protein-protein interactions. Thus a failure in the coordination of these processes, perhaps brought about by a breakdown in any one multifunctional repair protein, can lead to genomic instability, developmental and immunological abnormalities, cancer and premature aging. This study demonstrates a novel interaction between two such repair proteins, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G protein (XPG) and Werner syndrome helicase (WRN), that are both highly pleiotropic and associated with inherited genetic disorders when mutated. XPG is a structure-specifi c endonuclease required for the repair of UV-damaged DNA by nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mutations in XPG result in the diseases Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS). A loss of XPG incision activity results in XP, whereas a loss of non-enzymatic function(s) of XPG causes CS. WRN is a multifunctional protein involved in double-strand break repair (DSBR), and consists of 3’–5’ DNA-dependent helicase, 3’–5’ exonuclease, and single-strand DNA annealing activities. Nonfunctional WRN protein leads to Werner syndrome, a premature aging disorder with increased cancer incidence. Far Western analysis was used to map the interacting domains between XPG and WRN by denaturing gel electrophoresis, which separated purifi ed full length and recombinant XPG and WRN deletion constructs, based primarily upon the length of each polypeptide. Specifi c interacting domains were visualized when probed with the secondary protein of interest which was then detected by traditional Western analysis using the antibody of the secondary protein. The interaction between XPG and WRN was mapped to the C-terminal region of

  11. Testing bedrock incision models: Holocene channel evolution, High Cascades, Oregon (United States)

    Sweeney, K. E.; Roering, J. J.; Fonstad, M. A.


    There is abundant field evidence that sediment supply controls the incision of bedrock channels by both protecting the bed from incision and providing tools to incise the bed. Despite several theoretical models for sediment-dependent bedrock abrasion, many investigations of natural channel response to climatic, lithologic, or tectonic forcing rely on the stream power model, which does not consider the role of sediment. Here, we use a well-constrained fluvial channel cut into a Holocene lava flow in the High Cascades, Oregon to compare incision predictions of the stream power model and of the full physics of theoretical models for saltation-abrasion incision by bedload and suspended load. The blocky andesite of Collier lava flow erupted from Collier Cone ~1500 years ago, paving over the existing landscape and erasing fine-scale landscape dissection. Since the eruption, a 6 km stream channel has been incised into the lava flow. The channel is comprised of three alluvial reaches with sediment deposits up to 2 m thick and two bedrock gorges with incision of up to 8 m, with larger magnitude incision in the upstream gorge. Abraded forms such as flutes are present in both gorges. Given the low magnitude and duration of modern snowmelt flow in the channel, it is likely that much of the incision was driven by sediment-laden outburst floods from the terminus of Collier Glacier, which is situated just upstream of the lava flow and has produced two outburst floods in the past 100 years. This site is well suited for comparing incision models because of the relatively uniform lithology of the lava flow and our ability to constrain the timing and depth of incision using the undissected lava surface above the channel as an initial condition. Using a simple finite difference scheme with airborne-Lidar-derived pre-incision topography as an initial condition, we predict incision in the two gorges through time with both stream power and sediment-dependent models. Field observations

  12. The Surgical Release of Dupuytren's Contracture Using Multiple Transverse Incisions

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    Hyunjic Lee


    Full Text Available Dupuytren's contracture is a condition commonly encountered by hand surgeons, although it is rare in the Asian population. Various surgical procedures for Dupuytren's contracture have been reported, and the outcomes vary according to the treatment modalities. We report the treatment results of segmental fasciectomies with multiple transverse incisions for patients with Dupuytren's contracture. The cases of seven patients who underwent multiple segmental fasciectomies with multiple transverse incisions for Dupuytren's contracture from 2006 to 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Multiple transverse incisions to the severe contracture sites were performed initially, and additional incisions to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP joints, and the proximal interphalangeal (PIP joints were performed if necessary. Segmental fasciectomies by removing the fibromatous nodules or cords between the incision lines were performed and the wound margins were approximated. The mean range of motion of the involved MCP joints and PIP joints was fully recovered. During the follow-up periods, there was no evidence of recurrence or progression of disease. Multiple transverse incisions for Dupuytren's contracture are technically challenging, and require a high skill level of hand surgeons. However, we achieved excellent correction of contractures with no associated complications. Therefore, segmental fasciectomies with multiple transverse incisions can be a good treatment option for Dupuytren's contracture.

  13. The Surgical Release of Dupuytren's Contracture Using Multiple Transverse Incisions

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    Hyunjic Lee


    Full Text Available Dupuytren’s contracture is a condition commonly encountered by hand surgeons, although itis rare in the Asian population. Various surgical procedures for Dupuytren’s contracture havebeen reported, and the outcomes vary according to the treatment modalities. We report thetreatment results of segmental fasciectomies with multiple transverse incisions for patientswith Dupuytren’s contracture. The cases of seven patients who underwent multiple segmentalfasciectomies with multiple transverse incisions for Dupuytren’s contracture from 2006 to 2011were reviewed retrospectively. Multiple transverse incisions to the severe contracture sites wereperformed initially, and additional incisions to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP joints, and theproximal interphalangeal (PIP joints were performed if necessary. Segmental fasciectomiesby removing the fibromatous nodules or cords between the incision lines were performed andthe wound margins were approximated. The mean range of motion of the involved MCP jointsand PIP joints was fully recovered. During the follow-up periods, there was no evidence ofrecurrence or progression of disease. Multiple transverse incisions for Dupuytren’s contractureare technically challenging, and require a high skill level of hand surgeons. However, weachieved excellent correction of contractures with no associated complications. Therefore,segmental fasciectomies with multiple transverse incisions can be a good treatment option forDupuytren’s contracture.

  14. Reliability measures of a computer system with priority to PM over the H/W repair activities subject to MOT and MRT

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    Ashish Kumar


    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the evaluation of reliability measures of a computer system of two-identical units having independent failure of h/w and s/w components. Initially one unit is operative and the other is kept as spare in cold standby. There is a single server visiting the system immediately whenever needed. The server conducts preventive maintenance of the unit after a maximum operation time. If server is unable to repair the h/w components in maximum repair time, then components in the unit are replaced immediately by new one. However, only replacement of the s/w components has been made at their failure. The priority is given to the preventive maintenance over repair activities of the h/w. The time to failure of the components follows negative exponential distribution whereas the distribution of preventive maintenance, repair and replacement time are taken as arbitrary. The expressions for some important reliability measures of system effectiveness have been derived using semi-Markov process and regenerative point technique. The graphical behavior of the results has also been shown for a particular case.

  15. Laparoendoscopic Single-site Repair of Retrocaval Ureter Without any Special Devices

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    Rafael B. Rebouças


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital anomaly. The extrinsic compression may be responsible for obstruction and pain symptoms. The laparoscopic approach has been used with good results and less morbidity than the open surgery. Herein we describe a case of retrocaval ureter treated with LESS. To our knowledge, this represents the second such case reported in the literature, and the first without using any special devices, such as, single port or bended instruments. PRESENTATION Female, 23 years, complaining of right low back pain for a long time and recurrent urinary tract infection. Renal ultrasound demonstrated right-sided hydronephrosis and intravenous urography suggested the presence of retrocaval ureter. DTPA renal scintigraphy confirms delay in the elimination of contrast through the right kidney. A laparoendoscopic single-site repair was planned. The patient was placed in rightside-up modified flank position. A semicircular intra-umbilical incision was made and the conventional trocars (one 10 mm and two 5 mm were inserted through the same incision on different points of the aponeurosis. The colon was dissected medially and the proximal ureter lateral to the vena cava was identified and dissected. An extra corporeal repair with Vycril 2-0 was used to facilitate the ureteral dissection and the anastomosis. A segment of ureter was ressected due to the tortuosity. Two 4-0 Vycril sutures were used to perform a running anastomosis. An ureteral stent was placed after the posterior layer on an antegrade fashion. A suction drain was left through the umbilicus. RESULTS The total operative time was 145 min. The blood loss was minimal. The patient was discharged on the third postoperative day and resumed total activity about 10 days after surgery. The double J was removed within 4 weeks. DISCUSSION Albeit technically challenging, LESS repair for retrocaval ureter might represent a feasible new treatment option for this rare anatomic

  16. Clinical outcomes of early active mobilization following flexor tendon repair using the six-strand technique: short- and long-term evaluations. (United States)

    Moriya, K; Yoshizu, T; Maki, Y; Tsubokawa, N; Narisawa, H; Endo, N


    We evaluated the factors influencing outcomes of flexor tendon repair in 112 fingers using a six-strand suture with the Yoshizu #1 technique and early postoperative active mobilization in 101 consecutive patients. A total of 32 fingers had injuries in Zone I, 78 in Zone II, and two in Zone III. The mean follow-up period was 6 months; 16 patients (19 fingers) participated in long-term follow-up of 2 to 16 years. The total active motion was 230° SD 29°; it correlated negatively with age. The total active motion was 231° SD 28° after repair of the lacerated flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, and was 205° SD 37° after excision of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon ends (p = 0.0093). A total of 19 fingers showed no significant increases in total active motion more than 2 years after surgery. The rupture rate was 5.4% in our patients and related to surgeons' level of expertise. Five out of six ruptured tendons were repaired by inexperienced surgeons. Level of Evidence IV.

  17. Hypospadias Repair: A Single Centre Experience

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    Mansoor Khan


    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the demographics and analyze the management and factors influencing the postoperative complications of hypospadias repair. Settings. Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2011. Material and Methods. All male patients presenting with hypospadias irrespective of their ages were included in the study. The data were acquired from the hospital’s database and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results. A total of 428 patients with mean age of 8.12 ± 5.04 SD presented for hypospadias repair. Midpenile hypospadias were the most common. Chordee, meatal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernias were observed in 74.3%, 9.6%, 2.8%, and 2.1% cases, respectively. Two-stage (Bracka and TIP (tubularized incised urethral plate repairs were performed in 76.2% and 20.8% of cases, respectively. The most common complications were edema and urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF. The complications were significantly lower in the hands of specialists than residents (P-value = 0.0086. The two-stage hypospadias repair resulted in higher complications frequency than single-stage repair (P value = 0.0001. Conclusion. Hypospadias surgery has a long learning curve because it requires a great deal of temperament, surgical skill and acquaintance with magnifications. Single-stage repair should be encouraged wherever applicable due to its lower postoperative complications.

  18. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and gelatinases activity in 3T3 fibroblast cell by root repair materials

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    Varol Basak


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium silicate-based products on cytotoxicity in the 3T3 fibroblast and gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. 3T3 fibroblasts were incubated directly with Ortho Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, BioAggregate, Biodentine, MTA Plus, MTA Angelus and MTA Cerkamed for 24 hours and seven days. The cytotoxicity was determined using an MTT assay. Supernatants were collected to determine MMP-2 and MMP-9. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS 22. Seventh day extracts of Ortho MTA and Biodentine showed reduced cell viability. Specific characterization of MMPs in cell culture demonstrated that MMP-2 (62 kPa in the cell culture supernatants by gelatin zymography showed induced expression in four out of seven groups by 3T3 cells. No MMP-9 expression was observed. The cytotoxicity of materials revealed a significant difference in cell viability between the groups on the first and seventh days. The results of this study revealed minor cytotoxic effects for Ortho MTA and Biodentine. This study suggests that endodontic sealers induced production of MMP-2. MMP-9 might be expressed in small amounts when compared with MMP-2.

  19. 旋转推进法单侧唇裂修复术中鼻底切口设计与缝合的改进%A new modified Millard method of unilateral cleft lip repair by improvement of nasal floor incision and suture point design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丰; 杨汉林


    Objective Millard's rotation advancement technique has long been considered as principal of unilateral cleft lip repair.However,this method owe a constant postoperative effect,we introduce a modified technique to better design the C flap and the suture point. Methods We present a retrospective review of 25 cases of unilateral cleft lip patients,average age 5.2 months, referred to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery of Hunan provincial people's hospital from March to December of 2012.A back-cut was designed to end at the lip-columellar junction and the C-flap is used to both fill the columellar defect and abut the rotated lip segment, and outline of the peak of C flap was arc rather than angular.The skin point 7 sutured with point 5,point 6 sutured with point 6'. Results The Cupid's bow and the lip height were symmetry, the scar below the columella decreased significantly,the patient family satisfaction was high. Conclusion These results suggested that modified the C flap and suture point can be achieved using our technique.%目的:介绍一种改进瓣尖设计与缝合位点的术式。方法:患侧推进瓣瓣尖设计成弧形,缝合时弧形顶点第7点与健侧鼻小柱下第5点缝合,第6点与6'点缝合。结果:整个上唇唇弓自然,唇高双侧对称,鼻小柱下方瘢痕明显减少,患者家属满意度高。结论:微调整Millard切口设计及缝合方式,可获得良好的唇裂修复效果,提高单侧唇裂患者家属的满意度。

  20. Percutaneous repair followed by accelerated rehabilitation for acute Achilles tendon ruptures. (United States)

    Al-Mouazzen, Louay; Rajakulendran, Karthig; Najefi, Ali; Ahad, Nurul


    To evaluate the outcome after percutaneous repair followed by accelerated rehabilitation for acute Achilles tendon ruptures. 21 men and 9 women (mean age, 41 years) underwent percutaneous repair by a single senior surgeon for acute Achilles tendon ruptures, followed by early weight bearing and accelerated rehabilitation. Outcome measures included the Achilles tendon re-rupture rate, the Achilles tendon total rupture score (ATRS) at 3 and 6 months, the incidence of sural nerve injury, wound infection, wound dehiscence, patient satisfaction, and the time to return to pre-rupture activity. The mean follow-up period was 12.5 months. The mean ATRS score improved from 57.65 at 3 months to 86.95 at 6 months (ptendon re-rupture, sural nerve injury, wound dehiscence, or deep infection. Two patients developed a superficial wound infection, which was resolved with oral flucloxacillin. Two patients had a mass at the transverse incision, but neither had any symptoms or functional restriction. All patients were able to bear full weight comfortably without the walker boot at 8 weeks, and return to their work by 3 months. The mean time to return to pre-rupture activity, including sports, was 10.4 months. The mean satisfaction rate was 87% at 6 months. Percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon followed by early weight bearing and accelerated rehabilitation achieves good functional outcome.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available MATERIAL & METHODS : This randomized , prospective study was carried out on patient attending out patients department of ophthalmology L . L . R . hospital ( G S V M Medical College Kanpur during the time period of 2 years . Detailed history , general examination & ophthalmic examination done . Then they under went Dacryocystorhinostomy surgery . These patients divided into two groups the Group ‘A’ and Group ‘B’ . Group . A patients underwent the dacryocystorhinostomy surgery with manual scalpel incision and Group B patients underwent the surgery with radiofrequency tools . The subsequent follow up was done at the intervals at one week , 3 weeks , 6 weeks and 6 months . Some w ere followed more frequently whenever needed . RESULTS : The present study was conducted on 118 eyes of 102 patients , o f these 56 eyes ( 48 patients received skin incision with manual scalpel ( Group ‘A’ and 62 eyes ( 54 patients received skin incision with r adiofrequency knife ( Group ‘B’ . The intraoperative bleeding and mean surgical time per case was less with rad i frequency knife that is in group B . There was also faster wound healing with more numbers cases of excellent scar quality on postoperative follo w up in Group B . DISCUSSION : Intraoperative average numbers of gauze pieces used per case was less in Group B because of electrocoagulation action of radiofrequency tools . That is why the mean surgical time per case was less in Group B . Patients was compar ed for scar quality by giving them scores according to Manchester scar scale score and60% patients in Group B achieves excellent scar quality scores in comparison to group A in which only 48% patients achieves excellent scar quality scores . CONCLUSION : There is less intraoperative bleeding and less mean surgical time per case and faster healing with excellent scar quality postoperatively in early and late follow ups with radiofrequency tools than manual scalpel .

  2. Neurotrophin-3 Induces BMP-2 and VEGF Activities and Promotes the Bony Repair of Injured Growth Plate Cartilage and Bone in Rats. (United States)

    Su, Yu-Wen; Chung, Rosa; Ruan, Chun-Sheng; Chim, Shek Man; Kuek, Vincent; Dwivedi, Prem P; Hassanshahi, Mohammadhossein; Chen, Ke-Ming; Xie, Yangli; Chen, Lin; Foster, Bruce K; Rosen, Vicki; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Xu, Jiake; Xian, Cory J


    Injured growth plate is often repaired by bony tissue causing bone growth defects, for which the mechanisms remain unclear. Because neurotrophins have been implicated in bone fracture repair, here we investigated their potential roles in growth plate bony repair in rats. After a drill-hole injury was made in the tibial growth plate and bone, increased injury site mRNA expression was observed for neurotrophins NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 and their Trk receptors. NT-3 and its receptor TrkC showed the highest induction. NT-3 was localized to repairing cells, whereas TrkC was observed in stromal cells, osteoblasts, and blood vessel cells at the injury site. Moreover, systemic NT-3 immunoneutralization reduced bone volume at injury sites and also reduced vascularization at the injured growth plate, whereas recombinant NT-3 treatment promoted bony repair with elevated levels of mRNA for osteogenic markers and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) and increased vascularization and mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial cell marker CD31 at the injured growth plate. When examined in vitro, NT-3 promoted osteogenesis in rat bone marrow stromal cells, induced Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation, and enhanced expression of BMPs (particularly BMP-2) and VEGF in the mineralizing cells. It also induced CD31 and VEGF mRNA in rat primary endothelial cell culture. BMP activity appears critical for NT-3 osteogenic effect in vitro because it can be almost completely abrogated by co-addition of the BMP inhibitor noggin. Consistent with its angiogenic effect in vivo, NT-3 promoted angiogenesis in metatarsal bone explants, an effect abolished by co-treatment with anti-VEGF. This study suggests that NT-3 may be an osteogenic and angiogenic factor upstream of BMP-2 and VEGF in bony repair, and further studies are required to investigate whether NT-3 may be a potential target for preventing growth plate faulty bony repair or for promoting bone fracture healing. © 2016

  3. Intestinal obstruction repair (United States)

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  4. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular (United States)

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... Endovascular aortic repair is done because your aneurysm is very large, growing quickly, or is leaking or bleeding. You may have ...

  5. Interaction of p21CDKN1A with PCNA regulates the histone acetyltransferase activity of p300 in nucleotide excision repair (United States)

    Cazzalini, Ornella; Perucca, Paola; Savio, Monica; Necchi, Daniela; Bianchi, Livia; Stivala, Lucia A.; Ducommun, Bernard; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Prosperi, Ennio


    The cell-cycle inhibitor p21CDKN1A has been suggested to directly participate in DNA repair, thanks to the interaction with PCNA. Yet, its role has remained unclear. Among proteins interacting with both p21 and PCNA, the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300 has been shown to participate in DNA repair. Here we report evidence indicating that p21 protein localizes and interacts with both p300 and PCNA at UV-induced DNA damage sites. The interaction between p300 and PCNA is regulated in vivo by p21. Indeed, loss of p21, or its inability to bind PCNA, results in a prolonged binding to chromatin and an increased association of p300 with PCNA, in UV-irradiated cells. Concomitantly, HAT activity of p300 is reduced after DNA damage. In vitro experiments show that inhibition of p300 HAT activity induced by PCNA is relieved by p21, which disrupts the association between recombinant p300 and PCNA. These results indicate that p21 is required during DNA repair to regulate p300 HAT activity by disrupting its interaction with PCNA. PMID:18263614

  6. Motorcycle Repair. (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  7. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose


    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  8. Techniques for posterior lamellar keratoplasty through a scleral incision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, GRJ; Kamminga, N


    Purpose. To describe several techniques for posterior lamellar keratoplasty through a scleral incision, for management of corneal endothelial disorders like pseudophacic bullous keratopathy and Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy, and to report the mid-term clinical results. Methods. Three techniques have

  9. Single-incision laparoscopic management of a giant hepatic cyst. (United States)

    Willems, Kaitlin; Monsivais, Sharon; Vassaur, Hannah; Buckley, Francis P


    Large symptomatic hepatic cysts may warrant surgical management. Traditional multiport laparoscopic technique is typically preferred over open laparotomy, but the use of the single-incision laparoscopic approach for this diagnosis is not well documented. Here, we describe the case of a 68-year-old woman who underwent complete anterior wall fenestration, excision and cauterization of a simple hepatic cyst via a single-incision laparoscopic technique through an incision at the umbilicus. The objective of this case report is to document single-incision laparoscopy as a safe, feasible and cosmetically appealing approach for the management of a large hepatic cyst. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015.

  10. River Incision and Knickpoints on the Flank of the Yellowstone Hotspot — Alpine Canyon of the Snake River, Wyoming (United States)

    Tuzlak, D.; Pederson, J. L.


    Understanding patterns of deformation and testing geophysical models in the dynamic region of the Yellowstone Hotspot requires Quaternary-scale records of incision and uplift, which are currently absent. This study examines fluvial terraces and longitudinal-profile metrics along Alpine Canyon of the Snake River, WY. Because the Snake is the only regional river crossing from the uplifting Yellowstone Plateau and flowing into the subsiding Eastern Snake River Plain, it provides an opportunity to investigate both ends of the phenomenon. Field observations through Alpine Canyon indicate that Pleistocene incision rates in this region are relatively high for the interior western U.S., that the river switches between bedrock and alluvial forms, and that incision/uplift is not uniform. Two endmembers of regional deformation may be tested: 1) the arch of high topography surrounding Yellowstone is uplifting and terraces converge downstream as incision rates decrease towards the Snake River Plain, or 2) baselevel fall originates at the subsiding Snake River Plain and terraces diverge as incision rates increase downstream. Datasets include surficial mapping, rock strength measurements, surveying of the longitudinal profile and terraces using RTK-GPS, optically stimulated luminescence dating of fluvial-terrace deposits, and investigation of drainages through ksn and χ analyses. Initial results indicate that there are four primary terrace deposits along the canyon, three of which are timed with glacial epochs. Considering the relative heights of terrace straths and preliminary ages, incision rates are indeed relatively high. There is a major knickzone covering the last 15 km of the canyon that is also reflected in tributary profiles and is consistent with a wave of incision propagating upstream, favoring the second endmember of active baselevel fall downstream.

  11. Transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic hepatectomy: an initial report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ming-gen; ZHAO Guo-dong; XU Da-bing; LIU Rong


    Transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic surgeries have attracted the attention of surgeon. Here we report a patient with multiple hepatic hemagiomas and symptomatic cholelithiasis who underwent laparoscopic left lateral hepatecomy and left hepatic hemangioma enucleation with single incision followed by cholecystectomy. The duration of the operation was 155 minutes and the blood loss was 100 ml. There were no complications during or after the treatment. This surgical treatment yields a good cosmetic effect and rapid recovery.

  12. Usefulness of Ω-shaped Incision in Skin Tumor Excision

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    Naoshige Iida, MD, PhD


    Full Text Available Summary: We devised the Ω-shaped incision as a technique for skin tumor resection on the areas of skin with an arc-shaped fold. With this technique, the dog-ear that is formed during 6 wound closure can be resected within the range of the first skin incision. We report this technique after performing it on the face or trunk of 18 patients and confirmed its usefulness.

  13. Treatment of bilateral mammary ptosis and pectus excavatum through the same incision in one surgical stage

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    Fernando Passos Rocha

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Congenital deformities of the anterior thoracic wall are characterized by unusual development of the costal cartilages. All these medical conditions are frequently associated with a variety of breast deformities. Several surgical techniques have been described for correcting them, going from sternochondroplasty to, nowadays, minimally invasive techniques and silicone prosthesis implantation. CASE REPORT: The present article reports the case of a young female patient who presented bilateral mammary ptosis and moderate pectus excavatum that caused a protrusion between the eighth and the tenth ribs and consequent esthetic disharmony. The proposed surgical treatment included not only subglandular breast implants of polyurethane, but also resection of part of the rib cartilage and a bone segment from the eighth, ninth and tenth ribs by means of a single submammary incision in order to make the scar minimally visible. Correction through a single incision benefited the patient and provided an excellent esthetic result. CONCLUSIONS: The techniques used to repair bilateral mammary ptosis and pectus excavatum by plastic and thoracic surgery teams, respectively, have been shown to be efficient for correcting both deformities. An excellent esthetic and functional result was obtained, with consequent reestablishment of the patient's self-esteem.

  14. [Photoreactivating Activity of Bioluminescence: Repair of UV-damaged DNA of Escherichia coli Occurs with Assistance of lux-Genes of Marine Bacteria]. (United States)

    Zavilgelsky, G B; Melkina, O E; Kotova, V Yu; Konopleva, M N; Manukhov, I V; Pustovoit, K Ss


    The UV resistance of luminescent bacteria Escherichia coli AB1886 uvrA6 (pLeo1) containing the plasmid with luxCDABE genes of marine bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi is approximately two times higher than the UV resistance of non-luminous bacteria E. coli AB1886 uvrA6. Introduction of phr::kan(r) mutations (a defect in the functional activity of photolyase) into the genome of E. coli AB1886 uvrA6 (pLeo1) completely removes the high UV resistance of the cells. Therefore, photoreactivation that involves bacterial photolyase contributes mainly to the bioluminescence-induced DNA repair. It is shown that photoreactivating activity of bioluminescence of P. leiognathi is about 2.5 times lower compared with that one induced by a light source with λ > 385 nm. It is also shown that an increase in the bioluminescence intensity, induced by UV radiation in E. coli bacterial cells with a plasmid containing the luxCD ABE genes under RecA-LexA-regulated promoters, occurs only 25-30 min later after UV irradiation of cells and does not contribute to DNA repair. A quorum sensing regulatory system is not involved in the DNA repair by photolyase.

  15. Biodegradable polymer thin film for enhancement of laser-assisted incision closure with an indocyanine-green-doped liquid albumin solder (United States)

    Sorg, Brian S.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Welch, Ashley J.


    The purpose of this study was to determine if solid material reinforcement of a liquid albumin solder coagulum could improve the cohesive strength of the solder and thus the ultimate breaking strength of the incision repair in vitro. A 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder with 0.5 mg/mL Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye was used to repair an incision in bovine aorta. The solder was coagulated with an 806 nm CW diode laser. A 50 micrometer thick poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) film was used to reinforce the solder (the controls had no reinforcement). Acute breaking strengths were measured and the data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (P less than 0.05). Multiple comparisons of means were performed using the Newman- Keuls test. Observations of the failure modes indicated cohesive strength reinforcement of the test specimens versus the controls. At the higher laser powers used in this study (400 and 450 mW), the reinforced solder was consistently stronger than the controls. Reinforcement of liquid albumin solders in laser-assisted incision repair may have mechanical advantages in terms of acute breaking strength over conventional methods that do not reinforce the cohesive strength of the solder.

  16. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α2 in Neutrophils Regulates Vascular Repair via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α and a Network of Proteins Affecting Metabolism and Apoptosis (United States)

    Abdel Malik, Randa; Zippel, Nina; Frömel, Timo; Heidler, Juliana; Zukunft, Sven; Walzog, Barbara; Ansari, Nariman; Pampaloni, Francesco; Wingert, Susanne; Rieger, Michael A.; Wittig, Ilka; Fisslthaler, Beate


    Rationale: The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is stimulated by hypoxia, and although the AMPKα1 catalytic subunit has been implicated in angiogenesis, little is known about the role played by the AMPKα2 subunit in vascular repair. Objective: To determine the role of the AMPKα2 subunit in vascular repair. Methods and Results: Recovery of blood flow after femoral artery ligation was impaired (>80%) in AMPKα2−/− versus wild-type mice, a phenotype reproduced in mice lacking AMPKα2 in myeloid cells (AMPKα2ΔMC). Three days after ligation, neutrophil infiltration into ischemic limbs of AMPKα2ΔMC mice was lower than that in wild-type mice despite being higher after 24 hours. Neutrophil survival in ischemic tissue is required to attract monocytes that contribute to the angiogenic response. Indeed, apoptosis was increased in hypoxic neutrophils from AMPKα2ΔMC mice, fewer monocytes were recruited, and gene array analysis revealed attenuated expression of proangiogenic proteins in ischemic AMPKα2ΔMC hindlimbs. Many angiogenic growth factors are regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α induction was attenuated in AMPKα2-deficient cells and accompanied by its enhanced hydroxylation. Also, fewer proteins were regulated by hypoxia in neutrophils from AMPKα2ΔMC mice. Mechanistically, isocitrate dehydrogenase expression and the production of α-ketoglutarate, which negatively regulate hypoxia-inducible factor-1α stability, were attenuated in neutrophils from wild-type mice but remained elevated in cells from AMPKα2ΔMC mice. Conclusions: AMPKα2 regulates α-ketoglutarate generation, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α stability, and neutrophil survival, which in turn determine further myeloid cell recruitment and repair potential. The activation of AMPKα2 in neutrophils is a decisive event in the initiation of vascular repair after ischemia. PMID:27777247

  17. FANCJ localization by mismatch repair is vital to maintain genomic integrity after UV irradiation. (United States)

    Guillemette, Shawna; Branagan, Amy; Peng, Min; Dhruva, Aashana; Schärer, Orlando D; Cantor, Sharon B


    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is critical for the repair of DNA lesions induced by UV radiation, but its contribution in replicating cells is less clear. Here, we show that dual incision by NER endonucleases, including XPF and XPG, promotes the S-phase accumulation of the BRCA1 and Fanconi anemia-associated DNA helicase FANCJ to sites of UV-induced damage. FANCJ promotes replication protein A phosphorylation and the arrest of DNA synthesis following UV irradiation. Interaction defective mutants of FANCJ reveal that BRCA1 binding is not required for FANCJ localization, whereas interaction with the mismatch repair (MMR) protein MLH1 is essential. Correspondingly, we find that FANCJ, its direct interaction with MLH1, and the MMR protein MSH2 function in a common pathway in response to UV irradiation. FANCJ-deficient cells are not sensitive to killing by UV irradiation, yet we find that DNA mutations are significantly enhanced. Thus, we considered that FANCJ deficiency could be associated with skin cancer. Along these lines, in melanoma we found several somatic mutations in FANCJ, some of which were previously identified in hereditary breast cancer and Fanconi anemia. Given that, mutations in XPF can also lead to Fanconi anemia, we propose collaborations between Fanconi anemia, NER, and MMR are necessary to initiate checkpoint activation in replicating human cells to limit genomic instability.

  18. Mre11 ATLD17/18 mutation retains Tel1/ATM activity but blocks DNA double-strand break repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Limbo (Oliver); D. Moiani (Davide); A. Kertokalio (Aryandi); C. Wyman (Claire); J.A. Tainer (John); P. Russell (Paul)


    textabstractThe Mre11 complex (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 or MRN) binds double-strand breaks where it interacts with CtIP/Ctp1/Sae2 and ATM/Tel1 to preserve genome stability through its functions in homology-directed repair, checkpoint signaling and telomere maintenance. Here, we combine biochemical, structur

  19. Comparison of the Keratometric Corneal Astigmatic Power after Phacoemulsification: Clear Temporal Corneal Incision versus Superior Scleral Tunnel Incision

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    Yongqi He


    Full Text Available Objective. This is prospective randomized control trial to compare the mean keratometric corneal astigmatism diopter power (not surgical induced astigmatism among preop and one-month and three-month postop phacoemulcification of either a clear temporal corneal incision or a superior scleral tunnel Incision, using only keratometric astigmatic power reading to evaluate the difference between the two cataract surgery incisions. Methods. 120 patients (134 eyes underwent phacoemulcification were randomly assigned to two groups: Group A, the clear temporal corneal incision group, and Group B, the superior scleral tunnel incision group. SPSS11.5 Software was used for statistical analysis to compare the postsurgical changes of cornea astigmatism on keratometry. Results. The changes of corneal astigmatic diopter in Groups A and B after 3 month postop from keratometric reading were 1.04 + 0.76 and 0.94 + 0.27, respectively (=.84>.05, which showed no statistic significance difference. Conclusion. The incision through either temporal clear cornea or superior scleral tunnel in phacoemulcification shows no statistic difference in astigmatism change on keratometry 3-month postop.

  20. Open, intraperitoneal, ventral hernia repair: lessons learned from laparoscopy. (United States)

    Ponsky, Todd A; Nam, Arthur; Orkin, Bruce A; Lin, Paul P


    Recent literature suggests that laparoscopic repair of ventral hernias may have very low recurrence rates. However, laparoscopy may not be feasible in certain situations. We describe an open technique that uses the tension-free retrofascial principles of laparoscopic repair without the need for subcutaneous flaps. Through an incision in the hernia, the peritoneum is entered and adhesions are taken down. A piece of DualMesh (W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc, Newark, Del) is trimmed to fit with a 5-cm circumferential overlap. A vertical incision is made in the mid portion of the mesh. The mesh is fixed in an intraperitoneal retrofascial position using GORE-TEX sutures (W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc). The sutures are brought through the abdominal wall using a laparoscopic suture passer and tied into place on one side of the mesh. That side is then tacked to the posterior fascia with a spiral tacking device. The other side is sutured into place in a similar fashion and then tacked to the fascia by passing the spiral tacking device through the incision in the mesh. The mesh incision is closed with a running GORE-TEX suture. The overlying tissues are closed in layers.

  1. Dietary proanthocyanidins prevent ultraviolet radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer through enhanced repair of damaged DNA-dependent activation of immune sensitivity. (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K; Pal, Harish C; Prasad, Ram


    Numerous plant products have been used to prevent and manage a wide variety of diseases for centuries. These products are now considered as promising options for the development of more effective and less toxic alternatives to the systems of medicine developed primarily in developed countries in the modern era. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are of great interest due to their anti-carcinogenic effects that have been demonstrated using various tumor models including ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. In a pre-clinical mouse model supplementation of a control diet (AIN76A) with GSPs at concentrations of 0.2% and 0.5% (w/w) significantly inhibits the growth and multiplicity of UVB radiation-induced skin tumors. In this review, we summarize the evidence that this inhibition of UVB-induced skin tumor development by dietary GSPs is mediated by a multiplicity of coordinated effects including: (i) Promotion of the repair of damaged DNA by nuclear excision repair mechanisms, and (ii) DNA repair-dependent stimulation of the immune system following the functional activation of dendritic cells and effector T cells. Dietary GSPs hold promise for the development of an effective alternative strategy for the prevention of excessive solar UVB radiation exposure-induced skin diseases including the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonic incisions produce less inflammatory mediator response during early healing than electrosurgical incisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Nanduri

    Full Text Available As the use of laparoscopic surgery has become more widespread in recent years, the need has increased for minimally-invasive surgical devices that effectively cut and coagulate tissue with reduced tissue trauma. Although electrosurgery (ES has been used for many generations, newly-developed ultrasonic devices (HARMONIC® Blade, HB have been shown at a macroscopic level to offer better coagulation with less thermally-induced tissue damage. We sought to understand the differences between ES and HB at a microscopic level by comparing mRNA transcript and protein responses at the 3-day timepoint to incisions made by the devices in subcutaneous fat tissue in a porcine model. Samples were also assessed via histological examination. ES-incised tissue had more than twice as many differentially-expressed genes as HB (2,548 vs 1,264 respectively, and more differentially-expressed proteins (508 vs 432 compared to control (untreated tissue. Evaluation of molecular functions using Gene Ontology showed that gene expression changes for the energized devices reflected the start of wound healing, including immune response and inflammation, while protein expression showed a slightly earlier stage, with some remnants of hemostasis. For both transcripts and proteins, ES exhibited a greater response than HB, especially in inflammatory mediators. These findings were in qualitative agreement with histological results. This study has shown that transcriptomics and proteomics can monitor the wound healing response following surgery and can differentiate between surgical devices. In agreement with clinical observations, electrosurgery was shown to incur a greater inflammatory immune response than an ultrasonic device during initial iatrogenic wound healing.

  3. Effect of special rectification activity on antibiotic prophylaxis of patients undergoing type Ⅰ incision surgery%专项整治活动对Ⅰ类切口手术患者抗菌药物预防使用的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金秀; 吴振波; 王荣土; 应学清; 王选锭


    OBJECTIVE To improve the perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis of the patients undergoing type Ⅰincision surgery in grassroots hospitals through special rectification activity .METHODS A total of 225 patients who underwent the type Ⅰ incision surgery from Jan to Jun 2011 (before the special rectification ) and 419 patients who underwent the type Ⅰ incision surgery in the general surgery department from Jan to Jun 2014 (after the special rectification) were enrolled in the study ,then the rate of prophylactic use of antibiotics during perioperative period ,rate of reasonable use of antibiotics ,rate of accordance to antibiotics prophylaxis time no more than 24 hours ,and incidence of surgical incision infections were retrospectively analyzed ,and the statistical analysis was performed with the use of SPSS13 .0 software .RESULTS The rate of perioperative antibiotics prophylaxis was 68 .89% before the special rectification and was decreased to 14 .32% after the rectification , and there was significant difference (P<0 .05) .All the surgery cases received the one‐drug therapy before and after the special rectification ,and no case received the combined drug therapy .The accordance rate of the antibiotics prophylaxis time less than 24 hours was 69 .68% before the special rectification ,91 .67% after the special rectification the difference was significant (P< 0 .05) .The incidence of surgical site infections was 0 .44% before the special rectification ,0 .48% after the special rectification ,and there was no significant difference .CONCLUSIONS The conduct of special rectification through comprehensive interventions may promote the perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis of the patients undergoing the type Ⅰ incision surgery in the grassroots hospitals ,without increase of the incidence of surgical site infections .%目的:通过专项整治活动,改进基层医院外科Ⅰ类切口手术患者围手术期抗菌药物预防使用。方法选择整治前的2011

  4. Early Postoperative Nociceptive Threshold and Production of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Induced by Plantar Incision Are Not Influenced with Minocycline in a Rat: Role of Spinal Microglia

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    Eiji Masaki


    Full Text Available Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF from spinal microglia is crucial for aberrant nociceptive signaling in several pathological pain conditions, including postoperative pain. We assess the contribution of spinal microglial activation and associated BDNF overexpression to the early post-incisional nociceptive threshold. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with an intrathecal catheter. A postoperative pain model was established by plantar incision. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were assessed by infrared radiant heat and von Frey filaments before and after plantar incision. Rats were injected intrathecally the microglial activation inhibitor minocycline before incision, 24 h after incision, or both. Other groups were subjected to the same treatments and the L4-L5 spinal cord segment removed for immunohistochemical analysis of microglia activation and BNDF expression. Results: Plantar incision reduced both thermal latency and mechanical threshold, indicating thermal hypersensitivity and mechanical allodynia. Minocycline temporally reduced thermal withdrawal latency but had no effect on mechanical withdrawal threshold, spinal microglial activity, or dorsal horn BDNF overexpression during the early post-incision period. Conclusion: These results suggest that spinal microglia does not contribute substantially to post-incisional nociceptive threshold. The BDNF overexpression response that may contribute to postoperative hyperalgesia and allodynia is likely derived from other sources.

  5. Is the Oxidative DNA Damage Level of Human Lymphocyte Correlated with the Antioxidant Capacity of Serum or the Base Excision Repair Activity of Lymphocyte?

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    Yi-Chih Tsai


    Full Text Available A random screening of human blood samples from 24 individuals of nonsmoker was conducted to examine the correlation between the oxidative DNA damage level of lymphocytes and the antioxidant capacity of serum or the base excision repair (BER activity of lymphocytes. The oxidative DNA damage level was measured with comet assay containing Fpg/Endo III cleavage, and the BER activity was estimated with a modified comet assay including nuclear extract of lymphocytes for enzymatic cleavage. Antioxidant capacity was determined with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. We found that though the endogenous DNA oxidation levels varied among the individuals, each individual level appeared to be steady for at least 1 month. Our results indicate that the oxidative DNA damage level is insignificantly or weakly correlated with antioxidant capacity or BER activity, respectively. However, lymphocytes from carriers of Helicobacter pylori (HP or Hepatitis B virus (HBV tend to give higher levels of oxidative DNA damage (P<0.05. Though sera of this group of individuals show no particular tendency with reduced antioxidant capacity, the respective BER activities of lymphocytes are lower in average (P<0.05. Thus, reduction of repair activity may be associated with the genotoxic effect of HP or HBV infection.

  6. Modulation of RhoA GTPase Activity Sensitizes Human Cervix Carcinoma Cells to γ-Radiation by Attenuating DNA Repair Pathways

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    Juliana H. Osaki


    Full Text Available Radiotherapy with γ-radiation is widely used in cancer treatment to induce DNA damage reducing cell proliferation and to kill tumor cells. Although RhoA GTPase overexpression/hyperactivation is observed in many malignancies, the effect of RhoA activity modulation on cancer radiosensitivity has not been previously investigated. Here, we generated stable HeLa cell clones expressing either the dominant negative RhoA-N19 or the constitutively active RhoA-V14 and compared the responses of these cell lines with those of parental HeLa cells, after treatment with low doses of γ-radiation. HeLa-RhoA-N19 and HeLa-RhoA-V14 clones displayed reduced proliferation and survival compared to parental cells after radiation and became arrested at cell cycle stages correlated with increased cellular senescence and apoptosis. Also, Chk1/Chk2 and histone H2A phosphorylation data, as well as comet assays, suggest that the levels of DNA damage and DNA repair activation and efficiency in HeLa cell lines are correlated with active RhoA. In agreement with these results, RhoA inhibition by C3 toxin expression drastically affected homologous recombination (HR and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ. These data suggest that modulation of RhoA GTPase activity impairs DNA damage repair, increasing HeLa cell radiosensitivity.

  7. Investigation of DNA repair in human oocytes and preimplantation embryos


    Jaroudi, S.


    DNA repair genes are expressed in mammalian embryos and in human germinal vesicles, however, little is known about DNA repair in human preimplantation embryos. This project had three aims: 1) to produce a DNA repair profile of human MII oocytes and blastocysts using expression arrays and identify repair pathways that may be active before and after embryonic genome activation; 2) to design an in vitro functional assay that targeted mismatch repair and which could be applied to human oocytes...

  8. Late Quaternary fluvial incision rates in a marine terraced landscape, southeastern Crete, Greece (United States)

    Karymbalis, Efthimios; Papanastassiou, Dimitris; Valkanou, Kanella; Gaki-Papanastassiou, Kalliopi


    regional uplift and the uplift due to the activity of the Ierapetra fault. Fluvial incision rates are higher for the streams developed at the footwall depending strongly on the distance from the trace of the fault. Downcutting rates are comparable with the slip rate of the Ierapetra fault over the last 410 Ka.

  9. Experimental investigation of fluvial incision on Titan by low-velocity sediment impacts (United States)

    Polito, P. J.; Zygielbaum, B. R.; Sklar, L. S.; Collins, G.


    Images returned by the Cassini-Huygens mission reveal evidence for widespread fluvial incision in the polar regions of Titan. Dendritic channel networks draining to large lakes and the absence of cratering suggest active incision into Titan's water-ice bedrock surface. Previous work using the saltation-abrasion bedrock incision model suggests that a terrestrial channel transposed to Titan conditions would incise at remarkably similar rates, because the effects of Titan's lower gravity and less-dense sediments are offset by a much lower resistance to abrasion for ice than rock of similar strength. Here we report new laboratory measurements of ice erosion by low-velocity sediment impacts, part of a larger study investigating the temperature dependence of the material properties that control ice erodibility. We measure the energy required to erode a unit volume of ice using drop tests, in which a 110-150 g ice clast falls 5-10 cm onto a 20 cm diameter ice disk, and differences in mass and measurements of ice density are used to calculate the volume eroded. We construct the 10cm thick ice disks using 2-4 mm seed crystals and near-freezing distilled water. After freezing at 253 K a disk is placed in the bottom of a steel cylinder surrounded by dry ice and liquid nitrogen is pumped into the cylinder from below, chilling the ice to near-Titan temperatures for several hours but never submerging the samples (all drop test trials are completed in air). Our preliminary drop test results show that 4 J and 25 J are required to erode 1 cm3 of ice at temperatures of 205 K and110 K respectively, suggesting that ice may be no more than 2-3 times more erodible than previously-tested rocks of similar tensile strengths. A key limitation of this experimental method is the small size of our target disks, which fail catastrophically by through-cracking after several hundred drops. To avoid through-cracking and obtain direct measurements of ice surface erosion, we are preparing new

  10. Effectiveness comparison of channel-assisted mini-incision and open Achilles shortening for treatment of healed Achilles tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-zhe QI


    Full Text Available Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness between the channel-assisted mini-invasion and open Achilles shortening for treatment of the elongated Achilles tendon following previous rupture. Methods The clinical data of 19 patients admitted from Dec. 2013 to Dec. 2015 and met the inclusion criteria were analyzed retrospectively. Eight patients were treated with shortening operation by channel-assisted minimally invasive repair system, while 11 patients received dissection of Krackow Achilles tendon shortening. There was no significant difference between the two groups in gender, age, injury to operation time, preoperative calf circumference and preoperative AOFAS (American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society score (P>0.05. Results The operation time, incision length and postoperative hospital days were significantly less in min-invasion group than in incision group (P0.05. Conclusion Channel-assisted minimally invasive Achilles tendon shortening operation has not only similar effectiveness to the incision shorting operation for the treatment of elongated Achilles tendon following previous rupture, but also has the advantages of shortening operation time and stay in hospital and avoidance of sural nerve injury. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.07.12

  11. Laparoscopic Appendectomy versus Mini-Incision Appendectomy in Patients with Lower Body Mass Index and Noncomplicated Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özsan


    Full Text Available Laparoscopic appendectomy has become favored over open surgical methods for its association with decreased postoperative pain, more rapid return to daily activities, and improved cosmetic results. Mini-incision appendectomy was being performed in our clinic for a long time especially in patients with noncomplicated appendicitis and in patients with appropriate body mass index. Although laparoscopy presents obvious advantages especially for obese patients and young women, with respect to the results of our study, mini-incision appendectomy seems to be an alternative for selected patient groups.

  12. Trabectedin and its C subunit modified analogue PM01183 attenuate nucleotide excision repair and show activity toward platinum-resistant cells. (United States)

    Soares, Daniele G; Machado, Miriana S; Rocca, Céline J; Poindessous, Virginie; Ouaret, Djamila; Sarasin, Alain; Galmarini, Carlos M; Henriques, João A P; Escargueil, Alexandre E; Larsen, Annette K


    PM01183 is a novel marine-derived covalent DNA binder in clinical development. PM01183 is structurally similar to trabectedin (yondelis, ecteinascidin-743) except for the C subunit, and this modification is accompanied by different pharmacokinetics in cancer patients. We here characterize the interaction of PM01183 with the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway in comparison with trabectedin. Our results show for the first time that although neither PM01183 nor trabectedin is repaired by NER, both compounds are able to interfere with the NER machinery thereby attenuating the repair of specific NER substrates. We further show that the NER activity is increased in 3 of 4 cellular models with acquired resistance to cisplatin or oxaliplatin, confirming the involvement of NER in the resistance to platinum derivatives. Importantly, both PM01183 and trabectedin show unchanged or even enhanced activity toward all 4 cisplatin- and oxaliplatin-resistant cell lines. We finally show that combinations of PM01183 and cisplatin were mostly synergistic toward both parental and cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells as indicated by Chou and Talalay analysis. These data show that the C subunit of trabectedin can be subjected to at least some structural modifications without loss of activity or NER interaction. While PM01183 and trabectedin appear functionally similar in cellular models, it is likely that the differences in pharmacokinetics may allow different dosing and scheduling of PM01183 in the clinic that could lead to novel and/or increased antitumor activity. Taken together, our results provide a mechanistic basis to support clinical trials of PM01183 alone or in combination with cisplatin.

  13. Morphine reduces local cytokine expression and neutrophil infiltration after incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiangqi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and nociceptive sensitization are hallmarks of tissue surrounding surgical incisions. Recent studies demonstrate that several cytokines may participate in the enhancement of nociception near these wounds. Since opioids like morphine interact with neutrophils and other immunocytes, it is possible that morphine exerts some of its antinociceptive action after surgical incision by altering the vigor of the inflammatory response. On the other hand, keratinocytes also express opioid receptors and have the capacity to produce cytokines after injury. Our studies were directed towards determining if opioids alter cytokine production near incisions and to identify cell populations responsible for producing these cytokines. Results A murine incisional model was used to measure the effects of acute morphine administration (0.1–10 mg/kg on nociceptive thresholds, neutrophil infiltration and cytokine production in hind paw skin 30 minutes and 2 hours after incision. Incised hind paws displayed profound allodynia which was reduced by morphine (0.1–10 mg/kg in the 2 hours following incision. Skin samples harvested from these mice showed enhanced levels of 5 cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF and keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC. Morphine reduced these incision-stimulated levels. Separate analyses measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO and using immunohistochemistry demonstrated that morphine dose-dependently reduced the infiltration of neutrophils into the peri-incisional tissue. The dose of morphine required for reduction of cytokine accumulation, however, was below that required for inhibition of peri-incisional neutrophil infiltration. Additional immunohistochemical studies revealed wound edge keratinocytes as being an important source of cytokines in the acute phase after incision. Conclusion Acute morphine administration of doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg reduces

  14. Lateral Erosion Encourages Vertical Incision in a Bimodal Alluvial River (United States)

    Gran, K. B.


    Sand can have a strong impact on gravel transport, increasing gravel transport rates by orders of magnitude as sand content increases. Recent experimental work by others indicates that adding sand to an armored bed can even cause armor to break-up and mobilize. These two elements together help explain observations from a bimodal sand and gravel-bedded river, where lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium breaks up the armor layer, encouraging further incision into the bed. Detailed bedload measurements were coupled with surface and subsurface grain size analyses and cross-sectional surveys in a seasonally-incised channel carved into the upper alluvial fan of the Pasig-Potrero River at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, filling valleys draining the flanks of the volcano with primarily sand-sized pyroclastic flow debris. Twenty years after the eruption, sand-rich sediment inputs are strongly seasonal, with most sediment input to the channel during the rainy season. During the dry season, flow condenses from a wide braided planform to a single-thread channel in most of the upper basin, extending several km onto the alluvial fan. This change in planform creates similar unit discharge ranges in summer and winter. Lower sediment loads in the dry season drive vertical incision until the bed is sufficiently armored. Incision proceeds downstream in a wave, with increasing sediment transport rates and decreasing grain size with distance downstream, eventually reaching a gravel-sand transition and return to a braided planform. Incision depths in the gravel-bedded section exceeded 3 meters in parts of a 4 km-long study reach, a depth too great to be explained by predictions from simple winnowing during incision. Instead, lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium provides sufficient fine sediment to break up the armor surface, allowing incision to start anew and increasing the total depth of the seasonally-incised valley. Lateral migration is recorded in a

  15. Relationship of Incisive Papilla to Maxillary Incisors and Canines. (United States)

    Shrestha, Suraksha; Joshi, Sarita Pradhan; Yadav, Santosh Kumar


    The study was carried to find a relationship between the postextraction stable landmark, the incisive papilla, and the most labial position of the maxillary central incisor teeth, which occurred in Nepalese population. Casts of the subjects selected by nonprobability random sampling meeting the inclusion criteria were obtained. Each casts were standardized with respect to the occlusal plane and a photographic technique was used to measure the distance from the tangent of the labial surface of the central incisors to the posterior border of the incisive papilla. The measurements were made using Adobe Photoshop and results were analyzed by using appropriate statistical methods. Most appropriate software (SPSS) for the purpose was used to generate all desired values. The data obtained suggested that the distance from the labial surface of maxillary central incisors to the posterior border of the incisive papilla ranged from 9 to 15.9 mm with a mean of 11.59 mm (SD 1.3). Various other results were also found after evaluation of the arch forms in relation to sex and race. Within the limitations of the study, these results suggested that there is a relationship between the maxillary central incisors and the incisive papilla aiding in the anteroposterior positioning of the anterior tooth. The clinical relevance of the study lies in application of the incisive papilla as a starting point in the preliminary location of maxillary incisors and canines during construction of the denture in absence of preextraction records.

  16. Slide crown lengthening procedure using wide surface incisions and cyanoacrylate. (United States)

    Szymaitis, Dennis W


    This article introduces the slide crown lengthening procedure (SCLP), which incorporates surgical design features to overcome present crown lengthening procedure (CLP) shortcomings. The result is a 75% decrease in required surgery on adjacent teeth and a corresponding 75% reduction in surgical time. Other advantages include a reduction in surgical morbidity, improvement in terminal esthetics, and fewer teeth subject to papillae removal and apically repositioned gingiva. The 20 to 30 degree incision forming the slide is the pivotal feature; it allows effortless flap positioning. This incision angle enables wide surface incisions to adhere flaps together by producing stronger fibrin clots, decreasing tissue retraction angles, and reforming disrupted fibrin clots as incision sides slide while maintaining contact. This enhanced fibrin clot eliminates the need for sutures. The slide produced by the 20 to 30 degree incision functions for crown lengthening on all sites (facial, lingual, or palatal). This versatile surgical design introduces a new healing dimension that adapts to and provides benefits for other dental surgeries, such as gingival grafts, endodontic surgery, implants, and extractions.

  17. An animal model to train Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Presch, I; Pommergaard, H C


    PURPOSE: Inguinal hernia repair is a common surgical procedure, and the majority of operations worldwide are performed ad modum Lichtenstein (open tension-free mesh repair). Until now, no suitable surgical training model has been available for this procedure. We propose an experimental surgical...... training model for Lichtenstein's procedure on the male and female pig. METHODS: In the pig, an incision is made 1 cm cranially to the inguinal sulcus where a string of subcutaneous lymph nodes is located and extends toward the pubic tubercle. The spermatic cord is located in a narrow sulcus in the pig...... pigs, and a total of 55 surgeons have been educated to perform Lichtenstein's hernia repair in these animals. CONCLUSIONS: This new experimental surgical model for training Lichtenstein's hernia repair mimics the human inguinal anatomy enough to make it suitable as a training model. The operation...

  18. DNA repair in modeled microgravity: Double strand break rejoining activity in human lymphocytes irradiated with {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mognato, Maddalena, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Padova, via U. Bassi 58 B, 35121 Padova (Italy); Girardi, Cristina; Fabris, Sonia [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Padova, via U. Bassi 58 B, 35121 Padova (Italy); Celotti, Lucia [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Padova, via U. Bassi 58 B, 35121 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Padova (Italy)


    Cell response to ionising radiation depends, besides on genetic and physiological features of the biological systems, on environmental conditions occurring during DNA repair. Many data showed that microgravity, experienced by astronauts during space flights or modeled on Earth, causes apoptosis, cytoskeletal alteration, cell growth inhibition, increased frequency of mutations and chromosome aberrations. In this study, we analysed the progression of the rejoining of double strand breaks (DSBs) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) irradiated with {gamma}-rays and incubated in static condition (1g) or in modeled microgravity (MMG). {gamma}-H2AX foci formation and disappearance, monitored during the repair incubation, showed that the kinetics of DSBs rejoining was different in the two gravity conditions. The fraction of foci-positive cells decreased slower in MMG than in 1g at 6 and 24 h after irradiation (P < 0.01) and the mean number of {gamma}-H2AX foci per nucleus was significantly higher in MMG than in 1g at the same time-points (P < 0.001). In the same samples we determined apoptotic level and the rate of DSB rejoining during post-irradiation incubation. A significant induction of apoptosis was observed in MMG at 24 h after irradiation (P < 0.001), whereas at shorter times the level of apoptosis was slightly higher in MMG respect to 1g. In accordance with the kinetics of {gamma}-H2AX foci, the slower rejoining of radiation-induced DSBs in MMG was observed by DNA fragmentation analyses during the repair incubation; the data of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assay showed that the fraction of DNA released in the gel was significantly higher in PBL incubated in MMG after irradiation with respect to cells maintained in 1g. Our results provide evidences that MMG incubation during DNA repair delayed the rate of radiation-induced DSB rejoining, and increased, as a consequence, the genotoxic effects of ionising radiation.

  19. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Du, Libo [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Wenlan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Yang [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hudson, Laurie G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)


    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  20. Laparoscopic repair of large incisional hernias. (United States)

    Parker, Harris H; Nottingham, James M; Bynoe, Raymond P; Yost, Michael J


    Incisional hernias after abdominal operations are a significant cause of long-term morbidity and have been reported to occur in 3 to 20 per cent of laparotomy incisions. Traditional primary suture closure repair is plagued with up to a 50 per cent recurrence rate. With the introduction of prosthetic mesh repair recurrence decreased, but complications with mesh placement emerged ushering in the development of laparoscopic incisional herniorrhaphy. The records of patients who underwent laparoscopic incisional hernia repair between June 1, 1995 and September 1, 2001 were reviewed. Patient demographics, hernia defect size, recurrence, operative time, and procedure-related complications were evaluated. Fifty patients (22 male and 28 female, mean age 57 years with range of 24-83) were scheduled for laparoscopic incisional hernia repair between June 1, 1995 and September 1, 2001. The average patient was obese with a mean body mass index of 35.8 kg/m2 (range 16-57 kg/m2). Two patients (4%) had primary ventral hernias. Forty-eight patients (96%) had incisional hernias with 22 (46%) of these previously repaired with prosthetic mesh. Mean defect size was 206.1 cm2 (range 48-594 cm2). The average mesh size was 510.2 cm2 (range 224-1050 cm2). Gore-Tex DualMesh and Bard Composite Mesh were used in 84 and 16 per cent of the repairs, respectively. Mean operating time was 97 minutes. There were no deaths. Complications were seen in 12 per cent patients (six occurrences) and included two small bowel enterotomies, a symptomatic seroma requiring aspirate, a mesh reaction requiring a short course of intravenous antibiotics, and trocar site pain (two patients). There were no recurrences during a mean follow-up of 41 months (range 3-74 months). We conclude that laparoscopic incisional herniorrhaphy offers a safe and effective repair for large primary and recurrent ventral hernia with low morbidity.

  1. Superficial fascial system repair: an abdominoplasty technique to reduce local complications after caesarean delivery. (United States)

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Al-Ajam, Yazan; Tzakas, Elias


    Abdominal incision complications are a major source of morbidity after caesarean delivery. Repair of the superficial fascial system may avert local complications after caesarean delivery by minimising tension to the skin and increasing the initial biomechanical strength of wound which has the potential to decrease early wound dehiscence and as a by-product correct suprapubic bulging.

  2. Preferred mesh-based inguinal hernia repair in a teaching setting: results of a randomized study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuijs, S.W.; Kortmann, B.B.M.; Boerma, M.; Strobbe, L.J.; Rosman, C.


    HYPOTHESIS: Surgeons' preferences for any of 3 methods of inguinal hernia repair are comparable in terms of operating time, incision length, perceived difficulty, and surgeon's satisfaction. DESIGN: Randomized patient-blinded study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 334 patients rando

  3. Role of tubularization of urethral plate in development of urethrocutaneous fistula post hypospadias repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim S Alsaywid


    Conclusion: Incision of the urethral plate did not affect the fistula rate. In comparison to international literature, the incidence of fistula was significantly higher which could be explained by the fact that one-third of those patients had a previous hypospadias repair.

  4. Modification of the Nuss Procedure: The Single-incision Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsushi Aizawa, MD


    Full Text Available Summary: The Nuss procedure is a prevalent minimally invasive surgery for pectus excavatum. Although the Nuss procedure has the advantage of leaving less obtrusive scars, the standard technique requires at least 3 skin incisions to insert several instruments. We experienced 7 cases of the modified Nuss procedure using a single incision during a 7-year period. To facilitate passing of the bar, a traction guide was created according to our unique method. There was no need for a bar stabilizer, and no severe intraoperative complications occurred. All patients exhibited satisfactory short-term results; however, 1 patient suffered from bar rotation and required repeat surgery for fixation. Two patients underwent bar removal via the same single incision without any difficulties.

  5. Time between skin incision and delivery during cesarean. (United States)

    Rossouw, Jana N; Hall, David; Harvey, Justin


    To investigate factors influencing skin incision-to-delivery time (including sub-divisions thereof) and the effect of these surgical intervals on immediate neonatal outcome. A prospective cohort analysis was conducted of all women undergoing cesarean delivery at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from May 24 to November 2, 2010. Three surgical intervals were evaluated: skin incision to myometrium, myometrium to delivery, and skin incision to delivery. Neonatal outcome was assessed by the 5-minute Apgar score. Of 1120 cesarean deliveries recorded during the study period, 77.2% were emergency procedures, which were performed more quickly at all surgical planes (Pdelivery time was significantly extended among repeat procedures (Pdeliveries. Repeat procedures, adhesions, and obesity prolonged the time taken for cesarean delivery. Nevertheless, the effect of these factors on the 5-minute Apgar score was minimal. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝国; 王成学; 张乃嵩


    Objective: To report the development of a technique for minimally invasive thyroid lobectomy. Method: The procedure was accepted by 200 patients with a nodule of the lobe of the thyroid. We performed hemithyroidectomys through a 2-4 cm low-collar horizontal skin incision by conventional instrumentation. Results: The recurrent laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands were easily identified and preserved. The amount of bleeding ranged from 5 to 50 ml (mean 15 ml). Mean Operation time was 52.2 minutes (ranged 32 to 80 minutes). No complication occurred. Mean postoperative stay was 5.5 days (ranged 4 to 7 days). The incision provided excellent cometic results because the small and lower incisions were completely hidden by clothing collar. Conclusion: The above technique is feasible, safe, minimally invasive, less time and cost consuming and cosmetical.

  7. Sharp compared with blunt fascial incision at cesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabakke, Anna J M; Hare, Kristine J; Krebs, Lone


    OBJECTIVE: To compare patient preference for either sharp incision with scissors or blunt manual cleavage of the fascia at cesarean delivery in a randomized controlled trial in which each woman was her own control. STUDY DESIGN: Women undergoing primary cesarean delivery (n=34) were randomized...... to side distribution of sharp or blunt incision of the fascia (sharp right and blunt left or blunt right and sharp left) and followed three months postoperatively. The primary outcome was patient preference for the right or left side of the scar 3 months postoperatively and modeled by polytomous logistic...... difference was found in patient preference with regard to sharp or blunt incision of the fascia, nor was there a significant difference in postoperative pain scores. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:;NCT01297725....

  8. A case of rapid rock riverbed incision in a coseismic uplift reach and its implications (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Wan; Pan, Yii-Wen; Liao, Jyh-Jong


    During the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw = 7.6) in Taiwan, the coseismic displacement induced fault scarps and a pop-up structure in the Taan River. The fault scarps across the river experienced maximum vertical slip of 10 m, which disturbed the dynamic equilibrium of the fluvial system. As a result, rapid incision in the weak bedrock, with a maximum depth of 20 m, was activated within a decade after its armor layer was removed. This case provides an excellent opportunity for closely tracking and recording the progressive evolution of river morphology that is subjected to coseismic uplift. Based on multistaged orthophotographs and digital elevation model (DEM) data, the process of morphology evolution in the uplift reach was divided into four consecutive stages. Plucking is the dominant mechanism of bedrock erosion associated with channel incision and knickpoint migration. The astonishingly high rate of knickpoint retreat (KPR), as rapid as a few hundred meters per year, may be responsible for the rapid incision in the main channel. The reasons for the high rate of KPR are discussed in depth. The total length of the river affected by the coseismic uplift is 5 km: 1 km in the uplift reach and 4 km in the downstream reach. The downstream reach was affected by a reduction in sediment supply and increase in stream power. The KPR cut through the uplift reach within roughly a decade; further significant flooding in the future will mainly cause widening instead of deepening of the channel.

  9. Differential uplift and incision of the Yakima River terraces, central Washington State (United States)

    Bender, Adrian M; Amos, Colin B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Rood, Dylan; Staisch, Lydia; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Sherrod, Brian


    The fault-related Yakima folds deform Miocene basalts and younger deposits of the Columbia Plateau in central Washington State. Geodesy implies ~2 mm/yr of NNE directed shortening across the folds, but until now the distribution and rates of Quaternary deformation among individual structures has been unclear. South of Ellensburg, Washington, the Yakima River cuts a ~600 m deep canyon across several Yakima folds, preserving gravel-mantled strath terraces that record progressive bedrock incision and related rock uplift. Here we integrate cosmogenic isochron burial dating of the strath terrace gravels with lidar analysis and field mapping to quantify rates of Quaternary differential incision and rock uplift across two folds transected by the Yakima River: Manastash and Umtanum Ridge. Isochron burial ages from in situ produced 26Al and 10Be at seven sites across the folds date episodes of strath terrace formation over the past ~2.9 Ma. Average bedrock incision rates across the Manastash (~88 m/Myr) and Umtanum Ridge (~46 m/Myr) anticlines are roughly 4 to 8 times higher than rates in the intervening syncline (~14 m/Myr) and outside the canyon (~10 m/Myr). These contrasting rates demonstrate differential bedrock incision driven by ongoing Quaternary rock uplift across the folds at rates corresponding to ~0.13 and ~0.06 mm/yr shortening across postulated master faults dipping 30 ± 10°S beneath the Manastash and Umtanum Ridge anticlines, respectively. The reported Quaternary shortening across the anticlines accounts for ~10% of the ~2 mm/yr geodetic budget, suggesting that other Yakima structures actively accommodate the remaining contemporary deformation.

  10. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial tachycardias related to myocardial scar or incision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianqiang HU; Jiang CAO; Shengqiang WANG; Yongwen QIN; Bingyan ZHOU


    Intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardias (IARTs) are common late after heart surgery. Conventional mapping and ablation is relatively difficult because of the complicated anatomy and multiple potential re-entry loops. In this study we aimed to evaluate the electrophysiological characteristics and radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial tachycardia (AT) induced by myocardial scar or incision. Methods In 6 patients (three male and three female, aged 33.3+ 11.8 years) who had AT related to myocardial scar or incision,electrophysiological study and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) were performed. Earliest activation combined with entrainment mapping was adopted to determine a critical isthmus. Results Re-entry related to the lateral atriotomy scar was inducible in 5 of6 patients. With entrainment mapping, the PPI (post-pacing interval)-TCL (tachycardia cycle length) difference was <30 ms when pacing at the inferior margins of the right lateral atriotomy scar. Among them, 3 patients had successful linear ablation between scar area to inferior vena cava, and 2 patients between scar area to tricuspid annulus. Re-entry involving an ASD patch was demonstrated in 1 of 6 patients. PPI-TCL differences <30 ms were observed when entraining tachycardia at sites near the septal patch. But linear ablation failed in terminating AT. There was no complication during procedure. No recurrence of AT related to incision was observed during follow-up except for the failed patient. Conclusion Under conventional electrophysiological mapping, adopting linear ablation from scar area to anatomic barrier, successful ablation can be obtained in patients with IRATs related to myocardial scar or incision.

  11. Tunica vaginalis flap following ′Tubularised Incised Plate′ urethroplasty to prevent urethrocutaneous fistulaa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raashid Hamid


    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgery for hypospadias has been continuously evolving, implying thereby that no single technique is perfect and suitable for all types of hypospadias. Snodgrass technique is presently the most common surgical procedure performed for hypospadias. Materials and Methods: We analysed the results of tunica vaginalis flap (TVF as an additional cover to the tubularised incised plate (TIP repair. Results: A total of 35 patients of hypospadias were repaired using TIP urethroplasty and TVF as a second layer. Mean age at the time of presentation was 6.63 ± 3.4 years. Post-operative complications namely wound infection, flap necrosis, scrotal haematoma, scrotal abscess, urethral fistula, meatal stenosis were recorded and analysed during follow-up period. Need for re-do surgery was considered as failure of the operative procedure. Out of 35 patients, 8 (22.85% patients had proximal penile hypospadias and 27 (77.14% patients had distal penile hypospadias. Mean post-operative follow-up was 24.53 months. During the follow-up complications noticed included wound infection (n = 2, urethrocutaneous fistula (n = 1 and meatal stenosis (n = 1. Wound infection was managed with appropriate antibiotics as per hospital policy/culture and sensitivity reports. Meatal stenosis responded to bougie dilatation/calibration during follow-up. Conclusion: To conclude, TVF as an additional cover is associated with an acceptable complication rate and good cosmetic results if performed with meticulous tissue handling

  12. RPA activates the XPF‐ERCC1 endonuclease to initiate processing of DNA interstrand crosslinks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdullah, Ummi B


    During replication‐coupled DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair, the XPF‐ERCC1 endonuclease is required for the incisions that release, or “unhook”, ICLs, but the mechanism of ICL unhooking remains largely unknown. Incisions are triggered when the nascent leading strand of a replication fork strikes the ICL. Here, we report that while purified XPF‐ERCC1 incises simple ICL‐containing model replication fork structures, the presence of a nascent leading strand, modelling the effects of replication arrest, inhibits this activity. Strikingly, the addition of the single‐stranded DNA (ssDNA)‐binding replication protein A (RPA) selectively restores XPF‐ERCC1 endonuclease activity on this structure. The 5′–3′ exonuclease SNM1A can load from the XPF‐ERCC1‐RPA‐induced incisions and digest past the crosslink to quantitatively complete the unhooking reaction. We postulate that these collaborative activities of XPF‐ERCC1, RPA and SNM1A might explain how ICL unhooking is achieved in vivo.

  13. Single-Port Onlay Mesh Repair of Recurrent Inguinal Hernias after Failed Anterior and Laparoscopic Repairs (United States)

    Tran, Kim; Zajkowska, Marta; Lam, Vincent; Hawthorne, Wayne J.


    Background and Objectives: Despite the exponential increase in the use of laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy, overall recurrence rates have remained unchanged. Therefore, a growing number of patients are presenting with recurrent hernias after conventional anterior and laparoscopic repairs have failed. This study reports our experience with single-incision laparoscopic (SIL) intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) repair of these hernias. Methods: Patients referred with two or more recurrences of inguinal hernia underwent SIL-IPOM from November 1, 2009, to June 24, 2014. A 2.5-cm infraumbilical incision was made, and an SIL port was placed intraperitoneally. Modified dissection techniques were used: chopstick and inline dissection, 5.5-mm/52-cm/30° angled laparoscope, and conventional straight dissecting instruments. The peritoneum was incised above the pubic symphysis, and dissection was continued laterally and proximally, raising the inferior flap below the previous extraperitoneal mesh while reducing any direct, indirect, femoral, or cord lipoma before placement of antiadhesive mesh, which was fixed to the pubic ramus, as well as superiorly, with nonabsorbable tacks before the inferior border was fixed with fibrin sealant. The inferior peritoneal flap was then tacked back onto the mesh. Results: Nine male patients underwent SIL-IPOM. Their mean age was 53 years and mean body mass index was 26.8 kg/m2. Mean mesh size was 275 cm2. Mean operation time was 125 minutes, with a hospital stay of 1 day. The umbilical scar length was 23 mm at the 6-week follow-up. There were no intra-/postoperative complications, port-site hernias, chronic groin pain, or recurrence of the hernia during a mean follow-up of 24 months. Conclusion: Inguinal hernias recurring after two or more failed conventional anterior and laparoscopic repairs can be safely and efficiently treated with SIL-IPOM. PMID:25848186

  14. Dominant mutations in S. cerevisiae PMS1 identify the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease active site and an exonuclease 1-independent mismatch repair pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Smith


    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolypsis colorectal cancer or HNPCC is a common cancer predisposition syndrome. Predisposition to cancer in this syndrome results from increased accumulation of mutations due to defective mismatch repair (MMR caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2/scPMS1. To better understand the function of Mlh1-Pms1 in MMR, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify six pms1 mutations (pms1-G683E, pms1-C817R, pms1-C848S, pms1-H850R, pms1-H703A and pms1-E707A that were weakly dominant in wild-type cells, which surprisingly caused a strong MMR defect when present on low copy plasmids in an exo1Δ mutant. Molecular modeling showed these mutations caused amino acid substitutions in the metal coordination pocket of the Pms1 endonuclease active site and biochemical studies showed that they inactivated the endonuclease activity. This model of Mlh1-Pms1 suggested that the Mlh1-FERC motif contributes to the endonuclease active site. Consistent with this, the mlh1-E767stp mutation caused both MMR and endonuclease defects similar to those caused by the dominant pms1 mutations whereas mutations affecting the predicted metal coordinating residue Mlh1-C769 had no effect. These studies establish that the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease is required for MMR in a previously uncharacterized Exo1-independent MMR pathway.

  15. Incision history of Glenwood Canyon, Colorado, USA, from the uranium-series analyses of water-table speleothems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Polyak


    Full Text Available Uranium-series analyses of water-table-type speleothems from Glenwood Cavern and “cavelets” near the town of Glenwood Springs, Colorado, USA, yield incision rates of the Colorado River in Glenwood Canyon for the last ~1.4 My. The incision rates, calculated from dating cave mammillary and cave folia calcite situated 65 and 90 m above the Colorado River, are 174 ± 30 m/My for the last 0.46 My and 144 ± 30 m/My for the last 0.62 My, respectively. These are consistent with incision rates determined from nearby volcanic deposits. In contrast, δ234U model ages (1.39 ± 0.25 My; 1.36 ± 0.25 My; and 1.72 ± 0.25 My from three different samples of mammillary-like subaqueous crust collected from Glenwood Cavern, 375 m above the Colorado River, yield incision rates of 271 +58/-41 m/My, 277 +61/-42 m/ My, and 218 +36/-27 m/My. These data suggest a relatively fast incision rate between roughly 3 and 1 Ma. The onset of Pleistocene glaciation may have influenced this rate by increasing precipitation on the Colorado Plateau starting at 2.5 Ma. Slowing of incision just before 0.6 Ma could be related to the change in frequency of glacial cycles from 40 to 100 kyr in the middle Pleistocene. This interpretation would suggest that the cutting power of the Colorado River prior to 3 Ma was smaller. An alternative interpretation involving tectonic activity would invoke an episode of fast uplift in the Glenwood Canyon region from 3 to 1 Ma.

  16. Early days of DNA repair: discovery of nucleotide excision repair and homology-dependent recombinational repair. (United States)

    Rupp, W Dean


    The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere.

  17. Herniotomy in resource-scarce environment: Comparison of incisions and techniques

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    Musa Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Background: There are various methods for surgical treatment of hernia and hydrocele in children with variable cost-effectiveness, recovery and cosmetic outcomes. This study analyses our experience with mini-incision/invasive herniotomy in children in resource-limited centre. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and eighty-four n = 784 patients underwent herniotomy via conventional and mini-invasive methods were assigned into Group A and Group B. Three hundred and seventy-six n = 376 (47.95% in Group A while four hundred and eight n = 408 (52.04% in Group B. Eight hundred and seventeen (817 herniotomy was performed. Demographic data, hernia/hydrocele sides, volume of surgical suture used, surgery duration, and complications analysed. Results: Right side hernia and/or hydrocele were 464 (59.18%. 287 (36.60% had left sided while 33 (4.21% had bilateral hernia and/or hydrocele. There were 14 bilateral hernia repair in Group A and 19 in Group B. The lengths of operation time for unilateral repair ranged from 14 to 54 min in Group A (median, 23 min and 7-44 min in Group B (median, 15 min with a mean surgical duration of 15.48 ± 4.16 min in Group B versus 23.41 ± 5.94 min in Group A (P < 0.001 while the range of the lengths of operation time for bilateral repair in Group A was 20-54 min (median, 36 and 12-30 min (median, 21 in Group B with a mean duration of 36.35 ± 9.89 min in Group A versus 20.42 ± 4.83 min in Group B P = 0.00563. 376 sachets of 45 cm suture material were used in Group A versus 137 in Group B. There were total of 87 (23.13% complications in Group A versus 3 (1.47% in Group B P = 0.000513. Superficial wound infection and abscess were 9 (2.36% and 16 (4.25% in Group A versus none (0 in Group B. Conclusion: Mini-incision/invasive herniotomy in children and adolescents is fast, cost-effective with satisfactory cosmetic outcome and limited complications

  18. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of surgical scalpel or diathermy in making abdominal skin incisions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Nasir Zaheer


    BACKGROUND: Surgical scalpels are traditionally used to make skin incisions. Diathermy incisions on contrary are less popular among the surgeons. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness of both techniques and address the common fallacies about diathermy incisions. METHODS: A literature search of MEDLINE and Cochrane databases was done, using the keywords diathermy, cold scalpel, and incisions. Eleven clinical trials comparing both methods of making skin incisions were selected for meta-analysis. The end points compared included postoperative wound infection, pain in first 24 hours after surgery, time taken to complete the incisions, and incision-related blood loss. RESULTS: Postoperative wound infection rate was comparable in both techniques (P = 0.147, odds ratio = 1.257 and 95% CI = 0.923-1.711). Postoperative pain was significantly less with diathermy incisions in first 24 hours (P = 0.031, weighted mean difference = 0.852 and 95% CI = 0.076-1.628). Similarly, the time taken to complete the incision and incision-related blood loss was significantly less with diathermy incisions (95% CI = 0.245-0.502 and 0.548-1.020, respectively). CONCLUSION: Diathermy incisions are equally prone to get wound infection, as do the incisions made with scalpel. Furthermore, lower incidence of early postoperative pain, swiftness of the technique, and a reduced blood loss are the encouraging facts supporting routine use of diathermy for abdominal skin incisions after taking careful precautions.

  19. Simulation of channel sandstone architecture in an incised valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frykman, P.; Johannessen, P.; Andsbjerg, J.


    The present report describes a geostatistical modelling study that is aimed at reflecting the architecture of the channel sandstones in an incised valley fill. The example used for this study is a part of the Middle Jurassic sandy succession of the Bryne Formation in the Danish central Graben. The succession consists mainly of fluvial sediments in the lower part, overlain by tidal influenced sediments, which again is overlain by shallow marine sediments. The modelling study has been performed on a sequence of incised valley sediments in the upper part of the Bryne Formation overlying fluvial sediments. (au) EFP-96. 19 refs.

  20. Eye muscle repair - discharge (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  1. Ventral hernia repair (United States)

    ... page: // Ventral hernia repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ventral hernia repair is surgery to repair a ventral hernia. ...

  2. Brain aneurysm repair (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  3. How to repair an episiotomy. (United States)

    Steen, Mary; Cummins, Bernie


    Rationale and key points Skilful repair of an episiotomy is an important aspect of maternal health care. It is essential that midwives and doctors have the knowledge and skills to undertake this procedure in a safe and effective manner. ▶ An episiotomy should be repaired promptly to reduce blood loss and prevent infection. ▶ Repair of an episiotomy is undertaken in three stages: repair of the vaginal mucosa, repair of the muscle layer and repair of the skin layer. ▶ Adequate pain relief should be provided before suturing. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Why a rectal examination is recommended before and following repair of an episiotomy. 2. What you would do to improve your suturing skills. 3. The factors that may prevent or delay an episiotomy from healing. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at .

  4. DNA repair in Chromobacterium violaceum. (United States)

    Duarte, Fábio Teixeira; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques de; Bezerra e Silva, Uaska; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina


    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium that inhabits a variety of ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, including the water and banks of the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. This bacterium has been the subject of extensive study over the last three decades, due to its biotechnological properties, including the characteristic violacein pigment, which has antimicrobial and anti-tumoral activities. C. violaceum promotes the solubilization of gold in a mercury-free process, and has been used in the synthesis of homopolyesters suitable for the production of biodegradable polymers. The complete genome sequence of this organism has been completed by the Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium. The aim of our group was to study the DNA repair genes in this organism, due to their importance in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified DNA repair genes involved in different pathways in C. violaceum through a similarity search against known sequences deposited in databases. The phylogenetic analyses were done using programs of the PHILYP package. This analysis revealed various metabolic pathways, including photoreactivation, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, recombinational repair, and the SOS system. The similarity between the C. violaceum sequences and those of Neisserie miningitidis and Ralstonia solanacearum was greater than that between the C. violaceum and Escherichia coli sequences. The peculiarities found in the C. violaceum genome were the absence of LexA, some horizontal transfer events and a large number of repair genes involved with alkyl and oxidative DNA damage.

  5. Small gap anastomosis to repair peripheral nerve rupture using a nerve regeneration chamber constructed by scissoring and sleeve jointing autologous epineurium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiji Wang; Zhongliang Zhou; Qirong Dong


    A number of studies have shown how to eliminate the misorientated docking of the peripheral nerve bundle in the traditional epineurium or perineudum anastomosis, thus avoiding neuroma formation and axonal outgrowth from the coaptation sites, and seriously hindering neural function recovery. Based on the "peripheral nerve selective regeneration theory", this experiment was designed to investigate the feasibility and benefits of a new small gap anastomosis repairing peripheral nerve rupture, by scissoring and sleeve jointing an autologous epineurium. In the proximal stump of the nerve, a 1 mm-long epineurium was annularly separated and removed, while a 3 mm-long epineurium was longitudinally incised in the distal stump after the epineurium was dissociated from proximal to distal. The epineuria of the two stumps and the longitudinal incision were sutured, leaving a 2 mm gap between the two nerve stumps. Results show that the experimental rats quickly recovered autonomic activities, and there were minimal adhesions at the outer surface of the epineurial tube to the surrounding tissue. The morphologic changes to the sciatic nerve showed that connective tissue hyperplasia of the small gaps was significantly reduced, and nerve fibers were arranged orderly. No such changes were observed in the neurorrhaphy in situ group. Thus, the experiment confirmed that the new small gap anastomosis to repair peripheral nerve rupture by scissoring and sleeve jointing autologous epineurium is feasible, and that it is superior to epineurium neurorrhaphy in situ.

  6. The ATPase activity of Fml1 is essential for its roles in homologous recombination and DNA repair.


    Nandi, S; Whitby, MC


    In fission yeast, the DNA helicase Fml1, which is an orthologue of human FANCM, is a key component of the machinery that drives and governs homologous recombination (HR). During the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by HR, it limits the occurrence of potentially deleterious crossover recombinants, whereas at stalled replication forks, it promotes HR to aid their recovery. Here, we have mutated conserved residues in Fml1's Walker A (K99R) and Walker B (D196N) motifs to determine whether its a...

  7. Assessment of Human DNA Repair (NER) Capacity With DNA Repair Rate (DRR) by Comet Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective Alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate DNA repair (nucleotide excision repair, NER) capacity of human fresh lymphocytes from 12 young healthy non-smokers (6 males and 6 females). Methods Lymphocytes were exposed to UV-C (254 nm) at the dose rate of 1.5 J/m2/sec. Novobiocin (NOV) and aphidicolin (APC), DNA repair inhibitors, were utilized to imitate the deficiency of DNA repair capacity at the incision and ligation steps of NER. Lymphocytes from each donor were divided into three grougs: UVC group, UVC plus NOV group, and UVC plus APC group. DNA single strand breaks were detected in UVC irradiated cells incubated for 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min after UVC irradiation. DNA repair rate (DRR) served as an indicator of DNA repair capacity. Results The results indicated that the maximum DNA damage (i.e. maximum tail length) in the UVC group mainly appeared at 90 min. The ranges of DRRs in the UVC group were 62.84%-98.71%. Average DRR value was 81.84%. The DRR difference between males and females was not significant (P<0.05). However, the average DRR value in the UVC plus NOV group and the UVC plus APC group was 52.98% and 39.57% respectively, which were significantly lower than that in the UVC group (P<0.01). Conclusion The comet assay is a rapid, simple and sensitive screening test to assess individual DNA repair (NER) capacity. It is suggested that the time to detect DNA single strand breaks in comet assay should include 0 (before UV irradiation), 90 and 240 min after exposure to 1.5 J·m-2 UVC at least. The DRR, as an indicator, can represent the individual DNA repair capacity in comet assay.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haridarshan Sira


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laparoscopic surgery has undergone several modifications since its advent. There has been a shift from a standard multiport approach to more minimalistic approaches. SILS is a major step in this evolutionary process. We present our experience with SILS using conventional laparoscopic instruments and without the need for a SILS port. METHODS 211 patients in Fortis Hospitals, Bangalore, India, who underwent SILS for various abdominal conditions from May 2009 to May 2011 were included in the study. Variables such as operating time, conversion to multi-port laparoscopy or open surgery, complications, analgesia requirements and hospital stay were included. RESULTS 211 patients underwent SILS using conventional laparoscopic instruments for Gallstones, Appendicitis, Morbid Obesity, Gynaecological conditions and Renal cysts. Average age group was 48.5 years; mean duration of hospital stay was 46.5 hours; 166 Laparoscopic cholecystectomies were done, out of which 47 were acute cholecystitis. There were no cases converted to open surgeries. CONCLUSION Single Incision Laparoscopic surgery is technically feasible and as effective as conventional laparoscopic surgery. It is a safe procedure and provides an advantage with regards to analgesia requirement, length of hospital stay and early return to work. Cosmetically, it is superior to multiport laparoscopy.

  9. The Effect of Leonurus sibiricus Plant Extracts on Stimulating Repair and Protective Activity against Oxidative DNA Damage in CHO Cells and Content of Phenolic Compounds

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    Przemysław Sitarek


    Full Text Available Leonurus sibiricus L. has been used as a traditional and medicinal herb for many years in Asia and Europe. This species is known to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity and has demonstrated a reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. All tested extracts of L. sibiricus showed protective and DNA repair stimulating effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells exposed to H2O2. Preincubation of the CHO cells with 0.5 mg/mL of plant extracts showed increased expression level of antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx. LC-MS/MS and HPLC analyses revealed the presence of nine phenolic compounds in L. sibiricus plant extracts: catechin, verbascoside, two flavonoids (quercetin and rutin, and five phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. The roots and aerial parts of in vitro L. sibiricus plant extracts, which had the strongest antioxidant properties, may be responsible for stimulating CHO cells to repair oxidatively induced DNA damage, as well as protecting DNA via enhanced activation of the antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx regulating intracellular antioxidant capacity. The content of phenolic compounds in in vitro raised plants was greater than the levels found in plants propagated from seeds.

  10. Expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF 3) and caspase 3 in Schwann cells and axonal outgrowth after sciatic nerve repair in diabetic BB rats. (United States)

    Stenberg, Lena; Kanje, Martin; Dolezal, Katarina; Dahlin, Lars B


    The aim of this study was to evaluate nerve regeneration in relation to the transcription factor, Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF 3), and an apoptotic marker, caspase 3, in the Schwann cells of diabetic BB rats (i.e. display type 1 diabetes phenotype). Sciatic nerves in healthy Wistar rats and in diabetic BB rats were transected and immediately repaired. Axonal outgrowth (neurofilament staining) and expression of ATF 3 and caspase 3 were quantified by immunohistochemistry after six days. There was no difference in axonal outgrowth between healthy and diabetic rats. However, the sciatic nerve in the diabetic rats exhibited a larger number of ATF 3 expressing Schwann cells at the site of the lesion and also a higher number of caspase 3 expressing Schwann cells. Similar differences were observed in the distal nerve segment between the healthy and diabetic rats. There were no correlations between the number of Schwann cells expressing ATF 3 and caspase 3. Thus, diabetic BB rats display an increased activation of ATF 3 and also a rise in apoptotic caspase 3 expressing Schwann cells, but with no discrepancy in length of axonal outgrowth after nerve injury and repair at six days. Knowledge about signal transduction mechanisms in diabetes after stress may provide new insights into the development of diabetic neuropathy and neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Active site of Escherichia coli DNA photolyase: Asn378 is crucial both for stabilizing the neutral flavin radical cofactor and for DNA repair. (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Mu, Wanmeng; Ding, Yanwei; Luo, Zhaofeng; Han, Qingkai; Bi, Fuyong; Wang, Yuzhen; Song, Qinhua


    Escherichia coli DNA photolyase repairs cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) in UV-damaged DNA through a photoinduced electron transfer mechanism. The catalytic activity of the enzyme requires fully reduced FAD (FADH (-)). After purification in vitro, the cofactor FADH (-) in photolyase is oxidized into the neutral radical form FADH (*) under aerobic conditions and the enzyme loses its repair function. We have constructed a mutant photolyase in which asparagine 378 (N378) is replaced with serine (S). In comparison with wild-type photolyase, we found N378S mutant photolyase containing oxidized FAD (FAD ox) but not FADH (*) after routine purification procedures, but evidence shows that the mutant protein contains FADH (-) in vivo as the wild type. Although N378S mutant photolyase is photoreducable and capable of binding CPD in DNA, the activity assays indicate the mutant protein is catalytically inert. We conclude that the Asn378 residue of E. coli photolyase is crucial both for stabilizing the neutral flavin radical cofactor and for catalysis.

  12. [Evaluation of surgical repair of distal biceps tendon ruptures]. (United States)

    Behounek, J; Hrubina, M; Skoták, M; Krumpl, O; Zahálka, M; Dvorák, J; Fucík, M


    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY To present the results of surgical repair of ruptures of the distal tendon of the biceps brachii muscle and thus show the adequacy of this treatment. MATERIAL Between 1987 and 2006, 19 patients had surgery for distal biceps tendon rupture. Only one side was affected in each patient. All patients were men between 28 and 69 years (average age, 47.5 years) at the time of injury (surgery). When the patients were evaluated at the end of 2007, 18 patients were included, because one died a year after surgery. METHODS The surgical repair always included a single-incision anatomical reattachment into the radial tuberosity. In 11 patients, a modified Mac Reynolds method with screw and washer fixation was used; in seven patients the insertion was fixed with Mitek anchors and, in one, it was sutured to the adjacent soft tissues. The average follow-up was 7 years (range, 1 to 20.5 years). The patients were evaluated for the cause of injury, their physical activity, age, dominance of the injured arm, surgical procedure and complications. RESULTS In 18 patients surgical repair was done early and, in one, at 16 days after injury. In all of them the tendon was detached from its site of insertion, but never torn. The intra-operative complications included, in one patient, bleeding owing to iatrogenic damage to a branch of the brachial artery, and difficult separation of the tendon due to its previous healed injury in another patient. Early post-operative complications included superficial skin necrosis in one patient and transient neurological deficit of the dorsal brand of the radial nerve and of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm in two and one patient, respectively. The late complications were heterotropic ossification in three patients and screw migration in the one treated by the Mac Reynolds method. Excellent results were recorded in 11 patients (61 %), and good outcomes with a slight restriction of motion or muscle strength not limiting the

  13. Deficiency in nucleotide excision repair family gene activity, especially ERCC3, is associated with non-pigmented hair fiber growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    Full Text Available We conducted a microarray study to discover gene expression patterns associated with a lack of melanogenesis in non-pigmented hair follicles (HF by microarray. Pigmented and non-pigmented HFs were collected and micro-dissected into the hair bulb (HB and the upper hair sheaths (HS including the bulge region. In comparison to pigmented HS and HBs, nucleotide excision repair (NER family genes ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, XPA, NTPBP, HCNP, DDB2 and POLH exhibited statistically significantly lower expression in non- pigmented HS and HBs. Quantitative PCR verified microarray data and identified ERCC3 as highly differentially expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ERCC3 expression in HF melanocytes. A reduction in ERCC3 by siRNA interference in human melanocytes in vitro reduced their tyrosinase production ability. Our results suggest that loss of NER gene function is associated with a loss of melanin production capacity. This may be due to reduced gene transcription and/or reduced DNA repair in melanocytes which may eventually lead to cell death. These results provide novel information with regard to melanogenesis and its regulation.

  14. Ultrasonic diagnosis and transurethral incision of ureterocele with hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, P; Miskowiak, J; Stage, P


    In a 65-year-old woman with right-sided loin pain, ultrasonography revealed a grossly dilated and obstructed right pyelogram due to a 50-mm ureterocele. After transurethral lateral incision of the ureterocele, there was complete recovery without vesicoureteric reflux. Ultrasonography...

  15. Ankle fusion using a 2-incision, 3-screw technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.M. Hendrickx; G.M.M.J. Kerkhoffs; S.A.S. Stufkens; C.N. van Dijk; R.K. Marti


    Reliable fusion and optimal correction of the alignment of the ankle joint using a 2-incision, 3-screw technique. Symptomatic osteoarthritis of the ankle joint after insufficient other treatment, severe deformity of the osteoarthritic ankle joint, or salvation procedure after failed arthroplasty. Ac

  16. Minimal incision surgery in strabismus: Modified fornix-based approach. (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, I


    To evaluate the modified fornix-based technique as an approach for minimal incision surgery in strabismus. The medical records of all consecutive patients that underwent strabismus surgery with fornix-based conjunctival incision between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. As a primary variable, an analysis was made of the wound size depending on the number of stitches. A descriptive study was performed on the variables related to patients and to the type of strabismus and surgery. Out of 153patients identified, 138 with 294 surgeries were included. In 200 (68%) interventions, the incision was sutured with one stitch, in 77 (26.2%) with 2, in 13 (4.4%) with 3, and in 4 (1.4%) with 4, with the mean number of stitches being 1.39±0.64. The mean age of the patients was 39years (2-80), and 36 (26.1%) had previous strabismus surgery, with topical anaesthesia being used in 35 (25.4%) cases. At 3months after surgery deviation was ≤10DP in 114 (82.6%) patients. There were no wound-related complications. The modified fornix-based technique is an effective and safe approach for minimal incision surgery in strabismus, in patients at all ages, with previous history of strabismus surgery and with topical anaesthesia. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Fontan operation for the Cantrell syndrome using a clamshell incision. (United States)

    Ito, Hiroki; Ota, Noritaka; Murata, Masaya; Sakamoto, Kisaburo


    A median sternotomy could be difficult for a child with ectopia cordis and complex congenital cardiac anomalies. We report a patient with ectopia cordis, functionally single ventricle and bilateral superior vena cava, who underwent a staged Fontan procedure through a clamshell incision and the sternothoracotomy approach.

  18. Surgical removal of large central neurocytomas with small incision approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-mao LU


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the strategy and technique of small incision surgery through interhemispheric transcallosal approach for removal of large central neurocytomas in supratentorial ventricule. Methods Clinical data and therapy of 6 cases with central neurocytomas were retrospectively studied. All tumors were removed through small incision interhemispheric transcallosal approach, and the clinical data were analyzed. Results Total resection was achieved in all cases. Three cases experienced transient mutism and one case experienced hemiparalysis. All of them received nerve-nurturing treatment and recovered within 2 weeks. Five cases were followed-up from 6 months to 2 years and there was no recurrence. Conclusions The advantages of interhemispheric transcallosal approach include provision of sufficient surgical visual field and space, protection of normal brain tissue by natural cavity and shortest surgical pathway. Small incision surgery may not only reduce invalid brain exposure and hemorrhage during operation, but also decrease operation time. The small incision surgery through interhemispheric transcallosal approach is an effective choice for removal of central neurocytomas involved in supratentorial ventricule.

  19. Time from uterine incision to delivery and hypoxic neonatal outcomes. (United States)

    Spain, Janine E; Tuuli, Methodius; Stout, Molly J; Roehl, Kimberly A; Odibo, Anthony O; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G


    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between time from uterine incision to delivery and hypoxic neonatal outcomes in nonanomalous term infants. All women undergoing in-labor term cesarean deliveries (CDs) in the first 2 years of an ongoing prospective cohort study were included. The primary exposure was time in seconds from uterine incision to delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of hypoxia-associated neonatal outcomes, defined as at least one of: seizures, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, need for hypothermia treatment, and death within 7 days. Of 812 patients who underwent in-labor CD, the composite hypoxia outcome occurred in 18 (2.2%) neonates. There was no significant difference in the rate of hypoxic morbidity with increasing increments of 60 seconds from uterine incision to delivery (p = 0.35). There was a significantly increased risk of hypoxic morbidity in those delivered in the highest quintile (>240 seconds) compared with those in the lowest quintile (≤ 60 seconds) in cesareans performed for an indication other than nonreassuring fetal status (relative risk, 5.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-23.91). Overall, duration from uterine incision to delivery for in-labor cesareans of nonanomalous term infants was not associated with an increase in risk of hypoxia-associated morbidities. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Single-Incision Cholecystectomy in about 200 Patients

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    Roland Raakow


    Full Text Available Background and Aims. We describe our experience of performing transumbilical single-incision laparoendoscopic cholecystectomy as standard procedure for acute and chronic gallbladder diseases. Methods. Between September 2008 and March 2010, 220 patients underwent laparoscopic single-incision surgery. A single port was used for 196 patients and two conventional 5 mm and one 10 mm port in 24 cases. All operations were performed with straight instruments. Results. Single-incision surgery was successfully performed in 215 patients (98%. Three patients (1.4% required conversion to a three-port technique and two patients (0.9% to an open procedure. Average age of 142 women (65% and 78 men (35% was 47 years (range: 15–89, average ASA status 2 (range: 1–3 and BMI 28 (range: 15–49. Mean operative time was 62 minutes (range: 26–174 and 57 patients (26% had histopathological signs of acute cholecystitis. Eleven patients (5% developed to surgery-related complications and nine (4% of these required a reoperation. The mean followup was 331.5 (range: 11–590 days. Conclusion. Transumbilical single-incision cholecystectomy is a feasible and safe new approach for routine cholecystectomy. After a short learning curve, operation time and complication rate are comparable with standard multiport operation. In addition, most cases of acute cholecystitis can be performed with this technique.

  1. Single incision laparoscopic liver resection: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiu-jun; ZHU Zhi-yi; LIANG Xiao; YU Hong; WANG Yi-fan; HE Ji-kai; LI Zhe-yong


    Laparoscopic procedure as a minimally invasive surgery has been introduced into many abdominal surgeries. Smaller incisions of the abdominal wall reduce postoperative pain and the risk of wound complications,and provide an excellent cosmetic result compared with open surgery. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), a no-scar surgery, is a hot spot of modern surgery.

  2. Laparoskopisk rectumresektion med salpingo-ooforektomi gennem en enkelt incision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Orhan; Nielsen, Claus B.


    Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS) is an evolving alternative to conventional laparoscopic surgery. We present the case of a low anterior resection combined with left salpingo-oophorectomy performed as a SILS procedure. The patient was a 83-year-old woman, who had a T3N1 rectal cancer 10...

  3. H-reflex up-conditioning encourages recovery of EMG activity and H-reflexes after sciatic nerve transection and repair in rats. (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Yu; Chen, Lu; Sun, Chenyou; English, Arthur W; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Chen, Xiang Yang


    Operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or its electrical analog, the H-reflex, produces spinal cord plasticity and can thereby affect motoneuron responses to primary afferent input. To explore whether this conditioning can affect the functional outcome after peripheral nerve injury, we assessed the effect of up-conditioning soleus (SOL) H-reflex on SOL and tibialis anterior (TA) function after sciatic nerve transection and repair. Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with EMG electrodes in SOL and TA and stimulating cuffs on the posterior tibial nerve. After control data collection, the sciatic nerve was transected and repaired and the rat was exposed for 120 d to continued control data collection (TC rats) or SOL H-reflex up-conditioning (TU rats). At the end of data collection, motoneurons that had reinnervated SOL and TA were labeled retrogradely. Putative primary afferent terminals [i.e., terminals containing vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT1)] on SOL motoneurons were studied immunohistochemically. SOL (and probably TA) background EMG activity recovered faster in TU rats than in TC rats, and the final recovered SOL H-reflex was significantly larger in TU than in TC rats. TU and TC rats had significantly fewer labeled motoneurons and higher proportions of double-labeled motoneurons than untransected rats. VGLUT1 terminals were significantly more numerous on SOL motoneurons of TU than TC rats. Combined with the larger H-reflexes in TU rats, this anatomical finding supports the hypothesis that SOL H-reflex up-conditioning strengthened primary afferent reinnervation of SOL motoneurons. These results suggest that H-reflex up-conditioning may improve functional recovery after nerve injury and repair.

  4. Impaired 8-Hydroxyguanine Repair Activity of MUTYH Variant p.Arg109Trp Found in a Japanese Patient with Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer

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    Kazuya Shinmura


    Full Text Available Purpose. The biallelic inactivation of the 8-hydroxyguanine repair gene MUTYH leads to MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP, which is characterized by colorectal multiple polyps and carcinoma(s. However, only limited information regarding MAP in the Japanese population is presently available. Since early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC is a characteristic of MAP and might be caused by the inactivation of another 8-hydroxyguanine repair gene, OGG1, we investigated whether germline MUTYH and OGG1 mutations are involved in early-onset CRC in Japanese patients. Methods. Thirty-four Japanese patients with early-onset CRC were examined for germline MUTYH and OGG1 mutations using sequencing. Results. Biallelic pathogenic mutations were not found in any of the patients; however, a heterozygous p.Arg19*  MUTYH variant and a heterozygous p.Arg109Trp MUTYH variant were detected in one patient each. The p.Arg19* and p.Arg109Trp corresponded to p.Arg5* and p.Arg81Trp, respectively, in the type 2 nuclear-form protein. The defective DNA repair activity of p.Arg5* is apparent, while that of p.Arg81Trp has been demonstrated using DNA cleavage and supF forward mutation assays. Conclusion. These results suggest that biallelic MUTYH or OGG1 pathogenic mutations are rare in Japanese patients with early-onset CRC; however, the p.Arg19* and p.Arg109Trp MUTYH variants are associated with functional impairments.

  5. Late Quaternary rates of stream incision in Northeast Peloponnese, Greece (United States)

    Karymbalis, Efthimios; Papanastassiou, Dimitrios; Gaki-Papanastassiou, Kalliopi; Ferentinou, Maria; Chalkias, Christos


    This study focuses on defining rates of fluvial incision for the last 580±5 kyr along valley systems of eight streams that drain the eastern part of the northern Peloponnese. The streams are developed on the uplifted block of the offshore-running Xylokastro normal fault, one of the main faults bounding the southern edge of the Gulf of Corinth half-graben, and have incised a set of ten uplifted marine terraces having an amphitheatric shape. These terraces range in age from 60±5 kyr to 580±5 kyr and have been mapped in detail and correlated with late Pleistocene oxygen-isotope stages of high sea-level stands by previous studies. The terraces were used in this paper as reference surfaces in order to define fluvial incision rates at the lower reaches of the studied streams. To evaluate incision rates, thirty-three topographic valley cross-sections were drawn using fieldwork measurements as well as using a highly accurate (2×2 cell size) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at specific locations where streams cut down the inner edges of the marine terraces. For each cross-section the ratio of valley floor width to valley height (Vf) and long-term mean stream incision rates were estimated for the last 580±5 kyr, while rock uplift rates were estimated for the last 330±5 kyr. The geomorphic evolution of the valleys on the uplifted block of the Xylokastro fault has been mainly driven by the lithology of the bedrock, sea level fluctuations during the late Quaternary, and incision of the channels due to the tectonic uplift. Stream incision rates range from 0.10±0.1 mm/yr for the last 123±7 kyr to 1.14±0.1 mm/yr for the last 310±5 kyr and are gradually greater from east to west depending on the distance from the trace of the fault. Downcutting rates are comparable with the rock uplift rates, which range from 0.4±0.02 mm/yr to 1.49±0.12 mm/yr, over the last 330±5 kyr.

  6. Dorsal inlay inner preputial graft for primary hypospadias repair

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    Rajendra B. Nerli


    Full Text Available Background: The most commonly performed operation to repair distal hypospadias is the Tubularised incised plate (TIP repair. The key step is midline incision of the urethral plate, which widens a narrow plate and converts a flat into a deep plate groove, ensuring a vertical, slit neomeatus and a normal-calibre neourethra. At times in cases of proximal hypospadias, the urethral plate is very narrow and needs to be augmented or substituted for further tubularisation. We report our experience with primary single stage dorsal inlay urethroplasty using preputial skin grafts. Patients and Methods: Children with proximal hypospadias with a narrow urethral plate formed the study group. Children needing transection of the urethral plate, having undergone circumcision/hypospadias repair previously or having an inadequate prepuce was excluded. Results: Twelve children with a mean age of 48.83 months underwent primary dorsal inlay preputial graft urethroplasty for proximal hypospadias with a very narrow urethral plate. At an average follow-up of 42.16 months, 2 (16.66% children had a breakdown of ventral shaft skin. None of the children had meatal stenosis, and none of these 12 children developed urethrocutaneous fistula. Conclusion: Primary dorsal inlay inner preputial graft urethroplasty successfully fulfills all traditional hypospadias repair criteria. It offers a viable, safe, rapid and easy option in the management of proximal hypospadias with a narrow urethral plate.

  7. Repair of 8-oxodeoxyguanosine lesions in mitochondrial DNA depends on the oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) gene and 8- oxoguanine accumulates in the mitochondrial DNA of OGG1- defective mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza-Pinto, N.C.; Eide, L.; Hogue, B.A.


    encodes for the mitochondrial 8-oxodG glycosylase because these extracts have no incision activity toward an oligonucleotide containing a single 8-oxodG DNA base lesion, Consistent with an important role for the OGG1 protein in the removal of 8-oxodC from the mitochondrial genome, we found that mtDNA...... DNA, The main pathway for the repair of 8-oxodG is the base excision repair pathway initiated by oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), We previously demonstrated that mammalian mitochondria from mice efficiently remove 8-oxodG from their genomes and isolated a protein from rat liver mitochondria with 8......Mitochondria are not only the major site for generation of reactive oxygen species, but also one of the main targets of oxidative damage. One of the major products of DNA oxidation, 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodC), accumulates in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) at levels three times higher than in nuclear...

  8. Emergent Laparoscopic Repair of a Spigelian Hernia: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Barker


    Full Text Available A spigelian hernia is a protrusion through an anterior abdominal wall defect along the linea semilunaris. The traditional method of repair consists of an open surgical technique requiring a lengthy abdominal incision to allow visualization of the defect. However, with the emergence and availability of laparoscopic techniques, a minimally invasive approach is feasible. Only eight prior case reports have documented emergent laparoscopic repair of a spigelian hernia. We describe the first successful laparoscopic repair of a spigelian hernia in an emergent setting at our institution.

  9. The width of the incisive canal and labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal: an assessment on CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Yang Gyun; Jang, Hyun Seon; Kim, Byung Ock; Kim, Jin Soo [Chosun Univ. College of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    To assess the width of the labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal and the width of the incisive canal on spiral computed tomographic images of the anterior portion of the maxilla. Study materials included 38 CT scans taken for preoperative planning of implant placement. Axial cross-sectioned image entirely showing the incisive canal at an orifice to the oral cavity, middle portion, and an orifice to the nasal cavity and the diameter of the incisive canal at the middle portion were determined by two specialist using Digora for Windows 2.1. The statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1. When the maxillary central incisors remained, the mean labial alveolar bone width were 6.81{+-}1.41 mm, 6.46{+-}1.33 mm, and 7.91{+-}1.33 mm. When the maxillary central incisors were missed the mean width were 5.42{+-}2.20 mm, 6.23{+-}2.29 mm, and 7.89{+-}2.13 mm. The labial alveolar bone width at middle portion and an orifice to the nasal cavity were of no statistical significant difference according to presence of the maxillary central incisors (P>0.05). The width between oral cavity and nasal cavity, middle portion and to masal cavity revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Phacoemulsification and foldable IOLs allow modern day surgeon to aim at minimal induction of any astigmatic error as well a s correct any pre-operative refractive errors thus making patients’ life, spectacle free i.e. una ided emmetropia. But its high price and maintenance with a long learning curve for the surg eon make it unsuitable for the Indian camp scenario. Manual SICS in comparison needs a larger incision f or both nucleus removal and a rigid IOL insertion, but still provides for a sutureless and c onvenient alternative to phaco. Manual SICS does induce some amount of astigmatism by altering corneal curvatures (i.e., by coupling effect, while phaco surgery with 3 mm incision is astigmatic ally neutral. Manifold of studies have been done to compare Surgically Induced Astigmatism of ma nual SICS to phaco surgery but not much has been done to compare various techniques in manua l SICS itself. In this study an attempt has been made to analyze t he role of incision site depending on the pre operative keratometry readings in reducing su rgically induced astigmatism in manual small incision cataract surgery.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Samuel


    Full Text Available Blasting in the process of planning the workshop production of new building and ship repair to play a role in providing blasting and paint on the block that will be of erection. As a result of blasting workshop facilities that do not have resulted in low production capacity that can be achieved by this workshop, namely three block ships per month. Capacity blasting and paint shop in this low resulted in low productivity process stage (stage the previous workshops which of course result in a decrease in vessel productivity in general.                 In penelitiaan aims to plan for blasting and paint shop facility which has been adjusted to the planned production capacity of PT. JASA MARINA INDAH II units.                 In this study it - thing to note is to understand the data - the data field for research conducted in terms of both technical and economic terms, with the blasting and paint shop facilities on the construction or repair of ships that have been planned, then the effectiveness of the work and production flow at. Jasa Marina Indah II units can be known.                 Based on the analysis and calculation of both technical and economical it can be identified by the workshop on the process of blasting Blasting efficiency is obtained for 2.55 hours, at 10.16 hours during the painting process, while economical in terms of labor costs can be reduced blasting cost is Rp.930000    for          paint       and         Rp.1.23million

  12. The Burnia: Laparoscopic Sutureless Inguinal Hernia Repair in Girls. (United States)

    Novotny, Nathan M; Puentes, Maria C; Leopold, Rodrigo; Ortega, Mabel; Godoy-Lenz, Jorge


    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in children is in evolution. Multiple methods of passing the suture around the peritoneum at the level of the internal inguinal ring exist. Cauterization of the peritoneum at the internal ring is thought to increase scarring and decrease recurrence. We have employed a sutureless, cautery only, laparoscopic single port repair of inguinal hernias and patent processus vaginalis (PPV) in girls. After institutional ethical review was obtained, a retrospective review of sutureless laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs in girls by 4 surgeons at separate institutions was performed. Patient demographics, intraoperative findings, and postoperative outcomes were recorded and analyzed. The technique involves an umbilical 30° camera and either a separate 3 mm stab incision in the midclavicular line or a 3 mm Maryland grasper placed next to the camera, and the distal most portion of the hernia sac is grasped and pulled into the abdomen and cauterized obliterating the sac. Eighty inguinal hernias were repaired using this technique in 67 girls between July 2009 and September 2015. The ages and weights ranged from 1 month to 16 years and from 2 to 69 kg, respectively. There was one conversion to open approach because an incarcerated ovary was too close to the ring. A single umbilical incision was utilized in 85%. Fifty-seven percent patients had hernias on the right whereas 42% had hernias on the left. Of the patients with presumed unilateral hernias, 22 patients were found to have PPV and were treated through the same incisions, 17/22 were found during a contralateral hernia surgery and 5/22 were found incidentally during appendectomy. Average operative time for unilateral and bilateral hernias was 22 minutes (5-38 minutes) and 31 minutes (11-65 minutes), respectively. No patient required a hospital stay because of the hernia repair. At an average of 25 months follow-up (1.6-75 months), there were no recurrences. The only complication was

  13. Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair (United States)

    ... hernia occurs when the inside layers of the abdominal muscle have weakened, resulting in a bulge or tear. ... is a technique to fix tears in the abdominal wall (muscle) using small incisions, telescopes and a patch (mesh). ...

  14. Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair (United States)

    ... surgical incision was made. In this area the abdominal muscles have weakened; this results in a bulge or ... alternatives, billing or insurance coverage, or your surgeons training and experience, do not hesitate to ask your ...

  15. Valve Repair or Replacement (United States)

    ... valve surgery can be done using a robot. Robotic surgery does not require a large incision in the ... The Texas Heart Institute has a robot. With robotic surgery, the surgeon has a control console, a side ...

  16. Mislocalization of XPF-ERCC1 nuclease contributes to reduced DNA repair in XP-F patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwaar Ahmad


    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is caused by defects in the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway. NER removes helix-distorting DNA lesions, such as UV-induced photodimers, from the genome. Patients suffering from XP exhibit exquisite sun sensitivity, high incidence of skin cancer, and in some cases neurodegeneration. The severity of XP varies tremendously depending upon which NER gene is mutated and how severely the mutation affects DNA repair capacity. XPF-ERCC1 is a structure-specific endonuclease essential for incising the damaged strand of DNA in NER. Missense mutations in XPF can result not only in XP, but also XPF-ERCC1 (XFE progeroid syndrome, a disease of accelerated aging. In an attempt to determine how mutations in XPF can lead to such diverse symptoms, the effects of a progeria-causing mutation (XPF(R153P were compared to an XP-causing mutation (XPF(R799W in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant XPF harboring either mutation was purified in a complex with ERCC1 and tested for its ability to incise a stem-loop structure in vitro. Both mutant complexes nicked the substrate indicating that neither mutation obviates catalytic activity of the nuclease. Surprisingly, differential immunostaining and fractionation of cells from an XFE progeroid patient revealed that XPF-ERCC1 is abundant in the cytoplasm. This was confirmed by fluorescent detection of XPF(R153P-YFP expressed in Xpf mutant cells. In addition, microinjection of XPF(R153P-ERCC1 into the nucleus of XPF-deficient human cells restored nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Intriguingly, in all XPF mutant cell lines examined, XPF-ERCC1 was detected in the cytoplasm of a fraction of cells. This demonstrates that at least part of the DNA repair defect and symptoms associated with mutations in XPF are due to mislocalization of XPF-ERCC1 into the cytoplasm of cells, likely due to protein misfolding. Analysis of these patient cells therefore reveals a novel mechanism to potentially

  17. Application of a cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection of thyroid papillary carcinoma


    Xu, Jiajie; Chen, Chao; Zheng,ChuanMing; Wang, Kejing; Shang, Jinbiao; FANG, XIANHUA; Ge, Minghua; TAN, ZHUO


    The present study aimed to discuss the advantage of the application of a cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma. The study was a retrospective analysis of 87 thyroid papillary carcinoma patients; cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection was applied for 47 cases and the classic ‘L’ incision was applied for 40 cases. The different integrity, surgical time, blood loss and the aesthetic property of the incision were compare...

  18. A Multi-Scale Assessment of How Topoclimate-Driven Ecohydrologic Feedbacks Impact Drainage Erosion, Incision and Expansion (United States)

    Poulos, M. J.; Pierce, J. L.; McNamara, J. P.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.


    Water storage and partitioning at pedon and hillslope scales ultimately dictates catchment-scale runoff production and associated fluvial erosion and drainage development. Consequently, within a given catchment, local topographic variability of aspect, elevation, and slope, appears to drive microclimatic and ecohydrologic feedbacks that alter the amount of water partitioned for ecosystem use and runoff production, which culminates in differences in drainage erosion, incision and expansion at catchment scales. This work assesses aspect-related variability in hillslope and drainage forms in the field and by geomorphometric analyses of 1 meter resolution digital elevation models derived from airborne LiDAR data. Drainage characteristics are compared to erosion amounts and rates estimated by coupling high-resolution alluvial fan geometries with radiocarbon dating of charcoal contained within fan deposits. Soil profile water balance data stratified across aspects and elevations within the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed, near Boise, Idaho, are upscaled to catchments in order to explore how topoclimatic variability affects catchment-scale soil water storage, runoff production, and drainage erosion, incision, and expansion. The analyses reveal and explain systematic differences in drainage evolution with aspect. Reduced insolation on northern aspects appears to promote the growth of denser and different vegetation (e.g. coniferous forest vs. sagebrush steppe), which is associated with thicker, finer-grained, organic-rich soils mantling hillslopes that appear stable at steeper slope angles. Differences in soil properties on northern aspects allow them to retain more water, which is lost by evapotranspiration, resulting in less runoff and decreased drainage erosion, incision and expansion. The outlets of catchments incised into north-facing slopes do not appear to be active under modern conditions, but exhibit inactive alluvial fans composed of charcoal-rich debris

  19. [Is minimal skin incision and partial sternotomy approach for congenital heart defects less invasive?; evaluation of SIRS on ventricular septal defect]. (United States)

    Nishi, H; Nishigaki, K; Kume, Y; Miyamoto, K


    Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) has been developed to offer patients the benefits of open heart operations with limited skin incision. But it is unclear whether this procedure is less invasive. We evaluate postoperative duration of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) on ventricular septal defect (VSD). From August 1997 to March 2000, 47 patients VSD underwent total repair by the minimal skin incision and lower partial median sternotomy (MICS group). We compared duration of SIRS between MICS and conventional method group (n = 14) and between early MICS and recent MICS group. We also evaluated the relationship between MICS and postoperative clinical course. Duration of SIRS of MICS group were obviously shorter than that of conventional method group (p SIRS. The results of this study indicate that MICS for VSD may be less invasive method.

  20. DNA repair. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.


    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals. (HLW)


    Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Arenhart, Rodrigo; Silveira, Daniela; Ávila, Aluísio Otávio Vargas; Berral, Francisco José; Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Piluski, Paulo César Faiad; Lech, Osvandré Luís Canfield; Fukushima, Walter Yoshinori


    Objective: Analyzing suture time, biomechanics (deformity between the stumps) and the histology of three groups of tendinous surgical repair: Brazil-2 (4-strands) which the end knot (core) is located outside the tendon, Indiana (4-strands) and Tsai (6-strands) with sutures technique which the end knot (core) is inner of the tendon, associated with early active mobilization. Methods: The right calcaneal tendons (plantar flexor of the hind paw) of 36 rabbits of the New Zealand breed (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used in the analysis. This sample presents similar size to human flexor tendon that has approximately 4.5 mm (varying from 2mm). The selected sample showed the same mass (2.5 to 3kg) and were male or female adults (from 8 ½ months). For the flexor tendons of the hind paws, sterile and driven techniques were used in accordance to the Committee on Animal Research and Ethics (CETEA) of the University of the State of Santa Catarina (UDESC), municipality of Lages, in Brazil (protocol # 1.33.09). Results: In the biomechanical analysis (deformity) carried out between tendinous stumps, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.01). There was no statistical difference in relation to surgical time in all three suture techniques with a mean of 6.0 minutes for Tsai (6- strands), 5.7 minutes for Indiana (4-strands) and 5.6 minutes for Brazil (4-strands) (p>0.01). With the early active mobility, there was qualitative and quantitative evidence of thickening of collagen in 38.9% on the 15th day and in 66.7% on the 30th day, making the biological tissue stronger and more resistant (p=0.095). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there was no histological difference between the results achieved with an inside or outside end knot with respect to the repaired tendon and the number of strands did not affect healing, vascularization or sliding of the tendon in the osteofibrous tunnel, which are associated with early active mobility, with the repair techniques

  2. Single minimal incision fasciotomy for the treatment of chronic exertional compartment syndrome: outcomes and complications. (United States)

    Drexler, Michael; Rutenberg, T Frenkel; Rozen, N; Warschawski, Y; Rath, E; Chechik, O; Rachevsky, G; Morag, G


    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a common injury in young athletes, causing pain in the involved leg compartment during strenuous exercise. The gold standard treatment is fasciotomy, but most of the reports on its effectiveness include relatively small cohorts and relatively short follow-up periods. This study reports the long-term results of a large cohort of young athletes who underwent single-incision fasciotomy for CECS. This a retrospective case-series study. All patients treated by fasciotomies performed for CECS between 2007 and 2011, in a tertiary medical institution. CECS was diagnosed following history taking and clinical evaluation, and confirmed by compartment pressure measurements. Ninety-five legs that underwent single-incision subcutaneous fasciotomy were included. Data on the numerical analog scale (NAS), Tegner activity score, and quality-of-life (QOL) as measured via the short form-12 (SF-12) were retrieved from all patients preoperatively and at the end of follow-up. The average time to diagnosis was 22 months and the mean follow-up was 50.1 months. Sixty-three legs underwent anterior compartment fasciotomy (an additional 30 legs also underwent lateral compartment release), and two legs underwent lateral and peroneal compartment releases. The average change in Tegner score was an improvement of 14.6 points. Similarly, the patients reported a significant improvement in the SF-12 and NAS scores. Satisfaction rates were high (average 75.5 %). The main complications were wound infection (2 patients) and nerve injuries (4 patients). Eight patients had recurrence. Single-incision fasciotomy leads to long-term improvement in the activity level and QOL of patients with CECS.

  3. Microglial responses to free-electron laser incisions in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M.Z.; Edwards, G.S.; Reinsch, L. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others


    In the CNS, two distinct populations of ramified glia, microglia and astrocytes, are identified by two Ca{sup ++}-binding proteins, lipocortin 1 (LC1) and S100{beta}, respectively. In some forms of CNS trauma, the responses of these two populations are quite-different. The present study sought to characterize and compare the responses of microglia and astrocytes to cortical incisions made with the free-electron laser (FEL, 6.45 and 4.0 {mu}m wavelength) and with a scalpel. After 3 and 6 days recovery, rats were perfused with acidified glutaraldehyde; the activated glia were identified using immunohistochemistry and quantified using BIOQUANT. In a 200 {mu}m thick zone of gliosis located beneath the damaged necrotic tissue, similar response patterns were observed for both incision types. At either time point, S100-{beta}-positive glia showed only minor shape changes and slight increases relative to astrocytes in control regions. Conversely, the population density of microglia in the reaction zone increased approximately 2- and 3-fold at days 3 and 6, respectively. Mitotic figures are detected among the LC1-positive glia at day 3, indicating that the activated phagocytes arise from proliferating resident microglia rather than from hematogenous invaders. Thus, in this system, the glial response to CNS damage comprises primarily microglia rather than astrocytes. The data also suggest that the anti-inflammatory and immuno-suppressive properties of LC1 may play important roles in recovery from CNS trauma and disease. Preliminary experiment show subdued glial responses to incisions made with FEL at 6.45 versus. 4.0 {mu}m wavelengths, suggesting that tissue damage is wavelength dependent.

  4. Serotonin receptors are involved in the spinal mediation of descending facilitation of surgical incision-induced increase of Fos-like immunoreactivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Wiliam A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Descending pronociceptive pathways may be implicated in states of persistent pain. Paw skin incision is a well-established postoperative pain model that causes behavioral nociceptive responses and enhanced excitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons. The number of spinal c-Fos positive neurons of rats treated intrathecally with serotonin, noradrenaline or acetylcholine antagonists where evaluated to study the descending pathways activated by a surgical paw incision. Results The number of c-Fos positive neurons in laminae I/II ipsilateral, lamina V bilateral to the incised paw, and in lamina X significantly increased after the incision. These changes: remained unchanged in phenoxybenzamine-treated rats; were increased in the contralateral lamina V of atropine-treated rats; were inhibited in the ipsilateral lamina I/II by 5-HT1/2B/2C (methysergide, 5-HT2A (ketanserin or 5-HT1/2A/2C/5/6/7 (methiothepin receptors antagonists, in the ipsilateral lamina V by methysergide or methiothepin, in the contralateral lamina V by all the serotonergic antagonists and in the lamina X by LY 278,584, ketanserin or methiothepin. Conclusions We conclude: (1 muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms reduce incision-induced response of spinal neurons inputs from the contralateral paw; (2 5-HT1/2A/2C/3 receptors-mediate mechanisms increase the activity of descending pathways that facilitates the response of spinal neurons to noxious inputs from the contralateral paw; (3 5-HT1/2A/2C and 5-HT1/2C receptors increases the descending facilitation mechanisms induced by incision in the ipsilateral paw; (4 5-HT2A/3 receptors contribute to descending pronociceptive pathways conveyed by lamina X spinal neurons; (5 α-adrenergic receptors are unlikely to participate in the incision-induced facilitation of the spinal neurons.

  5. Repair of large full-thickness cartilage defect by activating endogenous peripheral blood stem cells and autologous periosteum flap transplantation combined with patellofemoral realignment. (United States)

    Fu, Wei-Li; Ao, Ying-Fang; Ke, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Zhuo-Zhao; Gong, Xi; Jiang, Dong; Yu, Jia-Kuo


    Minimal-invasive procedure and one-step surgery offer autologous mesenchymal stem cells derived from peripheral blood (PB-MSCs) a promising prospective in the field of cartilage regeneration. We report a case of a 19-year-old male athlete of kickboxing with ICRS grade IV chondral lesions at the 60° region of lateral femoral trochlea, which was repaired by activating endogenous PB-MSCs plus autologous periosteum flap transplantation combined with correcting the patellofemoral malalignment. After a 7.5 year follow-up, the result showed that the patient returned to competitive kickboxing. Second-look under arthroscopy showed a smooth surface at 8 months postoperation. The IKDC 2000 subjective score, Lysholm score and Tegner score were 95, 98 and 9 respectively at the final follow up. CT and MRI evaluations showed a significant improvement compared with those of pre-operation. © 2013.

  6. Castration of dromedary camel through prescrotal midline incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Taleb


    Full Text Available A total of 165 camels of different ages were castrated through a small, prescrotal midline incision between January, 2010 and December, 2011. The incision was closed with one interrupted, horizontal mattress suture using USP-2 chromic catgut. In 14/165 animals (8.5% postoperative infection (sepsis developed, which healed in two to three weeks after open wound management. The remaining 151 animals had an uneventful recovery, but a slight edematous swelling of the scrotum was observed in 8 of the 151 animals (5.3%, which was self-limiting and of no significance. No primary or secondary postoperative bleeding was noticed in any of the animals. It was concluded that this technique was less time consuming with negligible postoperative care and complications when performed under standard surgical principles.

  7. Closed incision management with negative pressure wound therapy. (United States)

    Dohmen, Pascal M; Misfeld, Martin; Borger, Michael A; Mohr, Friedrich W


    Post-sternotomy mediastinitis is the most severe surgical site infection after sternotomy with an incidence between 1-4% related to the patient co-morbidity. This complication will increase morbidity and mortality and may also have an economic impact. There are guidelines to prevent surgical site infections; however, age and co-morbidities increase and therefore it is important to develop new tools to improve wound healing. This manuscript will give an overview of a new concept using negative pressure wound therapy over a closed incision (so-called, closed incision management) after surgery and will include the principles of negative pressure wound therapy and the positively applied mechanical forces as a permutation of Wolff's law. The use and indication of this therapy is supported by experimental studies divided into physiological and biomechanical property studies. Finally, an overview of clinical studies is given based on the evidence rating scale for therapeutic studies.

  8. Combinatorial Reliability and Repair (United States)


    Press, Oxford, 1987. [2] G. Gordon and L. Traldi, Generalized activities and the Tutte polynomial , Discrete Math. 85 (1990), 167-176. [3] A. B. Huseby, A...particular, Satyanarayana and Tindell introduced a notion of (K,j)-domination in their study of a K-terminal version of the chromatic polynomial [6], and it...G)) graphs. He also intends to look into the properties of the polynomial that gives the expected number of needed repairs of a K-terminal network

  9. Repairing critical-sized calvarial defects with BMSCs modified by a constitutively active form of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and a phosphate cement scaffold. (United States)

    Zou, Duohong; Zhang, Zhiyuan; He, Jiacai; Zhu, Siheng; Wang, Shaoyi; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Jian; Xu, Yuanjin; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yuanyin; Han, Wei; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Shuhong; You, Sulan; Jiang, Xinquan; Huang, Yuanliang


    Tissue engineering combined with gene therapy represents a promising approach for bone regeneration. The Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) gene is a pivotal regulator of vascular reactivity and angiogenesis. Our recent study has showed that HIF-1α could promote osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) using a gene point mutant technique. To optimize the function of HIF-1α on inducing stem cells, another constitutively active form of HIF-1α (CA5) was constructed with truncation mutant method and its therapeutic potential on critical-sized bone defects was evaluated with calcium-magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC) scaffold in a rat model. BMSCs were treated with Lenti (lentivirus) -CA5, Lenti-WT (wild-type HIF-1α), and Lenti-LacZ. These genetically modified BMSCs were then combined with CMPC scaffolds to repair critical-sized calvarial defects in rats. The results showed that the overexpression of HIF-1α obviously enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of osteogenic markers in vitro and robust new bone formation with the higher local bone mineral density (BMD) was found in vivo in the CA5 and WT groups. Furthermore, CA5 showed significantly greater stability and osteogenic activity in BMSCs compared with WT. These data suggest that BMSCs transduced with truncation mutanted HIF-1α gene can promote the overexpression of osteogenic markers. CMPC could serve as a potential substrate for HIF-1α gene modified tissue engineered bone to repair critical sized bony defects.

  10. Resorbable biosynthetic mesh for crural reinforcement during hiatal hernia repair. (United States)

    Alicuben, Evan T; Worrell, Stephanie G; DeMeester, Steven R


    The use of mesh to reinforce crural closure during hiatal hernia repair is controversial. Although some studies suggest that using synthetic mesh can reduce recurrence, synthetic mesh can erode into the esophagus and in our opinion should be avoided. Studies with absorbable or biologic mesh have not proven to be of benefit for recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of hiatal hernia repair with modern resorbable biosynthetic mesh in combination with adjunct tension reduction techniques. We retrospectively analyzed all patients who had crural reinforcement during repair of a sliding or paraesophageal hiatal hernia with Gore BioA resorbable mesh. Objective follow-up was by videoesophagram and/or esophagogastroduodenoscopy. There were 114 patients. The majority of operations (72%) were laparoscopic primary repairs with all patients receiving a fundoplication. The crura were closed primarily in all patients and reinforced with a BioA mesh patch. Excessive tension prompted a crural relaxing incision in four per cent and a Collis gastroplasty in 39 per cent of patients. Perioperative morbidity was minor and unrelated to the mesh. Median objective follow-up was one year, but 18 patients have objective follow-up at two or more years. A recurrent hernia was found in one patient (0.9%) three years after repair. The use of crural relaxing incisions and Collis gastroplasty in combination with crural reinforcement with resorbable biosynthetic mesh is associated with a low early hernia recurrence rate and no mesh-related complications. Long-term follow-up will define the role of these techniques for hiatal hernia repair.

  11. Single incision laparoscopic hepatectomy: Advances in laparoscopic liver surgery

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    Tayar Claude


    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopic liver surgery is now an established practice in many institutions. It is a safe and feasible approach in experienced hands. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS has been performed for cholecystectomies, nephrectomies, splenectomies and obesity surgery. However, the use of SILS in liver surgery has been rarely reported. We report our initial experience in seven patients on single incision laparoscopic hepatectomy (SILH. Patients and Methods: From October 2010 to September 2012, seven patients underwent single-incision laparoscopic liver surgery. The abdomen was approached through a 25 mm periumbilical incision. No supplemental ports were required. The liver was transected using a combination of LigaSure TM (Covidien-Valleylab. Boulder. USA, Harmonic Scalpel and Ligaclips (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.. Results: Liver resection was successfully completed for the seven patients. The procedures consisted of two partial resections of segment three, two partial resections of segment five and three partial resections of segment six. The mean operative time was 98.3 min (range: 60-150 min and the mean estimated blood loss was 57 ml (range: 25-150 ml. The postoperative courses were uneventful and the mean hospital stay was 5.1 days (range: 1-13 days. Pathology identified three benign and four malignant liver tumours with clear margins. Conclusion: SILH is a technically feasible and safe approach for wedge resections of the liver without oncological compromise and with favourable cosmetic results. This surgical technique requires relatively advanced laparoscopic skills. Further studies are needed to determine the potential advantages of this technique, apart from the better cosmetic result, compared to the conventional laparoscopic approach.

  12. Incised valley filling deposits: an important pathway system for long-distance hydrocarbon migration——a case study of the Fulaerji Oilfield in the Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Renchen; Liu Hao; Li Guifan


    In this paper, incised valley filling deposits, which formed an important pathway system for long-distance hydrocarbon migration, are discussed in detail based on core and logging data. The sequence SQy23 of the Cretaceous Yaojia Formation is the main hydrocarbon-beating layer in the Fulaerji Oilfield. The hydrocarbon source of the oilfield is the Qijia-Gulong Sag which is about 80 km away from the Fulaerji Oilfield. The transport layer of long-distance hydrocarbon migration is the overlapped sandstone complex which fills the incised valley. The incised valley developed during the depositional period from the late Qingshankou Formation to the early Yaojia Formation of Cretaceous (SQqn4-SQy1)was about 70 km long and 20 km wide, and extended in the NW-SE direction. The overlapped filling of the incised valley mainly occurred in the expanding system tract of the third-order sequence SQy23 (ESTy23). Towards the basin, incised valley filling deposits overlapped on the delta developed in the early period, and towards the basin margin, incised valley filling deposits were covered by the shore-shallow lacustrine sandy beach bar developed in the maximum flooding period. All of the delta, the incised valley filling and the shore-shallow sandy beach bar are sandstone-rich, and have high porosity and permeability, and can form an effective hydrocarbon migration and accumulation system. Deltaic sand bodies collected and pumped hydrocarbon from the active source, incised valley filling depositional system completed the long-distance hydrocarbon migration, and lithological traps of shore-shallow lacustrine sandy beach bar accumulated hydrocarbon. The incised valley filling sequences are multi-cycle: an integrated short- term filling cycle was developed on the erosion surface, and the sequences upward were mud-gravel stone, medium-fine sandstone containing terrigenous gravels and muddy pebbles with cross bedding, silty mudstone with ripple bedding, and mudstone. The incised valley

  13. Controversies in laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia

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    Sarela Abeezar


    Full Text Available Background: Incisional hernias can be a significant problem after open abdominal surgery. Laparoscopic incisional hernia repair (LIHR is conceptually appealing: a large, abdominal wall re-incision with potential wound-related ill effects is avoided and an intra-peritoneal onlay mesh is expected to provide security that is equivalent to open, retro-muscular mesh repair. As such, LIHR has gained substantial popularity despite sparse, randomised clinical data to compare with conventional, open repair. Aim: To enumerate and discuss important, controversial issues in patient-selection, technique and early post-operative care for LIHR. Materials and Methods: Pragmatic summary of comprehensive review of English language literature, discussion with experts and personal experience. Outcomes: Six important areas of some dispute were identified: 1. Size of abdominal-wall defect that is suitable for LIHR: Generally, defect-diameter > 10 cm is better served by open retromuscular repair with tension-free re-approximation of the edges of the defect. 2. Extent of adhesiolysis: Complete division of adhesions to the anterior abdominal wall may identify sub-clinical "Swiss-cheese" defects but incurs some risk of additional complications. 3. Intra-operative recognition of enterotomy: Possible options are either laparoscopic suture of bowel injury and simultaneous completion of LIHR, or staged LIHR or conversion to open suture-repair. 4. Choice of mesh: "Composite" meshes are regarded as the current standard of care but there is paucity of data regarding potential dangers of intra-peritoneal polypropylene mesh. 5. Technique of mesh-fixation: Trans-parietal sutures are more secure than tacks, with limited data to correlate with post-operative pain. 6. Alarm over post-operative pain: Unlike other advanced laparoscopic operations, the specificity of pain as a marker of intra-abdominal sepsis after LIHR remains unclear. Conclusion : Recognition of and attention to

  14. Single incision thoracoscopic sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis

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    Aram Baram


    Full Text Available Background: Primary hyperhidrosis is characterized by excessive sweating beyond physiological needs. It is a common disease (incidence 2.8% that causes intense discomfort for patients. In the last decade, advantages of Single-Incision Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy have become clear, particularly in decreasing morbidity of sympathectomy. Patients and methods: From January 2010 to December 2012, 39 patients (29 females and 10 males with primary palmar or axillary hyperhidrosis were treated by thoracoscopic sympathectomy. The age ranged from 18 to 40 years with a mean of 26.28 years. We used single incision thoracoscopic electrocoagulation through 10 mm incision for thoracic sympathetic chain (T2–T4. Results: The mean follow-up was 23.6 ± 14.2 months (range = 4–24 months. A total of 97.42% of patients were satisfied with the results. A total of 72.5% of patients had cure, one patient (2.5% and another patient (2.5% presented with recurrent axillary hyperhidrosis. The morbidity was 10.2% with no mortality. Percentage of compensatory sweating and gustatory sweating were 5.1% (p = .353 and 2.5% (p = .552, respectively. The result of sympathectomy in patients with both palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis was significantly better (17, 43.58% compared to palmar type (14, 35.89% or axillary type (7, 17.94%. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic sympathectomy is a simple, safe, and cost-effective therapy with good results and low complications.

  15. Modelling of meander migration in an incised channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianchun HUANG; Blair P GREIMANN; Timothy J RANDLE


    An updated linear computer model for meandering rivers with incision has been developed. The model simulates the bed topography, flow field, and bank erosion rate in an incised meandering channel. In a scenario where the upstream sediment load decreases (e.g., after dam closure or soil conservation), alluvial river experiences cross section deepening and slope flattening. The channel migration rate might be affected in two ways:decreased channel slope and steeped bank height. The proposed numerical model combines the traditional one-dimensional (1D) sediment transport model in simulating the channel erosion and the linear model for channel meandering. A non-equilibrium sediment transport model is used to update the channel bed elevation and gradations. A linear meandering model was used to calculate the channel alignment and bank erosion/accretion, which in turn was used by the 1D sediment transport model. In the 1D sediment transport model, the channel bed elevation and gradations are represented in each channel cross section. In the meandering model, the bed elevation and gradations are stored in two dimensional (2D) cells to represent the channel and terrain properties (elevation and gradation). A new method is proposed to exchange information regarding bed elevations and bed material fractions between 1D river geometry and 2D channel and terrain. The ability of the model is demonstrated using the simulation of the laboratory channel migration of Friedkin in which channel incision occurs at the upstream end.

  16. Minimal incision access for pediatric and adult cochlear implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Danmo; Shi Ying; Su Qiaotong; Liu Ting; Han Demin; Li Yongxin


    Background Cochlear implant surgery is widely practiced.Minimal incision cochlear implant surgery has been developed with the aims of reducing the impact of surgery on the patient and improving cosmesis while maintaining the low morbidity of conventional wider access approaches.This study aimed to assess the surgical technique and complication rate of minimal incision cochlear implantation (MICI) for children and adults.Methods Data for this study were obtained via a retrospective analysis.Totally 378 patients were included in the study.All patients received minimal incision cochlear implantation,using the skin protector during the process of the operation.The surgical complications of MICI were recorded in a spreadsheet format.The incidence of major and minor complication were analyzed,and appropriate treatment was provided.Results A total of 40 (10.5%) complications were noted in the study.There were 0 life-threatening,9 major,and 31 minor complications.Of the nine major complications,five were device failures,one developed infection and extrusion,and three required receiver-stimulator repositioning.Conclusions MICI is as safe as standard cochlear implantation (SCI) and affords with it other benefits.Eliminating the scalp flap avoids devascularization and minimizes the opportunity of flap infection or necrosis.Complications not related to the flap are similar to SCI.

  17. Single incision thoracoscopic sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis (United States)


    Background: Primary hyperhidrosis is characterized by excessive sweating beyond physiological needs. It is a common disease (incidence 2.8%) that causes intense discomfort for patients. In the last decade, advantages of Single-Incision Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy have become clear, particularly in decreasing morbidity of sympathectomy. Patients and methods: From January 2010 to December 2012, 39 patients (29 females and 10 males) with primary palmar or axillary hyperhidrosis were treated by thoracoscopic sympathectomy. The age ranged from 18 to 40 years with a mean of 26.28 years. We used single incision thoracoscopic electrocoagulation through 10 mm incision for thoracic sympathetic chain (T2–T4). Results: The mean follow-up was 23.6 ± 14.2 months (range = 4–24 months). A total of 97.42% of patients were satisfied with the results. A total of 72.5% of patients had cure, one patient (2.5%) and another patient (2.5%) presented with recurrent axillary hyperhidrosis. The morbidity was 10.2% with no mortality. Percentage of compensatory sweating and gustatory sweating were 5.1% (p = .353) and 2.5% (p = .552), respectively. The result of sympathectomy in patients with both palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis was significantly better (17, 43.58%) compared to palmar type (14, 35.89%) or axillary type (7, 17.94%). Conclusion: Thoracoscopic sympathectomy is a simple, safe, and cost-effective therapy with good results and low complications. PMID:26770711

  18. Bedrock incision by bedload: insights from direct numerical simulations (United States)

    Aubert, Guilhem; Langlois, Vincent J.; Allemand, Pascal


    Bedload sediment transport is one of the main processes that contribute to bedrock incision in a river and is therefore one of the key control parameters in the evolution of mountainous landscapes. In recent years, many studies have addressed this issue through experimental setups, direct measurements in the field, or various analytical models. In this article, we present a new direct numerical approach: using the classical methods of discrete-element simulations applied to granular materials, we explicitly compute the trajectories of a number of pebbles entrained by a turbulent water stream over a rough solid surface. This method allows us to extract quantitatively the amount of energy that successive impacts of pebbles deliver to the bedrock, as a function of both the amount of sediment available and the Shields number. We show that we reproduce qualitatively the behaviour observed experimentally by Sklar and Dietrich (2001) and observe both a "tool effect" and a "cover effect". Converting the energy delivered to the bedrock into an average long-term incision rate of the river leads to predictions consistent with observations in the field. Finally, we reformulate the dependency of this incision rate with Shields number and sediment flux, and predict that the cover term should decay linearly at low sediment supply and exponentially at high sediment supply.

  19. A two-incision approach: promises and pitfalls. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Aaron G


    Is this an optimal procedure? Clearly, it is not for every patient, but it does serve patients who can benefit from rapid recovery as well as those patients truly interested in minimizing their down time. It also is clearly not for the occasional total hip surgeon. It is a technique that brings to the patient the maximum potential for speed of recovery. However, it is important to stress again that the surgical approach is just one factor facilitating the recovery curve. While the benefits are real, their importance must be weighed by both surgeon and patient relative to the risks. The risks are not insignificant, but generally decrease with time and experience. As opposed to several smaller incision modifications of routine approaches to THA, the two-incision approach does require a separate and distinctively different skill set, including alternative methods to make up for the lack of standard visualization and careful attention to details such as incision placement and location of the starting point in the intramedullary canal. However, in the rest of the medical world, that is what minimally invasive surgery is about.

  20. Progressive incision of the Channeled Scablands by outburst floods. (United States)

    Larsen, Isaac J; Lamb, Michael P


    The surfaces of Earth and Mars contain large bedrock canyons that were carved by catastrophic outburst floods. Reconstructing the magnitude of these canyon-forming floods is essential for understanding the ways in which floods modify planetary surfaces, the hydrology of early Mars and abrupt changes in climate. Flood discharges are often estimated by assuming that the floods filled the canyons to their brims with water; however, an alternative hypothesis is that canyon morphology adjusts during incision such that bed shear stresses exceed the threshold for erosion by a small amount. Here we show that accounting for erosion thresholds during canyon incision results in near-constant discharges that are five- to ten-fold smaller than full-to-the-brim estimates for Moses Coulee, a canyon in the Channeled Scablands, which was carved during the Pleistocene by the catastrophic Missoula floods in eastern Washington, USA. The predicted discharges are consistent with flow-depth indicators from gravel bars within the canyon. In contrast, under the assumption that floods filled canyons to their brims, a large and monotonic increase in flood discharge is predicted as the canyon was progressively incised, which is at odds with the discharges expected for floods originating from glacial lake outbursts. These findings suggest that flood-carved landscapes in fractured rock might evolve to a threshold state for bedrock erosion, thus implying much lower flood discharges than previously thought.

  1. Progressive incision of the Channeled Scablands by outburst floods (United States)

    Larsen, Isaac J.; Lamb, Michael P.


    The surfaces of Earth and Mars contain large bedrock canyons that were carved by catastrophic outburst floods. Reconstructing the magnitude of these canyon-forming floods is essential for understanding the ways in which floods modify planetary surfaces, the hydrology of early Mars and abrupt changes in climate. Flood discharges are often estimated by assuming that the floods filled the canyons to their brims with water; however, an alternative hypothesis is that canyon morphology adjusts during incision such that bed shear stresses exceed the threshold for erosion by a small amount. Here we show that accounting for erosion thresholds during canyon incision results in near-constant discharges that are five- to ten-fold smaller than full-to-the-brim estimates for Moses Coulee, a canyon in the Channeled Scablands, which was carved during the Pleistocene by the catastrophic Missoula floods in eastern Washington, USA. The predicted discharges are consistent with flow-depth indicators from gravel bars within the canyon. In contrast, under the assumption that floods filled canyons to their brims, a large and monotonic increase in flood discharge is predicted as the canyon was progressively incised, which is at odds with the discharges expected for floods originating from glacial lake outbursts. These findings suggest that flood-carved landscapes in fractured rock might evolve to a threshold state for bedrock erosion, thus implying much lower flood discharges than previously thought.

  2. Targeted gene repair – in the arena



    The development of targeted gene repair is under way and, despite some setbacks, shows promise as an alternative form of gene therapy. This approach uses synthetic DNA molecules to activate and direct the cell’s inherent DNA repair systems to correct inborn errors. The progress of this technique and its therapeutic potential are discussed in relation to the treatment of genetic diseases.

  3. Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Failed SLAP Repair. (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Miller, Mark D


    In general, favorable outcomes have been achieved with arthroscopic repair of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears. However, some patients remain dissatisfied or suffer further injury after SLAP repair and may seek additional treatment to alleviate their symptoms. The cause of persistent pain or recurrent symptoms after repair is likely multifactorial; therefore, careful preoperative workup is required to elucidate the cause of pain. Review of the details of previous surgical procedures is crucial because certain fixation methods are prone to failure or can cause additional injury. Failed SLAP repair can be managed with nonsurgical or surgical options. Nonsurgical modalities include physical therapy and strengthening programs, anti-inflammatory agents, and activity modification. Surgical options include revision SLAP repair and biceps tenotomy or tenodesis with or without revision SLAP repair. Outcomes after surgical management of failed SLAP repair are inferior to those of primary repair. Select patients may be better served by primary biceps tenodesis rather than SLAP repair.

  4. Simple in situ decompression for idiopathic cubital tunnel syndrome using minimal skin incision

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    Jeon In-Ho


    Full Text Available Cubital tunnel syndrome is one of the most frequently occurring compression neuropathy in the upper limb next to carpal tunnel syndrome. Recent minimal invasive technique has prompted us to gain clinical experience with simple in situ decompression with minimal skin incision for idiopathic cubital tunnel syndrome. Sixty six consecutive patients with cubital tunnel syndrome were treated using minimal skin incision technique. The mean age of the patients was 49.7 (range: 15-77 years and average follow up period was 23.9 months (range: 12-60 months. The severity of ulnar neuropathy was classified according to the McGowan classification: there were 17 in grade I , 47 in grade II and 2 in grade III. A preoperative nerve conduction study was done by inching method, which revealed motor conduction delay around the medial epicondyle. All operations were carried out in a day surgery unit under local anesthetics. The postoperative outcome was evaluated by Messina classification. The mean duration of the operation was 12 minutes. The technique was highly satisfactorily esthetic for all. Over 80% of the patients were completely satisfied with the procedure taking into consideration their symptoms. Postoperative outcome measures and patient satisfactions (pain, return to normal activities and work, scar and pillar tenderness were comparable with published series of anterior transposition. The overall satisfactory results were recorded 81% in the patients of McGowan stage I and II. There were 2 cases of hematoma as a postoperative complication. This procedure is comparably effective alternative which involves less surgical trauma, morbidity and rehabilitation time with good surgical outcomes especially in mild and moderate degrees. Minimal skin incision is a simple, safe and effective method to treat patients with idiopathic cubital tunnel syndrome.

  5. Work and Learning in Micro Car-Repair Enterprises. A Comparative Study on the Relationship between Technological and Organisational Developments and Training Activities in Micro Car-Repair Enterprises in Four European Countries. Synthesis Report. CEDEFOP Panorama. (United States)

    van den Tillaart, Harry; van den Berg, Sjaak; Warmerdam, John

    Work and learning in microenterprises in the car repair industries of four European Community (EC) countries were examined through 21 case studies of firms with 10 or fewer employees (6 firms in Ireland and 5 each in Greece, the Netherlands, and Spain). Structured interviews were conducted with each firm's owner and 60 motor vehicle mechanics at…

  6. Chemical repair activity of free radical scavenger edaravone: reduction reactions with dGMP hydroxyl radical adducts and suppression of base lesions and AP sites on irradiated plasmid DNA. (United States)

    Hata, Kuniki; Urushibara, Ayumi; Yamashita, Shinichi; Lin, Mingzhang; Muroya, Yusa; Shikazono, Naoya; Yokoya, Akinari; Fu, Haiying; Katsumura, Yosuke


    Reactions of edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) with deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP) hydroxyl radical adducts were investigated by pulse radiolysis technique. Edaravone was found to reduce the dGMP hydroxyl radical adducts through electron transfer reactions. The rate constants of the reactions were greater than 4 × 10(8) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) and similar to those of the reactions of ascorbic acid, which is a representative antioxidant. Yields of single-strand breaks, base lesions, and abasic sites produced in pUC18 plasmid DNA by gamma ray irradiation in the presence of low concentrations (10-1000 μmol dm(-3)) of edaravone were also quantified, and the chemical repair activity of edaravone was estimated by a method recently developed by the authors. By comparing suppression efficiencies to the induction of each DNA lesion, it was found that base lesions and abasic sites were suppressed by the chemical repair activity of edaravone, although the suppression of single-strand breaks was not very effective. This phenomenon was attributed to the chemical repair activity of edaravone toward base lesions and abasic sites. However, the chemical repair activity of edaravone for base lesions was lower than that of ascorbic acid.

  7. The reverse abdominal reduction and the 'waistcoating' procedure for the correction of the fixated Pfannenstiel incision. (United States)

    Harrison, Douglas H


    The principles of a standard abdominal reduction are well understood; this technique has been used for many years. However, a reverse abdominal reduction may be considered in some cases, for example, continued weight loss, and thus skin redundancy on the upper abdomen in patients who have already undergone abdominal reduction and upper abdomen improvement in patients requiring a mastopexy or breast reduction simultaneously. Reverse abdominal reduction is rarely mentioned in the medical literature, but it can prove successful; although the scar across the lower sternum has often been considered to be unsatisfactory, often it does not prove to be so. Thus, this procedure can be proven to be successful in suitable cases. Secondly, the Pfannenstiel incision, if not satisfactorily repaired in the first instance, can become fixated to the abdominal wall; this fixation along with the inevitable migration of skin and fat at its cephalic edge causes a rather displeasing contour defect when wearing tight-fitting swimwear. The principle of the waistcoating procedure is essentially to chamfer the fat cephalically; this procedure is employed for removing the Pfannenstiel scar from the abdominal wall. The principle is simple and effective and can be applied in cases with fixated scars. These two aforementioned principles are not commonly used, but they can prove particularly effective in suitable cases. We illustrate the principles.

  8. Laparoscopic repair for vesicouterine fistulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Maioli


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this video is to present the laparoscopic repair of a VUF in a 42-year-old woman, with gross hematuria, in the immediate postoperative phase following a cesarean delivery. The obstetric team implemented conservative management, including Foley catheter insertion, for 2 weeks. She subsequently developed intermittent hematuria and cystitis. The urology team was consulted 15 days after cesarean delivery. Cystoscopy indicated an ulcerated lesion in the bladder dome of approximately 1.0cm in size. Hysterosalpingography and a pelvic computed tomography scan indicated a fistula. Materials and Methods: Laparoscopic repair was performed 30 days after the cesarean delivery. The patient was placed in the lithotomy position while also in an extreme Trendelenburg position. Pneumoperitoneum was established using a Veress needle in the midline infra-umbilical region, and a primary 11-mm port was inserted. Another 11-mm port was inserted exactly between the left superior iliac spine and the umbilicus. Two other 5-mm ports were established under laparoscopic guidance in the iliac fossa on both sides. The omental adhesions in the pelvis were carefully released and the peritoneum between the bladder and uterus was incised via cautery. Limited cystotomy was performed, and the specific sites of the fistula and the ureteral meatus were identified; thereafter, the posterior bladder wall was adequately mobilized away from the uterus. The uterine rent was then closed using single 3/0Vicryl sutures and two-layer watertight closure of the urinary bladder was achieved by using 3/0Vicryl sutures. An omental flap was mobilized and inserted between the uterus and the urinary bladder, and was fixed using two 3/0Vicryl sutures, followed by tube drain insertion. Results: The operative time was 140 min, whereas the blood loss was 100ml. The patient was discharged 3 days after surgery, and the catheter was removed 12 days after surgery

  9. Surgical site infections after lower extremity revascularization procedures involving groin incisions. (United States)

    Kuy, SreyRam; Dua, Anahita; Desai, Sapan; Dua, Arshish; Patel, Bhavin; Tondravi, Nader; Seabrook, Gary R; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian D; Lee, Cheong J; Kuy, SreyReath; Subbarayan, Rishi; Rossi, Peter J


    We sought to evaluate the incidence, epidemiology, and factors associated with surgical site infections (SSIs) after lower extremity revascularization procedures involving groin incisions and determine outcomes based on SSI status. This is a single-institution, retrospective cohort study of 106 patients who underwent lower extremity revascularization procedures involving femoral artery exposure through a groin incision at a tertiary referral hospital. The primary outcome was occurrence of SSI at the groin wound. The duration of hospital stay, reoperation within 30 days, discharge disposition, and 30-day mortality were also evaluated. Independent variables included patient demographics and operative variables (i.e., procedure type, transfusion requirements, preoperative antibiotics, intraoperative vasopressors, and operative duration). Statistical analysis included chi-squared tests, t-tests, and multivariable regression analysis. Of the 106 patients who underwent a lower extremity revascularization procedure with a groin incision for femoral artery exposure, 62% were male, and the mean age was 62 years. Comorbidities included hypertension (93%), dyslipidemia (65%), statin use (63%), active smoker (50%), diabetes (24%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (23%). All patients received preoperative antibiotics, 50% required intraoperative pressors, 21% received a blood transfusion, and the mean operative time was 296 min. The overall duration of stay was 10.7 days, the 30-day reoperation rate was 18%, and the 30-day mortality rate was 12%. Overall, 22% developed a seroma or hematoma, and 31% developed a SSI. Patients who developed an SSI compared with those who did not were more likely to have a postoperative seroma or hematoma (55% vs 5%) and to receive a blood transfusion (33% vs 15%), but less likely to be treated with a statin (47% vs 69%) or carry a diagnosis of dyslipidemia (50% vs 72%), respectively, all P surgical site complications after lower

  10. Pectus excavatum repair (United States)

    ... this page: // Pectus excavatum repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pectus excavatum repair is surgery to correct pectus excavatum . This ...

  11. Macrophage sub-populations and the lipoxin A4 receptor implicate active inflammation during equine tendon repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Georgina Dakin

    appears to be of insufficient duration and magnitude in natural tendon injury, which may potentiate chronic inflammation and fibrotic repair, as indicated by the presence of M2Mφ.

  12. Macrophage Sub-Populations and the Lipoxin A4 Receptor Implicate Active Inflammation during Equine Tendon Repair (United States)

    Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Werling, Dirk; Hibbert, Andrew; Abayasekara, Dilkush Robert Ephrem; Young, Natalie Jayne; Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Dudhia, Jayesh


    insufficient duration and magnitude in natural tendon injury, which may potentiate chronic inflammation and fibrotic repair, as indicated by the presence of M2Mϕ. PMID:22384219

  13. The Surgical Results of Onlay Mesh Repair for Incisional Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Kaya


    Full Text Available Aim: İncisional hernia after abdominal surgery is an important problem. We aimed to evaluate the longterm recurrence rate as well as surgical complications in patients operated with onlay mesh repair technique for incisional hernia. Material and Method: We studied a serial of 139 patients retrospectively, operated due to incisional hernia in between January 2001 to November 2009 in Vakıf Gureba Training and Research Hospital General Surgery Department. The patient’s age, sex, location and size of the defect, operation findings, duration of hospitalization, early and late complications and recurrences were recorded. Result: There were 56 men and 83 women inour serial. The mean age was 55 (age range, 30-85 years. The most commonincisions that hernia had been developed were upper midline incision (51 patients and lower midline incision (37 patients. The size of the hernia defect was 0-5 cm in 118 patients , 6-10 cm in 5 patients 11-15 cm in 12 patients, and above 15 cm in 4 patients. The postoperative complications were wound infection in 22 patients, seroma in 12 patients. The mean duration of hospital stay was 4.53 (range 1-10 days. The recurrence was detected in 6 patients. Discussion: It seems to be that onlay mesh repair is safe and effective technique for incisional hernia repair.

  14. When "Other" Initiate Repair. (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.


    Elaborates on the locus of other-initiated repair, and reports on a number of environments in which others initiate repair turns later than the one directly following the trouble-source turn. Describes several ways that other initiation of repair, which occurs in next-turn position, may be delayed within that position. (Author/VWL)

  15. Post-incision events induced by UV : regulation of incision and the role of post-incision factors in mammalian NER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmeer, René Marcel


    Cancer is caused by an accumulation of mutations (formed when cells attempt to replicate damaged DNA) that lead to unchecked cell growth and proliferation. The first chapter of this thesis gives an overview of the major DNA-damaging agents and the opposing repair pathways, subsequently nucleotide ex

  16. 3K3A-activated protein C stimulates postischemic neuronal repair by human neural stem cells in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhen; Rege, Sanket V


    profile in humans, 3K3A-APC has advanced to clinical trials as a neuroprotectant in ischemic stroke. Recently, 3K3A-APC has been shown to stimulate neuronal production by human neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs) in vitro via a PAR1-PAR3-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor 1-Akt pathway, which suggests......Activated protein C (APC) is a blood protease with anticoagulant activity and cell-signaling activities mediated by the activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (F2R, also known as PAR1) and F2RL1 (also known as PAR3) via noncanonical cleavage. Recombinant variants of APC, such as the 3K3A......-APC (Lys191-193Ala) mutant in which three Lys residues (KKK191-193) were replaced with alanine, and/or its other mutants with reduced (>90%) anticoagulant activity, engineered to reduce APC-associated bleeding risk while retaining normal cell-signaling activity, have shown benefits in preclinical models...

  17. In vivo and in vitro analysis of topographic changes secondary to DSAEK venting incisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Church D


    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar, Monette T Lependu, Dane Church, Marcus C Neuffer John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Introduction: Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK venting incisions may induce irregular corneal astigmatism. The study examines in vivo and in vitro astigmatic effects of venting incisions. Patients and methods: In vivo analysis examined eleven eyes of eleven patients who had received DSAEK with venting incisions. A chart review of the eleven eyes including assessment of pre and postoperative refraction and topography was performed. In vitro analysis examined three cadaver eyes which received topographic imaging followed by venting incisions at 4 mm, 6 mm, and 7 mm optical zones. Topographic imaging was then performed again after the incisions. Results: Postoperative topographies of eleven eyes demonstrated localized flattening at incision sites and cloverleaf pattern astigmatism. There was a significant difference in corneal irregularity measurement (P = 0.03, but no significant difference in shape factor or change of topographic cylinder. The cloverleaf pattern was found in cadaver eyes with incisions placed at 4 mm and 6 mm optical zones but not at the 7 mm zone. Conclusion: DSAEK venting incisions can cause irregular corneal astigmatism that may affect visual outcomes. The authors recommend placement of venting incisions near the 7 mm optical zone. Keywords: DSAEK, venting incisions, endothelial keratoplasty, astigmatism, endothelium, endothelial transplant

  18. The clinical significance of abdominal right lower paramedian incision inrectal cancer operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Shu Wang; Shou Jiang Wei; Jing Dong Li


    AIM The incision in rectal cancer operation is adopted commonly in the left mid-lower abdomen. But thereare some defects for the incision, which is close to the artificial colotomy, readily be contaminated by feces,difficult to treat the lesions in hepatic and cholecystic area at the same time and in the weakened area ofabdominal wall. So, we employed the abdominal right lower paramedian incision to solve these problems.METHODS The abdominal right lower paramedian incision is from publc tubercle upward to 3 cm- 4 cmabove navel. The incision should be extended upward if individual need of performing hepatic and cholecysticoperation, or placing catheter or pump in hepatic artery or portal vein for chemotherapy at the same time.RESULTS One hundred and eighty three cases with rectal cancer were adopted this incision in differentoperation procedure, and out of them 41 patients were taken different operation on hepatic and cholecysticlesions and place a catheter or pump to hepatic artery or portal vein. Operators feel that the incision dose nothinder exploring and operating in all of the patients.CONCLUSION The right lower paramedian incision of abdomen is far away from the artificial colotomy,and it can reduce the feces contamination, lower down the rate of incision hernia and paramedian hernia orfistula. Furthermore, it is easy to treat the complicated hepatic and cholecystic lesion. So, authors suggestthat this incision is useful for the operation of rectal cancer, and it is worth to populize in clinical practice.

  19. The effect of rotator cuff repair on early overhead shoulder function: a study in 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs. (United States)

    Robinson, Hayden A; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Murrell, George A C


    Rotator cuff tears are often surgically repaired, generally with good results. However, repairs not infrequently retear, and how important repair integrity is with respect to early functional outcomes after rotator cuff repair is unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a retear on overhead activities in a large cohort of patients after rotator cuff repair. This was a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data from 1600 consecutive rotator cuff repairs. Outcomes were based on patient responses to the L'Insalata Shoulder Questionnaire and findings on examination preoperatively and at 6 months of follow-up. Repair integrity was determined by ultrasound imaging at the 6-month follow-up visit. The 1600 patients (885 men, 715 women) were a mean age of 58 years. Postoperative ultrasound imaging found 13% (211 of 1600) of repairs had retorn. Significant improvements were seen irrespective of rotator cuff integrity in pain levels with overhead activity (P rotation strength (P rotator cuff repair integrity on shoulder function. Patients who had an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair reported significant improvements in overhead pain levels irrespective of the repair integrity at 6 months. Repair integrity influenced supraspinatus and external rotation power, where patients with intact repairs were stronger than those with a retear. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. L- and D-lactate enhance DNA repair and modulate the resistance of cervical carcinoma cells to anticancer drugs via histone deacetylase inhibition and hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 activation. (United States)

    Wagner, Waldemar; Ciszewski, Wojciech M; Kania, Katarzyna D


    The consideration of lactate as an active metabolite is a newly emerging and attractive concept. Recently, lactate has been reported to regulate gene transcription via the inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and survival of cancer cells via hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 (HCAR1). This study examined the role of L- and D-lactate in the DNA damage response in cervical cancer cells. Three cervical cancer cell lines were examined: HeLa, Ca Ski and C33A. The inhibitory activity of lactate on HDACs was analysed using Western blot and biochemical methods. The lactate-mediated stimulation of DNA repair and cellular resistance to neocarzinostatin, doxorubicin and cisplatin were studied using γ-H2AX, comet and clonogenic assays. HCAR1 and DNA repair gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR. DNA-PKcs activity and HCAR1 protein expression were evaluated via immunocytochemistry and Western blot, respectively. HCAR1 activation was investigated by measuring intracellular cAMP accumulation and Erk phosphorylation. HCAR1 expression was silenced using shRNA. L- and D-lactate inhibited HDACs, induced histone H3 and H4 hyperacetylation, and decreased chromatin compactness in HeLa cells. Treating cells with lactate increased LIG4, NBS1, and APTX expression by nearly 2-fold and enhanced DNA-PKcs activity. Based on γ-H2AX and comet assays, incubation of cells in lactate-containing medium increased the DNA repair rate. Furthermore, clonogenic assays demonstrated that lactate mediates cellular resistance to clinically used chemotherapeutics. Western blot and immunocytochemistry showed that all studied cell lines express HCAR1 on the cellular surface. Inhibiting HCAR1 function via pertussis toxin pretreatment partially abolished the effects of lactate on DNA repair. Down-regulating HCAR1 decreased the efficiency of DNA repair, abolished the cellular response to L-lactate and decreased the effect of D-lactate. Moreover, HCAR1 shRNA-expressing cells produced significantly

  1. Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene inhibit catalase activity and induce expression of oxidative DNA damage repair enzymes in human bronchial epithelial cells. (United States)

    Kennedy, Christopher H; Catallo, W James; Wilson, Vincent L; Mitchell, James B


    1,3-Butadiene, an important petrochemical, is commonly burned off when excess amounts need to be destroyed. This combustion process produces butadiene soot (BDS), which is composed of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates ranging in size from DNA damage in NHBE cells. Thus, our aims were to determine the effect of butadiene soot ethanol extract (BSEE) on both enzyme activity and the expression of proteins involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Catalase was found to be sensitive to BDS as catalase activity was potently diminished in the presence of BSEE. Using Western analysis, both the alpha isoform of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (alpha-hOGG1) and human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE-1) were shown to be significantly overexpressed as compared to untreated controls after exposure of NHBE cells to BSEE. Our results indicate that BSEE is capable of effectively inactivating the antioxidant enzyme catalase, presumably via oxidation of protein amino acids. The presence of oxidized biomolecules may partially explain the extranuclear fluorescence that is detected when NHBE cells are treated with an organic extract of BDS. Overexpression of both alpha-hOGG1 and APE-1 proteins following treatment of NHBE cells with BSEE suggests that this mixture causes oxidative DNA damage.

  2. Dual inhibition of ATR and ATM potentiates the activity of trabectedin and lurbinectedin by perturbing the DNA damage response and homologous recombination repair. (United States)

    Lima, Michelle; Bouzid, Hana; Soares, Daniele G; Selle, Frédéric; Morel, Claire; Galmarini, Carlos M; Henriques, João A P; Larsen, Annette K; Escargueil, Alexandre E


    Trabectedin (Yondelis®, ecteinascidin-743, ET-743) is a marine-derived natural product approved for treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma and relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Lurbinectedin is a novel anticancer agent structurally related to trabectedin. Both ecteinascidins generate DNA double-strand breaks that are processed through homologous recombination repair (HRR), thereby rendering HRR-deficient cells particularly sensitive. We here characterize the DNA damage response (DDR) to trabectedin and lurbinectedin in HeLa cells. Our results show that both compounds activate the ATM/Chk2 (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated/checkpoint kinase 2) and ATR/Chk1 (ATM and RAD3-related/checkpoint kinase 1) pathways. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of Chk1/2, ATR or ATM is not accompanied by any significant improvement of the cytotoxic activity of the ecteinascidins while dual inhibition of ATM and ATR strongly potentiates it. Accordingly, concomitant inhibition of both ATR and ATM is an absolute requirement to efficiently block the formation of γ-H2AX, MDC1, BRCA1 and Rad51 foci following exposure to the ecteinascidins. These results are not restricted to HeLa cells, but are shared by cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian carcinoma cells. Together, our data identify ATR and ATM as central coordinators of the DDR to ecteinascidins and provide a mechanistic rationale for combining these compounds with ATR and ATM inhibitors.

  3. 1,4-Dihydropyridines Active on the SIRT1/AMPK Pathway Ameliorate Skin Repair and Mitochondrial Function and Exhibit Inhibition of Proliferation in Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Valente, Sergio; Mellini, Paolo; Spallotta, Francesco; Carafa, Vincenzo; Nebbioso, Angela; Polletta, Lucia; Carnevale, Ilaria; Saladini, Serena; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Gabellini, Chiara; Tardugno, Maria; Zwergel, Clemens; Cencioni, Chiara; Atlante, Sandra; Moniot, Sébastien; Steegborn, Clemens; Budriesi, Roberta; Tafani, Marco; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Altucci, Lucia; Gaetano, Carlo; Mai, Antonello


    Modulators of sirtuins are considered promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we prepared new 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) bearing changes at the C2/C6, C3/C5, C4, or N1 position. Tested with the SIRTainty procedure, some of them displayed increased SIRT1 activation with respect to the prototype 3a, high NO release in HaCat cells, and ameliorated skin repair in a mouse model of wound healing. In C2C12 myoblasts, two of them improved mitochondrial density and functions. All the effects were reverted by coadministration of compound C (9), an AMPK inhibitor, or of EX-527 (10), a SIRT1 inhibitor, highlighting the involvement of the SIRT1/AMPK pathway in the action of DHPs. Finally, tested in a panel of cancer cells, the water-soluble form of 3a, compound 8, displayed antiproliferative effects in the range of 8-35 μM and increased H4K16 deacetylation, suggesting a possible role for SIRT1 activators in cancer therapy.

  4. Standardized technique for single-incision laparoscopicassisted stoma creation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norikatsu Miyoshi; Shiki Fujino; Masayuki Ohue; Masayoshi Yasui; Shingo Noura; Yuma Wada; Ryuichiro Kimura; Keijiro Sugimura; Akira Tomokuni; Hirofumi Akita; Shogo Kobayashi; Hidenori Takahashi; Takeshi Omori; Yoshiyuki Fujiwara; Masahiko Yano


    To describe the procedure, efficacy, and utility of singleincision laparoscopic-assisted stoma creation(SILStoma) for transverse colostomy. Using single-incision laparoscopic surgery, we developed a standardized technique for SILStoma. Twelve consecutive patients underwent SILStoma for transverse colostomy at Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases from April 2013 to March 2016. A single, intended stoma site was created with a 2.5-3.5 cm skin incision for primary access to the intra-abdominal space, and it functioned as the main port through which multi-trocars were placed. Clinical and operative factors and postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Patient demographics, including age, gender, body mass index, and surgical indications for intestinal diversion were evaluated. SILStoma was performed in nine cases without the requirement of additional ports. In the remaining three cases, 1-2 additional 5-mm ports were required for mobilization of the transverse colon and safe dissection of abdominal adhesions. No cases required conversion to open surgery. In all cases, SILStoma was completed at the initial stoma site marked preoperatively. No intraoperative or postoperative complications greater than Grade Ⅱ(the Clavien-Dindo classification) were reported in the complication survey. Surgical site infection at stoma sites was observed in four cases; however, surgical interventions were not required and all infectionswere cured completely. In all cases, the resumption of bowel movements was observed between postoperative days 1 and 2. SILStoma for transverse loop colostomy represents a feasible surgical procedure that allows the creation of a stoma at the preoperatively marked site without any additional large skin incisions.

  5. Treatment of stress fracture of the olecranon in throwing athletes with internal fixation through a small incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujioka Hiroyuki


    Full Text Available Abstract The present study is a report of retrospective case series of stress fracture of the olecranon. Six patients presented posterior elbow pain in throwing in baseball and softball, but fracture was not diagnosed in radiographs. We detected stress fracture of the olecranon using computed tomographic (CT scan and treated the patient with internal fixation with a headless cannulated double threaded screw through a small skin incision. All patients returned to competitive level without elbow complaints after the operation. When throwing athletes present with unusual posterior elbow pain and no significant findings on radiographs, a CT scan examination should be performed. We recommend surgical treatment of internal fixation with a screw through a small skin incision, as a good option for stress fracture of the olecranon in order to allow early return to sports activity in competitive athletes.

  6. Current activity guidelines for CABG patients are too restrictive: comparison of the forces exerted on the median sternotomy during a cough vs. lifting activities combined with valsalva maneuver. (United States)

    Parker, R; Adams, J L; Ogola, G; McBrayer, D; Hubbard, J M; McCullough, T L; Hartman, J M; Cleveland, T


    The current activity guidelines for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) patients are overly restrictive, hindering recovery. As the sternotomy repair must withstand repeated coughs during convalescence, this provides a benchmark for the force tending to separate the incision that can be tolerated. Nine volunteers performed 5 weightlifting activities (lifting 5 lbs [2.3 kg], lifting a 25-lb simulated grandchild [11.4 kg], lifting a 30-lb suitcase [13.6 kg], lifting two 20-lb weights [18.2 kg], and lifting a gallon of milk to a counter [3.7 kg]), plus coughing. Valsalva forces were detected using a mouthpiece configured with an Ashcroft Inc. expiratory pressure gauge (model N10-120CMW). Three measurements were taken for each activity to calculate the mean internal forces while external forces on the sternotomy were calculated using vector algebra. Total force exerted on the sternotomy by the cough was compared to the total force exerted by each of the 5 activities using paired T-tests. The cough exerted a significantly greater force across the median sternotomy (mean 27.5 kg-mass) than any of the five weightlifting activities ( P force on the median sternotomy incision than a cough. The strength of the repair is significantly greater than is implied by the recommendation to "not lift more than 5 lbs".

  7. Relaxing incision for control of postoperative astigmatism following keratoplasty. (United States)

    Troutman, R C; Swinger, C


    A new technique has been presented which provides a second surgical approach to correct excessive residual astigmatism following keratoplasty. The relaxing incision procedure has advantages over wedge resection in that it can be performed at the slit lamp, it gives no initial overcorrection, and it has a much shorter postoperative course while giving rapid results without suturing. Since this technique does not appear to produce significant hyperopia and may produce a tendency toward myopia, the corneal surgeon would thus have alternative techniques from which to choose, depending, in part, on the spherical component of the refraction.

  8. Conjunctival inclusion cysts following small incision cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanappa Shylaja


    Full Text Available The occurrence of acquired conjunctival inclusion cysts following various ophthalmic surgeries such as strabismus surgery, scleral buckling, pars plana vitrectomy, ptosis surgery and phacoemulsification has been reported. We report two cases of conjunctival inclusion cysts following manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS in two male patients aged 65 and 67 years. The cysts originated from the scleral tunnel used for manual SICS. Both were treated by excision and confirmed histopathologically. No recurrence was noted at three months follow-up. To our knowledge, conjunctival inclusion cysts following SICS have not been reported previously. Careful reflection of conjunctiva during tunnel construction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation may prevent their occurrence.

  9. A case of endophthalmitis associated with limbal relaxing incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind Haripriya


    Full Text Available Limbal relaxing incisions (LRIs are considered a relatively safe procedure with rapid stabilization and absence of infectious complications. Do we need to readdress this last impression? We report a case of nocardia endophthalmitis associated with an exudate at the site of an LRI in a patient who underwent routine cataract surgery. This case, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report of its kind, stressing the need for a cautious approach to the adoption of this method of astigmatic correction.

  10. Percutaneous mitral valve repair. (United States)

    Gillinov, A Marc; Liddicoat, John R


    Surgical mitral valve repair is the procedure of choice to treat mitral regurgitation of all etiologies. Whereas annuloplasty is the cornerstone of mitral valve repair, a variety of other surgical techniques are utilized to correct dysfunction of the leaflets and subvalvular apparatus; in most cases, surgical repair entails application of multiple repair techniques in each patient. Preclinical studies and early human experience have demonstrated that some of these surgical repair techniques can be performed using percutaneous approaches. Specifically, there has been great progress in the development of novel technology to facilitate percutaneous annuloplasty and percutaneous edge-to-edge repair. The objectives of this report were to (1) discuss the surgical foundations for these percutaneous approaches; (2) review device design and experimental and clinical results of percutaneous valve repair; and (3) address future directions, including the key challenges of patient selection and clinical trial design.

  11. PCB126 enhanced the genotoxicity of BaP in HepG2 cells by modulating metabolic enzyme and DNA repair activities. (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Ai-Lin; Xie, Shao-Hua; Chen, Xue-Min; Lu, Wen-Qing


    Both of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental pollutants. These two chemicals coexist in various environmental media and human samples and thus may have combined effects on human health. However, the toxic effects and related mechanism of co-exposure to BaP and PCB126 remain unknown. In a series of experiments using the HepG2 cells exposed to BaP (50microM) or/and PCB126 (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10nM), we measured the rate of micronucleus (MN) formation, CYP1A1 activity and expression of nucleotide excision repair (NER) proteins (XPA and XPC). We found that the exposure to BaP or PCB126 alone could effectively increase the CYP1A1 activity and the XPA expression. BaP alone had a profound enhancement of MN formation. Compared with BaP alone, co-exposure to both BaP and PCB126 significantly enhanced the CYP1A1 activity and the formation of MN but reduced the expression of both XPA and XPC. The synergistic effect of PCB126 on BaP-induced MN formation was inhibited by alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), an inhibitor of CYP1A1. Our findings suggest that PCB126 may enhance BaP-induced DNA damage and genotoxicity by increasing cytochrome P450 1A activity and decreasing the NER capacity.

  12. Effects of Silk Sericin on Incision Wound Healing in a Dorsal Skin Flap Wound Healing Rat Model (United States)

    Ersel, Murat; Uyanikgil, Yigit; Akarca, Funda Karbek; Ozcete, Enver; Altunci, Yusuf Ali; Karabey, Fatih; Cavusoglu, Turker; Meral, Ayfer; Yigitturk, Gurkan; Cetin, Emel Oyku


    Background The wound healing process is complex and still poorly understood. Sericin is a silk protein synthesized by silk worms (Bombyx mori). The objective of this study was to evaluate in vivo wound healing effects of a sericin-containing gel formulation in an incision wound model in rats. Material/Methods Twenty-eight Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 4 groups (n=7). No intervention or treatment was applied to the Intact control group. For other groups, a dorsal skin flap (9×3 cm) was drawn and pulled up with sharp dissection. The Sham operated group received no treatment. The Placebo group received placebo gel without sericin applied to the incision area once a day from day 0 to day 9. The Sericin Group 3 received 1% sericin gel applied to the incision area once a day from day 0 to day 9. Hematoxylin and eosin stain was applied for histological analysis and Mallory-Azan staining was applied for histoimmunochemical analysis of antibodies and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), and desmin was applied to paraffin sections of skin wound specimens. Parameters of oxidative stress were measured in the wound area. Results Epidermal thickness and vascularization were increased, and hair root degeneration, edema, cellular infiltration, collagen discoloration, and necrosis were decreased in Sericin group in comparison to the Placebo group and the Sham operated group. Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased, but superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were increased in the sericin group. Conclusions We found that sericin had significant positive effects on wound healing and antioxidant activity. Sericin-based formulations can improve healing of incision wounds. PMID:27032876

  13. Monte carlo simulation of base and nucleotide excision repair of clustered DNA damage sites. II. Comparisons of model predictions to measured data. (United States)

    Semenenko, V A; Stewart, R D


    Clustered damage sites other than double-strand breaks (DSBs) have the potential to contribute to deleterious effects of ionizing radiation, such as cell killing and mutagenesis. In the companion article (Semenenko et al., Radiat. Res. 164, 180-193, 2005), a general Monte Carlo framework to simulate key steps in the base and nucleotide excision repair of DNA damage other than DSBs is proposed. In this article, model predictions are compared to measured data for selected low-and high-LET radiations. The Monte Carlo model reproduces experimental observations for the formation of enzymatic DSBs in Escherichia coli and cells of two Chinese hamster cell lines (V79 and xrs5). Comparisons of model predictions with experimental values for low-LET radiation suggest that an inhibition of DNA backbone incision at the sites of base damage by opposing strand breaks is active over longer distances between the damaged base and the strand break in hamster cells (8 bp) compared to E. coli (3 bp). Model estimates for the induction of point mutations in the human hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene by ionizing radiation are of the same order of magnitude as the measured mutation frequencies. Trends in the mutation frequency for low- and high-LET radiation are predicted correctly by the model. The agreement between selected experimental data sets and simulation results provides some confidence in postulated mechanisms for excision repair of DNA damage other than DSBs and suggests that the proposed Monte Carlo scheme is useful for predicting repair outcomes.

  14. Double strand break (DSB) repair in heterochromatin and heterochromatin proteins in DSB repair. (United States)

    Lemaître, Charlène; Soutoglou, Evi


    Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of cancer cells and they represent a major cause of tumorigenesis. To avoid chromosomal translocations, faithful repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) has to be ensured in the context of high ordered chromatin structure. However, chromatin compaction is proposed to represent a barrier for DSB repair. Here we review the different mechanisms cells use to alleviate the heterochromatic barrier for DNA repair. At the same time, we discuss the activating role of heterochromatin-associated proteins in this process, therefore proposing that chromatin structure, more than being a simple barrier, is a key modulator of DNA repair.

  15. Anterior ilioinguinal incision for drainage of high-located perianal abscess. (United States)

    Peng, K-T; Hsieh, M-C; Hsu, W-H; Li, Y-Y; Yeh, C-H


    Most perianal abscesses originate from infected anal glands at the base of the anal crypts. Most abscesses below are usually drained through perianal incision and can be treated successfully. However, when perianal abscesses extend to the high intrapelvic cavity, it may be inadequate treatment through a single route incision through a perianal approach. The aim of this technical note is to show that combined anterior ilioinguinal and perianal incisions may provide optimal surgical field and multiple drainages. Here, we report a 56-year-old male patient with perianal-originating parapsoas abscesses. Residual abscess still remained after initial perianal incision and drainage after 1-month treatment. We presented combined anterior ilioinguinal and perianal incision technique methods for proper drainage in this complicated case. No recurrent or residual abscess remained after 2 weeks of operation. So, combined anterior ilioinguinal incision is feasible for high-located perianal abscess.

  16. Convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolver, Mette Astrup; Rosenberg, Jacob; Bisgaard, Thue


    BACKGROUND: Duration of convalescence after inguinal hernia repair is of major socio-economic interest and an often reported outcome measure. The primary aim was to perform a critical analysis of duration of convalescence from work and activity and secondary to identify risk factors for unexpected...... prolonged convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. METHODS: A qualitative systematic review was conducted. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane database were searched for trials reporting convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in the period from January 1990 to January 2016...... factors for prolonged convalescence extending more than a few days after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. CONCLUSIONS: Patients should be recommended a duration of 1-2 days of convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Short and non-restrictive recommendations may reduce duration...

  17. Chromatin structure and DNA damage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinant Christoffel


    Full Text Available Abstract The integrity of the genome is continuously challenged by both endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging agents. These damaging agents can induce a wide variety of lesions in the DNA, such as double strand breaks, single strand breaks, oxidative lesions and pyrimidine dimers. The cell has evolved intricate DNA damage response mechanisms to counteract the genotoxic effects of these lesions. The two main features of the DNA damage response mechanisms are cell-cycle checkpoint activation and, at the heart of the response, DNA repair. For both damage signalling and repair, chromatin remodelling is most likely a prerequisite. Here, we discuss current knowledge on chromatin remodelling with respect to the cellular response to DNA damage, with emphasis on the response to lesions resolved by nucleotide excision repair. We will discuss the role of histone modifications as well as their displacement or exchange in nucleotide excision repair and make a comparison with their requirement in transcription and double strand break repair.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of incision healing after cesarean sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicle, O. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey); Kuecuekler, C. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey); Pirnar, T. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey); Erata, Y. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey); Posaci, C. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Dokuz Eyluel University, Izmir (Turkey)


    The purpose of this study was to examine the healing period of incision scar in myometrial wall and the normal pelvis after cesarean sections by means of MRI. In this study 17 voluntary women were examined after their first delivery with cesarean section in the early postpartum period (first 5 days), and following this, three more times in 3-month intervals. The MRI examinations were performed on a 1.0-T system (Magnetom, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), and sagittal T1-weighted (550/17 TR/TE) and T2-weighted (2000/80 TR/TE) spin-echo (SE) images of the pelvis were obtained. During follow-up examinations incision scar tissues lost their signals within the first 3 months on both SE sequences, and little alteration was observed in the subsequent tests. Zonal anatomy of the uterus reappeared completely 6 months after cesarean sections. The time for the involution of the uterus was independent of the zonal anatomy recovery, and the maximum involution was inspected within the first 3 months. In conclusion, the maturation time of myometrial scar tissue in uncomplicated cesarean sections, which can be evaluated by the signal alterations in MRI, is approximately 3 months, whereas the complete involution and the recovery of the zonal anatomy need at least 6 months. (orig.). With 6 figs.

  19. Single incision laparoscopic liver resection (SILL – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzing, Christian


    Full Text Available Background: Today, minimally invasive liver resections for both benign and malignant tumors are routinely performed. Recently, some authors have described single incision laparoscopic liver resection (SILL procedures. Since SILL is a relatively young branch of laparoscopy, we performed a systematic review of the current literature to collect data on feasibility, perioperative results and oncological outcome.Methods: A literature research was performed on Medline for all studies that met the eligibility criteria. Titles and abstracts were screened by two authors independently. A study was included for review if consensus was obtained by discussion between the authors on the basis of predefined inclusion criteria. A thorough quality assessment of all included studies was performed. Data were analyzed and tabulated according to predefined outcome measures. Synthesis of the results was achieved by narrative review. Results: A total of 15 eligible studies were identified among which there was one prospective cohort study and one randomized controlled trial comparing SILL to multi incision laparoscopic liver resection (MILL. The rest were retrospective case series with a maximum of 24 patients. All studies demonstrated convincing results with regards to feasibility, morbidity and mortality. The rate of wound complications and incisional hernia was low. The cosmetic results were good.Conclusions: This is the first systematic review on SILL including prospective trials. The results of the existing studies reporting on SILL are favorable. However, a large body of scientific evidence on the field of SILL is missing, further randomized controlled studies are urgently needed.

  20. Endoscopy-assisted cerebral falx incision via unilateral

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    DONG Ji-rong


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the clinical features and treatment strategy of dissymmetric bilateral frontal contusion, and to summarize our experience in treat-ing these patients by minimally invasive surgery. Methods: Over the past 3 years, we have treated a total of 31 patients with dissymmetric bilateral frontal contusion using endoscopy-assisted unilateral cerebral falx incision. Other 30 patients treated by routine bilateral approaches within the same period were taken as control. Results: Seventeen cases (54.8% in the unilateral operation group survived and were in good condition, 8 (25.8% had moderate disability, 4 (12.9% had severe disability, 1 (3.2% was in vegetative state, and 1 (3.2% died. Compared with the control group, the Glasgow Out-come Scale score was not significantly different in the uni-lateral operation group, but the operation time, blood trans-fusion volume, the length of hospital stay, the incidences of mental disorder and olfactory nerve injury were greatly reduced in the unilateral operation group. Conclusions: Endoscopy-assisted unilateral cerebral falx incision can shorten the operation time, reduce surgical trauma and complications in treatment of patients with dis-symmetric bilateral frontal contusion. It can obviously di-minish the chance of delayed intracerebral hematoma and subsequently minimize the incidences of subfalcial and centrencephalic herniation. Key words: Brain injuries; Intracranial hemorrage, traumatic; Endoscopy; Surgically procedures, minimally invasive

  1. Avoiding Facial Incisions with Midface Free Tissue Transfer (United States)

    Stalder, Mark W.; Sosin, Michael; Urbinelli, Leo J.; Mayo, James L.; Dorafshar, Amir H.; Hilaire, Hugo St.; Borsuk, Daniel E.


    Background: We have adopted an intraoral microsurgical anastomosis to the facial vessels to eliminate the need for any visible facial incisions. Methods: Cadaveric dissection was used to demonstrate accessibility of the facial artery and vein through an intraoral approach. Additionally, 5 patients underwent free tissue transfer for reconstruction of major defects of the midface through an intraoral, transmucosal approach, obviating the need for visible skin incisions. Results: The pathology included palatal defects due to mucoepidermoid carcinoma and ischemic necrosis from cocaine abuse, maxillary defects secondary to fibrous dysplasia and avascular necrosis from traumatic blast injury, and a residual posttraumatic bony deformity of the zygoma. Reconstructions were performed with a free ulnar forearm flap, a free vastus lateralis muscle flap, a deep circumflex iliac artery myoosseous flap, a free fibula flap, and a deep circumflex iliac artery osseous flap, respectively. The facial artery and vein were used as recipient vessels for microvascular anastomosis for all cases. Mean follow-up was 12.2 months. All free tissue transfers were successful, and each patient had a satisfactory aesthetic outcome with no associated facial scars. Conclusion: This technique can be employed during reconstruction of an array of bony or soft-tissue midface deficits with minimal morbidity. This small series effectively demonstrates the varied pathologies and tissue deficiencies that can be successfully reconstructed with free tissue transfer using an entirely intraoral approach to the recipient facial vessels, resulting in no visible scars on the face and an improvement in the overall aesthetic outcome. PMID:28280662

  2. [Our experience with prostatic incision (TUIP) with local anesthesia]. (United States)

    Del Boca, C; Colloi, D; Guardamagna, A; Bolis, C; Giuberti, A C; Tzoumas, S; Ferrari, C


    The Authors present their experience in the treatment of prostatic obstruction with bladder neck incision (TUIP) performed under local anesthesia. An Hulbert 6 Fr endoscopic needle is used to infiltrate the prostatic area submitted to TUIP with 200 mg of Lidocaine 2%. The TUIP was done with a single deep incision at 7 hours using a 24 Fr Iglesias resector with Collins device. 28 patients with an age range from 69 to 85 years (mean 74) affected by IPB in an obstructed fase were submitted to this procedure. Various parameters were achieved for the selection of the patients: urodynamic diagnosis of low urinary tract obstruction, prostatic volume less than 50 ml without important prostatic median lobe, high anesthesiological risk, absence of correlated vesical complications. A clinical follow up was done at 1-6 and 12 months. The results obtained showed a good compliance of the patients treated with satisfactory urodynamic patterns. The Authors conclude that this less invasive approach, in selected cases, is the treatment of choice not only for low invasivity and morbidity rate but also for the reduced time of catheterization, hospitalization and costs.

  3. Pain-related mediators underlie incision-induced mechanical nociception in the dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhong Yuan; Xiangyan Liu; Qiuping Tang; Yunlong Deng


    Approximately 50-70% of patients experience incision-induced mechanical nociception after sur-gery. However, the mechanism underlying incision-induced mechanical nociception is stil unclear. Interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are important pain mediators, but whether in-terleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are involved in incision-induced mechanical no-ciception remains uncertain. In this study, forty rats were divided randomly into the incision surgery (n=32) and sham surgery (n=8) groups. Plantar incision on the central part of left hind paw was performed under anesthesia in rats from the surgery group. Rats in the sham surgery group re-ceived anesthesia, but not an incision. Von Frey test results showed that, compared with the sham surgery group, incision surgery decreased the withdrawal threshold of rats at 0.5, 3, 6 and 24 hours after incision. Immunofluorescence staining in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord (L 3-5 ) showed that interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were expressed mainly on smal-and medium-sized neurons (diameter40μm) at 6 and 24 hours after incision surgery, which corresponded to the decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold of rats in the surgery group. These experimental findings suggest that expression pattern shift of interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced by inci-sion surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats was closely involved in lowering the threshold to me-chanical stimulus in the hind paw fol owing incision surgery. Pain-related mediators induced by in-cision surgery in dorsal root ganglia of rats possibly underlie mechanical nociception in ipsilateral hind paws.

  4. Correlation between Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss and Location of Phacoemulsification Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gharaee


    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the relationship between corneal endothelial cell loss after phacoemulsification and the location of the clear corneal incision. Methods: A total of 92 patients (92 eyes with senile cataracts who met the study criteria were included in this cross sectional study and underwent phacoemulsification. The incision site was determined based on the steep corneal meridian according to preoperative keratometry. Endothelial cell density was measured using specular microscopy in the center and 3 mm from the center of the cornea in the meridian of the incisions (temporal, superior, and superotemporal. Phacoemulsification was performed by a single surgeon using the phaco chop technique through a 3.2 mm clear cornea incision. Endothelial cell loss (ECL was evaluated 1 week, and 1 and 3 months postoperatively. Results: At all time points during follow-up, ECL was comparable among the 3 incision sites, both in the central cornea and in the meridian of the incision (P > 0.05 for all comparisons. However, 3 months postoperatively, mean central ECL with superior incisions and mean sectoral ECL with temporal incisions were slightly higher. Superotemporal incisions entailed slightly less ECL than the other 2 groups. Overall, one month after surgery, mean central ECL was 10.8% and mean ECL in the sector of the incisions was 14.0%. Axial length and effective phaco time (EFT were independent predictors of postope