Sample records for repair engines diagnose

  1. AC maintenance and repair manual for diesel engines

    Pallas, Jean-Luc


    The aim of this book with its detailed step-by-step colour photographs and diagrams, is to enable every owner to fix their diesel engine with ease. Troubleshooting tables help diagnose potential problems, and there is advice on regular maintenance and winterising and repair. Jean-Luc Pallas's enthusiasm for passing on his knowledge, as well as his clear explanations, precise advice and step-by-step instructions make this a unique book.

  2. Synchronous femoral hernias diagnosed during endoscopic inguinal hernia repair.

    Putnis, Soni; Wong, April; Berney, Christophe


    During totally extraperitoneal (TEP) endoscopic repair of inguinal hernias, it is possible to see the internal opening of the femoral canal. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of synchronous femoral hernias found in patients undergoing TEP endoscopic inguinal hernia repair. This was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 362 consecutive patients who underwent 484 TEP endoscopic inguinal hernia repairs during a 5-year period, May 2005 to May 2010. During surgery, both inguinal and femoral canal orifices were routinely inspected. The presence of unilateral or bilateral inguinal and femoral hernias was recorded and repaired accordingly. There were a total of 362 patients. More males (343, 95%) underwent a TEP hernia repair than females (19, 5%). There were more cases of unilateral (240/362, 66%) than bilateral (122/362, 34%) inguinal hernias. A total of 18 cases of synchronous femoral hernias were found during operation. There was a higher incidence of femoral hernia in females (7/19, 37%) compared to males (11/343, 3%) (P hernias were clinically detectable preoperatively. Females undergoing elective inguinal hernia repair are more likely to have a synchronous femoral hernia than males. We suggest that all women presenting with an inguinal hernia also have a formal assessment of the femoral canal. TEP endoscopic inguinal hernia repair is an ideal approach as both inguinal and femoral orifices can be assessed and hernias repaired simultaneously during surgery.

  3. Approaches to diagnose DNA mismatch repair gene defects in cancer

    Peña-Diaz, Javier; Rasmussen, Lene Juel


    The DNA repair pathway mismatch repair (MMR) is responsible for the recognition and correction of DNA biosynthetic errors caused by inaccurate nucleotide incorporation during replication. Faulty MMR leads to failure to address the mispairs or insertion deletion loops (IDLs) left behind...... already been well defined and their pathogenicity assessed. Despite this substantial wealth of knowledge, the effects of a large number of alterations remain uncharacterized (variants of uncertain significance, VUSs). The advent of personalized genomics is likely to increase the list of VUSs found in MMR...

  4. Strategies for cell engineering in tissue repair.

    Brown, R A; Smith, K D; Angus McGrouther, D


    Cellular and tissue engineering are new areas of research, currently attracting considerable interest because of the remarkable potential they have for clinical application. Some claims have indeed been dramatic, including the possibility of growing complete, artificial organs, such as the liver. However, amid such long-term aspirations there is the very real possibility that small tissues (artificial grafts) may be fabricated in the near future for use in reconstructive surgery. Logically, we should focus on how it is possible to produce modest, engineered tissues for tissue repair. It is evident that strategies to date either depend on innate information within implanted cells, to reform the target tissue or aim to provide appropriate environmental cues or guidance to direct cell behavior. It is argued here that present knowledge of tissue repair biology points us toward the latter approach, providing external cues which will direct how cells should organize the new tissue. This will be particularly true where we need to reproduce microscopic and ultrastructural features of the original tissue architecture. A number of such cues have been identified, and methods are already available, including substrate chemistry, substrate contact guidance, mechanical loading, and biochemical mediators to provide these cues. Examples of these are already being used with some success to control the formation of tissue structures.

  5. Aortic Coarctation Diagnosed During Pregnancy in a Woman With Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Jalal, Zakaria; Iriart, Xavier; Thambo, Jean-Benoit


    Aortic coarctation is thought to be a rare condition in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. We report the case of a 26 year old woman presenting with systemic hypertension at 17 weeks of pregnancy after repair of tetralogy of Fallot in childhood. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed right aortic arch with severe isthmic coarctation. Her blood pressure was controlled medically during the rest of her pregnancy, and delivery was uneventful. Successful transcatheter placement of a covered stent at the level of the coarctation was performed after delivery. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of aortic coarctation diagnosed in an adult patient late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.

  6. DNA base excision repair nanosystem engineering: model development.

    Sokhansanj, B A


    DNA base damage results from a combination of endogenous sources, (normal metabolism, increased metabolism due to obesity, stress from diseases such as arthritis and diabetes, and ischemia) and the environment (ingested toxins, ionizing radiation, etc.). If unrepaired DNA base damage can lead to diminished cell function, and potentially diseases and eventually mutations that lead to cancer. Sophisticated DNA repair mechanisms have evolved in all living cells to preserve the integrity of inherited genetic information and transcriptional control. Understanding a system like DNA repair is greatly enhanced by using engineering methods, in particular modeling interactions and using predictive simulation to analyze the impact of perturbations. We describe the use of such a "nanosystem engineering" approach to analyze the DNA base excision repair pathway in human cells, and use simulation to predict the impact of varying enzyme concentration on DNA repair capacity.

  7. Manipulating DNA repair for improved genetic engineering in Aspergillus

    Nødvig, Christina Spuur

    engineering strategies. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the genus Aspergillus and some of the tools relevant to fungal genetic engineering. It also contains a short introduction to DNA repair and its interplay with gene targeting and finally an overview over the different genome editing technologies......Aspergillus is a genus of filamentous fungi, which members includes industrial producers of enzymes, organic acids and secondary metabolites, important pathogens and a model organism. As such no matter the specific area of interest there are many reasons to perform genetic engineering, whether...... it is metabolic engineering to create better performing cell factory, elucidating pathways to study secondary metabolism etc. In this thesis, the main focus is on different ways to manipulate DNA repair for optimizing gene targeting, ultimately improving the methods available for faster and better genetic...

  8. Lubrication System. Teacher's Guide. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Hill, Pamela

    This teacher's guide accompanies three student manuals and together with them comprises an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped/special needs students. The first section, "Notes to the Instructor," covers equipment needs, preparation before teaching the instructional package,…

  9. Repair of sciatic nerve defects using tissue engineered nerves*

    Caishun Zhang; Gang Lv


    In this study, we constructed tissue-engineered nerves with acel ular nerve al ografts in Sprague-Dawley rats, which were prepared using chemical detergents-enzymatic digestion and mechanical methods, in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s of Wistar rats cultured in vitro, to repair 15 mm sciatic bone defects in Wistar rats. At postoperative 12 weeks, electrophysiological detection results showed that the conduction velocity of regenerated nerve after repair with tis-sue-engineered nerves was similar to that after autologous nerve grafting, and was higher than that after repair with acel ular nerve al ografts. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that motor endplates with acetylcholinesterase-positive nerve fibers were orderly arranged in the middle and superior parts of the gastrocnemius muscle;regenerated nerve tracts and sprouted branches were connected with motor endplates, as shown by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry combined with silver staining. The wet weight ratio of the tibialis anterior muscle at the affected contralateral hind limb was similar to the sciatic nerve after repair with autologous nerve grafts, and higher than that after repair with acel ular nerve al ografts. The hind limb motor function at the affected side was significantly improved, indicating that acel ular nerve al ografts combined with bone marrow me-senchymal stem cel bridging could promote functional recovery of rats with sciatic nerve defects.

  10. Repair of osteochondral defects with allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage implants.

    Schreiber, R E; Ilten-Kirby, B M; Dunkelman, N S; Symons, K T; Rekettye, L M; Willoughby, J; Ratcliffe, A


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage implants on healing of osteochondral defects. Rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer, then seeded onto biodegradable, three-dimensional polyglycolic acid meshes. Cartilage constructs were cultured hydrodynamically to yield tissue with relatively more (mature) or less (immature) hyalinelike cartilage, as compared with adult rabbit articular cartilage. Osteochondral defects in the patellar grooves of both stifle joints either were left untreated or implanted with allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage. Histologic samples from in and around the defect sites were examined 3, 6, 9, and 12, and 24 months after surgery. By 9 months after surgery, defects sites treated with cartilage implants contained significantly greater amounts of hyalinelike cartilage with high levels of proteoglycan, and had a smooth, nonfibrillated articular surface as compared to untreated defects. In contrast, the repair tissue formed in untreated defects had fibrillated articular surfaces, significant amounts of fibrocartilage, and negligible proteoglycan. These differences between treated and untreated defects persisted through 24 months after surgery. The results of this study suggest that the treatment of osteochondral lesions with allogenic tissue engineered cartilage implants may lead to superior repair tissue than that found in untreated osteochondral lesions.

  11. Improved repair of bone defects with prevascularized tissue-engineered bones constructed in a perfusion bioreactor.

    Li, De-Qiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Pei-Lai; Zhang, Yuan-Kai; Lu, Jian-Xi; Li, Jian-Min


    Vascularization of tissue-engineered bones is critical to achieving satisfactory repair of bone defects. The authors investigated the use of prevascularized tissue-engineered bone for repairing bone defects. The new bone was greater in the prevascularized group than in the non-vascularized group, indicating that prevascularized tissue-engineered bone improves the repair of bone defects. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(10):685-690.].

  12. Self-Repairing of Chinese Science and Engineering Majors in Oral English

    Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Xiaoqin


    This study employs corpus analytical tools to carry out a systematic study on Chinese Science and Engineering Majors' (SEMs') use of self-repair in their oral English. The study aims to find out the overall feature of using self-repair by SEMs and to see if there exists statistically significant difference of using self-repair across different…

  13. Use of the sampled electrical engineering device at diagnosing elements in electric systems

    Goldshtein, E. I.; Dzhumik, D. V.


    Stages of diagnosing procedures of the electric system elements have been introduced. The specialized mathematical device - sampled electrical engineering is developed for work with massifs of instant values of currents and voltages obtained by digital registrars of electric signals. The key rules and procedures of the sampled electrical engineering device are given.

  14. Laser Engineered Net Shape (LENS) Technology for the Repair of Ni-Base Superalloy Turbine Components

    Liu, Dejian; Lippold, John C.; Li, Jia; Rohklin, Stan R.; Vollbrecht, Justin; Grylls, Richard


    The capability of the laser engineered net shape (LENS) process was evaluated for the repair of casting defects and improperly machined holes in gas turbine engine components. Various repair geometries, including indentations, grooves, and through-holes, were used to simulate the actual repair of casting defects and holes in two materials: Alloy 718 and Waspaloy. The influence of LENS parameters, including laser energy density, laser scanning speed, and deposition pattern, on the repair of these defects and holes was studied. Laser surface remelting of the substrate prior to repair was used to remove machining defects and prevent heat-affected zone (HAZ) liquation cracking. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques were used as a possible approach for detecting lack-of-fusion in repairs. Overall, Alloy 718 exhibited excellent repair weldability, with essentially no defects except for some minor porosity in repairs representative of deep through-holes and simulated large area casting defects. In contrast, cracking was initially observed during simulated repair of Waspaloy. Both solidification cracking and HAZ liquation cracking were observed in the repairs, especially under conditions of high heat input (high laser power and/or low scanning speed). For Waspaloy, the degree of cracking was significantly reduced and, in most cases, completely eliminated by the combination of low laser energy density and relatively high laser scanning speeds. It was found that through-hole repairs of Waspaloy made using a fine powder size exhibited excellent repair weldability and were crack-free relative to repairs using coarser powder. Simulated deep (7.4 mm) blind-hole repairs, representative of an actual Waspaloy combustor case, were successfully produced by the combination use of fine powder and relatively high laser scanning speeds.

  15. Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage

    Rutgers, M.; van Pelt, M.J.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.; Saris, D.B.F.


    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 12-23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Review Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage M. Rutgers†, M.J.P. van Pelt†, W.

  16. Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage

    Rutgers, M.; van Pelt, M.J.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.; Saris, D.B.F.


    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 12-23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Review Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage M. Rutgers†, M.J.P. van Pelt†,

  17. Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  18. Performance of Engineered Cementitious Composites for Concrete Repairs

    Zhou, J.


    Background and goals of this thesis The concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting industry grows rapidly, driven by deterioration of, damage to and defects in concrete structures. However, it is well known that to achieve durable concrete repairs is very difficult. The failure of concrete rep

  19. Performance of Engineered Cementitious Composites for Concrete Repairs

    Zhou, J.


    Background and goals of this thesis The concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting industry grows rapidly, driven by deterioration of, damage to and defects in concrete structures. However, it is well known that to achieve durable concrete repairs is very difficult. The failure of concrete

  20. Performance of Engineered Cementitious Composites for Concrete Repairs

    Zhou, J.


    Background and goals of this thesis The concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting industry grows rapidly, driven by deterioration of, damage to and defects in concrete structures. However, it is well known that to achieve durable concrete repairs is very difficult. The failure of concrete rep

  1. Small Engine Repair Modules (Workbook) = Reparacion de Motores Pequenos (Guia de Trabajo)

    New York State Dept. of Correctional Services, Albany.

    This package contains an English-Language set of task procedure sheets dealing with small-engine repair and a Spanish translation of the same material. Addressed in the individual sections of the manual are the following aspects of engine tune-up, reconditioning, and troubleshooting: servicing air cleaners; cleaning gas tanks, fuel lines, and fuel…

  2. Small Engine Repair Modules (Workbook) = Reparacion de Motores Pequenos (Guia de Trabajo)

    New York State Dept. of Correctional Services, Albany.

    This package contains an English-Language set of task procedure sheets dealing with small-engine repair and a Spanish translation of the same material. Addressed in the individual sections of the manual are the following aspects of engine tune-up, reconditioning, and troubleshooting: servicing air cleaners; cleaning gas tanks, fuel lines, and fuel…

  3. Technology of laser repair welding of nickel superalloy inner flaps of jet engine

    A. Klimpel


    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper: work out laser welding repair technology of cracked MIG 29 jet engine inner flaps made of cast nickel superalloy ŻS-3DK (ЖС-3ДК, Russian designation.Design/methodology/approach: The study were based on the analysis of laser HPDL powder INCONEL 625 welding of nickel superalloy using wide range of welding parameters to provide highest quality repair welds.Findings: Study of automatic welding technologies GTA, PTA and laser HPDL has shown that just laser welding can provide high quality repair welds. In order to establish the properties of welded joints repair cracks in the inner flap HPDL laser, studied the hardness, mechanical properties and erosive wear resistance.Research limitations/implications: It was found that only laser HPDL welding can provide high quality repair welds.Practical implications: The technology can be applied for repair cracked MIG 29 jet engine inner flaps.Originality/value: Repairing cracked MIG 29 jet engine inner flaps.

  4. Things for You to Know. Fuel System. Student Manual--Introduction. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. Information covered in this manual is considered to be the minimum that students need to know about fuel systems in order to get small-engine repair jobs. The manual introduces students to small-engine fuel…

  5. 46 CFR 167.65-70 - Reports of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers.


    ... machinery by engineers. 167.65-70 Section 167.65-70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of accidents, repairs, and unsafe boilers and machinery by engineers. (a) Before making repairs to a... shall be the duty of all engineers when an accident occurs to the boilers or machinery in their...

  6. Lip Repair Surgery for Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate in a Patient Diagnosed with Trisomy 13 and Holoprosencephaly.

    Akamatsu, Tadashi; Hanai, Ushio; Nakajima, Serina; Kobayashi, Megumi; Miyasaka, Muneo; Matsuda, Shinichi; Ikegami, Mariko


    We report a case of lip repair surgery performed for bilateral cleft lip and palate in a patient diagnosed with trisomy 13 and holoprosencephaly. At the age of 2 years and 7 months, the surgery was performed using a modified De Hann design under general anesthesia. The operation was completed in 1 h and 21 min without large fluctuations in the child's general condition. The precise measurement of the intraoperative design was omitted, and the operation was completed using minimal skin sutures. It is possible to perform less-invasive and short surgical procedures after careful consideration during the preoperative planning. Considering the recent improvements in the life expectancy of patients with trisomy 13, we conclude that surgical treatments for non-life threatening malformations such as cleft lip and palate should be performed for such patients.

  7. The Use of Denoising and Analysis of the Acoustic Signal Entropy in Diagnosing Engine Valve Clearance

    Tomasz Figlus


    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for processing acoustic signals which allows the extraction, from a very noisy signal, of components which contain diagnostically useful information on the increased valve clearance of a combustion engine. This method used two-stage denoising of the acoustic signal performed by means of a discrete wavelet transform. Afterwards, based on the signal cleaned-up in this manner, its entropy was calculated as a quantitative measure of qualitative changes caused by the excessive clearance. The testing and processing of the actual acoustic signal of a combustion engine enabled clear extraction of components which contain information on the valve clearance being diagnosed.

  8. Tissue-engineered tendon constructs for rotator cuff repair in sheep.

    Novakova, Stoyna S; Mahalingam, Vasudevan D; Florida, Shelby E; Mendias, Christopher L; Allen, Answorth; Arruda, Ellen M; Bedi, Asheesh; Larkin, Lisa M


    Current rotator cuff repair commonly involves the use of single or double row suture techniques, and despite successful outcomes, failure rates continue to range from 20 to 95%. Failure to regenerate native biomechanical properties at the enthesis is thought to contribute to failure rates. Thus, the need for technologies that improve structural healing of the enthesis after rotator cuff repair is imperative. To address this issue, our lab has previously demonstrated enthesis regeneration using a tissue-engineered graft approach in a sheep anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair model. We hypothesized that our tissue-engineered graft designed for ACL repair also will be effective in rotator cuff repair. The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of our Engineered Tissue Graft for Rotator Cuff (ETG-RC) in a rotator cuff tear model in sheep and compare this novel graft technology to the commonly used double row suture repair technique. Following a 6-month recovery, the grafted and contralateral shoulders were removed, imaged using X-ray, and tested biomechanically. Additionally, the infraspinatus muscle, myotendinous junction, enthesis, and humeral head were preserved for histological analysis of muscle, tendon, and enthesis structure. Our results showed that our ETC-RCs reached 31% of the native tendon tangent modulus, which was a modest, non-significant, 11% increase over that of the suture-only repairs. However, the histological analysis showed the regeneration of a native-like enthesis in the ETG-RC-repaired animals. This advanced structural healing may improve over longer times and may diminish recurrence rates of rotator cuff tears and lead to better clinical outcomes. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Biodegradable Materials for Bone Repair and Tissue Engineering Applications

    Zeeshan Sheikh


    Full Text Available This review discusses and summarizes the recent developments and advances in the use of biodegradable materials for bone repair purposes. The choice between using degradable and non-degradable devices for orthopedic and maxillofacial applications must be carefully weighed. Traditional biodegradable devices for osteosynthesis have been successful in low or mild load bearing applications. However, continuing research and recent developments in the field of material science has resulted in development of biomaterials with improved strength and mechanical properties. For this purpose, biodegradable materials, including polymers, ceramics and magnesium alloys have attracted much attention for osteologic repair and applications. The next generation of biodegradable materials would benefit from recent knowledge gained regarding cell material interactions, with better control of interfacing between the material and the surrounding bone tissue. The next generations of biodegradable materials for bone repair and regeneration applications require better control of interfacing between the material and the surrounding bone tissue. Also, the mechanical properties and degradation/resorption profiles of these materials require further improvement to broaden their use and achieve better clinical results.

  10. Tissue Engineering for Rotator Cuff Repair: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review

    Nicola Maffulli


    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review was to address the treatment of rotator cuff tears by applying tissue engineering approaches to improve tendon healing, specifically platelet rich plasma (PRP augmentation, stem cells, and scaffolds. Our systematic search was performed using the combination of the following terms: “rotator cuff”, “shoulder”, “PRP”, “platelet rich plasma”, “stemcells”, “scaffold”, “growth factors”, and “tissue engineering”. No level I or II studies were found on the use of scaffolds and stem cells for rotator cuff repair. Three studies compared rotator cuff repair with or without PRP augmentation. All authors performed arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with different techniques of suture anchor fixation and different PRP augmentation. The three studies found no difference in clinical rating scales and functional outcomes between PRP and control groups. Only one study showed clinical statistically significant difference between the two groups at the 3-month followup. Any statistically significant difference in the rates of tendon rerupture between the control group and the PRP group was found using the magnetic resonance imaging. The current literature on tissue engineering application for rotator cuff repair is scanty. Comparative studies included in this review suggest that PRP augmented repair of a rotator cuff does not yield improved functional and clinical outcome compared with non-augmented repair at a medium and long-term followup.

  11. Repairing articular cartilage defects with tissue-engineering cartilage in rabbits

    SONG Hong-xing; LI Fo-bao; SHEN Hui-liang; LIAO Wei-ming; LIU Miao; WANG Min; CAO Jun-ling


    Objective: To investigate the effect of cancellous bone matrix gelatin (BMG) engineered with allogeneic chondrocytes in repairing articular cartilage defects in rabbits.Methods: Chondrocytes were seeded onto three-dimensional cancellous BMG and cultured in vitro for 12 days to prepare BMG-chondrocyte complexes. Under anesthesia with 2.5% pentobarbital sodium (1 ml/kg body weight), articular cartilage defects were made on the right knee joints of 38 healthy New Zealand white rabbits (regardless of sex, aged 4-5 months and weighing 2.5-3 kg) and the defects were then treated with 2.5 % trypsin.Then BMG-chondrocyte complex (Group A, n=18 ),BMG ( Group B, n=10), and nothing ( Group C, n=10)were implanted into the cartilage defects, respectively. The repairing effects were assessed by macroscopic, histologic,transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation,immunohistochemical examination and in situ hybridization detection, respectively, at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after operation.Results: Cancellous BMG was degraded within 8 weeks after operation. In Group A, lymphocyte infiltration was observed around the graft. At 24 weeks after operation, the cartilage defects were repaired by cartilage tissues and the articular cartilage and subchondral bone were soundly healed. Proteoglycan and type Ⅱ collagen were detected in the matrix of the repaired tissues by Safranin-O staining and immunohistochemical staining,respectively. In situ hybridization proved gene expression of type Ⅱ collagen in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes in the repaired tissues. TEM observation showed that chondrocytes and cartilage matrix in repaired tissues were almost same as those in the normal articular cartilage. In Group B, the defects were repaired by cartilage-fibrous tissues. In Group C, the defects were repaired only by fibrous tissues.Conclusions : Cancellous BMG can be regarded as the natural cell scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.Articular cartilage defects can be repaired by

  12. Tissue engineered devices for ligament repair, replacement and ...



    Dec 29, 2009 ... School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA, 24060. E-mail: ...... humans. Immunology Today, 14: 3. ... 558-570. Phelps CJ, Koike C, Vaught TD, Boone J, Wells KD, Chen SH, Ball S,.

  13. Lubrication System 2. Service the Crankcase Breather. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on servicing the crankcase breather is the third of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  14. Lubrication System. Introduction: Things for You to Know. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual introducing the lubrication system is the first of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose of the booklet is to help students learn about the lubrication system and safe and good work habits. Informative material and diagrams are…


    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.


  16. Genome engineering with TALENs and ZFNs: repair pathways and donor design.

    Carroll, Dana; Beumer, Kelly J


    Genome engineering with targetable nucleases depends on cellular pathways of DNA repair after target cleavage. Knowledge of how those pathways work, their requirements and their active factors, can guide experimental design and improve outcomes. While many aspects of both homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) are shared by a broad range of cells and organisms, some features are specific to individual situations. This article reviews the influence of repair mechanisms on the results of gene targeting experiments, with an emphasis on lessons learned from experiments with Drosophila.

  17. Service the Two-Piece Flo-Jet Carburetor. Fuel System. Student Manual 3. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of servicing two-piece flo-jet carburetors. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  18. Human Cardiac Tissue Engineering: From Pluripotent Stem Cells to Heart Repair

    Jackman, Christopher P.; Shadrin, Ilya Y.; Carlson, Aaron L.; Bursac, Nenad


    Engineered cardiac tissues hold great promise for use in drug and toxicology screening, in vitro studies of human physiology and disease, and as transplantable tissue grafts for myocardial repair. In this review, we discuss recent progress in cell-based therapy and functional tissue engineering using pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and we describe methods for delivery of cells into the injured heart. While significant hurdles remain, notable advances have been made in the methods to derive large numbers of pure human cardiomyocytes, mature their phenotype, and produce and implant functional cardiac tissues, bringing the field a step closer to widespread in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:25599018

  19. Sternal Repair with Bone Grafts Engineered from Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Steigman, Shaun A.; Ahmed, Azra; Shanti, Rabie M.; Tuan, Rocky S.; Valim, Clarissa; Fauza, Dario O.


    Background We aimed at determining whether osseous grafts engineered from amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs) could be employed in postnatal sternal repair. Methods Leporine aMSCs were isolated, identified, transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP), expanded, and seeded onto biodegradable electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds (n=6). Constructs were dynamically maintained in an osteogenic medium and equally divided into two groups with respect to time in vitro, namely 14.6 or 33.9 weeks. They were then used to repair full thickness sternal defects spanning 2–3 intercostal spaces in allogeneic kits (n=6). Grafts were submitted to multiple analyses 2 months thereafter. Results Chest roentgenograms showed defect closure in all animals, confirmed at necropsy. Graft density as assessed by micro-CT scans increased significantly in vivo, yet there were no differences in mineralization by extracellular calcium measurements pre- and post-implantation. There was a borderline increase in alkaline phosphatase activity in vivo, suggesting ongoing graft remodeling. Histologically, implants contained GFP-positive cells and few mononuclear infiltrates. There were no differences between the two construct groups in any comparison. Conclusions Engineered osseous grafts derived from amniotic mesenchymal stem cells may become a viable alternative for sternal repair. The amniotic fluid can be a practical cell source for engineered chest wall reconstruction. PMID:19524727

  20. Biomedical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair: surgical applications, state of the art, and future challenges.

    Pfister, Bryan J; Gordon, Tessa; Loverde, Joseph R; Kochar, Arshneel S; Mackinnon, Susan E; Cullen, D Kacy


    Damage to the peripheral nervous system is surprisingly common and occurs primarily from trauma or a complication of surgery. Although recovery of nerve function occurs in many mild injuries, outcomes are often unsatisfactory following severe trauma. Nerve repair and regeneration presents unique clinical challenges and opportunities, and substantial contributions can be made through the informed application of biomedical engineering strategies. This article reviews the clinical presentations and classification of nerve injuries, in addition to the state of the art for surgical decision-making and repair strategies. This discussion presents specific challenges that must be addressed to realistically improve the treatment of nerve injuries and promote widespread recovery. In particular, nerve defects a few centimeters in length use a sensory nerve autograft as the standard technique; however, this approach is limited by the availability of donor nerve and comorbidity associated with additional surgery. Moreover, we currently have an inadequate ability to noninvasively assess the degree of nerve injury and to track axonal regeneration. As a result, wait-and-see surgical decisions can lead to undesirable and less successful "delayed" repair procedures. In this fight for time, degeneration of the distal nerve support structure and target progresses, ultimately blunting complete functional recovery. Thus, the most pressing challenges in peripheral nerve repair include the development of tissue-engineered nerve grafts that match or exceed the performance of autografts, the ability to noninvasively assess nerve damage and track axonal regeneration, and approaches to maintain the efficacy of the distal pathway and targets during the regenerative process. Biomedical engineering strategies can address these issues to substantially contribute at both the basic and applied levels, improving surgical management and functional recovery following severe peripheral nerve injury.

  1. Tissue-engineering strategies to repair joint tissue in osteoarthritis: nonviral gene-transfer approaches.

    Madry, Henning; Cucchiarini, Magali


    Loss of articular cartilage is a common clinical consequence of osteoarthritis (OA). In the past decade, substantial progress in tissue engineering, nonviral gene transfer, and cell transplantation have provided the scientific foundation for generating cartilaginous constructs from genetically modified cells. Combining tissue engineering with overexpression of therapeutic genes enables immediate filling of a cartilage defect with an engineered construct that actively supports chondrogenesis. Several pioneering studies have proved that spatially defined nonviral overexpression of growth-factor genes in constructs of solid biomaterials or hydrogels is advantageous compared with gene transfer or scaffold alone, both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, these investigations were performed in models of focal cartilage defects, because advanced cartilage-repair strategies based on the principles of tissue engineering have not advanced sufficiently to enable resurfacing of extensively degraded cartilage as therapy for OA. These studies serve as prototypes for future technological developments, because they raise the possibility that cartilage constructs engineered from genetically modified chondrocytes providing autocrine and paracrine stimuli could similarly compensate for the loss of articular cartilage in OA. Because cartilage-tissue-engineering strategies are already used in the clinic, combining tissue engineering and nonviral gene transfer could prove a powerful approach to treat OA.

  2. Tissue engineering for articular cartilage repair – the state of the art

    B Johnstone


    Full Text Available Articular cartilage exhibits little capacity for intrinsic repair, and thus even minor injuries or lesions may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. While there have been numerous attempts to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, there remain significant challenges in the clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. This paper reviews the current state of cartilage tissue engineering with respect to different cell sources and their potential genetic modification, biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors, as well as preclinical testing in various animal models. This is not intended as a systematic review, rather an opinion of where the field is moving in light of current literature. While significant advances have been made in recent years, the complexity of this problem suggests that a multidisciplinary approach – combining a clinical perspective with expertise in cell biology, biomechanics, biomaterials science and high-throughput analysis will likely be necessary to address the challenge of developing functional cartilage replacements. With this approach we are more likely to realise the clinical goal of treating both focal defects and even large-scale osteoarthritic degenerative changes in the joint.

  3. Tissue engineering applications: cartilage lesions repair by the use of autologous chondrocytes

    L. De Franceschi


    Full Text Available Promising new therapies based on tissue engineering have been recently developed for cartilage repair. The association of biomaterials with autologous chondrocytes expanded in vitro can represent a useful tool to regenerate this tissue. The scaffolds utilised in such therapeutical applications should provide a pre-formed three-dimensional shape, prevent cells from floating out of the defect, have sufficient mechanical strength, facilitate uniform spread of cells and stimulate the phenotype of transplanted cells. Hyaff®-11 is a hyaluronic-acid based biodegradable polymer, that has been shown to provide successful cell carrier for tissue-engineered repair. From our findings we can state that human chondrocytes seeded on Hyaff®-11 are able to maintain in vitro the characteristic of differentiated cells, expressing and producing collagen type II and aggrecan which are the main markers of cartilage phenotype, down-regulating collagen type I. Moreover, it seems to be a useful scaffold for cartilage repair both in animal models and clinical trials in humans, favouring the formation of a hyaline-like tissue. In the light of these data, we can hypothesise, for the future, the use of autologous chondrocyte transplantation together with gene therapy as a treatment for rheumatic diseases such as osteoarthritis.

  4. Tissue engineering for articular cartilage repair--the state of the art.

    Johnstone, Brian; Alini, Mauro; Cucchiarini, Magali; Dodge, George R; Eglin, David; Guilak, Farshid; Madry, Henning; Mata, Alvaro; Mauck, Robert L; Semino, Carlos E; Stoddart, Martin J


    Articular cartilage exhibits little capacity for intrinsic repair, and thus even minor injuries or lesions may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. While there have been numerous attempts to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, there remain significant challenges in the clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. This paper reviews the current state of cartilage tissue engineering with respect to different cell sources and their potential genetic modification, biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors, as well as preclinical testing in various animal models. This is not intended as a systematic review, rather an opinion of where the field is moving in light of current literature. While significant advances have been made in recent years, the complexity of this problem suggests that a multidisciplinary approach - combining a clinical perspective with expertise in cell biology, biomechanics, biomaterials science and high-throughput analysis will likely be necessary to address the challenge of developing functional cartilage replacements. With this approach we are more likely to realise the clinical goal of treating both focal defects and even large-scale osteoarthritic degenerative changes in the joint.

  5. Study on Self-Repairing Performance of Mineral Powder Lubrication Oil Additive to Engine

    GUO Yan-bao; XU Bin-shi; XU Yi


    By means of the engine shelf test, the gas escape amount of bent axle box was measured before and after adding hydroxyl silicate mineral powder lubrication oil additives, and discovered that gas escape amount after self-repaired is obviously smaller than before, the average gas escape amount of each rotate speed descend 6.5 %. Watching friction surface with SEM, discovered that the part of net veins in the cylinder inner surface are smoothly patched. Analysis with energy spectroscopy, discovered that there are some changing of atom component. Proofed that through rub chemical reaction, hydroxyl silicate mineral powder lubrication oil additives can generate new substance layer on friction surface, and can increase cylinder inner surface bulk, thereby get the repaired effects.

  6. Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.


    hydrogel. This indicates return of some feeling to the limb via the fully-configured conduit. Immunohistochemical analysis of the implanted conduits removed from the rats after the four-week implantation period confirmed the presence of myelinated axons within the conduit and distal to the site of implantation, further supporting that the conduit promoted nerve repair over this period of time. This study describes the design considerations and fabrication of a novel multicomponent, multimodal bio-engineered synthetic conduit for peripheral nerve repair.

  7. Nerve autografts and tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries: a 5-year bibliometric analysis

    Yuan Gao


    Full Text Available With advances in biomedical methods, tissue-engineered materials have developed rapidly as an alternative to nerve autografts for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. However, the materials selected for use in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries, in particular multiple injuries and large-gap defects, must be chosen carefully. Various methods and materials for protecting the healthy tissue and repairing peripheral nerve injuries have been described, and each method or material has advantages and disadvantages. Recently, a large amount of research has been focused on tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. Using the keywords "pe-ripheral nerve injury", "autotransplant", "nerve graft", and "biomaterial", we retrieved publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries appearing in the Web of Science from 2010 to 2014. The country with the most total publications was the USA. The institutions that were the most productive in this field include Hannover Medical School (Germany, Washington University (USA, and Nantong University (China. The total number of publications using tissue-engineered materials for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries grad-ually increased over time, as did the number of Chinese publications, suggesting that China has made many scientific contributions to this field of research.

  8. Cell-based tissue engineering strategies used in the clinical repair of articular cartilage

    Huang, Brian J.; Hu, Jerry C.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.


    One of the most important issues facing cartilage tissue engineering is the inability to move technologies into the clinic. Despite the multitude of review articles on the paradigm of biomaterials, signals, and cells, it is reported that 90% of new drugs that advance past animal studies fail clinical trials (1). The intent of this review is to provide readers with an understanding of the scientific details of tissue engineered cartilage products that have demonstrated a certain level of efficacy in humans, so that newer technologies may be developed upon this foundation. Compared to existing treatments, such as microfracture or autologous chondrocyte implantation, a tissue engineered product can potentially provide more consistent clinical results in forming hyaline repair tissue and in filling the entirety of the defect. The various tissue engineering strategies (e.g., cell expansion, scaffold material, media formulations, biomimetic stimuli, etc.) used in forming these products, as collected from published literature, company websites, and relevant patents, are critically discussed. The authors note that many details about these products remain proprietary, not all information is made public, and that advancements to the products are continuously made. Nevertheless, by fully understanding the design and production processes of these emerging technologies, one can gain tremendous insight into how to best use them and also how to design the next generation of tissue engineered cartilage products. PMID:27177218

  9. Repair of acutely injured spinal cord through constructing tissue-engineered neural complex in adult rats

    PU Yu; GUO Qing-shan; WANG Ai-min; WU Si-yu; XING Shu-xing; ZHANG Zhong-rong


    Objective: To construct tissue-engineered neural complex in vitro and study its effect in repairing acutely injured spinal cord in adult rats. Methods: Neural stem cells were harvested from the spinal cord of embryo rats and propagated in vitro. Then the neural stem cells were seeded into polyglycolic acid scaffolds and co-cultured with extract of embryonic spinal cord in vitro. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and scanning electron microscope were used to observe the microstructure of this complex. Animal model of spine semi-transection was made and tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted by surgical intervention. Six weeks after transplantation, functional evaluation and histochemistry were applied to evaluate the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction. Results: The tissue-engineered neural complex had a distinct structure, which contained neonatal neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. After tissue-engineered neural complex was implanted into the injured spinal cord, the cell components such as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, could survive and keep on developing. The adult rats suffering from spinal cord injury got an obvious neurological recovery in motor skills. Conclusions: The tissue-engineered neural complex appears to have therapeutic effects on the functional recovery and anatomic reconstruction of the adult rats with spinal cord injury.

  10. Repair of Sheep Metatarsus Defects by Using Tissue-engineering Technique

    LI Zhanghua; YANG Yi; WANG Changyong; XIA Renyun; ZHANG Yufu; ZHAO Qiang; LIAO Wen; WANG Yonghong; LU Jianxi


    Tissue-engineering bone with porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramic and autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) was constructed and the effect of this composite on healing of segmental bone defects was investigated. 10-15 ml bone marrow aspirates were harvested from the iliac crestof sheep, and enriched for MSC by density gradient centrifugation over a Percoll cushion (1. 073 g/ml). After cultured and proliferated, tissue-engineering bones were constructed with these cells seeded onto porous β-TCP, and then the constructs were implanted in 8 sheep left metatarsus defect (25 mm in length) as experimental group. Porous β-TCP only were implanted to bridge same size and position defects in 8 sheep as control group, and 25 mm segmental bone defects of left metatarsus were left empty in 4 sheep as blank group. Sheep were sacrificed on the 6th, 12th, and 24th week postoperatively and the implants samples were examined by radiograph, histology, and biomechanical test. The 4 sheep in blank group were sacrificed on the 24th week postoperatively. The results showed that new bone tissues were observed either radiographic or histologically at the defects of experimental group as early as 6th week postoperatively, but not in control group, and osteoid tissue, woven bone and lamellar bone occurred earlier than in control group in which the bone defects were repaired in "creep substitution" way, because of the new bone formed in direct manner without progression through a cartilaginous intermediate. At the 24th week, radiographs and biomechanical test revealed an almost complete repair of the defect of experimental group, only partly in control group. The bone defects in blank group were non-healing at the 24th week. It was concluded that engineering bones constructed with porous β-TCP and autologous MSC were capable of repairing segmental bone defects in sheep metatarsus beyond "creep substitution" way and making it healed earlier. Porous β-TCP being

  11. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells

    Ando, W.; FUJIE, H; Moriguchi, Y.; Nansai, R.; Shimomura, K.; DA Hart; Yoshikawa, H; Nakamura, N.


    The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC) derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-...

  12. Repair of flexor tendon defects of rabbit with tissue engineering method

    何清义; 李起鸿; 陈秉礼; 王智彪


    To repair rabbit tendon defects with tissue engineering method. Methods: The third passage of fetal skin fibroblast cells was labeled with 5-bromo-2' deoxyuridine (Brdu) and then seeded on human amnion extracellular matrix (HA-ECM). Using 1 cm-long-Achilles tendon .defects as repairing models in the experimental group, tendon defects were core bridged with polydioxanone (PDS) and then capsulated with the complex of fibroblasts-HA-ECM. In the control group I, defective tendons were sutured with PDS following the former procedure and capsulated with HA-ECM (without fibroblasts). In the control group Ⅱ,only PDS was applied to connect the defective tendons.Gross examination, light microscopy, scanning electronmicroscopy and biomechanical measurement of the repaired tendons were respectively performed at postoperative 1, 2, 3 month as well as immunohistochemical examination. Results: The optimal cell concentration for seeding fibroblasts was 3.5 × 106 cells/ml. Cells grew well and radiated or paralleled on HA-ECM. Immunohistochemistry showed that the labeled seed fibroblasts played an important role in tendonization. The results of light microscopy,electron microscopy, and biomechanical assessment suggested that the rate and quality of tendonization in the experimental group was superior to those of the control group Ⅰ and Ⅱ. The tensile strength in the experimental group was the greatest, the next was in the control group Ⅰ,and the worst in the control group Ⅱ ( P < 0.05). Conclusions: HA-ECM is the excellent carrier for fibroblasts. Fibroblasts-HA-ECM complex has the capability to repair tendon defect and to tendonize with rapid rate and good performance three months after operation. Its tensile strength is 81.8% of that of normal tendon.

  13. A qualitative engineering analysis of occlusion effects on mandibular fracture repair mechanics.

    Katona, Thomas R


    Objectives. The purpose of this analytical study was to examine and critique the engineering foundations of commonly accepted biomechanical principles of mandible fracture repair. Materials and Methods. Basic principles of static equilibrium were applied to intact and plated mandibles, but instead of the traditional lever forces, the mandibles were subjected to more realistic occlusal forces. Results. These loading conditions produced stress distributions within the intact mandible that were very different and more complex than the customary lever-based gradient. The analyses also demonstrated the entirely different mechanical environments within intact and plated mandibles. Conclusions. Because the loading and geometry of the lever-idealized mandible is incomplete, the associated widely accepted bone stress distribution (tension on top and compression on the bottom) should not be assumed. Furthermore, the stress gradients within the bone of an intact mandible should not be extrapolated to the mechanical environment within the plated regions of a fractured mandible.

  14. Repair of osteochondral defects with in vitro engineered cartilage based on autologous bone marrow stromal cells in a swine model

    He, Aijuan; Liu, Lina; Luo, Xusong; Liu, Yu; Liu, Yi; Liu, Fangjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Wenjie; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yilin; Zhou, Guangdong


    Functional reconstruction of large osteochondral defects is always a major challenge in articular surgery. Some studies have reported the feasibility of repairing articular osteochondral defects using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and biodegradable scaffolds. However, no significant breakthroughs have been achieved in clinical translation due to the instability of in vivo cartilage regeneration based on direct cell-scaffold construct implantation. To overcome the disadvantages of direct cell-scaffold construct implantation, the current study proposed an in vitro cartilage regeneration strategy, providing relatively mature cartilage-like tissue with superior mechanical properties. Our strategy involved in vitro cartilage engineering, repair of osteochondral defects, and evaluation of in vivo repair efficacy. The results demonstrated that BMSC engineered cartilage in vitro (BEC-vitro) presented a time-depended maturation process. The implantation of BEC-vitro alone could successfully realize tissue-specific repair of osteochondral defects with both cartilage and subchondral bone. Furthermore, the maturity level of BEC-vitro had significant influence on the repaired results. These results indicated that in vitro cartilage regeneration using BMSCs is a promising strategy for functional reconstruction of osteochondral defect, thus promoting the clinical translation of cartilage regeneration techniques incorporating BMSCs. PMID:28084417

  15. Maintenance And Repair of Automotive Engine%汽车发动机的维护及保养



    Correct and reasonable maintenance and repair of automotive engine is an important link to improve technical performance of the automobile, extend its life, reduce economic losses and ensure traffic safety. The article discusses in details how to have the reasonable and effective maintenance and repair for the automotive engine from the related engine knowledge.%正确合理地对汽车发动机进行维护和保养是提高汽车技术性能,延长其使用寿命,减少经济损失,保证行车安全的重要环节。文章从论述发动机相关知识等入手,对如何进行合理有效的汽车发动机维护和保养两个方面进行详细阐述。

  16. Repairing peripheral nerve defects with tissue engineered artificial nerves in rats

    WEI Ai-lin; LIU Shi-qing; TAO Hai-ying; PENG Hao


    Objective: To observe the effect of tissue engineered nerves in repairing peripheral nerve defects ( about 1. 5 cm in length) in rats to provide data for clinical application.Methods: Glycerinated sciatic nerves (2 cm in length) from 10 Sprague Dawley ( SD) rats ( aged 4 months) were used to prepare homologous dermal acellular matrix. Other 10 neonate SD rats (aged 5-7 days) were killed by neck dislocation. After removing the epineurium, the separated sciatic nerve tracts were cut into small pieces, then digested by 2.5 g/L trypsin and 625 U/ml collagenase and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) for 3 weeks. After proliferation, the Schwann cells ( SCs) were identified and prepared for use. And other 40 female adult SD rats (weighing 200 g and aged 3 months) with sciatic nerve defects of 1.5 cm in length were randomly divided into four groups: the defects of 10 rats bridged with proliferated SCs and homologous dermal acellular matrix (the tissue engineered nerve group, Group A), 10 rats with no SCs but homologous dermal acellular matrix with internal scaffolds ( Group B ), 10 with autologous nerves ( Group C) , and the other 10 with nothing (the blank control group, Group D). The general status of the rats was observed, the wet weight of triceps muscle of calf was monitored, and the histological observation of the regenerated nerves were made at 12 weeks after operation.Results: The wounds of all 40 rats healed after operation and no death was found. No foot ulceration was found in Groups A, B and C, but 7 rats suffered from foot ulceration in Group D. The triceps muscles of calf were depauperated in the experimental sides in all the groups compared with the uninjured sides,which was much more obvious in Group D. The wet weight of triceps muscle of calf and nerve electrophysiologic monitoring showed no statistical difference between Group A and Group C,but statistical difference was found between Groups A and B and Groups B and D. And significant

  17. Diagnosing of car engine fuel injectors damage using DWT analysis and PNN neural networks

    Piotr CZECH


    Full Text Available In many research centers all over the world nowadays works are being carried out aimed at compiling method for diagnosis machines technical condition. Special meaning have non-invasive methods including methods using vibroacoustic phenomena. In this article is proposed using DWT analysis and energy or entropy, which are a base for diagnostic system of fuel injectors damage in car combustion engine. There were conducted researches aimed at building of diagnostic system using PNN neural networks.

  18. Transplantation of genetically engineered cardiac fibroblasts producing recombinant human erythropoietin to repair the infarcted myocardium

    Ruvinov Emil


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythropoietin possesses cellular protection properties. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that in situ expression of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO would improve tissue repair in rat after myocardial infarction (MI. Methods and results RhEPO-producing cardiac fibroblasts were generated ex vivo by transduction with retroviral vector. The anti-apoptotic effect of rhEPO-producing fibroblasts was evaluated by co-culture with rat neonatal cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Annexin V/PI assay and DAPI staining showed that compared with control, rhEPO forced expression markedly attenuated apoptosis and improved survival of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the effect of rhEPO on the infarcted myocardium, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent coronary artery occlusion, and rhEPO-producing fibroblasts, non-transduced fibroblasts, or saline, were injected into the scar tissue seven days after infarction. One month later, immunostaining identified rhEPO expression in the implanted engineered cells but not in controls. Compared with non-transduced fibroblasts or saline injection, implanted rhEPO-producing fibroblasts promoted vascularization in the scar, and prevented cell apoptosis. By two-dimensional echocardiography and postmortem morphometry, transplanted EPO-engineered fibroblasts did not prevent left ventricular (LV dysfunction and adverse LV remodeling 5 and 9 weeks after MI. Conclusion In situ expression of rhEPO enhances vascularization and reduces cell apoptosis in the infarcted myocardium. However, local EPO therapy is insufficient for functional improvement after MI in rat.

  19. Neurobehavioral and respiratory findings in jet engine repair workers: A comparison of exposed and unexposed volunteers.

    Kilburn, K H


    Workers repairing jet engines had respiratory, rheumatic, and neurobehavioral symptoms. They had welded and ground stainless steel parts using hard metal tools and cleaned metal with chlorinated and fluorinated organic solvents. We compared 154 workers and 112 unexposed subjects, all volunteers of similar ages and with similar educational levels, for abnormalities on chest radiographs, spirometric measurements, and questionnaires. Also appraised were performance of reaction time, balance, blink reflex latency, color discrimination, Culture Fair, vocabulary, slotted pegboard, trail making A and B, profile of mood states (POMS), and frequencies of 35 symptoms. Compared to unexposed subjects, workers had significantly more respiratory symptoms but no differences in pulmonary function. They had significantly prolonged simple and choice reaction time (P<0.0001), and abnormal balance with eyes open and eyes closed (P<0. 0001), and abnormal color discrimination. Blink reflex latency was abnormal in both exposed workers and in local unexposed compared to other reference groups. Focus of the inquiry on lung disease helped ensure that for neurobehavioral tests confounding factors were minimal and known biases were small. We tentatively attribute the neurobehavioral impairments and increased symptom frequencies to chlorinated solvent exposure. Excessive respiratory symptoms are attributed to welding stainless steel combined with cigarette smoking. Specifically, manganese exposure may have affected the respiratory and the central nervous systems.

  20. Validation of the Algorithms for Depot Exchangeable Repair and Modification Costs for NSNS and Engines for the Component Support Cost System (D160B).


    IDENTIFICATION OI 03 NOMENCLATURE . ITEM 012 03 PRICE. STANDARD INVENTORY 013 03 CODE. WEAPON SYSTEM SUPPORT 014 06 CODE. WEAPON SYSTEM SUPPORT. POSITIONS I TO...calculation of standard depot repair prices ( sales prices). Various knowledgeable Air Force personnel have noted that it is not unusual for an engine to be both...cost elements not used in calculation of standard depot repair prices (" sales prices"). ISI affirms the congruence of the definitions of repair prices as

  1. Robot based three-dimensional welding for jet engine blade repair and rapid prototyping of small components

    Thukaram, Santosh Kumar

    Aero engines are made up of a large number of blades which are subject to wear and damage. They are expensive and must be repaired wherever possible. Engines also have small components which are required in small numbers that need to be developed rapidly. The first part of this research work focuses on developing a robust automated blade repair method using robotic welding. Optimal weld parameters were developed for build-up of edges having different thicknesses. Samples with varying Current and varying travel speed were produced and their micro hardness values were compared. Blade profiles were welded upon. The second part involves a methodology for producing small components using rapid prototyping (RP) techniques. This part involves use of 3D robotic welding for layered manufacturing. Tensile samples produced using the metal RP method were tested and results were found to be well above the minimum cast specifications for the given material.

  2. Replace the Carburetor Diaphragm. Pulsa-Jet Style with Automatic Choke. Fuel System. Student Manual 2. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of replacing carburetor diaphragms. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells delivered in a microsphere-based engineered skin contribute to cutaneous wound healing and sweat gland repair.

    Huang, Sha; Lu, Gang; Wu, Yan; Jirigala, Enhe; Xu, Yongan; Ma, Kui; Fu, Xiaobing


    Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can contribute to wound healing after skin injury. However, the role of BM-MSCs on repairing skin appendages in renewal tissues is incompletely explored. Moreover, most preclinical studies suggest that the therapeutic effects afforded by BM-MSCs transplantation are short-lived and relatively unstable. To assess whether engrafted bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via a delivery system can participate in cutaneous wound healing and sweat-gland repair in mice. For safe and effective delivery of BM-MSCs to wounds, epidermal growth factor (EGF) microspheres were firstly developed to both support cells and maintain appropriate stimuli, then cell-seeded microspheres were incorporated with biomimetic scaffolds and thus fabricated an engineered skin construct with epithelial differentiation and proliferative potential. The applied efficacy was examined by implanting them into excisional wounds on both back and paws of hind legs in mice. After 3 weeks, BM-MSC-engineered skin (EGF loaded) treated wounds exhibited accelerated healing with increased re-epithelialization rates and less skin contraction. Furthermore, histological and immunofluorescence staining analysis revealed sweat glands-like structures became more apparent in BM-MSC-engineered skin (EGF loaded) treated wounds but the number of implanted BM-MSCs were decreased gradually in later phases of healing progression. Our study suggests that BM-MSCs delivered by this EGF microspheres-based engineered skin model may be a promising strategy to repair sweat glands and improve cutaneous wound healing after injury and success in this study might provide a potential benefit for BM-MSCs administration clinically. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 汽车发动机的维修与保养分析%Repair and maintenance of automobile engine



    With the continued growth of the national economy, people's living standards improve, the automotive in-dustry significantly increased the pace of development. Car engine is a core part of automotive parts, but also to start the car the only member which is not only to ensure quality performance guarantee safe driving cars, but also extend vehicle life. Therefore, to do routine maintenance and repair car engine work is very important. Articles will be corporate engine repair and maintenance work to discuss, to understand the basic principles of automotive engine, and its routine mainte-nance and repair to propose effective countermeasures.%随着国民经济持续增长,人们生活水平不断提高,汽车工业的发展速度显著提高。汽车发动机是汽车零部件的核心部分,也是启动汽车的唯一部件,其质量性能保障不仅保证汽车安全驾驶,还延长汽车使用寿命。因此,做好汽车发动机日常维修与保养工作十分重要。文章将对企业发动机的维修与保养工作展开讨论,了解汽车发动机的基本原理,并对其日常保养与维修提出有效的对策。

  5. Research on the possibility of restoring blades while repairing gas turbine engines parts by selective laser melting

    Smelov, V. G.; Sotov, A. V.; Agapovichev, A. V.


    We study the possibility of restoring the blades of chromium-nickel materials for the repair of parts of gas turbine engines using selective laser melting technology. The stages of preparation of the items to repair and reconditioning are considered in detail, the algorithm of the recovery process to a 3D machine has been developed. Chemical analysis of the raw material and facing material has been performed. Maps of distribution of chemical elements in the fusion zone of the starting material with the surfacing material have been acquired. In order to study the nature of alloying materials fractographic analysis of the places of fusion was performed. A map of distribution of chemical elements in the fusion zone was obtained.

  6. Tissue engineering repair for femoral head necrosis%股骨头坏死的组织工程修复

    龙腾河; 崔惠勤; 李涛


    BACKGROUND: The development of tissue engineering technique changed the manner for treating bone defect. Because bone tissues are reproducible, more and more medical investigators paid a great attention on application of tissue engineering in treatment of femoral head necrosis.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the tissue engineering repair manner of femoral head necrosis, and to explore the perspective of regenerative medicine in bone tissue engineering.METHODS: We retrieved articles regarding tissue engineering techniques in repair of femoral head necrosis from aspects of frontier fields of tissue engineering, including stem cells, tissue construction and biomechanics, orthopedics biomaterial, artificial prosthetic replacement, bone graft transplantation published from January 2000 to December 2011. Repetitive or Meta analysis articles were excluded. A total of 30 representative articles were analyzed.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: With the progression of regenerative medicine, tissue engineering technique had been widely used in repair of femoral head necrosis, containing stem cells from different sources transplantation for treating femoral head necrosis, inflammatory factor and femora head necrosis, construction and biomechanical analysis of finite element model of femoral head necrosis, varied giant molecular organism bone scaffold in repair of femoral head necrosis, artificial bone implantation and artificial hip joint replacement. However, present tissue engineering in treatment of femoral head necrosis is still in animal experiment and empirical treatment levels.%背景 随着组织工程学技术的发展,改变了治疗骨缺损的传统治疗模式.由于骨组织是可再生组织,医学研究者们越来越重视组织工程在股骨头坏死治疗中的应用.目的 总结股骨头坏死的组织工程修复手段,探索再生医学在骨组织工程领域的医用前景.方法 从组织工程医学关注的几个前沿领域,包括 "干细胞、组织构建与生物

  7. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells.

    Ando, Wataru; Fujie, Hiromichi; Moriguchi, Yu; Nansai, Ryosuke; Shimomura, Kazunori; Hart, David A; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakamura, Norimasa


    The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC) derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-mediated tissue was more fibrocartilage-like, in contrast to the middle or deep zones that were more hyaline cartilage-like with Safranin O staining. Histological scoring of the TEC-mediated tissue was significantly lower in the superficial zone than in the middle and deep zones. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thick tangential bundle of collagen fibres at the most superficial layer of uninjured cartilage, while no corresponding structure was detected at the surface of TEC-mediated tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PRG4 was localised in the superficial area of uninjured cartilage, as well as the TEC-mediated tissue. Friction testing showed that the lubrication properties of the two tissues was similar, however, micro-indentation analysis revealed that the surface stiffness of the TEC-repair tissue was significantly lower than that of uninjured cartilage. Permeability testing indicated that the TEC-mediated tissue exhibited lower water retaining capacity than did uninjured cartilage, specifically at the superficial zone. Thus, TEC-mediated tissue exhibited compromised mechanical properties at the superficial zone, properties which need improvement in the future for maintenance of long term repair cartilage integrity.

  8. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells

    W Ando


    Full Text Available The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-mediated tissue was more fibrocartilage-like, in contrast to the middle or deep zones that were more hyaline cartilage-like with Safranin O staining. Histological scoring of the TEC-mediated tissue was significantly lower in the superficial zone than in the middle and deep zones. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thick tangential bundle of collagen fibres at the most superficial layer of uninjured cartilage, while no corresponding structure was detected at the surface of TEC-mediated tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PRG4 was localised in the superficial area of uninjured cartilage, as well as the TEC-mediated tissue. Friction testing showed that the lubrication properties of the two tissues was similar, however, micro-indentation analysis revealed that the surface stiffness of the TEC-repair tissue was significantly lower than that of uninjured cartilage. Permeability testing indicated that the TEC-mediated tissue exhibited lower water retaining capacity than did uninjured cartilage, specifically at the superficial zone. Thus, TEC-mediated tissue exhibited compromised mechanical properties at the superficial zone, properties which need improvement in the future for maintenance of long term repair cartilage integrity.

  9. Tandem repeat modification during double-strand break repair induced by an engineered TAL effector nuclease in zebrafish genome.

    Wanxu Huang

    Full Text Available Tandem repeats (TRs are abundant and widely distributed in eukaryotic genomes. TRs are thought to have various functions in gene transcription, DNA methylation, nucleosome position and chromatin organization. Variation of repeat units in the genome is observed in association with a number of diseases, such as Fragile X Syndrome, Huntington's disease and Friedreich's ataxia. However, the underlying mechanisms involved are poorly understood, largely owing to the technical limitations in modification of TRs at definite sites in the genome in vivo. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs are widely used in recent years in gene targeting for their specific binding to target sequences when engineered in vitro. Here, we show that the repair of a double-strand break (DSB induced by TALENs adjacent to a TR can produce serial types of mutations in the TR region. Sequencing analysis revealed that there are three types of mutations induced by the DSB repair, including indels only within the TR region or within the flanking TALEN target region or simutaneously within both regions. Therefore, desired TR mutant types can be conveniently obtained by using engineered TALENs. These results demonstrate that TALENs can serve as a convenient tool for modifying TRs in the genome in studying the functions of TRs.

  10. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Identifying and Repairing Student Misconceptions in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies

    Miller, Ronald L.; Streveler, Ruth A.; Yang, Dazhi; Roman, Aidsa I. Santiago


    This paper summarizes progress on two related lines of chemical engineering education research: 1) identifying persistent student misconceptions in thermal and transport science (fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics); and, 2) developing a method to help students repair these misconceptions. Progress on developing the Thermal and…

  11. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Identifying and Repairing Student Misconceptions in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies

    Miller, Ronald L.; Streveler, Ruth A.; Yang, Dazhi; Roman, Aidsa I. Santiago


    This paper summarizes progress on two related lines of chemical engineering education research: 1) identifying persistent student misconceptions in thermal and transport science (fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics); and, 2) developing a method to help students repair these misconceptions. Progress on developing the Thermal and…

  12. Engineering

    Includes papers in the following fields: Aerospace Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical...

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment with Vascular Function, Carotid Atherosclerosis and the UKPDS Risk Engine in Korean Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    Choon Sik Seon


    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular disease (CVD risk simultaneously using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS risk engine and non-invasive vascular tests in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.MethodsParticipants (n=380; aged 20 to 81 years with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were free of clinical evidence of CVD. The 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke risks were calculated for each patient using the UKPDS risk engine. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT, flow mediated dilation (FMD, pulse wave velocity (PWV and augmentation index (AI were measured. The correlations between the UKPDS risk engine and the non-invasive vascular tests were assessed using partial correlation analysis, after adjusting for age, and multiple regression analysis.ResultsThe mean 10-year CHD and 10-year stroke risks were 14.92±11.53% and 4.03±3.95%, respectively. The 10-year CHD risk correlated with CIMT (P<0.001, FMD (P=0.017, and PWV (P=0.35 after adjusting for age. The 10-year stroke risk correlated only with the mean CIMT (P<0.001 after adjusting for age. FMD correlated with age (P<0.01 and systolic blood pressure (P=0.09. CIMT correlated with age (P<0.01, HbA1c (P=0.05, and gender (P<0.01.ConclusionThe CVD risk is increased at the onset of type 2 diabetes. CIMT, FMD, and PWV along with the UKPDS risk engine should be considered to evaluate cardiovascular disease risk in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  14. Repair of segmental bone defect using Totally Vitalized tissue engineered bone graft by a combined perfusion seeding and culture system.

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the "Totally Vitalized TEBG" (TV-TEBG which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. METHODS: In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the combination of customized flow perfusion seeding/culture system and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffold fabricated by Rapid Prototyping (RP technique. We systemically compared three kinds of TEBG constructed by perfusion seeding and perfusion culture (PSPC method, static seeding and perfusion culture (SSPC method, and static seeding and static culture (SSSC method for their in vitro performance and bone defect healing efficacy with a rabbit model. RESULTS: Our study has demonstrated that TEBG constructed by PSPC method exhibited better biological properties with higher daily D-glucose consumption, increased cell proliferation and differentiation, and better cell distribution, indicating the successful construction of TV-TEBG. After implanted into rabbit radius defects for 12 weeks, PSPC group exerted higher X-ray score close to autograft, much greater mechanical property evidenced by the biomechanical testing and significantly higher new bone formation as shown by histological analysis compared with the other two groups, and eventually obtained favorable healing efficacy of the segmental bone defect that was the closest to autograft transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the feasibility of TV-TEBG construction with combination of perfusion seeding, perfusion culture and RP technique which exerted excellent biological properties. The application of TV-TEBG may become a preferred candidate for segmental bone defect repair in orthopedic and

  15. Diagnosing MS

    ... a Local Support Group Ask an MS Navigator Edward M. Dowd Personal Advocate Program Connect with Peers ... Symptoms & Diagnosis Diagnosing MS Possible MS Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) Newly Diagnosed Diagnosing Tools Other Conditions to ...

  16. Applying Best Practices to Military Commercial-Derivative Aircraft Engine Sustainment: Assessment of Using Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) Parts and Designated Engineering Representative (DER) Repairs


    use of alter- nate part and repair sourcing would have required gathering and ana - lyzing data in several steps, shown below. In practice, we were...Parts and Repairs 47 DER repair parts lists from private-sector companies. We then ana - lyzed DLA distribution center data for quantities of NIINs...PMA Parts and DER Repairs Kendall, Frank , Under Secretary of Defense, Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, “Better Buying Power: Guidance for

  17. Tissue engineering and the use of stem/progenitor cells for airway epithelium repair

    GM Roomans


    Full Text Available Stem/progenitor cells can be used to repair defects in the airway wall, resulting from e.g., tumors, trauma, tissue reactions following long-time intubations, or diseases that are associated with epithelial damage. Several potential sources of cells for airway epithelium have been identified. These can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of endogenous progenitor cells present in the respiratory tract. This group can be subdivided according to location into (a a ductal cell type in the submucosal glands of the proximal trachea, (b basal cells in the intercartilaginous zones of the lower trachea and bronchi, (c variant Clara cells (Clarav-cells in the bronchioles and (d at the junctions between the bronchioles and the alveolar ducts, and (e alveolar type II cells. This classification of progenitor cell niches is, however, controversial. The second group consists of exogenous stem cells derived from other tissues in the body. This second group can be subdivided into: (a embryonic stem (ES cells, induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, or amniotic fluid stem cells, (b side-population cells from bone marrow or epithelial stem cells present in bone marrow or circulation and (c fat-derived mesenchymal cells. Airway epithelial cells can be co-cultured in a system that includes a basal lamina equivalent, extracellular factors from mesenchymal fibroblasts, and in an air-liquid interface system. Recently, spheroid-based culture systems have been developed. Several clinical applications have been suggested: cystic fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary hypertension. Clinical applications so far are few, but include subglottic stenosis, tracheomalacia, bronchiomalacia, and emphysema.

  18. Cartilage repair: surgical techniques and tissue engineering using polysaccharide- and collagen-based biomaterials.

    Galois, L; Freyria, A M; Grossin, L; Hubert, P; Mainard, D; Herbage, D; Stoltz, J F; Netter, P; Dellacherie, E; Payan, E


    Lesions of articular cartilage have a large variety of causes among which traumatic damage, osteoarthritis and osteochondritis dissecans are the most frequent. Replacement of articular defects in joints has assumed greater importance in recent years. This interest results in large part because cartilage defects cannot adequately heal themselves. Many techniques have been suggested over the last 30 years, but none allows the regeneration of the damaged cartilage, i.e. its replacement by a strictly identical tissue. In the first generation of techniques, relief of pain was the main concern, which could be provided by techniques in which cartilage was replaced by fibrocartilage. Disappointing results led investigators to focus on more appropriate bioregenerative approaches using transplantation of autologous cells into the lesion. Unfortunately, none of these approaches has provided a perfect final solution to the problem. The latest generation of techniques, currently in the developmental or preclinical stages, involve biomaterials for the repair of chondral or osteochondral lesions. Many of these scaffolds are designed to be seeded with chondrocytes or progenitor cells. Among natural and synthetic polymers, collagen- and polysaccharide-based biomaterials have been extensively used. For both these supports, studies have shown that chondrocytes maintain their phenotype when cultured in three dimensions. In both types of culture, a glycosaminoglycan-rich deposit is formed on the surface and in the inner region of the cultured cartilage, and type II collagen synthesis is also observed. Dynamic conditions can also improve the composition of such three-dimensional constructs. Many improvements are still required, however, in a number of key aspects that so far have received only scant attention. These aspects include: adhesion/integration of the graft with the adjacent native cartilage, cell-seeding with genetically-modified cell populations, biomaterials that can be

  19. In vitro construction of tissue engineered skin for wound repair after escharectomy of third degree scald: An experimental study

    Zhong-feng MA


    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the practicability and effect of tissue engineered skin for repairing the wound after escharectomy of third degree scald (TDSE in rat model. Methods  Epithelial cells and fibroblasts from newborn SD rats were isolated by enzyme digestion method and cultured in vitro, and porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM without cytotoxicity was prepared by hyperosmotic saline/sodium hydroxide method. The fibroblasts were mixed with bovine type Ⅰ collagen and inoculated on the surface of PADM. Third passage of cultured epidermal cells from newborn SD rats were inoculated on the collagen surface of the dermal matrix to obtain tissue engineered skin, and it was used to prepare epidermal cell sheet. Forty-eight SD rats with TDSE wound were randomly divided into two groups, then tissue engineered skin (experiment group, and epidermal cell sheet (control group graftings were performed to cover the wounds respectively. Finally, gross observation and histological changes were observed in grafted area. The wound healing rate and wound contraction rate were compared between the two groups. Microvessel count (MVC was performed with antiCD34 monoclonal antibody immunohistochemical staining technique, and vascular endothelial cells were labeled. Basal membrane of the skin was identified by immunohistochemical anti-Laminin staining technique. Results  There was no obvious sign of acute rejection of the graft in both groups. The graft survival rate was 75.05%±3.69%, 83.12%±3.13% and 92.03%±3.87% at the 2th, 4th and 6th week respectively in the experimental group. The graft survival rate was 77.63%±3.23%, 83.17%±3.92% and 91.09%±3.35% at the 2th, 4th and 6th week in the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05, but the contraction rate of the grafts was 9.13%±2.27%, 18.52%±3.40%, 23.92%±3.01% at the 2th, 4th, 6th week, respectively, in the experimental group, and 14.21%±3.05%, 29.12%±3

  20. A model for diagnosing and developing knowledge transfer from operations into engineering design: the case of the offshore oil industry

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn


    Transferring knowledge from the operation phase of a product or system to the engineering design phase for a similar product or system is paramount, especially in sectors with complex design processes and dispersed design teams, like the offshore oil and maritime sectors. Such transfer helps both...


    Piotr CZECH


    Full Text Available Currently used diagnostics systems are not always efficient and do not give straightforward results which allow for the assessment of the technological condition of the engine or for the identification of the possible damages in their early stages of development. Growing requirements concerning durability, reliability, reduction of costs to minimum and decrease of negative influence on the natural environment are the reasons why there is a need to acquire information about the technological condition of each of the elements of a vehicle during its exploitation. One of the possibilities to achieve information about technological condition of a vehicle are vibroacoustic phenomena. Symptoms of defects, achieved as a result of advanced methods of vibroacoustic signals processing can serve as models which can be used during construction of intelligent diagnostic system based on artificial neural networks. The work presents conception of use artificial neural networks in the task of combustion engines diagnosis.

  2. Validation of the Algorithms for Base Exchangeable Repair Costs (Engine) and Base Exchangeable Modification Costs (Engine) for the Component Support Cost System (D160B).


    REPORTING 010 03 NUMBER. ITEM IDENTIFICATION Oil 03 NOMENCLATURE . ITEM 012 03 PRICE. STANDARD INVENTORY 013 03 CODE, WEAPON SYSTEM SUPPORT 014 05 CODE...elements not used in calculation of standard depot repair prices (* sales prices"). ISI affirms the congruence of the definitions of repair prices as

  3. Research on Repair Technology for Camshaft of Aviation Piston Engine%航空活塞发动机凸轮轴修理技术研究



    According to the repair for camshaft of the aviation piston engine, the influences of grinding camshaft on the profile line, the contact stress, the lubrication characteristics and the wear resistance are analyzed in this paper, and the feasibility of repair is then demonstrated.The key technology of camshaft repair is analyzed, while method of reverse measurement for the profile line and theoretical model of the profile line reconstruction are then presented, thus the theoretical instruction for the re-pair of camshaft is finally provided.%针对航空活塞发动机凸轮轴修理,分析了轮廓磨削对型线、接触应力、润滑特性以及耐磨性的影响,论证了修理的可行性。分析了凸轮轴修理的关键技术,提出了轮廓型线反求的测量方法和型线重构的理论模型,为凸轮轴的修理提供了理论指导。

  4. An evaluation of Admedus' tissue engineering process-treated (ADAPT) bovine pericardium patch (CardioCel) for the repair of cardiac and vascular defects.

    Strange, Geoff; Brizard, Christian; Karl, Tom R; Neethling, Leon


    Tissue engineers have been seeking the 'Holy Grail' solution to calcification and cytotoxicity of implanted tissue for decades. Tissues with all of the desired qualities for surgical repair of congenital heart disease (CHD) are lacking. An anti-calcification tissue engineering process (ADAPT TEP) has been developed and applied to bovine pericardium (BP) tissue (CardioCel, AdmedusRegen Pty Ltd, Perth, WA, Australia) to eliminate cytotoxicity, improve resistance to acute and chronic inflammation, reduce calcification and facilitate controlled tissue remodeling. Clinical data in pediatric patients, and additional pre-market authorized prescriber data demonstrate that CardioCel performs extremely well in the short term and is safe and effective for a range of congenital heart deformations. These data are supported by animal studies which have shown no more than normal physiologic levels of calcification, with good durability, biocompatibility and controlled healing.

  5. Newly Diagnosed

    ... Sites Podcasts QR Codes RSS Feeds Social Bookmarking Social Network Sites Text Messaging Twitter Video Games Video Sharing ... in care is similar to that of HIV-negative individuals. Additional Resources AIDSinfo – Just Diagnosed: Next ...

  6. In-situ engineering of cartilage repair: a pre-clinical in-vivo exploration of a novel system.

    Seedhom, B B; Luo, Z-J; Goldsmith, A J; Toyoda, T; Lorrison, J C; Guardamagna, L


    This investigation explores a new cartilage repair technique that uses a novel method to secure a non-woven multifilamentous scaffold in the defect site after microfracture. The hypothesis is that a scaffold provides a larger surface area for attachment and proliferation of the mesenchymal stem cells that migrate from the bone marrow. Two in-vivo studies were undertaken in an ovine model. The first study, which lasted for 8 weeks, aimed to compare the new technique with microfracture. Chondral defects, 7 mm in diameter, were created in both femoral medial condyles of five ewes. One defect was treated with the new technique while the contralateral knee was treated with microfracture alone. The results revealed that the quantity of repair tissue was significantly greater in the defects treated with the new system. The second study had two time points, 3 and 6 months, and used 13 ewes. In this study, both defects were treated with the new technique but one received additional subchondral drilling in order to stimulate extra tissue growth. The majority of the implants had good tissue induction, filling 50-100 per cent of the defect volume, while the compressive modulus of the repairs was in the range of 40-70 per cent of that for the surrounding cartilage. In addition, hyaline-like cartilage was seen in all the repairs which had the additional drilling of the subchondral bone.

  7. Allogeneic versus autologous derived cell sources for use in engineered bone-ligament-bone grafts in sheep anterior cruciate ligament repair.

    Mahalingam, Vasudevan D; Behbahani-Nejad, Nilofar; Horine, Storm V; Olsen, Tyler J; Smietana, Michael J; Wojtys, Edward M; Wellik, Deneen M; Arruda, Ellen M; Larkin, Lisa M


    The use of autografts versus allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is controversial. The current popular options for ACL reconstruction are patellar tendon or hamstring autografts, yet advances in allograft technologies have made allogeneic grafts a favorable option for repair tissue. Despite this, the mismatched biomechanical properties and risk of osteoarthritis resulting from the current graft technologies have prompted the investigation of new tissue sources for ACL reconstruction. Previous work by our lab has demonstrated that tissue-engineered bone-ligament-bone (BLB) constructs generated from an allogeneic cell source develop structural and functional properties similar to those of native ACL and vascular and neural structures that exceed those of autologous patellar tendon grafts. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of our tissue-engineered ligament constructs fabricated from autologous versus allogeneic cell sources. Our preliminary results demonstrate that 6 months postimplantation, our tissue-engineered auto- and allogeneic BLB grafts show similar histological and mechanical outcomes indicating that the autologous grafts are a viable option for ACL reconstruction. These data indicate that our tissue-engineered autologous ligament graft could be used in clinical situations where immune rejection and disease transmission may preclude allograft use.

  8. 小型柴油机的拆卸和装配修理分析研究%Small diesel engine repair disassembly and assembly analysis



    Building a new socialist countryside, agricultural machinery will be fully extended. Small diesel engines are the main power machinery in rural China,Small diesel engine has a simple structure, easy maintenance and cheap and so in rural economic life plays a significant role. However, because many users of small diesel engine construction, use and maintenance of knowledge mastered enough, use improper operation, maintenance timing is wrong, seriously affecting the efficiency of a small diesel engine into full play. For small diesel engine problems in use, the small diesel engine dis-assembly and assembly and repair of.%建设社会主义新农村,农用机械必将得到全面推广。小型柴油机是我国农村的主要动力机械,小型柴油机具有结构简单、使用维护方便和价格便宜等特点,在农村的经济生活中发挥着很大的作用。但是由于许多使用者对小型柴油机的构造、使用和维修知识掌握不够,使用操作不当、维护保养失时,严重影响着小型柴油机效率的充分发挥。针对小型柴油机在使用中存在的问题,文章对小型柴油机的拆卸和装配修理进行探析。

  9. Role of tissue engineered tendon in tendon repair%组织工程化肌腱在肌腱修复过程中的作用



    OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress of tendon tissue engineering in the process of tendon repair.METHODS: A computer-based search of PubMed database and VIP database from January 1993 to October 2009 was performed for articles regarding the tendon tissue engineering, bio-mechanical analysis of tendon scaffolds, biomaterials'application in tendon tissue engineering and tissue engineering technology in the clinical application of tendon defect repair.English key words are "tendon transplantation, tissue engineering, biological material, cell stent", Chinese key words are "tendon transplantation, tissue engineering, biomaterials, cell scaffold". A total of 132 literatures were screened out.RESULTS: At present, the tendon tissue engineering research has achieved remarkable results, but there are still some problems for clinical practice and mass production. Many issues need to be further studied and solved prior to tissue engineering truly becomes a treatment of tendon defect and fu nctional reconstruction, such as the best source of seed cells, the ideal scaffold material, the best culture conditions and detection methods of implantation in vivo.CONCLUSION: Truly realizing the replacement of human tissues and organs with the in vitro prefabricated living implant, still faces many challenges.%目的:综述肌腱组织工程在肌腱修复过程中的应用进展.方法:应用计算机检索1993-01/2009-10 PubMed数据库及维普数据库有关肌腱组织工程研究进展、肌腱支架材料生物力学分析、生物材料在肌腱组织工程中应用及组织工程技术在修复肌腱缺损临床应用方面的相关文献,英文检索词为"tendon transplantation,tissue engineering,biologicalmaterial,cell stent",中文检索词为"肌腱移植,组织工程,生物材料,细胞支架".检索文献量总计132篇. 结果:目前组织工程化肌腱的研究已经取得了显著的成果,但要真正应用于临床,大批量生产,仍存在一些问题.诸

  10. Additive Manufacturing of IN100 Superalloy Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair: Process Development, Modeling, Microstructural Characterization, and Process Control

    Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman


    This article describes additive manufacturing (AM) of IN100, a high gamma-prime nickel-based superalloy, through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), aimed at the creation of thick deposits onto like-chemistry substrates for enabling repair of turbine engine hot-section components. SLE is a metal powder bed-based laser AM technology developed for nickel-base superalloys with equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal microstructural morphologies. Here, we combine process modeling, statistical design-of-experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization to demonstrate fully metallurgically bonded, crack-free and dense deposits exceeding 1000 μm of SLE-processed IN100 powder onto IN100 cast substrates produced in a single pass. A combined thermal-fluid flow-solidification model of the SLE process compliments DoE-based process development. A customized quantitative metallography technique analyzes digital cross-sectional micrographs and extracts various microstructural parameters, enabling process model validation and process parameter optimization. Microindentation measurements show an increase in the hardness by 10 pct in the deposit region compared to the cast substrate due to microstructural refinement. The results illustrate one of the very few successes reported for the crack-free deposition of IN100, a notoriously "non-weldable" hot-section alloy, thus establishing the potential of SLE as an AM method suitable for hot-section component repair and for future new-make components in high gamma-prime containing crack-prone nickel-based superalloys.

  11. Grey Repairable System Analysis

    Renkuan Guo; Charles Ernie Love


    In this paper, we systematically discuss the basic concepts of grey theory, particularly the grey differential equation and its mathematical foundation, which is essentially unknown in the reliability engineering community. Accordingly,we propose a small-sample based approach to estimate repair improvement effects by partitioning system stopping times into intrinsic functioning times and repair improvement times. An industrial data set is used for illustrative purposes in a stepwise manner.

  12. A Bilayer Engineered Skin Substitute for Wound Repair in an Irradiation-Impeded Healing Model on Rat


    Objective: An engineered skin substitute is produced to accelerate wound healing by increasing the mechanical strength of the skin wound via high production of collagen bundles. During the remodeling stage of wound healing, collagen deposition is the most important event. The collagen deposition process may be altered by nutritional deficiency, diabetes mellitus, microbial infection, or radiation exposure, leading to impaired healing. This study describes the fabrication of an engineered bila...

  13. A comparison of tissue engineering based repair of calvarial defects using adipose stem cells from normal and osteoporotic rats.

    Pei, Ming; Li, Jingting; McConda, David B; Wen, Sijin; Clovis, Nina B; Danley, Suzanne S


    Repairing large bone defects presents a significant challenge, especially in those people who have a limited regenerative capacity such as in osteoporotic (OP) patients. The aim of this study was to compare adipose stem cells (ASCs) from both normal (NORM) and ovariectomized (OVX) rats in osteogenic potential using both in vitro and in vivo models. After successful establishment of a rat OP model, we found that ASCs from OVX rats exhibited a comparable proliferation capacity to those from NORM rats but had significantly higher adipogenic and relatively lower osteogenic potential. Thirty-two weeks post-implantation with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) alone or PLGA seeded with osteogenic-induced ASCs for critical-size calvarial defects, the data from Herovici's collagen staining and micro-computed tomography suggested that the implantation of ASC-PLGA constructs exhibited a higher bone volume density compared to the PLGA alone group, especially in the NORM rat group. Intriguingly, the defects from OVX rats exhibited a higher bone volume density compared to NORM rats, especially for implantation of the PLGA alone group. Our results indicated that ASC based tissue constructs are more beneficial for the repair of calvarial defects in NORM rats while implantation of PLGA scaffold contributed to defect regeneration in OVX rats.

  14. 超快硬混凝土修复王在抢修工程中的应用%Application of Restoration of Quickly Harden of Concrete in First-aid Repairing Engineering



    In this paper, taking repairing water-proof pavement of bridge, the author introduced construction technology and features of restoration of quickly harden of concrete in first-aid repairing engineering, which provided reference for similar projects.%以桥梁桥面防水铺装层维修为例,介绍了超快硬混凝土修复王的施工工艺及技术特点,对混凝土修复王的主要性能进行了分析.旨在为以后同类工程提供相关参考。

  15. DOD Initiatives to Rapidly Transition Advanced Coating and Surface Finishing Technologies for Military Turbine Engine Manufacture and Repair


    of PEWG Projects Involving Plating, Coating, and Surface Finishing • Advanced thermal spray coatings (HVOF) • Electrospark deposition • Laser...EWI, GEAE, P&W, Rolls-Royce FUNDING SOURCES RTOC STATUS OC-ALC request for FY06 Funding 3/21/2005 22 Other Technologies • Electrospark Deposition for...Aircraft Engines PEWG MANAGER Chuck Alford, Anteon Corp TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITY ADVANTAGES: Kinetic spray technologies deposit thick coatings with a

  16. Tendon repair

    Repair of tendon ... Tendon repair can be performed using: Local anesthesia (the immediate area of the surgery is pain-free) ... a cut on the skin over the injured tendon. The damaged or torn ends of the tendon ...

  17. Fluorescence molecular tomography enables in vivo visualization and quantification of nonunion fracture repair induced by genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells.

    Zilberman, Yoram; Kallai, Ilan; Gafni, Yossi; Pelled, Gadi; Kossodo, Sylvie; Yared, Wael; Gazit, Dan


    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is a novel tomographic near-infrared (NIR) imaging modality that enables 3D quantitative determination of fluorochrome distribution in tissues of live small animals at any depth. This study demonstrates a noninvasive, quantitative method of monitoring engineered bone remodeling via FMT. Murine mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing the osteogenic gene BMP2 (mMSCs-BMP2) were implanted into the thigh muscle and into a radial nonunion bone defect model in C3H/HeN mice. Real-time imaging of bone formation was performed following systemic administration of the fluorescent bisphosphonate imaging agent OsteoSense, an hydroxyapatite-directed bone-imaging probe. The mice underwent imaging on days 7, 14, and 21 postimplantation. New bone formation at the implantation sites was quantified using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging. A higher fluorescent signal occurred at the site of the mMSC-BMP2 implants than that found in controls. Micro-CT imaging revealed a mass of mature bone formed in the implantation sites on day 21, a finding also confirmed by histology. These findings highlight the effectiveness of FMT as a functional platform for molecular imaging in the field of bone regeneration and tissue engineering.

  18. Maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators: specialists` meeting, O-Arai Engineering Center, Japan, 4-8 June 1984. Summary report



    The Specialists` Meeting on "Maintenance and Repair of LMFBR Steam Generators" was held in Oarai, Japan, from 4-8 June 1984. The meeting was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency on the recommendation of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors and was hosted by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the experience accumulated in various countries on the general design philosophy of LMFBR steam generators from the view point of maintenance and repair, in-service inspection of steam generator tube bundles, identification and inspection of failed tubes and the cleaning and repairing of failed steam generators. The following main topical areas were discussed by participants: national review presentations on maintenance and repair of LMFBR steam generators - design philosophy for maintenance and repair; research and development work on maintenance and repair; and experience on steam generator maintenance and repair.

  19. Sciatic nerve repair with tissue engineered nerve: Olfactory ensheathing cells seeded poly(lactic-co-glygolic acid conduit in an animal model

    C W Tan


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Synthetic nerve conduits have been sought for repair of nerve defects as the autologous nerve grafts causes donor site morbidity and possess other drawbacks. Many strategies have been investigated to improve nerve regeneration through synthetic nerve guided conduits. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs that share both Schwann cell and astrocytic characteristics have been shown to promote axonal regeneration after transplantation. The present study was driven by the hypothesis that tissue-engineered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA seeded with OECs would improve peripheral nerve regeneration in a long sciatic nerve defect. Materials and Methods: Sciatic nerve gap of 15 mm was created in six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and implanted with PLGA seeded with OECs. The nerve regeneration was assessed electrophysiologically at 2, 4 and 6 weeks following implantation. Histopathological examination, scanning electron microscopic (SEM examination and immunohistochemical analysis were performed at the end of the study. Results: Nerve conduction studies revealed a significant improvement of nerve conduction velocities whereby the mean nerve conduction velocity increases from 4.2 ΁ 0.4 m/s at week 2 to 27.3 ΁ 5.7 m/s at week 6 post-implantation ( P < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed presence of spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated the expression of S100 protein in both cell nucleus and the cytoplasm in these cells, hence confirming their Schwann-cell-like property. Under SEM, these cells were found to be actively secreting extracellular matrix. Conclusion: Tissue-engineered PLGA conduit seeded with OECs provided a permissive environment to facilitate nerve regeneration in a small animal model.

  20. Repair of Cartilage injuries using in vitro engineered 3D cartilage tissue- Preliminary Results of Our Animal Studies

    Arumugam S


    Full Text Available Introduction: The cartilage injuries demand novel therapeutic approaches as the success rates of the current conventional strategies for the repair of injured articular cartilages are not that encouraging. Earlier we have reported that the Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP is an ideal scaffold for human chondrocyte expansion in vitro. In this study, we report the preliminary results of the in vitro expansion, characterization and experimental in vivo transplantation of chondrocytes in a rabbit model of cartilage injury Materials & Methods: Nine rabbits were included in this study scheduled for two years, after approval by the ethics committee. In the first animal, Chondrocytes were isolated from the weight bearing area of patellar groove in the left hindlimb and cultured in TGP Scaffold and maintained at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide incubator for 64 days without growth factors. Then the TGP-Chondrocyte construct was transplanted into an experimental defect created in the knee of the right forelimb of the same rabbit. After a period of 10 weeks, a biopsy was taken from the transplanted region and subjected to morphological analysis, characterization by histopathology (H&E stain and Immunohistochemistry (S-100 staining.Results: The chondrocytes in the 3D TGP culture had round to oval shaped morphology without any de-differentiation which is otherwise observed in Conventional 2D cultures. A macroscopic structure which resembled cartilage was appreciated in the TGP construct in vitro after 64 days which was then transplanted to the rabbit. The H&E and Immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the presence of chondrocytes in the biopsy tissue. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that the TGP significantly supports the in vitro expansion of chondrocytes for a longer period and the 3D culture using TGP preserves the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes. The tissue thus grown when implanted with the TGP has engrafted well without any

  1. 组织工程修复肩袖损伤促进腱骨愈合的研究进展%Progress in tissue-engineering for tendon-to-bone healing after rotator cuff repair

    赵晨; 王蕾


    Rotator cuff injury, considered as a resource of pain, disability and dyssomnia to serious decline in the quality of life, is a common disorder of the shoulder joint. Basic principles of rotator cuff repair aim at achieving high initial ifxation strength, maintaining mechanical stability and restoring the anatomic healing of the cuff tendon. After the routine surgical procedure for rotator cuff repair, the biology and histology of the normal enthesis are not restored. Tendon-to-bone healing occurs with a ifbrovascular scar tissue interface that is mechanically inferior to the native insertion site, which may lead to high re-rupture rate. For these reasons, new approaches are required to improve structural healing. Tissue engineering strategies have been suggested to improve the biological environment around the bone-tendon interface and to promote regeneration of the native insertion site. Although experimental applications of growth factors and scaffolds on animal models demonstrate promising results, techniques which can be used in human rotator cuff repair are still very limited. Tissue engineering to improve tendon-to-bone healing has bright future and requires more research before its clinical applications. This review will outline therapies of growth factors, scaffolds and stem cells in tendon healing and rotator cuff repair.

  2. Application potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs) based tissue-engineering for spinal cord defect repair in rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta.

    Li, Xiaoshuai; Yuan, Zhengwei; Wei, Xiaowei; Li, Hui; Zhao, Guifeng; Miao, Jiaoning; Wu, Di; Liu, Bo; Cao, Songying; An, Dong; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Henan; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Qiushi; Gu, Hui


    Spina bifida aperta are complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of fusion in the spinal neural tube during embryogenesis. Despite surgical repair of the defect, most patients who survive with spina bifida aperta have a multiple system handicap due to neuron deficiency of the defective spinal cord. Tissue engineering has emerged as a novel treatment for replacement of lost tissue. This study evaluated the prenatal surgical approach of transplanting a chitosan-gelatin scaffold seeded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the healing the defective spinal cord of rat fetuses with retinoic acid induced spina bifida aperta. Scaffold characterisation revealed the porous structure, organic and amorphous content. This biomaterial promoted the adhesion, spreading and in vitro viability of the BMSCs. After transplantation of the scaffold combined with BMSCs, the defective region of spinal cord in rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta at E20 decreased obviously under stereomicroscopy, and the skin defect almost closed in many fetuses. The transplanted BMSCs in chitosan-gelatin scaffold survived, grew and expressed markers of neural stem cells and neurons in the defective spinal cord. In addition, the biomaterial presented high biocompatibility and slow biodegradation in vivo. In conclusion, prenatal transplantation of the scaffold combined with BMSCs could treat spinal cord defect in fetuses with spina bifida aperta by the regeneration of neurons and repairmen of defective region.

  3. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN


    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  4. 骨缺损修复生物工程研究进展%Research progress of biological engineering on bone defect repairing

    郭宜姣; 李文华


    临床上对于骨缺损的治疗从截肢,自体骨、异体骨移植,到目前的生物活性材料、骨组织工程、基因工程治疗,依然没有能够彻底进行骨缺损修复的方法,这也一直是医学界关注和研究的热点。究其原因一方面是因为各种方法的技术水平还不完善如手术时间和方法掌握,生物活性材料的制作等,另一方面是因为骨缺损的局部反应较复杂如骨髓损伤较重,血运较差,断端存在的硬化反应等以及传统治疗后的并发症较多如免疫排斥较重,成骨作用不良,骨折不愈合,神经损伤长期引发的疼痛等,这些原因都在不同程度的制约骨缺损研究的前进。只有从骨的修复与生长机制出发,联合应用多种方法,相互补其不足,从中找到突破点,才能完善骨缺损修复,缩短治疗时间,提高病人的生活质量。本文简要描述自体和异体骨移植在治疗骨缺损时的优缺点,着重叙述骨组织工程与基因工程近年来的研究热点,包括生物材料的更新换代、目的细胞的种类增加、生长因子与基因载体的研究进展等,这其中探讨了生物修复骨缺损工程中两种方法各自的利弊,阐述两种工程联合应用的优缺互补,最后提出骨缺损治疗研究方向上的新思路与新问题。%The treatment for bone defect in clinic varies from amputation, autogenous bone graft, and allograft.Up to now, the biological activity material, bone tissue engineering, and gene engineering treatment are still not able to completely repair the bone defect.It has been a hot spot in medical field.One of the reasons is the limitation of technology, such as the mastery of operation time and method and the manufacture of bioactive materials.On the other hand, the local reactions of bone defect are complicated, such as serous bone marrow damage, poor blood supply, the hardening reaction in the cutting ends, and more

  5. Effect of Chitosan on Tissue Repair in Bone Tissue Engineering%壳聚糖对骨组织工程中组织修复的影响

    焦延鹏; 李立华; 罗丙红; 周长忍


    Materials implanted in the body would inevitably lead to host response, promoting or inhibiting tissue heal- ing. The degradation products of biodegradable materials in the body will change with time, resulting in different host re- sponses and further affecting tissue healing. Therefore, the mechanism of promoting or inhibiting tissue healing becomes the theoretical basis for the design and preparation of novel biomedical polymer materials. Chitosan is one of the ideal med- ical polymer materials, but we still do not know the effect mechanism of chitosan degradation process on tissue repair in vi- vo. So it will not be able to design chitosan-based materials with excellent performance. This review does not lay out the progress of the chitosan-based biomaterials applied in bone tissue engineering, but focuses on the complexity of chitosan applications for bone tissue engineering, furthermore investigates the problems needed to be solved for chitosan used in bone tissue engineering.%材料植入体内必然引起宿主体的应答,促进或抑制组织愈合。由于降解材料在体内的降解产物会随时间而变,产生的宿主体应答就会不同,进而会影响组织的愈合。而促进或抑制组织愈合的机制就成为新型医用高分子材料设计和制备的理论基础。壳聚糖是理想的骨组织修复材料之一,但至今还不清楚壳聚糖体内不同降解过程对组织修复的影响机制,也就无法设计出性能优良的壳聚糖基新材料。文章没有罗列壳聚糖基生物材料在骨组织工程中应用所取得的进展,而是重点阐述了壳聚糖在骨组织工程中应用的复杂性和对组织修复的影响,探讨了壳聚糖进一步用于骨组织工程所需要解决的问题。

  6. Bladder exstrophy repair

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... Bladder exstrophy repair involves two surgeries. The first surgery is to repair the bladder and the second one is to attach ...

  7. Rapid maxillary expansion in alveolar cleft repaired with a tissue-engineered bone in a canine model.

    Huang, Jialiang; Tian, Bo; Chu, Fengting; Yang, Chenjie; Zhao, Jun; Jiang, Xinquan; Qian, Yufen


    This study aims to investigate the effects of orthodontic expansion on graft area of a tissue-engineered bone (TEB) BMSCs/β-TCP, and to find an alternative strategy for the therapy of alveolar cleft. A unilateral alveolar cleft canine model was established and then treated with BMSCs/β-TCP under rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Sequential fluorescent labeling, radiography and helical computed tomography were used to evaluate new bone formation and mineralization in the graft area. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Van Gieson׳s picro fuchsin staining were performed for histological and histomorphometric observation. ALP activity, mineralization and the expression of osteogenic differentiation related genes of BMSCs that grew on the β-TCP scaffold were promoted by their cultivation in osteogenic medium. Based on fact, TEB was constructed. After 8 weeks of treatment with BMSCs/β-TCP followed by RME, new bone formation and mineralization of the dogs were markedly accelerated, and bone resorption was significantly reduced, compared with the untreated dogs, or those only treated with autogenous iliac bone. The treatment with both TEB and RME evidently made the bone trabecula more abundant and the area of bone formation larger. What is more, there were no significant differences between BMSCs/β-TCP group and the group treated with autogenous bone and RME. This study further revealed that TEB was not only a feasible clinical approach for patients with alveolar cleft, but also a potential substituent of autogenous bone, and its combination with RME might be an alternative strategy for the therapy of alveolar cleft.

  8. Semi-Automated Diagnosis, Repair, and Rework of Spacecraft Electronics

    Struk, Peter M.; Oeftering, Richard C.; Easton, John W.; Anderson, Eric E.


    capacity and skill demands from exceeding crew time and training limits, the CLEAR project is examining options provided by non-real time tele-operations, robotics, and a new generation of diagnostic equipment. This paper outlines a strategy to create an effective repair environment where, with the support of ground based engineers, crewmembers can diagnose, repair and test flight electronics in-situ. This paper also discusses the implications of successful tele-robotic repairs when expanded to rework and reconfiguration of used flight assets for building Constellation infrastructure elements.

  9. Tissue-engineered bone repairs sheep alveolar bone defects%组织工程化骨修复羊牙槽骨缺损***

    张琴; 杨川博; 何惠宇; 崔杰; 杨楠; 马文渊


    BACKGROUND:Fol owing physicochemical treatment and high-temperature calcinations, heterogeneous biological bone becomes a ceramic-like heterologous bone forming a similar structure to the human bone that is a natural network pore structure, which is conducive to seed cel adhesion and proliferation. OBJECTIVE:To observe the feasibility of constructing tissue-engineered bone through combination of sintered bone and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s to repair alveolar defects. METHODS:Sheep bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s as seed cel s were combined with the high temperature sintered bone as scaffold materials to construct tissue-engineered bone. Under general anesthesia, sheep bilateral mandibular first premolars were removed in batches, the alveolar ridge space between the distal root and mesial root of the second premolar to form a bone defect area of 5 mm×5 mm×5 mm. Twelve experimental sheep were equal y randomized into tissue-engineered bone group and sintered bone group, which were implanted with tissue-engineered bone and sintered bone, respectively, at the left surgical area of the mandible. The right surgical area was considered as blank control group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After high-temperature calcinations, the sintered bone was chalk in color, exhibiting a porous structure as the natural cancel ous bone. The porosity was (66.10±1.32)%, and the pore size was between 137.44μm and 538.72μm. After 24 hours of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s inoculated to the sintered bone, a large number of cel s are visible adherent to the scaffold;up to day 7, extracel ular matrix was secreted and there was no clear boundary between the cel s and the matrix. X-ray films showed that the tissue-engineered bone and pure sintered bone implants were embedded in the surgical area, and there was a low-density shadow at the edge of the sintered bone. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed bone trabecular formation at the experimental side, but no obvious bone formation at

  10. 40 CFR 92.1004 - Maintenance and repair.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance and repair. 92.1004... Owners and Operators of Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.1004 Maintenance and repair. (a) Unless..., all maintenance and repair of locomotives and locomotive engines subject to the provisions of...

  11. How Are Arrhythmias Diagnosed?

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Are Arrhythmias Diagnosed? Arrhythmias can be hard to diagnose, especially the types ... symptoms every once in a while. Doctors diagnose arrhythmias based on medical and family histories, a physical ...

  12. Hypospadias repair

    ... the problem. If the repair is not done, problems may occur later on such as: Difficulty controlling and directing urine stream A curve in the penis during erection Decreased fertility Embarrassment about appearance of penis Surgery ...

  13. Application of HRCT Scan to Repair The Insufficiency of Lacuna Diagnose%应用高分辨CT(HRCT)扫描弥补腔隙诊断之不足

    王甦; 李鹏; 李力; 钟清君


    Objective :By means of the application of HRCT scanning to increase brain's lacuna diagnoses reliability . Material and methods: Using by HRCT scan clinic doubtful have lacuna patient on floor burl-borough. Barge up against small lacuna-focus with image-plain grain difficult to differentiate ,using HRCT scan in homology lay or fluctuation 1~2mm. Result: In 489 rut CT natural cases discover lacuna-focus. In no-easy diagnostic shadiness lacuna-focus 502 cases, using HRCT diagnosed in deed 300 lacuna- focus ,bogus lacuna-focus 202 cases, at one time discover HRCT of up to snuff brain -organise-configurable show then rut CT preponderance. Conclusion: HRCT not only can lacuna- infarcted check come out frank, also be able to differentiate false lacuna. This is preferably artifice of reparation a beaten track CT insufficiency of lacuna resolution diagnoses.%目的:应用高分辨CT*(HRCT)扫描方法,增加对头颅腔隙梗塞诊断的可靠性。材料和方法:对临床疑有腔隙的病人,在基底节区及可疑部位加用HRCT扫描,遇到腔隙病灶与像素颗粒难以区分时在相同层面或上下1~2mm处做HRCT扫描。结果:有489例常规CT正常的病例中发现了腔隙灶,在遇到的502例不易诊断的可疑病灶中,经HRCT确诊的真正腔隙灶300例,伪腔隙(像素)202例,同时发现HRCT对正常脑组织结构的显示要较常规CT优越得多。结论:HRCT不仅能提高腔隙性梗塞的检出率,还能辨伪腔隙,是弥补常规CT对腔隙诊断不足的较好手段。

  14. Engineering the electronic health record for safety: a multi-level video-based approach to diagnosing and preventing technology-induced error arising from usability problems.

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kushniruk, Andre W; Kuwata, Shigeki; Kannry, Joseph


    Electronic health records (EHRs) promise to improve and streamline healthcare through electronic entry and retrieval of patient data. Furthermore, based on a number of studies showing their positive benefits, they promise to reduce medical error and make healthcare safer. However, a growing body of literature has clearly documented that if EHRS are not designed properly and with usability as an important goal in their design, rather than reducing error, EHR deployment has the potential to actually increase medical error. In this paper we describe our approach to engineering (and reengineering) EHRs in order to increase their beneficial potential while at the same time improving their safety. The approach described in this paper involves an integration of the methods of usability analysis with video analysis of end users interacting with EHR systems and extends the evaluation of the usability of EHRs to include the assessment of the impact of these systems on work practices. Using clinical simulations, we analyze human-computer interaction in real healthcare settings (in a portable, low-cost and high fidelity manner) and include both artificial and naturalistic data collection to identify potential usability problems and sources of technology-induced error prior to widespread system release. Two case studies where the methods we have developed and refined have been applied at different levels of user-computer interaction are described.

  15. Repairing sealing surfaces on aluminum castings

    Hanna, T. L.


    Approach using stylus nickel plating instead of copper and cadmium plating has simplified repair procedure. Damaged sealing surfaces are stylus nickelplated in one step. Superficial scratches and porous areas are removed more easily from repaired surface by simply lapping sealing areas to required finish. Although method is aimed for aerospace components, it may be easily incorporated into conventional aluminumcasting technology. One-step repair can be considered for cast-aluminum automobile and aircraft engines to reduce time and costs.

  16. Femoral hernia repair

    Femorocele repair; Herniorrhaphy; Hernioplasty - femoral ... During surgery to repair the hernia, the bulging tissue is pushed back in. The weakened area is sewn closed or strengthened. This repair ...

  17. Undescended testicle repair

    Orchidopexy; Inguinal orchidopexy; Orchiopexy; Repair of undescended testicle; Cryptorchidism repair ... first year of life without treatment. Undescended testicle repair surgery is recommended for patients whose testicles do ...

  18. Repairing VLSI/WSI Redundant Memories with Minimum Cost

    黄维康; F.Lombardi


    A new approach to repair memory chips with redundancy is proposed.This approach s based on the minimization of the repair cost.Algorithms for cost driven repair are presented.The algorithms can be executed either on -line(concurrently with the testing of the memory),or off-lin(at completion of testing).Analytical expressions for the repair cost under both circumstances are given.The presented algorithms are also perfect in the sense that they can correctly diagnose a repairable/unrepairable memory and find the optimal repair-solution.

  19. Research Progress of Tissue-engineered Cartilage to Repair Articular Cartilage Damage in Western and Chinese Medicine%组织工程软骨修复关节软骨损伤中西医研究进展

    陈强; 蔡建平; 张爱国


    Articular cartilage damage and repair have been the thorny issue of orthopedic basic research and clinical treatment. Articular cartilage damage is becoming increasingly prominent, and has become a serious challenge faced by the multi-disciplinary trauma surgery, orthopedics, elderly subjects, as well as sports medicine. In this paper, the articular cartilage damage repair status, the tissue-engineered cartilage and Chinese medicine were made an overview of research on tissue engineered cartilage.%关节软骨的损伤和修复,一直以来是骨科基础研究与临床治疗的棘手问题.关节软骨损伤问题日益突出,俨然成为创伤外科、骨科、老年学科以及运动医学等多学科面临的严峻挑战.文章就关节软骨损伤修复现状、组织工程软骨技术及中药在组织工程软骨中的研究三方面做一概述.

  20. Erosion Resistant Compressor Blade Repair Technologies Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR program will demonstrate the use of wear resistant high strength nanocomposites in the turbine engine repair and refurbishment process. The...

  1. 半月板运动性损伤的组织工程修复:国际研究趋势与未来%Tissue-engineered repair of exercise-induced meniscal injury: International research trends and future



    BACKGROUND: The depth study of disciplines, such as tissue engineering, genetic engineering, biomechanics and materials science, provides a new approach for the treatment of meniscal injuries.OBJECTIVE: To multivariately analyze the literatures on the tissue-engineered repair of exercise-induced meniscal injury through Scopus database and to summarize the application progress of tissue-engineered repair of exercise-induced meniscal injury.METHODS: A retrieval was performed for the literature of the tissue-engineered repair of exercise-induced meniscal injury, using the key words of "meniscus, sports injuries, tissue engineering, repair" between January 2002 and December 2011 in Scopus database. The retrieval results were analyzed, and the trends were described in words and graphics.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 245 literatures on the issue-engineered repair of exercise-induced meniscal injury were retrieved in Scopus database, in which most of paper were published as original articles. Eight articles were identified as classic literatures. The overall number of literature had an upward trend from 2002 to 2011. United States and England published more literature than other countries, which play an important role in the field of tissue-engineered repair of exercise-induced meniscal injury. Most of literatures were published from Rice University, University of Pennsylvania, and Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Biomaterials published most papers in this field (n=15, 6.12%). This paper provides a valuable reference for researchers to understand the overview and present situation of this field.%背景:骨组织工程学、基因工程、生物力学以及材料学等学科研究的深入,为半月板损伤的治疗提供了新途径.目的:利用Scopus数据库文献检索和深度分析功能,对于半月板运动损伤的组织工程修复的文献资料趋势进行多层次探讨分析,总结半月板运动损伤的组织工程修复的应用进展.

  2. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  3. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... Endovascular aortic repair is done because your aneurysm is very large, growing quickly, or is leaking or bleeding. You may have ...

  4. Motorcycle Repair.

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  5. How Is COPD Diagnosed?

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is COPD Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose COPD based on ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is COPD? 05/22/2014 Describes how COPD, or chronic ...

  6. How Is Atherosclerosis Diagnosed?

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Atherosclerosis Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose atherosclerosis based on ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  7. How Are Thalassemias Diagnosed?

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Are Thalassemias Diagnosed? Doctors diagnose thalassemias using blood tests , including a complete blood count ( ... in a sample of blood. People who have thalassemias have fewer healthy red blood cells and less ...

  8. How Is Sarcoidosis Diagnosed?

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Sarcoidosis Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose sarcoidosis based on ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  9. Diagnosing Tic Disorders

    ... Other Websites Information For... Media Policy Makers Diagnosing Tic Disorders Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... or postviral encephalitis). Persistent (Chronic) Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder For a person to be diagnosed with ...

  10. How Is Vasculitis Diagnosed?

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Vasculitis Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose vasculitis based on your signs and symptoms, your medical ... results. Specialists Involved Depending on the type of vasculitis you have and the organs affected, your doctor ...

  11. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose


    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  12. Analysis on Application Bottleneck of Repairing Bone Defects with Tissue Engineered Bone%组织工程骨修复骨缺损的应用瓶颈分析



    Bone defects caused by bone cancer treatment are common in clinical, however the only way to repair the defects is bone graft. According to sources, the bone graft material can be divided into autogenous bone, allograft bone ,xenograft bone and artificial bone substitute materials. The rise of bone tissue engineering brings new options for the treatment of bone defects. The use of artificial bone tissue engineering training not only fixes the large area of bone defect, but also can be prepared and shaped in large quantity according to need,which makes it an ideal bone repair material. Here is to make a review' on the application status of tissue engineered bone in the treatment of bone defects.%骨肿瘤的治疗导致骨缺损很常见,修复缺损的方法是采取骨移植.骨移植材料根据来源大致可分为自体骨、同种异体骨、异种骨和人工骨替代材料.骨组织工程的兴起为骨缺损的治疗带来新的选择.利用骨组织工程培养的人工骨不仅可以修复大面积骨缺损,而且可以按需塑形并大量制备,是一种理想的骨修复材料.现就组织工程骨在治疗骨缺损中的应用现状进行综述.

  13. Nano surface engineering and remanufacture engineering

    XU Bin-shi


    Nano surface engineering and remanufacture engineering are introduced, and the relationship between them is set forth. It points out the superiority of nano surface engineering to the traditional one, and reveals the advantages of remanufacture engineering. Taking some nano surface techniques as samples, such as nano-materials brush electroplating, nano-materials thermal spraying and nano-materials self-repairing antifriction additive technology, it shows the applications of nano surface engineering technology to remanufacturing mechanical parts.

  14. Concrete structures protection, repair and rehabilitation

    Woodson, R Dodge


    The success of a repair or rehabilitation project depends on the specific plans designed for it. Concrete Structures: Protection, Repair and Rehabilitation provides guidance on evaluating the condition of the concrete in a structure, relating the condition of the concrete to the underlying cause or causes of that condition, selecting an appropriate repair material and method for any deficiency found, and using the selected materials and methods to repair or rehabilitate the structure. Guidance is also provided for engineers focused on maintaining concrete and preparing concrete investigation r

  15. Paracrine Engineering of Human Explant-Derived Cardiac Stem Cells to Over-Express Stromal-Cell Derived Factor 1α Enhances Myocardial Repair.

    Tilokee, Everad L; Latham, Nicholas; Jackson, Robyn; Mayfield, Audrey E; Ye, Bin; Mount, Seth; Lam, Buu-Khanh; Suuronen, Erik J; Ruel, Marc; Stewart, Duncan J; Davis, Darryl R


    First generation cardiac stem cell products provide indirect cardiac repair but variably produce key cardioprotective cytokines, such as stromal-cell derived factor 1α, which opens the prospect of maximizing up-front paracrine-mediated repair. The mesenchymal subpopulation within explant derived human cardiac stem cells underwent lentiviral mediated gene transfer of stromal-cell derived factor 1α. Unlike previous unsuccessful attempts to increase efficacy by boosting the paracrine signature of cardiac stem cells, cytokine profiling revealed that stromal-cell derived factor 1α over-expression prevented lv-mediated "loss of cytokines" through autocrine stimulation of CXCR4+ cardiac stem cells. Stromal-cell derived factor 1α enhanced angiogenesis and stem cell recruitment while priming cardiac stem cells to readily adopt a cardiac identity. As compared to injection with unmodified cardiac stem cells, transplant of stromal-cell derived factor 1α enhanced cells into immunodeficient mice improved myocardial function and angiogenesis while reducing scarring. Increases in myocardial stromal-cell derived factor 1α content paralleled reductions in myocyte apoptosis but did not influence long-term engraftment or the fate of transplanted cells. Transplantation of stromal-cell derived factor 1α transduced cardiac stem cells increased the generation of new myocytes, recruitment of bone marrow cells, new myocyte/vessel formation and the salvage of reversibly damaged myocardium to enhance cardiac repair after experimental infarction. Stem Cells 2016;34:1826-1835.

  16. 46 CFR 35.25-5 - Repairs of boilers and unfired pressure vessels and reports of repairs or accidents by chief...


    ... reports of repairs or accidents by chief engineer-TB/ALL. 35.25-5 Section 35.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Engine Department § 35.25-5 Repairs of boilers and unfired pressure vessels and reports of repairs or accidents by chief engineer—TB/ALL. (a) Before...

  17. Numerical simulation of fluid field and in vitro three-dimensional fabrication of tissue-engineered bones in a rotating bioreactor and in vivo implantation for repairing segmental bone defects.

    Song, Kedong; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Bowen; Lim, Mayasari; Liu, Yingchao; Liu, Tianqing


    In this paper, two-dimensional flow field simulation was conducted to determine shear stresses and velocity profiles for bone tissue engineering in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWVB). In addition, in vitro three-dimensional fabrication of tissue-engineered bones was carried out in optimized bioreactor conditions, and in vivo implantation using fabricated bones was performed for segmental bone defects of Zelanian rabbits. The distribution of dynamic pressure, total pressure, shear stress, and velocity within the culture chamber was calculated for different scaffold locations. According to the simulation results, the dynamic pressure, velocity, and shear stress around the surface of cell-scaffold construction periodically changed at different locations of the RWVB, which could result in periodical stress stimulation for fabricated tissue constructs. However, overall shear stresses were relatively low, and the fluid velocities were uniform in the bioreactor. Our in vitro experiments showed that the number of cells cultured in the RWVB was five times higher than those cultured in a T-flask. The tissue-engineered bones grew very well in the RWVB. This study demonstrates that stress stimulation in an RWVB can be beneficial for cell/bio-derived bone constructs fabricated in an RWVB, with an application for repairing segmental bone defects.

  18. Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance


    Successfully building, flying, and maintaining the space shuttles was an immensely complex job that required a high level of detailed, precise engineering. After each shuttle landed, it entered a maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) phase. Each system was thoroughly checked and tested, and worn or damaged parts replaced, before the shuttle was rolled out for its next mission. During the MRO period, workers needed to record exactly what needed replacing and why, as well as follow precise guidelines and procedures in making their repairs. That meant traceability, and with it lots of paperwork. In 2007, the number of reports generated during electrical system repairs was getting out of hand-placing among the top three systems in terms of paperwork volume. Repair specialists at Kennedy Space Center were unhappy spending so much time at a desk and so little time actually working on the shuttle. "Engineers weren't spending their time doing technical work," says Joseph Schuh, an electrical engineer at Kennedy. "Instead, they were busy with repetitive, time-consuming processes that, while important in their own right, provided a low return on time invested." The strain of such inefficiency was bad enough that slow electrical repairs jeopardized rollout on several occasions. Knowing there had to be a way to streamline operations, Kennedy asked Martin Belson, a project manager with 30 years experience as an aerospace contractor, to co-lead a team in developing software that would reduce the effort required to document shuttle repairs. The result was System Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART) software. SMART is a tool for aggregating and applying information on every aspect of repairs, from procedures and instructions to a vehicle s troubleshooting history. Drawing on that data, SMART largely automates the processes of generating repair instructions and post-repair paperwork. In the case of the space shuttle, this meant that SMART had 30 years worth of operations

  19. 46 CFR 78.33-1 - Repairs of boiler and pressure vessels.


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs of boiler and pressure vessels. 78.33-1 Section... OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-1 Repairs of boiler and pressure vessels. (a) Before making any repairs to boilers or unfired pressure vessels, the chief engineer...

  20. Differential diagnoses to MS

    Horwitz, Henrik; Friis, Tina; Modvig, Signe;


    of 643 patients were included in the study. Apart from ON, the most frequent diagnoses were tumors (n = 15), ischemic or hypertensive neuropathies (n = 13), and retinal or choroid disorders (n = 9). Six patients were diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica. Rarer causes of visual loss were infections (n = 5...

  1. How Is Raynaud's Diagnosed?

    ... diagnose primary Raynaud's (Raynaud's disease) or secondary Raynaud's (Raynaud's phenomenon) based on your medical history, a physical exam, and test results. Specialists Involved Primary care doctors and internists often diagnose and treat Raynaud's. If you have the disorder, you also may ...

  2. Diagnosing Sleep Disorders

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Diagnosing Sleep Disorders Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents Depending ... several possible tests when trying to diagnose a sleep disorder: Sleep history and sleep log If you believe ...

  3. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  4. Ventral hernia repair

    ... page: // Ventral hernia repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ventral hernia repair is surgery to repair a ventral hernia. ...

  5. Brain aneurysm repair

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  6. 自体红骨髓构建非细胞型组织工程化骨修复骨缺损%Repairing bone defects by non-cell based tissue engineered complex constructed by autologous red bone marrow

    黄文良; 邓江; 贾东林; 阮世强; 苑成


    BACKGROUND: Cell based tissue engineered bone is successful in the repair of bone defects, but it is a complex operation,easy to be contaminated and takes a long time, and not conducive to clinical application.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of repairing large-segment bone defects by non-cell based tissue engineered complexconstructed by autologous red bone marrow.METHODS: Twenty-seven rabbits were used to prepare 2 cm unilateral radial large-segment bone defect models, and thenrandomly divided into group A, group B and group C. Group A was implanted with autologous red bone marrow to constructtissue engineered bone (autologous red bone marrow+recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1/coralline hydroxyapatite);group B was implanted with autologous red bone marrow/coralline hydroxyapatite artificial bone material; group C was implantedwith coralline hydroxyapatite/recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 artificial bone material.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Group A was superior to the other two group in terms of osteogenic potential and materialdegradation by comparison of degree of bone formation, bone trabecular number, the structure formation of mature bone andimplant degradation at 4, 8, 12 weeks after implantation (P < 0.05). Non-cell based tissue engineered bone constructed byautologous red bone marrow has better osteogenic activity, and effective to repair large-segment bone defects.%背景:细胞型组织工程化骨修复骨缺损的效果良好,但存在操作复杂,容易污染及花费时间长等不足,不利于临床应用.目的:观察自体红骨髓构建的非细胞型组织工程化骨修复大段骨缺损的成骨效果.方法:在27只家兔一侧桡骨制作2 cm大段骨缺损模型后,随机分3组,分别植入自体红骨髓+重组人胰岛素样生长因子1/珊瑚羟基磷灰石非细胞型组织工程化骨、自体红骨髓/珊瑚羟基磷灰石复合人工骨材料、珊瑚羟基磷灰石/重组人胰岛素样生长因子1复

  7. Tissue-engineered nerve for repair of peripheral nerve injuries%组织工程化神经修复周围神经创伤的应用

    傅重洋; 赵佳; 曲巍


    BACKGROUND:Recent development of bioengineering technology and tissue-engineered nerve brings a new hope for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, which has gradual y become a research spot. OBJECTIVE:To review the new progress in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries using seed cells, biomaterials and tissue-engineered nerve construction technology. METHODS:PubMed and CNKI were searched by the first authors for articles concerning nerve tissue engineering and repair of peripheral nerve injuries published prior to July 2013. The keywords were“tissue engineering, peripheral nerves, nerve injuries, stem cells, Schwann cells, scaffold, growth factor”in English and Chinese, respectively. The articles published recently or in the authorized journals were preferred in the same field. Final y, 63 articles were included in result analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Up to now, there is a great advance in the tissue engineering technology for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. However, most studies are stil in experimental step. For the clinical application of nerve tissue engineering, some problems to be solved include:(1) source and ethics of seed cells;(2) immunological rejection fol owing cellproliferation and transplantation;(3) stability and oncogenicity of transplanted cells;(4) degradation rate, optimal porosity, tube thickness and shape;(5) repair timing for in vitro tissue-engineered nerve construction;(6) local release and regulation of various neurobiological factors. With the development of science, many patients with nerve injuries can profit from the solve of these problems.%背景:近年来,随着生物工程技术以及组织工程化神经的发展给周围神经缺损的治疗带来了新的希望,已逐渐成为研究的焦点。目的:从种子细胞、生物材料以及构建周围神经组织技术3个方面综述组织工程方法修复周围神经损伤的新进展。方法:由第一作者在2013年7

  8. How Is Hemophilia Diagnosed?

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Hemophilia Diagnosed? If you or your child appears to ... have bleeding problems. However, some people who have hemophilia have no recent family history of the disease. ...

  9. The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society (ETRS) in Reims, France

    Hoff, J.W. Von den; Agren, M.S.; Coulomb, B.; Eming, S.A.; Lataillade, J.J.


    The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society, Reims, France, October 23 to 25, 2013 focused on tissue repair and regenerative medicine covering topics such as stem cells, biomaterials, tissue engineering, and burns.

  10. Transfect bone marrow stromal cells with pcDNA3.1-VEGF to construct tissue engineered bone in defect repair

    SI Hai-peng; ZHANG Xi-hua; LU Zhi-hua; LIN Yong-liang; LI Jing-jing; YIN Qing-feng; ZHAO Dong-mei; WANG Shao-jin; LI Jian-min; WANG Hai-bin


    Background We previously showed that nano-hydroxyapatite/carboxymethyl chitosan (n-Ha/CMCS) displayed excellent mechanical properties,good degradation rates and exceptional biocompatibility,with negligible toxicity.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the same composite with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-transfected bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in a rabbit radial defect model.Methods The nano-hydroxyapatite was produced through co-precipitation.The n-HA/CMCS scaffold was produced by particle filtration and lyophilization followed by genipin crosslinking.Total RNA from rabbit bone was reverse-transcribed to synthesize VEGF165-pcDNA3.1 that was transfected into the BMSCs.The composite was implanted into a rabbit radial defect model,and the osteogenic activity examined by gross morphology,X-ray examination and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining.Results The microstructure and mechanical property of the n-HNCMCS scaffold resembled natural cancellous bone.Compared with glutaric dialdehyde crosslinked scaffolds,the genipin crosslinked scaffold was less toxic,and displayed a higher capacity to promote cell adhesion and proliferation.Spontaneous fluorescence of the composite permitted visualization of the composite-bone interface and the adhesion behavior of cells on the scaffold under laser scanning confocal microscopy.The scaffold with VEGF-transfected BMSCs bridged the bony defect and promoted healing,with most of the implanted material being replaced by natural bone over time with little residual implant.Using X-ray,we noted obvious callus formation and recanalization of the bone marrow cavity.Furthermore,HE stained sections showed new cortical bone formation.Conclusions The n-HA/CMCS scaffold composite with VEGF-trasnfected BMSCs is biocompatible,nontoxic,promotes the infiltration and formation of the microcirculation,and stimulates bone defect repair.Furthermore,the degradation rate of the composite matched that of growing bone

  11. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek


    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  12. The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society (ETRS) in Reims, France

    Von den Hoff, Johannes W; Ågren, Sven Per Magnus; Coulomb, Bernard;


    The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society, Reims, France, October 23 to 25, 2013 focused on tissue repair and regenerative medicine covering topics such as stem cells, biomaterials, tissue engineering, and burns.......The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society, Reims, France, October 23 to 25, 2013 focused on tissue repair and regenerative medicine covering topics such as stem cells, biomaterials, tissue engineering, and burns....

  13. Method of repairing discontinuity in fiberglass structures

    Gelb, L. L.; Helbert, W. B., Jr.; Enie, R. B.; Mulliken, R. F. (Inventor)


    Damaged fiberglass structures are repaired by substantially filling the irregular surfaced damaged area with a liquid, self-curing resin, preferably an epoxy resin mixed with chopped fiberglass, and then applying to the resin surface the first of several woven fiberglass swatches which has stitching in a zig-zag pattern parallel to each of its edges and a fringe of warp and fill glass fibers about the edges outward of the stitching. The method is especially applicable to repair of fiberglass rocket engine casings and is particularly advantageous since it restores the repaired fiberglass structure to substantially its original strength without any significant changes in the geometry or mass of the structure.

  14. DNA repair. [UV radiation

    Setlow, R.


    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals. (HLW)

  15. Potentials of manufacture and repair of nickel base turbine components used in aero engines and power plants by laser metal deposition and laser drilling

    I.Kelbassa; K.Walther; L.Trippe; W.Meiners; C.Over


    High pressure turbine (HPT) parts like blades and vanes with integrated cooling channels are challenging concerning overhaul and repair.So far damaged parts have to be replaced by the operator.The aim is to design and implement a refurbishment process chain to avoid scrapping of used parts.This process chain implies three different laser applications 1.Direct Laser Forming (DLF),2.Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) and 3.Laser Drilling (LD).The laser processing was extended in the last years towards application near materials like Nickel and Titanium base alloys.Concerning LMD and DLF the achieved results are investigated regarding macro and micro structure,hardness,defects (e.g.cracks,bonding defects,porosity) and contamination with atmospheric elements (e.g.O, N,C and H) are presented for Titanium alloys like Ti-6Al-4V,Ti-6246 and Ti-17 as well as for Nickel base alloys like Inconel 718 and Rene 80.Suitable process parameters are presented with the achieved static (tensile) and dynamic mechanical properties (HCF) and compared to those of heat treated raw materials.One innovative solution (manufacturing case) is to fabricate the small and complex shaped geometrical elements by LMD and/or DLF.By LMD these elements are built-up directly.With DLF the elements are manufactured separately in the DLF machine and connected by a subsequent joining technique with the large parts.With DLF small complex shaped parts like combustor swirlers,HPT blades and vanes with internal cooling channels are manufactured completely.LMD and DLF can be used in combination with subsequent LD.Depending on the application two different drilling techniques by dominant melt ejection-percussion drilling and trepanning-are classified and characterised.The drilling techniques are exemplarily presented for stainless steel and nickel base alloys (diameter 0.2~0.6 mm,aspect ratio<30,inclination up to 60°) using pulsed laser radiation (Nd:YAG,1064 nm,0.5~1 ms).The experimental results of coaxial

  16. How a Stroke Is Diagnosed

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... Diagnosis » How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed Lab ...

  17. How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed?

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed? Testicular cancer is usually found as a ... the tumor might have returned. Surgery to diagnose testicular cancer Most types of cancer are diagnosed by removing ...

  18. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Reconstructive Surgery%The Clinical Comparison Study of Two Different Methods for Repairing Facial Soft Tissue Defect in Severe Progressive Facial Hemiatrophy

    陈军宝; 李澍源; 曹谊林; 李秉航; 滕利; 卢建建; 徐家杰; 张超; 解芳; 杨莉亚; 杨璐


    Objective To evaluate clinical effect of free anterolateral thigh adipofascial flap transplantation and autologous fat graft to repair facial soft tissue defection in severe progressive facial hemiatrophy. Methods From September 2013 to December 2015, 16 patients with progressive facial hemiatrophy were selected according to enter criterion. The patients were divided into two groups according to different surgical methods, autologous fat graft group (Group A, n=8) and free anterolateral thigh adipofascial flap group (Group B, n=8). The facial three-dimensional data were acquired via 3-D scanner preoperatively. Using Mimics 17.0 and Geomagic studio 12.0 software, facial 3-D model of patient was reconstructed, facial symmetry was analyzed, the volume of facial tissue defect was calculated and the reconstruction scope of facial soft tissue was designed. All the patients were operated and clinical indexes were analysed after 6 months. Results The facial symmetry and soft tissue defect in Group A and Group B 6 months post-operation were both significantly improved compared with pre-operation (P0.05). The patients′clinical indexes: total operation time, postoperative hospital stay in Group B were greater than in Group A, times of hospitalization of Group B surpassed Group A with statistical significance (P0.05). Satisfaction score: patients postoperative satisfaction in Group A was better than in Group B (P0.05). Conclusion The clinical effect of autologous fat graft in repairing facial soft tissue defect of severe PFHA patients is non-inferior to free anterolateral thigh adipofascial flap transplantation with good clinical effects and high satisfactory, and is worthy of clinical application.%目的:比较吻合血管的股前外侧筋膜脂肪瓣移植与自体脂肪移植两种方法,修复重度半侧颜面萎缩(PFHA)患者面部软组织缺损的临床效果。方法自2013年09月至2015年12月,根据入组标准选取PFHA患者16例,分为自

  19. Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.


    Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…

  20. Being publicly diagnosed

    Konradsen, Hanne; Lillebaek, Troels; Wilcke, Torgny;


    . METHOD: A grounded theory design with field studies and qualitative interviews, following the recommendations from Glaser and Strauss. RESULT: A process of being publicly diagnosed was identified, which developed during the patient's trajectory from being on the way to becoming a patient, becoming...

  1. Diagnosing plant problems

    Cheryl A. Smith


    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  2. Optimal Strategy for Inspection and Repair of Structural Systems

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    A new strategy for inspection and repair of structural elements and systems is presented. The total cost of inspection and repair is minimized with the constraints that the reliability of elements and/or of the structural system are acceptable. The design variables are the time intervals between...... inspections and the quality of the inspections. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the performance of the strategy. The strategy can be used for any engineering system where inspection and repair are required....

  3. Application of tissue-engineered anterior cruciate ligament in repair of exercise injury%组织工程化前交叉韧带在运动损伤修复中应用



    -related anterior cruciate ligament is extremely poor, so it isextremely difficult for athletes to recover. In recent years, research on tissue-engineered anterior cruci ate ligament has made rapidprogress with prospect and extensive application. But with regard to application, the optimal clinical outcomes of anterior cruciateligament repair and reconstruction can only be achieved by organically blending the selection of tissue-engineered seed cells, theconstruction of scaffold materials with the basic research on tissue-engineered anterior cruciate ligament, as well as using growthfactor properly.

  4. Progress in patch repair of aerospace composite structures

    Hou, Weiguo; Zhang, Weifang; Tang, Qingyun


    With the rapid application of the composite structure in the aerospace industry, more load-bearing structures and components are used with composites instead of conventional engineering materials. However, the composite structures are inevitably suffered damages in the complex environment, the composites structures repair become more important in the airplane maintenance. This paper describes the composites patch repair progress. Firstly, the flaws and damages concerned to composite structures are concluded, and also the repair principles are presented. Secondly, the advantages and disadvantages for different repair methods are analyzed, as well as the different bonded repair and their applicability to different structures is discussed. According the recent research in theory and experiment, the scarf repair effects under different parameters are analyzed. Finally, the failure mechanisms of repair structure are discussed, and some prospects are put forward.

  5. Service Cart For Engines

    Ng, Gim Shek


    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  6. Service Cart For Engines

    Ng, Gim Shek


    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  7. Liability for Diagnosing Malingering.

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Van Dell, Landon


    Malingering is a medical diagnosis, but not a psychiatric disorder. The label imputes that an evaluee has intentionally engaged in false behavior or statements. By diagnosing malingering, psychiatrists pass judgment on truthfulness. Evaluees taking exception to the label may claim that the professional has committed defamation of character (libel or slander) when the diagnosis is wrong and costs the claimant money or benefits. Clinicians may counter by claiming immunity or that the diagnosis was made in good faith. This problem has come into focus in military and veterans' contexts, where diagnoses become thresholds for benefits. Through historical and literary examples, case law, and military/veterans' claims of disability and entitlement, the authors examine the potency of the malingering label and the potential liability for professionals and institutions of making this diagnosis. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  8. Diesel Engine Technician

    Tech Directions, 2010


    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…


    Suphattharachai Chomphan; Theerathan Kingrattanaset


    Various types of faults of the gasoline engine may result in similar symptoms. Sound analysis of engine has been conducted to diagnose the engine faults. This study presents a study of sound analysis of the normal engine and the engine with three different fault conditions. The gasoline engine was our target of this study. The engine sound has been recorded by using a microphone at the engine room for three directions. Three conditions of engine faults including the engine that is not smooth ...

  10. Pectus excavatum repair

    ... this page: // Pectus excavatum repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pectus excavatum repair is surgery to correct pectus excavatum . This ...

  11. Tissue engineering technology and biomaterials for repair of sports articular cartilage injury%组织工程技术及生物材料修复运动性关节软骨损伤

    马金玉; 薛媛; 杨洪武


    January 1993 to October 2010 was performed for related articles, using "articular cartilage, tissue engineering technology, biomaterials" for the Chinese key words and "tissue engineering, articular cartilage, scaffold material" for the English key words, duplicated research or Meta analysis were eliminated. Twenty-three papers mainly discuss seed cells,scaffolds, cytokines and their properties in the repair of sports articular cartilage injury.RESULTS : Totally 104 studies were screened out by computer search, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, studies regarding the seed cells and bio-scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering, as well as cytokines for tissue engineering were summarized and analyzed. Seed cells are the primary factor restricting clinical application of tissue engineered cartilage, the common seed cells include cartilage cells, bone marrow stromal stem cells and embryonic stem cells; bio-scaffold materials includes natural materials and synthetic biodegradable polymers; the growth factors for cartilage tissue engineering include transforming growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor and so on.CONCLUSION: So far, there is no ideal materials for the seed cells and scaffold materials of engineered cartilage, as well as culture environment, the focus of future research is a kind of tissue engineered articular cartilage with good performance.However, many studies are still in the experimental stage, and some problems need to be solved, especially after tissue engineering scaffolds are implanted, whether the material degradation is synchronized with cell functioning, thus altering genetic materials, gene expression or gene mutation, their clinical application requires relevant scholars and experts to constantly practice and explore.

  12. 组织工程化韧带在前交叉韧带运动损伤修复中的作用%Tissue engineered ligament in repair of sports-induced anterior cruciate ligament injury



    背景:交叉韧带是膝关节内的核心性稳定结构,具有制导膝关节生理活动并限制非生理性活动的功能,其中前交叉韧带的作用更为重要,其损伤的治疗已成为目前运动医学研究的热点.目的:探讨前交叉韧带生理功能、损伤机制,综述其修复过程中组织工程化材料的研究成果.方法:应用计算机检索1990-01/2011-02 PubMed数据库及维普数据库有关前交叉韧带组织工程研究进展、肌腱支架材料生物力学分析、生物材料在肌腱组织工程中应用及组织工程技术在修复肌腱缺损临床应用方面的相关文献,英文检索词"anterior cruciate ligament,biological materials,damage,treatment",中文检索词"前交叉韧带,生物材料,损伤,治疗",检索文献量总计102篇.结果与结论:前交叉韧带损伤后组织工程化康复措施得到了较快发展,从材料的选择来看,单一移植材料难免会存在诸多不足,不利于韧带的康复,复合材料可以结合不同材料的特性对韧带组织工程化材料进行配置,可以弥补单一材料的生物相容性、降解速度、生物力学性能、材料的韧性等不足,另外,对组织工程化材料进行功能结构加工也是尤为重要,这样可以更大程度的为细胞提供吸附、成长和分化的良好环境.同时,基因技术的进步以及各种新型材料的研制,必将在更大程度上满足前交叉韧带康复的需要.%BACKGROUND: Cruciate ligaments are the core of the knee joint, which can guide physical activity and limit non-physiological functions of the joint. The anterior cruciate ligament is especially important, and anterior cruciate ligament injury has become the hotspot in sports medicine.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the achievements on the physiological functions, injury mechanism and tissue-engineered materials used in the repair of anterior cruciate ligament.MEHTODS: A computer-based search was conducted in PubMed and VIP databases for

  13. When "Other" Initiate Repair.

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.


    Elaborates on the locus of other-initiated repair, and reports on a number of environments in which others initiate repair turns later than the one directly following the trouble-source turn. Describes several ways that other initiation of repair, which occurs in next-turn position, may be delayed within that position. (Author/VWL)

  14. 组织工程化骨修复兔桡骨缺损的实验研究%Repair of radius defection by tissure engineering bone in rabbits

    高欣凤; 胡炜; 崔子健; 孙天威


    Objective: To discuss the repair of rabbits radius defection by using bone marrow stromal stem cells (MSCs)in conjunction with bone morphogenetic protein(BMP) and freeze-dried demineralized bone matrix(FDBM) as scaffold. Methods: MSCs were separated and cultivate in vitro, with FDBM as scaffold, osteogenesis was induced by BMP. Forty-five Japan white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups, Group A was MSCs+FDBM+BMP,Group B was FDBM+BMP, Group C was blank control group. The repairing of 15mm defection of rabbit radius was processed. Rabbits were killed at 12 weeks after operation. The general observation and imageology were used to assess the repairing condition. The implantation was estimated by using histology and tissue biomechanics methods. Results: The animals were executed at 12 weeks after operation, with general observation, the fusion mass character in group A was hard, the morphology was not regulation. Some bony callus can be seen in group B, and the defection was not repaired. Granulation tissue was filled in the radius defection, and any bony callus could not be seen. Histology observation of Masson staining showed there were large number of cartilage and newly bom bone trabecular formation processed in bone active period near junction place in group A. Less newly born bone trabecular formation could be seen in group B and the FDBM bone trabecular was tapering , less and cracked. No newly born bone trabecular was seen in group C. Tissue biomechanics measurement: Maximum load, Compressive strength, Modulus of elasticity were( 87.8± 9.8)N,(8.4±0.9)MPa and( 187.5+8.2)GPa in group A, less than the healthy side [(112.3±11.2)N,(9.5±0.2)MPa(210.5±15.9)GPa], P<0.05. Conclusion: Repairing bone defect with tissue engineering bone is superior to using FDBM combine with BMP.Early stage biomechanic intensity is inferior to normal bone tissure.%目的:探讨骨髓间充质干细胞复合脱钙骨基质和骨形成蛋白修复兔桡骨缺损的效果.

  15. Percutaneous mitral valve repair.

    Gillinov, A Marc; Liddicoat, John R


    Surgical mitral valve repair is the procedure of choice to treat mitral regurgitation of all etiologies. Whereas annuloplasty is the cornerstone of mitral valve repair, a variety of other surgical techniques are utilized to correct dysfunction of the leaflets and subvalvular apparatus; in most cases, surgical repair entails application of multiple repair techniques in each patient. Preclinical studies and early human experience have demonstrated that some of these surgical repair techniques can be performed using percutaneous approaches. Specifically, there has been great progress in the development of novel technology to facilitate percutaneous annuloplasty and percutaneous edge-to-edge repair. The objectives of this report were to (1) discuss the surgical foundations for these percutaneous approaches; (2) review device design and experimental and clinical results of percutaneous valve repair; and (3) address future directions, including the key challenges of patient selection and clinical trial design.

  16. Diagnosable structured logic array

    Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)


    A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.

  17. How Is Pelvic Pain Diagnosed?

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How is pelvic pain diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... needed to help diagnose the cause of the pelvic pain. These tests or procedures may include 1 , 2 : ...

  18. How Is Kawasaki Disease Diagnosed?

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Kawasaki Disease Diagnosed? Kawasaki disease is diagnosed based on your child's signs ... are the first to suspect a child has Kawasaki disease. Pediatricians are doctors who specialize in treating ...

  19. How Is Lactose Intolerance Diagnosed?

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How is lactose intolerance diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links ... people think that they or their children are lactose intolerant without being tested or diagnosed. 1 As ...

  20. Diagnosing Dementia--Positive Signs

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  1. Repair of a long nerve defect with a tissue - engineered bioartificial nerve graft: a preliminary report%组织工程化人工神经修复长段神经缺损实验的初步报告

    沈尊理; BergerAlfred; 等


    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a tissue - engineered artificial nerve on bridging sciatic nerve defect 2.5 cm in length in rats. Methods 90 female Lewis 1W rats aged 2 months were randomly divided into three groups, with 30 in each. Three types of materials were used as graft: group A, collagen nerve tubes with an intrinsic framework seeded with syngeneic Schwann cells, which were referred as tissue - engineered artificial nerves; group B, collagen nerve tubes filled with an intrinsic framework without Schwann cells; and group C, nerve autografts. Six months later, a series of examinations were performed as follows: electrophysiological testing, hisotological staining of nerves and muscles, S - 100 and neurofilament immunostaining as well as axon counts.Results Until now, the assessment has been finished in 21 rats (7 rats in each group). A significant compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was evoked in anterior tibial muscle in group A and C. Regenerated axons were observed in the whole length of nerve grafts, with mild atrophy of their innervating muscles. On the contrary, nothing or only a tiny CMAP was recorded in group B. The distal parts of nerve grafts were filled with fibrotic tissue, while regenerated axons were rarely seen. There was a significant atrophy of the related muscles. Conclusions Our preliminary results demonstrated that the tissue - engineered artificial nerve could effectively repair a long nerve defect in rats.%目的研究组织工程化人工神经修复大鼠2.5 cm长坐骨神经缺损的效果。方法 90只2个月月龄的Lewis 1W雌性大鼠,按手术先后顺序随机分成3个神经移植组, 每组30只。A组:用种植同源雪旺细胞并具有内部支架结构的胶原神经管桥接,即组织工程化人工神经组。B组:用无雪旺细胞但具有内部支架结构的胶原神经管桥接, 即对照组。C组:自体神经移植组。术后6个月,进行神经电生理监测,神经

  2. The Application of Polysaccharide Biocomposites to Repair Cartilage Defects

    Feng Zhao


    Full Text Available Owing to own nature of articular cartilage, it almost has no self-healing ability once damaged. Despite lots of restore technologies having been raised in the past decades, no repair technology has smoothly substituted for damaged cartilage using regenerated cartilage tissue. The approach of tissue engineering opens a door to successfully repairing articular cartilage defects. For instance, grafting of isolated chondrocytes has huge clinical potential for restoration of cartilage tissue and cure of chondral injury. In this paper, SD rats are used as subjects in the experiments, and they are classified into three groups: natural repair (group A, hyaluronic acid repair (group B, and polysaccharide biocomposites repair (hyaluronic acid hydrogel containing chondrocytes, group C. Through the observation of effects of repairing articular cartilage defects, we concluded that cartilage repair effect of polysaccharide biocomposites was the best at every time point, and then the second best was hyaluronic acid repair; both of them were better than natural repair. Polysaccharide biocomposites have good biodegradability and high histocompatibility and promote chondrocytes survival, reproduction, and spliting. Moreover, polysaccharide biocomposites could not only provide the porous network structure but also carry chondrocytes. Consequently hyaluronic acid-based polysaccharide biocomposites are considered to be an ideal biological material for repairing articular cartilage.

  3. Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered Nervous Tissue


    regeneration—providing the potential to definitively show regeneration of transected axons through a lesion, rather than sparing or sprouting of intact...transection model in order to more definitively test whether axon regeneration was occurring through our grafts. Through H&E staining and...Collagen Only. (A-D) Longitudinal frozen sections of rat TENGs (green) surviving (absent immunosuppression ) and maintaining their morphology both in

  4. Optimality in DNA repair.

    Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro


    DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge.

  5. Ipsilateral occult hernias during endoscopic groin hernia repair

    Jain Mayank


    Full Text Available Endoscopic repair of groin hernias allows the surgeon to have a complete view of the groin and pelvis to diagnose occult hernias both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. These occult hernias can then be treated simultaneously and may reduce the incidence of recurrence and persistent symptoms. The authors present four unusual cases where occult hernias were found ipsilaterally during an endoscopic repair. All these occult hernias were treated along with the clinically diagnosed hernia at the same surgery with excellent results and no post-operative morbidity.

  6. In utero repair of spina bifida.

    Moldenhauer, Julie S


    Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (MMC) is the most common congenital malformation of the central nervous system compatible with long-term survival and is associated with significant lifelong disabilities. Postnatal care of MMC involves covering the exposed spinal cord, infection prevention, and ventricular shunting for hydrocephalus. The aim of postnatal MMC surgery is not to reverse or prevent the neurologic injury seen in MMC, but to palliate. The neurologic defects result from primary incomplete neurulation and secondary chronic in utero damage to the exposed neural elements through mechanical and chemical trauma-the two-hit hypothesis. With the ability to accurately diagnose spina bifida prenatally and the concept of the two-hit hypothesis, in utero repair to decrease exposure and alter the antenatal course of neurologic destruction was conceived. Through animal models and human pilot studies, the feasibility of fetal spina bifida repair was demonstrated. Subsequently, the prospective randomized multicenter Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS trial) revealed a decreased need for shunting, reversal of hindbrain herniation, and preservation of neurologic function, making in utero repair an accepted care alternative for select women carrying a fetus with spina bifida. This article will highlight the background and rationale for in utero repair, and the progression to becoming an alternative standard of care. The future directions of fetal spina bifida repair will also be addressed.

  7. Tissue-engineered acellular matrix material:preparation and application in articular cartilage repair%脱细胞基质材料制备方法及在骨关节软骨损伤修复中的应用

    赵玉果; 李明明


      结果与结论:①脱细胞基质组织工程材料交联后呈现为深蓝色,疏松多孔,直径为5 mm,硬度适中,具备一定的弹性;②苏木精-伊红染色不含有细胞碎屑及蓝染的核物质,不存在残留的细胞外基质;③甲苯胺蓝染色为蓝色材料支架孔隙率为90%,溶胀率为(1314±337)%;④脱细胞基质组织组材料1,3,5,7,9 d的A值显著高于纤维样组织组(P OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of tissue-engineered acelular matrix in articular cartilage repair. METHODS:Totaly 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly alottedto fibroid tissue andacelular matrix groups (n=15 per group), and then articular cartilage defect models,4mmin diameter,were established at the white rabbitfemoral condyle. Acelular cartilage matrix scaffold was prepared using bovine knee cartilage, and model rats in the acelular matrix group were repaired with acelular cartilage matrix scaffold and the others in the fibroid tissue group repaired with fibroid tissues. Finaly, repair effects between two groups were compared. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The dark blue and porous tissue-engineered acelular matrix material could be found, with a diameter of 5mm and moderate hardness, and exhibited certain flexibility after cross-linking. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that cel debris,blue-stainednuclear materials and residual extracelular matrix disappeared. Toluidine blue staining found that the porosity of the blue scaffold was 90%, and the sweling ratio was (1314±337)%. The absorbance value in the acelular matrix group was significantly higher than that in the fibroid tissue group at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days (P< 0.05). In the fibroid tissue group,defectsfiled withnewborn fibrous scars were overt. By contrast, in the acelularmatrix group, the white tissuescovered the defect regionwith smooth surface,and the woundwas basicaly healed,withanunclearboundaryafter 12weeks. Moreover, blue-stained, smal flattened cels appeared

  8. Diagnosing oceanic nutrient deficiency

    Moore, C. Mark


    The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical-chemical-biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  9. Diagnosing mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Wood, Timothy C; Harvey, Katie; Beck, Michael; Burin, Maira Graeff; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Church, Heather J; D'Almeida, Vânia; van Diggelen, Otto P; Fietz, Michael; Giugliani, Roberto; Harmatz, Paul; Hawley, Sara M; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Ketteridge, David; Lukacs, Zoltan; Miller, Nicole; Pasquali, Marzia; Schenone, Andrea; Thompson, Jerry N; Tylee, Karen; Yu, Chunli; Hendriksz, Christian J


    Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) activity. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires agreement of clinical, radiographic, and laboratory findings. A group of biochemical genetics laboratory directors and clinicians involved in the diagnosis of MPS IVA, convened by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., met to develop recommendations for diagnosis. The following conclusions were reached. Due to the wide variation and subtleties of radiographic findings, imaging of multiple body regions is recommended. Urinary glycosaminoglycan analysis is particularly problematic for MPS IVA and it is strongly recommended to proceed to enzyme activity testing even if urine appears normal when there is clinical suspicion of MPS IVA. Enzyme activity testing of GALNS is essential in diagnosing MPS IVA. Additional analyses to confirm sample integrity and rule out MPS IVB, multiple sulfatase deficiency, and mucolipidoses types II/III are critical as part of enzyme activity testing. Leukocytes or cultured dermal fibroblasts are strongly recommended for enzyme activity testing to confirm screening results. Molecular testing may also be used to confirm the diagnosis in many patients. However, two known or probable causative mutations may not be identified in all cases of MPS IVA. A diagnostic testing algorithm is presented which attempts to streamline this complex testing process.

  10. 水工环氧防护修补材料应力松弛性能研究%Study of stress relaxation behavior of hydraulic engineering epoxy resin repairing material

    赵波; 李敬玮; 鲁一晖


    An experimental study is made on the creep and stress relaxation behavior of the hydraulic engineering epoxy resin repairing material developed in laboratory of IWHR. The material initial elastic modulus of 1. 41 Gpa is determined for the material by the testing of DMTA (Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis) and the stress relaxation function of the material is obtained through the Laplace transform based on the Kelvin model along with the double retardation time and standard linear solid model. The result shows that the result from the standard linear solid model is close to that from the Kelvin model of double retardation time under the temperature of -20 t, however, the result from the Kelvin model is even much more close to the physical character of the material within a bigger temperature scope. The test result indicates that this epoxy resin material has a better mechanical relaxation behavior under a lower temperature condition.%对实验室研制的水工环氧防护材料的蠕变和应力松弛行为进行了试验研究.采用DMTA测试确定材料的起始弹性模量为1.41 GPa,结合蠕变实验结果,采用双推迟时间Kelvin模型和标准线性固体模型,通过Laplace变换得到了材料的应力松弛函数.结果表明:在- 20℃条件下,标准线性固体模型得到的结果接近于双推迟时间的Kelvin模型结果,但较宽温度范围内Kelvin模型更接近于材料的实际物理状态.试验结果表明该环氧修补材料在低温情况下具有较好的力学松弛性能.

  11. Angiogenesis of tissue engineered bone in the repair of rhesus tibia defects%血管化组织工程骨修复猕猴的胫骨缺损

    曾宪利; 裴国献; 金丹; 唐光辉; 林海宁; 陈书军; 程文俊; 黄爱文


    BACKGROUND: Many experiments indicate that the angiogenesis of tissue engineered bone graft plays a key role in the osteogenesis.OBJECTIVE: An experimental pattern was set up designed to prepare a kind of vascularized engineered-bone graft for repairing rhesus tibia defects and analyze the relation of angiogenesis and osteogenesis in vivo by rontgenographic and morphological approaches.DESIGN: Random controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University.MATERIALS: The composite graft was constructed by seeding the induced bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) on to a beta-tricalcium phosphate(3-TCP) scaffold in vitro, a circular cylinder (20 mm × 8 mm diameter) with a slit (width 2 mm and length 3 mm ) open to both ends and slot. Porosity 60% and pore diameter 100-150 μm. Twenty-nine healthy rhesuses aged 4-5 years and weighted 3.5-5 kg were adopted without gender limitation.METHODS: The experiment was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfan Hospital, Southern Medical University from October 2003 to July 2005. ①Bone-periosteum defect of 20 mm was made in the middle part of right tibia of the 27 rhesuses, and randomly divided into 3 groups equally. ②The defect gaps in fascia-blood vessel group (A) were plugged with in vitro engineered composites constructed by bone marrow stem cells and 3-TCP scaffold, which were totally hugged by a sheet of pedicled deep fascia and additionally a corresponding portion of saphenous artery and veins. The gaps in fascia group (B) and control group(C), however, were inserted with fascia-coated tissue engineered bone and tissue engineered bone only, respectively. Furthermore, two rhesuses without filling materials on the defect were picked up as blanks fixed by steel pins. ③The angiogenesis and osteogenesis for each treatment was assessed by radioactive imaging, roentgenographic analyses, blocking density and vaso-area image analysis

  12. Repairing Peripheral Nerves: Is there a Role for Carbon Nanotubes?

    Oprych, Karen M; Whitby, Raymond L D; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Tomlins, Paul; Adu, Jimi


    Peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major global health problem that can result in debilitating neurological deficits and neuropathic pain. Current state-of-the-art treatment involves reforming the damaged nerve pathway using a nerve autograft. Engineered nerve repair conduits can provide an alternative to the nerve autograft avoiding the inevitable tissue damage caused at the graft donor site. Commercially available nerve repair conduits are currently only considered suitable for repairing small nerve lesions; the design and performance of engineered conduits requires significant improvements to enable their use for repairing larger nerve defects. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an emerging novel material for biomedical applications currently being developed for a range of therapeutic technologies including scaffolds for engineering and interfacing with neurological tissues. CNTs possess a unique set of physicochemical properties that could be useful within nerve repair conduits. This progress report aims to evaluate and consolidate the current literature pertinent to CNTs as a biomaterial for supporting peripheral nerve regeneration. The report is presented in the context of the state-of-the-art in nerve repair conduit design; outlining how CNTs may enhance the performance of next generation peripheral nerve repair conduits.

  13. Repairs of composite structures

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and

  14. Laparoscopic hernia repair--when is a hernia not a hernia?

    Bunting, David; Szczebiot, Lukasz; Cota, Alwyn


    A wide range of diagnoses can present as inguinal hernia. Laparoscopic techniques are being increasingly used in the repair of inguinal hernias and offer the potential benefit of identifying additional pathology...

  15. Workshop on DNA repair.

    A.R. Lehmann (Alan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.A. van Zeeland (Albert); C.M.P. Backendorf (Claude); B.A. Bridges; A. Collins; R.P.D. Fuchs; G.P. Margison; R. Montesano; E. Moustacchi; A.T. Natarajan; M. Radman; A. Sarasin; E. Seeberg; C.A. Smith; M. Stefanini (Miria); L.H. Thompson; G.P. van der Schans; C.A. Weber (Christine); M.Z. Zdzienika


    textabstractA workshop on DNA repair with emphasis on eukaryotic systems was held, under the auspices of the EC Concerted Action on DNA Repair and Cancer, at Noordwijkerhout (The Netherlands) 14-19 April 1991. The local organization of the meeting was done under the auspices of the Medical Genetic C

  16. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair.

    Madan, Atul K; Ternovits, Craig A; Speck, Karen E; Pritchard, F Elizabeth; Tichansky, David S


    Lumbar hernias are rare clinical entities that often pose a challenge for repair. Because of the surrounding anatomy, adequate surgical herniorraphy is often difficult. Minimally invasive surgery has become an option for these hernias. Herein, we describe two patients with lumbar hernias (one with a recurrent traumatic hernia and one with an incisional hernia). Both of these hernias were successfully repaired laparoscopically.

  17. Repair or replacement of defective restorations by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Gordan, Valeria V; Riley, Joseph L; Geraldeli, Saulo


    The authors aimed to determine whether dentists in practices belonging to The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) were more likely to repair or to replace a restoration that they diagnosed as defective; to quantify dentists' specific reasons for repairing or replacing restorations......; and to test the hypothesis that certain dentist-, patient- and restoration-related variables are associated with the decision between repairing and replacing restorations....

  18. DNA repair protocols

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...


    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan


    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without


    Kokorev G. D.


    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the existing approach to automobiles technical maintenance in agriculture. We have pointed out that in modern conditions it is impossible to forecast the automobiles maintenance operation frequency and as a result its improvement as well. It is obvious that one cannot achieve the considerable increase of maintenance operation efficiency by separate means and there exist the necessity to treat it as a system and use the up-to-date methods to investigate and improve complicated systems. We have made a conclusion that the increase of maintenance operation efficiency is not possible without some rational strategy of maintenance operation and repair. We have shown that the program of maintenance operation and repair being an integral part of automobiles technical maintenance has considerable effect on maintenance and repair quality. As a result, there is some necessity of the developed system of parameters diagnosing and control in technical maintenance and repair. We have shown that to get sufficient diagnose information one needs selection of the controlled parameters which give maximum information about the object technical status taking into account possible characteristics of its operational faults. We have discovered that in order to solve the task it is necessary to have the object’s information pattern, calculation of possible characteristics of the controlled object being in good or bad order due to some parts fault, evaluation of information brought by every parameter and determining parameters to be diagnosed. We have proposed to evaluate the parameters’ information value with the help of information entropy as uncertainty measure that is one of the main concepts of the information theory. Because of solving the task, we have got the aggregate of the controlled automobile parameters orderable according to the amount of information

  1. BMCloud: Minimizing Repair Bandwidth and Maintenance Cost in Cloud Storage

    Chao Yin


    Full Text Available To protect data in cloud storage, fault tolerance and efficient recovery become very important. Recent studies have developed numerous solutions based on erasure code techniques to solve this problem using functional repairs. However, there are two limitations to address. The first one is consistency since the Encoding Matrix (EM is different among clouds. The other one is repairing bandwidth, which is a concern for most of us. We addressed these two problems from both theoretical and practical perspectives. We developed BMCloud, a new low repair bandwidth, low maintenance cost cloud storage system, which aims to reduce repair bandwidth and maintenance cost. The system employs both functional repair and exact repair while it inherits advantages from the both. We propose the JUDGE_STYLE algorithm, which can judge whether the system should adopt exact repair or functional repair. We implemented a networked storage system prototype and demonstrated our findings. Compared with existing solutions, BMCloud can be used in engineering to save repair bandwidth and degrade maintenance significantly.


    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary


    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  3. Development and exploitation of optical diagnoses based on radicals fluorescence. Application to automotive engines; Developpement et exploitation de diagnostics optiques bases sur la fluorescence de radicaux. Application aux moteurs automobiles

    Auge, M.


    During this PhD, we have developed an optical technique based on radicals fluorescence. The objective was to obtain more information on combustion phenomena. We first have applied the OH and HCHO PLIF technique simultaneously in laminar premixed counter-flow flames under pressure. With this technique, we have obtained the local heat release rate of the flame and an estimation of the laminar flame speed and the thickness of the flame for different fuels and pressure. We have then applied this technique on a Diesel fuel jet in combustion placed in a high pressure cell to understand the different phenomena occurring. Then PLIF at 355 nm was applied in direct and indirect injection spark ignition engine to detect the unburned. We have demonstrated the high potential of the technique used during this PhD to obtain local heat release rate of a flame. We have also progressed in our comprehension of the phenomena occurring during the combustion processes. (author)

  4. 应用组织工程方法修复缺损面肌的动物实验研究%The Application of Tissue Engineering Methods to Repair the Defect of Musculus Facialis:an Animal Experiment Re- search

    刘坤; 王薇; 王少新; 李超; 唐休发; 何等旗; 华成舸; 张兵


    目的本研究拟通过用组织工程方法修复缺损面肌,为头颈外科肿瘤术后遗留缺损的动态修复提供新的理论和方法。方法应用细胞培养技术,组织工程方法将SD大鼠成肌细胞与I型胶原复合、培养,并将组织工程化的材料植入成年大鼠面部与面神经断端接触,形成运动单位,以期开发出能替代缺损面肌的仿真生物材料。结果本研究为骨骼肌组织工程中的血管化和神经化提供了重要的参考,其血管化方法可用于其他临床缺血性疾病治疗的研究。故本研究的结果不仅对骨骼肌工程神经支配的问题作出了初步的回答,进一步将在更广的范围里,对血管化和血管生成的研究产生重要影响。结论用组织工程方法修复缺损面肌将会为头颈外科肿瘤术后遗留缺损的修复提供新的选择。%Objective To investigate tissue engineering methods which repair facial defect, it provides a new method for postoperative patients of head and neck surgery.Methods Through cell culture technique and tissue engineering, cultivate myo-blast of SD rat with type I collagen, then the tissue-engineered materials be implanted to facial nerve ending of adult rat, to form the motor unit, in order to develop biological materials to repair the defect in the facial muscles.Results This study has made a prelim-inary answer of the innervation of skeletal muscle engineering problems, it also influences the study of vascularization and angiogene-sis.Conclusion Using tissue engineering methods to repair facial defect of postoperative patients of head and neck surgery will pro-vides a new choice for us.


    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary


    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  6. How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed?

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose aplastic anemia based on your medical and family histories, a ... your primary care doctor thinks you have aplastic anemia, he or she may refer you to a ...

  7. Salvage hypospadias repairs

    Sripathi V


    Full Text Available Aim: Review of our experience and to develop an algorithm for salvage procedures in the management of hypospadias cripples and treatment of urethral strictures following hypospadias repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of hypospadias surgeries over a 41-month period. Out of a total 168 surgeries, 20 were salvage/re-operative repairs. In three children a Duplay repair was feasible, while in four others a variety of single-stage repairs could be done. The repair was staged in seven children - buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs in five, buccal mucosal tube in one, and skin graft in one. Five children with dense strictures were managed by dorsal BMG inlay grafting in one, vascularized tunical onlay grafting on the ventrum in one, and a free tunical patch in one. Three children were treated by internal urethrotomy and stenting for four weeks with a poor outcome. Results: The age of children ranged from 1.5-15 years (mean 4.5. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.5 years. Excellent results were obtained in 10 children (50% with a well-surfaced erect penis and a slit-like meatus. Glans closure could not be achieved and meatus was coronal in three. Two children developed fistulae following a Duplay repair and following a staged BMG. Three repairs failed completely - a composite repair broke down, a BMG tube stenosed with a proximal leak, and a stricture recurred with loss of a ventral free tunical graft. Conclusions: In salvage procedures performed on hypospadias cripples, a staged repair with buccal mucosa as an inlay in the first stage followed by tubularization 4-6 months later provides good results. A simple algorithm to plan corrective surgery in failed hypospadias cases and obtain satisfactory results is devised.

  8. Congenital medium sternal cleft with partial ectopia cordis repair.

    Sousa, Paulo Rego; Antunes, Sónia; Couto, Alexandra; Santos, Gonçalo Cassiano; Leal, Luis Gagp; Magalhães, Manuel Pedro


    Congenital sternal malformation is a rare anomaly often diagnosed as an asymptomatic condition at birth. The authors report a clinical case of a full-term female neonate with congenital sternal cleft and partial ectopia cordis. Successful surgical repair was accomplished at 6 days of age. When surgery is performed shortly after birth, the procedure is easier and better results are achieved.

  9. Fault Tree Based Diagnosis with Optimal Test Sequencing for Field Service Engineers

    Iverson, David L.; George, Laurence L.; Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)


    When field service engineers go to customer sites to service equipment, they want to diagnose and repair failures quickly and cost effectively. Symptoms exhibited by failed equipment frequently suggest several possible causes which require different approaches to diagnosis. This can lead the engineer to follow several fruitless paths in the diagnostic process before they find the actual failure. To assist in this situation, we have developed the Fault Tree Diagnosis and Optimal Test Sequence (FTDOTS) software system that performs automated diagnosis and ranks diagnostic hypotheses based on failure probability and the time or cost required to isolate and repair each failure. FTDOTS first finds a set of possible failures that explain exhibited symptoms by using a fault tree reliability model as a diagnostic knowledge to rank the hypothesized failures based on how likely they are and how long it would take or how much it would cost to isolate and repair them. This ordering suggests an optimal sequence for the field service engineer to investigate the hypothesized failures in order to minimize the time or cost required to accomplish the repair task. Previously, field service personnel would arrive at the customer site and choose which components to investigate based on past experience and service manuals. Using FTDOTS running on a portable computer, they can now enter a set of symptoms and get a list of possible failures ordered in an optimal test sequence to help them in their decisions. If facilities are available, the field engineer can connect the portable computer to the malfunctioning device for automated data gathering. FTDOTS is currently being applied to field service of medical test equipment. The techniques are flexible enough to use for many different types of devices. If a fault tree model of the equipment and information about component failure probabilities and isolation times or costs are available, a diagnostic knowledge base for that device can be

  10. Half-bead weld repairs for in-service applications

    Holz, P.P. Sr.


    Successful half- or temper-bead technique weld repairs performed to Section XI of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code guidelines were made to two Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program vessels and a qualification prolongation. Intermediate sized vessels, equivalent in thickness to nuclear pressure vessels, were repair welded and subsequently flawed and pressure tested to approximately 2/sup 1///sub 4/ times design pressure before leakage occurred. Discussed are the standards and procedures used with half-bead repairs, resultant induced metallurgical and stress effects, flaw test criterion, pressure test details and results, and recommendations for further development work for a speedier application process.

  11. Progress of peripheral nerve repair



    Study on repair of peripheral nerve injury has been proceeding over a long period of time. With the use of microsurgery technique since 1960s,the quality of nerve repair has been greatly improved. In the past 40 years, with the continuous increase of surgical repair methods, more progress has been made on the basic research of peripheral nerve repair.

  12. Achilles tendon repair

    Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one large cut ...

  13. Diaphragmatic hernia repair - slideshow

    ... presentations/100014.htm Diaphragmatic hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview The chest cavity includes the heart and lungs. The abdominal cavity includes the liver, the stomach, ...

  14. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    ... page: // Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  15. Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - slideshow

    ... page: // Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Esophagus Disorders Fistulas Tracheal Disorders A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  16. Inguinal hernia repair - slideshow

    ... page: // Inguinal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview A hernia occurs when part of an organ protrudes through ...


    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary


    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  18. Pectus excavatum repair - slideshow

    ... this page: // Pectus excavatum repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Pectus excavatum is a deformity of the front of the ...

  19. Hiatal hernia repair - slideshow

    ... presentations/100028.htm Hiatal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on ... Overview The esophagus runs through the diaphragm to the stomach. It functions to carry food from the mouth ...

  20. Repairing ceramic insulating tiles

    Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.


    Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

  1. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow

    ... this page: // Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that ...

  2. Cleft lip repair - slideshow

    ... this page: // Cleft lip repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... abnormal opening in the middle of the upper lip. A cleft palate is an opening in the roof of ...

  3. Problems diagnosis in diesel engines

    Leugner, L.


    Diagnosis of engine problems in diesel engines used in Western Canadian coal mines is discussed. Areas to which attention must be paid include the air cleaners, turbocharger, engine compression and the fuel system. Exhaust smoke should be analysed to help diagnose combustion related problems.

  4. 应用猪小肠黏膜下层与肌腱细胞构建组织工程支架修复大鼠腹壁缺损的实验研究%Repair of abdominal wall defect with engineered scaffold using tenocytes seeded porcine small intestinal submucosa in rats

    宋致成; 顾岩


    目的:应用猪小肠黏膜下层(small intestinal submucosa,SIS)与肌腱细胞构建组织工程支架,研究其在修复腹壁缺损时的生物力学特性.方法:制作SD大鼠腹壁缺损模型,应用所构建的组织工程支架修补缺损,术后4周取样进行大体观察,检测组织学及力学性能.结果:组织工程支架修补术后的SD大鼠无腹部裂开及疝发生,支架与腹腔内脏器有轻微粘连;HE及Masson染色发现支架与肌肉组织交界区有显著新生血管出现及肌肉组织长入.力学性能检测显示组织工程支架的力学强度显著大于SD大鼠腹壁肌肉强度.结论:构建组织工程支架可有效修补大鼠的腹壁缺损.%Objective To investigate the biomechanicai properties of the engineered scaffold using tenocytes seeded small intestinal submucosa (SIS) in abdominal wall defect. Methods Abdominal wall defect was repaired using engineered scaffold in rat modes. The rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks and the sample tissues were analyzed by gross observation, histological method and mechanical testing. Results All rats had no abdominal dehiscence or hernia. The engineered scaffold caused slight adhesion with organs. HE and Masson staining proved the junction between SIS and surrounding tissue had more new vessels. The muscle grew into the engineered scaffold. The mechanical strength of the engineered scaffold was much more than the abdominal wall muscles, which could provide sufficient mechanical strength. Conclusions Engineered scaffold repairing abdominal wall defect is a feasible and effective method.

  5. A Study on Test Technology to Diagnose the Power Apparatus

    Kim, K. H.; Kang, Y. S.; Jeon, Y. K.; Lee, W. Y.; Kang, D. S.; Kyu, H. S.; Sun, J. H.; Jo, K. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Jung, J. S.; Mun, Y. T.; Lee, K. H.; Jung, E. H.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Water Resources Corporation (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, we have educated KOWACO(Korea Water Resources Corporation) specialists about the insulation diagnostic technology and trained them the insulation diagnostic test and estimation method of power apparatus. The main results of this study are as follows; A. Education of basic high-voltage engineering. B. Research of insulation characteristic and deterioration mechanism in power apparatus C. Discussion on high-voltage test standard specifications. D. Study on insulation deterioration diagnostics in power apparatus. E. Field testing of insulation diagnosis in power apparatus. F. Engineering of insulation diagnostic testing apparatus to diagnose power apparatus. KOWACO specialists are able to diagnose insulation diagnostic test of power apparatus through this study. As they have instruments to diagnose power apparatus, they can do the test and estimation of the power apparatus insulation diagnosis. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  6. Repair of articular cartilage defects in rabbits through tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with chitosan hydrogel and chondrocytes%新型壳聚糖水凝胶结合软骨细胞修复兔关节软骨缺损的实验研究

    Ming ZHAO; Zhu CHEN; Kang LIU; Yu-qing WAN; Xu-dong LI; Xu-wei LUO; Yi-guang BAI; Ze-long YANG; Gang FENG


    Objective: In our previous work, we prepared a type of chitosan hydrogel with excelent biocompatibility. In this study, tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with this chitosan hydrogel and costal chondrocytes was used to repair the articular cartilage defects. Methods: Chitosan hydrogels were prepared with a crosslinker formed by com-bining 1,6-disocyanatohexane and polyethylene glycol. Chitosan hydrogel scaffold was seeded with rabbit chondro-cytes that had been cultured for one weekin vitro to form the preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage. This preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage was then transplanted into the defective rabbit articular cartilage. There were three treatment groups: the experimental group received preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage; the blank group received pure chitosan hydrogels; and, the control group had received no implantation. The knee joints were harvested at predetermined time. The repaired cartilage was analyzed through gross morphology, histologicaly and immuno-histochemicaly. The repairs were scored according to the international cartilage repair society (ICRS) standard. Results: The gross morphology results suggested that the defects were repaired completely in the experimental group after twelve weeks. The regenerated tissue connected closely with subchondral bone and the boundary with normal tissue was fuzzy. The cartilage lacuna in the regenerated tissue was similar to normal cartilage lacuna. The results of ICRS gross and histological grading showed that there were significant differences among the three groups (P  创新点:利用自主研发的具有良好生物相容性和稳定性的壳聚糖水凝胶与软骨细胞,在体外初步构建组织工程软骨,并尝试利用其修复缺损的关节软骨,从而为关节软骨缺损的修复提供了一种新的治疗方法。  方法:取兔肋软骨体外培养扩增,获得P2代软骨细胞,将其种植到冻干的壳聚糖水凝胶上,体

  7. How to diagnose cardiac tamponade

    van Steijn, JHM; Sleijfer, DT; van der Graaf, WTA; van der Sluis, A; Nieboer, P


    Malignant pericardial effusion is a potentially fatal complication of malignancy unless recognised and treated promptly. Patients with this condition are often difficult to diagnose. Physical examination, chest radiography and electrocardiography have poor diagnostic values in identification of pati

  8. How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed?

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed? Stomach cancers are usually found when ... Ask Your Doctor About Stomach Cancer? More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  9. How Is Marfan Syndrome Diagnosed?

    ... common in many people. Doctors use a scoring system based on the number and type of Ghent criteria present to diagnose Marfan syndrome. Talk ... National Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services

  10. How Is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed?

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Thyroid Cancer Thyroid cancer may be diagnosed after a person ... Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  11. How Is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed?

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed? If you have symptoms of ovarian cancer ... Ask Your Doctor About Ovarian Cancer? More In Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  12. How to diagnose cardiac tamponade

    van Steijn, JHM; Sleijfer, DT; van der Graaf, WTA; van der Sluis, A; Nieboer, P

    Malignant pericardial effusion is a potentially fatal complication of malignancy unless recognised and treated promptly. Patients with this condition are often difficult to diagnose. Physical examination, chest radiography and electrocardiography have poor diagnostic values in identification of

  13. Platinum drugs and DNA repair mechanisms in lung cancer.

    Bonanno, Laura; Favaretto, Adolfo; Rosell, Rafael


    The standard first-line treatment for around 80% of newly-diagnosed advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is chemotherapy. Currently, patients are allocated to chemotherapy on the basis of clinical conditions, comorbidities and histology. If feasible, platinum-based chemotherapy is considered as the most efficacious option. Due to the heterogeneity in terms of platinum-sensitivity among patients with NSCLC, great efforts have been made in order to identify molecular predictive markers of platinum resistance. Based on the mechanism of action of platinum, several components of DNA repair pathways have been investigated as potential predictive markers. The main DNA repair pathways involved in the repair of platinum-induced DNA damage are nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination. The most studied potential predictive markers of platinum-sensitivity are Excision Repair Cross Complementing-1 (ERCC1) and Brest Cancer Type-I Susceptibility protein (BRCA1); however, increasing biological knowledge about DNA repair pathways suggests the potential clinical usefulness of integrated analysis of multiple DNA repair components.

  14. Extracellular matrix and tissue engineering applications

    Fernandes, Hugo; Moroni, Lorenzo; Blitterswijk, van Clemens; Boer, de Jan


    The extracellular matrix is a key component during regeneration and maintenance of tissues and organs, and it therefore plays a critical role in successful tissue engineering as well. Tissue engineers should recognise that engineering technology can be deduced from natural repair processes. Due to a

  15. Application of complex engineering solutions through advanced composite innovation (for repair of degraded buried pipe at Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant); Reparacion de tuberias de un sistema de servicios no esenciales con recubrimiento interno de fibra de carbono

    Bueno, J. M.; Raji, B. B.


    This technical presentation is focused on introducing an engineering solution approach and identification of sensitivity of applications of advanced carbon fiber in a pressurized wet environment: Engineering design, quality assurance of installation, inspection, and a comprehensive testing program to validate and bench mark the design data and compliance with code requirements in nuclear power plants.

  16. New method for diagnosing cast compactness based on laser ultrasonography

    P. Swornowski


    Full Text Available Technologically advanced materials, such as alloys of aluminum, nickel or titanium are currently used increasingly often in significantly loaded components utilized in the aviation industry, among others in the construction of jet turbine engine blades. The article presents a method for diagnosing the condition of the inside of cast blades with the use of laser ultrasonography. The inspection is based on finding hidden flaws with a size of between 10 and 30μm. Laser ultrasonography offers a number of improvements over the non-destructive methods used so far, e.g. the possibility to diagnose the cast on a selected depth, high signal-to-noise ratio and good sensitivity. The article includes a brief overview of non-destructive inspection methods used in foundry engineering and sample results of inspecting the inner structure of a turbo jet engine blade using the method described in the article.




    Full Text Available The use of Fibre Reinforced Polimer (FRP materials for the repair and strengthening of Reinforced Concrete structures has become widespread recently. FRP materials are being prefered because they have very high tensile strength, resistance to corrosion and they do not affect the use of the building during the repair and strengthening process. Four reinfoced concrete beams repaired and strengthened with FRP materials have been used in this study which were performed at Pamukkale University-Faculty of Engineering- Civil Engineering Department- Structural Engineering Laboratuary. The behaviour of the beams before and after repair and strengthening was compared by obtaining the load- displacement curves under static loading. In this study, it was observed that the repair and strengthening of reinforced concrete beams by using FRP materials had increased the load carrying capacity significantly.

  18. Gadolinium-enhanced computed tomography cystogram to diagnose bladder augment rupture in patients with iodine sensitivity.

    Newport, John Paul; Dusseault, Beau N; Butler, Carina; Pais, Vernon M


    Anaphylactic reaction to iodinated contrast is a potentially life-threatening complication of diagnostic imaging studies. We report the successful use of gadolinium as an alternative contrast agent for computed tomography cystogram in a patient with a history of anaphylactic reaction to iodinated contrast. This technique allowed us rapidly to diagnose a rupture of her bladder augmentation and pursue operative repair.

  19. Improved Concrete Cutting and Excavation Capabilities for Crater Repair Phase 2


    ER D C/ G SL T R- 14 -8 Improved Concrete Cutting and Excavation Capabilities for Crater Repair Phase 2 G eo te ch ni ca l a nd S tr...Improved Concrete Cutting and Excavation Capabilities for Crater Repair Phase 2 Lulu Edwards, Haley P. Bell, Jay F. Rowland Geotechnical and...Engineer Center to further improve the saw cutting and excavation production rates and robustness of crater repairs in thick portland cement concrete

  20. Detecting and Correcting Speech Repairs

    Heeman, P A; Heeman, Peter; Allen, James


    Interactive spoken dialog provides many new challenges for spoken language systems. One of the most critical is the prevalence of speech repairs. This paper presents an algorithm that detects and corrects speech repairs based on finding the repair pattern. The repair pattern is built by finding word matches and word replacements, and identifying fragments and editing terms. Rather than using a set of prebuilt templates, we build the pattern on the fly. In a fair test, our method, when combined with a statistical model to filter possible repairs, was successful at detecting and correcting 80\\% of the repairs, without using prosodic information or a parser.

  1. Discrete event systems diagnosis and diagnosability

    Sayed-Mouchaweh, Moamar


    Discrete Event Systems: Diagnosis and Diagnosability addresses the problem of fault diagnosis of Discrete Event Systems (DES). This book provides the basic techniques and approaches necessary for the design of an efficient fault diagnosis system for a wide range of modern engineering applications. The different techniques and approaches are classified according to several criteria such as: modeling tools (Automata, Petri nets) that is used to construct the model; the information (qualitative based on events occurrences and/or states outputs, quantitative based on signal processing and data analysis) that is needed to analyze and achieve the diagnosis; the decision structure (centralized, decentralized) that is required to achieve the diagnosis. The goal of this classification is to select the efficient method to achieve the fault diagnosis according to the application constraints. This book focuses on the centralized and decentralized event based diagnosis approaches using formal language and automata as mode...

  2. Nursing diagnoses in overweight adolescents

    Raphaela Santos do Nascimento Rodrigues


    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify nursing diagnoses in overweight adolescents from public schools, according to the International Classification for Nursing Practice. A population-based cross-sectional study that investigated the socio-demographic, behavioural and psychological characteristics of adolescents aged from 10 to 14 years. 11 nursing diagnoses were identified: "Risk of overweight", "Risk of impaired adolescent development", "Risk of insecurity in parental role performance", "Risk of the family impaired ability to manage diet regime", "Risk of impaired ability to manage diet regime", "Risk of lack of knowledge of dietary regime", "Risk of excess food intake", "Risk of negative self-image", "Risk of low self-esteem", "Risk of impaired social well-being" and "Impaired exercise pattern". These diagnoses reflect the multifactorial nature of obesity, highlighting the need for interdisciplinary and intersectoral articulation of nursing interventions for prevention and control of overweight.

  3. Challenges in diagnosing hepatic encephalopathy.

    Weissenborn, K


    The term "hepatic encephalopathy" (HE) covers the neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with acute, chronic and acute-on-chronic liver disease (CLD). This paper deals with clinical features and diagnosis of HE in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension or porto-systemic shunts. The possible impact of concomitant disorders and the cirrhosis underlying liver disease upon brain function is described emphasizing the need of a detailed diagnostic work up of every individual case before diagnosing HE. Currently used methods for diagnosing minimal or covert hepatic encephalopathy are compared with regard to their sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing HE against the background of a multitude of concomitant disorders and diseases that could contribute to brain dysfunction.

  4. Scaffolds in Tendon Tissue Engineering

    Umile Giuseppe Longo


    Full Text Available Tissue engineering techniques using novel scaffold materials offer potential alternatives for managing tendon disorders. Tissue engineering strategies to improve tendon repair healing include the use of scaffolds, growth factors, cell seeding, or a combination of these approaches. Scaffolds have been the most common strategy investigated to date. Available scaffolds for tendon repair include both biological scaffolds, obtained from mammalian tissues, and synthetic scaffolds, manufactured from chemical compounds. Preliminary studies support the idea that scaffolds can provide an alternative for tendon augmentation with an enormous therapeutic potential. However, available data are lacking to allow definitive conclusion on the use of scaffolds for tendon augmentation. We review the current basic science and clinical understanding in the field of scaffolds and tissue engineering for tendon repair.

  5. Immunological methods for diagnosing neurocysticercosis

    Kuhn, R.E.; Estrada, J.J.; Grogl, M.


    A method is described for diagnosing active human neurocysticercosis by detecting the presence of at least one Taenia solium larval antigen in cerebrospinal fluid, which comprises: contacting cerebrospinal fluid from a human to be diagnosed with a solid support, wherein the support binds with a Taenia solium larval antigen if present, contacting the support with a first antibody, wherein the first antibody binds with a larval Taenia solium antigen if present in the cerebrospinal fluid, contacting the solid support with a detectable second antibody which will bind with the first antibody, and detecting the second antibody bound to the support.

  6. Toxic shock syndrome following inguinal hernia repair: a rare condition

    Rohit Prasad Yadav


    Full Text Available A 25-year-old man developed fulminant multisystem failure 28 hours after elective repair of an inguinal hernia. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS was diagnosed. The patient recovered fully with supportive care in ICU, antibiotics, and IV human immunoglobin . To the best of our knowledge, only one case of TSS following inguinal hernia repair have ever been previously published. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-2, 57-59 DOI:

  7. Groin hernia repair in young males: mesh or sutured repair?

    Bisgaard, T; Bay-Nielsen, M; Kehlet, H


    Large-scale data for the optimal inguinal hernia repair in younger men with an indirect hernia is not available. We analysed nationwide data for risk of reoperation in younger men after a primary repair using a Lichtenstein operation or a conventional non-mesh hernia repair....

  8. Carbon nanotubes in neuroregeneration and repair.

    Fabbro, Alessandra; Prato, Maurizio; Ballerini, Laura


    In the last decade, we have experienced an increasing interest and an improved understanding of the application of nanotechnology to the nervous system. The aim of such studies is that of developing future strategies for tissue repair to promote functional recovery after brain damage. In this framework, carbon nanotube based technologies are emerging as particularly innovative tools due to the outstanding physical properties of these nanomaterials together with their recently documented ability to interface neuronal circuits, synapses and membranes. This review will discuss the state of the art in carbon nanotube technology applied to the development of devices able to drive nerve tissue repair; we will highlight the most exciting findings addressing the impact of carbon nanotubes in nerve tissue engineering, focusing in particular on neuronal differentiation, growth and network reconstruction.

  9. Cleft lip and palate repair

    ... this page: // Cleft lip and palate repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cleft lip and cleft palate repair is surgery to fix birth defects ...

  10. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    ... this page: // Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part ...

  11. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    Qifei Wang; Jianhua Yan; Junlin Yang; Bingyun Li


    Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture rep...

  12. Laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin


    Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia is mini-invasive and has confirmed effects. Femoral hernia could be repaired through the laparoscopic procedures for inguinal hernia. These procedures have clear anatomic view in the operation and preoperatively undiagnosed femoral hernia could be confirmed and treated. Lower recurrence ratio was reported in laparoscopic procedures compared with open procedures for repair of femoral hernia. The technical details of laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia, ...

  13. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Muth, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  14. How Is Fanconi Anemia Diagnosed?

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Fanconi Anemia Diagnosed? People who have Fanconi anemia (FA) are born with the disorder. They may ... questions about: Any personal or family history of anemia Any surgeries you’ve had related to the ...

  15. Biomechanical and Clinical Studies in EndoVascular Aortic Repair

    Nauta, FJH


    Objectives This thesis investigates biomechanical and clinical performances of endovascular repair for thoracic aortic dissection (AD) and aneurysm. Insights from both medical and bio-engineering perspectives are pursued with the aim of providing scientific data that will help guide endovascular aor

  16. Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair

    Fergal J. O'Brien


    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.


    Suphattharachai Chomphan


    Full Text Available Various types of faults of the gasoline engine may result in similar symptoms. Sound analysis of engine has been conducted to diagnose the engine faults. This study presents a study of sound analysis of the normal engine and the engine with three different fault conditions. The gasoline engine was our target of this study. The engine sound has been recorded by using a microphone at the engine room for three directions. Three conditions of engine faults including the engine that is not smooth while idling, the engine that goes missing while idling and the engine that has no power are simulated. In the signal processing of the sound, we use five signal features including fundamental frequency, long term spectrum, energy, long term cestrum and zero crossing rate. Thereafter, the important differences between normal engine and the fault engines are concluded. These proposed signal features can be used to discriminate all three conditions and the engine with normal condition effectively.

  18. Composite materials. Volume 1: Properties, non-destructive testing, and repair

    Schwartz, M.M. [United Technologies Corp., East Hartford, CT (United States)


    This book provides a practical overview of the different types, properties, applications and design implementations of the latest composite materials. It describes important composite families, including metals, ceramics, polymers and other engineered materials; shows how each type of composite may be designed, manufactured, strengthened, and repaired; introduces composite modeling techniques; and explains the major industrial applications for composites. Primary markets for this book include materials engineers and designers in aerospace, automotive and transportation industries; works managers, facilities engineers, test engineers, plant engineers, manufacturing and industrial engineers, and production managers; students in material science, mechanical engineering and metallurgy.

  19. Regulating tissue engineering

    Meredith Lloyd-Evans


    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a radical new approach to the repair and replacement of damaged or diseased body tissues. Cells, often seeded into or shaped around a biomaterial matrix, are used to replace damaged or diseased tissue or stimulate repair by the body. Because it is an area of tremendous focus and achievement, there is a risk that technical developments will outstrip the capacity of existing regulatory frameworks to cope with these novel products. Australia, the USA, and Canada are somewhat ahead of Japan in establishing a feasible regulatory approach. All four are currently ahead of the European Union (EU, but individual European countries and the EU as a whole are catching up. However, for the foreseeable future, it may still be possible in certain European countries to use autologous cell therapies in hospitals and market allogeneic tissue-engineered products, especially skin replacements, without regulatory control.

  20. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    Qifei Wang


    Full Text Available Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture repair. Next, the review discusses the applications of nanomaterials for bone fracture repair, with a focus on the recent breakthroughs such as nanomaterials leading to precise immobilization of growth factors at the molecular level, promoting vascularization without the use of growth factors, and re-loading therapeutic agents after implantation. The review concludes with perspectives on challenges and future directions for developing nanomaterials for improved bone fracture repair.

  1. Field Test of Expedient Pavement Repairs (Test Items 16-35).



  2. Transthoracic repair of asymptomatic morgagni hernia in an adult.

    Pousios, Dimitrios; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Piyis, Anastasios; Gourgiotis, Stavros


    Morgagni hernia represents a rare type of diaphragmatic hernia which usually occurs on the right side, in the anterior mediastinum. Predisposing factors of Morgagni hernia include pregnancy, obesity or other causes of increased intraabdominal pressure, and a history of trauma. Most of adults diagnosed with a foramen of Morgagni are asymptomatic. We report a case of an overweight 23-year-old asymptomatic patient with a Morgagni hernia incidentally diagnosed on chest x-ray. There was a satisfactory result after the repair by a transthoracic approach.

  3. Diagnosing GORD in respiratory medicine

    Chris James Timms


    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease is increasing in prevalence and is associated with several lung diseases such as asthma and COPD. Current diagnostic methods are imperfect, being insensitive, nonspecific, expensive or invasive. An accurate diagnosis of GORD can aid effective treatment with a significant clinical impact. Novel methods such as exhaled breath condensate analysis and electronic nose technology have the potential to improve the accuracy of diagnosing GORD.

  4. 组织工程化软骨细胞和骨髓间充质干细胞用于修复同种异体关节软骨缺损%Tissue engineered chondrocytes and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of articular cartilage defects

    孙皓; 左健


    BACKGROUND: As the articular cartilage almost has no self-repair capacity, and in clinic, the repair on it mainly depends on the autologous or allogenic cartilage transplantation, perichondrium or periosteal transplantation and the chondrocytes transplantation. The limitation of autologous cartilage source and the chronic immune rejection of allograft cartilage may eventually lead to the poor prognosis. The cartilage repaired by perichondrium or periosteum transplantation is easy to degenerate which may lead to a poor repair result.OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress of tissue engineered chondrocytes , bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and the co-culture of them on the repair of allogeneic cartilage defects.METHODS: A computer-based search on the PubMed database and CNKI database from January 1994 to January 2012 was performed for the articles on tissue engineered chondrocytes and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of allograft articular cartilage defects. The English key words were "cartilage defect, allograft, chondrocyte, mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells" and the Chinese keywords were "cartilage defect, allograft, chondrocyte, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells". The repetitive articles and the articles not in English or Chinese were eliminated, and finally, a total of 35 articles were included to review.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: With the continuous improvement of in vitro cell culture methods, chondrocytes can be isolated from the tough cartilage, and a large number of high-purity chondrocytes and new chondrocytes can be obtained. Due to the low proliferative capacity of the chondrocytes, subculture may easily lead to aging and dedifferentiation; however, the content of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is low in adult bone marrow, with the increasing of the passages number, the chondrogenic potential is significantly decreased. When the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells co-cultured with chondrocytes, they can



    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the results of inguinal hernia repairs performed under local anesthesia with respect to operation duration, hospitalization period, postoperative complications, need for analgesics, and duration for recovery to normal life style. Material and Methods: Patients admitted to our hospital between January 1998 to January 2001 with diagnose of inguinal hernia were involved in this study. Of these patients whose with cardiovasculary and respiratory prob...

  6. Thoracoscopic Patch Repair of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in a Neonate using Spiral Tacks: A Case Report

    Mario A Riquelme


    Full Text Available We present a case of congenital diaphragmatic hernia that was successfully treated with spi-ral tacks using thoracoscopy. A newborn female was diagnosed with a diaphragmatic hernia at 20 weeks of gestation. The defect was surgically repaired by thoracoscopy and primary closure. On postoperative day 25, she developed respiratory distress. Chest x-ray showed a recurrence and was taken to the OR for surgical repair with spiral tacks.

  7. Female 'groin' hernia: totally extraperitoneal (TEP) endoscopic repair seems the most appropriate treatment modality.

    Schouten, N; Burgmans, J P J; van Dalen, T; Smakman, N; Clevers, G J; Davids, P H P; Verleisdonk, E J M M; Elias, S G; Simmermacher, R K J


    About 30% of all female 'groin' hernias are femoral hernias, although often only diagnosed during surgery. A Lichtenstein repair though, as preferred treatment modality according to guidelines, would not diagnose and treat femoral hernias. Totally extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair, however, offers the advantage of being an appropriate modality for the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of both inguinal and femoral hernias. TEP therefore seems an appealing surgical technique for women with groin hernias. This study included all female patients ≥ 18 years operated for a groin hernia between 2005 and 2009. A total of 183 groin hernias were repaired in 164 women. TEP was performed in 85% of women; the other 24 women underwent an open anterior (mesh) repair. Peroperatively, femoral hernias were observed in 23% of patients with primary hernias and 35% of patients with recurrent hernias. There were 30 cases (18.3%) of an incorrect preoperative diagnosis. Peroperatively, femoral hernias were observed in 17.3% of women who were diagnosed with an inguinal hernia before surgery. In addition, inguinal hernias were found in 24.0% of women who were diagnosed with a femoral hernia preoperatively. After a follow-up of 25 months, moderate to severe (VAS 4-10) postoperative pain was reported by 8 of 125 patients (6.4%) after TEP and 5 of 23 patients (21.7%) after open hernia repair (P = 0.03). Five patients had a recurrent hernia, two following TEP (1.4%) and three following open anterior repair (12.5%, P = 0.02). Two of these three patients presented with a femoral recurrence after a previous repair of an inguinal hernia. Femoral hernias are common in women with groin hernias, but not always detected preoperatively; this argues for the use of a preperitoneal approach. TEP hernia repair combines the advantage of a peroperative diagnosis and subsequent appropriate treatment with the known good clinical outcomes.


    WU Yueming


    The failed components of repairable systems are replaced with spare parts that may have different failure distributions from those of the components that have failed. The spare parts may be either the same as new, better than new, or worse than new. This is the reality in maintenance engineering. Repair with better spare parts is defined as "super repair". The failure distributions of the spare parts affect the availability of the components and their systems. A novel model is proposed to describe the availability of repairable systems across their operating time, at the level of their components, on the assumption that the failed components are immediately replaced. The model functions with arbitrary failure distributions of spare parts. It can be used to compute the availability of components and systems not only under perfect and imperfect repair but also under super repair.

  9. Enhanced DNA repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers changes the biological response to UV-B radiation

    Yarosh, Daniel B


    The goal of DNA repair enzyme therapy is the same as that for gene therapy: to rescue a defective proteome/genome by introducing a substitute protein/DNA. The danger of inadequate DNA repair is highlighted in the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum. These patients are hypersensitive to sunlight and develop multiple cutaneous neoplasms very early in life. The bacterial DNA repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V was shown over 25 years ago to be capable of reversing the defective repair in xeroderma pigmentosum cells. This enzyme, packaged in an engineered delivery vehicle, has been shown to traverse the stratum corneum, reach the nuclei of living cells of the skin, and enhance the repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). In such a system, changes in DNA repair, mutagenesis, and cell signaling can be studied without manipulation of the genome.

  10. Lin28 enhances tissue repair by reprogramming cellular metabolism.

    Shyh-Chang, Ng; Zhu, Hao; Yvanka de Soysa, T; Shinoda, Gen; Seligson, Marc T; Tsanov, Kaloyan M; Nguyen, Liem; Asara, John M; Cantley, Lewis C; Daley, George Q


    Regeneration capacity declines with age, but why juvenile organisms show enhanced tissue repair remains unexplained. Lin28a, a highly conserved RNA-binding protein expressed during embryogenesis, plays roles in development, pluripotency, and metabolism. To determine whether Lin28a might influence tissue repair in adults, we engineered the reactivation of Lin28a expression in several models of tissue injury. Lin28a reactivation improved hair regrowth by promoting anagen in hair follicles and accelerated regrowth of cartilage, bone, and mesenchyme after ear and digit injuries. Lin28a inhibits let-7 microRNA biogenesis; however, let-7 repression was necessary but insufficient to enhance repair. Lin28a bound to and enhanced the translation of mRNAs for several metabolic enzymes, thereby increasing glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). Lin28a-mediated enhancement of tissue repair was negated by OxPhos inhibition, whereas a pharmacologically induced increase in OxPhos enhanced repair. Thus, Lin28a enhances tissue repair in some adult tissues by reprogramming cellular bioenergetics. PAPERCLIP: Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosability issues in multiprocessor systems

    Raghavan, V.


    In a seminal paper on fault diagnosis, Preparata, Metze, and Chien introduced a graph-theoretical model. Barsi, Grandoni, and Maestrini relaxed some constraints in this model to create a different model for fault diagnosis. Both these models have become the subject of intense research in the past two decades. A major open problem for these models is the question of sequential t-diagnosability-Given an arbitrary system of units and that there are no more than t faulty units in it, can we always identify at least one faulty unit The author shows that this problem is co-NP complete in both models. Recent research has shown that there are polynomial time algorithms to find the maximum number of faulty units a system can withstand and still identify all of them from a single collection of test results. He presents improved algorithms to solve this problem in both models. Using the letters n,m, and {tau} to denote the number of units, the number of tests, and the maximum number of faulty units respectively, our results can be summarized as follows: in the model of Barsi, Grandoni, and Maestrini, the algorithm has a time complexity of O(n{tau}{sup 2}/log{tau}) improving on the currently known O(n{tau}{sup 2}); in the model of Preparata, Metze, and Chien, the algorithm has a complexity of O(n{tau}{sup 2.5}) improving on the currently known O(mn{sup 1.5}). He also presents related results in the latter model, which suggest the possibility of reducing the complexity even further. Finally, he develops a general scheme for characterizing diagnosable systems. Using this scheme, he solves the open problem of characterizing t/s and sequentially t-diagnosable systems. The characterizations are then used to rederive some known results.

  12. How to diagnose acute appendicitis

    Mostbeck, Gerhard; Adam, E Jane; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann;


    Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common abdominal emergency with a lifetime prevalence of about 7 %. As the clinical diagnosis of AA remains a challenge to emergency physicians and surgeons, imaging modalities have gained major importance in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected AA in order...... appendicitis (AA). • Primary US for AA diagnosis will decrease ionizing radiation and cost. • Sensitivity of US to diagnose AA is lower than of CT/MRI. • Non-visualization of the appendix should lead to clinical reassessment. • Complementary MRI or CT may be performed if diagnosis remains unclear....

  13. Fatigue life prediction of crankshaft repaired by twin arc spraying

    ZHANG Guo-qing; WANG Cheng-tao; PU Geng-qiang


    This paper used Baumel Jr. and Seeger's approach estimating fatigue parameters of 48MnV with 3Cr13coatings. The fatigue life of the crankshaft of a six-cylinder engine, repaired by twin arc spraying 3cr13 deposits, is respectively calculated using different damage model such as S-N method, normal strain approaches, SWT-Bannantine approaches, shear strain approaches, and fatemi-Socie method based on dynamical simulation and FE analysis of crankshaft. The results indicate that the traditional calculation is conservative and that the life of crankshaft repaired by arc spraying is sufficient.

  14. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle


    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  15. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle


    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  16. Laparoscopic Transabdominal Preperitoneal Inguinal Hernia Repair Using Memory-Ring Mesh: A Pilot Study

    Takeshi Matsutani


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP inguinal hernia repair using a memory-ring patch (Polysoft™ mesh. Patients and Methods. Between April 2010 and March 2013, a total of 76 inguinal hernias underwent TAPP repair using Polysoft mesh in 67 adults under general anesthesia. Three different senior resident surgeons performed TAPP repair under the instruction of a specialist surgeon. Nine patients had bilateral hernias. The 76 hernias included 37 indirect inguinal hernias, 29 direct hernias, 1 femoral hernia, 1 pantaloon hernia (combined direct/indirect inguinal hernia, and 8 recurrent hernias after open anterior hernia repair. The immediate postoperative outcomes as well as the short-term outcomes (mainly recurrence and incidence of chronic pain were studied. Results. There was no conversion from TAPP repair to anterior open repair. The mean operation time was 109 minutes (range, 40–132 for unilateral hernia repair. Scrotal seroma was diagnosed at the operation site in 5 patients. No patient had operation-related orchitis, testicle edema, trocar site infection, or chronic pain during follow-up. Conclusions. The use of Polysoft mesh for TAPP inguinal hernia repair does not seem to adversely affect the quality of repair. The use of this mesh is therefore feasible and safe and may reduce postoperative pain.

  17. Laparoscopic Transabdominal Preperitoneal Inguinal Hernia Repair Using Memory-Ring Mesh: A Pilot Study

    Nomura, Tsutomu; Matsuda, Akihisa; Takao, Yoshimune


    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair using a memory-ring patch (Polysoft™ mesh). Patients and Methods. Between April 2010 and March 2013, a total of 76 inguinal hernias underwent TAPP repair using Polysoft mesh in 67 adults under general anesthesia. Three different senior resident surgeons performed TAPP repair under the instruction of a specialist surgeon. Nine patients had bilateral hernias. The 76 hernias included 37 indirect inguinal hernias, 29 direct hernias, 1 femoral hernia, 1 pantaloon hernia (combined direct/indirect inguinal hernia), and 8 recurrent hernias after open anterior hernia repair. The immediate postoperative outcomes as well as the short-term outcomes (mainly recurrence and incidence of chronic pain) were studied. Results. There was no conversion from TAPP repair to anterior open repair. The mean operation time was 109 minutes (range, 40–132) for unilateral hernia repair. Scrotal seroma was diagnosed at the operation site in 5 patients. No patient had operation-related orchitis, testicle edema, trocar site infection, or chronic pain during follow-up. Conclusions. The use of Polysoft mesh for TAPP inguinal hernia repair does not seem to adversely affect the quality of repair. The use of this mesh is therefore feasible and safe and may reduce postoperative pain. PMID:27635414

  18. 应用骨髓基质细胞及组织工程方法修复兔桡骨实验性缺损%Bone marrow stromal cell and tissue engineering in repairing experimental bone defects of rabbit radius

    付春江; 毕郑钢; 张军; 曹杨


    BACKGROUND:Stem cell transplantation and tissue engineering in repairing bone defects is a hotspots of recent study.OBJECTIVE:To observe the therapeutic effect of engineering repair on bone defect by auto-transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells(BMSCs)DESIGN: Left-right comparative studySETTING:Experimental center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical UniversityMATERIALS:Twelve New Zealand rabbits with birth age of 10 days to 2months were selected ,male or female with body mass of 2 to 2.5 kg.METHODS :The experiment was conducted in the Experimental Center of First Clinical Medical College, Harbin Medical University from June 2002to June 2003. Self-BMSCs were separated for subculture. 1.5 cm bone was intercepted at middle of radius in 12 rabbits so as to simulate complete bone defect. Then, the left radius defect was filled with collagen sponge carrying BMSCs ( experimental side),which was replaced by simple collagen sponge in the right side(control side). Twelve weeks later, rabbits were put to death and the outcomes of both sides were compared.X-ray assessment was accorded to the standardized stage of bone defect repair (bone repair was graded into 0 to 5 grades,grade 5 implies that bone defect has been completely replaced by new bone,grade 0 implies that no new bone repair).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The general observations of rabbit radius defects,X-ray scanning, histological and electro-microscopic observations.At week 12, callus became strong and protruded to bone defects in experimental side,well connecting with broken ends. While broken ends in control group were only connected by fibrous tissue and no continuous callus was found continuously crossing through the bone defect of experimental side, marrow cavity was smooth, but molding was incomplete. While in control side, no continuous callus could be observed passing through the broteoblasts and new stroms could be observed in bone defect of experimental side, but only a few of osteocytes

  19. Development and application of robots for checking and repairing civil engineering facilities in hydraulic power plants. Suiryoku hatsudensho doboku setsubi wo taisho to shita kakushu tenken hoshu robot no kaihatsu to tekiyo

    Nakamura, T.; Hibino, Y. (The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan))


    Development efforts are being made on robots to improve efficiency in the checking and repairing works that require a great amount of labor at hydraulic power plants. This paper introduces examples of the development and application of these robots. An underwater remotely controlled robot developed based on unmanned submarine boats mounts TV cameras, dives to a depth of 300 meters, and checks underwater structures under control from above the ground. A self-driven waterway investigating system mounting an underground radar equipment investigates tunnel covers and rear cavities, and can acquire continuous data for the cover thickness and cavities without a need of boring. The following robots have obtained satisfactory results in efficiency improvement and accuracy: an unmanned robot for checking inside of a waterway tunnel with small cross section difficult for a man to enter (using a video camera); a video photographing robot to photograph large underground cavities such as surge tanks; and a self-driven robot to visually inspect and photograph steel pipes and measure their thickness. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Evidence-based outcomes following inferior alveolar and lingual nerve injury and repair: a systematic review.

    Kushnerev, E; Yates, J M


    The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and lingual (LN) are susceptible to iatrogenic surgical damage. Systematically review recent clinical evidence regarding IAN/LN repair methods and to develop updated guidelines for managing injury. Recent publications on IAN/LN microsurgical repair from Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were screened by title/abstract. Main texts were appraised for exclusion criteria: no treatment performed or results provided, poor/lacking procedural description, cohort deficit shows no improvement 90 days post-diagnosis. Nerve transection diagnosed intra-operatively should be repaired in situ; minor nerve injury repair can be delayed. No consensus exists regarding optimal methods and timing for IAN/LN repair. We suggest a schematic guideline for treating IAN/LN injury, based on the most current evidence. We acknowledge that additional RCTs are required to provide definitive confirmation of optimal treatment approaches.

  1. Skeletal tissue engineering using embryonic stem cells

    Jukes, Jojanneke Maria


    Tissue engineering aims at repairing or replacing damaged or diseased tissue. In this thesis, we investigated the potential of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for cartilage tissue engineering. After differentiation of mouse and human ESCs into the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineage had been established

  2. Seroma after laparoscopic repair of hernia with PTFE patch: is it really a complication?

    Susmallian, S; Gewurtz, G; Ezri, T; Charuzi, I


    We evaluated the true incidence of seroma formation after laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) patch. In a prospective study, 20 patients who underwent laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia with PTFE were evaluated clinically and with ultrasound examination for seroma formation up to the 90th postoperative day. Seroma was diagnosed clinically in only 35% of cases, while ultrasound examination revealed the presence of seroma in 100% of patients. Ultrasound examination is a reliable tool for diagnosis of early or delayed postoperative seroma formation following laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia with Gore-Tex Dualmesh.

  3. Video. Laparoscopic repair of congenital bilateral Morgagni hernia.

    Khandelwal, Saurabh; Oelschlager, Brant K


    Morgagni hernia is a rare type of congenital diaphragmatic hernia found in the anterior aspect of the diaphragm. It typically presents in the pediatric population and rarely is diagnosed in adults. Only 3% of diaphragmatic hernias are the Morgagni type, and only 4% of these are found to present bilaterally. Surgical repair of Morgagni hernia has been performed through various approaches including open, laparoscopic, thoracotomy, and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), all with and without mesh. The optimal method of surgical repair is not known due to the rarity of this condition and the limitations of setting up a prospective, randomized trial to evaluate the different methods. Laparoscopic repair with mesh has been described with good short-term results. Few case reports exist in the world literature describing laparoscopic repair of a bilateral Morgagni hernia with mesh. At the University of Washington, the authors present a video showing their technique for laparoscopic repair of a congenital, bilateral Morgagni type hernia with mesh.

  4. Concurrent laparoscopic morgagni hernia repair and sleeve gastrectomy.

    Chiou, Grace; Tedesco, Maureen; Eisenberg, Dan


    The Morgagni-type anterior diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital defect that is a very uncommon hernia presenting in an adult. Surgical repair is usually recommended upon diagnosis and often requires synthetic mesh for a durable, tension-free repair. The use of synthetic mesh concurrently with several of bariatric operations is controversial owing to the potential for mesh infection. In this report we describe a laparoscopic repair of a symptomatic Morgagni hernia with synthetic mesh, concurrently with sleeve gastrectomy, in a morbidly obese man. The patient was a 58-year-old man with a body mass index of 48 kg/m(2) and associated co-morbid conditions that included obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, and osteoarthritis. He was diagnosed with Morgagni hernia with exertional dyspnia. He underwent concurrent laparoscopic Morgagni hernia repair with mesh and sleeve gastrectomy. At 2 months after surgery the patient was doing well and tolerating solid foods, and his percentage excess weight loss was 35%. He was exercising regularly and had no exertional dyspnea. Laparoscopy is an attractive approach to performing multiple intra-abdominal procedures concurrently. The Morgagni hernia repair with mesh can be performed safely and effectively using a laparoscopic approach. This can be performed concurrently with bariatric surgery in the morbidly obese.

  5. Two Ports Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair in Children

    Medhat M. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Introduction. Several laparoscopic treatment techniques were designed for improving the outcome over the last decade. The various techniques differ in their approach to the inguinal internal ring, suturing and knotting techniques, number of ports used in the procedures, and mode of dissection of the hernia sac. Patients and Surgical Technique. 90 children were subjected to surgery and they undergone two-port laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia in children. Technique feasibility in relation to other modalities of repair was the aim of this work. 90 children including 75 males and 15 females underwent surgery. Hernia in 55 cases was right-sided and in 15 left-sided. Two patients had recurrent hernia following open hernia repair. 70 (77.7% cases were suffering unilateral hernia and 20 (22.2% patients had bilateral hernia. Out of the 20 cases 5 cases were diagnosed by laparoscope (25%. The patients’ median age was 18 months. The mean operative time for unilateral repairs was 15 to 20 minutes and bilateral was 21 to 30 minutes. There was no conversion. The complications were as follows: one case was recurrent right inguinal hernia and the second was stitch sinus. Discussion. The results confirm the safety and efficacy of two ports laparoscopic hernia repair in congenital inguinal hernia in relation to other modalities of treatment.

  6. Distal DVT: worth diagnosing? Yes.

    Schellong, S M


    Much of the argument for or against diagnosis of distal deep vain thrombosis (DVT) depends on the extra effort that has to be spent on it. This review presents the data on ultrasound of paired calf veins and calf muscle veins (distal ultrasound) in terms of protocols, feasibility, reliability and expected findings. In summary, provided there is adequate and anatomically sound training of sonographers, distal ultrasound is a valid, 4-minute procedure, which can easily be added to the examination of proximal veins. The second part of the review refers to the pathophysiology of ascending DVT, which is the most common type. Adequate patient care in terms of benefit, harm and cost includes a single non-invasive examination followed by risk adopted treatment allocation. This concept ideally should be valid for any type of DVT. The data extending this concept to distal DVT can only be derived from studies that look closely at this entity (i.e. in fact diagnose distal DVT). Even before these data are available, diagnosing distal DVT at least doubles the number of symptomatic patients in which signs and symptoms can be ascribed to a definitive diagnosis, which in itself is a benefit for patient care.

  7. Laparoscopic Repair of Morgagni Hernia

    ilker murat arer


    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is a congenital herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity through a retrosternal diaphragmatic defect and make up about 1 % - 5 % of all types of congenital diaphragmatic hernias. Surgical repair of Morgagni hernias is usually indicated when patients are symptomatic and have a high risk of strangulation or incarceration of the contained viscera. 71-year-old male patient admitted to emergency department with a 2-day history of abdominal pain, vomiting and obstipation. Laparoscopic repair for Morgagni hernia was performed. Laparoscopic repair for Morgagni hernia with mesh repair is secure, satisfactory and easily performed. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 71-74

  8. Combinatorial Reliability and Repair


    Press, Oxford, 1987. [2] G. Gordon and L. Traldi, Generalized activities and the Tutte polynomial , Discrete Math. 85 (1990), 167-176. [3] A. B. Huseby, A...particular, Satyanarayana and Tindell introduced a notion of (K,j)-domination in their study of a K-terminal version of the chromatic polynomial [6], and it...G)) graphs. He also intends to look into the properties of the polynomial that gives the expected number of needed repairs of a K-terminal network

  9. Mammalian mismatch repair

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Jiricny, Josef


    A considerable surge of interest in the mismatch repair (MMR) system has been brought about by the discovery of a link between Lynch syndrome, an inherited predisposition to cancer of the colon and other organs, and malfunction of this key DNA metabolic pathway. This review focuses on recent...... advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of canonical MMR, which improves replication fidelity by removing misincorporated nucleotides from the nascent DNA strand. We also discuss the involvement of MMR proteins in two other processes: trinucleotide repeat expansion and antibody maturation...

  10. DNA replication, repair, and repair tests. [Rat; human leukocytes

    Lambert, B.


    The rate of inhibition and recovery of DNA synthesis can be used in a rapid assay system to detect genotoxic potentials of chemicals. Also, the observation that an agent stimulates DNA repair in a test system indicates its ability to cause damage in DNA. Different experimental approaches to the study of repair synthesis are discussed.

  11. Paraphilic diagnoses in DSM-5.

    Krueger, Richard B; Kaplan, Meg S


    The DSM-5 has been under revision since 1999 and is scheduled for publication in 2013. This article will review the major proposed modifications of the Paraphilias. The information reviewed was obtained from PubMed, PsychInfo, the website and other sources and reviewed. Pedohebephilia, Hypersexual Disorder and Paraphilic Coercive Disorder are new proposed diagnoses. Paraphilias have been assigned their own chapter in DSM- 5 and a distinction has been made between Paraphilias and Paraphilic Disorders. Victim numbers have been included in diagnosis of paraphilias that involve victims and remission and severity measures have been added to all paraphilias. Transvestic Disorder can apply to males or females, Fetishistic Disorder now includes partialism, and Sexual Masochism Disorder has Asphyxiophilia as a specifier. This study is based on a literature review and influenced by the knowledge and biases of the authors. The Paraphilic Disorders Section of the DSM-5 represents a significant departure from DSMIV-TR.

  12. Biologics for tendon repair.

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H


    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management.

  13. Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system

    Gjertveit, Erling


    On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

  14. Handbook of adhesive bonded structural repair

    Wegman, Raymond F


    Provides repair methods for adhesive bonded and composite structures; identifies suitable materials and equipment for repairs; describes damage evaluation criteria and techniques, and methods of inspection before and after repair.

  15. Incisional endometriosis: Diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology

    P Veda


    Full Text Available Incisional endometriosis (IE is a rare entity reported in 0.03-1.08% of women following obstetric or gynecologic surgeries. Most cases reported in literature have appeared after cesarean sections and were often clinically mistaken for hernia, abscess, suture granuloma or lipoma. We hereby report a case of IE following a second trimester hysterotomy, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Our patient was 26 years old, presenting with a mass over anterior abdominal wall, associated with incapacitating pain during each menstrual cycle. FNAC showed epithelial cells, stromal cells and hemosiderin laden macrophages. Based on the typical history, clinical and cytological features, the diagnosis of IE was established. Wide surgical excision was done and the resulting rectus sheath defect was repaired. Patient was followed for 6 months during which time she was symptom free. This article also reviews the spectrum of cytological features and the rare possibility of malignant transformation that can occur in IE.

  16. Incisional endometriosis: diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    Veda, P; Srinivasaiah, M


    Incisional endometriosis (IE) is a rare entity reported in 0.03-1.08% of women following obstetric or gynecologic surgeries. Most cases reported in literature have appeared after cesarean sections and were often clinically mistaken for hernia, abscess, suture granuloma or lipoma. We hereby report a case of IE following a second trimester hysterotomy, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Our patient was 26 years old, presenting with a mass over anterior abdominal wall, associated with incapacitating pain during each menstrual cycle. FNAC showed epithelial cells, stromal cells and hemosiderin laden macrophages. Based on the typical history, clinical and cytological features, the diagnosis of IE was established. Wide surgical excision was done and the resulting rectus sheath defect was repaired. Patient was followed for 6 months during which time she was symptom free. This article also reviews the spectrum of cytological features and the rare possibility of malignant transformation that can occur in IE.

  17. Clamp wins pipe repair prize



    This paper describes the permanent pipeline repair system, developed by Tekmar, which is powered by seawater hydraulics and is easily installed and tested by any workclass remotely operated vehicle (rov). Details are given of the two main components of the system, namely, the diverless high pressure split repair clamp and the rov-operated tool to install it.

  18. The journey of DNA repair

    Saini, Natalie


    21 years ago, the DNA Repair Enzyme was declared “Molecule of the Year”. Today, we are celebrating another “year of repair”, with the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry being awarded to Aziz Sancar, Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich for their collective work on the different DNA repair pathways.

  19. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    Eijk, Patrick van


    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  20. Biomechanics and mechanobiology in functional tissue engineering

    Guilak, Farshid; Butler, David L.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Baaijens, Frank P.T.


    The field of tissue engineering continues to expand and mature, and several products are now in clinical use, with numerous other preclinical and clinical studies underway. However, specific challenges still remain in the repair or regeneration of tissues that serve a predominantly biomechanical function. Furthermore, it is now clear that mechanobiological interactions between cells and scaffolds can critically influence cell behavior, even in tissues and organs that do not serve an overt biomechanical role. Over the past decade, the field of “functional tissue engineering” has grown as a subfield of tissue engineering to address the challenges and questions on the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in tissue engineering. Originally posed as a set of principles and guidelines for engineering of load-bearing tissues, functional tissue engineering has grown to encompass several related areas that have proven to have important implications for tissue repair and regeneration. These topics include measurement and modeling of the in vivo biomechanical environment; quantitative analysis of the mechanical properties of native tissues, scaffolds, and repair tissues; development of rationale criteria for the design and assessment of engineered tissues; investigation of the effects biomechanical factors on native and repair tissues, in vivo and in vitro; and development and application of computational models of tissue growth and remodeling. Here we further expand this paradigm and provide examples of the numerous advances in the field over the past decade. Consideration of these principles in the design process will hopefully improve the safety, efficacy, and overall success of engineered tissue replacements. PMID:24818797

  1. Final Environmental Assessment Airfield Storm Drainage System Repair Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility Washington, MD


    eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus). Reptiles occasionally found on the airfield include the eastern garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis...and Noise Control. Acoustical Society of America . Sewickley, PA. HDR (HDR Engineering, Inc.). 2014. Design Analysis. Design for Repair/Replacement of

  2. Rethinking transcription coupled DNA repair.

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Nudler, Evgeny


    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved, multistep process that can detect a wide variety of DNA lesions. Transcription coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of NER that repairs the transcribed DNA strand faster than the rest of the genome. RNA polymerase (RNAP) stalled at DNA lesions mediates the recruitment of NER enzymes to the damage site. In this review we focus on a newly identified bacterial TCR pathway in which the NER enzyme UvrD, in conjunction with NusA, plays a major role in initiating the repair process. We discuss the tradeoff between the new and conventional models of TCR, how and when each pathway operates to repair DNA damage, and the necessity of pervasive transcription in maintaining genome integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Advances in tissue engineering


    Tissue engineering is a newly developed specialty involved in the construction of tissues and organs either in vitro or in vivo. Tremendous progress has been achieved over the past decade in tisse construction as well as in other related areas, such as bone marrow stromal cells, embryonic stem cells and tissue progenitor cells. In our laboratory, tissues of full-thickness skin, bone, cartilage and tendon have been successfully engineered, and the engineered tissues have repaired full-thickness skin wound, cranial bone defects, articular cartilage defects and tendon defects in animals. In basic research areas, bone marrow stromal cells have been induced and transformed into osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro. Mouse embryo stem cell lines we established have differentiated into neuron precursor, cardiac muscle cells and epithelial cells. Genetic modifications of seed cells for promoting cell proliferation, delaying cell aging and inducing immune tolerance have also been investigated.

  4. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    Castro, I.T. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad, s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail:; Perez-Ocon, R. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida de Severo Ochoa, s/n. 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail:


    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures.

  5. DNA Repair Profiling Reveals Nonrandom Outcomes at Cas9-Mediated Breaks.

    van Overbeek, Megan; Capurso, Daniel; Carter, Matthew M; Thompson, Matthew S; Frias, Elizabeth; Russ, Carsten; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Nye, Christopher; Gradia, Scott; Vidal, Bastien; Zheng, Jiashun; Hoffman, Gregory R; Fuller, Christopher K; May, Andrew P


    The repair outcomes at site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by the RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 determine how gene function is altered. Despite the widespread adoption of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to induce DSBs for genome engineering, the resulting repair products have not been examined in depth. Here, the DNA repair profiles of 223 sites in the human genome demonstrate that the pattern of DNA repair following Cas9 cutting at each site is nonrandom and consistent across experimental replicates, cell lines, and reagent delivery methods. Furthermore, the repair outcomes are determined by the protospacer sequence rather than genomic context, indicating that DNA repair profiling in cell lines can be used to anticipate repair outcomes in primary cells. Chemical inhibition of DNA-PK enabled dissection of the DNA repair profiles into contributions from c-NHEJ and MMEJ. Finally, this work elucidates a strategy for using "error-prone" DNA-repair machinery to generate precise edits.

  6. Wound repair in Pocillopora

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguileraa, Luis Eduardo


    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40 days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40 d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  7. Groin hernia repair

    Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske


    The choice of anesthesia for groin hernia repair is between general, regional (epidural or spinal), and local anesthesia. Existing data from large consecutive patient series and randomized studies have shown local anesthesia to be the method of choice because it can be performed by the surgeon......, does not necessarily require an attending anesthesiologist, translates into the shortest recovery (bypassing the postanesthesia care unit), has the lowest cost, and has the lowest postoperative morbidity regarding risk of urinary retention. Spinal anesthesia has no documented benefits for this small...... scientific data to support the choice of anesthesia, large epidemiologic and nationwide information from databases show an undesirable high (about 10-20%) use of spinal anesthesia and low (about 10%) use of local infiltration anesthesia. Surgeons and anesthesiologists should therefore adjust their anesthesia...

  8. [Left pulmonary agenesis diagnosed late].

    Deleanu, Oana; Pătraşcu, Natalia; Nebunoiu, Ana-Maria; Vintilă, V; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Mihălţan, F D


    We present the case of a 51 years old female-patient, with severe dextroscoliosis, having like unique symptom progressive dyspnea. The blood samples reveals polycythemia, the radiological exam shows the opacification of 2/3 of the left thorax, the absence of the lung structure in the other 1/3, the deviation of the mediastinum, and dextroscoliosis; the computed tomography reveals the absence of the left lung artery and the left airways, compensatory hyperinflation of the right lung and dilatation of the trunk and right pulmonary artery; the bronchoscopy does not visualize the carina or the left main bronchus, typical for pulmonary agenesis. Echocardiography confirmed the absence of left pulmonary artery and shows mild pulmonary hypertension (systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery of 33 mmHg) with dilatation of the right cavities, but good cinetics. We face a case of pulmonary agenesis lately diagnosed, with modest functional cardiologic implications, limited therapeutic options and good survival, justified by the late appearance of the pulmonary hypertension of low severity and without worsening in time.

  9. Estimation method of margin gasdynamic stability of the gas turbine engine while in service

    І.Ф. Кінащук


    Full Text Available  Considered is the method of an estimation gasdynamic stability margin of the compressor gas turbine engine under operating conditions. The given way can be used at diagnosing gas turbine engine and gas turbine engine installations.

  10. Mechanical properties of hyaline and repair cartilage studied by nanoindentation.

    Franke, O; Durst, K; Maier, V; Göken, M; Birkholz, T; Schneider, H; Hennig, F; Gelse, K


    Articular cartilage is a highly organized tissue that is well adapted to the functional demands in joints but difficult to replicate via tissue engineering or regeneration. Its viscoelastic properties allow cartilage to adapt to both slow and rapid mechanical loading. Several cartilage repair strategies that aim to restore tissue and protect it from further degeneration have been introduced. The key to their success is the quality of the newly formed tissue. In this study, periosteal cells loaded on a scaffold were used to repair large partial-thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint of miniature pigs. The repair cartilage was analyzed 26 weeks after surgery and compared both morphologically and mechanically with healthy hyaline cartilage. Contact stiffness, reduced modulus and hardness as key mechanical properties were examined in vitro by nanoindentation in phosphate-buffered saline at room temperature. In addition, the influence of tissue fixation with paraformaldehyde on the biomechanical properties was investigated. Although the repair process resulted in the formation of a stable fibrocartilaginous tissue, its contact stiffness was lower than that of hyaline cartilage by a factor of 10. Fixation with paraformaldehyde significantly increased the stiffness of cartilaginous tissue by one order of magnitude, and therefore, should not be used when studying biomechanical properties of cartilage. Our study suggests a sensitive method for measuring the contact stiffness of articular cartilage and demonstrates the importance of mechanical analysis for proper evaluation of the success of cartilage repair strategies.

  11. Adaptive location of repaired blade for multi-axis milling

    Baohai Wu


    Full Text Available Free-form blades are widely used in different industries, such as aero-engine and steam turbine. Blades that are damaged during service or have production deficiencies are usually replaced with new ones. This leads to the waste of expensive material and is not sustainable. However, material and costs can be saved by repairing of locally damaged blades or blades with localized production deficiencies. The blade needs to be further machined after welding process to reach the aerodynamic performance requirements. This paper outlines an adaptive location approach of repaired blade for model reconstruction and NC machining. Firstly, a mathematical model is established to describe the localization problem under constraints. Secondly, by solving the mathematical model, localization of repaired blade for NC machining can be obtained. Furthermore, a more flexible method based on the proposed mathematical model and the continuity of the deformation process is developed to realize a better localization. Thirdly, by rebuilding the model of the repaired blade and extracting repair error, optimized tool paths for NC machining is generated adaptively for each individual part. Finally, three examples are given to validate the proposed method.

  12. Engine Management: A Decision Support Tool for Strategic Engine Maintenance Planning

    Mayordomo, A.F.; Ghobbar, A.A.; Ghijs, S.S.A.; Cator, E.


    This paper presents a model that helps engine management make cost saving decisions. The model is developed around airline-influenced factors that have an impact on engine Maintenance Repair & Overhaul (MRO): Operations, maintenance philosophy, contract type, and fleet age. Within the model a decisi

  13. Living with cracks: Damage and repair in human bone

    Taylor, David; Hazenberg, Jan G.; Lee, T. Clive


    Our bones are full of cracks, which form and grow as a result of daily loading activities. Bone is the major structural material in our bodies. Although weaker than many engineering materials, it has one trick that keeps it ahead - it can repair itself. Small cracks, which grow under cyclic stresses by the mechanism of fatigue, can be detected and removed before they become long enough to be dangerous. This article reviews the work that has been done to understand how cracks form and grow in bone, and how they can be detected and repaired in a timely manner. This is truly an interdisciplinary research field, requiring the close cooperation of materials scientists, biologists and engineers.

  14. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip


    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  15. Peripheral nerve repair: a hot spot analysis on treatment methods from 2010 to 2014

    Guang-yao Liu


    Full Text Available Therapeutic strategies for neurological deficits and for promoting nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injuries have received much focus in clinical research. Advances in basic research in recent years have increased our understanding of the anatomy of peripheral nerves and the importance of the microenvironment. Various new intervention methods have been developed, but with varying effectiveness. In the present study, we selected 911 papers on different repair methods for peripheral nerve injury from the Web of Science and indexed in the Science Citation Index from 2010 to 2014. We quantitatively examine new repair methods and strategies using bibliometrics, and we discuss the present state of knowledge and the problems and prospects of various repair methods, including nerve transfer, neural transplantation, tissue engineering and genetic engineering. Our findings should help in the study and development of repair methods for peripheral nerve injury.

  16. Peripheral nerve repair:a hot spot analysis on treatment methods from 2010 to 2014

    Guang-yao Liu; Yan Jin; Qiao Zhang; Rui Li


    Therapeutic strategies for neurological deifcits and for promoting nerve regeneration after pe-ripheral nerve injuries have received much focus in clinical research. Advances in basic research in recent years have increased our understanding of the anatomy of peripheral nerves and the importance of the microenvironment. Various new intervention methods have been developed, but with varying effectiveness. In the present study, we selected 911 papers on different repair methods for peripheral nerve injury from the Web of Science and indexed in the Science Citation Index from 2010 to 2014. We quantitatively examine new repair methods and strategies using bibliometrics, and we discuss the present state of knowledge and the problems and prospects of various repair methods, including nerve transfer, neural transplantation, tissue engineering and genetic engineering. Our ifndings should help in the study and development of repair methods for peripheral nerve injury.

  17. Tendon repair augmented with a novel circulating stem cell population.

    Daher, Robert J; Chahine, Nadeen O; Razzano, Pasquale; Patwa, Sohum A; Sgaglione, Nicholas J; Grande, Daniel A


    31Mpa by six weeks. The use of circulating stem cells as an adjunct in tendon repair demonstrates superior biomechanical properties and an improved level of histological organization, when compared to the suture alone control group. These improvements were not previously observed when gene therapy, protein therapy, or current tissue engineering technologies were used.

  18. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Repair of Spigelian Hernia

    Tran, Kim; Zajkowska, Marta; Lam, Vincent; Hawthorne, Wayne J.


    Introduction: Spigelian hernias represent only 1% to 2% of all abdominal wall hernias. The treatment, however, remains controversial but depends on institutional expertise. This case series reports the first experience with single-incision laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal (SILTEP) repair of Spigelian hernias with telescopic extraperitoneal dissection in combination with inguinal hernia repair. Methods: From February 2013 to April 2014, all patients referred with inguinal or Spigelian hernias, without histories of extraperitoneal intervention, underwent SILTEP repair with telescopic extraperitoneal dissection. A single-port device, 5.5 mm/52 cm/30° angled laparoscope, and conventional straight dissecting instruments were used for all cases. Extraperitoneal dissection was performed under direct vision with preservation of preperitoneal fascia overlying retroperitoneal nerves. Inguinal herniorrhaphy was performed with lightweight mesh that covered low-lying Spigelian defects. High-lying Spigelian defects were repaired with additional mesh. Results: There were 131 patients with 186 (92 direct) inguinal hernias and 7 patients with 8 Spigelian hernias (6 incidental, including 1 bilateral and 2 preoperatively diagnosed), with a mean age of 51.3 years and a mean body mass index of 25.1 kg/m2. An additional piece of mesh was used for 3 hernias. All Spigelian hernias were associated with direct inguinal hernias, and 8 combined inguinal and Spigelian hernias were successfully repaired with SILTEP repair with telescopic extraperitoneal dissection as day cases. There were no clinical recurrences during a mean follow-up period of 6 months (range, 1–15 months). Conclusions: Combined Spigelian and inguinal hernias can be successfully treated with SILTEP herniorrhaphy with telescopic extraperitoneal dissection. The high incidence of Spigelian hernias associated with direct inguinal hernias suggests a high index of suspicion for Spigelian hernias during laparoscopic inguinal

  19. Tissue-engineering bone with ADSCs and coral scaffold for repairing of cranial bone defect in canine%自体脂肪干细胞复合珊瑚修复犬颅骨标准缺损的初步研究

    刘波; 崔磊; 刘广鹏; 曹谊林; 朱金土; 曹毅


    Objective To investigate the application of tiasue-engineering bone with ADSCs(adipese-derived stem cells) and coral scaffold for repairing of cranial bone defect in canine. Methods Autelogons ADSCs isolated from canine subcutaneous fat were expanded, osteoganicaily induced, and seeded on coral scaffolds. Bilateral full-thickness defects(20 mm x 20 mm) of parietal bone were created (n = 7). The defects were either repaired with ADSC-coral constructs (experimental group) or with coral alone (control group). Radiological, gross, biomechanical and histological observations were done to evaluate the bone regeneration. Results Three-dimensional CT scan showed that new bones were formed in the experimental group at 12 weeks after implantation, while coral scaffolds were partially degraded in the control group. By radiographic analysis at 24 weeks post-transplantation, it showed that an average repair percentage of each defect was (84.19:1:6.45) % in experimental group, and (25.04 ± 18.82) % in control group(P < 0.01). The maximum compression loading was (73.45±17.26) N in experimental group, and (104.27± 22.71) N in control group (P < 0.01).Hislological examination revealed that the defect was repaired by typical bone tissue in experimental group, while only minimal bone formation with fibrous connection in the control group. Conclusions The tissue-engineering bone with autologous osteogenic ADSCs and scaffold could successfully repair the cranial defects in canine models.%目的 应用自体脂肪干细胞(adipose-derived stem cells,ADSCs)复合珊瑚构建组织工程化骨,修复犬颅骨标准缺损.方法 体外扩增培养、成骨诱导Beagle犬ADSCs,将第2代细胞接种在珊瑚支架上共同培养.制造实验犬双侧颅骨全层标准缺损(20 mm×20 mm),一侧以细胞材料复合物修复作为实验组(n=7),另一侧以单纯珊瑚材料修复作为对照组(n=7).术后24周分别通过影像学、大体形态观察、生物力学检测、组织学

  20. How to repair an episiotomy.

    Steen, Mary; Cummins, Bernie


    Rationale and key points Skilful repair of an episiotomy is an important aspect of maternal health care. It is essential that midwives and doctors have the knowledge and skills to undertake this procedure in a safe and effective manner. ▶ An episiotomy should be repaired promptly to reduce blood loss and prevent infection. ▶ Repair of an episiotomy is undertaken in three stages: repair of the vaginal mucosa, repair of the muscle layer and repair of the skin layer. ▶ Adequate pain relief should be provided before suturing. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Why a rectal examination is recommended before and following repair of an episiotomy. 2. What you would do to improve your suturing skills. 3. The factors that may prevent or delay an episiotomy from healing. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at .

  1. DNA repair in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    Duarte, Fábio Teixeira; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques de; Bezerra e Silva, Uaska; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina


    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium that inhabits a variety of ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, including the water and banks of the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. This bacterium has been the subject of extensive study over the last three decades, due to its biotechnological properties, including the characteristic violacein pigment, which has antimicrobial and anti-tumoral activities. C. violaceum promotes the solubilization of gold in a mercury-free process, and has been used in the synthesis of homopolyesters suitable for the production of biodegradable polymers. The complete genome sequence of this organism has been completed by the Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium. The aim of our group was to study the DNA repair genes in this organism, due to their importance in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified DNA repair genes involved in different pathways in C. violaceum through a similarity search against known sequences deposited in databases. The phylogenetic analyses were done using programs of the PHILYP package. This analysis revealed various metabolic pathways, including photoreactivation, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, recombinational repair, and the SOS system. The similarity between the C. violaceum sequences and those of Neisserie miningitidis and Ralstonia solanacearum was greater than that between the C. violaceum and Escherichia coli sequences. The peculiarities found in the C. violaceum genome were the absence of LexA, some horizontal transfer events and a large number of repair genes involved with alkyl and oxidative DNA damage.

  2. Photoprotection by topical DNA repair enzymes: molecular correlates of clinical studies.

    Yarosh, D B; O'Connor, A; Alas, L; Potten, C; Wolf, P


    A new approach to photoprotection is to repair DNA damage after UV exposure. This can be accomplished by delivery of a DNA repair enzyme with specificity to UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers into skin by means of specially engineered liposomes. Treatment of DNA-repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum patients or skin cancer patients with T4N5 liposome lotion containing such DNA repair liposomes increases the removal of DNA damage in the first few hours after treatment. In these studies, a DNA repair effect was observed in some patients treated with heat-inactivated enzyme. Unexpectedly, it was discovered that the heat-inactivated T4 endonuclease V enzyme refolds and recovers enzymatic activity. These studies demonstrate that measurements of molecular changes induced by biological drugs are useful adjuvants to clinical studies.

  3. Novel perineal approach for repair of a urethrorectal fistula in a bulldog.

    Ralphs, S Christopher; Kramek, Betty A


    A urethrorectal fistula was diagnosed in a 10-week-old, intact male bulldog, presented with a history of urine dribbling from his anus. The fistula was ligated using a novel perineal approach, resulting in resolution of clinical signs. The described procedure is simpler and less invasive than previously described repairs.

  4. Stress urinary incontinence and posterior bladder suspension defects. Results of vaginal repair versus Burch colposuspension

    Thunedborg, P; Fischer-Rasmussen, W; Jensen, S B


    Vaginal repair has been recommended in cases of stress urinary incontinence and posterior bladder suspension defect diagnosed by colpocysto-urethrography. Thirty-eight women with stress urinary incontinence and posterior suspension defect have been treated. First, 19 women underwent a vaginal rep...

  5. Novel approaches in diagnosing tuberculosis

    Kolk, Arend H. J.; Dang, Ngoc A.; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Gibson, Tim; Anthony, Richard; Claassens, Mareli M.; Kaal, Erwin; Janssen, Hans-Gerd


    The WHO declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency. An estimated 8-9 million new cases occur each year with 2-3 million deaths. Currently, TB is diagnosed mostly by chest-X ray and staining of the mycobacteria in sputum with a detection limit of 1x104 bacteria /ml. There is an urgent need for better diagnostic tools for TB especially for developing countries. We have validated the electronic nose from TD Technology for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by headspace analysis of 284 sputum samples from TB patients. We used linear discriminant function analysis resulting in a sensitivity of 75% a specificity of 67% and an accuracy of 69%. Further research is still required to improve the results by choosing more selective sensors and sampling techniques. We used a fast gas chromatography- mass spectrometry method (GC-MS). The automated procedure is based on the injection of sputum samples which are methylated inside the GC injector using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS). Hexacosanoic acid in combination with tuberculostearic acid was found to be specific for the presence of M. tuberculosis. The detection limit was similar to microscopy. We found no false positives, all microscopy and culture positive samples were also found positive with the THM-GC-MS method. The detection of ribosomal RNA from the infecting organism offers great potential since rRNA molecules outnumber chromosomal DNA by a factor 1000. It thus may possible to detect the organism without amplification of the nucleic acids (NA). We used a capture and a tagged detector probe for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum. So far the detection limit is 1x106 bacteria / ml. Currently we are testing a Lab-On-A-Chip Interferometer detection system.

  6. Are Pediatricians Diagnosing Obese Children?

    Thomas, Katharine; Urrego, Fernando


    Background: Pediatric obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in American children. The detrimental social, psychological, and physiological effects of obesity call for pediatricians to address this health concern. The literature demonstrates that clinicians are underreporting the diagnosis of obesity in the pediatric setting. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if pediatricians at one pediatrics clinic in the Ochsner Health System are documenting the presence of an overweight or obese body mass index (BMI) as a diagnosis in the medical record. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine the demographics of all pediatric patients in the Ochsner Health System to be used for program development. Methods: A retrospective medical record review was conducted. Records from April 1, 2012 to April 1, 2016, were reviewed for the presence of the diagnosis of BMI classified as obese or overweight. Results: We analyzed a total of 175,066 records in this study. Of these records, 1.32% documented a diagnosis of obesity, and 0.5% documented a BMI score indicating overweight. The percentages of patient visits that met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria to be classified as obese or overweight were 28.66% and 30.41%, respectively. The majority of our pediatric patients were male (51.76%), white (43.31%), and 5-12 years old (43.80%). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that pediatricians at Ochsner Health Center for Children are not diagnosing patients who have unhealthy BMI scores as overweight or obese. Interventions are needed to increase the identification of children who may benefit from receiving resources that encourage a healthy lifestyle and optimal weight maintenance. PMID:28331453

  7. Development of Laboratory Testing Criteria for Evaluating Cementitious, Rapid-Setting Pavement Repair Materials


    Materials Lucy P. Priddy Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg...approved for repairs larger than core hole patches on Department of Defense (DOD) airfield pavements due to premature rutting caused by high tire ...and resistance to abrasion and scaling as important performance characteristics for repair materials (Wilson et al. 1999). Another study rec- ommended

  8. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...


    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  9. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Chattopadhyay O


    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  10. Bone repair and stem cells.

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M


    Bones are an important component of vertebrates; they grow explosively in early life and maintain their strength throughout life. Bones also possess amazing capabilities to repair-the bone is like new without a scar after complete repair. In recent years, a substantial progress has been made in our understanding on mammalian bone stem cells. Mouse genetic models are powerful tools to understand the cell lineage, giving us better insights into stem cells that regulate bone growth, maintenance and repair. Recent findings about these stem cells raise new questions that require further investigations.

  11. Repairing and Upgrading Your PC

    Thompson, Robert


    Repairing and Upgrading Your PC delivers start-to-finish instructions, simple enough for even the most inexperienced PC owner, for troubleshooting, repairing, and upgrading your computer. Written by hardware experts Robert Bruce Thompson and Barbara Fritchman Thompson, this book covers it all: how to troubleshoot a troublesome PC, how to identify which components make sense for an upgrade, and how to tear it all down and put it back together. This book shows how to repair and upgrade all of your PC's essential components.

  12. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia.

    Lau, H; Lee, F; Patil, N G


    A 75-year-old man developed an incisional hernia over the upper abdomen following a wedge resection of a gastric stromal tumour in 1996. This is the first published report of a successful repair of an incisional hernia via a laparoscopic intraperitoneal on-lay technique using GORE-TEX DualMesh material in Hong Kong. Compared with conventional open repair of incisional hernia, long incisions and wound tension are avoided using the laparoscopic approach. This translates into a reduced risk of wound-related complications and facilitates recovery. In selected cases, minimally invasive surgery is a safe technique for the repair of incisional hernias.

  13. [Inguinal and femoral hernia repair].

    Geissler, B; Anthuber, M


    With an incidence of 200,000 new cases per year in Germany, inguinal hernia has a significant socioeconomic impact. The 2009 guidelines from the European Hernia Society established treatment recommendations. Hernia repair is based on reinforcing the posterior wall of the inguinal canal by suture or mesh repair by an anterior or posterior approach. Lightweight mesh reduces recurrence rates and is the treatment of choice even in primary hernias. Laparoscopic hernia repair is associated with specific risks but is superior in postoperative pain and earlier return to work.

  14. Tissue engineering in dentistry.

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Salih, Vehid M; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C


    of this review is to inform practitioners with the most updated information on tissue engineering and its potential applications in dentistry. The authors used "PUBMED" to find relevant literature written in English and published from the beginning of tissue engineering until today. A combination of keywords was used as the search terms e.g., "tissue engineering", "approaches", "strategies" "dentistry", "dental stem cells", "dentino-pulp complex", "guided tissue regeneration", "whole tooth", "TMJ", "condyle", "salivary glands", and "oral mucosa". Abstracts and full text articles were used to identify causes of craniofacial tissue loss, different approaches for craniofacial reconstructions, how the tissue engineering emerges, different strategies of tissue engineering, biomaterials employed for this purpose, the major attempts to engineer different dental structures, finally challenges and future of tissue engineering in dentistry. Only those articles that dealt with the tissue engineering in dentistry were selected. There have been a recent surge in guided tissue engineering methods to manage periodontal diseases beyond the traditional approaches. However, the predictable reconstruction of the innate organisation and function of whole teeth as well as their periodontal structures remains challenging. Despite some limited progress and minor successes, there remain distinct and important challenges in the development of reproducible and clinically safe approaches for oral tissue repair and regeneration. Clearly, there is a convincing body of evidence which confirms the need for this type of treatment, and public health data worldwide indicates a more than adequate patient resource. The future of these therapies involving more biological approaches and the use of dental tissue stem cells is promising and advancing. Also there may be a significant interest of their application and wider potential to treat disorders beyond the craniofacial region. Considering the

  15. Cartilage repair: Generations of autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    Marlovits, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail:; Zeller, Philip [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Singer, Philipp [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Resinger, Christoph [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Vecsei, Vilmos [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)


    Articular cartilage in adults has a limited capacity for self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts to treat cartilage defects have focused on delivering new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is an advanced cell-based orthobiologic technology used for the treatment of chondral defects of the knee that has been in clinical use since 1987 and has been performed on 12,000 patients internationally. With ACT, good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated post-traumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient, with the formation of hyaline or hyaline-like repair tissue. In the classic ACT technique, chondrocytes are isolated from small slices of cartilage harvested arthroscopically from a minor weight-bearing area of the injured knee. The extracellular matrix is removed by enzymatic digestion, and the cells are then expanded in monolayer culture. Once a sufficient number of cells has been obtained, the chondrocytes are implanted into the cartilage defect, using a periosteal patch over the defect as a method of cell containment. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. Further improvements in tissue engineering have contributed to the next generation of ACT techniques, where cells are combined with resorbable biomaterials, as in matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). These biomaterials secure the cells in the defect area and enhance their proliferation and differentiation.

  16. Large myelomeningocele repair

    Farideh Nejat


    Full Text Available Background: Wound closure is accomplished in most cases of myelomeningocele (MMC by undermining of the skin edges surrounding the defect. However, large defects cannot be closed reliably by this simple technique. Due to the technical challenge associated with large MMC, surgeons have devised different methods for repairing large defects. In this paper, we report our experience of managing large defects, which we believe bears a direct relationship to decrease the incidence of wound complications. Materials and Methods: Forty children with large MMCs underwent surgical repair and represent our experience. We recommend using all hairy skin around the defect as a way to decrease the tension on the edges of the wound and the possible subsequent necrosis. It is our experience that vertical incision on one or two flanks parallel to the midline can decrease the tension of the wound. Moreover, ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for children who developed hydrocephalus was performed simultaneously, which constitutes another recommendation for preventing fluid collection and build up of pressure on the wound. Results: Patients in this study were in the age range of 2 days to 8 years. The most common location of MMC was in the thoracolumbar area. All but four patients had severe weakness in lower extremities. We used as much hairy skin around the MMC sac as possible in all cases. Vertical incisions on one or both flanks and simultaneous shunt procedure were performed in 36 patients. We treated children with large MMC defects with acceptable tension-free closure. Nonetheless, three patients developed superficial skin infection and partial wound dehiscence, and they were managed conservatively. Conclusions: We recommend using all hairy skin around the MMC defect for closure of large defects. In cases that were expected to be at a higher risk to develop dehiscence release incisions on one or two flanks towards the fascia were found to be useful. Simultaneous

  17. Assessment of Concrete Repair Techniques for Radiologically Contaminated Tank Farm Pump and Valve Pits



    As part of the scope of Project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations,'' the condition of pump and valve pit walls and floors is being assessed, and repairs made as needed, to support upgrading the infrastructure necessary to safely transfer tank waste for treatment. Flaws in the surfaces of the pits (e.g., concrete crack/faults, protective coating deterioration) must be repaired to ensure containment integrity and to facilitate future decontamination of the pits. This engineering study presents a cost/risk/benefit evaluation of concrete and protective coating repair methods in pump and valve pits using various manual and remote tool systems.

  18. Technologies for repairing peripheral nerve injury Progress in domestic and foreign investigations


    OBJECTIVE: Studies on the repair of peripheral nerve injury have achieved great progresses in recent years.Clinical nerve repair prefers microsurgery, while fundamental researches focus on tissue engineering and gene therapy. Recently, microencapsulation technique rises up as a new treatment therapy. This article mainly summarized the repairing techniques referred above, in order to make the basis for further research.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of Pubmed database was undertaken to identify articles about injury and repair of peripheral nerve published in English between January 1997 and May 2007 using the key words of "peripheral nerve, injury, repair". At the same time, Chinese relative articles were searched in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) using the same key words in Chinese.STUDY SELECTION: The data were primarily checked, and the references after each literature were looked up, and the articles focused on the injury and repair of peripheral nerve were selected. Those published in kola-magazine in recent 5 years were in priority for the articles with similar contents. Repetitive studies or Meta analysis were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 144 articles were collected, and 30 literatures were selected as most relative reference literatures, and the other 114 articles were excluded due to old or repeated researches. Among the 30 selected articles, 6 focused on the surgical treatment for peripheral nerve injury, 10 on tissue engineering and Schwann cell, 3 on microencapsulation technology, 5 on gene therapy, 2 on immunosuppresant and 4 on neurotrophic factors.DATA SYNTHESIS: The technologies for repairing peripheral nerve injury are developing with time, also have been successfully combined with tissue engineering and gene therapy techniques which are advanced nowadays. As the researches go further, immunodepression factors have attracted more and more attentions,microencapsulation technology and gene therapy repair also go

  19. Tissue Engineering of the Penis

    Manish N. Patel


    Full Text Available Congenital disorders, cancer, trauma, or other conditions of the genitourinary tract can lead to significant organ damage or loss of function, necessitating eventual reconstruction or replacement of the damaged structures. However, current reconstructive techniques are limited by issues of tissue availability and compatibility. Physicians and scientists have begun to explore tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies for repair and reconstruction of the genitourinary tract. Tissue engineering allows the development of biological substitutes which could potentially restore normal function. Tissue engineering efforts designed to treat or replace most organs are currently being undertaken. Most of these efforts have occurred within the past decade. However, before these engineering techniques can be applied to humans, further studies are needed to ensure the safety and efficacy of these new materials. Recent progress suggests that engineered urologic tissues and cell therapy may soon have clinical applicability.

  20. A Two-Unit Cold Standby Repairable System with One Replaceable Repair Facility and Delay Repair:Some Reliability Problems

    WEI Ying-yuan; TANG Ying-hui


    This paper considers a two-unit same cold standby repairable system with a replaceable repair facility and delay repair .The failure time of unit is assumed to follow exponential distribution , and the repair time and delay time of failed unit are assumed to follow arbitrary distributions , whereas the failure and replacement time distributions of the repair facility are exponential and arbitrary . By using the Markov renewal process theory, some primary reliability quantities of the system are obtained.

  1. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1024 Section 63.1024... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1024 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical, but not later than 15...

  2. 40 CFR 65.105 - Leak repair.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 65.105 Section 65.105... FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.105 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical but not later than 15 calendar days after it...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.


    ... successful repair of the leak. (3) Maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1005 Section 63.1005... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1005 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner...

  4. DNA repair deficiency in neurodegeneration

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Stevnsner, Tinna V.


    : homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage......Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive...... neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative...

  5. Early days of DNA repair: discovery of nucleotide excision repair and homology-dependent recombinational repair.

    Rupp, W Dean


    The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere.

  6. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.


    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  7. Construction, repair and maintenance

    Hinger, R. [Terasen Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wong, P. [KC Integrity Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Yeomans, M.; Glover, A. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The presentations by Working Group 4 focused on construction, repair and maintenance of pipelines with particular reference to high-strength steels and their applications for natural gas transmission pipelines. Discussions focused on how technology can be used to provide cost-effective design and construction solutions for long distance pipelines in a manner that does not compromise safety and reliability. The role that carbon plays in increasing the toughness of steel was also discussed. A few fundamental changes in steel production technology and a reduction in carbon content can result in a simultaneous increase in strength and toughness of steels. The cost impact of this technology was summarized. It was concluded that high strength steels offer effective solutions to deliver cost-effective pipelines to transport natural gas from northern basins. This session also presented pipeline routes that transport diluted bitumens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Project and the Muskeg River Mine to upgrader facilities in Alberta. Construction issues included design conservatism, water course crossings, winter construction, winter ditching, and public consultation. Examples of high strength steel pipe applications were also included with reference to experience gained by TransCanada and Corridor Pipeline. tabs., figs.

  8. Laparoscopic repair of postoperative perineal hernia.

    Ryan, Stephen


    Perineal hernias are infrequent complications following abdominoperineal operations. Various approaches have been described for repair of perineal hernias including open transabdominal, transperineal or combined abdominoperineal repairs. The use of laparoscopic transabdominal repair of perineal hernias is not well-described. We present a case report demonstrating the benefits of laparoscopic repair of perineal hernia following previous laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (APR) using a nonabsorbable mesh to repair the defect. We have demonstrated that the use of laparoscopy with repair of the pelvic floor defect using a non absorbable synthetic mesh offers an excellent alternative with many potential advantages over open transabdominal and transperineal repairs.

  9. Umbilical and epigastric hernia repair.

    Muschaweck, Ulrike


    The repair of umbilical and epigastric hernias still represents a challenge to surgeons. Although a common and relatively simple procedure, there is no exact protocol today on how the repair should be done. The Mayo technique and its alterations could not stand the test of time: a recurrence rate of 20% and higher is not acceptable for any surgical procedure. Although there is no consensus opinion, one thing is clear: the importance of an anatomic repair without tension and without an artificial enlargement of the defect. In 1987 Lichtenstein reported on 6321 cases of herniorraphy with a tension free repair, and in 1994 Stuart reemphasized that special importance in his editorial in the Lancet. A newer study from Brancato and coworkers in Italy also states the advantage of a tension-free prosthetic repair in 16 patients with epigastric hernia. We have gone even further and recommend a tailored-to-the-patient repair using a customized polypropylene mesh and a one-layer running suture. The advantages should be obvious: no artificial creation of an even bigger than original defect, a completely tension-free repair, and little to no recurrence of the hernia. Our results clearly prove that assumption. Moreover, the procedure is extremely safe and complications are very rare and minor. We conclude that using a mesh plug in a customized tension-free repair of umbilical and epigastric hernia shows many advantages over the commonly used methods. And we finally conclude with the words of Albert Einstein: "The only source of knowledge is experience."

  10. Repair Types, Procedures - Part 1


    New Jersey, USA. Repair Types, Procedures – Part I RTO-EN-AVT-156 9 - 19 [5] Drieker R, Botello C, MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle... MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle Damage Assessment and Repair (ABDAR), Vol. III: Field Test Report,” AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2002-0039, July 2000. [8

  11. Hand function after nerve repair.

    Lundborg, Göran; Rosén, Birgitta


    Treatment of injuries to major nerve trunks in the hand and upper extremity remains a major and challenging reconstructive problem. Such injuries may cause long-lasting disabilities in terms of lost fine sensory and motor functions. Nowadays there is no surgical repair technique that can ensure recovery of tactile discrimination in the hand of an adult patient following nerve repair while very young individuals usually regain a complete recovery of functional sensibility. Post-traumatic nerve...

  12. Cobbler's technique for Iridodialysis repair

    Surinder Singh Pandav


    Full Text Available We describe a novel “Cobbler's technique” for iridodialysis repair in the right eye of a patient aged 18 years, with a traumatic iridodialysis secondary to open globe injury with an iron rod. Our technique is simple with easy surgical maneuvers, that is, effective for repairing iridodialysis. The “Cobbler's technique” allows a maximally functional and cosmetic result for iridodialysis.

  13. Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos


    Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process.

  14. Repairing Learned Knowledge Using Experience


    It necessar and Identify by’ 6109h nii be) learning precedent-based learning knowledge repair explanation-based learning near - miss groups 20. ABSTRACT...can a program use explanations to repair a recollection, preventing further misapplication? Near - Miss Groups Isolate Suspicious Relations If a metal...pail differs from a porcelain cup only in the position of handle attachment, then we would say that the pail is a near miss . Unfortunately, there are

  15. Aircraft Metal Skin Repair and Honeycomb Structure Repair; Sheet Metal Work 3: 9857.02.

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course helps students determine types of repairs, compute repair sizes, and complete the repair through surface protection. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, protection of metals, repairs to metal skin, and honeycomb structure repair. A bibliography and post-test are appended. A prerequisite for this course is mastery of the…

  16. Engineer Ethics

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin


    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  17. Engineer: The Professional Bulletin of Army Engineers. Volume 42, January-April 2012


    Command Prime BEEF - Prime Base Engineer Emergency Force RED HORSE - Rapid Engineers Deployable Heavy Operations Repair Squadron Engineers Seabee...Mission and the M10 directorate to speed up the fielding of 45 Iraqi light armored vehicles to fill short- ages in Iraqi Army route clearance teams...procedures and re- hearsals at lower levels. The execution phase consisted of a full day of dry runs, a full day of blank runs coupled with de- molition

  18. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.


    Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  19. Scarf Repair of Composite Laminates

    Xie Zonghong


    Full Text Available The use of composite materials, such as carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites, aero-structures has led to an increased need of advanced assembly joining and repair technologies. Adhesive bonded repairs as an alternative to recover full or part of initial strength were investigated. Tests were conducted with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of techniques used for repairing damage fiber reinforced laminated composites. Failure loads and failure modes were generated and compared with the following parameters: scarf angles, roughness of grind tool and number of external plies. Results showed that scarf angle was the critical parameter and the largest tensile strength was observed with the smallest scarf angle. Besides, the use of external plies at the outer surface could not increase the repairs efficiency for large scarf angle. Preparing the repair surfaces by sanding them with a sander ranging from 60 to 100 grit number had significant effect on the failure load. These results allowed the proposal of design principles for repairing CFRP structures.

  20. 77 FR 30053 - Repair Stations


    ... more than 2. Turbine engines. 400 HP. 3. Turbine Engines. 3. Auxiliary Power Units. 4. All other... Aeronautical Rules (CARs), Civil Aeronautical Bulletins (CABs) and/or Special Aeronautical Information...--Reciprocating engines of more than 400 horsepower, and Class 3--Turbine engines. When the FAA established the...

  1. Aging and DNA repair capability. [Review

    Tice, R R


    A review of the literature on DNA repair processes in relation to aging is presented under the following headings: DNA repair processes; age-related occurrence of unrepaired DNA lesions; DNA repair capability as a function of age; tissue-specific DNA repair capability; acceleration of the aging process by exposure to DNA damaging agents; human genetic syndromes; and longevity and DNA repair processes. (HLW)

  2. Cellular strategies for enhancement of fracture repair.

    Patterson, Thomas E; Kumagai, Ken; Griffith, Linda; Muschler, George F


    Tissue engineering seeks to translate scientific knowledge into tangible products to advance the repair, replacement, or regeneration of organs and tissues. Current tissue engineering strategies have progressed recently from a historical approach that is based primarily on biomaterials to a cell and tissue-based approach that includes understanding of cell-sourcing and bioactive stimuli. New options include methods for harvest and transplantation of tissue-forming cells, bioactive matrix materials that act as tissue scaffolds, and delivery of bioactive molecules within scaffolds. These strategies are already benefiting patients, and they place increasing demands on orthopaedic surgeons to have a solid foundation in the contemporary concepts and principles of cell-based tissue engineering. Essentially all orthopaedic tissue engineering strategies can be distilled to a strategy or combination of strategies that seek to increase the number or relative performance of bone-forming cells. The global term connective tissue progenitors has been used to define the heterogeneous populations of stem and progenitor cells that are found in native tissue and that are capable of differentiating into one or more connective tissue phenotypes. These stem or progenitor populations are found in various tissue sources, with varying degrees of ability to differentiate along connective tissue lineages. Available cell-based strategies include targeting local cells with use of scaffolds or bioactive factors, or transplantation of autogenous connective tissue progenitor cells derived from bone marrow or other tissues, with or without processing to change their concentration or prevalence. The future may include means of homing circulating connective tissue progenitor cells with use of intrinsic chemokine systems, or modifying the biological performance of connective tissue progenitor cells by means of genetic modifications.

  3. Additive manufacturing for in situ repair of osteochondral defects

    Cohen, Daniel L; Lipton, Jeffrey I; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Lipson, Hod, E-mail: dlc44@cornell.ed, E-mail: jil26@cornell.ed, E-mail: lb244@cornell.ed, E-mail: hod.lipson@cornell.ed [Cornell University, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ithaca, NY (United States)


    Tissue engineering holds great promise for injury repair and replacement of defective body parts. While a number of techniques exist for creating living biological constructs in vitro, none have been demonstrated for in situ repair. Using novel geometric feedback-based approaches and through development of appropriate printing-material combinations, we demonstrate the in situ repair of both chondral and osteochondral defects that mimic naturally occurring pathologies. A calf femur was mounted in a custom jig and held within a robocasting-based additive manufacturing (AM) system. Two defects were induced: one a cartilage-only representation of a grade IV chondral lesion and the other a two-material bone and cartilage fracture of the femoral condyle. Alginate hydrogel was used for the repair of cartilage; a novel formulation of demineralized bone matrix was used for bone repair. Repair prints for both defects had mean surface errors less than 0.1 mm. For the chondral defect, 42.8 {+-} 2.6% of the surface points had errors that were within a clinically acceptable error range; however, with 1 mm path planning shift, an estimated {approx}75% of surface points could likely fall within the benchmark envelope. For the osteochondral defect, 83.6 {+-} 2.7% of surface points had errors that were within clinically acceptable limits. In addition to implications for minimally invasive AM-based clinical treatments, these proof-of-concept prints are some of the only in situ demonstrations to-date, wherein the substrate geometry was unknown a priori. The work presented herein demonstrates in situ AM, suggests potential biomedical applications and also explores in situ-specific issues, including geometric feedback, material selection and novel path planning techniques.

  4. Laparoscopic repair of a Morgagni diaphragmatic hernia in a child, using a trans-sternal technique

    Shah Amar


    Full Text Available Laparoscopic repair of Morgagni hernia has been described in adults and children. In the published reports, the crux of the repair consists of suturing the posterior part of the diaphragmatic defect to the undersurface of the sternum or the posterior rectus sheath. The tissue on the undersurface of the sternum is variable is in its nature and may be inadequate for suturing, hence compromising the strength of the repair. A technique that circumvents this problem and offers a strong anatomical repair is described. A Morgagni hernia was diagnosed in a 2-year-old girl with trisomy 21, who presented with recurrent chest infections. She underwent laparoscopic repair of the hernia using three ports. The tissue on the undersurface of the sternum was inadequate for a conventional repair. The procedure was modified as follows: a small transverse incision was made over the lower end of the sternum. Three nonabsorbable mattress sutures were inserted through the sternum, the anterior edge of the diaphragmatic defect, and back through the sternum and tied with extracorporeal knots. The child was discharged home on the second postoperative day. At 6-month follow up, the child was asymptomatic, and had been infection free. A chest radiograph was normal. This is a simple, novel, noninvasive method, which offers a secure anatomical repair and it is not dependent on the adequacy of the tissue on the undersurface of the sternum.

  5. Four Engineers...


    There are four engineers traveling in a car;a mechanical engineer,a chemical engi-neer,an electrical engineer and a comput-er engineer.The car breaks down.“Sounds to me as if the pistons have seized.We ll have to strip down the engine before we canget the car working again,”says the mechanical

  6. From experience: applying the risk diagnosing methodology

    Keizer, Jimme A.; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael


    No risk, no reward. Companies must take risks to launch new products speedily and successfully. The ability to diagnose and manage risks is increasingly considered of vital importance in high-risk innovation. This article presents the Risk Diagnosing Methodology (RDM), which aims to identify and

  7. De dokter en de diagnose-verzamelaar

    Geersing, Geert-Jan


    In the course of the medical curriculum, medical students are trained to recognise diagnoses. They classify these in their minds, together with detailed information on laboratory and imaging tests, as collections of diagnoses. The downside of this could be overdiagnosis. This paper describes some of

  8. From experience: applying the risk diagnosing methodology

    Keizer, Jimme A.; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael


    No risk, no reward. Companies must take risks to launch new products speedily and successfully. The ability to diagnose and manage risks is increasingly considered of vital importance in high-risk innovation. This article presents the Risk Diagnosing Methodology (RDM), which aims to identify and eva

  9. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Frederiksen, Julie N; Hansen, Thomas;


    value (87%) of ICD-10 schizophrenia and an overall good agreement between clinical and OPCRIT-derived diagnoses (kappa=0.60). An even higher positive predictive value was obtained when diagnoses were amalgamated into a diagnostic entity of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (98%). Near perfect agreement...

  10. Comparison of pedicle fascial flap and absorbable biomembrane in constructing tissue engineering bone to repair rabbit bone defects%生物膜与带蒂筋膜瓣体内构建组织工程复合体修复兔骨缺损的比较

    孟宪勇; 杨新明; 齐志民; 王耀一; 白瑞


    BACKGROUND:Tissue engineering bone constructed using both pedicle fascial flap and absorbable biomembrane can effectively promote the bone defect repair, but there is not enough study about the comparison between them.OBJECTIVE:To observe the bone reparative effect of tissue engineering bone wrapped by pedicle fascial flap and by simple biomembrane.METHODS:A 1-cm bone defect model was produced in rabbit bilateral ulna middle segment and periosteum. Autologous red bone marrow was implanted in the osteoinductive absorbing material containing bone morphogenetic protein to prepare uncellular tissue engineering bone, which was then implanted into the bilateral bone defect areas. The left side was wrapped by pedicle fascial flap as the experiment group, while the right side was wrapped by simple absorbable biomembrane as the control group. At 4, 8, 12, 16 weeks after the operation, each group was examined by X-ray radiograph, gross morphology and histological examination, bone shape measurement analysis in the reparative area was performed, the biomechanical detection was done at 12 weeks to compare the repair of bond defect in two groups.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The experiment group was superior to the control group regarding the X-ray radiograph, gross morphology and histological inspection, the quantity and the forming speed of bone trabecula and cartilaginous tissues, the formation of mature bone structure, the remodeling of diaphysis structure, the recanalization of cavum ossis, the absorption and degradation of the implant, the ratio of new bone trabecula area to total reparative area and the final biomechanical strength (P <0.05). The outcomes indicated that the technology of membrane guided bone regeneration using pedical fascial flap to repair large-segment bone defect can restrict the growth of fibrous connective tissue in the reparative process, and promote the effective and fast vascularization, accordingly accelerate the process and the effect of

  11. Outcome after repair of concurrent upper and lower canalicular lacerations

    Ejstrup, Rasmus; Wiencke, Anne K; Toft, Peter B


    PURPOSE: To investigate the functional and cosmetic results after primary surgical repair of bicanalicular lacerations. METHODS: We identified patients diagnosed with bicanalicular lacerations at the Eye Clinic of Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from 2000 through 2009. Patient charts were reviewed......), bicanalicular anular stent (n = 2), bicanalicular stent and dacryocystorhinostomy (n = 1). The surgery was carried out by 6 different surgeons. Eleven patients could be followed up. In these, epiphora was reported after primary surgery by 7 patients, and scarring was graded to more than 1 in 4 patients. However...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...


    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits,...

  13. 骨髓间充质干细胞复合小肠黏膜下层构建组织工程皮肤修复糖尿病皮肤缺损%Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with small intestinal submucosa to construct tissue-engineered skin for repair of diabetes mellitus induced full-thickness skin defects

    王少云; 吴迪; 张丽; 朱晓松; 杨浩; 李次会; 武术; 李世和; 董坚


    背景:小肠黏膜下层已经被证实可以引导许多组织的特异性再生.目的:将骨髓间充质干细胞复合猪小肠黏膜下层构建组织工程皮肤并移植修复兔糖尿病皮肤缺损,观察其对糖尿病皮肤缺损的愈合影响和疗效.方法:制作兔糖尿病皮肤缺损,将骨髓间充质干细胞与冻干、灭菌、水合后的猪小肠黏膜下层膜复合制作组织工程皮肤并覆盖修复兔糖尿病皮肤缺损,并与小肠黏膜下层支架组和空白对照组做对照.结果与结论:造模后1,2,4 周,组织工程皮肤组缺损皮肤修复面积百分比显著大于小肠黏膜下层支架及空白对照组(P <0.05).缺损皮肤修复组织观察组织工程皮肤组组织生长明显快于小肠黏膜下层组与空白对照组.3 组均未见明显皮肤附件结构.表明骨髓间充质干细胞复合猪小肠黏膜下层构建的组织工程皮肤修复兔糖尿病皮肤缺损好于单纯小肠黏膜下层膜,无明显瘢痕组织的生成,可作为支架材料用于皮肤缺损的修复.%BACKGROUND: Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) has been shown to guide the specific regeneration of many tissues. OBJECTIVE: To construct tissue-engineered skin by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) combined with SIS to treat full-thickness skin defects in rabbits with diabetes mellitus, and to observe the healing condition and effects. METHODS: Full-thickness skin defect models were prepared in rabbits with diabetes mellitus. BMSCs with SIS were used to construct tissue-engineered skin for full-thickness skin defects in comparison with SIS scaffold and blank control group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The repairing area in the combination group was larger than that of SIS scaffold and blank control groups (P < 0.05). The rate of skin growth in the combination group was also faster than that of the other two groups. There were no skin appendage structures in the three groups. It was indicated that the satisfactory effect was

  14. MOORE: A prototype expert system for diagnosing spacecraft problems

    Howlin, Katherine; Weissert, Jerry; Krantz, Kerry


    MOORE is a rule-based, prototype expert system that assists in diagnosing operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) problems. It is intended to assist spacecraft engineers at the TDRS ground terminal in trouble shooting problems that are not readily solved with routine procedures, and without expert counsel. An additional goal of the prototype system is to develop in-house expert system and knowledge engineering skills. The prototype system diagnoses antenna pointing and earth pointing problems that may occur within the TDRS Attitude Control System (ACS). Plans include expansion to fault isolation of problems in the most critical subsystems of the TDRS spacecraft. Long term benefits are anticipated with use of an expert system during future TDRS programs with increased mission support time, reduced problem solving time, and retained expert knowledge and experience. Phase 2 of the project is intended to provide NASA the necessary expertise and capability to define requirements, evaluate proposals, and monitor the development progress of a highly competent expert system for NASA's Tracking Data Relay Satellite. Phase 2 also envisions addressing two unexplored applications for expert systems, spacecraft integration and tests (I and T) and support to launch activities. The concept, goals, domain, tools, knowledge acquisition, developmental approach, and design of the expert system. It will explain how NASA obtained the knowledge and capability to develop the system in-house without assistance from outside consultants. Future plans will also be presented.

  15. Engineering Airway Epithelium

    John P. Soleas


    Full Text Available Airway epithelium is constantly presented with injurious signals, yet under healthy circumstances, the epithelium maintains its innate immune barrier and mucociliary elevator function. This suggests that airway epithelium has regenerative potential (I. R. Telford and C. F. Bridgman, 1990. In practice, however, airway regeneration is problematic because of slow turnover and dedifferentiation of epithelium thereby hindering regeneration and increasing time necessary for full maturation and function. Based on the anatomy and biology of the airway epithelium, a variety of tissue engineering tools available could be utilized to overcome the barriers currently seen in airway epithelial generation. This paper describes the structure, function, and repair mechanisms in native epithelium and highlights specific and manipulatable tissue engineering signals that could be of great use in the creation of artificial airway epithelium.

  16. 血管化与膜引导在带蒂筋膜瓣促组织工程复合体修复骨缺损中的作用比较%Comparison of effect on repair of bone defect using pedicle fascial flap promoting tissue engineering complex guided by membrane and vascularization

    孟宪勇; 杨新明; 彭阿钦; 苏峰


    较差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论 带血运筋膜瓣具有明显的促组织工程骨血管化作用并通过促血管化而促进成骨.膜引导性骨再生技术应用于大段骨缺损治疗,尽管有效限制了纤维结缔组织长入但也同时限制了有效快速血管化能力,需要漫长的爬行替代过程,单纯应用生物膜可以通过外骨痂生长弥补植入材料爬行替代缓慢的弊端.%Objective The tissue engineering technique and the microsurgery technology is combined to construct the uncellular tissue engineering complex with vascularization and membrane guided dual effect. Through comparing study of using the simple biomembrane guided bone regeneration technique to construct the uncellular tissue engineering complex to repair the large segment bone defect in the animal body,the bone reparative effect of the tissue engineering bone wrapped by pedical fascial flap with vessels and that wrapped by the simple biomembrane was compared, thus to provide experimental evidence for the clinical application. Methods Twenty-four Newzland 5-month-old rabbits were used to build the bilateral periosteumincluded bone defect modelsin the middle piece of the ulna and the length of the defect was 1 cm. Autologous red bone marrow was implanted in the tissue engineering bone which was prepared by osteoinductive absorbing material including BMP. The prepared tissue engineering bone was implanted in the bone defect area. The right side was wrapped by the simple absorbable biomembrane, whereas the left side was wrapped by pedical fascial flap with blood supply. At the fourth, eighth, twelfth and sixteenth week after the operation each group was examined by the radiograph (x-ray), the light density measurement, gross morphology and histological inspection,bone shape measurement analysis in the repairing area and the biomechanics measurement at the twelfth week. The data was analyzed to test the difference of the bond defect repair. Results The radiograph, gross

  17. Dorsal variant blister aneurysm repair.

    Couldwell, William T; Chamoun, Roukoz


    Dorsal variant proximal carotid blister aneurysms are treacherous lesions to manage. It is important to recognize this variant on preoperative angiographic imaging, in anticipation of surgical strategies for their treatment. Strategies include trapping the involved segment and revascularization if necessary. Other options include repair of the aneurysm rupture site directly. Given that these are not true berry aneurysms, repair of the rupture site involves wrapping or clip-grafting techniques. The case presented here was a young woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dorsal variant blister aneurysm. The technique used is demonstrated in the video and is a modified clip-wrap technique using woven polyester graft material. The patient was given aspirin preoperatively as preparation for the clip-wrap technique. It is the authors' current protocol to attempt a direct repair with clip-wrapping and leaving artery sacrifice with or without bypass as a salvage therapy if direct repair is not possible. Assessment of vessel patency after repair is performed by intraoperative Doppler and indocyanine green angiography. Intraoperative somatosensory and motor evoked potential monitoring is performed in all cases. The video can be found here:

  18. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Canillas, M.; Moreno-Burriel, B.; Chinarro, E.


    Central Nervous System (CNS) can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as secondary injury. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon. (Author)

  19. Survey of Active Structural Control and Repair Using Piezoelectric Patches

    Ahmed Abuzaid


    Full Text Available The piezoelectric actuator has gained popularity over the last few years. Attention has been directed towards the study of their electromechanical response in active repair and the control of damaged structures. This has been made possible through the development of various numerical and analytical techniques for such studies. The shift of focus towards the piezoelectric based approaches has been due to their advantages, which include strategic cost benefits in maintenance, as well as an increase in the life cycle of the repaired structures. Furthermore, adhesively bonded joints are widely used in the manufacturing and repairing of structures in many industries, especially automotive and aerospace engineering. This is due to the requirement for lightweight materials as well as the potential adhesive used to join materials with different characteristics. The piezoelectric actuator has also shown the capacity in controlling and lowering the shear stress concentration and joint edge peel in adhesively bonded joint systems. The structure’s control of stress and repair can generally be viewed as a reinforcement that influences the structure’s damage tolerance. Therefore, the interest of this review is on the applications of the piezoelectric actuators in both structural damage and the bonded adhesive joint system. The specific goal is to recognize the contemporary scientific challenges, including future opportunities.

  20. Biomaterials & scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Fergal J. O'Brien


    Full Text Available Every day thousands of surgical procedures are performed to replace or repair tissue that has been damaged through disease or trauma. The developing field of tissue engineering (TE aims to regenerate damaged tissues by combining cells from the body with highly porous scaffold biomaterials, which act as templates for tissue regeneration, to guide the growth of new tissue. This article describes the functional requirements, and types, of materials used in developing state of the art of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Furthermore, it describes the challenges and where future research and direction is required in this rapidly advancing field.

  1. DNA-damage foci to detect and characterize DNA repair alterations in children treated for pediatric malignancies.

    Nadine Schuler

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In children diagnosed with cancer, we evaluated the DNA damage foci approach to identify patients with double-strand break (DSB repair deficiencies, who may overreact to DNA-damaging radio- and chemotherapy. In one patient with Fanconi anemia (FA suffering relapsing squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity we also characterized the repair defect in biopsies of skin, mucosa and tumor. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In children with histologically confirmed tumors or leukemias and healthy control-children DSB repair was investigated by counting γH2AX-, 53BP1- and pATM-foci in blood lymphocytes at defined time points after ex-vivo irradiation. This DSB repair capacity was correlated with treatment-related normal-tissue responses. For the FA patient the defective repair was also characterized in tissue biopsies by analyzing DNA damage response proteins by light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Between tumor-children and healthy control-children we observed significant differences in mean DSB repair capacity, suggesting that childhood cancer is based on genetic alterations affecting DNA repair. Only 1 out of 4 patients with grade-4 normal-tissue toxicities revealed an impaired DSB repair capacity. The defective DNA repair in FA patient was verified in irradiated blood lymphocytes as well as in non-irradiated mucosa and skin biopsies leading to an excessive accumulation of heterochromatin-associated DSBs in rapidly cycling cells. CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing human tissues we show that DSB repair alterations predispose to cancer formation at younger ages and affect the susceptibility to normal-tissue toxicities. DNA damage foci analysis of blood and tissue samples allows one to detect and characterize DSB repair deficiencies and enables identification of patients at risk for high-grade toxicities. However, not all treatment-associated normal-tissue toxicities can be explained by DSB repair deficiencies.

  2. Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine.

    Gersbach, Charles A; Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J


    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust cellular differentiation and extracellular matrix production. As a result, gene therapy has been established as a conventional approach to enhance cellular activities for skeletal tissue repair. Recent literature clearly demonstrates that genetic engineering is a principal factor in constructing effective methods for tissue engineering approaches to bone, cartilage, and connective tissue regeneration. This review highlights this literature, including advances in the development of efficacious gene carriers, novel cell sources, successful delivery strategies, and optimal target genes. The current status of the field and the challenges impeding the clinical realization of these approaches are also discussed.

  3. Engineering ceramics

    Bengisu, Murat


    This is a comprehensive book applying especially to junior and senior engineering students pursuing Materials Science/ Engineering, Ceramic Engineering and Mechanical Engineering degrees. It is also a reference book for other disciplines such as Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Engineering. Important properties of most engineering ceramics are given in detailed tables. Many current and possible applications of engineering ceramics are described, which can be used as a guide for materials selection and for potential future research. While covering all relevant information regarding raw materials, processing properties, characterization and applications of engineering ceramics, the book also summarizes most recent innovations and developments in this field as a result of extensive literature search.

  4. Engineering and Software Engineering

    Jackson, Michael

    The phrase ‘software engineering' has many meanings. One central meaning is the reliable development of dependable computer-based systems, especially those for critical applications. This is not a solved problem. Failures in software development have played a large part in many fatalities and in huge economic losses. While some of these failures may be attributable to programming errors in the narrowest sense—a program's failure to satisfy a given formal specification—there is good reason to think that most of them have other roots. These roots are located in the problem of software engineering rather than in the problem of program correctness. The famous 1968 conference was motivated by the belief that software development should be based on “the types of theoretical foundations and practical disciplines that are traditional in the established branches of engineering.” Yet after forty years of currency the phrase ‘software engineering' still denotes no more than a vague and largely unfulfilled aspiration. Two major causes of this disappointment are immediately clear. First, too many areas of software development are inadequately specialised, and consequently have not developed the repertoires of normal designs that are the indispensable basis of reliable engineering success. Second, the relationship between structural design and formal analytical techniques for software has rarely been one of fruitful synergy: too often it has defined a boundary between competing dogmas, at which mutual distrust and incomprehension deprive both sides of advantages that should be within their grasp. This paper discusses these causes and their effects. Whether the common practice of software development will eventually satisfy the broad aspiration of 1968 is hard to predict; but an understanding of past failure is surely a prerequisite of future success.

  5. A Type-2 Fuzzy Image Processing Expert System for Diagnosing Brain Tumors.

    Zarinbal, M; Fazel Zarandi, M H; Turksen, I B; Izadi, M


    The focus of this paper is diagnosing and differentiating Astrocytomas in MRI scans by developing an interval Type-2 fuzzy automated tumor detection system. This system consists of three modules: working memory, knowledge base, and inference engine. An image processing method with three steps of preprocessing, segmentation and feature extraction, and approximate reasoning is used in inference engine module to enhance the quality of MRI scans, segment them into desired regions, extract the required features, and finally diagnose and differentiate Astrocytomas. However, brain tumors have different characteristics in different planes, so considering one plane of patient's MRI scan may cause inaccurate results. Therefore, in the developed system, several consecutive planes are processed. The performance of this system is evaluated using 95 MRI scans and the results show good improvement in diagnosing and differentiating Astrocytomas.

  6. Biomechanics and mechanobiology in functional tissue engineering.

    Guilak, Farshid; Butler, David L; Goldstein, Steven A; Baaijens, Frank P T


    The field of tissue engineering continues to expand and mature, and several products are now in clinical use, with numerous other preclinical and clinical studies underway. However, specific challenges still remain in the repair or regeneration of tissues that serve a predominantly biomechanical function. Furthermore, it is now clear that mechanobiological interactions between cells and scaffolds can critically influence cell behavior, even in tissues and organs that do not serve an overt biomechanical role. Over the past decade, the field of "functional tissue engineering" has grown as a subfield of tissue engineering to address the challenges and questions on the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in tissue engineering. Originally posed as a set of principles and guidelines for engineering of load-bearing tissues, functional tissue engineering has grown to encompass several related areas that have proven to have important implications for tissue repair and regeneration. These topics include measurement and modeling of the in vivo biomechanical environment; quantitative analysis of the mechanical properties of native tissues, scaffolds, and repair tissues; development of rationale criteria for the design and assessment of engineered tissues; investigation of the effects biomechanical factors on native and repair tissues, in vivo and in vitro; and development and application of computational models of tissue growth and remodeling. Here we further expand this paradigm and provide examples of the numerous advances in the field over the past decade. Consideration of these principles in the design process will hopefully improve the safety, efficacy, and overall success of engineered tissue replacements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Boron neutron capture therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: An assessment of clinical potential

    Hopewell, J.W., E-mail: [Green Templeton College and Particle Therapy Cancer Research Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gorlia, T. [Data Center, EORTC, Brussels (Belgium); Pellettieri, L. [Hammercap Medical AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg (Sweden); Giusti, V. [Hammercap Medical AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); H-Stenstam, B. [Nykoeping Hospital, County of Sormland (Sweden); Skoeld, K. [Hammercap Medical AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The purpose of this analysis was to assess the potential of BNCT, with L-boronophenylalanine (L-BPA), as first line radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The survival of patients with newly diagnosed GBM from a phase II BNCT study was compared with those from the two arms of a phase III study with conventional radiotherapy (RT) vs. RT plus concomitant and adjuvant medication with temozolomide (TMZ). A small subgroup, for which the methylation status of the O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) DNA-repair gene was known, was also considered. The results indicated that the use of BNCT with BPA should be explored in a stratified randomized phase II trial in which patients with the unmethylated MGMT DNA-repair gene are offered BNCT vs. RT plus TMZ.

  8. Diagnosing Asthma in Very Young Children

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Diagnosing Asthma in Babies & Toddlers Page Content Article Body One ... family with recurrent bronchitis or sinus problems. When Asthma is Not the Cause Your pediatrician will listen ...

  9. How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Diagnosed?

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are pelvic floor disorders diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links ... fee ). This test is used to evaluate the pelvic floor and rectum while the patient is having a ...

  10. How Are Overweight and Obesity Diagnosed?

    ... body mass index (BMI) and possibly a high waist circumference, and tests to rule out other medical conditions. ... diagnosed as obese if you have a large waist circumference that suggests increased amounts of fat in your ...

  11. How Are Soft Tissue Sarcomas Diagnosed?

    ... type of cancer or a benign disease. Several types of biopsies are used to diagnose sarcomas. Doctors experienced with ... But if FNA results suggest a sarcoma, another type of biopsy will usually be done to remove enough tissue ...

  12. How Are Obesity and Overweight Diagnosed?

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are obesity & overweight diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... common way to determine if a person is overweight or obese is to calculate body mass index ( ...

  13. Determining the functional significance of mismatch repair gene missense variants using biochemical and cellular assays

    Heinen, Christopher D; Juel Rasmussen, Lene


    provided an important experimental tool for studying the functional consequences of VUS. However, beyond this repair assay, a number of other experimental methods have been developed that allow us to test the effect of a VUS on discrete biochemical steps or other aspects of MMR function. Here, we describe......ABSTRACT: With the discovery that the hereditary cancer susceptibility disease Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by deleterious germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes nearly 20 years ago, genetic testing can now be used to diagnose this disorder in patients. A definitive diagnosis...

  14. BMSCs-based tissue-engineering bone repairing bone defect in dental implant region:an experimental study%以 BMSCs为基础构建组织工程骨修复种植区骨量不足的实验研究

    朱彪; 赵刚; 徐红梅; 郭希民; 郭红延


    Objective To repair bone defect in implant region using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells -based tissue-engi-neering bone and investigate its osteogenesis potential .Methods Bilateral implantaion ,two implants every side , was performed in the mandible premolar region of 3 Beagles and bone defects were created in the distal of every implant .Two bone defects in one side of mandible premolar region were randomly repaired with two types of grafts :PRP (n=6, the control group);and compound osteogenic-induced BMSCs with PRP(n=6, the experimental group).1 and 3 months after transplation, gross investigation,X-ray examination and histological observation were conducted to examine bone formation .Results One month after implantation ,the osteogenesis in ex-perimental group was better than in the control group .We detected more bone matrix and less collagenous fibers in the experimental group.The bone density in the experimental group was higher than in the control group and the difference was significantly different [(101 ±8.99)vs(93 ±9.81),P≤0.05].Three months after implantation,the bone density in the experimental group tended to be higher than in the control group;however,the difference was not statistically significant [(100.75 ±12.05)vs(105 ±11.58)].But we detected more Haversian system in the experimental group .Conclusion Bone marrow stem cell-based tissue-engineered bone has high osteogenic potential around implants .%目的:评价以骨髓间充质干细胞(bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ,BMSCs)为基础构建组织工程骨修复种植体周围骨缺损的成骨效果。方法在3只犬双侧下颌前磨牙区各植入2颗种植体,分为对照组和实验组,每组6颗种值体;在种植体远中制备骨缺损,对照组每侧骨缺损区随机植入富血小板血浆( platelet-rich plasma,PRP)和实验组成骨诱导培养BM-SCs复合PRP。分别于移植后1、3个月取材,行大体、影像

  15. Challenges in diagnosing tuberculosis in children

    Rahman, Nadia; Pedersen, Karin Kæreby; Nielsen, Vibeke Rosenfeldt


    Clinical investigations of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining specimens. We investigated the challenges in diagnosing TB in children in a low-incidence country.......Clinical investigations of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining specimens. We investigated the challenges in diagnosing TB in children in a low-incidence country....

  16. Articular Cartilage Repair Through Muscle Cell-Based Tissue Engineering


    32–36). Surgically induced OAmodels may be more clinically relevant than chemically induced models with regard to the patho- physiology of OA. However...Am J Pathol 1989;135:1001–14. 33. Guingamp C, Gegout-Pottie P, Philippe L, Terlain B, Netter P, Gillet P. Mono-iodoacetate–induced experimental

  17. Joint homeostasis in tissue engineering for cartilage repair

    Saris, D.B.F.


    Traumatic joint damage, articular cartilage and the research into methods of restoring the articulation are not new topics of interest. For centuries, clinicians have recognized the importance of cartilage damage and sought ways of learning about the normal form and function of hyaline cartilage as

  18. Articular Cartilage Repair Through Muscle Cell-Based Tissue Engineering


    fferentiation of s tem c ells is also an i mportant i ssue t o c onsider e specially f or t he persistence of the regenerate cartilage. Based on these...tap water for 10 minutes and counterstained with nuclear fast red. Differentiation of MDSCs into chondrocytes. Pellets in OCT blocks were sectioned and...into Alcian blue solution for 30 minutes. The slides were rinsed with running tap water for 10 minutes and counterstained with nuclear fast red

  19. Parthenogenetic stem cells for tissue-engineered heart repair

    Didie, Michael; Christalla, Peter; Rubart, Michael; Muppala, Vijayakumar; Doeker, Stephan; Unsoeld, Bernhard; El-Armouche, Ali; Rau, Thomas; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Schwoerer, Alexander P.; Ehmke, Heimo; Schumacher, Udo; Fuchs, Sigrid; Lange, Claudia; Becker, Alexander; Tao, Wen; Scherschel, John A.; Soonpaa, Mark H.; Yang, Tao; Lin, Qiong; Zenke, Martin; Han, Dong-Wook; Schoeler, Hans R.; Rudolph, Cornelia; Steinemann, Doris; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Kattman, Steve; Witty, Alec; Keller, Gordon; Field, Loren J.; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus


    Uniparental parthenotes are considered an unwanted byproduct of in vitro fertilization. In utero parthenote development is severely compromised by defective organogenesis and in particular by defective cardiogenesis. Although developmentally compromised, apparently pluripotent stem cells can be deri

  20. Ergonomics, Engineering, and Business: Repairing a Tricky Divorce

    Jensen, Per Langaa; Broberg, Ole; Møller, Niels


    This paper discusses how the ergonomics community can contribute to make ergonomics a strategic element in business decisions on strategy and implementation of strategy. The ergonomics community is seen as a heterogeneous entity made up of educational and research activities in universities, ergo...... that desired influential effects on companies are dependent on a concurrent change within the community’s different parts and their interaction with organizations and their surroundings....

  1. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Yaw ChiaHwan


    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  2. Experimental Observation of the Skeletal Adaptive Repair Mechanism and Bionic Topology Optimization Method

    Kaysar Rahman


    Full Text Available Bone adaptive repair theory considers that the external load is the direct source of bone remodeling; bone achieves its maintenance by remodeling some microscopic damages due to external load during the process. This paper firstly observes CT data from the whole self-repairing process in bone defects in rabbit femur. Experimental result shows that during self-repairing process there exists an interaction relationship between spongy bone and enamel bone volume changes of bone defect, that is when volume of spongy bone increases, enamel bone decreases, and when volume of spongy bone decreases, enamel bone increases. Secondly according to this feature a bone remodeling model based on cross-type reaction-diffusion system influenced by mechanical stress is proposed. Finally, this model coupled with finite element method by using the element adding and removing process is used to simulate the self-repairing process and engineering optimization problems by considering the idea of bionic topology optimization.

  3. Colocalization of multiple DNA double-strand breaks at a single Rad52 repair centre

    Lisby, M.; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Rothstein, R.


    DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) is an essential process for preserving genomic integrity in all organisms. To investigate this process at the cellular level, we engineered a system of fluorescently marked DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to visualize...... in vivo DSBR in single cells. Using this system, we demonstrate for the first time that Rad52 DNA repair foci and DSBs colocalize. Time-lapse microscopy reveals that the relocalization of Rad52 protein into a focal assembly is a rapid and reversible process. In addition, analysis of DNA damage checkpoint......-deficient cells provides direct evidence for coordination between DNA repair and subsequent release from checkpoint arrest. Finally, analyses of cells experiencing multiple DSBs demonstrate that Rad52 foci are centres of DNA repair capable of simultaneously recruiting more than one DSB....

  4. Nucleotide excision repair in the test tube.

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)


    textabstractThe eukaryotic nucleotide excision-repair pathway has been reconstituted in vitro, an achievement that should hasten the full enzymological characterization of this highly complex DNA-repair pathway.

  5. Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair

    Kovacevic, David; Rodeo, Scott A


    A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site...

  6. Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge

    ... this page: // Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge To use the sharing ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 8. Read More Cleft lip and palate Cleft lip and palate repair Review Date 5/9/ ...

  7. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    ... this page: // Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge To use the sharing features ... References Orandi BJ, Black JH. Open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  8. The use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering

    Van de Velde, P.A.; Ebbens, E.H.; Van Herpen, J.A.


    Asphalt products have been used in the Netherlands in hydraulic engineering for a long time on a large scale, especially after the great disaster in 1953 when a large part of western Holland was flooded by the sea. After the disaster a great number of dikes had to be repaired very quickly and this w

  9. Auto Mechanics. Heavy Equipment. Small Engines.

    Finnerty, Kathy

    Developed for use in auto mechanics, Heavy Equipment Repair and Operation (HERO), and small engines programs, these study guides and supplemental worksheets cover operating principles, lubrication, cooling system, ignition circuit and electrical system, and fuel system. The worksheets and guide questions are phrased to emphasize key points…

  10. The use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering

    Van de Velde, P.A.; Ebbens, E.H.; Van Herpen, J.A.


    Asphalt products have been used in the Netherlands in hydraulic engineering for a long time on a large scale, especially after the great disaster in 1953 when a large part of western Holland was flooded by the sea. After the disaster a great number of dikes had to be repaired very quickly and this w

  11. Contact models of repaired articular surfaces: influence of loading conditions and the superficial tangential zone.

    Owen, John R; Wayne, Jennifer S


    The superficial tangential zone (STZ) plays a significant role in normal articular cartilage's ability to support loads and retain fluids. To date, tissue engineering efforts have not replicated normal STZ function in cartilage repairs. This finite element study examined the STZ's role in normal and repaired articular surfaces under different contact conditions. Contact area and pressure distributions were allowed to change with time, tension-compression nonlinearity modeled collagen behavior in the STZ, and nonlinear geometry was incorporated to accommodate finite deformation. Responses to loading via impermeable and permeable rigid surfaces were compared to loading via normal cartilage, a more physiologic condition, anticipating the two rigid loading surfaces would bracket that of normal. For models loaded by normal cartilage, an STZ placed over the inferior repair region reduced the short-term axial compression of the articular surface by 15%, when compared to a repair without an STZ. Covering the repair with a normal STZ shifted the flow patterns and strain levels back toward that of normal cartilage. Additionally, reductions in von Mises stress (21%) and an increase in fluid pressure (13%) occurred in repair tissue under the STZ. This continues to show that STZ properties of sufficient quality are likely critical for the survival of transplanted constructs in vivo. However, response to loading via normal cartilage did not always fall within ranges predicted by the rigid surfaces. Use of more physiologic contact models is recommended for more accurate investigations into properties critical to the success of repair tissues.

  12. Cryogenic Treatment of Al-Li Alloys for Improved Weldability, Repairability, and Reduction of Residual Stresses

    Malone, Tina W.; Graham, Benny F.; Gentz, Steven J. (Technical Monitor)


    Service performance has shown that cryogenic treatment of some metals provides improved strength, fatigue life, and wear resistance to the processed material. Effects such as these were initially discovered by NASA engineers while evaluating spacecraft that had returned from the cold vacuum of space. Factors such as high cost, poor repairability, and poor machinability are currently prohibitive for wide range use of some aerospace aluminum alloys. Application of a cryogenic treatment process to these alloys is expected provide improvements in weldability and weld properties coupled with a reduction in repairs resulting in a significant reduction in the cost to manufacture and life cycle cost of aerospace hardware. The primary purpose of this effort was to evaluate the effects of deep cryogenic treatment of some aluminum alloy plate products, welds, and weld repairs, and optimize a process for the treatment of these materials. The optimized process is being evaluated for improvements in properties of plate and welds, improvements in weldability and repairability of treated materials, and as an alternative technique for the reduction of residual stresses in repaired welds. This paper will present the results of testing and evaluation conducted in this effort. These results will include assessments of changes in strength, toughness, stress corrosion susceptability, weldability, repairability, and reduction in residual stresses of repaired welds.

  13. Mechanical engineering

    Darbyshire, Alan


    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  14. Evaluation of Internet Information About Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Lawson, Kevin A; Codella, Stephen; Ciccotti, Michael G; Kane, Patrick W; Duncan, Ian C; Cohen, Steven B


    The content and quality of Internet websites are not governed or regulated. Therefore, patients who consult the Internet may receive outdated or incorrect medical information. Researchers have analyzed the quality of web information about various orthopedic surgeries, but no such analysis has been performed on websites covering rotator cuff repair. We conducted a study to evaluate and analyze rotator cuff repair information available to the general public through the Internet; to assess changes in the quality of information over time; to determine if sites sponsored by academic institutions offered higher-quality information; and to assess whether the readability of the material varied according to DISCERN scores. Two Internet searches were conducted, in 2011 and 2014. The 3 most commonly used search engines were used to search for rotator cuff repair. The first 50 websites from each search engine were evaluated for authorship and content. The DISCERN instrument was used to analyze the quality of each website's health information. The 2011 search revealed 21% of websites were associated with an academic institution, 38% were authored by a hospital or physician group, and 11.5% were industry-sponsored. The 2014 search revealed a similar distribution of contributors. The highest DISCERN scores were given to academic institution websites (51.6) and public education websites (49). There was no correlation between readability and DISCERN scores. Websites associated with academic institutions produced the highest-quality medical information. Over the past few years, authorship and content have changed little with respect to Internet information about rotator cuff repair.

  15. Alternatives Analysis Amchitka Island Mud Pit Cap Repair, Amchitka, Alaska January 2016

    Darr, Paul S. [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages the Nevada Offsites program, which includes a series of reclaimed drilling mud impoundments on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Figure 1). Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. is the Legacy Management Support contractor (the Contractor) for LM. The Contractor has procured Tetra Tech, Inc. to provide engineering support to the Amchitka mud pit reclamation project. The mud pit caps were damaged during a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that occurred in 2014. The goals of the current project are to investigate conditions at the mud pit impoundments, identify feasible alternatives for repair of the cover systems and the contents, and estimate relative costs of repair alternatives. This report presents descriptions of the sites and past investigations, existing conditions, summaries of various repair/mitigation alternatives, and direct, unburdened, order-of-magnitude (-15% to +50%) associated costs.

  16. Transvesicoscopic Repair of Vesicovaginal Fistula

    R. B. Nerli


    Full Text Available Introduction. Vesicovaginal fistula has been a social and surgical problem for centuries. Many surgical techniques have been developed to correct this abnormality, including transabdominal, transvaginal, and endoscopic approaches. The best approach is probably the one with which the surgeon feels most experienced and comfortable. Laparoscopy has become increasingly popular in urology, reducing the invasiveness of treatment and shortening the period of convalescence. We report our results of transvesicoscopic approach for VVF repair. Materials and Methods. Patients with VVF were offered repair using the transvesicoscopic route. With the patient under general anaesthesia and in modified lithotomy position cystoscopy was performed with gas insufflation. Under cystoscopic guidance the bladder was fixed to anterior abdominal wall and ports inserted into the bladder. The fistula was repaired under endoscopic vision. Results. Four women, who had VVF following abdominal hysterectomy, underwent this procedure. The operating time ranged from 175 to 235 minutes. There was minimal bleeding. Post operative complications included ileus in one and fever in another. No recurrence of VVF was noted in any patient. Conclusions. Transvesicoscopic repair of VVF is feasible, safe, and results in lower morbidity and quicker recovery time.

  17. Small Crater Expedient Repair Test.


    Force Base, New Mexico , October 1975. 3. Rollings, Raymond S., Laboratory Evaluation of Expedient Pavement Repair Materials, CEEDO-TR-7-44, Civil and...blank) APPENDIX A EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE SP6WCIFICATIONS Performance specit’ications are included i.n tl is appe udi \\ tor the following equipment: 1

  18. Outcome of quadriceps tendon repair.

    Puranik, Gururaj S; Faraj, Adnan


    Complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a well-described injury. There is a scarcity of literature relating to the outcome of patients with this injury after surgery. We undertook a retrospective analysis of patients who had surgical repair of their quadriceps tendon at our institution over a 13-year period, totalling 21 patients. Males were more commonly affected, with a male/female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was in the sixth decade of life. Assessment consisted of the completion of a functional knee questionnaire and a clinical examination. Symptomatic outcome following surgical repair was good with a mean symptom score generated of 19.16 out of a maximum of 25 using the Rougraff et al scoring system. Most of the patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity. Five degrees deficit and extension lag was present in three patients; these patients had the quadriceps repaired using transosseous sutures. Patients who had direct repair of the tendon using the Bunnell technique had lower Rougraff scores than the rest.

  19. How the Brain Repairs Stuttering

    Kell, Christian A.; Neumann, Katrin; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Posenenske, Claudia; von Gudenberg, Alexander W.; Euler, Harald; Giraud, Anne-Lise


    Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with left inferior frontal structural anomalies. While children often recover, stuttering may also spontaneously disappear much later after years of dysfluency. These rare cases of unassisted recovery in adulthood provide a model of optimal brain repair outside the classical windows of…

  20. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  1. Pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair

    Ashok k. Hemal


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33 year old female presented with right loin pain and obstruction on intravenous urography with the classical "fish-hook" appearance. She was counseled on the various methods of repair and elected to have a robot assisted repair. The following steps are performed during a pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. The patient is placed in a modified flank position, pneumoperitoneum created and ports inserted. The colon is mobilized to expose the retroperitoneal structures: inferior vena cava, right gonadal vein, right ureter, and duodenum. The renal pelvis and ureter are mobilized and the renal pelvis transected. The ureter is transposed anterior to the inferior vena cava and a pyelopyelostomy is performed over a JJ stent. RESULTS: This patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. The catheter and drain tube were removed on day 1. Her JJ stent was removed at 6 weeks postoperatively. The postoperative intravenous urography at 3 months confirmed normal drainage of contrast medium. CONCLUSION: Pure robotic retrocaval ureter is a feasible procedure; however, there does not appear to be any great advantage over pure laparoscopy, apart from the ergonomic ease for the surgeon as well the simpler intracorporeal suturing.

  2. [Complications of inguinal hernia repair].

    Forte, A; D'Urso, A; Gallinaro, L S; Lo Storto, G; Bosco, M R; Vietri, F; Beltrami, V


    It's shown by literature and confirmed by Author's experience that, on account of the excellent results, prosthetic repair of inguinal hernia is more effective than "conventional" (Bassini, Mc Vay, Shouldice). Between January 1993 and December 2000 were observed 875 patients with inguinal hernia (814 monolateral, 61 bilateral); all patients underwent a Lichtenstein repair both in the primary version and in its variations (internal ring plastic, trasversalis plicate, plug repair). The patients were discharged from hospital within 24 hours after surgery in 90% of cases. No important intraoperative complications were observed; the patients restarting work varied from 3 to 15 days after the discharging in relation to patient anxiety, onset of complications and to the type of work. The complications observed were: urine retention (1.6%), superficial haematoma (1.3%), superficial infection (1%), wound suppuration (0.5%), serous effusion (0.7%), postsurgery pain (2.1%), scrotal edema (1.7%), persistent inguinal neuralgia (0.6), local hypoesthesia (4.3%), ischemical orchitis (0.1%), recurrence (0.2%). In conclusion Authors assert that "tension free" repair allows optimal results both for the surgery point (easiness of the technique, repeatability, less invasivity, scanty incident of recurrences, low frequency of postoperative complications) and in economic terms, allowing an early mobilization of the patients. A further improvement would be obtained with more care in surgical and patient management, with more excellent results.

  3. Fix-It Careers: Jobs in Repair

    Torpey, Elka Maria


    From auto mechanic to HVAC technicians, many occupations require repair skills. For jobseekers with the right skills, there are many advantages to a repair career. Repair work provides millions of jobs throughout the United States. Wages are often higher than average. And in many occupations, the employment outlook is bright. Plus, most repair…

  4. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a repair garage or shop....

  5. Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair

    Burcharth, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Bisgaard, Thue;


    Groin hernia repair is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the western world but large-scaled epidemiologic data are sparse. Large-scale data on the occurrence of groin hernia repair may provide further understanding to the pathophysiology of groin hernia development. This study was undert...... was undertaken to investigate the age and gender dependent prevalence of groin hernia repair....



    This paper presents practical research on repair mechanismand its four repair trajectories in FL classroom interaction. Thisshows that it is effective and efficient in assisting FL learners todevelop their communicative competence and understand theprocess of language acquisition. Repair strategies that are ofgreat value to FL teachers in FL classroom teaching are also ex-pounded.

  7. 基于瞬态动力学的航空活塞发动机连杆修理检测区域划分%Repair and Detection Area Dipartition of Aviation Piston Engine Connecting Rod Based on Transient Dynamic Analysis

    丁发军; 魏武国


    Based on the basic theory of transient dynamics, a general connecting rod from a Lycoming pis-ton engine had been taken as analysis object, and a three-dimensional finite element model of the rod was established in general finite element software according to initial design parameters. And then, the dynamic response of the rod to gas pressure in cylinder during final phase of compression stroke and initial phase of expansion stroke under engine’s rated speed conditions had been analyzed. Simulation results show that the maximum equivalent stress occurs at the transition zone between shaft and little head in all load steps, and with the appearance of gas peak pressure in cylinder at the same time. And the maximum equivalent stress versus time curve was obtained, which provided numerical basis for estimating fatigue life and improving fa-tigue reliability of the rod. Finally, hazardous areas of the rod had been identified according to equivalent stress and strain contours, and become the key areas of detection before repair.%基于瞬态动力学基本理论,选取Lycoming航空活塞发动机的普通连杆为分析对象,在通用有限元软件中建立其三维有限元模型。考虑在发动机额定转速工况下,连杆在压缩行程末期、膨胀行程初期气缸内气体压力作用下的动力学响应。分析发现:在所有载荷步下,最大等效应力和应变均出现在杆身和小头的过渡区域,且与缸内气体峰值压力同时出现;获得的最大等效应力随时间的变化曲线,可为预估连杆疲劳寿命、提高连杆疲劳可靠性提供数值依据;结合等效应力应变云图,划分出的连杆应力集中的危险区域,为修理前检测的重点区域。

  8. Optimal Repair And Replacement Policy For A System With Multiple Components


    probabilistic life-cycle maintenance mod- els for deteriorating civil infrastructure. Probabilistic Enginering Mechanics 19 345– 359. Zhang, Y.L. 2002. A...Repair, Replace, Multiple Component Models, Maintenance Models, Markov Decision Process 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 83 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...Parametric Analysis of the Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6 Conclusions and Future Work 45 6.1 Conclusions

  9. Hand function after nerve repair.

    Lundborg, G; Rosén, B


    Treatment of injuries to major nerve trunks in the hand and upper extremity remains a major and challenging reconstructive problem. Such injuries may cause long-lasting disabilities in terms of lost fine sensory and motor functions. Nowadays there is no surgical repair technique that can ensure recovery of tactile discrimination in the hand of an adult patient following nerve repair while very young individuals usually regain a complete recovery of functional sensibility. Post-traumatic nerve regeneration is a complex biological process where the outcome depends on multiple biological and environmental factors such as survival of nerve cells, axonal regeneration rate, extent of axonal misdirection, type of injury, type of nerve, level of the lesion, age of the patient and compliance to training. A major problem is the cortical functional reorganization of hand representation which occurs as a result of axonal misdirection. Although protective sensibility usually occurs following nerve repair, tactile discriminative functions seldom recover--a direct result of cortical remapping. Sensory re-education programmes are routinely applied to facilitate understanding of the new sensory patterns provided by the hand. New trends in hand rehabilitation focus on modulation of central nervous processes rather than peripheral factors. Principles are being evolved to maintain the cortical hand representation by using the brain capacity for visuo-tactile and audio-tactile interaction for the initial phase following nerve injury and repair (phase 1). After the start of the re-innervation of the hand (phase 2), selective de-afferentation, such as cutaneous anaesthesia of the forearm of the injured hand, allows expansion of the nerve-injured cortical hand representation, thereby enhancing the effects of sensory relearning. Recent data support the view that training protocols specifically addressing the relearning process substantially increase the possibilities for improved


    V. M. Bubnov


    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  11. Using random forests to diagnose aviation turbulence


    Atmospheric turbulence poses a significant hazard to aviation, with severe encounters costing airlines millions of dollars per year in compensation, aircraft damage, and delays due to required post-event inspections and repairs. Moreover, attempts to avoid turbulent airspace cause flight delays and en route deviations that increase air traffic controller workload, disrupt schedules of air crews and passengers and use extra fuel. For these reasons, the Federal Aviation Administration and the N...

  12. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    Mladena Lukovic


    Full Text Available In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c. This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d, the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning. From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice.

  13. Development and validation of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft.

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.


    A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack, impact, and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safely extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC), Boeing, and Federal Express completed a pilot program to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the U.S. commercial aircraft industry. This project focused on repair of DC-10 fuselage structure and its primary goal was to demonstrate routine use of this repair technology using niche applications that streamline the design-to-installation process. As composite doubler repairs gradually appear in the commercial aircraft arena, successful flight operation data is being accumulated. These commercial aircraft repairs are not only demonstrating the engineering and economic advantages of composite doubler technology but they are also establishing the ability of commercial maintenance depots to safely adopt this repair technique. This report presents the array of engineering activities that were completed in order to make this technology available for widespread commercial aircraft use. Focused laboratory testing was conducted to compliment the field data and to address specific issues regarding damage tolerance and flaw growth in composite doubler repairs. Fatigue and strength tests were performed on a simulated wing

  14. Tissue engineered artificial bone with composite of BMP-2 and vascularized tissue in repairing the large segmental bone defect%复合骨形态发生蛋白-2的人工骨与带血供组织修复羊大段骨缺损

    周密; 徐建强; 张树明; 李长庚; 张娟; 孙锁柱; 王长江; 王克利


    目的 研究组织工程化人工骨结合不同自体带血供组织(长段自体尺骨或屈指长肌)移植修复大段骨缺损的效果.方法 手术造成绵羊桡骨30mm骨缺损,A组植入[聚乳酸-乙醇酸共聚物(PLGA)-磷酸三钙(TCP)-骨形态发生蛋白-2(BMP-2)]人工骨及带血运的长段尺骨,B组植入PLGA-TCP-BMP-2人工骨及带血运的屈指长肌肌腹,C组仅植入PLGA-TCP-BMP-2人工骨,D组不植入任何材料.4组均以钢板固定桡骨缺损区.术后24周行手术部位X线摄片,24周处死动物行组织学检查.结果 术后 24周时,X线检查示A、B组桡骨缺损处完全成骨修复,皮质骨与髓腔的轮廓较为清晰;C组亦能完全修复,但新生骨密度及髓腔轮廓清晰度均不如A、B组;D组无有效骨痂形成.组织学检查结果显示,A组新生骨完全修复骨缺损区;B组骨痂为较成熟的板层骨,骨陷窝较多;C组新生板层骨及骨陷窝排列较为紊乱;D组无骨连接表现.A、B、C组均未见人工骨材料残留.结论 PLGA-TCP-BMP-2人工骨结合带血供的长段自体骨或自体肌肉移植能够很好地修复绵羊桡骨30mm的骨缺损.%Objective To study the effects of the tissue engineered artificial bone with vaseularized ulna or vaseularized muscle transplantation in repairing the large segmental defect of sheep's radius.Methods 30 lnm de-feets were made in middle segments of sheepg radius and ulna.In group A,the composite of BMP-2 and PLGA/tri-calcium phosphate with vascularized ulna were implanted into the radial defects.PLGA-TCP-BMP-2 with vascular-ized long flexor of digits were implanted into the radial defects in group B.PLGA-TCP-BMP-2 artificial bone were implanted into the radial defects in group C.No material was implanted in group D.Plates were used to fix the bone in all groups.Animals were sacrificed 24 weeks after operation to make histologieal evaluation.Samantha and Lane&Sandhu radiologieal and scoring histological systems were used to evaluate

  15. Synthetic biology meets tissue engineering.

    Davies, Jamie A; Cachat, Elise


    Classical tissue engineering is aimed mainly at producing anatomically and physiologically realistic replacements for normal human tissues. It is done either by encouraging cellular colonization of manufactured matrices or cellular recolonization of decellularized natural extracellular matrices from donor organs, or by allowing cells to self-organize into organs as they do during fetal life. For repair of normal bodies, this will be adequate but there are reasons for making unusual, non-evolved tissues (repair of unusual bodies, interface to electromechanical prostheses, incorporating living cells into life-support machines). Synthetic biology is aimed mainly at engineering cells so that they can perform custom functions: applying synthetic biological approaches to tissue engineering may be one way of engineering custom structures. In this article, we outline the 'embryological cycle' of patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis and review progress that has been made in constructing synthetic biological systems to reproduce these processes in new ways. The state-of-the-art remains a long way from making truly synthetic tissues, but there are now at least foundations for future work. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  16. Endoscopic endonasal multilayer repair of traumatic CSF rhinorrhea.

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Aly; Okasha, Mohamed; Elwany, Samy


    The incidence of traumatic CSF has increased in recent years due to increased incidence of road traffic accidents (RTA) as well the increasing number of endoscopic sinus surgeries (ESS). The objective of this study is to present our experience in management of traumatic CSF leaks using the endoscopic multilayer repair technique. Forty-two patients (aged 10-75 years, 30 males and 12 females) presenting with confirmed post-traumatic CSF rhinorrhea were operated upon between January 2007 and December 2013. The endoscopic multilayer technique was used in all cases. Electromagnetic navigation was used in some cases. All cases presented with intermittent watery rhinorrhea. The duration of the rhinorrhea ranged from 3 days to 1 year before repair. One case presented after 10 years from the causative trauma. Ten cases had a history of meningitis. Nine cases had more than one defect. Iatrogenic defects were larger than defects following accidental trauma. Two cases, following RTA, developed pseudo-aneurysm of internal carotid artery. Ten cases had associated pneumocephalus. The mean duration of postoperative hospitalization was 6 days (range 4-8 days). The mean follow-up duration was 31.2 +/- 11.4 months (range 16-48 months). None of our patient developed serious intra- or postoperative complications. Only one case required another surgery to repair a missed second defect. Post-traumatic CSF leaks can be successfully managed via the endonasal endoscopic route using the multilayer repair technique. It is important to look for multiple defects in these cases. CT angiography is recommended for traumatic leaks involving the lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus to diagnose or exclude the development of pseudo-aneurysm of the internal carotid artery.

  17. Perivascular cells and tissue engineering: Current applications and untapped potential.

    Avolio, Elisa; Alvino, Valeria V; Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Campagnolo, Paola


    The recent development of tissue engineering provides exciting new perspectives for the replacement of failing organs and the repair of damaged tissues. Perivascular cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes and other tissue specific populations residing around blood vessels, have been isolated from many organs and are known to participate to the in situ repair process and angiogenesis. Their potential has been harnessed for cell therapy of numerous pathologies; however, in this Review we will discuss the potential of perivascular cells in the development of tissue engineering solutions for healthcare. We will examine their application in the engineering of vascular grafts, cardiac patches and bone substitutes as well as other tissue engineering applications and we will focus on their extensive use in the vascularization of engineered constructs. Additionally, we will discuss the emerging potential of human pericytes for the development of efficient, vascularized and non-immunogenic engineered constructs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a rapid design procedure for emergency repair of bridge columns using fiber-reinforced polymers

    Slater, Susan E.


    Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) are increasingly used for seismic retrofit of undamaged bridge columns. The addition of a confining jacket increases overall strength and ductility of the column. However, FRPs can also be used for repair of a damaged bridge column after a seismic event. This research project explores the application of FRPs for retrofit of damaged circular columns. A decision tree for the emergency repair of damaged columns is presented. The decision tree aids field engineers ...

  19. 组织工程皮肤修复皮肤缺损成功率与手术方法的相关性%Correlation between successful rate of skin-defect repair with tissue-engineered skin and methods of operation

    何黎升; 金岩; 邓天政; 宋绍华; 刘鹏; 黄沙


    BACKGROUND: Skin defect is commonly repaired by autologous skin graft, but in which, it is required healthy skin provider and it probably results in scarring deformity to various extents. The successful construction and clinical application of tissue-engineered skin (TE skin) mark the major breakthrough in treatment of skin defect.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between operation method and healing rate, through repair of skin defect with TE skin, to provide experimental evidence on clinical application of TE skin.DESIGN: Randomized controlled observation was designed.SETTING: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Teaching-Research Room of Histology and Pathology and Experimental Center of Tissue Engineering, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLAMATERIALS: The experiment was performed in Experimental Center of Tissue Engineering, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, in which 6 healthy York pigs were employed, of clean grade,aged varied from 2.5 to 3 months. 3 groups were randomized, named TE whole-layer group, TE dermal and auto-epidermal group and auto-graft group, 2 pigs in each group. 8 wounds were prepared in each pig, round in shape and 50 mm in diameter, 16 wounds in each group, totally 48wounds.METHODS: ①Preparation of TE whole layer and TE true skin. ② In TE whole-layer group: The whole layer of skin was cut off from fat layeralong the drawn line. When bleeding stopped thoroughly and the wound was covered with wet physiological saline gauze, TE whole-layer skin was collected and windowing was done on the skin for drainage. Physiological saline was used to rinsed away the culture solution on the surface of TE skin, and then, the cuticular layer was upward-covered the wound, avoiding gas vacuole between cuticular layer and wound. Single-layer oleic gauze, physiological saline gauze, aseptic dry gauze and elastic sponge cushion were covered successively, about 3-5 mm in thickness each

  20. Transition-Aged Youths With Dual Diagnoses.

    Kalinyak, Christopher M; Gary, Faye A; Killion, Cheryl M; Suresky, M Jane


    The current study provides an overview of the research knowledge about unique problems encountered by transition-aged youths with dual diagnoses. A description of the considerable physical and emotional changes experienced by transition-aged youths provides a foundation for exploring the pressures and challenges compounded by mental health issues and substance abuse. Programs that provide intensive support throughout the transition years pay valuable dividends. However, transition-aged youths with dual diagnoses of mental disorders and substance abuse find themselves faced with limited or nonexistent options. There is a confusing lack of continuity and consistency of supports and services, which complicates the already perplexing circumstances that beleaguer the lives of young adults with dual diagnoses. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Pulmonary embolus diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound

    Justin M. Segraves


    Full Text Available Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS imaging is commonly used to evaluate and aid in biopsy of mediastinal lymph nodes. Pulmonary arteries are readily viewable with this type of imaging modality. We present a case report of a pulmonary embolism (PE diagnosed by EBUS. Our patient had no smoking history and presented with respiratory and constitutional symptoms, urinary retention, and leg weakness suspicious for malignancy with metastasis to spine. Chest computed tomography (CT was suggestive of lung carcinoma and specifically showed no PE. EBUS with TBNA was requested for tissue diagnosis. A mobile filling defect consistent with a PE was observed and reported to primary team. Follow-up chest CT showed an acute PE which confirmed the diagnosis originally made by EBUS. Bronchoscopists should be aware of potential to diagnose a PE while performing EBUS. Additionally, there may be a role in using EBUS specifically to diagnose a PE in the right patient population.

  2. Anterior diffuse scleritis diagnosed as conjunctivitis

    K. P. Mashige


    Full Text Available This article presents a case of anterior diffuse scleritis that initially was diagnosed as conjunctivitis. Anterior diffuse scleritis (ADS is a potentially vision-threatening inflammation of the sclera whose etiology may include autoimmune and systemic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis. The signs and symptoms of ADS include pain, tearing, tenderness, redness, painful sensitivity to light and decreased visual acuity. Ocular and physical examinations including blood tests to rule out underlying causes are important. Medications such as corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflam-matory drugs and possibly immune-suppressants are used in the management of ADS. If care is not taken, ADS can be mis-diagnosed as conjunctivitis because the redness is similar in both conditions. Such mis-diagnosis can be sight-threatening and therefore it is essential that primary eye care practitioners are cautious in all diagnoses of red eye conditions. (S Afr Optom 2012 71(1 51-54

  3. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Frederiksen, Julie N; Hansen, Thomas


    Concern has been expressed as to the reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic reliability of the clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia in a random sample of Danish in- and outpatients with a history of psychosis. A sample...... value (87%) of ICD-10 schizophrenia and an overall good agreement between clinical and OPCRIT-derived diagnoses (kappa=0.60). An even higher positive predictive value was obtained when diagnoses were amalgamated into a diagnostic entity of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (98%). Near perfect agreement...... was seen between OPCRIT-derived ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnoses (kappa=0.87). Thus, this study demonstrates high reliability of the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia and even more so of the diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder....

  4. Tissue engineering for clinical applications.

    Bhatia, Sujata K


    Tissue engineering is increasingly being recognized as a beneficial means for lessening the global disease burden. One strategy of tissue engineering is to replace lost tissues or organs with polymeric scaffolds that contain specialized populations of living cells, with the goal of regenerating tissues to restore normal function. Typical constructs for tissue engineering employ biocompatible and degradable polymers, along with organ-specific and tissue-specific cells. Once implanted, the construct guides the growth and development of new tissues; the polymer scaffold degrades away to be replaced by healthy functioning tissue. The ideal biomaterial for tissue engineering not only defends against disease and supports weakened tissues or organs, it also provides the elements required for healing and repair, stimulates the body's intrinsic immunological and regenerative capacities, and seamlessly interacts with the living body. Tissue engineering has been investigated for virtually every organ system in the human body. This review describes the potential of tissue engineering to alleviate disease, as well as the latest advances in tissue regeneration. The discussion focuses on three specific clinical applications of tissue engineering: cardiac tissue regeneration for treatment of heart failure; nerve regeneration for treatment of stroke; and lung regeneration for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Repair of calvarial defect using a tissue-engineered bone with simvastatin-loaded β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold and adipose derived stem cells in rabbits%载辛伐他汀β-磷酸三钙支架复合脂肪干细胞修复兔颅骨缺损

    徐恋祎; 孙小娟; 张秀丽; 金玉琴; 吴玉琼; 蒋欣泉


    目的:应用辛伐他汀(simvastatin)作用于脂肪干细胞,研究其对细胞生长、成骨、成血管分化的影响;利用β-磷酸三钙(β-tricalcium phosphate,β-TCP)三维支架材料负载辛伐他汀,与脂肪干细胞复合,构建组织工程骨,用于兔颅骨缺损模型的修复.方法:原代培养兔脂肪干细胞(rabbit adipose-derived stem cells,rASCs),分别以含0、0.01、0.1和1 μmol/L辛伐他汀的培养液培养,计数法检测细胞数目;以0、0.05、0.1 μmol/L浓度辛伐他汀培养ASCs,1、7d后,实时定量PCR检测成骨、成血管基因的表达(RUNX2、OPN、OCN、VEGF);7 d后行ALP染色;14 d后行茜素红染色.12只新西兰大白兔颅顶双侧8mm缺损,分别以4组材料修复(A:β-TCP,B:β-TCP/Cell,C:β-TCP/Sim,D:β-TCP/Cell/Sim),每组6例,植入8周后取材,进行组织学观察.采用SPSS17.0软件包对数据进行统计学分析.结果:0.05 μmol/L辛伐他汀对脂肪干细胞RUNX2、OCN、OPN和VEGF等成骨、成血管基因的表达具有明显促进作用,碱性磷酸酶染色和Von Kossa染色更为明显;植入体内8周后,β-TCP/Cell/Sim组材料的成骨面积显著大于其他3组.结论:0.05 μmol/L辛伐他汀在体外对ASCs具有明显的促成骨作用,载辛伐他汀β-TCP复合脂肪干细胞可促进兔颅骨缺损的修复.%PURPOSE:The osteogenic-angiogenic differentiation effects of simvastatin (Sim) were explored on adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs).A tissue-engineered bone with simvastatin loaded β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)scaffold and ASCs was constructed to repair the calvarial defect in rabbits.METHODS:ASCs were obtained from the groin of rabbits.After 14 days of osteogenic inducing culture,sufficient cells were expanded for the following experiments.Cell counting was conducted to ASCs in osteogenic inducing medium containing 0,0.01,0.1 and 1 μmol/L simvastatin.Concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 μmol/L simvastatin were administrated to ASCs for real-time PCR of

  6. Spinal cord injury and MicroRNA:in vitro prefabrication of tissue-engineered spinal cord and repair of spinal cord injury%脊髓损伤与MicroRNA:体外预构组织工程化脊髓及损伤脊髓修复中的作用

    李觅; 姚猛


    RNA expression induced by injuries as wel as the pathophysiological significance in spinal cord injury, and to explore the development potential of microRNA in tissue-engineered and clinical repair of spinal cord injury. METHODS:A computer-based search of PubMed and Chinese Journal Database was performed for related articles published from January 2000 to December 2014 using the keywords of “SCI, microRNA, transcriptional control, clinical research progress” in English and Chinese. Finaly, 38 articles were included for result analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mechanical injury initialy triggers a series of complex secondary damages, including nervous, vascular and immune systems, which can influence the severity of spinal cord injury to a great extent. Secondary damage to the spinal cord is mainly attributed to the activation and deactivation of some specific genes associated with celular and biochemical mechanisms, such as cysteine aspartate specific protease (caspase) gene family, apoptosis related protein Fas and its ligand Fasl system, P53 gene, apoptosis related gene Bcl-2 family. Recent studies have proved that the functional activation of microRNA expression is the key to spinal cord injury. With the development of biological information engineering, studies and controling technologies associated with microRNA expression have been gradualy dominated, some clinical application based on microRNA technology has entered the clinical trial stage. It is believed that with the continuous development of technology and decrease of cost, permanent dysfunction due to spinal cord injury can be regulated and repaired through the microRNA technology at gene level in the future.

  7. 比较带蒂筋膜瓣与生物膜包绕组织工程骨修复兔超临界骨缺损的实验研究%Comparision of pedical fascial flap with biomembrane wrapping tissue engineering bone repairs rabbit supercritical bone defect

    赵御森; 杨新明; 王海波


    Objective To compare the effect of pedical fascial flap and biomembrane in repairing the exceed critical size bone defect by membrane guided bone regeneration techniques( MGBR ). Methods 30 New Zealand white rabbits( male or female )were 5 months old and used to make the experimental model of bilateral 1 cm defect in the middle of the ulna with the periosteum. The uncellular tissue engineered bone, which was implanted into the bilateral bone defect areas, was prepared by seeding the autologous red bone marrow( ARBM ) obtained from the rabbits on the osteoinductive absorbing material containing bone morphogenetic protein( BMP ). The left side of bone defect area was wrapped by biomembrane as control group, while the right side was wrapped by pedical fascial flap as experimental group. The two groups were performed with internal fixation of mini titanium plate. On 4 week, 8 week, 12 week, and 16 week after the operation, each group was examined by X-ray radiograph, gross morphology and histological examination, bone shape measurement analysis in the reparative area, and the biomechanical detection was conducted on 12 week and 16 week. Results Experimental group was superior to control group in the gross morphological inspection; by the observation of X-ray radiograph at the 16 th week after the operation, cavum ossis was recanalization completely, while control group still blocking, and bone density of experimental group was higher than control group, the level of the degradation and absorption of the implant was better, the quantity and the forming speed of external callus was superior, and bone trabecula, cartilaginous tissues and mature bone structure in the histological examination, the remodeling of diaphysis structure were all superior to control group. By the analysis of the bone shape measurement, the differences at the ratio of new bone trabecula area to total reparative area among three groups and the differences at the different time points on 12 week and

  8. Current Biomechanical Concepts for Rotator Cuff Repair


    For the past few decades, the repair of rotator cuff tears has evolved significantly with advances in arthroscopy techniques, suture anchors and instrumentation. From the biomechanical perspective, the focus in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. To accomplish these objectives, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. In addition, the healing response may be compromised by intrinsic factors such as decreased vascularity, hypoxia, and fibrocartilaginous changes or aforementioned extrinsic compression factors. Furthermore, it is well documented that torn rotator cuff muscles have a tendency to atrophy and become subject to fatty infiltration which may affect the longevity of the repair. Despite all the aforementioned factors, initial fixation strength is an essential consideration in optimizing rotator cuff repair. Therefore, numerous biomechanical studies have focused on elucidating the strongest devices, knots, and repair configurations to improve contact characteristics for rotator cuff repair. In this review, the biomechanical concepts behind current rotator cuff repair techniques will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:23730471

  9. Ultrasound determination of rotator cuff tear repairability

    Tse, Andrew K; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Hackett, Lisa


    Background Rotator cuff repair aims to reattach the torn tendon to the greater tuberosity footprint with suture anchors. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability and to assess which sonographic and pre-operative features are strongest in predicting repairability. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of measurements made prospectively in a cohort of 373 patients who had ultrasounds of their shoulder and underwent rotator cuff repair. Measurements of rotator cuff tear size and muscle atrophy were made pre-operatively by ultrasound to enable prediction of rotator cuff repairability. Tears were classified following ultrasound as repairable or irreparable, and were correlated with intra-operative repairability. Results Ultrasound assessment of rotator cuff tear repairability has a sensitivity of 86% (p rotator cuff repairability were tear size (p rotator cuff tear. Conclusions Ultrasound assessment is accurate in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability. Tear size or anteroposterior tear length and age were the best predictors of repairability. PMID:27582996

  10. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.


    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  11. Delusional infestations: case series, differential diagnoses, and management strategies.

    Diaz, James H; Nesbitt, Lee T


    Physicians are not infrequently consulted by distraught patients with delusions of infestation who believe that they are infested with external or internal parasites and describe a crawling sensation of bugs or worms on or under their skin. Internet search engines were queried with the keywords as search terms to examine the latest articles on delusional infestations in order to describe presenting manifestations, differential diagnoses, and effective management strategies. The demographic and behavioral features of delusional infestations have remained constant and include: (1) onset in well-educated, middle-aged adults who are pet owners; (2) production of purported specimens of causative parasites; (3) pesticide overtreatment of themselves, their households, and pets; (4) excessive cleaning or vacuuming of households; (5) intense anger and resentment directed at physicians failing to confirm their self-diagnoses; and (6) sharing delusional symptoms with spouses or relatives. Although some reports have suggested that cases of delusional infestation are increasing today in the tropics, most studies have confirmed a stable incidence over time and similar disorder demographics worldwide. However, management strategies for delusional infestations have changed significantly over time with second generation, atypical antipsychotics offering safer adverse effect profiles and better prognoses than earlier therapies with first generation, typical antipsychotics. The most effective management strategies for delusional infestations include empathetic history-taking and active listening to the patient, careful exclusion of true parasitoses, and a therapeutic regimen that includes a second generation neuroleptic agent.

  12. A Comparison of Weld-Repaired and Base Metal for Inconel 718 and CRES 321 at Cryogenic and Room Temperatures

    Newman, John A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Willard, Scott A.; Piascik, Robert S.


    Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted to characterize the performance of Inconel 718 and CRES 321 welds, weld heat-affect-zone and parent metal at room temperature laboratory air and liquid nitrogen (-196oC) environments. The results of this study were required to predict the damage tolerance behavior of proposed orbiter main engine hydrogen fuel liner weld repairs. Experimental results show that the room and cryogenic temperature fatigue crack growth characteristics of both alloys are not significantly degraded by the weld repair process. However, both Inconel 718 and CRES 321 exhibited lower apparent toughness within the weld repair region compared to the parent metal.

  13. Engineering Cartilage

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  14. Industrial Engineering

    Karlsson, Christer


    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  15. Governing Engineering

    Buch, Anders


    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  16. Governing Engineering

    Buch, Anders


    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  17. Computer Engineers.

    Moncarz, Roger


    Looks at computer engineers and describes their job, employment outlook, earnings, and training and qualifications. Provides a list of resources related to computer engineering careers and the computer industry. (JOW)

  18. Biochemical Engineering.

    Dunnill, P.


    Biochemical engineering as a scientific discipline is becoming accepted in England and is drawing many young men and women to its ranks. This article focuses on how engineering came to embrace the biological sciences. (Author/SA)

  19. Engineering _ litteraturliste

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Daugbjerg, Peer; Nielsen, Keld


    Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”......Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”...

  20. Prosthetic Engineering

    ... Overview CoE for Limb Loss Prevention and Prosthetic Engineering Menu Menu VA Center of Excellence for Limb ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Prosthetic Engineering - Overview Our aim is to improve prosthetic prescription ...

  1. Characterization of the interplay between DNA repair and CRISPR/Cas9-induced DNA lesions at an endogenous locus

    Bothmer, Anne; Phadke, Tanushree; Barrera, Luis A.; Margulies, Carrie M; Lee, Christina S.; Buquicchio, Frank; Moss, Sean; Abdulkerim, Hayat S.; Selleck, William; Jayaram, Hariharan; Myer, Vic E.; Cotta-Ramusino, Cecilia


    The CRISPR–Cas9 system provides a versatile toolkit for genome engineering that can introduce various DNA lesions at specific genomic locations. However, a better understanding of the nature of these lesions and the repair pathways engaged is critical to realizing the full potential of this technology. Here we characterize the different lesions arising from each Cas9 variant and the resulting repair pathway engagement. We demonstrate that the presence and polarity of the overhang structure is a critical determinant of double-strand break repair pathway choice. Similarly, single nicks deriving from different Cas9 variants differentially activate repair: D10A but not N863A-induced nicks are repaired by homologous recombination. Finally, we demonstrate that homologous recombination is required for repairing lesions using double-stranded, but not single-stranded DNA as a template. This detailed characterization of repair pathway choice in response to CRISPR–Cas9 enables a more deterministic approach for designing research and therapeutic genome engineering strategies. PMID:28067217

  2. Diversion of the inferior vena cava following repair of atrial septal defect causing hypoxemia.

    Thompson, Ellen; Moritz, Dennis; Perdue, Romaine; Cansino, Silvestre


    Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are a common congenital abnormality, and operative repair is a routine, safe procedure. Diversion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) into the left atrium is an unusual complication following ASD closure. We report a case that illustrates the problem created by this right-to-left shunt. A middle-aged woman underwent ASD repair. She developed hypoxemia postoperatively. A transthoracic echocardiogram confirmed a right-to-left shunt, found only with agitated saline injected into the femoral vein, not into the basilic vein. Surgical reexploration revealed a residual ASD diverting IVC flow into the left atrium, which was repaired with a pericardial patch. Echocardiography with agitated saline injected from the femoral vein is an easy method to diagnose this uncommon complication.

  3. Biological Glue Application in Repair of Atrioventricular Groove Rupture: A Case Report

    Ahmet Baris-Durukan


    Full Text Available Atrioventricular groove rupture is a rare, albeit mortal, complication following mitral valve surgery. Avoidance is the best strategy but it cannot fully prevent the occurrence of this complication. Several repair techniques have been described with varying success rates; however, the rarity of the complication precludes consensus about the safest technique.Here we report two cases of posterior atrioventricular groove rupture. Both cases were diagnosed immediately after the cessation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Repair was performed successfully with a technique involving the use of biological glue. The postoperative course was uneventful for both of them. Both cases are well with normally functioning mitral prostheses; one with a follow-up time of 5.5 years and the other 10 months. We believe that the glue provides additional hemostasis and support to the repaired area.

  4. Laparoscopic repair of a bilateral internal inguinal hernia with supravesical hernia – a case report

    Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Itoh, Tadao; Yoshii, Kazuhiro; Otsuji, Eigo


    Introduction Supravesical hernia is an exceptional subtype of internal inguinal hernia, and it is located between the median umbilical ligament and the medial umbilical ligament. The hernia is classified as two types: internal supravesical hernia and external supravesical hernia. Presentation of case Herein we report a rare case of external supravesical hernia successfully treated by laparoscopic procedure. The patient who complained right inguinal protrusion and mild frequent urination was diagnosed as right inguinal hernia and potential of left inguinal hernia using computed tomography. He underwent laparoscopic bilateral hernia repair, and intraoperative findings revealed right external supravesical hernia and left internal inguinal hernia. Discussion Laparoscopic hernia repair may make it possible to avoid overlooking of internal hernia such as supravesical hernia. Moreover it was possible to cover the hernia orifice and dissected layer of the dorsal site of urine bladder using bilateral approach in the current case. Conclusion In conclusions, laparoscopic hernia repair might be a surgical option for supravesical hernia. PMID:26263448

  5. Imaging in cellular and tissue engineering

    Yu, Hanry


    Details on specific imaging modalities for different cellular and tissue engineering applications are scattered throughout articles and chapters in the literature. Gathering this information into a single reference, Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering presents both the fundamentals and state of the art in imaging methods, approaches, and applications in regenerative medicine. The book underscores the broadening scope of imaging applications in cellular and tissue engineering. It covers a wide range of optical and biological applications, including the repair or replacement of whole tiss

  6. Methods of repairing a substrate

    Riedell, James A. (Inventor); Easler, Timothy E. (Inventor)


    A precursor of a ceramic adhesive suitable for use in a vacuum, thermal, and microgravity environment. The precursor of the ceramic adhesive includes a silicon-based, preceramic polymer and at least one ceramic powder selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron carbide, boron oxide, boron nitride, hafnium boride, hafnium carbide, hafnium oxide, lithium aluminate, molybdenum silicide, niobium carbide, niobium nitride, silicon boride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, tin oxide, tantalum boride, tantalum carbide, tantalum oxide, tantalum nitride, titanium boride, titanium carbide, titanium oxide, titanium nitride, yttrium oxide, zirconium boride, zirconium carbide, zirconium oxide, and zirconium silicate. Methods of forming the ceramic adhesive and of repairing a substrate in a vacuum and microgravity environment are also disclosed, as is a substrate repaired with the ceramic adhesive.

  7. Engineering Motion

    Tuttle, Nicole; Stanley, Wendy; Bieniek, Tracy


    For many teachers, engineering can be intimidating; teachers receive little training in engineering, particularly those teaching early elementary students. In addition, the necessity of differentiating for students with special needs can make engineering more challenging to teach. This article describes a professional development program…

  8. Engineering Motion

    Tuttle, Nicole; Stanley, Wendy; Bieniek, Tracy


    For many teachers, engineering can be intimidating; teachers receive little training in engineering, particularly those teaching early elementary students. In addition, the necessity of differentiating for students with special needs can make engineering more challenging to teach. This article describes a professional development program…

  9. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair


    IL, Kochevar IE, Redmond RW. Large extremity peripheral nerve repair. Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS) Fort Lauderdale, FL. August...some notable discoveries that may impact military health care in the near future. There is a clear need in military medicine to improve outcomes in...membranes or “caul” intact was considered extremely lucky. Children were gifted with life-long happiness , the ability to see spirits, and protection

  10. Shelf Stable Epoxy Repair Adhesive


    manufacturing operations are more efficient , discarding less expired film. Commercial and military aircraft repair operations at Boeing experience very similar...successfully encapsulated at concentrations greater than 50 wt% within four N N = CC Infoscitex Corporation Shelf Stable Epoxy Resin Adhesive WP-1763 8...affects the composition of the encapsulant , which in turn affects the ability of the encapsulant to wet the core phase, the barrier properties of the

  11. Repair and regeneration in endodontics.

    Lin, L M; Rosenberg, P A


    The ideal objective of treatment of established diseases, including irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis, is to achieve wound healing. Wound healing can result in repair or regeneration. The ultimate goal of wound healing is to restore the original architecture and biological function of the injured tissue or organ. Although humans are equipped with powerful innate and adaptive immune defence mechanisms, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect wound healing. Complete regeneration following injury in humans can occur only in the pre-natal foetus within 24 weeks of gestation. Post-natal wounds including irreversible pulpitis or apical periodontitis always heal by repair or by a combination of repair and regeneration. Somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, macrophages, cementoblasts and osteoblasts, in the pulp and periapical tissues have limited potential for regeneration following injury and lack of telomerase. Wound healing of irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis requires recruitment and differentiation of progenitor/stem cells into tissue-committed somatic cells. Stem cell differentiation is regulated by intrinsic factors and extrinsic micro-environmental cues. Functionality of stem cells appears to show an age-related decline because of the change in intrinsic properties and diminished signals within the extrinsic local and systemic environment that modulate the function of stem cells or their progeny. Infection induces an immuno-inflammatory response and tissue destruction, which hinders the potential of tissue regeneration. Therefore, prevention, early detection and treatment of inflammation/infection of pulpal and periapical disease can enhance regeneration and minimize the repair of pulpal and periapical tissues after endodontic therapy. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  12. Pain after groin hernia repair

    Callesen, T; Bech, K; Nielsen, R


    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to provide a detailed description of postoperative pain after elective day-case open inguinal hernia repair under local anaesthesia. METHODS: This was a prospective consecutive case series study. After 500 hernia operations in 466 unselected patients aged 18...... between types of surgery or hernia. CONCLUSION: Pain remained a problem despite the pre-emptive use of opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and local anaesthesia, irrespective of surgical technique....

  13. Biologics for tendon repair


    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately,...

  14. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair


    71. Burman S, Tejwani S, Vemuganti GK. Ophthalmic applications of preserved human amniotic membrane: a review of current indications. Cell Tissue Bank...segmental nerve deficit repair using isograft show the best performing wrap/ fixation method to be sutureless photochemical tissue bonding with the...crosslinked amnion wrap. Autograft is often unavailable in wounded warriors, due to extensive tissue damage and amputation and, importantly, we also

  15. Vitello-intestinal duct injury after transabdominal preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair.

    Albeyatti, Amina; Hussain, Abdulzahra; El-Hasani, Shamsi


    A 71-year-old patient underwent a transabdominal preperitoneal right inguinal hernia repair and presented to the emergency department 48 hours postoperatively with nonspecific abdominal and chest pain and was diagnosed an abdominal abscess at the umbilicus by computed tomography. Laparotomy showed a vitello-intestinal duct injury caused by the umbilical trocar at his previous laparoscopic surgery. We will discuss this rare complication and how to avoid it in future practice.

  16. Revisional laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair.

    Zacharakis, Emmanouil; Shalhoub, Joseph; Selvapatt, Nowlan; Darzi, Ara; Ziprin, Paul


    We herein report a laparoscopically performed re-do operation on a patient who had previously undergone a laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair. We describe the case of a 71-year-old patient who presented within 3 months of her primary laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair with recurrence. On relaparoscopy, dense adhesions to the mesh were found, and the mesh had migrated into the hernia sac. This had allowed loops of small bowel to herniate into the sac. The initial part of the procedure involved the lysis of adhesions. A piece of Gore-Tex DualMesh with a central keyhole and a radial slit was cut so that it could provide at least 3 cm to 5 cm of overlap of the fascial defect. The tails of the mesh were wrapped around the bowel, and the mesh was secured to the margins of the hernia with circumferential metal tacking and 4 transfascial sutures. The patient remains in satisfactory condition and no recurrence or any surgery-related problem has been observed during 8 months of follow-up. Revisional laparoscopic repair of parastomal hernias seems feasible and has been shown to be safe and effective in this case. The success of this approach depends on longer follow-up reports and standardization of the technical elements.

  17. Augmented Reality Repair Guidance System

    Sidharth Bhatia


    Full Text Available The daily life of a common man revolves around various forms of appliances/gadgets he uses throughout the day such as a mobile phone, laptop, printer, microwave oven, washing machine, etc. Although these appliances/gadgets are taken by most of the people for granted, the problem occurs when any of these things do not work as they are expected to. Getting them to the repair shops for every small glitch is expensive as well as time consuming. Although most of the companies which produce these appliances/gadgets do supply them with basic manuals, which deal with how to solve these minor issues, but reading them and at the same time repairing the corresponding appliance/gadget can be a frustrating task at times. These problems can be reduced to a large extent if some kind of live guidance is available. In this paper we propose a method to do so with the help of an augmented reality based system that will guide the user to carry out small scale repair jobs on these gadgets. All that is required is a decent webcam and a computing device, with a processor of 1 GHz or more and a display screen.

  18. 以带蒂筋膜瓣为膜引导骨再生屏障膜包裹接种自体骨髓间充质干细胞的非细胞型组织工程促进骨缺损修复的研究%Feasibility and effectiveness of using pedical fascial flap packing noncelluar tissue engineered bone with autologous red bone marrow and membrance guided bone regeneration technique in the process of bone defect repair

    胡振顺; 杨新明; 王耀一; 孟宪勇; 张瑛; 阴彦林


    目的:研究带蒂筋膜瓣为膜引导骨再生(MGBR)屏障膜的可行性及其在促进超临界骨缺损(ECSD)修复方面的实验疗效.方法:50只大白兔,尺骨造ECSD模型,A组单纯植入化骨(NTEB)(对照组),B组制备带蒂筋膜瓣包裹NTEB(实验组),术后对实验动物行一般情况观察、修复区X射线检查、大体观察和组织学检查、骨形态计量分析及生物力学测定分析.结果:各检查结果均显示B组优于A组.结论:以带蒂筋膜瓣为屏障膜具有MGBR作用,其包裹NTEB应用MGBR技术对促进ECSD修复疗效显著.%Objective To study the feasibility and effectiveness of using pedical fascial flap packing noncelluar tissue engineered bone with autologous red bone marrow and membrance guided bone regeneration (MGBR) technique in the process of bone defect repair. Methods 50 rabbits were used to make the experimental model of bilateral defect of the long bone and the periosteum in the ulna. Noncelluar tissue engineered bone (NTEB) was implanted in the bone defect area, one with nothing serving as the control group (group A). While the other wrapped by pedical fascial flap as the experimental group (group B). After the operation, X-ray exam, light density measurement, gross morphology and histological inspection, bone shape measurement analysis in the junctional zone and the biomechanics determination were conducted. Results X-ray films, gross morphology and histological inspection, bone shape measurement analysis , biomechanics determination:the group B was superior to the group A. Conclusions The pedical fascial flap can be used in the MGBR technique. And it has obvious effect on promoting the process of the exceed critical size defect repair.

  19. Remembering and diagnosing clients: Does experience matter?

    Witteman, C.L.M.; Tollenaar, M.S.


    Experienced mental health clinicians often do not outperform novices in diagnostic decision making. In this paper we look for an explanation of this phenomenon by testing differences in memory processes. In two studies we aimed to look at differences in accuracy of diagnoses in relation to free reca

  20. Fighting to be heard: contested diagnoses

    C. Trundle; I. Singh; C. Bröer


    This chapter explores how diagnoses can become sites of contest, rather than of agreement. Conflict can arise when illness refuses to yield the level of proof that epidemiology, clinical medicine, and toxicology require, or its existence is doubted within mainstream medicine. Other forms of contest

  1. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Vaginitis?

    ... the treatments? Are there complications? Does it affect pregnancy? How is it prevented? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose vaginitis? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content To find out ...

  2. How Is von Willebrand Disease Diagnosed?

    ... may not be diagnosed unless they have heavy bleeding after surgery or some other trauma. On the other hand, ... following the injury. Any prolonged, heavy, or repeated bleeding that required medical care after surgery or dental extractions. Any bruising with little or ...

  3. Diagnosing Febrile Illness in a Returned Traveler


    This podcast will assist health care providers in diagnosing febrile illness in patients returning from a tropical or developing country.  Created: 3/1/2012 by National Center for Enteric, Zoonotic, and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/1/2012.

  4. Eating Disorder Diagnoses: Empirical Approaches to Classification

    Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.


    Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…

  5. Bordetella pertussis diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction

    Birkebaek, N H; Heron, I; Skjødt, K


    The object of this work was to test the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for demonstration of Bordetella pertussis (BP) in nasopharyngeal secretions. The method was applied to patients with recently diagnosed pertussis, as verified by BP culture. In order to test the sensitivity and specificity of...

  6. Appendiceal endometriosis differentially diagnosed from acute appendicitis

    Gastón Astroza; Victor Faundes; René Nanjarí; Marcelo Fleiderman; Carlos Rodriguez


    @@ Endometriosis is a common disease in premenopausal women involving pelvic organs specially. However endometriosis that affects the appendix is rarely seen except appendiceal endometriosis that mimics acute appendicitis. In a patient with acute appendicitis we diagnosed and operated on, histopathological examination of the appendix revealed appendiceal endometriosis which caused symptoms.

  7. Two Siblings Diagnosed as Lafora Disease

    Yasemin Biçer Gömceli


    Full Text Available Lafora disease is a typical progressive myoclonic epilepsy that is characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance, myoclonic and occipital seizures, progressive dementia, ataxia, and dysarthria. Two siblings with myoclonic and generalized tonic clonic seizures, progressive dementia, ataxia and dysarthria, who were diagnosed as Lafora disease by sweat gland biopsy, are discussed.

  8. Fighting to be heard: contested diagnoses

    Trundle, C.; Singh, I.; Bröer, C.; Goldstein Jutel, A.; Dew, K.


    This chapter explores how diagnoses can become sites of contest, rather than of agreement. Conflict can arise when illness refuses to yield the level of proof that epidemiology, clinical medicine, and toxicology require, or its existence is doubted within mainstream medicine. Other forms of contest

  9. Medicinalindustrien har brug for diagnoser som ADHD

    Fugl, Marie


    Det er ikke første gang, at medicinalindustriens evne til at finde nye markeder har medført nye eller bredere diagnoser. I det forrige årti så vi et parallelt forløb mellem et boom i antallet af depressionsdiagnoser og forbruget af lykkepiller. Interview med sociolog Thomas Brante. Udgivelsesdato...

  10. Comparing Biomechanical Properties, Repair Times, and Value of Common Core Flexor Tendon Repairs.

    Chauhan, Aakash; Schimoler, Patrick; Miller, Mark C; Kharlamov, Alexander; Merrell, Gregory A; Palmer, Bradley A


    The aim of the study was to compare biomechanical strength, repair times, and repair values for zone II core flexor tendon repairs. A total of 75 fresh-frozen human cadaveric flexor tendons were harvested from the index through small finger and randomized into one of 5 repair groups: 4-stranded cross-stitch cruciate (4-0 polyester and 4-0 braided suture), 4-stranded double Pennington (2-0 knotless barbed suture), 4-stranded Pennington (4-0 double-stranded braided suture), and 6-stranded modified Lim-Tsai (4-0 looped braided suture). Repairs were measured in situ and their repair times were measured. Tendons were linearly loaded to failure and multiple biomechanical values were measured. The repair value was calculated based on operating room costs, repair times, and suture costs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc statistical analysis were used to compare repair data. The braided cruciate was the strongest repair ( P > .05) but the slowest ( P > .05), and the 4-stranded Pennington using double-stranded suture was the fastest ( P > .05) to perform. The total repair value was the highest for braided cruciate ( P > .05) compared with all other repairs. Barbed suture did not outperform any repairs in any categories. The braided cruciate was the strongest of the tested flexor tendon repairs. The 2-mm gapping and maximum load to failure for this repair approached similar historical strength of other 6- and 8-stranded repairs. In this study, suture cost was negligible in the overall repair cost and should be not a determining factor in choosing a repair.

  11. Biomimetic Scaffold Design for Functional and Integrative Tendon Repair

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Bogdanowicz, Danielle; Erisken, Cevat; Lee, Nancy M.; Lu, Helen H.


    Rotator cuff tears represent the most common shoulder injuries in the United States. The debilitating effect of this degenerative condition coupled with the high incidence of failure associated with existing graft choices underscore the clinical need for alternative grafting solutions. The two critical design criteria for the ideal tendon graft would require the graft to not only exhibit physiologically relevant mechanical properties but also be able to facilitate functional graft integration by promoting the regeneration of the native tendon-to-bone interface. Centered on these design goals, this review will highlight current approaches to functional and integrative tendon repair. In particular, the application of biomimetic design principles through the use of nanofiber- and nanocomposite-based scaffolds for tendon tissue engineering will be discussed. This review will begin with nanofiber-based approaches to functional tendon repair, followed by a section highlighting the exciting research on tendon-to-bone interface regeneration, with an emphasis on implementation of strategic biomimicry in nanofiber scaffold design and the concomitant formation of graded multi-tissue systems for integrative soft tissue repair. This review will conclude with a summary and future directions section. PMID:22244070

  12. Computational engineering


    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  13. Bond strength of repaired amalgam restorations.

    Rey, Rosalia; Mondragon, Eduardo; Shen, Chiayi


    This in vitro study investigated the interfacial flexural strength (FS) of amalgam repairs and the optimal combination of repair materials and mechanical retention required for a consistent and durable repair bond. Amalgam bricks were created, each with 1 end roughened to expose a fresh surface before repair. Four groups followed separate repair protocols: group 1, bonding agent with amalgam; group 2, bonding agent with composite resin; group 3, mechanical retention (slot) with amalgam; and group 4, slot with bonding agent and amalgam. Repaired specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1, 10, 30, 120, or 360 days before being loaded to failure in a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed significant changes in median FS over time in groups 2 and 4. The effect of the repair method on the FS values after each storage period was significant for most groups except the 30-day storage groups. Amalgam-amalgam repair with adequate condensation yielded the most consistent and durable bond. An amalgam bonding agent could be beneficial when firm condensation on the repair surface cannot be achieved or when tooth structure is involved. Composite resin can be a viable option for amalgam repair in an esthetically demanding region, but proper mechanical modification of the amalgam surface and selection of the proper bonding system are essential.

  14. Treatment and Controversies in Paraesophageal Hernia Repair

    P. Marco eFisichella


    Full Text Available Background: Historically all paraesophageal hernias were repaired surgically, today intervention is reserved for symptomatic paraesophageal hernias. In this review, we describe the indications for repair and explore the controversies in paraesophageal hernia repair, which include a comparison of open to laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair, the necessity of complete sac excision, the routine performance of fundoplication, and the use of mesh for hernia repair.Methods: We searched Pubmed for papers published between 1980 and 2015 using the following keywords: hiatal hernias, paraesophageal hernias, regurgitation, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, aspiration, GERD, endoscopy, manometry, pH monitoring, proton pump inhibitors, anemia, iron deficiency anemia, Nissen fundoplication, sac excision, mesh, mesh repair. Results: Indications for paraesophageal hernia repair have changed, and currently symptomatic paraesophageal hernias are recommended for repair. In addition, it is important not to overlook iron-deficiency anemia and pulmonary complaints, which tend to improve with repair. Current practice favors a laparoscopic approach, complete sac excision, primary crural repair with or without use of mesh, and a routine fundoplication.

  15. Tissue-Engineered Tendon for Enthesis Regeneration in a Rat Rotator Cuff Model

    Michael J. Smietana


    Full Text Available Healing of rotator cuff (RC injuries with current suture or augmented scaffold techniques fails to regenerate the enthesis and instead forms a weaker fibrovascular scar that is prone to subsequent failure. Regeneration of the enthesis is the key to improving clinical outcomes for RC injuries. We hypothesized that the utilization of our tissue-engineered tendon to repair either an acute or a chronic full-thickness supraspinatus tear would regenerate a functional enthesis and return the biomechanics of the tendon back to that found in native tissue. Engineered tendons were fabricated from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells utilizing our well-described fabrication technology. Forty-three rats underwent unilateral detachment of the supraspinatus tendon followed by acute (immediate or chronic (4 weeks retracted repair by using either our engineered tendon or a trans-osseous suture technique. Animals were sacrificed at 8 weeks. Biomechanical and histological analyses of the regenerated enthesis and tendon were performed. Statistical analysis was performed by using a one-way analysis of variance with significance set at p < 0.05. Acute repairs using engineered tendon had improved enthesis structure and lower biomechanical failures compared with suture repairs. Chronic repairs with engineered tendon had a more native-like enthesis with increased fibrocartilage formation, reduced scar formation, and lower biomechanical failure compared with suture repair. Thus, the utilization of our tissue-engineered tendon showed improve enthesis regeneration and improved function in chronic RC repairs compared with suture repair. Clinical Significance: Our engineered tendon construct shows promise as a clinically relevant method for repair of RC injuries.

  16. Successful Surgical Treatment of a Spontaneous Rupture of the Esophagus Diagnosed Two Days after Onset

    Hiroyuki Ando


    Full Text Available Esophageal perforation is a relatively uncommon disease with a high rate of mortality and morbidity. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment occurs in more than 50% of cases, leading to a mortality rate of 40–60%. Primary repair is generally considered the gold standard for patients who present within the first 24 h following perforation of the esophagus. In this paper, we present a case of successful surgical treatment of spontaneous rupture of the esophagus that was diagnosed 2 days after onset. The patient was a 42-year-old man admitted to internal medicine with a diagnosis of pleuritis and complaining of chest and back pain. The next day, computed tomography revealed left-sided pleural effusion and mediastinal emphysema. An esophagogram revealed extravasation of the contrast medium from the lower left esophagus to the mediastinal cavity. These results confirmed a rupture of the esophagus, and an emergency left thoracotomy was performed. The perforation was repaired with a single-layered closure and was covered with elevated great omentum obtained by laparotomy. The patient was discharged 23 days after the first surgery. In conclusion, primary repair surgery must be selected as the best treatment beyond 24 h if the patient’s general state was stable and there was no evidence of clinical sepsis.

  17. The reliability of the repair weld joints of aged high temperature components in fossil power boilers

    Okamura, Hiroyuki [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Ohtani, Ryuichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Fujii, Kazuya [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Tomomitsu; Nishimura, Nobuhiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Komei [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    It is of fundamental engineering importance to be able to give reliable assessments of the effective service life of the critical components used within fossil power plants, particularly for those operating for prolonged periods. It is common practice for such assessments to have been estimated using destructive tests, typically the stress rupture test, this having been recognized as one of the most reliable evaluation methods available. Its only drawback is that it often does not permit the component to be in use following the sampling of the test specimen without repairing. The current piece of work focuses on the reliability of the repair welds of components for specimens taken from fossil power plants, having been in service for prolonged periods. Several such repairs to welds have been made to an old power boiler, in particular to a superheater header which is fabricated from 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Under close examination the repairs to the girth weldment showed susceptibilities of weld cracking, similar to that observed in as-manufactured material. Within the repaired region of the welded joint the microstructure, tensile properties and toughness seemed to be unaffected. The hardness attained its minimum value within the heat affected zone, HAZ of the repair weld, overlapping that of original girth weld HAZ. Furthermore, the stress rupture strength achieved its minimum value at the same position taking on the same value as the strength associated with the aged girth welded joint. (orig.)

  18. CRISPR-Cas9-guided Genome Engineering in C. elegans

    Kim, Hyun-Min; Colaiácovo, Monica P.


    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) system is successfully being used for efficient and targeted genome editing in various organisms including the nematode C. elegans. Recent studies developed various CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to enhance genome engineering via two major DNA double-strand break repair pathways: non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Here we describe a protocol for Cas9-mediated C. elegans genome editing together with single guide RNA (sgRNA) and repair template cloning and injection methods required for delivering Cas9, sgRNAs and repair template DNA into the C. elegans germline. PMID:27366893

  19. Surgical management of the failed SLAP repair.

    Weber, Stephen C


    Repair of superior labral tears anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions has become an increasingly common procedure, despite the low incidence rates reported in the literature. As the incidence of these procedures increases, the surgeons will be increasingly confronted with patients with painful shoulders after SLAP repair. Persistent pain after SLAP repair is multifactorial; careful preoperative workup is necessary to elucidate the cause of pain. Simple failure of the prior SLAP repair will rarely be the cause of persistent pain. Use of tacks is especially worrisome, and suture anchor repair is preferable. Articular cartilage injuries because of either bioabsorbable or metal hardware will often create significant residual disability. Recent literature suggests that older patients may be better served by primary biceps tenodesis rather than SLAP repair.

  20. DNA-Protein Crosslink Proteolysis Repair.

    Vaz, Bruno; Popovic, Marta; Ramadan, Kristijan


    Proteins that are covalently bound to DNA constitute a specific type of DNA lesion known as DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs). DPCs represent physical obstacles to the progression of DNA replication. If not repaired, DPCs cause stalling of DNA replication forks that consequently leads to DNA double-strand breaks, the most cytotoxic DNA lesion. Although DPCs are common DNA lesions, the mechanism of DPC repair was unclear until now. Recent work unveiled that DPC repair is orchestrated by proteolysis performed by two distinct metalloproteases, SPARTAN in metazoans and Wss1 in yeast. This review summarizes recent discoveries on two proteases in DNA replication-coupled DPC repair and establishes DPC proteolysis repair as a separate DNA repair pathway for genome stability and protection from accelerated aging and cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.