WorldWideScience

Sample records for repair deficient mutants

  1. Genetic and biochemical characterization of human AP endonuclease 1 mutants deficient in nucleotide incision repair activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Gelin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 is a key DNA repair enzyme involved in both base excision repair (BER and nucleotide incision repair (NIR pathways. In the BER pathway, APE1 cleaves DNA at AP sites and 3'-blocking moieties generated by DNA glycosylases. In the NIR pathway, APE1 incises DNA 5' to a number of oxidatively damaged bases. At present, physiological relevance of the NIR pathway is fairly well established in E. coli, but has yet to be elucidated in human cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We identified amino acid residues in the APE1 protein that affect its function in either the BER or NIR pathway. Biochemical characterization of APE1 carrying single K98A, R185A, D308A and double K98A/R185A amino acid substitutions revealed that all mutants exhibited greatly reduced NIR and 3'-->5' exonuclease activities, but were capable of performing BER functions to some extent. Expression of the APE1 mutants deficient in the NIR and exonuclease activities reduced the sensitivity of AP endonuclease-deficient E. coli xth nfo strain to an alkylating agent, methylmethanesulfonate, suggesting that our APE1 mutants are able to repair AP sites. Finally, the human NIR pathway was fully reconstituted in vitro using the purified APE1, human flap endonuclease 1, DNA polymerase beta and DNA ligase I proteins, thus establishing the minimal set of proteins required for a functional NIR pathway in human cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these data further substantiate the role of NIR as a distinct and separable function of APE1 that is essential for processing of potentially lethal oxidative DNA lesions.

  2. Molecular analysis of the Deinococcus radiodurans recA locus and identification of a mutation site in a DNA repair-deficient mutant, rec30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumi, I; Satoh, K; Kikuchi, M; Funayama, T; Kitayama, S; Yanagisawa, T; Watanabe, H; Yamamoto, K

    1999-12-07

    Deinococcus radiodurans strain rec30, which is a DNA damage repair-deficient mutant, has been estimated to be defective in the deinococcal recA gene. To identify the mutation site of strain rec30 and obtain information about the region flanking the gene, a 4.4-kb fragment carrying the wild-type recA gene was sequenced. It was revealed that the recA locus forms a polycistronic operon with the preceding cistrons (orf105a and orf105b). Predicted amino acid sequences of orf105a and orf105b showed substantial similarity to the competence-damage inducible protein (cinA gene product) from Streptococcus pneumoniae and the 2'-5' RNA ligase from Escherichia coli, respectively. By analyzing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments derived from the genomic DNA of strain rec30, the mutation site in the strain was identified as a single G:C to A:T transition which causes an amino acid substitution at position 224 (Gly to Ser) of the deinococcal RecA protein. Furthermore, we succeeded in expressing both the wild-type and mutant recA genes of D. radiodurans in E. coli without any obvious toxicity or death. The gamma-ray resistance of an E. coli recA1 strain was fully restored by the expression of the wild-type recA gene of D. radiodurans that was cloned in an E. coli vector plasmid. This result is consistent with evidence that RecA proteins from many bacterial species can functionally complement E. coli recA mutants. In contrast with the wild-type gene, the mutant recA gene derived from strain rec30 did not complement E. coli recA1, suggesting that the mutant RecA protein lacks functional activity for recombinational repair.

  3. Transfection of the cloned human excision repair gene ERCC-1 to UV-sensitive CHO mutants only corrects the repair defect in complementation group 2 mutants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Duin (Mark); J.H. Janssen; J. de Wit (Jan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); L.H. Thompson; D. Bootsma (Dirk); A. Westerveld (Andries)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe human DNA-excision repair gene ERCC-1 is cloned by its ability to correct the excision-repair defect of the ultraviolet light- and mitomycin-C-sensitive CHO mutant cell line 43-3B. This mutant is assigned to complementation group 2 of the excision-repair-deficient CHO mutants. In ord

  4. Relationship between UV-induced mutant p53 patches and skin tumours, analysed by mutation spectra and by induction kinetics in various DNA-repair-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebel, Heggert; Kram, Nicolien; Westerman, Anja; Banus, Sander; van Kranen, Henk J; de Gruijl, Frank R

    2005-12-01

    Clusters of p53 immunopositive epidermal keratinocytes (so-called p53 patches, clones or foci) are found in sun or ultraviolet (UV) light-exposed skin. We investigated to what extent these p53 patches are genuine precursors of skin carcinomas in chronically irradiated hairless (SKH1) mice. The mutation spectra of exons 5-8 of the p53 gene of laser-micro-dissected mutant p53 patches and carcinomas were therefore compared. The mutations we found were mainly UV-signature mutations (C-->T and CC-->TT at dipyrimidine sites) located at known hotspots. No significant differences were found between both spectra, indicating that all p53 patches harbour mutations with which they could progress to carcinomas. To examine whether these p53 patches can be used as tumour risk indicators, we made an extensive comparison of the induction kinetics of these patches and carcinomas in genetically modified mice with various defects in nucleotide excision repair (NER), i.e. xeroderma pigmentosum A (Xpa), Xpc and Cockayne syndrome B (Csb) and wild-type mice. In this aforementioned order, the mouse strains developed both p53 patches and carcinomas in the course of daily exposure to 40 J/m(2) UV. Hence, the order in which the NER-deficient mice developed patches was predictive of the order in which they developed tumours. The induction kinetics of the patches in Xpc-deficient mice differed notably from the others: there was a stationary phase (days 13-41) where the numbers were limited to 5-10 patches per mouse before an explosive increase which ran parallel to the other groups. The chance that a p53 patch progresses to carcinoma is relatively small (estimated at 1 out of 8300-40,000/individual when the first tumour appears), but our results are strongly indicative of a causal relationship between p53 patches and carcinomas.

  5. recD sbcB sbcD Mutants Are Deficient in Recombinational Repair of UV Lesions by RecBC

    OpenAIRE

    Seigneur, Marie; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Michel, Bénédicte

    1999-01-01

    In recD sbcB sbcD mutants, repair of UV-irradiated DNA is strongly RecF dependent, indicating that RecBC is inactive. This finding suggests that exonuclease V, exonuclease I (SbcB), and the SbcCD nuclease play a redundant role in vivo, which is essential for the recombination activity of the RecBC complex during UV repair.

  6. DNA repair deficiency in neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Stevnsner, Tinna V.

    2011-01-01

    : homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage......Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive...... neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative...

  7. Repair of ultraviolet-irradiated transforming DNA in A recA mutant of Haemophilus influenzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuy, J.H.; Walter, R.B. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA). Dept. of Biological Science)

    1983-04-01

    Ultraviolet-irradiated transforming DNA was assayed on a wild-type strain of Haemophilus influenzae strain Rd, on an excision repair-deficient (uvr-2) mutant, on a recombination repair-deficient (recA4) mutant, and on a strain carrying both mutations. The donor DNA had a point mutation genetic marker (strAl) and a long nonhomologous plasmid-derived DNA segment inserted in the HPl prophage. The shape of the inactivation curves suggested that only recombination was responsible for the inverse square root kinetics observed with excision repair-proficient recipients.

  8. Recent progress with the DNA repair mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.H.; Salazar, E.P.; Brookman, K.W.; Collins, C.C.; Stewart, S.A.; Busch, D.B.; Weber, C.A.

    1986-04-02

    Repair deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are being used to identify human genes that correct the repair defects and to study mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis. Five independent tertiary DNA transformants were obtained from the EM9 mutant. In these clones a human DNA sequence was identified that correlated with the resistance of the cells to CldUrd. After Eco RI digestion, Southern transfer, and hybridization of transformant DNAs with the BLUR-8 Alu family sequence, a common fragment of 25 to 30 kb was present. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  10. DNA repair in Haemophilus influenzae: isolation and characterization of an ultraviolet sensitive mutator mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    DNA repair in Haemophilus influenzae appears to be quite different from that seen in Escherichia coli in that H. influenzae shows neither SOS nor adaptation phenomena. Repair of DNA lesions in H. influenzae has been seen to occur via recombinational, excision, and mismatch repair pathways acting independently of one another. The author has isolated an ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive mutator mutant (mutB1) of H. influenzae Rd which shows deficiencies in both recombinational and mismatch repair pathways. This mutant is sensitive to a variety of DNA damaging agents as well as being hypermutable by alkylating agents and base analogues. MutB1 cells do not show post-UV DNA breakdown but do begin excision after UV irradiation. Genetic transformation with UV-irradiated DNA on mut B1 recipients shows that high (HE) and low (LE) efficiency markers are transformed at a ratio of 1.0 as in the mismatch repair deficient hex 1 mutant; however, kinetics of UV-inactivation experiments indicate that HE markers are sensitized and act as LE markers do on wild type recipients. Thus, the mutB gene product appears to play a role in both DNA repair and genetic transformation. A model is outlined which presents a role for a DNA helicase in both DNA repair and genetic transformation of H. influenzae.

  11. Preferential repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae rad mutants after induction of interstrand cross-links by 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meniel, V; Magaña-Schwencke, N; Averbeck, D

    1995-11-01

    The gene specific induction and the incision step of the removal of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus UVA-induced interstrand cross-links (ICL) was measured in repair mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Events were examined at the MAT alpha and HML alpha loci in mutants deficient in the repair of ICL, namely rad1, rad2 delta, rad52, pso2 and the rad16 mutant which is impaired in the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the silent HML alpha locus. Previously, we observed in a wild-type strain (K107) preferential repair concerning the incision of 8-MOP photo-induced ICL. The present study indicates that the two mutants rad1 and rad2 delta show no repair in either locus, due presumably to their deficiency in the incision step of ICL repair. The rad52 mutant which is defective in recombination, is proficient in the preferential incision of ICL at the MAT alpha locus versus the HML alpha locus. The same is true for the pso2 mutant which also lacks the ability to perform complete repair of ICL. The rad16 mutant is unable to repair ICL in the silent locus HML alpha but is proficient in repair (i.e. the incision of ICL) in the transcriptionally active MAT alpha locus.

  12. Forward genetic screen for auxin-deficient mutants by cytokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Luo, Pan; Di, Dong-Wei; Wang, Li; Wang, Ming; Lu, Cheng-Kai; Wei, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Tian-Zi; Amakorová, Petra; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Guo, Guang-Qin

    2015-07-06

    Identification of mutants with impairments in auxin biosynthesis and dynamics by forward genetic screening is hindered by the complexity, redundancy and necessity of the pathways involved. Furthermore, although a few auxin-deficient mutants have been recently identified by screening for altered responses to shade, ethylene, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) or cytokinin (CK), there is still a lack of robust markers for systematically isolating such mutants. We hypothesized that a potentially suitable phenotypic marker is root curling induced by CK, as observed in the auxin biosynthesis mutant CK-induced root curling 1 / tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 (ckrc1/taa1). Phenotypic observations, genetic analyses and biochemical complementation tests of Arabidopsis seedlings displaying the trait in large-scale genetic screens showed that it can facilitate isolation of mutants with perturbations in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling. However, unlike transport/signaling mutants, the curled (or wavy) root phenotypes of auxin-deficient mutants were significantly induced by CKs and could be rescued by exogenous auxins. Mutants allelic to several known auxin biosynthesis mutants were re-isolated, but several new classes of auxin-deficient mutants were also isolated. The findings show that CK-induced root curling provides an effective marker for discovering genes involved in auxin biosynthesis or homeostasis.

  13. New types of Escherichia coli recombination-deficient mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifelder, D

    1976-11-01

    A set of Escherichia coli mutants deficient in intramolecular recombination and different from those previously found is described. All have temperature-sensitive lethal mutations. The mutants have been characterized with respect to the following properties: the Pap phenotype, deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, sensitivity to ultraviolet light, ability to support the growth of phage lambda, filament formation, and mutation frequency.

  14. Generation of Peroxisome-Deficient Somatic Animal Cell Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumoto, Kanji; Fujiki, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Cell mutants with a genetic defect affecting various cellular phenotypes are widely utilized as a powerful tool in genetic, biochemical, and cell biological research. More than a dozen complementation groups of animal somatic mutant cells defective in peroxisome biogenesis have been successfully isolated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and used as a model system reflecting fatal human severe genetic disorders named peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD). Isolation and characterization of peroxisome-deficient CHO cell mutants has allowed the identification of PEX genes and the gene products peroxins, which directly leads to the accomplishment of isolation of pathogenic genes responsible for human PBDs, as well as elucidation of their functional roles in peroxisome biogenesis. Here, we describe the procedure to isolate peroxisome-deficient mammalian cell mutants from CHO cells, by making use of an effective, photo-sensitized selection method.

  15. Some Experiments with Respiratory Deficient Mutants of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Methods are described for the induction and identification of respiratory deficient mutants in yeast. Practical schemes are given to enable students to obtain dose-response information for physical and chemical mutagens such as heat, ultraviolet light, or acriflavine. A simple test for environmental mutagens is described. (Author/MA)

  16. Identification of a Gravitropism-Deficient Mutant in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A gravitropism-deficient mutant M96 was isolated from a mutant bank, generated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS mutagenesis of indica rice accession ZJ100. The mutant was characterized as prostrate growth at the beginning of germination, and the prostrate growth phenotype ran through the whole life duration. Tiller angle and tiller number of M96 increased significantly in comparison with the wild type. Tissue section observation analysis indicated that asymmetric stem growth around the second node occurred in M96. Genetic analysis and gene mapping showed that M96 was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene, tentatively termed as gravitropism-deficient M96 (gdM96, which was mapped to a region of 506 kb flanked by markers RM5960 and InDel8 on the long arm of chromosome 11. Sequencing analysis of the open reading frames in this region revealed a nucleotide substitution from G to T in the third exon of LOC_Os11g29840. Additionally, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression level of LOC_Os11g29840 in the stems was much higher than in the roots and leaves in M96. Furthermore, the expression level was more than four times in M96 stem than in the wild type stem. Our results suggested that the mutant gene was likely a new allele to the reported gene LAZY1. Isolation of this new allele would facilitate the further characterization of LAZY1.

  17. CRISPR/Cas9-Induced Double-Strand Break Repair in Arabidopsis Nonhomologous End-Joining Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hexi Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Double-strand breaks (DSBs are one of the most harmful DNA lesions. Cells utilize two main pathways for DSB repair: homologous recombination (HR and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ. NHEJ can be subdivided into the KU-dependent classical NHEJ (c-NHEJ and the more error-prone KU-independent backup-NHEJ (b-NHEJ pathways, involving the poly (ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs. However, in the absence of these factors, cells still seem able to adequately maintain genome integrity, suggesting the presence of other b-NHEJ repair factors or pathways independent from KU and PARPs. The outcome of DSB repair by NHEJ pathways can be investigated by using artificial sequence-specific nucleases such as CRISPR/Cas9 to induce DSBs at a target of interest. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 for DSB induction at the Arabidopsis cruciferin 3 (CRU3 and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO genes. DSB repair outcomes via NHEJ were analyzed using footprint analysis in wild-type plants and plants deficient in key factors of c-NHEJ (ku80, b-NHEJ (parp1 parp2, or both (ku80 parp1 parp2. We found that larger deletions of >20 bp predominated after DSB repair in ku80 and ku80 parp1 parp2 mutants, corroborating with a role of KU in preventing DSB end resection. Deletion lengths did not significantly differ between ku80 and ku80 parp1 parp2 mutants, suggesting that a KU- and PARP-independent b-NHEJ mechanism becomes active in these mutants. Furthermore, microhomologies and templated insertions were observed at the repair junctions in the wild type and all mutants. Since these characteristics are hallmarks of polymerase θ-mediated DSB repair, we suggest a possible role for this recently discovered polymerase in DSB repair in plants.

  18. CRISPR/Cas9-Induced Double-Strand Break Repair in Arabidopsis Nonhomologous End-Joining Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hexi; Strunks, Gary D; Klemann, Bart J P M; Hooykaas, Paul J J; de Pater, Sylvia

    2017-01-05

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most harmful DNA lesions. Cells utilize two main pathways for DSB repair: homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). NHEJ can be subdivided into the KU-dependent classical NHEJ (c-NHEJ) and the more error-prone KU-independent backup-NHEJ (b-NHEJ) pathways, involving the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). However, in the absence of these factors, cells still seem able to adequately maintain genome integrity, suggesting the presence of other b-NHEJ repair factors or pathways independent from KU and PARPs. The outcome of DSB repair by NHEJ pathways can be investigated by using artificial sequence-specific nucleases such as CRISPR/Cas9 to induce DSBs at a target of interest. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 for DSB induction at the Arabidopsis cruciferin 3 (CRU3) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) genes. DSB repair outcomes via NHEJ were analyzed using footprint analysis in wild-type plants and plants deficient in key factors of c-NHEJ (ku80), b-NHEJ (parp1 parp2), or both (ku80 parp1 parp2). We found that larger deletions of >20 bp predominated after DSB repair in ku80 and ku80 parp1 parp2 mutants, corroborating with a role of KU in preventing DSB end resection. Deletion lengths did not significantly differ between ku80 and ku80 parp1 parp2 mutants, suggesting that a KU- and PARP-independent b-NHEJ mechanism becomes active in these mutants. Furthermore, microhomologies and templated insertions were observed at the repair junctions in the wild type and all mutants. Since these characteristics are hallmarks of polymerase θ-mediated DSB repair, we suggest a possible role for this recently discovered polymerase in DSB repair in plants. Copyright © 2017 Shen et al.

  19. DNA repair. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals. (HLW)

  20. Isolation and study of two mutants of Streptomyces cattleya affected in DNA repair and genetic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromic, A; Kirby, R

    1989-01-15

    Two mutants of Streptomyces cattleya affecting DNA repair were isolated. These mutants were analysed using spore survival curves and phage reactivation curves in the presence and absence of caffeine and arsenite. Two DNA repair systems (uvr1 and uvr2) were identified, the latter of which seems to influence genetic instability.

  1. Diagnostic criteria for constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Katharina; Kratz, Christian P; Vasen, Hans F A;

    2014-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a distinct childhood cancer predisposition syndrome that results from biallelic germline mutations in one of the four MMR genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. The tumour spectrum is very broad, including mainly haematological, brain...

  2. Double-strand break repair and genetic recombination in topoisomerase and primase mutants of bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Victor P; Kudryashova, Elena

    2014-09-01

    The effects of primase and topoisomerase II deficiency on the double-strand break (DSB) repair and genetic recombination in bacteriophage T4 were studied in vivo using focused recombination. Site-specific DSBs were induced by SegC endonuclease in the rIIB gene of one of the parents. The frequency/distance relationship was determined in crosses of the wild-type phage, topoisomerase II mutant amN116 (gene 39), and primase mutant E219 (gene 61). Ordinary two-factor (i×j) and three-factor (i k×j) crosses between point rII mutations were also performed. These data provide information about the frequency and distance distribution of the single-exchange (splice) and double-exchange (patch) events. In two-factor crosses ets1×i, the topoisomerase and primase mutants had similar recombinant frequencies in crosses at ets1-i distances longer than 1000 bp, comprising about 80% of the corresponding wild-type values. They, however, differ remarkably in crosses at shorter distances. In the primase mutant, the recombinant frequencies are similar to those in the wild-type crosses at distances less than 100 bp, being a bit diminished at longer distances. In two-factor crosses ets1×i of the topoisomerase mutant, the recombinant frequencies were reduced ten-fold at the shortest distances. In three-factor crosses a6 ets1×i, where we measure patch-related recombination, the primase mutant was quite proficient across the entire range of distances. The topoisomerase mutant crosses demonstrated virtually complete absence of rII(+) recombinants at distances up to 33 bp, with the frequencies increasing steadily at longer distances. The data were interpreted as follows. The primase mutant is fully recombination-proficient. An obvious difference from the wild-type state is some shortage of EndoVII function leading to prolonged existence of HJs and thus stretched out ds-branch migration. This is also true for the topoisomerase mutant. However, the latter is deficient in the ss

  3. N-Nitrosocarbaryl-induced mutagenesis in Haemophilus influenzae strains deficient in repair and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, K L

    1975-02-01

    Mutagenesis was studied in repair- and recombination-deficient strains of Haemophilus influenzae after treatment with N-nitrosocarbaryl (NC). Three different strains of H. influenzae carrying mutations affecting excision-repair of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers exhibited normal repair of premutational lesions (as detected by decreased mutation yield resulting from post-treatment DNA synthesis delay) and normal nonreplicative mutation fixation. This indicated that neither of these phenomena are caused by the smae repair mechanism that removes UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the DNA. The recombination-deficient mutant recI is apparently deficient in the replication-dependent mode of NC-induced mutation fixation. This conclusion is based on the following results: (I) NC-induced mutagenesis is lower in the recI strain than in rec+ cells. (2) Repair of premutational lesions (which depends on the existence of replication-dependent mutation fixation for its detection) was not detected in the recI strain. (3) When nonreplicative mutation fixation and final mutation frequency were measured in the same experiment, about I/4 to I/3 of the final mutation yield could be accounted for by nonreplicative mutation fixation in the rec+ strain, whereas all of the mutation could be accounted for in the recI strain by the nonreplicative mutation fixation. (4) When mutation fixation in strain dna9 recI was followed at the permissive (36 degrees) and nonpermissive (41 degrees) temperatures, it became apparent that in the recI strain replication-dependent mutation fixation occurs at early times, but these newly fixed mutations are unstable and disappear at later times, leaving only the mutations fixed by the nonreplicative process. The recI strain exhibits normal repair of NC-induced single-strand breaks or alkali-labile bonds in the DNA labeled before treatment, but is slow in joining discontinuties present in DNA synthesized after treatment. The results are consistent with the idea that

  4. Characterization of peroxisome-deficient mutants of Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Xuqiu; Titorenko, Vladimir I.; Klei, Ida J. van der; Sulter, Grietje J.; Haima, Peter; Waterham, Hans R.; Evers, Melchior; Harder, Willem; Veenhuis, Marten; Cregg, James M.

    1995-01-01

    In the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha, approximately 25% of all methanol-utilization-defective (Mut(-)) mutants are affected in genes required for peroxisome biogenesis (PER genes). Previously, we reported that one group of pel mutants, termed Pim(-), are characterized by the presence of

  5. Repair effects of laser on mutants of filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yansheng; Xiao, Canpeng; Qian, Hailun; Su, Baoliang; Hu, Yujun; Deng, Jianhui

    1999-09-01

    The paper reports that penicillin-producing strains and lovastatin-producing strains were irradiated by UV and subsequently by laser (632.8 nm), and the reparation rate reached 297% and 264%. High-yield mutant was selected with improved potency of 24.5% and 30%, respectively; Gibberellin producing strains were treated with chemical agent LiCl, and then irradiated with 632.8 nm laser. One mutant with 189.6% increased potency was obtained. The experimental results indicated that using laser irradiation after UV or chemical agent mutation was a new useful method in breeding high-yield strains.

  6. Repair of ultraviolet-damaged transforming DNA in a mismatch repair-deficient strain of Haemophilus influenzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagci, H.; Stuy, J.H. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA). Dept. of Biological Science)

    1982-03-01

    Ultraviolet inactivation of Haemophilus influenzae transforming DNA followed inverse square root kinetics in both mismatch repair-proficient (hex/sup +/) and deficient (hex-1) recipients. No DNA concentration effect was seen with UV-excision repair-deficient (uvr/sup -/) strains. Low-efficiency genetic markers remained more sensitive than high-efficiency ones when they were assayed on excision repair-deficient hex/sup +/ uvr/sup -/ strains. They were equally resistant when hex/sup -/ uvr/sup -/ recipients were used. This was explained by assuming that recombinational repair of UV lesions in the donor strand and mismatch repair of the recipient strand may overlap and cause double strand interruptions. This will eliminate low-efficiency transformants.

  7. Methanol metabolism in a peroxisome-deficient mutant of Hansenula polymorpha : A physiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klei, Ida J. van der; Harder, Willem; Veenhuis, Marten

    1991-01-01

    We have studied methanol-utilization in a peroxisome-deficient (PER) mutant of Hansenula polymorpha. In spite of the fact that in carbon-limited chemostat cultures under induced conditions the enzymes involved in methanol metabolism were present at wildtype (WT) levels, this mutant is unable to grow

  8. Ethanol metabolism in a peroxisome-deficient mutant of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, G.J.; Klei, I.J. van der; Schanstra, J.P.; Harder, W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes ethanol metabolism in a peroxisome-deficient (PER) mutant of Hansenula polymorpha. The PER mutant was able to use ethanol as sole-carbon source but showed reduced growth rates compared to wild-type cells together with a reduced rate of ethanol utilization under µmax conditions.

  9. Efficient and reproducible identification of mismatch repair deficient colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, Patrick; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Halvarsson, Britta;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The identification of mismatch-repair (MMR) defective colon cancer is clinically relevant for diagnostic, prognostic and potentially also for treatment predictive purposes. Preselection of tumors for MMR analysis can be obtained with predictive models, which need to demonstrate ease...... of application and favorable reproducibility. METHODS: We validated the MMR index for the identification of prognostically favorable MMR deficient colon cancers and compared performance to 5 other prediction models. In total, 474 colon cancers diagnosed ≥ age 50 were evaluated with correlation between...... and efficiently identifies MMR defective colon cancers with high sensitivity and specificity. The model shows stable performance with low inter-observer variability and favorable performance when compared to other MMR predictive models....

  10. Purine transport by malpighian tubules of pteridine-deficient eye color mutants of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D T; Bell, L A; Paton, D R; Sullivan, M C

    1979-06-01

    Uptakes of guanine into Malpighian tubules of wild-type Drosophila and the eye color mutants white (w), brown (bw), and pink-peach (pp) have been compared. Tubules for each of these mutants are unable to concentrate guanine intracellularly. The transport of xanthine and riboflavin is also deficient in w tubules. The transport of guanosine, adenine, hypoxanthine, and guanosine monophosphate is similar in wild-type and white Malpighian tubules. These data and other information about these mutants make it likely that these pteridine-deficient eye color mutants do not produce pigments because of the inability to transport a pteridine precursor. This view supports the hypothesis that mutants which lack both pteridine and ommochromes do so because precursors to both classes of pigments share a common transport system.

  11. Deficiency of double-strand DNA break repair does not impair Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence in multiple animal models of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Brook E; Barkan, Daniel; Bongiorno, Paola; Karakousis, Petros C; Glickman, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence within its human host requires mechanisms to resist the effector molecules of host immunity, which exert their bactericidal effects through damaging pathogen proteins, membranes, and DNA. Substantial evidence indicates that bacterial pathogens, including M. tuberculosis, require DNA repair systems to repair the DNA damage inflicted by the host during infection, but the role of double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair systems is unclear. Double-strand DNA breaks are the most cytotoxic form of DNA damage and must be repaired for chromosome replication to proceed. M. tuberculosis elaborates three genetically distinct DSB repair systems: homologous recombination (HR), nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), and single-strand annealing (SSA). NHEJ, which repairs DSBs in quiescent cells, may be particularly relevant to M. tuberculosis latency. However, very little information is available about the phenotype of DSB repair-deficient M. tuberculosis in animal models of infection. Here we tested M. tuberculosis strains lacking NHEJ (a Δku ΔligD strain), HR (a ΔrecA strain), or both (a ΔrecA Δku strain) in C57BL/6J mice, C3HeB/FeJ mice, guinea pigs, and a mouse hollow-fiber model of infection. We found no difference in bacterial load, histopathology, or host mortality between wild-type and DSB repair mutant strains in any model of infection. These results suggest that the animal models tested do not inflict DSBs on the mycobacterial chromosome, that other repair pathways can compensate for the loss of NHEJ and HR, or that DSB repair is not required for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis.

  12. Characterization of environmental chemicals with potential for DNA damage using isogenic DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kimiyo N; Hirota, Kouji; Kono, Koichi; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher P; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R

    2011-08-01

    Included among the quantitative high throughput screens (qHTS) conducted in support of the US Tox21 program are those being evaluated for the detection of genotoxic compounds. One such screen is based on the induction of increased cytotoxicity in seven isogenic chicken DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways compared to the parental DNA repair-proficient cell line. To characterize the utility of this approach for detecting genotoxic compounds and identifying the type(s) of DNA damage induced, we evaluated nine of 42 compounds identified as positive for differential cytotoxicity in qHTS (actinomycin D, adriamycin, alachlor, benzotrichloride, diglycidyl resorcinol ether, lovastatin, melphalan, trans-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate) and one non-cytotoxic genotoxic compound (2-aminothiamine) for (1) clastogenicity in mutant and wild-type cells; (2) the comparative induction of γH2AX positive foci by melphalan; (3) the extent to which a 72-hr exposure duration increased assay sensitivity or specificity; (4) the use of 10 additional DT40 DNA repair-deficient cell lines to better analyze the type(s) of DNA damage induced; and (5) the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the induction of DNA damage. All compounds but lovastatin and 2-aminothiamine were more clastogenic in at least one DNA repair-deficient cell line than the wild-type cells. The differential responses across the various DNA repair-deficient cell lines provided information on the type(s) of DNA damage induced. The results demonstrate the utility of this DT40 screen for detecting genotoxic compounds, for characterizing the nature of the DNA damage, and potentially for analyzing mechanisms of mutagenesis.

  13. Dynamics and Mechanism of Efficient DNA Repair Reviewed by Active-Site Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuang; Liu, Zheyun; Li, Jiang; Guo, Xunmin; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping

    2010-06-01

    Photolyases repair the UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in damage DNA via a photoreaction which includes a series of light-driven electron transfers between the two-electron-reduced flavin cofactor FADH^- and the dimer. We report here our systematic studies of the repair dynamics in E. coli photolyase with mutation of several active-site residues. With femtosecond resolution, we observed the significant change in the forward electron transfer from the excited FADH^- to the dimer and the back electron transfer from the repaired thymines by mutation of E274A, R226A, R342A, N378S and N378C. We also found that the mutation of E274A accelerates the bond-breaking of the thymine dimer. The dynamics changes are consistent with the quantum yield study of these mutants. These results suggest that the active-site residues play a significant role, structurally and chemically, in the DNA repair photocycle.

  14. Tetrahydrobiopterin non-responsiveness in dihydropteridine reductase deficiency is associated with the presence of mutant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, R G; Jennings, I; Bracco, G; Ponzone, A; Guardamagna, O

    1986-01-01

    Correlation of the response to a load of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) in dihydropterin reductase (DHPR) deficient patients to the type of mutation in these patients has led to the conclusion that 4 patients without mutant DHPR molecules in their cells respond to the BH4 load, whereas 3 patients with mutant DHPR in their cells do not respond. Intravenous injection of BH4 in 1 of the cases not responding to BH4 again showed no response.

  15. Construction of DNA damage response gene pprI function-deficient and function-complementary mutants in Deinococcus radiodurans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Guanjun; LU Huiming; HUANG Lifen; HUA Yuejin

    2005-01-01

    PprI, a DNA damage response factor from the extraordinary radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, plays a central regulatory role in multiple DNA damage repair. In this study, a fusion DNA fragment carrying kanamycin resistance gene with the D. Radiodurans groEL promoter was cloned by PCR amplification and reversely inserted into the pprI locus in the genome of the wild-type strain R1. The resulting pprI-deficient strain, designated YR1, was very sensitive to ionizing radiation. Meanwhile, the re- combinant DNA fragment was cloned into the shuttle vector pRADZ3, and resulted in plasmid pRADK with kanamycin resistance in D. Radiodurans. The fragments containing complete pprI gene and 3'-terminal deletion pprI△ were cloned into plasmid pRADK. The resulted plasmids designated pRADKpprI and pRADKpprI△ were then transformed to YR1. Results show that YR1 carrying pRADKpprI was able to fully restore the extreme radioresistance to the same level as the wild-type D. Raiodurans R1, whereas YR1 pRADKpprI△ failed to do so. Construction of DNA repair switch PprI function-deficient and function-complementary mutants in D. Radiodurans is not only useful to elucidating the relationship between domains and functions of PprI protein, but also opens the door to the further studies of the biological functions of PprI protein in vivo.

  16. Increased sensitivity to salt stress in tocopherol-deficient Arabidopsis mutants growing in a hydroponic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouzi, Hasna; Hamed, Karim Ben; Cela, Jana; Müller, Maren; Abdelly, Chedly; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tocopherols could play physiological roles in salt tolerance but the mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed changes in growth, mineral and oxidative status in vte1 and vte4 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants exposed to salt stress. vte1 and vte4 mutants lack α-tocopherol, but only the vte1 mutant is additionally deficient in γ-tocopherol. Results showed that a deficiency in vitamin E leads to reduced growth and increased oxidative stress in hydroponically-grown plants. This effect was observed at early stages, not only in rosettes but also in roots. The vte1 mutant was more sensitive to salt-induced oxidative stress than the wild type and the vte4 mutant. Salt sensitivity was associated with (i) high contents of Na+, (ii) reduced efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm ratio) and (iii) more pronounced oxidative stress as indicated by increased hydrogen peroxide and malondialdeyde levels. The vte 4 mutant, which accumulates γ- instead of α-tocopherol showed an intermediate sensitivity to salt stress between the wild type and the vte1 mutant. Contents of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were higher in the vte1 mutant than the vte4 mutant and wild type. It is concluded that vitamin E-deficient plants show an increased sensitivity to salt stress both in rosettes and roots, therefore indicating the positive role of tocopherols in stress tolerance, not only by minimizing oxidative stress, but also controlling Na+/K+ homeostasis and hormonal balance. PMID:23299430

  17. Increased sensitivity to salt stress in tocopherol-deficient Arabidopsis mutants growing in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouzi, Hasna; Hamed, Karim Ben; Cela, Jana; Müller, Maren; Abdelly, Chedly; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that tocopherols could play physiological roles in salt tolerance but the mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we analyzed changes in growth, mineral and oxidative status in vte1 and vte4 Arabidopsis thaliana mutants exposed to salt stress. vte1 and vte4 mutants lack α-tocopherol, but only the vte1 mutant is additionally deficient in γ-tocopherol. Results showed that a deficiency in vitamin E leads to reduced growth and increased oxidative stress in hydroponically-grown plants. This effect was observed at early stages, not only in rosettes but also in roots. The vte1 mutant was more sensitive to salt-induced oxidative stress than the wild type and the vte4 mutant. Salt sensitivity was associated with (i) high contents of Na(+), (ii) reduced efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm ratio) and (iii) more pronounced oxidative stress as indicated by increased hydrogen peroxide and malondialdeyde levels. The vte 4 mutant, which accumulates γ- instead of α-tocopherol showed an intermediate sensitivity to salt stress between the wild type and the vte1 mutant. Contents of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were higher in the vte1 mutant than the vte4 mutant and wild type. It is concluded that vitamin E-deficient plants show an increased sensitivity to salt stress both in rosettes and roots, therefore indicating the positive role of tocopherols in stress tolerance, not only by minimizing oxidative stress, but also controlling Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis and hormonal balance.

  18. Metabolomic analysis of NAD kinase-deficient mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yuuma; Miyagi, Atsuko; Haishima, Yuto; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Nagano, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Hihara, Yukako; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

    2016-10-20

    NAD kinase (NADK) phosphorylates NAD(H) to NADP(H). The enzyme has a crucial role in the regulation of the NADP(H)/NAD(H) ratio in various organisms. The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 possesses two NADK-encoding genes, sll1415 and slr0400. To elucidate the metabolic change in NADK-deficient mutants growing under photoautotrophic conditions, we conducted metabolomic analysis using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS). The growth curves of the wild-type parent (WT) and NADK-deficient mutants (Δ1415 and Δ0400) did not show any differences under photoautotrophic conditions. The NAD(P)(H) balance showed abnormality in both mutants. However, only the metabolite pattern of Δ0400 showed differences compared to WT. These results indicated that the two NADK isoforms have distinct functions in cyanobacterial metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. C. elegans germline-deficient mutants respond to pathogen infection using shared and distinct mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael TeKippe

    Full Text Available Reproduction extracts a cost in resources that organisms are then unable to utilize to deal with a multitude of environmental stressors. In the nematode C. elegans, development of the germline shortens the lifespan of the animal and increases its susceptibility to microbial pathogens. Prior studies have demonstrated germline-deficient nematodes to have increased resistance to gram negative bacteria. We show that germline-deficient strains display increased resistance across a broad range of pathogens including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, and the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Furthermore, we show that the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16, which regulates longevity and immunity in C. elegans, appears to be crucial for maintaining longevity in both wild-type and germline-deficient backgrounds. Our studies indicate that germline-deficient mutants glp-1 and glp-4 respond to pathogen infection using common and different mechanisms that involve the activation of DAF-16.

  20. Cariogenicity of a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of Streptococcus mutans serotype c in gnotobiotic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    FitzGerald, R.J.; Adams, B. O.; Sandham, H. J.; Abhyankar, S

    1989-01-01

    A lactate dehydrogenase-deficient (Ldh-) mutant of a human isolate of Streptococcus mutans serotype c was tested in a gnotobiotic rat caries model. Compared with the wild-type Ldh-positive (Ldh+) strains, it was significantly (alpha less than or equal to 0.005) less cariogenic in experiments with two different sublines of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Ldh- mutant strain 044 colonized the oral cavity of the test animals to the same extent as its parent strain 041, although its initial implantation ...

  1. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, t...

  2. Creation of an isogenic P1-deficient mutant of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segada, L M; Lesse, A J

    1997-12-19

    Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius, the causative agent of Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF), expresses a heat-modifiable 48 kDa outer membrane protein, P1, which is conserved in most Brazilian case-clone isolates. To study the role of P1 in pathogenesis of BPF we constructed via homologous recombination an isogenic P1-deficient mutant of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius. The procedure involved a modification of Hererot's method for development of competence. Modifications included variations in the growth conditions, use of cAMP, specific characteristics of the donor DNA, and antibiotic selection. P1-deficient mutants were confirmed by SDS-PAGE, loss of reactivity with a specific monoclonal antibody on Western blot, restriction analysis and Southern blot. Our results establish the first successful transformation of homologous DNA into H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius.

  3. Factors contributing to the biofilm-deficient phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus sarA mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H Tsang

    demonstrate that the inability of a sarA mutant to repress production of extracellular nuclease and multiple proteases have independent but cumulative effects that make a significant contribution to the biofilm-deficient phenotype of an S. aureus sarA mutant.

  4. Photosynthetic responses of sun- and shade-grown chlorophyll b deficient mutant of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna KUNDERLIKOVA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, were compared the photosynthetic performance of chlorophyll b (Chl b-deficient mutant lines (ANK-32A and ANK-32B and wild type (WT of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown under sun and shade light regimes, at fourth fully developed leaf, grown in pots under natural climatic conditions. Analyses were based on measurements of pigment composition and fast chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence kinetics. The content of Chl a+b sun (WT 372, ANK-32A 144 and ANK-32B 128 mg*m-2 versus shade (WT 293, ANK-32A 150 and ANK-32B 151 mg*m-2 was statistically significant and the difference between WT and mutant ANK. Unlike the sun-grown, shade grown plants of ANK mutants did not express a severe chlorina phenotype.

  5. The aurea mutant of tomato is deficient in spectrophotometrically and immunochemically detectable phytochrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, B M; Jones, A M; Adamse, P; Koornneef, M; Kendrick, R E; Quail, P H

    1987-03-01

    The aurea locus mutant (au (w)) of tomato contains less than 5% of the level of phytochrome in wild-type tissue as measured by in vivo difference spectroscopy. Immunoblot analysis using antibodies directed against etiolated-oat phytochrome demonstrates that crude extracts of etiolated mutant tissue are deficient in a major immunodetectable protein (116 kDa) normally present in the parent wild type. Analyses of wild-type tissue extracts strongly indicate that the 116-kDa protein is phytochrome by showing that this protein: a) is degraded more rapidly in vitro after a brief far-red irradiation than after a brief red irradiation (Vierstra RD, Quail PH, Planta 156: 158-165, 1982); b) contains a covalently bound chromophore as detected by Zn-chromophore fluorescence on nitrocellulose blots; and c) has an apparent molecular mass comparable to phytochrome from other species on size exclusion chromatography under non-denaturing conditions. The demonstration that the aurea mutant is deficient in this 116-kDa phytochrome indicates that the lack of spectrally detectable phytochrome in this mutant is the result of a lesion which affects the abundance of the phytochrome molecule as opposed to its spectral integrity.

  6. DNA mismatch repair deficiency in sporadic colorectal cancer and Lynch Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Poulogiannis, George; Frayling, Ian; Arends, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Abstract DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency is one of the best understood forms of genetic instability in colorectal cancer (CRC), and is characterised by the loss of function of the MMR pathway. Failure to repair replication-associated errors due to a defective MMR system allows persistence of mismatch mutations all over the genome, but especially in regions of repetitive DNA known as microsatellites, giving rise to the phenomenon of microsatellite instability (MSI). A high freq...

  7. A simple and rapid quantitative method of detection of the common achondroplasia mutation: Analysis in mismatch repair deficient cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewal Raji

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Achondroplasia is the most common form of dwarfism and has an incidence of approximately 1/7,500. In more than 97% of cases, it is caused by a recurrent point mutation, a G to A substitution at nucleotide position 1138 (G1138A of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene. Although this is an autosomal dominant condition, more than 90% of all mutations occur sporadically making this one of the most mutagenic sites in the human genome. The reasons for the high spontaneous G1138A mutation rate are not known. This investigation was performed by developing a simple and rapid semi-quantitative allele specific PCR based assay capable of reliably detecting more than 25 mutant G1138A copies in a pool of 300,000 wild type molecules. Using this assay, the G1138A mutation frequency was measured in cell lines deficient in mismatch repair (LoVo, SW48 and comparing it with controls. No differences were found in the frequency of this point mutation between the mismatch repair deficient and wild type cell lines.

  8. Branching patterns in leaf starches from Arabidopsis mutants deficient in diverse starch synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Szydlowski, Nicolas; d'Hulst, Christophe; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2015-01-12

    This is the first report on the cluster structure of transitory starch from Arabidopsis leaves. In addition to wild type, the molecular structures of leaf starch from mutants deficient in starch synthases (SS) including single enzyme mutants ss1-, ss2-, or ss3-, and also double mutants ss1-ss2- and ss1-ss3- were characterized. The mutations resulted in increased amylose content. Clusters from whole starch were isolated by partial hydrolysis using α-amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The clusters were then further hydrolyzed with concentrated α-amylase of B. amyloliquefaciens to produce building blocks (α-limit dextrins). Structures of the clusters and their building blocks were characterized by chromatography of samples before and after debranching treatment. While the mutations increased the size of clusters, the reasons were different as reflected by the composition of their unit chains and building blocks. In general, all mutants contained more of a-chains that preferentially increased the number of small building blocks with only two chains. The clusters of the double mutant ss1-ss3- were very large and possessed also more of large building blocks with four or more chains. The results from transitory starch are compared with those from agriculturally important crops in the context that to what extent the Arabidopsis can be a true biotechnological reflection for starch modifications through genetic means.

  9. Synaptic proteome changes in a DNA repair deficient Ercc1 mouse model of accelerated aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Végh (Marlene); M.C. de Waard (Monique); I. van der Pluijm (Ingrid); Y. Ridwan (Yanto); M.J.M. Sassen (Marion J.); P. van Nierop (Pim); R.C. van der Schors (Roel); K.W. Li (Ka Wan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.B. Smit (August); R.E. van Kesteren (Ronald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCognitive decline is one of the earliest hallmarks of both normal and pathological brain aging. Here we used Ercc1 mutant mice, which are impaired in multiple DNA repair systems and consequently show accelerated aging and progressive memory deficits, to identify changes in the levels of

  10. Transcriptome analysis of ein3 eil1 mutants in response to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Petra; Blondet, Eddy

    2011-11-01

    Multiple transcriptome and proteome studies indicated that the micronutrient deficiency stress caused by lack of iron results in increased molecular responses for the mobilization and uptake of iron and also in altered metabolic adaptation and stress responses. Recently, we identified the ethylene-regulated transcription factors ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) and EIN3-LIKE1 (EIL1) as protein interaction partners of the Fe deficiency response regulator and transcription factor FER-LIKE FE DEFINCY-INDUCED TRANSCRPTION FACTOR1 (FIT). EIN3/EIL1 contribute to high level gene expression of FIT downstream genes and also promote FIT protein abundance. Transcriptome analyses showed that more genes were differentially regulated in ein3 eil1 mutants versus wild type upon iron deficiency than upon sufficient iron supply. Moreover, several of the differentially expressed genes are implicated in photo-oxidative stress responses in leaves. We therefore speculated that by enhancing Fe uptake through interaction with FIT and by re-organizing the photo-oxidative stress responses, EIN3/EIL1 might contribute to decreasing photo-oxidative stress that may occur under light conditions in response to Fe deficiency. Here, we present an additional analysis of our previously published transcriptome data of ein3 eil1 and wild type between sufficient iron supply and iron deficiency, respectively.

  11. BRCA Mutations, DNA Repair Deficiency, and Ovarian Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Kutluk; Turan, Volkan; Titus, Shiny; Stobezki, Robert; Liu, Lin

    2015-09-01

    Oocyte aging has a significant impact on reproductive outcomes both quantitatively and qualitatively. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the age-related decline in reproductive success have not been fully addressed. BRCA is known to be involved in homologous DNA recombination and plays an essential role in double-strand DNA break repair. Given the growing body of laboratory and clinical evidence, we performed a systematic review on the current understanding of the role of DNA repair in human reproduction. We find that BRCA mutations negatively affect ovarian reserve based on convincing evidence from in vitro and in vivo results and prospective studies. Because decline in the function of the intact gene occurs at an earlier age, women with BRCA1 mutations exhibit accelerated ovarian aging, unlike those with BRCA2 mutations. However, because of the still robust function of the intact allele in younger women and because of the masking of most severe cases by prophylactic oophorectomy or cancer, it is less likely one would see an effect of BRCA mutations on fertility until later in reproductive age. The impact of BRCA2 mutations on reproductive function may be less visible because of the delayed decline in the function of normal BRCA2 allele. BRCA1 function and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-mediated DNA repair may also be important in the pathogenesis of age-induced increase in aneuploidy. BRCA1 is required for meiotic spindle assembly, and cohesion function between sister chromatids is also regulated by ATM family member proteins. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest the implication of BRCA and DNA repair malfunction in ovarian aging.

  12. Base excision repair deficient mice lacking the Aag alkyladenine DNA glycosylase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.P. Engelward (Bevin); G. Weeda (Geert); M.D. Wyatt; J.L.M. Broekhof (Jose'); J. de Wit (Jan); I. Donker (Ingrid); J.M. Allan (James); B. Gold (Bert); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); L.D. Samson (Leona)

    1997-01-01

    textabstract3-methyladenine (3MeA) DNA glycosylases remove 3MeAs from alkylated DNA to initiate the base excision repair pathway. Here we report the generation of mice deficient in the 3MeA DNA glycosylase encoded by the Aag (Mpg) gene. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase turns out to be the major DNA glyc

  13. Restricted diet delays accelerated ageing and genomic stress in DNA-repair-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P. Vermeij (Wilbert); M. Dollé (MartijnE.T.); E. Reiling (Erwin); D. Jaarsma (Dick); C. Payan-Gomez; C.R. Bombardieri (Cíntia R.); Wu, H.; A.J.M. Roks (Anton); S.M. Botter (Sander); B.C.J. van der Eerden (Bram); S.A. Youssef (Sameh Ahmed); R. Kuiper (Ruud); B. Nagarajah (Bhawani); C.T.M. van Oostrom (Conny); R.M.C. Brandt (Renata); S. Barnhoorn (Sander); S. Imholz (Sandra); J.L.A. Pennings (Jeroen L.A.); A. de Bruin (Alain); Gyenis, Á.; J. Pothof (Joris); J. Vijg (Jan); H. van Steeg (Harry); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMice deficient in the DNA excision-repair gene Ercc1 (Ercc1Δ/-) show numerous accelerated ageing features that limit their lifespan to 4-6 months. They also exhibit a 'survival response', which suppresses growth and enhances cellular maintenance. Such a response resembles the anti-ageing

  14. Restricted diet delays accelerated ageing and genomic stress in DNA-repair-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, W. P.; Dolle, M. E. T.; Reiling, E.; Jaarsma, D.; Payan-Gomez, C.; Bombardieri, C. R.; Wu, H.; Roks, A. J. M.; Botter, S. M.; van der Eerden, B. C.; Youssef, S. A.; Kuiper, R. V.; Nagarajah, B.; van Oostrom, C. T.; Brandt, R. M. C.; Barnhoorn, S.; Imholz, S.; Pennings, J. L. A.; de Bruin, A.; Gyenis, A.; Pothof, J.; Vijg, J.; van Steeg, H.; Hoeijmakers, J. H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Mice deficient in the DNA excision-repair gene Ercc1 (Ercc1(Delta/-)) show numerous accelerated ageing features that limit their lifespan to 4-6 months(1-4). They also exhibit a 'survival response', which suppresses growth and enhances cellular maintenance. Such a response resembles the anti-ageing

  15. Restricted diet delays accelerated ageing and genomic stress in DNA-repair-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, W P; Dollé, M E T; Reiling, E; Jaarsma, D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323051928; Payan-Gomez, C; Bombardieri, C R; Wu, H; Roks, A J M; Botter, S M; van der Eerden, B C; Youssef, S A; Kuiper, R V|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/305415042; Nagarajah, B; van Oostrom, C T; Brandt, R M C; Barnhoorn, S; Imholz, S; Pennings, J L A; de Bruin, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837261; Gyenis, Á; Pothof, J; Vijg, J; van Steeg, H; Hoeijmakers, J H J

    2016-01-01

    Mice deficient in the DNA excision-repair gene Ercc1 (Ercc1(∆/-)) show numerous accelerated ageing features that limit their lifespan to 4-6 months. They also exhibit a 'survival response', which suppresses growth and enhances cellular maintenance. Such a response resembles the anti-ageing response

  16. Base excision repair deficient mice lacking the Aag alkyladenine DNA glycosylase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.P. Engelward (Bevin); G. Weeda (Geert); M.D. Wyatt; J.L.M. Broekhof (Jose'); J. de Wit (Jan); I. Donker (Ingrid); J.M. Allan (James); B. Gold (Bert); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); L.D. Samson (Leona)

    1997-01-01

    textabstract3-methyladenine (3MeA) DNA glycosylases remove 3MeAs from alkylated DNA to initiate the base excision repair pathway. Here we report the generation of mice deficient in the 3MeA DNA glycosylase encoded by the Aag (Mpg) gene. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase turns out to be the major DNA glyc

  17. Apn1 AP-endonuclease is essential for the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA bases in yeast frataxin-deficient cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Sophie; Brossas, Caroline; Auchère, Françoise; Boggetto, Nicole; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Santos, Renata

    2012-09-15

    Frataxin deficiency results in mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress and it is the cause of the hereditary neurodegenerative disease Friedreich ataxia (FA). Here, we present evidence that one of the pleiotropic effects of oxidative stress in frataxin-deficient yeast cells (Δyfh1 mutant) is damage to nuclear DNA and that repair requires the Apn1 AP-endonuclease of the base excision repair pathway. Major phenotypes of Δyfh1 cells are respiratory deficit, disturbed iron homeostasis and sensitivity to oxidants. These phenotypes are weak or absent under anaerobiosis. We show here that exposure of anaerobically grown Δyfh1 cells to oxygen leads to down-regulation of antioxidant defenses, increase in reactive oxygen species, delay in G1- and S-phases of the cell cycle and damage to mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Nuclear DNA lesions in Δyfh1 cells are primarily caused by oxidized bases and single-strand breaks that can be detected 15-30 min after oxygen exposition. The Apn1 enzyme is essential for the repair of the DNA lesions in Δyfh1 cells. Compared with Δyfh1, the double Δyfh1Δapn1 mutant shows growth impairment, increased mutagenesis and extreme sensitivity to H(2)O(2). On the contrary, overexpression of the APN1 gene in Δyfh1 cells decreases spontaneous and induced mutagenesis. Our results show that frataxin deficiency in yeast cells leads to increased DNA base oxidation and requirement of Apn1 for repair, suggesting that DNA damage and repair could be important features in FA disease progression.

  18. Water relations of GA- and ABA-deficient tomato mutants during seed and fruit development and their influence on germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Bino, R.J.; Karssen, C.M.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    To explain the differing germination behaviour of seeds of wild type, gibberellin-deficient (gib1) or abscisic acid-deficient (sitw) mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker), growth and water relations of fruit tissues, seeds and embryos were determined during development. Th

  19. Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes from Euglena gracilis and Mutants Deficient in Chlorophyll b: II. Polypeptide Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, F X; Schiff, J A

    1986-01-01

    Chlorophyll-protein complexes (CPs) obtained from thylakoids of Euglena gracilis Klebs var bacillaris Cori contain the following polypeptides (listed in parentheses in order of prominence after Coomassie R-250 staining of polyacrylamide gels): CP Ia (66, 18, 22, 22.5, 27.5, 21, 28, 24, 25.5, and 26 kilodaltons [kD]); CP I (66 kD); CPx (41 kD); LHCP(2) (an oligomer of LHCP) (26.5, 28, and 26 kD); CPy (27 and 19 kD); CPa (54 kD); and LHCP (26.5, 28, and 26 kD). Mutants of bacillaris low in chlorophyll b (Gr(1)BSL, G(1)BU, and O(4)BSL; Chl a/b [mol/mol] = 50-100) which lack CP Ia, LHCP(2), and LHCP also lack or are deficient in polypeptides associated with these complexes in wild-type cells. Mutants G(1) and O(4), which also lack CPy, lack the CPy-associated polypeptides found in wild-type and Gr(1). Using an antiserum which was elicited by and reacts strongly and selectively with the SDS-treated major polypeptide (26.5 kD) of the LHCP complexes of wild-type, this polypeptide is undetectable in the mutants (saturation, consistent with the selective loss of major antenna components but not CP I or CPa from the mutants.

  20. Endocytosis of Ubiquitylation-Deficient EGFR Mutants via Clathrin-Coated Pits is Mediated by Ubiquitylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortian, Arola; Dionne, Lai K; Hong, Sun H; Kim, Woong; Gygi, Steven P; Watkins, Simon C; Sorkin, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is controlled by endocytosis. However, mechanisms of EGFR endocytosis remain poorly understood. Here, we found that the EGFR mutant lacking known ubiquitylation, acetylation and clathrin adaptor AP-2-binding sites (21KRΔAP2) was internalized at relatively high rates via the clathrin-dependent pathway in human duodenal adenocarcinoma HuTu-80 cells. RNA interference analysis revealed that this residual internalization is strongly inhibited by depletion of Grb2 and the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5b/c, and partially affected by depletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl and ubiquitin-binding adaptors, indicating that an ubiquitylation process is involved. Several new ubiquitin conjugation sites were identified by mass spectrometry in the 21KRΔAP2 mutant, suggesting that cryptic ubiquitylation may mediate endocytosis of this mutant. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging of HuTu-80 cells transfected with labeled ubiquitin adaptor epsin1 demonstrated that the ubiquitylation-deficient EGFR mutant was endocytosed through a limited population of epsin-enriched clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), although with a prolonged CCP lifetime. Native EGFR was recruited with the same efficiency into CCPs containing either AP-2 or epsin1 that were tagged with fluorescent proteins by genome editing of MDA-MD-231 cells. We propose that two redundant mechanisms, ubiquitylation and interaction with AP-2, contribute to EGFR endocytosis via CCPs in a stochastic fashion.

  1. Characterization of SSIIIa-deficient mutants of rice: the function of SSIIIa and pleiotropic effects by SSIIIa deficiency in the rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Naoko; Yoshida, Mayumi; Kondo, Tomonori; Saito, Kaori; Utsumi, Yoshinori; Tokunaga, Takashi; Nishi, Aiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Park, Jin-Hee; Jane, Jay-Lin; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Nakamura, Yasunori

    2007-08-01

    Starch synthase IIIa (SSIIIa)-deficient rice (Oryza sativa) mutants were generated using retrotransposon insertion and chemical mutagenesis. The lowest migrating SS activity bands on glycogen-containing native polyacrylamide gel, which were identified to be those for SSIIIa, were completely absent in these mutants, indicating that they are SSIIIa null mutants. The amylopectin B(2) to B(4) chains with degree of polymerization (DP) >/= 30 and the M(r) of amylopectin in the mutant were reduced to about 60% and 70% of the wild-type values, respectively, suggesting that SSIIIa plays an important part in the elongation of amylopectin B(2) to B(4) chains. Chains with DP 6 to 9 and DP 16 to 19 decreased while chains with DP 10 to 15 and DP 20 to 25 increased in the mutants amylopectin. These changes in the SSIIIa mutants are almost opposite images of those of SSI-deficient rice mutant and were caused by 1.3- to 1.7-fold increase of the amount of SSI in the mutants endosperm. Furthermore, the amylose content and the extralong chains (DP >/= 500) of amylopectin were increased by 1.3- and 12-fold, respectively. These changes in the composition in the mutants starch were caused by 1.4- to 1.7-fold increase in amounts of granules-bound starch synthase (GBSSI). The starch granules of the mutants were smaller with round shape, and were less crystalline. Thus, deficiency in SSIIIa, the second major SS isozyme in developing rice endosperm affected the structure of amylopectin, amylase content, and physicochemical properties of starch granules in two ways: directly by the SSIIIa deficiency itself and indirectly by the enhancement of both SSI and GBSSI gene transcripts.

  2. Improved generation of rat gene knockouts by target-selected mutagenesis in mismatch repair-deficient animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Roekel Henk S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus is one of the preferred model organisms in physiological and pharmacological research, although the availability of specific genetic models, especially gene knockouts, is limited. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU-driven target-selected mutagenesis is currently the most successful method in rats, although it is still very laborious and expensive. Results As ENU-induced DNA damage is normally recognized by the mismatch repair (MMR system, we hypothesized that the effectiveness of the target-selected mutagenesis approach could be improved by using a MMR-deficient genetic background. Indeed, Msh6 knockout rats were found to be more sensitive to ENU treatment and the germ line mutation rate was boosted more than two-fold to 1 mutation per 585 kb. In addition, the molecular mutation spectrum was found to be changed in favor of generating knockout-type alleles by ~20%, resulting in an overall increase in efficiency of ~2.5 fold. The improved effectiveness was demonstrated by high throughput mutation discovery in 70 Mb of sequence in a set of only 310 mutant F1 rats. This resulted in the identification of 89 mutations of which four introduced a premature stopcodon and 64 resulted in amino acid changes. Conclusion Taken together, we show that the use of a MMR-deficient background considerably improves ENU-driven target-selected mutagenesis in the rat, thereby reducing animal use as well as screening costs. The use of a mismatch repair-deficient genetic background for improving mutagenesis and target-selected knockout efficiency is in principle applicable to any organism of interest.

  3. Improved generation of rat gene knockouts by target-selected mutagenesis in mismatch repair-deficient animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Toonen, Pim W; Verheul, Mark; van Roekel, Henk S; Nijman, Isaac J; Guryev, Victor; Cuppen, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    Background The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is one of the preferred model organisms in physiological and pharmacological research, although the availability of specific genetic models, especially gene knockouts, is limited. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-driven target-selected mutagenesis is currently the most successful method in rats, although it is still very laborious and expensive. Results As ENU-induced DNA damage is normally recognized by the mismatch repair (MMR) system, we hypothesized that the effectiveness of the target-selected mutagenesis approach could be improved by using a MMR-deficient genetic background. Indeed, Msh6 knockout rats were found to be more sensitive to ENU treatment and the germ line mutation rate was boosted more than two-fold to 1 mutation per 585 kb. In addition, the molecular mutation spectrum was found to be changed in favor of generating knockout-type alleles by ~20%, resulting in an overall increase in efficiency of ~2.5 fold. The improved effectiveness was demonstrated by high throughput mutation discovery in 70 Mb of sequence in a set of only 310 mutant F1 rats. This resulted in the identification of 89 mutations of which four introduced a premature stopcodon and 64 resulted in amino acid changes. Conclusion Taken together, we show that the use of a MMR-deficient background considerably improves ENU-driven target-selected mutagenesis in the rat, thereby reducing animal use as well as screening costs. The use of a mismatch repair-deficient genetic background for improving mutagenesis and target-selected knockout efficiency is in principle applicable to any organism of interest. PMID:18840264

  4. Growth deficiency of a Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae fur mutant in rice leaves is rescued by ascorbic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramoni, Sujatha; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2005-07-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial leaf blight, a serious disease of rice. A mutation was isolated in the ferric uptake regulator (fur) gene of X. oryzae pv. oryzae and it was shown to result in the production of siderophores in a constitutive manner. The fur mutant is hypersensitive to the metallo-antibiotic streptonigrin, a phenotype that is indicative of intracellular free-iron overload, and also exhibits a slow growth phenotype on rich medium. The fur mutant is virulence deficient, hypersensitive to hydrogen peroxide, and exhibits reduced catalase activity. Exogenous supplementation with ascorbic acid (an antioxidant) rescues the growth deficiency of the fur mutant in rice leaves. The virulence deficiency of the X. oryzae pv. oryzae fur mutant is proposed to be due, at least in part, to an impaired ability to cope with the oxidative stress conditions that are encountered during infection.

  5. The myelin mutants as models to study myelin repair in the leukodystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ian D; Kondo, Yoichi; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2011-10-01

    The leukodystrophies are rare and serious genetic disorders of the central nervous system that primarily affect children who frequently die early in life or have significantly delayed motor and mental milestones that result in long-term disability. Although with some of these disorders, early intervention with bone marrow or cord blood transplantation has been proven useful, it has not yet been determined that such therapies promote myelin repair of the central nervous system. Research on experimental therapies aimed at myelin repair is aided by the ability to test cell replacement strategies in genetic models in which the mutations and neuropathology match the human disorder. Thus, models exist of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and the lysosomal storage disorder, Krabbe disease, which reflect the clinical and pathological course of the human disorders. Collectively, animals with mutations in myelin genes are called the myelin mutants, and they include rodent models such as the shiverer mouse that have been extensively used to study myelination by exogenous cell transplantation. These studies have encompassed many permutations of the age of the recipient, type of transplanted cell, site of engraftment, and so forth, and they offer hope that the scaling up of myelin produced by transplanted cells will have clinical significance in treating patients. Here we review these models and discuss their relative importance and use in such translational approaches. We discuss how grafts are identified and functional outcomes are measured. Finally, we briefly discuss the cells that have been successfully transplanted, which may be used in future clinical trials.

  6. Establishment of HeLa cell mutants deficient in sphingolipid-related genes using TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Yamaji

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are essential components in eukaryotes and have various cellular functions. Recent developments in genome-editing technologies have facilitated gene disruption in various organisms and cell lines. We here show the disruption of various sphingolipid metabolic genes in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs. A TALEN pair targeting the human CERT gene (alternative name COL4A3BP encoding a ceramide transport protein induced a loss-of-function phenotype in more than 60% of HeLa cells even though the cell line has a pseudo-triploid karyotype. We have isolated several loss-of-function mutant clones for CERT, UGCG (encoding glucosylceramide synthase, and B4GalT5 (encoding the major lactosylceramide synthase, and also a CERT/UGCG double-deficient clone. Characterization of these clones supported previous proposals that CERT primarily contributes to the synthesis of SM but not GlcCer, and that B4GalT5 is the major LacCer synthase. These newly established sphingolipid-deficient HeLa cell mutants together with our previously established stable transfectants provide a 'sphingolipid-modified HeLa cell panel,' which will be useful to elucidate the functions of various sphingolipid species against essentially the same genomic background.

  7. Structures of starches from rice mutants deficient in the starch synthase isozyme SSI or SSIIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanashiro, Isao; Higuchi, Toshiyuki; Aihara, Satomi; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2011-05-09

    Amylose and amylopectin of rice mutants deficient in a starch synthase (SS) isozyme in the endosperm, either SSI (ΔSSI) or SSIIIa (ΔSSIIIa), were structurally altered from those of their parent (cv. Nipponbare, Np). The amylose content was higher in the mutants (Np, 15.5%; ΔSSI, 18.2%; ΔSSIIIa, 23.6%), and the molar ratio of branched amylose and its side chains was increased. The chain-length distribution of the β-amylase limit dextrins of amylopectin showed regularity, which appeared consistent with the generally accepted cluster structure, and the degrees of polymerization found at the intersections were taken as the boundaries of the B-chain fractions. The mole % of the B(1)-B(3) fractions was changed slightly in ΔSSI, which is consistent with the proposed role of SSI in elongating the external part of clusters. In ΔSSIIIa, a significant increase in the B(1) fraction and a decrease in the B(2) and B(3) fractions were observed. The internal chain length of the B(2) and B(3) fractions appeared to be slightly altered, suggesting that the deficiency in SS affected the actions of branching enzyme(s).

  8. Inhibition of DNA double-strand break repair by the Ku heterodimer in mrx mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasko, Brian M.; Holland, Cory L.; Resnick, Michael A.; Lewis, L. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Yeast rad50 and mre11 nuclease mutants are hypersensitive to physical and chemical agents that induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). This sensitivity was suppressed by elevating intracellular levels of TLC1, the RNA subunit of telomerase. Suppression required proteins linked to homologous recombination, including Rad51, Rad52, Rad59 and Exo1, but not genes of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway. Deletion mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that the 5′ end of TLC1 RNA was essential and a segment containing a binding site for the Yku70/Yku80 complex was sufficient for suppression. A mutant TLC1 RNA unable to associate with Yku80 protein did not increase resistance. These and other genetic studies indicated that association of the Ku heterodimer with broken DNA ends inhibits recombination in mrx mutants, but not in repair-proficient cells or in other DNA repair single mutants. In support of this model, DNA damage resistance of mrx cells was enhanced when YKU70 was co-inactivated. Defective recombinational repair of DSBs in mrx cells thus arises from at least two separate processes: loss of Mrx nuclease-associated DNA end-processing and inhibition of the Exo1-mediated secondary recombination pathway by Ku. PMID:18992851

  9. Ethanol fermentation on glucose/xylose mixture by co-cultivation of restricted glucose catabolite repressed mutants of Pichia stipitis with respiratory deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordowska-Wiater, Monika; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2002-01-01

    Restricted glucose catabolite repressed mutants of P. stipiti CCY 39501 were selected using UV irradiation. Four mutants were obtained which assimilated glucose slower than the native strain of P. stipitis and the degree of glucose repression was about 2-fold lower for P5-90-133 and P5-200-16 mutants and about 10-fold lower for P5-80-7 and P5-80-35 mutants. P5-80-7 and P5-80-35 produced very small amounts of ethanol from glucose and xylose, whereas P5-90-133 and P5-200-16 fermented sugars at the wild-type level. These two mutants were selected for co-fermentation process with native strain of S. cerevisiae V30 or Ja(a), as well as with their respiratory deficient mutants. During co-culture process of P. stipitis mutants with native strains of S. cerevisiae the ethanol yields obtained ranged from 0.38 to 0.45 g/g, and this alcohol was produced mainly from glucose. But, when also xylose, besides glucose was fermented to ethanol during co-fermentation of both mutant strains, lower yields of ethanol (0.28-0.40 g/g) were obtained.

  10. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu.

  11. 53BP1 is limiting for NHEJ repair in ATM-deficient model systems that are subjected to oncogenic stress or radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybanska-Spaeder, Ivana; Reynolds, Taylor L; Chou, Jeremy; Prakash, Mansi; Jefferson, Tameca; Huso, David L; Desiderio, Stephen; Franco, Sonia

    2013-10-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) factors ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) function as tumor suppressors in humans and mice, but the significance of their mutual interaction to the suppression of oncogenic translocations in vivo has not been investigated. To address this question, the phenotypes of compound mutant mice lacking 53BP1 and ATM (Trp53bp1(-/-)/Atm(-/-)), relative to single mutants, were examined. These analyses revealed that loss of 53BP1 markedly decreased the latency of T-lineage lymphomas driven by RAG-dependent oncogenic translocations in Atm(-/-) mice (average survival, 14 and 23 weeks for Trp53bp1(-/-)/Atm(-/-) and Atm(-/-) mice, respectively). Mechanistically, 53BP1 deficiency aggravated the deleterious effect of ATM deficiency on nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated double-strand break repair. Analysis of V(D)J recombinase-mediated coding joints and signal joints in Trp53bp1(-/-)/Atm(-/-) primary thymocytes is, however, consistent with canonical NHEJ-mediated repair. Together, these findings indicate that the greater NHEJ defect in the double mutant mice resulted from decreased efficiency of rejoining rather than switching to an alternative NHEJ-mediated repair mechanism. Complementary analyses of irradiated primary cells indicated that defects in cell-cycle checkpoints subsequently function to amplify the NHEJ defect, resulting in more frequent chromosomal breaks and translocations in double mutant cells throughout the cell cycle. Finally, it was determined that 53BP1 is dispensable for the formation of RAG-mediated hybrid joints in Atm(-/-) thymocytes but is required to suppress large deletions in a subset of hybrid joints. The current study uncovers novel ATM-independent functions for 53BP1 in the suppression of oncogenic translocations and in radioprotection.

  12. Changes of Photosystem Ⅱ Electron Transport in the Chlorophyll-deficient Oilseed Rape Mutant Studied by Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Thermoluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Wei Guo; Jin-Kui Guo; Yun Zhao; Lin-Fang Du

    2007-01-01

    The photosystem Ⅱ (PSII) complex of photosynthetic membranes comprises a number of chlorophyll-binding proteins that are important to the electron flow. Here we report that the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant has de creased the amount of light-harvesting complexes with an increased amount of some core polypeptides of PSII,including CP43 and CP47. By means of chlorophyll fluorescence and thermoluminescence, we found that the ratio of Fv/Fm, qP and electron transport rate in the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant was higher compared to the wild type.In the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant, the decay of the primary electron acceptor quinones (QA-) reoxidation was decreased, measured by the fluorescence. Furthermore, the thermolumlnescence studies in the chlorophyll b deficient mutant showed that the B band (S2/S3QB-) decreased slightly and shifted up towards higher temperatures.In the presence of dichlorophenyl-dimethylurea, which is inhibited in the electron flow to the second electron acceptor quinines (QB) at the PSII acceptor side, the maximum of the Q band (S2QA-) was decreased slightly and shifted down to lower temperatures, compared to the wild type. Thus, the electron flow within PSll of the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant was down-regulated and characterized by faster oxidation of the primary electron acceptor quinine QA- via forward electron flow and slower reduction of the oxidation S states.

  13. Immunoscore in mismatch repair-proficient and -deficient colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirta, Erkki-Ville; Seppälä, Toni; Friman, Marjukka; Väyrynen, Juha; Ahtiainen, Maarit; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kuopio, Teijo; Kellokumpu, Ilmo; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Böhm, Jan

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate immune response and its prognostic significance in colon carcinomas using the previously described Immunoscore (IS). A population-based series of 779 colorectal cancers, operated on between 2000 and 2010, were classified according to tumour, node, metastasis (TNM) status, mismatch repair (MMR), and BRAF mutation status. Rectal cancer cases (n = 203) were excluded as a high proportion of these patients received preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Tissue microarray (TMA) samples collected from the tumour centre and invasive front were immunostained for CD3 and CD8. Lymphocytes were then digitally calculated to categorize IS from grade 0 to 4. Samples adequate for IS were available from 510 tumours. IS was significantly associated with AJCC/UICC stage, T stage, lymph node and distant metastases, perineural and lymphovascular invasion, MMR status, and BRAF mutation status. For IS0, IS1, IS2, IS3 and IS4, respectively, the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 59, 68, 78, 83 and 94% (p < 0.001); 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were 47, 55, 75, 80, and 89% (p < 0.001); and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 40, 44, 66, 61, and 76% (p < 0.001). IS was also prognostic for DFS, DSS, and OS within subsets of microsatellite-stable (MSS) and microsatellite-instable (MSI) disease. Multivariable analysis showed that IS, AJCC/UICC stage, lymphovascular invasion, and lymph node ratio in AJCC/UICC stage III disease were independent prognostic factors for DFS, DSS, and OS. Age was an independent prognostic factor for DSS and OS. Gender and BRAF mutation were independent prognostic factors for OS. In conclusion, IS differentiated patients with poor versus improved prognosis in MSS and MSI disease and across AJCC/UICC stages. IS, AJCC/UICC stage, lymphovascular invasion, and lymph node ratio in AJCC/UICC stage III disease were independent prognostic factors for DFS, DSS, and OS.

  14. A systematic proteomic study of irradiated DNA repair deficient Nbn-mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Melchers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The NBN gene codes for the protein nibrin, which is involved in the detection and repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The NBN gene is essential in mammals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used a conditional null mutant mouse model in a proteomics approach to identify proteins with modified expression levels after 4 Gy ionizing irradiation in the absence of nibrin in vivo. Altogether, amongst approximately 8,000 resolved proteins, 209 were differentially expressed in homozygous null mutant mice in comparison to control animals. One group of proteins significantly altered in null mutant mice were those involved in oxidative stress and cellular redox homeostasis (p<0.0001. In substantiation of this finding, analysis of Nbn null mutant fibroblasts indicated an increased production of reactive oxygen species following induction of DSBs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In humans, biallelic hypomorphic mutations in NBN lead to Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS, an autosomal recessive genetic disease characterised by extreme radiosensitivity coupled with growth retardation, immunoinsufficiency and a very high risk of malignancy. This particularly high cancer risk in NBS may be attributable to the compound effect of a DSB repair defect and oxidative stress.

  15. The indirect effect of radiation reduces the repair fidelity of NHEJ as verified in repair deficient CHO cell lines exposed to different radiation qualities and potassium bromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajinskis, Ainars, E-mail: ainars.bajinskis@gmt.su.se [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Olsson, Gunilla; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-01

    The complexity of DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation is mainly dependent on radiation quality, where the indirect action of radiation may contribute to different extent depending on the type of radiation under study. The effect of indirect action of radiation can be investigated by using agents that induce oxidative DNA damage or by applying free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect effect of radiation for the repair fidelity of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER) when DNA damage of different complexity was induced by gamma radiation, alpha particles or from base damages (8-oxo-dG) induced by potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}). CHO cells lines deficient in XRCC3 (HRR) irs1SF, XRCC7 (NHEJ) V3-3 and XRCC1 (BER) EM9 were irradiated in the absence or presence of the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The endpoints investigated included rate of cell proliferation by the DRAG assay, clonogenic cell survival and the level of primary DNA damage by the comet assay. The results revealed that the indirect effect of low-LET radiation significantly reduced the repair fidelity of both NHEJ and HRR pathways. For high-LET radiation the indirect effect of radiation also significantly reduced the repair fidelity for the repair deficient cell lines. The results suggest further that the repair fidelity of the error prone NHEJ repair pathway is more impaired by the indirect effect of high-LET radiation relative to the other repair pathways studied. The response to bromate observed for the two DSB repair deficient cell lines strongly support earlier studies that bromate induces complex DNA damages. The significantly reduced repair fidelity of irs1SF and V3-3 suggests that NHEJ as well as HRR are needed for the repair, and that complex DSBs are formed after bromate exposure.

  16. Analyses of tomato fruit brightness mutants uncover both cutin-deficient and cutin-abundant mutants and a new hypomorphic allele of GDSL lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Johann; Bres, Cécile; Just, Daniel; Garcia, Virginie; Mauxion, Jean-Philippe; Marion, Didier; Bakan, Bénédicte; Joubès, Jérôme; Domergue, Frédéric; Rothan, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    The cuticle is a protective layer synthesized by epidermal cells of the plants and consisting of cutin covered and filled by waxes. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit, the thick cuticle embedding epidermal cells has crucial roles in the control of pathogens, water loss, cracking, postharvest shelf-life, and brightness. To identify tomato mutants with modified cuticle composition and architecture and to further decipher the relationships between fruit brightness and cuticle in tomato, we screened an ethyl methanesulfonate mutant collection in the miniature tomato cultivar Micro-Tom for mutants with altered fruit brightness. Our screen resulted in the isolation of 16 glossy and 8 dull mutants displaying changes in the amount and/or composition of wax and cutin, cuticle thickness, and surface aspect of the fruit as characterized by optical and environmental scanning electron microscopy. The main conclusions on the relationships between fruit brightness and cuticle features were as follows: (1) screening for fruit brightness is an effective way to identify tomato cuticle mutants; (2) fruit brightness is independent from wax load variations; (3) glossy mutants show either reduced or increased cutin load; and (4) dull mutants display alterations in epidermal cell number and shape. Cuticle composition analyses further allowed the identification of groups of mutants displaying remarkable cuticle changes, such as mutants with increased dicarboxylic acids in cutin. Using genetic mapping of a strong cutin-deficient mutation, we discovered a novel hypomorphic allele of GDSL lipase carrying a splice junction mutation, thus highlighting the potential of tomato brightness mutants for advancing our understanding of cuticle formation in plants.

  17. Effect of gamma rays on the bone repair process in rats with estrogen deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicarelli, Mariliani; Manzi, Flavio Ricardo; Novaes, Pedro Duarte; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de; Ramos, Flavia Maria de Moraes [Universidade Estadual de de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Radiologia Oral]. E-mail: laviamaria@fop.unicamp.br

    2007-01-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the bone repair process in ovariectomized rats submitted to an irradiation procedure. For this purpose, one hundred rats were randomly divided in four experimental groups: control, ovariectomized, irradiated and irradiated/ ovariectomized. A bone defect was made on all animals tibias. Three days after surgery, only irradiated and irradiated/ovariectomized rats received 8 Gy of gamma rays on the lower limbs region. The animals were sacrificed 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after surgery in order to assess the repair process. It was possible to observe a delay in the bone repair process in the irradiated/ovariectomized group, in which there was a remarkable association between estrogen deficiency and ionizing radiation resulting in the reduction of newly formed bone production, thus accelerating the resorption process. (author)

  18. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Marcos, Ricard, E-mail: ricard.marcos@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Alba, E-mail: alba.hernandez@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Repair ability under long-term exposure to arsenic was tested using the comet assay. • Effects were measured under Ogg1 wild-type and deficient backgrounds. • Exposed cells repair less efficiency the DNA damage induced by SA, KBrO{sub 3}, MMA{sup III} or UVC radiation. • Oxidative damage and Ogg1 deficient background exacerbate repair deficiencies. • Overexpression of the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt acts as adaptive mechanism. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage—and Ogg1 deficiency

  19. Hyperactivation of PARP triggers nonhomologous end-joining in repair-deficient mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, Natalie R; Stefanick, Donna F; Kedar, Padmini S; Horton, Julie K; Wilson, Samuel H

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) synthesis and turnover is critical to determining cell fate after genotoxic stress. Hyperactivation of PAR synthesis by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) occurs when cells deficient in DNA repair are exposed to genotoxic agents; however, the function of this hyperactivation has not been adequately explained. Here, we examine PAR synthesis in mouse fibroblasts deficient in the base excision repair enzyme DNA polymerase β (pol β). The extent and duration of PARP-1 activation was measured after exposure to either the DNA alkylating agent, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), or to low energy laser-induced DNA damage. There was strong DNA damage-induced hyperactivation of PARP-1 in pol β nullcells, but not in wild-type cells. In the case of MMS treatment, PAR synthesis did not lead to cell death in the pol β null cells, but instead resulted in increased PARylation of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) protein Ku70 and increased association of Ku70 with PARP-1. Inhibition of the NHEJ factor DNA-PK, under conditions of MMS-induced PARP-1 hyperactivation, enhanced necrotic cell death. These data suggest that PARP-1 hyperactivation is a protective mechanism triggering the classical-NHEJ DNA repair pathway when the primary alkylated base damage repair pathway is compromised.

  20. Hyperactivation of PARP triggers nonhomologous end-joining in repair-deficient mouse fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie R Gassman

    Full Text Available Regulation of poly(ADP-ribose (PAR synthesis and turnover is critical to determining cell fate after genotoxic stress. Hyperactivation of PAR synthesis by poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 occurs when cells deficient in DNA repair are exposed to genotoxic agents; however, the function of this hyperactivation has not been adequately explained. Here, we examine PAR synthesis in mouse fibroblasts deficient in the base excision repair enzyme DNA polymerase β (pol β. The extent and duration of PARP-1 activation was measured after exposure to either the DNA alkylating agent, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, or to low energy laser-induced DNA damage. There was strong DNA damage-induced hyperactivation of PARP-1 in pol β nullcells, but not in wild-type cells. In the case of MMS treatment, PAR synthesis did not lead to cell death in the pol β null cells, but instead resulted in increased PARylation of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ protein Ku70 and increased association of Ku70 with PARP-1. Inhibition of the NHEJ factor DNA-PK, under conditions of MMS-induced PARP-1 hyperactivation, enhanced necrotic cell death. These data suggest that PARP-1 hyperactivation is a protective mechanism triggering the classical-NHEJ DNA repair pathway when the primary alkylated base damage repair pathway is compromised.

  1. Genetics and complementation of Haemophilus influenzae mutants deficient in adenosine 5'-triphosphate-dependent nuclease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooistra, J.; Small, G.D.; Setlow, J.K.; Shapanka, R.

    1976-04-01

    Eight different mutations in Haemophilus influenzae leading to deficiency in adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent nuclease have been investigated in strains in which the mutations of the originally mutagenized strains have been transferred into the wild type. Sensitivity to mitomycin C and deoxycholate and complementation between extracts and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-dependent ATPase activity have been measured. Genetic crosses have provided information on the relative position of the mutations on the genome. There are three complementation groups, corresponding to three genetic groups. The strains most sensitive to mitomycin and deoxycholate, derived from mutants originally selected on the basis of sensitivity to mitomycin C or methyl methanesulfonate, are in one group. Apparently all these sensitive strains lack DNA-dependent ATPase activity, as does a strain intermediate in sensitivity to deoxycholate, which is the sole representative of another group. There are four strains that are relatively resistant to deoxycholate and mitomycin C, and all of these contain the ATPase activity.

  2. Induction of a mutant phenotype in human repair proficient cells after overexpression of a mutated human DNA repair gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.B.G.M. Belt; M.F. van Oostenrijk; H. Odijk (Hanny); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); C.M.P. Backendorf (Claude)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractAntisense and mutated cDNA of the human excision repair gene ERCC-1 were overexpressed in repair efficient HeLa cells by means of an Epstein-Barr-virus derived CDNA expression vector. Whereas antisense RNA did not influence the survival of the transfected cells, a mutated cDNA generating

  3. Loss of Cell Adhesion Increases Tumorigenic Potential of Polarity Deficient Scribble Mutant Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrayani Waghmare

    Full Text Available Epithelial polarity genes are important for maintaining tissue architecture, and regulating growth. The Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor gene scribble (scrib belongs to the basolateral polarity complex. Loss of scrib results in disruption of its growth regulatory functions, and downregulation or mislocalization of Scrib is correlated to tumor growth. Somatic scribble mutant cells (scrib- surrounded by wild-type cells undergo apoptosis, which can be prevented by introduction of secondary mutations that provide a growth advantage. Using genetic tools in Drosophila, we analyzed the phenotypic effects of loss of scrib in different growth promoting backgrounds. We investigated if a central mechanism that regulates cell adhesion governs the growth and invasive potential of scrib mutant cells. Here we show that increased proliferation, and survival abilities of scrib- cells in different genetic backgrounds affect their differentiation, and intercellular adhesion. Further, loss of scrib is sufficient to cause reduced cell survival, activation of the JNK pathway and a mild reduction of cell adhesion. Our data show that for scrib cells to induce aggressive tumor growth characterized by loss of differentiation, cell adhesion, increased proliferation and invasion, cooperative interactions that derail signaling pathways play an essential role in the mechanisms leading to tumorigenesis. Thus, our study provides new insights on the effects of loss of scrib and the modification of these effects via cooperative interactions that enhance the overall tumorigenic potential of scrib deficient cells.

  4. Rapid Identification of Chemoresistance Mechanisms Using Yeast DNA Mismatch Repair Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojini, Irene; Gammie, Alison

    2015-07-21

    Resistance to cancer therapy is a major obstacle in the long-term treatment of cancer. A greater understanding of drug resistance mechanisms will ultimately lead to the development of effective therapeutic strategies to prevent resistance from occurring. Here, we exploit the mutator phenotype of mismatch repair defective yeast cells combined with whole genome sequencing to identify drug resistance mutations in key pathways involved in the development of chemoresistance. The utility of this approach was demonstrated via the identification of the known CAN1 and TOP1 resistance targets for two compounds, canavanine and camptothecin, respectively. We have also experimentally validated the plasma membrane transporter HNM1 as the primary drug resistance target of mechlorethamine. Furthermore, the sequencing of mitoxantrone-resistant strains identified inactivating mutations within IPT1, a gene encoding inositolphosphotransferase, an enzyme involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis. In the case of bactobolin, a promising anticancer drug, the endocytosis pathway was identified as the drug resistance target responsible for conferring resistance. Finally, we show that that rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor previously shown to alter the fitness of the ipt1 mutant, can effectively prevent the formation of mitoxantrone resistance. The rapid and robust nature of these techniques, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism, should accelerate the identification of drug resistance targets and guide the development of novel therapeutic combination strategies to prevent the development of chemoresistance in various cancers.

  5. Cariogenicity of a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of Streptococcus mutans serotype c in gnotobiotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R J; Adams, B O; Sandham, H J; Abhyankar, S

    1989-03-01

    A lactate dehydrogenase-deficient (Ldh-) mutant of a human isolate of Streptococcus mutans serotype c was tested in a gnotobiotic rat caries model. Compared with the wild-type Ldh-positive (Ldh+) strains, it was significantly (alpha less than or equal to 0.005) less cariogenic in experiments with two different sublines of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Ldh- mutant strain 044 colonized the oral cavity of the test animals to the same extent as its parent strain 041, although its initial implantation was slightly but not significantly (P greater than or equal to 0.2) less. Multiple oral or fecal samples plated on 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium indicator medium revealed no evidence of back mutation from Ldh- to Ldh+ in vivo. Both Ldh+ strain 041 and Ldh- strain 044 demonstrated bacteriocinlike activity in vitro against a number of human strains of mutans streptococci representing serotype a (S. cricetus) and serotypes c and e (S. mutans). Serotypes b (S. rattus) and f (S. mutans) and strains of S. mitior, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius were not inhibited. Thus, Ldh mutant strain 044 possesses a number of desirable traits that suggest it should be investigated further as a possible effector strain for replacement therapy of dental caries. These traits include its stability and low cariogenicity in the sensitive gnotobiotic rat caries model, its bacteriocinlike activity against certain other cariogenic S. mutans (but not against more inocuous indigenous oral streptococci), and the fact that it is a member of the most prevalent human serotype of cariogenic streptococci.

  6. Precocious metamorphosis in the juvenile hormone-deficient mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Daimon

    Full Text Available Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs. JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several "moltinism" mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval-larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval-pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH-deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis.

  7. Abscisic acid-deficient sit tomato mutant responses to cadmium-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeu, Georgia B; Vilhena, Milca B; Gratão, Priscila L; Carvalho, Rogério F; Rossi, Mônica L; Martinelli, Adriana P; Azevedo, Ricardo A

    2017-03-01

    There is a very effective cross-talk between signals triggered by reactive oxygen species and hormonal responses in plants, activating proteins/enzymes likely to be involved in stress tolerance. Abscisic acid (ABA) is known as a stress hormone that takes part in the integration of signals. This work aimed to characterize the biochemical response and ultrastructural changes induced by cadmium (Cd) in the Micro-Tom (MT) sitiens ABA-deficient mutant (sit) and its wild-type (MT) counterpart. MT and sit plants were grown over a 96-h period in the presence of Cd (0, 10, and 100 μM CdCl2). The overall results indicated increases in lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide content and in the activities of the key antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase in both genotypes. On the other hand, no alteration was observed in chlorophyll content, while the activity of another antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, remained constant or even decreased in the presence of Cd. Roots and shoots of the sit mutant and MT were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy in order to characterize the structural changes caused by the exposure to this metal. Cd caused a decrease in intercellular spaces in shoots and a decrease in cell size in roots of both genotypes. In leaves, Cd affected organelle shape and internal organization of the thylakoid membranes, whereas noticeable increase in the number of mitochondria and vacuoles in MT and sit roots were observed. These results add new information that should help unravel the relative importance of ABA in regulating the cell responses to stressful conditions induced by Cd apart from providing the first characterization of this mutant to oxidative stress.

  8. Primary coenzyme Q deficiency in Pdss2 mutant mice causes isolated renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Peng

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q (CoQ is an essential electron carrier in the respiratory chain whose deficiency has been implicated in a wide variety of human mitochondrial disease manifestations. Its multi-step biosynthesis involves production of polyisoprenoid diphosphate in a reaction that requires the enzymes be encoded by PDSS1 and PDSS2. Homozygous mutations in either of these genes, in humans, lead to severe neuromuscular disease, with nephrotic syndrome seen in PDSS2 deficiency. We now show that a presumed autoimmune kidney disease in mice with the missense Pdss2(kd/kd genotype can be attributed to a mitochondrial CoQ biosynthetic defect. Levels of CoQ9 and CoQ10 in kidney homogenates from B6.Pdss2(kd/kd mutants were significantly lower than those in B6 control mice. Disease manifestations originate specifically in glomerular podocytes, as renal disease is seen in Podocin/cre,Pdss2(loxP/loxP knockout mice but not in conditional knockouts targeted to renal tubular epithelium, monocytes, or hepatocytes. Liver-conditional B6.Alb/cre,Pdss2(loxP/loxP knockout mice have no overt disease despite demonstration that their livers have undetectable CoQ9 levels, impaired respiratory capacity, and significantly altered intermediary metabolism as evidenced by transcriptional profiling and amino acid quantitation. These data suggest that disease manifestations of CoQ deficiency relate to tissue-specific respiratory capacity thresholds, with glomerular podocytes displaying the greatest sensitivity to Pdss2 impairment.

  9. Genetic Screening Identifies Cyanogenesis-Deficient Mutants of Lotus japonicus and Reveals Enzymatic Specificity in Hydroxynitrile Glucoside Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takos, A.; Lai, D.; Mikkelsen, L.;

    2010-01-01

    content. L. japonicus produces two cyanogenic glucosides: linamarin (derived from Val) and lotaustralin (derived from Ile). Their biosynthesis may involve the same set of enzymes for both amino acid precursors. However, in one class of mutants, accumulation of lotaustralin and linamarin was uncoupled....... We developed a high-throughput screening method and used it to identify cyanogenesis deficient (cyd) mutants in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Mutants in both biosynthesis and catabolism of cyanogenic glucosides were isolated and classified following metabolic profiling of cyanogenic glucoside....... Catabolic mutants could be placed in two complementation groups, one of which, cyd2, encoded the beta-glucosidase BGD2. Despite the identification of nine independent cyd2 alleles, no mutants involving the gene encoding a closely related beta-glucosidase, BGD4, were identified. This indicated that BGD4...

  10. Intermolecular forces and enthalpies in the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and antigen I/II deficient mutant to laminin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, H.J.; Belt-Gritter, van de B.; Dijkstra, R.J.B.; Norde, W.; Mei, van der H.C.

    2007-01-01

    The antigen I/II family of surface proteins is expressed by most oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans, and mediates specific adhesion to, among other things, salivary films and extracellular matrix proteins. In this study we showed that antigen I/II-deficient S. mutans isogenic mutant I

  11. Pharmacologically targeting beta-catenin for NF1 associated deficiencies in fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baht, Gurpreet S; Nadesan, Puviindran; Silkstone, David; Alman, Benjamin A

    2017-02-22

    Patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 display delayed fracture healing and the increased deposition of fibrous tissue at the fracture site. Severe cases can lead to non-union and even congenital pseudarthrosis. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is caused by a mutation in the NF1 gene and mice lacking the Nf1 gene show a fracture repair phenotype similar to that seen in patients. Tissue from the fracture site of patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 and from mice deficient in the Nf1 gene both show elevated levels of β-catenin protein and activation of β-catenin mediated signaling. Constitutively elevated β-catenin leads to a delayed and fibrous fracture repair process, and (RS)-5-methyl-1-phenyl-1,3,4,6-tetrahydro-2,5-benzoxazocine (Nefopam, a centrally-acting, non-narcotic analgesic agent) inhibits β-catenin mediated signaling during skin wound repair. Here we investigate Nefopam's potential as a modulator of bone repair in mice deficient in Nf1. Mice were treated with Nefopam and investigated for bone fracture repair. Bone marrow stromal cells flushed from the long bones of unfractured mice were treated with Nefopam and investigated for osteogenic potential. Treatment with Nefopam was able to lower the β-catenin level and the Axin2 transcript level in the fracture calluses of Nf1 deficient mice. Cultures from the bone marrow of Nf1(-/-) mice had significantly lower osteoblastic colonies and mineralized nodules, which was increased when cells were cultured in the presence of Nefopam. Fracture calluses were harvested and analyzed 14days and 21days after injury. Nf1(-/-) calluses had less bone, less cartilage, and higher fibrous tissue content than control calluses. Treatment with Nefopam increased the bone and cartilage content and decreased the fibrous tissue content in Nf1(-/-) calluses. These findings present a potential treatment for patients with Neurofibromatosis 1 in the context of bone repair. Since Nefopam is already in use in patient care, it could be

  12. Mutator Phenotype and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in BLM Helicase-Deficient Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yasui, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS), an autosomal recessive disorder of the BLM gene, predisposes sufferers to various cancers. To investigate the mutator phenotype and genetic consequences of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in BS cells, we developed BLM helicase-deficient human cells by disrupting the BLM gene. Cells with a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) due to homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) can be restored with or without site-directed DSB induction. BLM cells exhibited a high frequency of spontaneous interallelic HR with crossover, but noncrossover events with long-tract gene conversions also occurred. Despite the highly interallelic HR events, BLM cells predominantly produced hemizygous LOH by spontaneous deletion. These phenotypes manifested during repair of DSBs. Both NHEJ and HR appropriately repaired DSBs in BLM cells, resulting in hemizygous and homozygous LOHs, respectively. However, the magnitude of the LOH was exacerbated in BLM cells, as evidenced by large deletions and long-tract gene conversions with crossover. BLM helicase suppresses the elongation of branch migration and crossover of double Holliday junctions (HJs) during HR repair, and a deficiency in this enzyme causes collapse, abnormal elongation, and/or preferable resolution to crossover of double HJs, resulting in a large-scale LOH. This mechanism underlies the predisposition for cancer in BS. PMID:27601585

  13. [Characteristics and Outcomes of Treatment in Patients with Stage IV Colorectal Cancer with Mismatch Repair Deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Chika, Noriyasu; Suzuki, Okihide; Ito, Tetsuya; Amano, Kunihiko; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Fukuchi, Minoru; Kumagai, Youichi; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2016-11-01

    Mismatch repair(MMR)protein deficiency in colorectal cancer is well correlated with high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H). There are little data on mismatch repair deficiency(dMMR)colorectal cancers in Japan. In addition, we have no available data on the therapeutic efficacy of oxaliplatin(oxa)-based chemotherapy, one of the standard treatment regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer, for patients with dMMR colorectal cancer. The subjects were 254 patients with Stage IV colorectal cancer whose tumors were immunohistochemically stained for MMR proteins, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. Patients who underwent R0 resection were excluded. Clinicopathologic factors and the efficacy of oxa-based chemotherapy were compared between patients with dMMR colorectal cancer and those with mismatch repair proficient(pMMR)colorectal cancer. There were 7(2.8%)patients with dMMR. Four patients demonstrated both MLH1 and PMS2 loss, while 3 patients demonstrated both MSH2 and MSH6 loss. Though the dMMR had a higher frequency in female patients(p=0.02) and a lower frequency in those with liver metastasis(pcolorectal cancers was lower than those(4-11%)reported in Western countries. Therefore, the clinical significance of universal screeningfor dMMR in all colorectal cancer samples may not be valid. Concerningsurvival benefit, oxa-based chemotherapy seems to be an effective alternative in clinical practice for metastatic colorectal cancer patients with dMMR.

  14. Mutator Phenotype and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in BLM Helicase-Deficient Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yasui, Manabu; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-12-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS), an autosomal recessive disorder of the BLM gene, predisposes sufferers to various cancers. To investigate the mutator phenotype and genetic consequences of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in BS cells, we developed BLM helicase-deficient human cells by disrupting the BLM gene. Cells with a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) due to homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) can be restored with or without site-directed DSB induction. BLM cells exhibited a high frequency of spontaneous interallelic HR with crossover, but noncrossover events with long-tract gene conversions also occurred. Despite the highly interallelic HR events, BLM cells predominantly produced hemizygous LOH by spontaneous deletion. These phenotypes manifested during repair of DSBs. Both NHEJ and HR appropriately repaired DSBs in BLM cells, resulting in hemizygous and homozygous LOHs, respectively. However, the magnitude of the LOH was exacerbated in BLM cells, as evidenced by large deletions and long-tract gene conversions with crossover. BLM helicase suppresses the elongation of branch migration and crossover of double Holliday junctions (HJs) during HR repair, and a deficiency in this enzyme causes collapse, abnormal elongation, and/or preferable resolution to crossover of double HJs, resulting in a large-scale LOH. This mechanism underlies the predisposition for cancer in BS. Copyright © 2016 Suzuki et al.

  15. DNA repair and gene targeting in plant end-joining mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Qi

    2011-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR) or by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The latter mechanism is the major route for DSB repair in the somatic cells of higher eukaryotes, including plants. If we could manipulate the balance of the DSB repair pathways

  16. DNA repair and gene targeting in plant end-joining mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Qi

    2011-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR) or by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The latter mechanism is the major route for DSB repair in the somatic cells of higher eukaryotes, including plants. If we could manipulate the balance of the DSB repair pathways

  17. Membrane Interactions of the Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus Matrix Protein and Its Budding Deficient Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupa, Tomáš; Langerová, Hana; Doležal, Michal; Prchal, Jan; Spiwok, Vojtěch; Hunter, Eric; Rumlová, Michaela; Hrabal, Richard; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-11-20

    Matrix proteins (MAs) play a key role in the transport of retroviral proteins inside infected cells and in the interaction with cellular membranes. In most retroviruses, retroviral MAs are N-terminally myristoylated. This modification serves as a membrane targeting signal and also as an anchor for membrane interaction. The aim of this work was to characterize the interactions anchoring retroviral MA at the plasma membrane of infected cell. To address this issue, we compared the structures and membrane affinity of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) wild-type MA with its two budding deficient double mutants, that is, T41I/T78I and Y28F/Y67F. The structures of the mutants were determined using solution NMR spectroscopy, and their interactions with water-soluble phospholipids were studied. Water-soluble phospholipids are widely used models for studying membrane interactions by solution NMR spectroscopy. However, this approach might lead to artificial results due to unnatural hydrophobic interactions. Therefore, we used a new approach based on the measurement of the loss of the (1)H NMR signal intensity of the protein sample induced by the addition of the liposomes containing phospholipids with naturally long fatty acids. HIV-1 MA was used as a positive control because its ability to interact with liposomes has already been described. We found that in contrast to HIV-1, the M-PMV MA interacted with the liposomes differently and much weaker. In our invivo experiments, the M-PMV MA did not co-localize with lipid rafts. Therefore, we concluded that M-PMV might adopt a different membrane binding mechanism than HIV-1.

  18. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage-and Ogg1 deficiency-exacerbates this phenomenon. The observed cell death resistance under a chronic scenario of genotoxic and oxidative stress may in turn contribute to the carcinogenic effects of i-As.

  19. Effect of Bacillus subtilis mutants on growth performance of piglets fed tryptophan- and valine-deficient diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Canibe, Nuria; Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2016-01-01

    with Leu, Trp, and Val. A Leu-deficient diet with BsVal was included to distinguish between a general probiotic effect and in situ AA production. Eight diets were formulated for each of the 3 studies: 6 diets with 6 levels of AA and 2 diets with BsTrp or BsVal at 10x or 100x standard doses added....... In conclusion, dietary inclusion of B. subtilis mutants indicated some improvements in the performance of pigs fed AA-deficient diets, which could be related to intestinal synthesis and release of l-Trp and l-Val, to protease activity, or to a general probiotic effect....

  20. Detection of coding microsatellite frameshift mutations in DNA mismatch repair-deficient mouse intestinal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerner, Stefan M; Tosti, Elena; Yuan, Yan P; Kloor, Matthias; Bork, Peer; Edelmann, Winfried; Gebert, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Different DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient mouse strains have been developed as models for the inherited cancer predisposing Lynch syndrome. It is completely unresolved, whether coding mononucleotide repeat (cMNR) gene mutations in these mice can contribute to intestinal tumorigenesis and whether MMR-deficient mice are a suitable molecular model of human microsatellite instability (MSI)-associated intestinal tumorigenesis. A proof-of-principle study was performed to identify mouse cMNR-harboring genes affected by insertion/deletion mutations in MSI murine intestinal tumors. Bioinformatic algorithms were developed to establish a database of mouse cMNR-harboring genes. A panel of five mouse noncoding mononucleotide markers was used for MSI classification of intestinal matched normal/tumor tissues from MMR-deficient (Mlh1(-/-) , Msh2(-/-) , Msh2(LoxP/LoxP) ) mice. cMNR frameshift mutations of candidate genes were determined by DNA fragment analysis. Murine MSI intestinal tumors but not normal tissues from MMR-deficient mice showed cMNR frameshift mutations in six candidate genes (Elavl3, Tmem107, Glis2, Sdccag1, Senp6, Rfc3). cMNRs of mouse Rfc3 and Elavl3 are conserved in type and length in their human orthologs that are known to be mutated in human MSI colorectal, endometrial and gastric cancer. We provide evidence for the utility of a mononucleotide marker panel for detection of MSI in murine tumors, the existence of cMNR instability in MSI murine tumors, the utility of mouse subspecies DNA for identification of polymorphic repeats, and repeat conservation among some orthologous human/mouse genes, two of them showing instability in human and mouse MSI intestinal tumors. MMR-deficient mice hence are a useful molecular model system for analyzing MSI intestinal carcinogenesis.

  1. Synthetic lethal targeting of DNA double strand break repair deficient cells by human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Rebeka; McNeill, Daniel R.; Abbotts, Rachel; Mohammed, Mohammed Z.; Zdzienicka, Małgorzata Z.; Qutob, Haitham; Seedhouse, Claire; Charles A. Laughton; Fischer, Peter M.; Patel, Poulam M.; Wilson, David M.; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    An apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site is an obligatory cytotoxic intermediate in DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) that is processed by human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). APE1 is essential for BER and an emerging drug target in cancer. We have isolated novel small molecule inhibitors of APE1. In the current study we have investigated the ability of APE1 inhibitors to induce synthetic lethality in a panel of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair deficient and proficient cells; a) Chine...

  2. Characterization of P1-deficient isogenic mutant of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius associated with Brazilian purpuric fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segada, L M; Carlone, G M; Gheesling, L L; Lesse, A J

    2000-03-01

    Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (formerly H. aegyptius) is the etiologic agent of Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF). A surface-exposed epitope on the outer membrane protein P1 is present on most strains of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius associated with BPF but is absent in almost all non-disease associated strains. The role of the outer membrane protein P1 in the pathogenesis of this disease was evaluated by utilizing an isogenic P1-deficient mutant. We compared the ability of the wild type and P1 isogenic mutant to grow under various conditions. The P1-deficient strain grew at a similar rate to the wild type in both complex and chemically defined medium. The P1-deficient mutant also had a similar growth rate to the wild type under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic growth, however, resulted in up-regulation of the P1 protein in the wild type strain. Three assays were used to examine the pathophysiologic role of the P1 protein in BPF: 1) serum resistance; 2) sustained bacteremia in the infant rat model; and 3) the human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC) cytotoxicity assay. Both the mutant and wild-type strains were resistant to killing in 95% normal human serum. The P1-deficient strain was also as virulent as the wild type in both the infant rat model of bacteremia and in the HMEC-1 tissue culture model. These results demonstrate that serum resistance, sustained bacteremia in the infant rat, and cytotoxicity of HMEC cells occur in the absence of P1. The P1 protein is not essential for the pathogenic potential identified by these assays. However, these results demonstrate that an anaerobic environment is a potent physiologic regulator of P1 protein expression. The impact of anaerobiosis on protein expression and pathogenesis will require further investigations.

  3. Repair of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet irradiation and aromatic amines in normal and repair-deficient human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevnsner, Tinna; Frandsen, Henrik; Autrup, Herman

    1995-01-01

    A host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was employed to study the capacity of a normal and three repair-deficient human lymphoblastoid cell lines to repair DNA damage induced by UV irradiation and the aromatic amines 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene....... In the XP-D cell line, which had practically no DNA repair capacity, AAF adducts had a more potent inhibitory effect on gene expression than UV and PhIP adducts. When corrected for this inhibitory effect, the wild-type, XP-C and CS-B cell lines repaired low levels of AAF and UV adducts with similar...

  4. A nutritional conditional lethal mutant due to pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Wanhao; Zhang, Li; Du, Wei; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2014-04-16

    The concept of auxotrophic complementation has been proposed as an approach to identify genes in essential metabolic pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. However, it has achieved limited success to date, possibly due to the low probability of finding mutations fit with the chemically defined profile. Instead of using the chemically defined culture media lacking specific nutrients, we used bare minimum culture medium, i.e., 4% sucrose, for adult Drosophila. We identified a nutritional conditional lethal mutant and localized a c.95C > A mutation in the Drosophila pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase gene [dPNPO or sugarlethal (sgll)] using meiotic recombination mapping, deficiency mapping, and whole genome sequencing. PNPO converts dietary vitamin B6 such as pyridoxine to its active form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). The missense mutation (sgll(95)) results in the substitution of alanine to aspartate (p.Ala32Asp). The sgll(95) flies survive well on complete medium but all die within 6 d on 4% sucrose only diet, which can be rescued by pyridoxine or PLP supplement, suggesting that the mutation does not cause the complete loss of PNPO activity. The sgll knockdown further confirms its function as the Drosophila PNPO. Because better tools for positional cloning and cheaper whole genome sequencing have made the identification of point mutations much easier than before, alleviating the necessity to pinpoint specific metabolic pathways before gene identification, we propose that nutritional conditional screens based on bare minimum growth media like ours represent promising approaches for discovering important genes and mutations in metabolic pathways, thereby accelerating the establishment of in vivo models that recapitulate human metabolic diseases.

  5. Gibberellins regulate seed germination in tomato by endosperm weakening: a study with gibberellin-deficient mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S P; Karssen, C M

    1987-08-01

    The germination of seeds of tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.] cv. Moneymaker has been compared with that of seeds of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf-mutant line ga-1, induced in the same genetic background. Germination of tomato seeds was absolutely dependent on the presence of either endogenous or exogenous gibberellins (GAs). Gibberellin A4+7 was 1000-fold more active than commercial gibberellic acid in inducing germination of the ga-1 seeds. Red light, a preincubation at 2°C, and ethylene did not stimulate germination of ga-1 seeds in the absence of GA4+7; however, fusicoccin did stimulate germination independently. Removal of the endosperm and testa layers opposite the radicle tip caused germination of ga-1 seeds in water. The seedlings and plants that develop from the detipped ga-1 seeds exhibited the extreme dwarfy phenotype that is normal to this genotype. Measurements of the mechanical resistance of the surrounding layers showed that the major action of GAs was directed to the weakening of the endosperm cells around the radicle tip. In wild-type seeds this weakening occurred in water before radicle protrusion. In ga-1 seeds a similar event was dependent on GA4+7, while fusicoccin also had some activity. Simultaneous incubation of de-embryonated endosperms and isolated axes showed that wild-type embryos contain and endosperm-weakening factor that is absent in ga-1 axes and is probably a GA. Thus, an endogenous GA facilitates germination in tomato seeds by weakening the mechanical restraint of the endosperm cells to permit radicle protrusion.

  6. Dominant negative mutant of Plasmodium Rad51 causes reduced parasite burden in host by abrogating DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nabamita; Bhattacharyya, Sunanda; Chakrabarty, Swati; Laskar, Shyamasree; Babu, Somepalli Mastan; Bhattacharyya, Mrinal Kanti

    2014-10-01

    Malaria parasites survive through repairing a plethora of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) experienced during their asexual growth. In Plasmodium Rad51 mediated homologous recombination (HR) mechanism and homology-independent alternative end-joining mechanism have been identified. Here we address whether loss of HR activity can be compensated by other DSB repair mechanisms. Creating a transgenic Plasmodium line defective in HR function, we demonstrate that HR is the most important DSB repair pathway in malarial parasite. Using mouse malaria model we have characterized the dominant negative effect of PfRad51(K143R) mutant on Plasmodium DSB repair and host-parasite interaction. Our work illustrates that Plasmodium berghei harbouring the mutant protein (PfRad51(K143R)) failed to repair DSBs as evidenced by hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agent. Mice infected with mutant parasites lived significantly longer with markedly reduced parasite burden. To better understand the effect of mutant PfRad51(K143R) on HR, we used yeast as a surrogate model and established that the presence of PfRad51(K143R) completely inhibited DNA repair, gene conversion and gene targeting. Biochemical experiment confirmed that very low level of mutant protein was sufficient for complete disruption of wild-type PfRad51 activity. Hence our work provides evidence that HR pathway of Plasmodium could be efficiently targeted to curb malaria.

  7. Cell-autonomous progeroid changes in conditional mouse models for repair endonuclease XPG deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Barnhoorn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER process, the endonuclease XPG is involved in repair of helix-distorting DNA lesions, but the protein has also been implicated in several other DNA repair systems, complicating genotype-phenotype relationship in XPG patients. Defects in XPG can cause either the cancer-prone condition xeroderma pigmentosum (XP alone, or XP combined with the severe neurodevelopmental disorder Cockayne Syndrome (CS, or the infantile lethal cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS syndrome, characterized by dramatic growth failure, progressive neurodevelopmental abnormalities and greatly reduced life expectancy. Here, we present a novel (conditional Xpg-/- mouse model which -in a C57BL6/FVB F1 hybrid genetic background- displays many progeroid features, including cessation of growth, loss of subcutaneous fat, kyphosis, osteoporosis, retinal photoreceptor loss, liver aging, extensive neurodegeneration, and a short lifespan of 4-5 months. We show that deletion of XPG specifically in the liver reproduces the progeroid features in the liver, yet abolishes the effect on growth or lifespan. In addition, specific XPG deletion in neurons and glia of the forebrain creates a progressive neurodegenerative phenotype that shows many characteristics of human XPG deficiency. Our findings therefore exclude that both the liver as well as the neurological phenotype are a secondary consequence of derailment in other cell types, organs or tissues (e.g. vascular abnormalities and support a cell-autonomous origin caused by the DNA repair defect itself. In addition they allow the dissection of the complex aging process in tissue- and cell-type-specific components. Moreover, our data highlight the critical importance of genetic background in mouse aging studies, establish the Xpg-/- mouse as a valid model for the severe form of human XPG patients and segmental accelerated aging, and strengthen the link between DNA damage and aging.

  8. Cell-autonomous progeroid changes in conditional mouse models for repair endonuclease XPG deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Barnhoorn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER process, the endonuclease XPG is involved in repair of helix-distorting DNA lesions, but the protein has also been implicated in several other DNA repair systems, complicating genotype-phenotype relationship in XPG patients. Defects in XPG can cause either the cancer-prone condition xeroderma pigmentosum (XP alone, or XP combined with the severe neurodevelopmental disorder Cockayne Syndrome (CS, or the infantile lethal cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS syndrome, characterized by dramatic growth failure, progressive neurodevelopmental abnormalities and greatly reduced life expectancy. Here, we present a novel (conditional Xpg-/- mouse model which -in a C57BL6/FVB F1 hybrid genetic background- displays many progeroid features, including cessation of growth, loss of subcutaneous fat, kyphosis, osteoporosis, retinal photoreceptor loss, liver aging, extensive neurodegeneration, and a short lifespan of 4-5 months. We show that deletion of XPG specifically in the liver reproduces the progeroid features in the liver, yet abolishes the effect on growth or lifespan. In addition, specific XPG deletion in neurons and glia of the forebrain creates a progressive neurodegenerative phenotype that shows many characteristics of human XPG deficiency. Our findings therefore exclude that both the liver as well as the neurological phenotype are a secondary consequence of derailment in other cell types, organs or tissues (e.g. vascular abnormalities and support a cell-autonomous origin caused by the DNA repair defect itself. In addition they allow the dissection of the complex aging process in tissue- and cell-type-specific components. Moreover, our data highlight the critical importance of genetic background in mouse aging studies, establish the Xpg-/- mouse as a valid model for the severe form of human XPG patients and segmental accelerated aging, and strengthen the link between DNA damage and aging.

  9. Stepwise deletions of polyA sequences in mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, C; Tsao, J L; Wu, A; Shibata, D

    2001-05-01

    PolyA simple repeat sequence deletions are common in tumors with microsatellite instability (MSI+). Such deletions occur one base at a time in DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient yeast suggesting larger deletions in human MSI+ tumors represent multiple sequential stepwise losses. Sum total deletions in four polyA repeats were variable (between -17 to -45 bp) in 20 sporadic MSI+ colorectal cancers. Progressive but less extensive total deletions (maximum of -12 bp) occurred in similar polyA sequences in MMR-deficient mice (mlh1-/-) up to 478 days old. PolyA repeat lengths were relatively stable but already shortened in the MMR-deficient cell line HCT116. A transgene with 26 A's transfected into HCT116 shortened an average of 3.8 bases pairs after 469 days in culture, less than average deletions of BAT25 (-5.3) or BAT26 (-9.0) in MSI+ cancers. These findings further suggest that extensive polyA deletions common in MSI+ tumors likely reflect multiple stepwise smaller deletions that accumulate more than hundreds of divisions after loss of MMR.

  10. Differential repair of UV damage in rad mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a possible function of G2 arrest upon UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terleth, C; Schenk, P; Poot, R; Brouwer, J; van de Putte, P

    1990-09-01

    After UV irradiation, the transcriptionally active MAT alpha locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is preferentially repaired compared with the inactive HML alpha locus. The effect of rad mutations from three different epistasis groups on differential repair was investigated. Three mutants, rad9, rad16, and rad24, were impaired in the removal of UV dimers from the inactive HML alpha locus, whereas they had generally normal repair of the active MAT alpha locus. Since RAD9 is necessary for G2 arrest after UV irradiation, we propose that the G2 stage plays a role in making the dimers accessible for repair, at least in the repressed HML alpha locus.

  11. Graviresponsiveness and abscisic-acid content of roots of carotenoid-deficient mutants of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Smith, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The abscisic-acid (ABA) content of roots of the carotenoid-deficient w-3, vp-5, and vp-7 mutants of Z. mays was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with an analysis sensitivity of 6 ng ABA g-1 fresh weight (FW). Roots of normal seedlings of the same lines were characterized by the following amounts of ABA (as ng ABA g-1 FW, +/- standard deviation): w-3, 279 +/- 43; vp-5, 237 +/- 26; vp-7, 338 +/- 61. We did not detect any ABA in roots of any of the mutants. Thus, the lack of carotenoids in these mutants correlated positively with the apparent absence of ABA. Primary roots of normal and mutant seedlings were positively gravitropic, with no significant differences in the curvatures of roots of normal as compared with mutant seedlings. These results indicate that ABA 1) is synthesized in maize roots via the carotenoid pathway, and 2) is not necessary for positive gravitropism by primary roots of Z. mays.

  12. Transgenic mice expressing mutant Pinin exhibit muscular dystrophy, nebulin deficiency and elevated expression of slow-type muscle fiber genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hsu-Pin; Hsu, Shu-Yuan [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wen-Ai; Hu, Ji-Wei [Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Ouyang, Pin, E-mail: ouyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Pnn CCD domain functions as a dominant negative mutant regulating Pnn expression and function. •Pnn CCD mutant Tg mice have a muscle wasting phenotype during development and show dystrophic histological features. •Pnn mutant muscles are susceptible to slow fiber type gene transition and NEB reduction. •The Tg mouse generated by overexpression of the Pnn CCD domain displays many characteristics resembling NEB{sup +/−} mice. -- Abstract: Pinin (Pnn) is a nuclear speckle-associated SR-like protein. The N-terminal region of the Pnn protein sequence is highly conserved from mammals to insects, but the C-terminal RS domain-containing region is absent in lower species. The N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) is, therefore, of interest not only from a functional point of view, but also from an evolutionarily standpoint. To explore the biological role of the Pnn CCD in a physiological context, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Pnn mutant in skeletal muscle. We found that overexpression of the CCD reduces endogenous Pnn expression in cultured cell lines as well as in transgenic skeletal muscle fibers. Pnn mutant mice exhibited reduced body mass and impaired muscle function during development. Mutant skeletal muscles show dystrophic histological features with muscle fibers heavily loaded with centrally located myonuclei. Expression profiling and pathway analysis identified over-representation of genes in gene categories associated with muscle contraction, specifically those related to slow type fiber. In addition nebulin (NEB) expression level is repressed in Pnn mutant skeletal muscle. We conclude that Pnn downregulation in skeletal muscle causes a muscular dystrophic phenotype associated with NEB deficiency and the CCD domain is incapable of replacing full length Pnn in terms of functional capacity.

  13. Predictive genetic testing in children: constitutional mismatch repair deficiency cancer predisposing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, Zandrè; Algar, Ursula; Vorster, Alvera; Fieggen, Karen; Davidson, Alan; Goldberg, Paul; Wainwright, Helen; Ramesar, Rajkumar

    2014-04-01

    Biallelic germline mutations in mismatch repair genes predispose to constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome (CMMR-D). The condition is characterized by a broad spectrum of early-onset tumors, including hematological, brain and bowel and is frequently associated with features of Neurofibromatosis type 1. Few definitive screening recommendations have been suggested and no published reports have described predictive testing. We report on the first case of predictive testing for CMMR-D following the identification of two non-consanguineous parents, with the same heterozygous mutation in MLH1: c.1528C > T. The genetic counseling offered to the family, for their two at-risk daughters, is discussed with a focus on the ethical considerations of testing children for known cancer-causing variants. The challenges that are encountered when reporting on heterozygosity in a child younger than 18 years (disclosure of carrier status and risk for Lynch syndrome), when discovered during testing for homozygosity, are addressed. In addition, the identification of CMMR-D in a three year old, and the recommended clinical surveillance that was proposed for this individual is discussed. Despite predictive testing and presymptomatic screening, the sudden death of the child with CMMR-D syndrome occurred 6 months after her last surveillance MRI. This report further highlights the difficulty of developing guidelines, as a result of the rarity of cases and diversity of presentation.

  14. Rearrangement of Rag-1 recombinase gene in DNA-repair deficient/immunodeficient ``wasted`` mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Weaver, P.; Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C-M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene ``wasted`` (wst) display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (Rag-l/Rag-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed that in thymus tissue, a small Rag-I transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/{sm_bullet} mice, a two-fold increase in Rag-1 mRNA was evident in thymus tissue. Rag-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/{sm_bullet} and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF, mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement or deletion within the Rag-1 gene of affected wasted mice that was not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the Rag-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  15. A mononucleotide repeat in PRRT2 is an important, frequent target of mismatch repair deficiency in cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Teles Alves (Inês); Cano, D. (David); R. Böttcher (René); H.A.G.M. van der Korput (Hetty); W.N.M. Dinjens (Winand); G.W. Jenster (Guido); J. Trapman (Hans)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system corrects DNA replication mismatches thereby contributing to the maintenance of genomic stability. MMR deficiency has been observed in prostate cancer but its impact on the genomic landscape of these tumours is not known. In order to identify MMR assoc

  16. A 30-Year-Old Man with Three Primary Malignancies: A Case of Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengifo-Cam, William; Jasperson, Kory; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Colman, Howard; Scaife, Courtney; Samowitz, Wade; Samadder, N Jewel

    2017-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a devastating cancer predisposition syndrome for which clinical manifestations, genetic screening, and cancer prevention strategies are limited. We report a case of CMMRD presenting with metachronous colorectal cancer and brain cancer. Oncologists and gastroenterologists should be aware of the CMMRD syndrome as a rare cause of very early-onset colorectal cancer.

  17. Diagnosis of Constitutional Mismatch Repair-Deficiency Syndrome Based on Microsatellite Instability and Lymphocyte Tolerance to Methylating Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodo, Sahra; Colas, Chrystelle; Buhard, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with bi-allelic germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2) develop a rare but severe variant of Lynch syndrome called constitutional MMR deficiency (CMMRD). This syndrome is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancers, lymphomas o...

  18. Locomotor and oculomotor impairment associated with cerebellar dysgenesis in Zic3-deficient (Bent tail) mutant mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aruga, J.; Ogura, H.; Shutoh, F.; Ogawa, M.; Franke, B.; Nagao, S.; Mikoshiba, K.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the adult neural phenotypes of the Bent tail mutant mouse. The Bent tail mutant mouse was recently shown to lack a submicroscopic part of the X chromosome containing the Zic3 gene, which encodes a zinc-finger protein controlling vertebrate neural development. While nearly one-fourth of

  19. Characterization of an adenosine deaminase-deficient human histiocytic lymphoma cell line (DHL-9) and selection of mutants deficient in adenosir kinase and deoxycytidine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, M; Kamatani, N; Daddona, P E; Carson, D A

    1983-06-01

    The association of adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency with immunodeficiency disease has emphasized the importance of this purine metabolic enzyme for human lymphocyte growth and function. This report describes the natural occurrence of ADA deficiency in a human histiocytic lymphoma cell line, DHL-9. The minimal ADA activity in DHL-9 extracts, 0.028 nmol/min/mg protein, was less than 50% of the activity in two B-lymphoblastoid cell lines from ADA-deficient patients and was resistant to the potent ADA inhibitor deoxycoformycin. A sensitive radioimmunoassay failed to detect immunoreactive ADA in DHL-9 cells. Moreover, in DHL-9 cells, deoxycoformycin did not augment either the growth-inhibitory effects of adenosine and deoxyadenosine or the accumulation of deoxyadenosine triphosphate from deoxyadenosine. When compared to six other human hematopoietic cell lines, DHL-9 had 5.6-fold-higher levels of adenosylhomocysteinase. Chromosome 20, which bears the structural gene for ADA and adenosylhomocysteinase, was diploid and had a normal Giemsa banding pattern. The parental DHL-9 cell line was used for the selection and cloning of secondary mutants deficient in deoxycytidine kinase and adenosine kinase.

  20. Novel mechanism of regulation of the DNA repair enzyme OGG1 in tuberin-deficient cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Samy L.; Bhandari, Besant K.; Sadek, Nahed; Abboud-Werner, Sherry L.; Abboud, Hanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberin (protein encodes by tuberous sclerosis complex 2, Tsc2) deficiency is associated with the decrease in the DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) in tumour kidney of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) patients. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which tuberin regulates OGG1. The partial deficiency in tuberin expression that occurs in the renal proximal tubular cells and kidney cortex of the Eker rat is associated with decreased activator protein 4 (AP4) and OGG1 expression. A complete deficiency in tuberin is associated with loss of AP4 and OGG1 expression in kidney tumour from Eker rats and the accumulation of significant levels of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine. Knockdown of tuberin expression in human renal epithelial cells (HEK293) with small interfering RNA (siRNA) also resulted in a marked decrease in the expression of AP4 and OGG1. In contrast, overexpression of tuberin in HEK293 cells increased the expression of AP4 and OGG1 proteins. Downregulation of AP4 expression using siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in the protein expression of OGG1. Immunoprecipitation studies show that AP4 is associated with tuberin in cells. Gel shift analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified the transcription factor AP4 as a positive regulator of the OGG1 promoter. AP4 DNA-binding activity is significantly reduced in Tsc2−/− as compared with Tsc2+/+ cells. Transcriptional activity of the OGG1 promoter is also decreased in tuberin-null cells compared with wild-type cells. These data indicate a novel role for tuberin in the regulation of OGG1 through the transcription factor AP4. This regulation may be important in the pathogenesis of kidney tumours in patients with TSC disease. PMID:20837600

  1. Properties of mutants of haemophilus influenzae deficient in ATP-dependent deoxyribonuclease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Eight isogenic Haemophilus influenzae strains whose extracts lack ATP-dependent deoxyribonuclease activity (Add/sup -/ mutants) form three complementation and genetic linkage groups. Since there are known to be three subunits of the enzyme, these data suggest that each of the three genes specifies a different subunit. Gel electrophoresis of partially purified mutant extracts indicates that the smallest subunit is missing in one of the groups but is present in all the other mutants. The mutants are more sensitive to a variety of chemical agents than the wild type. The most sensitive mutants lack the ATPase activity associated with the enzyme. These strains exhibit aberrant incorporation of tritiated thymidine, which starts up more rapidly and shuts off sooner than in the wild type. An extracellular compound is responsible for most of this effect, in that wild type cells put into medium in which Add/sup -/ cells have been growing show a similar aberrant incorporation. The effect of these media can be mimicked by cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, although millimolar concentrations are required. It is postulated that the Add/sup -/ mutants are more permeable to many substances than the wild type, partly because of the extracellular compound usually surrounding them, and the increased permeability might be responsible for the mutants' nonviability.

  2. Inositol-Limited Growth, Repair, and Translocation in an Inositol-Requiring Mutant of Neurospora crassa

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Barbara A.

    1980-01-01

    The biochemical consequences of inositol limitation in an inositol auxotroph of Neurospora crassa have been examined as a means of disclosing the cellular role of inositol. The cellular levels of inositol in the inl mutant were proportional to the concentration of inositol in the growth medium whereas inositol phosphate levels remained relatively constant at about 0.1 μmol/g (dry weight). After 72 h of growth, about 57-fold more protein per milligram (dry weight) was released by the mutant gr...

  3. RAG2 mutants alter DSB repair pathway choice in vivo and illuminate the nature of 'alternative NHEJ'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigi, Vered; Lewis, Susanna; Shestova, Olga; Mijušković, Martina; Deriano, Ludovic; Meng, Wenzhao; Luning Prak, Eline T; Roth, David B

    2014-06-01

    DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by several mechanisms, including classical NHEJ (c-NHEJ) and a poorly defined, error-prone process termed alternative NHEJ (a-NHEJ). How cells choose between these alternatives to join physiologic DSBs remains unknown. Here, we show that deletion of RAG2's C-terminus allows a-NHEJ to repair RAG-mediated DSBs in developing lymphocytes from both c-NHEJ-proficient and c-NHEJ-deficient mice, demonstrating that the V(D)J recombinase influences repair pathway choice in vivo. Analysis of V(D)J junctions revealed that, contrary to expectation, junctional characteristics alone do not reliably distinguish between a-NHEJ and c-NHEJ. These data suggest that a-NHEJ is not necessarily mutagenic, and may be more prevalent than previously appreciated. Whole genome sequencing of a lymphoma arising in a p53(-/-) mouse bearing a C-terminal RAG2 truncation reveals evidence of a-NHEJ and also of aberrant recognition of DNA sequences resembling RAG recognition sites.

  4. Na(v)1.8 channelopathy in mutant mice deficient for myelin protein zero is detrimental to motor axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Alvarez, Susana; Pinchenko, Volodymyr; Klein, Dennis; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Wood, John N; Martini, Rudolf; Krarup, Christian

    2011-02-01

    Myelin protein zero mutations were found to produce Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease phenotypes with various degrees of myelin impairment and axonal loss, ranging from the mild 'demyelinating' adult form to severe and early onset forms. Protein zero deficient homozygous mice ( ) show a severe and progressive dysmyelinating neuropathy from birth with compromised myelin compaction, hypomyelination and distal axonal degeneration. A previous study using immunofluorescence showed that motor nerves deficient of myelin protein zero upregulate the Na(V)1.8 voltage gated sodium channel isoform, which is normally present only in restricted populations of sensory axons. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of motor axons in protein zero-deficient mice with particular emphasis on ectopic Na(V)1.8 voltage gated sodium channel. We combined 'threshold tracking' excitability studies with conventional nerve conduction studies, behavioural studies using rotor-rod measurements, and histological measures to assess membrane dysfunction and its progression in protein zero deficient homozygous mutants as compared with age-matched wild-type controls. The involvement of Na(V)1.8 was investigated by pharmacologic block using the subtype-selective Na(V)1.8 blocker A-803467 and chronically in Na(V)1.8 knock-outs. We found that in the context of dysmyelination, abnormal potassium ion currents and membrane depolarization, the ectopic Na(V)1.8 channels further impair the motor axon excitability in protein zero deficient homozygous mutants to an extent that precipitates conduction failure in severely affected axons. Our data suggest that a Na(V)1.8 channelopathy contributed to the poor motor function of protein zero deficient homozygous mutants, and that the conduction failure was associated with partially reversible reduction of the electrically evoked muscle response and of the clinical function as indicated by the partial recovery of function at rotor-rod measurements. As a

  5. Far-red light-insensitive, phytochrome A-deficient mutants of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tuinen, A; Kerckhoffs, L H; Nagatani, A; Kendrick, R E; Koornneef, M

    1995-01-20

    We have selected two recessive mutants of tomato with slightly longer hypocotyls than the wild type, one under low fluence rate (3 mumol/m2/s) red light (R) and the other under low fluence rate blue light. These two mutants were shown to be allelic and further analysis revealed that hypocotyl growth was totally insensitive to far-red light (FR). We propose the gene symbol fri (far-red light insensitive) for this locus and have mapped it on chromosome 10. Immunochemically detectable phytochrome A polypeptide is essentially absent in the fri mutants as is the bulk spectrophotometrically detectable labile phytochrome pool in etiolated seedlings. A phytochrome B-like polypeptide is present in normal amounts and a small stable phytochrome pool can be readily detected by spectrophotometry in the fri mutants. Inhibition of hypocotyl growth by a R pulse given every 4 h is quantitatively similar in the fri mutants and wild type and the effect is to a large extent reversible if R pulses are followed immediately by a FR pulse. After 7 days in darkness, both fri mutants and the wild type become green on transfer to white light, but after 7 days in FR, the wild-type seedlings that have expanded their cotyledons lose their capacity to green in white light, while the fri mutants de-etiolate. Adult plants of the fri mutants show retarded growth and are prone to wilting, but exhibit a normal elongation response to FR given at the end of the daily photoperiod. The inhibition of seed germination by continuous FR exhibited by the wild type is normal in the fri mutants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Synthetic lethal targeting of DNA double strand break repair deficient cells by human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Rebeka; McNeill, Daniel R.; Abbotts, Rachel; Mohammed, Mohammed Z.; Zdzienicka, Małgorzata Z.; Qutob, Haitham; Seedhouse, Claire; Laughton, Charles A.; Fischer, Peter M.; Patel, Poulam M.; Wilson, David M.; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    An apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site is an obligatory cytotoxic intermediate in DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) that is processed by human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1). APE1 is essential for BER and an emerging drug target in cancer. We have isolated novel small molecule inhibitors of APE1. In the current study we have investigated the ability of APE1 inhibitors to induce synthetic lethality in a panel of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair deficient and proficient cells; a) Chinese hamster (CH) cells: BRCA2 deficient (V-C8), ATM deficient (V-E5), wild type (V79) and BRCA2 revertant (V-C8(Rev1)). b) Human cancer cells: BRCA1 deficient (MDA-MB-436), BRCA1 proficient (MCF-7), BRCA2 deficient (CAPAN-1 and HeLa SilenciX cells), BRCA2 proficient (PANC1 and control SilenciX cells). We also tested synthetic lethality (SL) in CH ovary cells expressing a dominant–negative form of APE1 (E8 cells) using ATM inhibitors and DNA-PKcs inhibitors (DSB inhibitors). APE1 inhibitors are synthetically lethal in BRCA and ATM deficient cells. APE1 inhibition resulted in accumulation of DNA DSBs and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Synthetic lethality was also demonstrated in CH cells expressing a dominant–negative form of APE1 treated with ATM or DNA-PKcs inhibitors. We conclude that APE1 is a promising synthetic lethality target in cancer. PMID:22377908

  7. Features of the primary wall CESA complex in wild type and cellulose-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Elliott, Janet E; Williamson, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from genetics, co-precipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation suggest that three CESAs implicated in making primary wall cellulose in Arabidopsis thaliana form a complex. This study shows the complex has a M(r) of approximately 840 kDa in detergent extracts and that it has undergone distinctive changes when extracts are prepared from some cellulose-deficient mutants. The mobility of CESAs 1, 3, and 6 in a Triton-soluble microsomal fraction subject to blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was consistent with a M(r) of about 840 kDa. An antibody specific to any one CESA pulled down all three CESAs consistent with their occupying the same 840 kDa complex. In rsw1, a CESA1 missense mutant, extracts of seedlings grown at the permissive temperature have an apparently normal CESA complex that was missing from extracts of seedlings grown at the restrictive temperature where CESAs precipitated independently. In prc1-19, with no CESA6, CESAs 1 and 3 were part of a 420 kDa complex in extracts of light-grown seedlings that was absent from extracts of dark-grown seedlings where the CESAs precipitated independently. Two CESA3 missense mutants retained apparently normal CESA complexes as did four cellulose-deficient mutants defective in proteins other than CESAs. The 840 kDa complex could contain six CESA subunits and, since loss of plasma membrane rosettes accompanies its loss in rsw1, the complex could form one of the six particles which electron microscopy reveals in rosettes.

  8. Establishment of the DNA repair-defective mutants in DT40 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiai, Masamichi; Uchida, Emi; Takata, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    The chicken B cell line DT40 has been widely used as a model system for reverse genetics studies in higher eukaryotes, because of its advantages including efficient gene targeting and ease of chromosome manipulation. Although the genetic approach using the RNA interference technique has become the standard method particularly in human cells, DT40 still remains a powerful tool to investigate the regulation and function of genes and proteins in a vertebrate system, because of feasibility of easy, rapid, and clear genetic experiments. The use of DT40 cells for DNA repair research has several advantages. In addition to canonical assays for DNA repair, such as measurement of the sensitivities toward DNA damage reagents, it is possible to measure homologous recombination and translesion synthesis activities using activation-induced deaminase (AID)-induced diversification of the immunoglobulin locus. In this chapter, we would describe a detailed protocol for gene disruption experiments in DT40 cells.

  9. LHC II protein phosphorylation in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in non-photochemical quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitholtz, Hanna-Leena; Srivastava, Renu; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Rintamäki, Eevi

    2005-06-01

    Phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex II (LHC II) proteins is induced in light via activation of the LHC II kinase by reduction of cytochrome b(6)f complex in thylakoid membranes. We have recently shown that, besides this activation, the LHC II kinase can be regulated in vitro by a thioredoxin-like component, and H2O2 that inserts an inhibitory loop in the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation in the chloroplast. In order to disclose the complex network for LHC II protein phosphorylation in vivo, we studied phosphorylation of LHC II proteins in the leaves of npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants of Arabidopis thaliana. In comparison to wild-type, these mutants showed reduced non-photochemical quenching and increased excitation pressure of Photosystem II (PS II) under physiological light intensities. Peculiar regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation was observed in mutant leaves under illumination. The npq4-1 mutant was able to maintain a high amount of phosphorylated LHC II proteins in thylakoid membranes at light intensities that induced inhibition of phosphorylation in wild-type leaves. Light intensity-dependent changes in the level of LHC II protein phosphorylation were smaller in the npq1-2 mutant compared to the wild-type. No significant differences in leaf thickness, dry weight, chlorophyll content, or the amount of LHC II proteins were observed between the two mutant and wild-type lines. We propose that the reduced capacity of the mutant lines to dissipate excess excitation energy induces changes in the production of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts, which consequently affects the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation.

  10. Challenge assay: A functional biomarker for exposure-induced DNA repair deficiency and for risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, William W; Giri, Ashok K; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2010-01-01

    A variety of biomarkers have been used to monitor exposed populations to determine potential health hazards from their exposure to environmental toxic agents. However, the majority of these biomarkers have been focused onto the identification of biological damage from the exposure. Therefore, there is a need to develop functional biomarkers that can identify exposure-induced functional deficiencies. More importantly, these deficiencies should be positioned along pathways that are responsible for the development of specific diseases. One of such pathways belongs to the extensive and complex DNA-repair machinery. The machinery thus becomes a large target for damage from environmental toxic agents. The hypothesis is that damage to any component of a repair pathway will interfere with the pathway-specific repair activities. Therefore, when cells from exposed populations are challenged with a DNA-damaging agent in vitro, the in vivo exposure-induced repair deficiency will be dramatically amplified and the deficiency will be detectable in a challenge assay as increased chromosome aberrations, micronuclei or un-repaired DNA strand breaks. The challenge assay has been used in different laboratories to show that a variety of exposed populations (with exposure to air pollutants, arsenic, benzene, butadiene, cigarette smoke, incense smoke, lead, mercury, pesticides, uranium or xylene but not to low concentrations of air pollutants or butadiene) expressed abnormal challenge response. The predicted health consequences of some of these studies have also been validated. Therefore, the challenge assay is a useful functional biomarker for population studies. Details of the challenge assay and its application will be presented in this review.

  11. Rearrangement of RAG-1 recombinase gene in DNA-repair deficient ``wasted`` mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Libertin, C.R.; Weaver, P. [Loyola Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene ``wasted`` wst display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (RAG-l/RAG-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed expression of RAG-1 mRNA in spinal cord (but not brain) of control mice; no expression of RAG-1 mRNA was detected in spinal cord or brain from wst/wst mice or their normal littermates (wst/{center_dot}mice). In thymus tissue, a small RAG-1 transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/{center_dot}mice, a two-fold increase in RAG-1 mRNA was evident in thymus tissue. RAG-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/{center_dot} and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF{sub 1} mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement/deletion within the RAG-1 gene of affected wasted mice, not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the RAG-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  12. Deficiency of antinociception and excessive grooming induced by acute immobilization stress in Per1 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhouqiao; Zhou, Linglin; Li, Huili; Teng, Huajing; Dai, Wei; Wang, Yongqing; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2011-01-14

    Acute stressors induce changes in numerous behavioral parameters through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Several important hormones in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) play the roles in these stress-induced reactions. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticosterone are considered as molecular markers for stress-induced grooming behavior. Oxytocin in PVN is an essential modulator for stress-induced antinociception. The clock gene, Per1, has been identified as an effecter response to the acute stresses, but its function in neuroendocrine stress systems remains unclear. In the present study we observed the alterations in grooming and nociceptive behaviors induced by acute immobilization stress in Per1 mutant mice and other genotypes (wild types and Per2 mutant). The results displayed that stress elicited a more robust effect on grooming behavior in Per1 mutant mice than in other genotypes. Subsequently, the obvious stress-induced antinociception was observed in the wild-type and Per2 mutant mice, however, in Per1 mutant, this antinociceptive effects were partially-reversed (mechanical sensitivity), or over-reversed to hyperalgesia (thermal sensitivity). The real-time qPCR results showed that in PVN, there were stress-induced up-regulations of Crh, Avp and c-fos in all of genotypes; moreover, the expression change of Crh in Per1 mutant mice was much larger than in others. Another hormonal gene, Oxt, was up-regulated induced by stress in wild-type and Per2 mutant but not in Per1 mutant. In addition, the stress significantly elevated the serum corticosterone levels without genotype-dependent differences, and accordingly the glucocorticoid receptor gene, Nr3c1, expressed with a similar pattern in PVN of all strains. Taken together, the present study indicated that in acute stress treated Per1 mutant mice, there are abnormal hormonal responses in PVN, correlating with the aberrant

  13. Fusion of a Sendai mutant deficient in HN protein (ts271) with cardiolipin liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, S.; Bundo-Morita, K.; Portner, A.; Lenard, J.

    1988-03-01

    Sendai mutant ts271 contains less than 5% of the amount of HN glycoprotein found in wild-type Sendai. Fusion of this mutant with cardiolipin liposomes revealed no differences from the wild-type virus with regard to specific activity, pH dependence, or radiation inactivation. Target sizes of both mutant and wild-type viral proteins were determined by the radiation-induced disappearance of each band from an SDS-polyacrylamide gel and no differences were found. Of the viral proteins, only F had a target size corresponding to the monomer molecular weight, ca. 60 kDa, identical to the minimum unit previously determined by functional assay for Sendai virus-erythrocyte membrane fusion. This provides additional evidence that F alone is the active protein mediating Sendai-erythrocyte fusion. It is concluded that the HN protein is unlikely to mediate any fusion reactions of the intact virions, either with biological membranes or with cardiolipin liposomes.

  14. atp mutants of Escherichia coli fail to grow on succinate due to a transport deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boogerd, Fred; Boe, Lars; Michelsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli atp mutants, which lack a functional Hf-ATPase complex, are capable of growth on glucose but not on succinate or other C-4-dicarboxylates (Suc(-) phenotype). Suc(+) revertants of an atp deletion strain were isolated which were capable of growth on succinate even though they lack......) was expressed in trans, the Suc(-) phenotype of the atp deletion strain reverted to Suc(+), which shows that the reason why the E. coli atp mutant is unable to grow aerobically on C-4-dicarboxylates is insufficient transport capacity for these substrates....

  15. atp mutants of Escherichia coli fail to grow on succinate due to a transport deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boogerd, Fred; Boe, Lars; Michelsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli atp mutants, which lack a functional Hf-ATPase complex, are capable of growth on glucose but not on succinate or other C-4-dicarboxylates (Suc(-) phenotype). Suc(+) revertants of an atp deletion strain were isolated which were capable of growth on succinate even though they lack......) was expressed in trans, the Suc(-) phenotype of the atp deletion strain reverted to Suc(+), which shows that the reason why the E. coli atp mutant is unable to grow aerobically on C-4-dicarboxylates is insufficient transport capacity for these substrates....

  16. Role of protein synthesis in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage in a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yezzi, M.J.

    1985-04-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant for protein synthesis, CHO-TSH1, has been compared to the wild-type cell, CHO-sC1, in single- and split-radiation-dose schemes. When the exponentially growing TS mutant and the wild-type cells were treated at 40/sub 0/C for up to 2 hrs prior to graded doses of x rays, the survival curves were identical and were the same as those obtained without heat treatment. If the cultures were incubated at 40/sup 0/C for 2 hrs before a first dose and maintained at 40/sup 0/C during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval, repair of radiation damage was reduced in the mutant compared to the wild type. These observations implied that a pool of proteins was involved in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage. However, if repair was measured by the alkaline-unwinding technique under the same time and temperature schemes, no difference in the kientics of DNA strand rejoining was observed. Misrepair processes may permit restoration of DNA strand integrity but not allow functional repair. The effect of diminished repair under conditions of inhibition of protein synthesis was found to be cell-cycle dependent in survival studies with synchronized mutant cell populations. Repair was found to be almost completely eliminated if the temperature sequence described above was applied in the middle of the DNA synthetic phase. Treatment of cell populations in the middle of G/sub 1/-phase yielded repair inhibition comparable to that observed with the asynchronous cells. Splitdose experiments were done using pre-incubation with cycloheximide to chemically inhibit protein synthesis. WT cells and TS cells were treated with cycloheximide at 35/sup 0/C for 2 hrs before a first dose and during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval. 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of the Haemophilus ducreyi porin-deficient mutant 35000HP::P2AB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Jeremiah J; Campagnari, Anthony A

    2009-04-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is an obligate human pathogen and the causative agent of the sexually transmitted, genital ulcerative disease chancroid. The genome of strain 35000HP contains two known porin proteins, OmpP2A and OmpP2B. Loss of OmpP2A and OmpP2B expression in the mutant 35000HP::P2AB resulted in no obvious growth defect or phenotype. Comparison of outer membrane profiles indicated increased expression of the 58.5-kDa chaperone, GroEL, in the porin-deficient mutant. A proteomics-based comparison resulted in the identification of 231 proteins present in membrane-associated protein samples, of which a subset of 56 proteins was differentially expressed at a level of 1.5-fold or greater in the porin-deficient strain 35000HP::P2AB relative to that in 35000HP. Twenty of the differentially expressed proteins were selected for real-time PCR, resulting in the validation of 90% of the selected subgroup. Proteins identified in these studies suggested a decreased membrane stability phenotype, which was verified by disk diffusion assay. Loss of OmpP2A and OmpP2B resulted in global protein expression changes which appear to compensate for the absence of porin expression in 35000HP::P2AB.

  18. The human Bloom syndrome gene suppresses the DNA replication and repair defects of yeast dna2 mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Osamu; Campbell, Judith L

    2003-07-08

    Bloom syndrome is a disorder of profound and early cancer predisposition in which cells become hypermutable, exhibit high frequency of sister chromatid exchanges, and show increased micronuclei. BLM, the gene mutated in Bloom syndrome, has been cloned previously, and the BLM protein is a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Many lines of evidence suggest that BLM is involved either directly in DNA replication or in surveillance during DNA replication, but its specific roles remain unknown. Here we show that hBLM can suppress both the temperature-sensitive growth defect and the DNA damage sensitivity of the yeast DNA replication mutant dna2-1. The dna2-1 mutant is defective in a helicase-nuclease that is required either to coordinate with the crucial Saccharomyces cerevisiae (sc) FEN1 nuclease in Okazaki fragment maturation or to compensate for scFEN1 when its activity is impaired. We show that human BLM interacts with both scDna2 and scFEN1 by using coimmunoprecipitation from yeast extracts, suggesting that human BLM participates in the same steps of DNA replication or repair as scFEN1 and scDna2.

  19. A functional deficiency of TERA/VCP/p97 contributes to impaired DNA repair in multiple polyglutamine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kyota; Nakamura, Yoko; Oka, Tsutomu; Ito, Hikaru; Tamura, Takuya; Tagawa, Kazuhiko; Sasabe, Toshikazu; Katsuta, Asuka; Motoki, Kazumi; Shiwaku, Hiroki; Sone, Masaki; Yoshida, Chisato; Katsuno, Masahisa; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Murata, Miho; Taylor, J Paul; Wanker, Erich E; Kono, Kazuteru; Tashiro, Satoshi; Sobue, Gen; La Spada, Albert R; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is hypothesized that a common underlying mechanism links multiple neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (TERA)/valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 directly binds to multiple polyglutamine disease proteins (huntingtin, ataxin-1, ataxin-7 and androgen receptor) via polyglutamine sequence. Although normal and mutant polyglutamine proteins interact with TERA/VCP/p97, only mutant proteins affect dynamism of TERA/VCP/p97. Among multiple functions of TERA/VCP/p97, we reveal that functional defect of TERA/VCP/p97 in DNA double-stranded break repair is critical for the pathology of neurons in which TERA/VCP/p97 is located dominantly in the nucleus in vivo. Mutant polyglutamine proteins impair accumulation of TERA/VCP/p97 and interaction of related double-stranded break repair proteins, finally causing the increase of unrepaired double-stranded break. Consistently, the recovery of lifespan in polyglutamine disease fly models by TERA/VCP/p97 corresponds well to the improvement of double-stranded break in neurons. Taken together, our results provide a novel common pathomechanism in multiple polyglutamine diseases that is mediated by DNA repair function of TERA/VCP/p97.

  20. Evolution and adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms driven by mismatch repair system-deficient mutators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela M Luján

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition experiments we demonstrate for the first time that P. aeruginosa MRS-deficient mutators had enhanced adaptability over wild-type strains when grown in structured biofilms but not as planktonic cells. This advantage was associated with enhanced micro-colony development and increased rates of phenotypic diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution in the biofilm mode of growth. This work helps to understand the basis for the specific high proportion and role of mutators in chronic infections, where P. aeruginosa develops in biofilm communities.

  1. Evolution and adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms driven by mismatch repair system-deficient mutators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, Adela M; Maciá, María D; Yang, Liang; Molin, Søren; Oliver, Antonio; Smania, Andrea M

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS)], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition experiments we demonstrate for the first time that P. aeruginosa MRS-deficient mutators had enhanced adaptability over wild-type strains when grown in structured biofilms but not as planktonic cells. This advantage was associated with enhanced micro-colony development and increased rates of phenotypic diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution in the biofilm mode of growth. This work helps to understand the basis for the specific high proportion and role of mutators in chronic infections, where P. aeruginosa develops in biofilm communities.

  2. Functional phenotypic rescue of Caenorhabditis elegans neuroligin-deficient mutants by the human and rat NLGN1 genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Calahorro

    Full Text Available Neuroligins are cell adhesion proteins that interact with neurexins at the synapse. This interaction may contribute to differentiation, plasticity and specificity of synapses. In humans, single mutations in neuroligin encoding genes lead to autism spectrum disorder and/or mental retardation. Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deficient in nlg-1, an orthologue of human neuroligin genes, have defects in different behaviors. Here we show that the expression of human NLGN1 or rat Nlgn1 cDNAs in C. elegans nlg-1 mutants rescues the fructose osmotic strength avoidance and gentle touch response phenotypes. Two specific point mutations in NLGN3 and NLGN4 genes, involved in autistic spectrum disorder, were further characterized in this experimental system. The R451C allele described in NLGN3, was analyzed with both human NLGN1 (R453C and worm NLG-1 (R437C proteins, and both were not functional in rescuing the osmotic avoidance behavior and the gentle touch response phenotype. The D396X allele described in NLGN4, which produces a truncated protein, was studied with human NLGN1 (D432X and they did not rescue any of the behavioral phenotypes analyzed. In addition, RNAi feeding experiments measuring gentle touch response in wild type strain and worms expressing SID-1 in neurons (which increases the response to dsRNA, both fed with bacteria expressing dsRNA for nlg-1, provided evidence for a postsynaptic in vivo function of neuroligins both in muscle cells and neurons, equivalent to that proposed in mammals. This finding was further confirmed generating transgenic nlg-1 deficient mutants expressing NLG-1 under pan-neuronal (nrx-1 or pan-muscular (myo-3 specific promoters. All these results suggest that the nematode could be used as an in vivo model for studying particular synaptic mechanisms with proteins orthologues of humans involved in pervasive developmental disorders.

  3. SHORT-ROOT Deficiency Alleviates the Cell Death Phenotype of the Arabidopsis catalase2 Mutant under Photorespiration-Promoting Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczak, Cezary; Kerchev, Pavel I; Mühlenbock, Per; Hoeberichts, Frank A; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Mhamdi, Amna; Willems, Patrick; Denecker, Jordi; Kumpf, Robert P; Noctor, Graham; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can act as a signaling molecule that influences various aspects of plant growth and development, including stress signaling and cell death. To analyze molecular mechanisms that regulate the response to increased H2O2 levels in plant cells, we focused on the photorespiration-dependent peroxisomal H2O2 production in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking CATALASE2 (CAT2) activity (cat2-2). By screening for second-site mutations that attenuate the PSII maximum efficiency (Fv'/Fm') decrease and lesion formation linked to the cat2-2 phenotype, we discovered that a mutation in SHORT-ROOT (SHR) rescued the cell death phenotype of cat2-2 plants under photorespiration-promoting conditions. SHR deficiency attenuated H2O2-dependent gene expression, oxidation of the glutathione pool, and ascorbate depletion in a cat2-2 genetic background upon exposure to photorespiratory stress. Decreased glycolate oxidase and catalase activities together with accumulation of glycolate further implied that SHR deficiency impacts the cellular redox homeostasis by limiting peroxisomal H2O2 production. The photorespiratory phenotype of cat2-2 mutants did not depend on the SHR functional interactor SCARECROW and the sugar signaling component ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE4, despite the requirement for exogenous sucrose for cell death attenuation in cat2-2 shr-6 double mutants. Our findings reveal a link between SHR and photorespiratory H2O2 production that has implications for the integration of developmental and stress responses.

  4. Arabinan-deficient mutants of Corynebacterium glutamicum and the consequent flux in decaprenylmonophosphoryl-D-arabinose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderwick, Luke J; Dover, Lynn G; Seidel, Mathias; Gande, Roland; Sahm, Hermann; Eggeling, Lothar; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2006-11-01

    The arabinogalactan (AG) of Corynebacterianeae is a critical macromolecule that tethers mycolic acids to peptidoglycan, thus forming a highly impermeable cell wall matrix termed the mycolyl-arabinogalactan peptidoglycan complex (mAGP). The front line anti-tuberculosis drug, ethambutol (Emb), targets the Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium glutamicum arabinofuranosyltransferase Mt-EmbA, Mt-EmbB and Cg-Emb enzymes, respectively, which are responsible for the biosynthesis of the arabinan domain of AG. The substrate utilized by these important glycosyltransferases, decaprenylmonophosphoryl-D-arabinose (DPA), is synthesized via a decaprenylphosphoryl-5-phosphoribose (DPPR) synthase (UbiA), which catalyzes the transfer of 5-phospho-ribofuranose-pyrophosphate (pRpp) to decaprenol phosphate to form DPPR. Glycosyl compositional analysis of cell walls extracted from a C. glutamicum::ubiA mutant revealed a galactan core consisting of alternating beta(1-->5)-Galf and beta(1-->6)-Galf residues, completely devoid of arabinan and a concomitant loss of cell-wall-bound mycolic acids. In addition, in vitro assays demonstrated a complete loss of arabinofuranosyltransferase activity and DPA biosynthesis in the C. glutamicum::ubiA mutant when supplemented with p[14C]Rpp, the precursor of DPA. Interestingly, in vitro arabinofuranosyltransferase activity was restored in the C. glutamicum::ubiA mutant when supplemented with exogenous DP[14C]A substrate, and C. glutamicum strains deficient in ubiA, emb, and aftA all exhibited different levels of DPA biosynthesis.

  5. Synthetic phytochelatins complement a phytochelatin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant and enhance the accumulation of heavy metal(loid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Devesh; Tiwari, Manish; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nath, Pravendra; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2013-05-10

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are naturally occurring thiol-rich peptides containing gamma (γ) peptide bonds and are well known for their metal-binding and detoxification capabilities. Whether synthetic phytochelatins (ECs) can be used as an alternative approach for enhancing the metal-binding capacity of plants has been investigated in this study. The metal-binding potential of ECs has been demonstrated in bacteria; however, no report has investigated the expression of ECs in plants. We have expressed three synthetic genes encoding ECs of different lengths in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis (Col-0 background) and a phytochelatin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant (cad1-3). After exposure to different heavy metals, the transgenic plants were examined for phenotypic changes, and metal accumulation was evaluated. The expression of EC genes rescued the sensitive phenotype of the cad1-3 mutant under heavy metal(loid) stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing EC genes accumulated a significantly enhanced level of heavy metal(loid)s in comparison with the WT plant. The mutant complementation and enhanced heavy metal(loid) accumulation in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants suggest that ECs work in a manner similar to that of PCs in plants and that ECs could be used as an alternative for phytoremediation of heavy metal(loid) exposure.

  6. DNA ligase 1 deficient plants display severe growth defects and delayed repair of both DNA single and double strand breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bray Clifford M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA ligase enzymes catalyse the joining of adjacent polynucleotides and as such play important roles in DNA replication and repair pathways. Eukaryotes possess multiple DNA ligases with distinct roles in DNA metabolism, with clear differences in the functions of DNA ligase orthologues between animals, yeast and plants. DNA ligase 1, present in all eukaryotes, plays critical roles in both DNA repair and replication and is indispensable for cell viability. Results Knockout mutants of atlig1 are lethal. Therefore, RNAi lines with reduced levels of AtLIG1 were generated to allow the roles and importance of Arabidopsis DNA ligase 1 in DNA metabolism to be elucidated. Viable plants were fertile but displayed a severely stunted and stressed growth phenotype. Cell size was reduced in the silenced lines, whilst flow cytometry analysis revealed an increase of cells in S-phase in atlig1-RNAi lines relative to wild type plants. Comet assay analysis of isolated nuclei showed atlig1-RNAi lines displayed slower repair of single strand breaks (SSBs and also double strand breaks (DSBs, implicating AtLIG1 in repair of both these lesions. Conclusion Reduced levels of Arabidopsis DNA ligase 1 in the silenced lines are sufficient to support plant development but result in retarded growth and reduced cell size, which may reflect roles for AtLIG1 in both replication and repair. The finding that DNA ligase 1 plays an important role in DSB repair in addition to its known function in SSB repair, demonstrates the existence of a previously uncharacterised novel pathway, independent of the conserved NHEJ. These results indicate that DNA ligase 1 functions in both DNA replication and in repair of both ss and dsDNA strand breaks in higher plants.

  7. Impaired eye-blink conditioning in waggler, a mutant mouse with cerebellar BDNF deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, S; Chen, L; Qiao, X; Knusel, B; Thompson, R F

    1998-01-01

    In addition to their trophic functions, neurotrophins are also implicated in synaptic modulation and learning and memory. Although gene knockout techniques have been used widely in studying the roles of neurotrophins at molecular and cellular levels, behavioral studies using neurotrophin knockouts are limited by the early-onset lethality and various sensory deficits associated with the gene knockout mice. In the present study, we found that in a spontaneous mutant mouse, waggler, the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was selectively absent in the cerebellar granule cells. The cytoarchitecture of the waggler cerebellum appeared to be normal at the light microscope level. The mutant mice exhibited no sensory deficits to auditory stimuli or heat-induced pain. However, they were massively impaired in classic eye-blink conditioning. These results suggest that BDNF may have a role in normal cerebellar neuronal function, which, in turn, is essential for classic eye-blink conditioning.

  8. Tissue-type plasminogen activator deficiency delays bone repair: roles of osteoblastic proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawao, Naoyuki; Tamura, Yukinori; Okumoto, Katsumi; Yano, Masato; Okada, Kiyotaka; Matsuo, Osamu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Further development in research of bone regeneration is necessary to meet the clinical demand for bone reconstruction. Recently, we reported that plasminogen is crucial for bone repair through enhancement of vessel formation. However, the details of the role of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in the bone repair process still remain unknown. Herein, we examined the effects of plasminogen activators on bone repair after a femoral bone defect using tPA-deficient (tPA(-/-)) and uPA-deficient (uPA(-/-)) mice. Bone repair of the femur was delayed in tPA(-/-) mice, unlike that in wild-type (tPA(+/+)) mice. Conversely, the bone repair was comparable between wild-type (uPA(+/+)) and uPA(-/-) mice. The number of proliferative osteoblasts was decreased at the site of bone damage in tPA(-/-) mice. Moreover, the proliferation of primary calvarial osteoblasts was reduced in tPA(-/-) mice. Recombinant tPA facilitated the proliferation of mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The proliferation enhanced by tPA was antagonized by the inhibition of endogenous annexin 2 by siRNA and by the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Vessel formation as well as the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were decreased at the damaged site in tPA(-/-) mice. Our results provide novel evidence that tPA is crucial for bone repair through the facilitation of osteoblast proliferation related to annexin 2 and ERK1/2 as well as enhancement of vessel formation related to VEGF and HIF-1α at the site of bone damage. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Altered Innate Immunity Confers Staphylococcus aureus resistance in O-Glycosylation Deficient Caenorhabditis elegans bus Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    the cuticle of Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics 187, 141-155. 45. Gu, X. (2003). Evolution of duplicate genes versus genetic robustness against null...aureus. This work demonstrates a genetic link between O-glycosylation and expression of key components of the innate immune response...Introduction: The bus mutants were isolated in genetic screens for altered susceptibility to the nematode specific pathogen Microbacterium nematophilum

  10. Lipopolysaccharide-Deficient Mutants of Salmonella enterica Have Increased Sensitivity to Catechins

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshii, Miho; OKAMOTO, Akira; Ota, Michio

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity is one of the well-known biological characteristics of catechins, the main extract of green tea leaves. It is thought that catechins intercalate into the bacterial cell membrane and damage the lipid bilayer. However, the association between catechins and lipopolysaccharides, which consist of an O side chain, core oligosaccharide, and lipid A, has not been previously investigated. In this study, we evaluated the catechin sensitivity of Salmonella enterica mutants that la...

  11. Ascorbate-Deficient vtc2 Mutants in Arabidopsis Do Not Exhibit Decreased Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Benson; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Cobbett, Christopher S; Golz, John F

    2016-01-01

    In higher plants the L-galactose pathway represents the major route for ascorbate biosynthesis. The first committed step of this pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase and is encoded by two paralogs in Arabidopsis - VITAMIN C2 (VTC2) and VTC5. The first mutant of this enzyme, vtc2-1, isolated via an EMS mutagenesis screen, has approximately 20-30% of wildtype ascorbate levels and has been reported to have decreased growth under standard laboratory conditions. Here, we show that a T-DNA insertion into the VTC2 causes a similar reduction in ascorbate levels, but does not greatly affect plant growth. Subsequent segregation analysis revealed the growth defects of vtc2-1 mutants segregate independently of the vtc2-1 mutation. These observations suggest that it is the presence of an independent cryptic mutation that affects growth of vtc2-1 mutants, and not the 70-80% decrease in ascorbate levels that has been assumed in past studies.

  12. DNA mismatch repair deficiency and hereditary syndromes in Latino patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Charité N; Hanna, Diana L; Peng, Cheng; Nguyen, Nathalie T; Stern, Mariana C; Schmit, Stephanie L; Idos, Greg E; Patel, Ravi; Tsai, Steven; Ramirez, Veronica; Lin, Sonia; Shamasunadara, Vinay; Barzi, Afsaneh; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Figueiredo, Jane C

    2017-10-01

    The landscape of hereditary syndromes and clinicopathologic characteristics among US Latino/Hispanic individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) remains poorly understood. A total of 265 patients with CRC who were enrolled in the Hispanic Colorectal Cancer Study were included in the current study. Information regarding CRC risk factors was elicited through interviews, and treatment and survival data were abstracted from clinical charts. Tumor studies and germline genetic testing results were collected from medical records or performed using standard molecular methods. The mean age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 53.7 years (standard deviation, 10.3 years), and 48.3% were female. Overall, 21.2% of patients reported a first-degree or second-degree relative with CRC; 3.4% met Amsterdam I/II criteria. With respect to Bethesda guidelines, 38.5% of patients met at least 1 criterion. Of the 161 individuals who had immunohistochemistry and/or microsatellite instability testing performed, 21 (13.0%) had mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient (dMMR) tumors. dMMR tumors were associated with female sex (61.9%), earlier age at the time of diagnosis (50.4 ± 12.4 years), proximal location (61.9%), and first-degree (23.8%) or second-degree (9.5%) family history of CRC. Among individuals with dMMR tumors, 13 (61.9%) had a germline MMR mutation (MutL homolog 1 [MLH1] in 6 patients; MutS homolog 2 [MSH2] in 4 patients; MutS homolog 6 [MHS6] in 2 patients; and PMS1 homolog 2, mismatch repair system component [PMS2] in 1 patient). The authors identified 2 additional MLH1 mutation carriers by genetic testing who had not received immunohistochemistry/microsatellite instability testing. In total, 5.7% of the entire cohort were confirmed to have Lynch syndrome. In addition, 6 individuals (2.3%) had a polyposis phenotype. The percentage of dMMR tumors noted among Latino individuals (13%) is similar to estimates in non-Hispanic white individuals. In the current study, the majority of

  13. Characterization of N-Glycans from Arabidopsis. Application to a Fucose-Deficient Mutant1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayon, Catherine; Cabanes-Macheteau, Marion; Loutelier-Bourhis, Corinne; Salliot-Maire, Isabelle; Lemoine, Jérome; Reiter, Wolf-Dieter; Lerouge, Patrice; Faye, Loïc

    1999-01-01

    The structures of glycans N-linked to Arabidopsis proteins have been fully identified. From immuno- and affinodetections on blots, chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and glycosidase sequencing data, we show that Arabidopsis proteins are N-glycosylated by high-mannose-type N-glycans from Man5GlcNAc2 to Man9GlcNAc2, and by xylose- and fucose (Fuc)-containing oligosaccharides. However, complex biantenary structures containing the terminal Lewis a epitope recently reported in the literature (A.-C. Fitchette-Lainé, V. Gomord, M. Cabanes, J.-C. Michalski, M. Saint Macary, B. Foucher, B. Cavalier, C. Hawes, P. Lerouge, and L. Faye [1997] Plant J 12: 1411–1417) were not detected. A similar study was done on the Arabidopsis mur1 mutant, which is affected in the biosynthesis of l-Fuc. In this mutant, one-third of the Fuc residues of the xyloglucan has been reported to be replaced by l-galactose (Gal) (E. Zablackis, W.S. York, M. Pauly, S. Hantus, W.D. Reiter, C.C.S. Chapple, P. Albersheim, and A. Darvill [1996] Science 272: 1808–1810). N-linked glycans from the mutant were identified and their structures were compared with those isolated from the wild-type plants. In about 95% of all N-linked glycans from the mur1 plant, l-Fuc residues were absent and were not replaced by another monosaccharide. However, in the remaining 5%, l-Fuc was found to be replaced by a hexose residue. From nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data of the mur1 N-glycans, and by analogy with data reported on mur1 xyloglucan, this subpopulation of N-linked glycans was proposed to be l-Gal-containing N-glycans resulting from the replacement of l-Fuc by l-Gal. PMID:9952469

  14. Hole-in-one mutant phenotypes link EGFR/ERK signaling to epithelial tissue repair in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Geiger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epithelia act as physical barriers protecting living organisms and their organs from the surrounding environment. Simple epithelial tissues have the capacity to efficiently repair wounds through a resealing mechanism. The known molecular mechanisms underlying this process appear to be conserved in both vertebrates and invertebrates, namely the involvement of the transcription factors Grainy head (Grh and Fos. In Drosophila, Grh and Fos lead to the activation of wound response genes required for epithelial repair. ERK is upstream of this pathway and known to be one of the first kinases to be activated upon wounding. However, it is still unclear how ERK activation contributes to a proper wound response and which molecular mechanisms regulate its activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous screen, we isolated mutants with defects in wound healing. Here, we describe the role of one of these genes, hole-in-one (holn1, in the wound healing process. Holn1 is a GYF domain containing protein that we found to be required for the activation of several Grh and Fos regulated wound response genes at the wound site. We also provide evidence suggesting that Holn1 may be involved in the Ras/ERK signaling pathway, by acting downstream of ERK. Finally, we show that wound healing requires the function of EGFR and ERK signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these data, we conclude that holn1 is a novel gene required for a proper wound healing response. We further propose and discuss a model whereby Holn1 acts downstream of EGFR and ERK signaling in the Grh/Fos mediated wound closure pathway.

  15. 颅骨缺损修补对病人精神心理的影响%Effect of repair of cranial deficiency on psychology of patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延平

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of repair of cranial deficiency on psychology of patients in rehabilitation stage. Method Apply organic glass or bony cement to repair the skull. Result 26 patients healed by first intention, and the psychological symptoms relieved obviously. Conclusion Repair of skull could not only reconstruct the cranial barrier, but also ameliorate some symptoms and psychological burden, which is benefit for the rehabilitation of patients.

  16. Molecular cloning of the human excision repair gene ERCC-6.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Troelstra (Christine); H. Odijk (Hanny); J. de Wit (Jan); A. Westerveld (Andries); L.H. Thompson; D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe UV-sensitive, nucleotide excision repair-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line UV61 was used to identify and clone a correcting human gene, ERCC-6. UV61, belonging to rodent complementation group 6, is only moderately UV sensitive in comparison with mutant lines in groups 1 to 5

  17. Increased leaf photosynthesis caused by elevated stomatal conductance in a rice mutant deficient in SLAC1, a guard cell anion channel protein

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), leaf photosynthesis is known to be highly correlated with stomatal conductance; however, it remains unclear whether stomatal conductance dominantly limits the photosynthetic rate. SLAC1 is a stomatal anion channel protein controlling stomatal closure in response to environmental [CO2]. In order to examine stomatal limitations to photosynthesis, a SLAC1-deficient mutant of rice was isolated and characterized. A TILLING screen of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-derived mutant ...

  18. aroA-Deficient Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Is More Than a Metabolically Attenuated Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Felgner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains are believed to act as powerful live vaccine carriers that are able to elicit protection against various pathogens. Auxotrophic mutations, such as a deletion of aroA, are commonly introduced into such bacteria for attenuation without incapacitating immunostimulation. In this study, we describe the surprising finding that deletion of aroA dramatically increased the virulence of attenuated Salmonella in mouse models. Mutant bacteria lacking aroA elicited increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α after systemic application. A detailed genetic and phenotypic characterization in combination with transcriptomic and metabolic profiling demonstrated that ΔaroA mutants display pleiotropic alterations in cellular physiology and lipid and amino acid metabolism, as well as increased sensitivity to penicillin, complement, and phagocytic uptake. In concert with other immunomodulating mutations, deletion of aroA affected flagellin phase variation and gene expression of the virulence-associated genes arnT and ansB. Finally, ΔaroA strains displayed significantly improved tumor therapeutic activity. These results highlight the importance of a functional shikimate pathway to control homeostatic bacterial physiology. They further highlight the great potential of ΔaroA-attenuated Salmonella for the development of vaccines and cancer therapies with important implications for host-pathogen interactions and translational medicine.

  19. Growth of desferrioxamine-deficient Streptomyces mutants through xenosiderophore piracy of airborne fungal contaminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Anthony Argüelles; Lambert, Stéphany; Martinet, Loïc; Adam, Delphine; Tenconi, Elodie; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Ongena, Marc; Rigali, Sébastien

    2015-07-01

    Due to the necessity of iron for housekeeping functions, nutrition, morphogenesis and secondary metabolite production, siderophore piracy could be a key strategy in soil and substrate colonization by microorganisms. Here we report that mutants of bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor unable to produce desferrioxamine siderophores could recover growth when the plates were contaminated by indoor air spores of a Penicillium species and Engyodontium album. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis revealed that the HPLC fractions with the extracellular 'resuscitation' factors of the Penicillium isolate were only those that contained siderophores, i.e. Fe-dimerum acid, ferrichrome, fusarinine C and coprogen. The restored growth of the Streptomyces mutants devoid of desferrioxamine is most likely mediated through xenosiderophore uptake as the cultivability depends on the gene encoding the ABC-transporter-associated DesE siderophore-binding protein. That a filamentous fungus allows the growth of desferrioxamine non-producing Streptomyces in cocultures confirms that xenosiderophore piracy plays a vital role in nutritional interactions between these taxonomically unrelated filamentous microorganisms.

  20. Responses of a triple mutant defective in three iron deficiency-induced Basic Helix-Loop-Helix genes of the subgroup Ib(2) to iron deficiency and salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Felix; Naranjo Arcos, Maria Augusta; Bauer, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that adapt to external stress by inducing molecular and physiological responses that serve to better cope with the adverse growth condition. Upon low supply of the micronutrient iron, plants actively increase the acquisition of soil iron into the root and its mobilization from internal stores. The subgroup Ib(2) BHLH genes function as regulators in this response, however their concrete functions are not fully understood. Here, we analyzed a triple loss of function mutant of BHLH39, BHLH100 and BHLH101 (3xbhlh mutant). We found that this mutant did not have any iron uptake phenotype if iron was provided. However, under iron deficiency the mutant displayed a more severe leaf chlorosis than the wild type. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that this mutant phenotype resulted in the mis-regulation of 198 genes, out of which only 15% were associated with iron deficiency regulation itself. A detailed analysis revealed potential targets of the bHLH transcription factors as well as genes reflecting an exaggerated iron deficiency response phenotype. Since the BHLH genes of this subgroup have been brought into the context of the plant hormone salicylic acid, we investigated whether the 3xbhlh mutant might have been affected by this plant signaling molecule. Although a very high number of genes responded to SA, also in a differential manner between mutant and wild type, we did not find any indication for an association of the BHLH gene functions in SA responses upon iron deficiency. In summary, our study indicates that the bHLH subgroup Ib(2) transcription factors do not only act in iron acquisition into roots but in other aspects of the adaptation to iron deficiency in roots and leaves.

  1. Responses of a triple mutant defective in three iron deficiency-induced Basic Helix-Loop-Helix genes of the subgroup Ib(2 to iron deficiency and salicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Maurer

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms that adapt to external stress by inducing molecular and physiological responses that serve to better cope with the adverse growth condition. Upon low supply of the micronutrient iron, plants actively increase the acquisition of soil iron into the root and its mobilization from internal stores. The subgroup Ib(2 BHLH genes function as regulators in this response, however their concrete functions are not fully understood. Here, we analyzed a triple loss of function mutant of BHLH39, BHLH100 and BHLH101 (3xbhlh mutant. We found that this mutant did not have any iron uptake phenotype if iron was provided. However, under iron deficiency the mutant displayed a more severe leaf chlorosis than the wild type. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that this mutant phenotype resulted in the mis-regulation of 198 genes, out of which only 15% were associated with iron deficiency regulation itself. A detailed analysis revealed potential targets of the bHLH transcription factors as well as genes reflecting an exaggerated iron deficiency response phenotype. Since the BHLH genes of this subgroup have been brought into the context of the plant hormone salicylic acid, we investigated whether the 3xbhlh mutant might have been affected by this plant signaling molecule. Although a very high number of genes responded to SA, also in a differential manner between mutant and wild type, we did not find any indication for an association of the BHLH gene functions in SA responses upon iron deficiency. In summary, our study indicates that the bHLH subgroup Ib(2 transcription factors do not only act in iron acquisition into roots but in other aspects of the adaptation to iron deficiency in roots and leaves.

  2. The effect of catalase on recovery of heat-injured DNA-repair mutants of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, B M; Seymour, D A

    1987-06-01

    The apparent sensitivity of Escherichia coli K12 to mild heat was increased by recA (def), recB and polA, but not by uvrA, uvrB or recF mutations. However, addition of catalase to the rich plating medium used to assess viability restored counts of heat-injured recA, recB and polA strains to wild-type levels. E. coli p3478 polA was sensitized by heat to a concentration of hydrogen peroxide similar to that measured in autoclaved recovery medium. The apparent heat sensitivity of DNA-repair mutants is thus due to heat-induced sensitivity to the low levels of peroxide present in rich recovery media. It is proposed that DNA damage in heated cells could occur indirectly by an oxidative mechanism. The increased peroxide sensitivity of heat-injured cells was not due to a decrease in total catalase activity but may be related specifically to inactivation of the inducible catalase/peroxidase (HPI).

  3. Genomic structure and characterization of the Drosophila S3 ribosomal/DNA repair gene and mutant alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M R; Xu, Y; Wilson, D M; Deutsch, W A

    2000-03-01

    The Drosophila S3 protein is known to be associated with ribosomes, where it is thought to play a role in the initiation of protein translation. The S3 protein also contains a DNA repair activity, efficiently processing 8-oxoguanine residues in DNA via an N-glycosylase/apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) lyase activity. The gene that encodes S3 has previously been localized to one of the Minute loci on chromosome 3 in Drosophila. This study focused on the genomic organization of S3 at M(3)95A, initial promoter characterization, and analysis of three mutant alleles at this locus. The S3 gene was found to be a single-copy gene 2 to 3 kb in length and containing a single intron. The upstream 1.6-kb region was analyzed for promoter activity, identifying a presumptive regulatory domain containing potential enhancer and suppressor elements. This finding is of interest, as the S3 gene is constitutively expressed throughout development and mRNA is most likely maternally inherited. Lastly, three Minute alleles from the same locus were sequenced and two alleles found to contain a 22-bp deletion in exon 2, resulting in a truncated S3 protein, although wildtype levels of S3 mRNA and protein were detected in the viable heterozygous Minute alleles, possibly reflecting dosage compensation.

  4. Laminin alpha2 deficiency and muscular dystrophy; genotype-phenotype correlation in mutant mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, L T; Zhang, X U; Kuang, W

    2003-01-01

    Deficiency of laminin alpha2 is the cause of one of the most severe muscular dystrophies in humans and other species. It is not yet clear how particular mutations in the laminin alpha2 chain gene affect protein expression, and how abnormal levels or structure of the protein affect disease. Animal...... models may be valuable for such genotype-phenotype analysis and for determining mechanism of disease as well as function of laminin. Here, we have analyzed protein expression in three lines of mice with mutations in the laminin alpha2 chain gene and in two lines of transgenic mice overexpressing...... substantially prevented the muscular dystrophy in these mice. However, dy(W)/dy(W) mice, expressing the human laminin alpha2 under the control of the striated muscle-specific portion of the desmin promoter, still developed muscular dystrophy. This failure to rescue is apparently because of insufficient...

  5. THERMAL RADIOSENSITIZATION IN HEAT-SENSITIVE AND RADIATION-SENSITIVE MUTANTS OF CHO CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMPINGA, HH; KANON, B; KONINGS, AWT; STACKHOUSE, MA; BEDFORD, JS

    1993-01-01

    Recently, it has been hypothesized (Iliakis and Seaner 1990) that DNA double-strand break (dsb) repair proficiency is a prerequisite for heat radiosensitization on the basis of the finding that the radiosensitive and dsb-repair-deficient mutant xrs-5 cell line shows no significant heat-induced radio

  6. Drosophila FoxP mutants are deficient in operant self-learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Mendoza

    Full Text Available Intact function of the Forkhead Box P2 (FOXP2 gene is necessary for normal development of speech and language. This important role has recently been extended, first to other forms of vocal learning in animals and then also to other forms of motor learning. The homology in structure and in function among the FoxP gene members raises the possibility that the ancestral FoxP gene may have evolved as a crucial component of the neural circuitry mediating motor learning. Here we report that genetic manipulations of the single Drosophila orthologue, dFoxP, disrupt operant self-learning, a form of motor learning sharing several conceptually analogous features with language acquisition. Structural alterations of the dFoxP locus uncovered the role of dFoxP in operant self-learning and habit formation, as well as the dispensability of dFoxP for operant world-learning, in which no motor learning occurs. These manipulations also led to subtle alterations in the brain anatomy, including a reduced volume of the optic glomeruli. RNAi-mediated interference with dFoxP expression levels copied the behavioral phenotype of the mutant flies, even in the absence of mRNA degradation. Our results provide evidence that motor learning and language acquisition share a common ancestral trait still present in extant invertebrates, manifest in operant self-learning. This 'deep' homology probably traces back to before the split between vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

  7. Effect of bacterial recA expression on DNA repair in the rad51 and rad52 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Morais Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and functional homology between yeast proteins pRad51 and pRad52 and Escherichia coli pRecA involved in recombinational DNA repair led us to investigate possible effects of recA gene expression on DNA repair in rad51 and rad52 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant cells were subjected to one of the following treatments: preincubation with 8-methoxypsoralen and subsequent irradiation with 360-nm ultraviolet (UVA (8-MOP + UVA, irradiation with 254-nm UV light or treatment with methyl methane sulfonate (MMS. While recA expression did not repair lethal DNA lesions in mutant rad51, it was able to partially restore resistance to 8-MOP + UVA and MMS in rad52. Expression of recA could not complement the sensitivity of rad51rad52 double mutants, indicating that pRad51 may be essential for the repair-stimulating activity of pRecA in the rad52 mutant. Spontaneous mutagenesis was increased, and 8-MOP-photoinduced mutagenesis was decreased by the presence of pRecA in rad52, whereas pRecA decreased UV-induced mutagenesis in rad51. Thus, pRecA may function in yeast DNA repair either as a member of a protein complex or as an individual protein that binds to mutagen-damaged DNA.A homologia tanto a nível molecular como funcional entre as proteínas de leveduras pRad51 e pRad52 envolvidas na reparação de DNA tipo recombinacional e pRecA de E. coli nos levou a analisar os possíveis efeitos da expressão do gene recA sobre a reparação de DNA nos mutantes rad51 e rad52 de S. cerevisiae após tratamento com 8-MOP + UVA, com UV e com MMS. A expressão de recA não foi capaz de restaurar a reparação das lesões induzidas no DNA do mutante rad51 após tratamento com esses agentes, entretanto ela restaurou parcialmente a resistência ao 8-MOP + UVA e ao MMS no mutante rad52. A expressão de recA não complementou a sensibilidade do duplo mutante rad51rad52, indicando que pRad51 pode ser essencial para estimular a atividade de reparação da p

  8. Intermolecular forces and enthalpies in the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and an antigen I/II-deficient mutant to laminin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; Norde, Willem; Petersen, Fernanda C.; Scheie, Anne A.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2007-01-01

    The antigen I/II family of surface proteins is expressed by most oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans, and mediates specific adhesion to, among other things, salivary films and extracellular matrix proteins. In this study we showed that antigen I/II-deficient S. mutans isogenic mutant I

  9. ASSEMBLY OF ALCOHOL OXIDASE IN THE CYTOSOL OF A PEROXISOME-DEFICIENT MUTANT OF HANSENULA-POLYMORPHA - PROPERTIES OF THE PROTEIN AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERKLEI, IJ; SULTER, GJ; HARDER, W; VEENHUIS, M

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the expression of alcohol oxidase (AO) in a peroxisome-deficient mutant strain of Hansenula polymorpha. High levels of octameric, active AO (up to 3.0 U/mg protein) were detected in cells grown at low dilution rates in a glucose-limited chemostat in the presence of choline as the sol

  10. Growth of catalase A and catalase T deficient mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ethanol and oleic acid : Growth profiles and catalase activities in relation to microbody proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klei, Ida J. van der; Rytka, Joanna; Kunau, Wolf H.; Veenhuis, Marten

    1990-01-01

    The parental strain (A+T+) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mutants, deficient in catalase T (A+T-), catalase A (A-T+) or both catalases (A-T-), grew on ethanol and oleic acid with comparable doubling times. Specific activities of catalase were low in glucose- and ethanol-grown cells. In the two olei

  11. Efflux pump-deficient mutants as a platform to search for microbes that produce antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Udaondo, Zulema; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Roca, Amalia; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Reyes, Fernando; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E-18 is a strain deficient in the major antibiotic efflux pump (TtgABC) that exhibits an overall increased susceptibility to a wide range of drugs when compared with the wild-type strain. We used this strain as a platform to search for microbes able to produce antibiotics that inhibit growth. A collection of 2400 isolates from soil, sediments and water was generated and a drop assay developed to identify, via growth inhibition halos, strains that prevent the growth of DOT-T1E-18 on solid Luria–Bertani plates. In this study, 35 different isolates that produced known and unknown antibiotics were identified. The most potent inhibitor of DOT-T1E-18 growth was an isolate named 250J that, through multi-locus sequence analysis, was identified as a Pseudomonas sp. strain. Culture supernatants of 250J contain four different xantholysins that prevent growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative and fungi. Two of the xantholysins were produced in higher concentrations and purified. Xantholysin A was effective against Bacillus, Lysinibacillus and Rhodococcus strains, and the effect against these microbes was enhanced when used in combination with other antibiotics such as ampicillin, gentamicin and kanamycin. Xantholysin C was also efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and showed an interesting antimicrobial effect against Pseudomonas strains, and a synergistic inhibitory effect with ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. PMID:26059350

  12. Methanol teratogenicity in mutant mice with deficient catalase activity and transgenic mice expressing human catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Michelle T; Wiley, Michael J; Wells, Peter G

    2013-04-01

    The role of catalase in methanol (MeOH) teratogenesis is unclear. In rodents it both detoxifies reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metabolizes MeOH and its formic acid (FA) metabolite. We treated pregnant mice expressing either high (hCat) or low catalase activity (aCat), or their wild-type (WT) controls, with either MeOH (4g/kg ip) or saline. hCat mice and WTs were similarly susceptible to MeOH-initiated ophthalmic abnormalities and cleft palates. aCat and WT mice appeared resistant, precluding assessment of the developmental impact of catalase deficiency. Catalase activity was respectively increased at least 1.5-fold, and decreased by at least 35%, in hCat and aCat embryos and maternal livers. MeOH and FA pharmacokinetic profiles were similar among hCat, aCat and WT strains. Although the hCat results imply no ROS involvement, embryo culture studies suggest this may be confounded by maternal factors and/or a requirement for higher catalase activity in the hCat mice.

  13. Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  14. Differential Impact of LPG-and PG-Deficient Leishmania major Mutants on the Immune Response of Human Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Favila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania major infection induces robust interleukin-12 (IL12 production in human dendritic cells (hDC, ultimately resulting in Th1-mediated immunity and clinical resolution. The surface of Leishmania parasites is covered in a dense glycocalyx consisting of primarily lipophosphoglycan (LPG and other phosphoglycan-containing molecules (PGs, making these glycoconjugates the likely pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS responsible for IL12 induction.Here we explored the role of parasite glycoconjugates on the hDC IL12 response by generating L. major Friedlin V1 mutants defective in LPG alone, (FV1 lpg1-, or generally deficient for all PGs, (FV1 lpg2-. Infection with metacyclic, infective stage, L. major or purified LPG induced high levels of IL12B subunit gene transcripts in hDCs, which was abrogated with FV1 lpg1- infections. In contrast, hDC infections with FV1 lpg2- displayed increased IL12B expression, suggesting other PG-related/LPG2 dependent molecules may act to dampen the immune response. Global transcriptional profiling comparing WT, FV1 lpg1-, FV1 lpg2- infections revealed that FV1 lpg1- mutants entered hDCs in a silent fashion as indicated by repression of gene expression. Transcription factor binding site analysis suggests that LPG recognition by hDCs induces IL-12 in a signaling cascade resulting in Nuclear Factor κ B (NFκB and Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF mediated transcription.These data suggest that L. major LPG is a major PAMP recognized by hDC to induce IL12-mediated protective immunity and that there is a complex interplay between PG-baring Leishmania surface glycoconjugates that result in modulation of host cellular IL12.

  15. Mismatch repair-deficient crypt foci in Lynch syndrome--molecular alterations and association with clinical parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Staffa

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations of DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes, most frequently MLH1 and MSH2. Recently, MMR-deficient crypt foci (MMR-DCF have been identified as a novel lesion which occurs at high frequency in the intestinal mucosa from Lynch syndrome mutation carriers, but very rarely progress to cancer. To shed light on molecular alterations and clinical associations of MMR-DCF, we systematically searched the intestinal mucosa from Lynch syndrome patients for MMR-DCF by immunohistochemistry. The identified lesions were characterised for alterations in microsatellite-bearing genes with proven or suspected role in malignant transformation. We demonstrate that the prevalence of MMR-DCF (mean 0.84 MMR-DCF per 1 cm2 mucosa in the colorectum of Lynch syndrome patients was significantly associated with patients' age, but not with patients' gender. No MMR-DCF were detectable in the mucosa of patients with sporadic MSI-H colorectal cancer (n = 12. Microsatellite instability of at least one tested marker was detected in 89% of the MMR-DCF examined, indicating an immediate onset of microsatellite instability after MMR gene inactivation. Coding microsatellite mutations were most frequent in the genes HT001 (ASTE1 with 33%, followed by AIM2 (17% and BAX (10%. Though MMR deficiency alone appears to be insufficient for malignant transformation, it leads to measurable microsatellite instability even in single MMR-deficient crypts. Our data indicate for the first time that the frequency of MMR-DCF increases with patients' age. Similar patterns of coding microsatellite instability in MMR-DCF and MMR-deficient cancers suggest that certain combinations of coding microsatellite mutations, including mutations of the HT001, AIM2 and BAX gene, may contribute to the progression of MMR-deficient lesions into MMR-deficient cancers.

  16. Clinical problems of colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer cases with unknown cause of tumor mismatch repair deficiency (suspected Lynch syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchanan DD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel D Buchanan,1,2 Christophe Rosty,1,3,4 Mark Clendenning,1 Amanda B Spurdle,5 Aung Ko Win2 1Oncogenomics Group, Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 2Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 3Envoi Specialist Pathologists, Herston, QLD, Australia; 4School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, Australia; 5Molecular Cancer Epidemiology Laboratory, Genetics and Computational Biology Division, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, QLD, AustraliaAbstract: Carriers of a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes have a high risk of developing numerous different cancers, predominantly colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer (known as Lynch syndrome. MMR gene mutation carriers develop tumors with MMR deficiency identified by tumor microsatellite instability or immunohistochemical loss of MMR protein expression. Tumor MMR deficiency is used to identify individuals most likely to carry an MMR gene mutation. However, MMR deficiency can also result from somatic inactivation, most commonly methylation of the MLH1 gene promoter. As tumor MMR testing of all incident colorectal and endometrial cancers (universal screening is becoming increasingly adopted, a growing clinical problem is emerging for individuals who have tumors that show MMR deficiency who are subsequently found not to carry an MMR gene mutation after genetic testing using the current diagnostic approaches (Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and who also show no evidence of MLH1 methylation. The inability to determine the underlying cause of tumor MMR deficiency in these "Lynch-like" or "suspected Lynch syndrome" cases has significant implications on the clinical management of these individuals and their relatives. When the

  17. Formaldehyde catabolism is essential in cells deficient for the Fanconi anemia DNA-repair pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Ivan V; Langevin, Frédéric; Crossan, Gerry P; Takata, Minoru; Patel, Ketan J

    2011-11-13

    Metabolism is predicted to generate formaldehyde, a toxic, simple, reactive aldehyde that can damage DNA. Here we report a synthetic lethal interaction in avian cells between ADH5, encoding the main formaldehyde-detoxifying enzyme, and the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA-repair pathway. These results define a fundamental role for the combined action of formaldehyde catabolism and DNA cross-link repair in vertebrate cell survival.

  18. Exome-wide somatic microsatellite variation is altered in cells with DNA repair deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalman Vaksman

    Full Text Available Microsatellites (MST, tandem repeats of 1-6 nucleotide motifs, are mutational hot-spots with a bias for insertions and deletions (INDELs rather than single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The majority of MST instability studies are limited to a small number of loci, the Bethesda markers, which are only informative for a subset of colorectal cancers. In this paper we evaluate non-haplotype alleles present within next-gen sequencing data to evaluate somatic MST variation (SMV within DNA repair proficient and DNA repair defective cell lines. We confirm that alleles present within next-gen data that do not contribute to the haplotype can be reliably quantified and utilized to evaluate the SMV without requiring comparisons of matched samples. We observed that SMV patterns found in DNA repair proficient cell lines without DNA repair defects, MCF10A, HEK293 and PD20 RV:D2, had consistent patterns among samples. Further, we were able to confirm that changes in SMV patterns in cell lines lacking functional BRCA2, FANCD2 and mismatch repair were consistent with the different pathways perturbed. Using this new exome sequencing analysis approach we show that DNA instability can be identified in a sample and that patterns of instability vary depending on the impaired DNA repair mechanism, and that genes harboring minor alleles are strongly associated with cancer pathways. The MST Minor Allele Caller used for this study is available at https://github.com/zalmanv/MST_minor_allele_caller.

  19. Role of various enterotoxins in Aeromonas hydrophila-induced gastroenteritis: generation of enterotoxin gene-deficient mutants and evaluation of their enterotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jian; Kozlova, E V; Chopra, A K

    2002-04-01

    Three enterotoxins from the Aeromonas hydrophila diarrheal isolate SSU have been molecularly characterized in our laboratory. One of these enterotoxins is cytotoxic in nature, whereas the other two are cytotonic enterotoxins, one of them heat labile and the other heat stable. Earlier, by developing an isogenic mutant, we demonstrated the role of a cytotoxic enterotoxin in causing systemic infection in mice. In the present study, we evaluated the role of these three enterotoxins in evoking diarrhea in a murine model by developing various combinations of enterotoxin gene-deficient mutants by marker-exchange mutagenesis. A total of six isogenic mutants were prepared in a cytotoxic enterotoxin gene (act)-positive or -negative background strain of A. hydrophila. We developed two single knockouts with truncation in either the heat-labile (alt) or the heat-stable (ast) cytotonic enterotoxin gene; three double knockouts with truncations of genes encoding (i) alt and ast, (ii) act and alt, and (iii) act and ast genes; and a triple-knockout mutant with truncation in all three genes, act, alt, and ast. The identity of these isogenic mutants developed by double-crossover homologous recombination was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Northern and Western blot analyses revealed that the expression of different enterotoxin genes in the mutants was correspondingly abrogated. We tested the biological activity of these mutants in a diet-restricted and antibiotic-treated mouse model with a ligated ileal loop assay. Our data indicated that all of these mutants had significantly reduced capacity to evoke fluid secretion compared to that of wild-type A. hydrophila; the triple-knockout mutant failed to induce any detectable level of fluid secretion. The biological activity of selected A. hydrophila mutants was restored after complementation. Taken together, we have established a role for three enterotoxins in A. hydrophila-induced gastroenteritis in a mouse model with the greatest

  20. Deficiency of the DNA repair protein nibrin increases the basal but not the radiation induced mutation frequency in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessendorf, Petra [Institute of Medical and Human Genetics, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany); Vijg, Jan [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Michael F. Price Center, 1301 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Nussenzweig, André [Laboratory of Genome Integrity, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, 37 Convent Drive, Room 1106, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Digweed, Martin, E-mail: martin.digweed@charite.de [Institute of Medical and Human Genetics, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • lacZ mutant frequencies measured in vivo in mouse models of radiosensitive Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome. • Spontaneous mutation frequencies are increased in lymphatic tissue due to Nbn mutation. • Single base transitions, not deletions, dominate the mutation spectrum. • Radiation induced mutation frequencies are not increased due to Nbn mutation. - Abstract: Nibrin (NBN) is a member of a DNA repair complex together with MRE11 and RAD50. The complex is associated particularly with the repair of DNA double strand breaks and with the regulation of cell cycle check points. Hypomorphic mutation of components of the complex leads to human disorders characterised by radiosensitivity and increased tumour occurrence, particularly of the lymphatic system. We have examined here the relationship between DNA damage, mutation frequency and mutation spectrum in vitro and in vivo in mouse models carrying NBN mutations and a lacZ reporter plasmid. We find that NBN mutation leads to increased spontaneous DNA damage in fibroblasts in vitro and high basal mutation rates in lymphatic tissue of mice in vivo. The characteristic mutation spectrum is dominated by single base transitions rather than the deletions and complex rearrangements expected after abortive repair of DNA double strand breaks. We conclude that in the absence of wild type nibrin, the repair of spontaneous errors, presumably arising during DNA replication, makes a major contribution to the basal mutation rate. This applies also to cells heterozygous for an NBN null mutation. Mutation frequencies after irradiation in vivo were not increased in mice with nibrin mutations as might have been expected considering the radiosensitivity of NBS patient cells in vitro. Evidently apoptosis is efficient, even in the absence of wild type nibrin.

  1. DNA repair deficiency as a susceptibility marker for spontaneous lymphoma in golden retriever dogs: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas H Thamm

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence that an individual's inability to accurately repair DNA damage in a timely fashion may in part dictate a predisposition to cancer. Dogs spontaneously develop lymphoproliferative diseases such as lymphoma, with the golden retriever (GR breed being at especially high risk. Mechanisms underlying such breed susceptibility are largely unknown; however, studies of heritable cancer predisposition in dogs may be much more straightforward than similar studies in humans, owing to a high degree of inbreeding and more limited genetic heterogeneity. Here, we conducted a pilot study with 21 GR with lymphoma, 20 age-matched healthy GR and 20 age-matched healthy mixed-breed dogs (MBD to evaluate DNA repair capability following exposure to either ionizing radiation (IR or the chemical mutagen bleomycin. Inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity was evaluated in stimulated canine lymphoctyes exposed in vitro utilizing the G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity assay to quantify clastogen-induced chromatid-type aberrations (gaps and breaks. Golden retrievers with lymphoma demonstrated elevated sensitivity to induction of chromosome damage following either challenge compared to either healthy GR or MBD at multiple doses and time points. Using the 75(th percentile of chromatid breaks per 1,000 chromosomes in the MBD population at 4 hours post 1.0 Gy IR exposure as a benchmark to compare cases and controls, GR with lymphoma were more likely than healthy GR to be classified as "sensitive" (odds ratio = 21.2, 95% confidence interval 2.3-195.8. Furthermore, our preliminary findings imply individual (rather than breed susceptibility, and suggest that deficiencies in heritable factors related to DNA repair capabilities may be involved in the development of canine lymphoma. These studies set the stage for larger confirmatory studies, as well as candidate-based approaches to probe specific genetic susceptibility factors.

  2. Recombination-dependent deletion formation in mammalian cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, R G; Rolig, R L; Kilburn, A E; Adair, G M; Wilson, J H; Nairn, R S

    1997-11-25

    Nucleotide excision repair proteins have been implicated in genetic recombination by experiments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster, but their role, if any, in mammalian cells is undefined. To investigate the role of the nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC1, the hamster homologue to the S. cerevisiae RADIO gene, we disabled the gene by targeted knockout. Partial tandem duplications of the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) gene then were constructed at the endogenous APRT locus in ERCC1- and ERCC1+ cells. To detect the full spectrum of gene-altering events, we used a loss-of-function assay in which the parental APRT+ tandem duplication could give rise to APRT- cells by homologous recombination, gene rearrangement, or point mutation. Measurement of rates and analysis of individual APRT- products indicated that gene rearrangements (principally deletions) were increased at least 50-fold, whereas homologous recombination was affected little. The formation of deletions is not caused by a general effect of the ERCC1 deficiency on gene stability, because ERCC1- cell lines with a single wild-type copy of the APRT gene yielded no increase in deletions. Thus, deletion formation is dependent on the tandem duplication, and presumably the process of homologous recombination. Recombination-dependent deletion formation in ERCC1- cells is supported by a significant decrease in a particular class of crossover products that are thought to arise by repair of a heteroduplex intermediate in recombination. We suggest that the ERCC1 gene product in mammalian cells is involved in the processing of heteroduplex intermediates in recombination and that the misprocessed intermediates in ERCC1- cells are repaired by illegitimate recombination.

  3. Loss of the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase in DNA double-strand-break-repair mutant mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, S R; Kurimasa, A; Oshimura, M; Dynan, W S; Bradbury, E M; Chen, D J

    1995-04-11

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) consists of three polypeptide components: Ku-70, Ku-80, and an approximately 350-kDa catalytic subunit (p350). The gene encoding the Ku-80 subunit is identical to the x-ray-sensitive group 5 complementing gene XRCC5. Expression of the Ku-80 cDNA rescues both DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and V(D)J recombination in group 5 mutant cells. The involvement of Ku-80 in these processes suggests that the underlying defect in these mutant cells may be disruption of the DNA-PK holoenzyme. In this report we show that the p350 kinase subunit is deleted in cells derived from the severe combined immunodeficiency mouse and in the Chinese hamster ovary cell line V-3, both of which are defective in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. A centromeric fragment of human chromosome 8 that complements the scid defect also restores p350 protein expression and rescues in vitro DNA-PK activity. These data suggest the scid gene may encode the p350 protein or regulate its expression and are consistent with a model whereby DNA-PK is a critical component of the DSB-repair pathway.

  4. Loss of the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase in DNA double-strand-break-repair mutant mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan); Kurimasa, Akihiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan); Dynan, W.S. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bradbury, E.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Chen, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-04-11

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) consists of three polypeptide components: Ku-70, Ku-80, and an {approx}350-kDa catalytic subunit (p350). The gene encoding the Ku-80 subunit is identical to the x-ray-sensitive group 5 complementing gene XRCC5. Expression of the Ku-80 cDNA rescues both DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and V(D)J recombination in group 5 mutant cells. The involvement of Ku-80 in these processes suggests that the underlying defect in these mutant cells may be disruption of the DNA-PK holoenzyme. In this report we show that the p350 kinase subunit is deleted in cells derived from the severe combined immunodeficiency mouse and in the Chinese hamster ovary cell line V-3, both of which are defective in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. A centromeric fragment of human chromosome 8 that complements the scid defect also restores p350 protein expression and rescues in vitro DNA-PK activity. These data suggest the scid gene may encode the p350 protein or regulate its expression and are consistent with a model whereby DNA-PK is a critical component of the DSB-repair pathway. 38 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Congenital DNA repair deficiency results in protection against renal ischemia reperfusion injury in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Susa (Denis); J.R. Mitchell (James); M. Verweij (Marielle); H.W.M. van de Ven (Marieke); H.P. Roest (Henk); S. van den Engel (Sandra); I.M. Bajema (Ingeborg); K. Mangundap (Kirsten); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R.W.F. de Bruin (Ron)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCockayne syndrome and other segmental progerias with inborn defects in DNA repair mechanisms are thought to be due in part to hypersensitivity to endogenous oxidative DNA damage. The accelerated aging-like symptoms of this disorder include dysmyelination within the central nervous system

  6. Congenital DNA repair deficiency results in protection against renal ischemia reperfusion injury in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Susa (Denis); J.R. Mitchell (James); M. Verweij (Marielle); H.W.M. van de Ven (Marieke); H.P. Roest (Henk); S. van den Engel (Sandra); I.M. Bajema (Ingeborg); K. Mangundap (Kirsten); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R.W.F. de Bruin (Ron)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCockayne syndrome and other segmental progerias with inborn defects in DNA repair mechanisms are thought to be due in part to hypersensitivity to endogenous oxidative DNA damage. The accelerated aging-like symptoms of this disorder include dysmyelination within the central nervous system

  7. DNA damage and gene therapy of xeroderma pigmentosum, a human DNA repair-deficient disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, Aurélie [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Oncogenesis UMR8200CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy and University Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Sarasin, Alain, E-mail: alain.sarasin@gustaveroussy.fr [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Oncogenesis UMR8200CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy and University Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Service de Génétique, Institut Gustave Roussy (France)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Full correction of mutation in the XPC gene by engineered nucleases. • Meganucleases and TALENs are inhibited by 5-MeC for inducing double strand breaks. • Gene therapy of XP cells is possible using homologous recombination for DSB repair. - Abstract: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic disease characterized by hypersensitivity to ultra-violet and a very high risk of skin cancer induction on exposed body sites. This syndrome is caused by germinal mutations on nucleotide excision repair genes. No cure is available for these patients except a complete protection from all types of UV radiations. We reviewed the various techniques to complement or to correct the genetic defect in XP cells. We, particularly, developed the correction of XP-C skin cells using the fidelity of the homologous recombination pathway during repair of double-strand break (DSB) in the presence of XPC wild type sequences. We used engineered nucleases (meganuclease or TALE nuclease) to induce a DSB located at 90 bp of the mutation to be corrected. Expression of specific TALE nuclease in the presence of a repair matrix containing a long stretch of homologous wild type XPC sequences allowed us a successful gene correction of the original TG deletion found in numerous North African XP patients. Some engineered nucleases are sensitive to epigenetic modifications, such as cytosine methylation. In case of methylated sequences to be corrected, modified nucleases or demethylation of the whole genome should be envisaged. Overall, we showed that specifically-designed TALE-nuclease allowed us to correct a 2 bp deletion in the XPC gene leading to patient's cells proficient for DNA repair and showing normal UV-sensitivity. The corrected gene is still in the same position in the human genome and under the regulation of its physiological promoter. This result is a first step toward gene therapy in XP patients.

  8. Construction and characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa protein F-deficient mutants after in vitro and in vivo insertion mutagenesis of the cloned gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, W A; Hancock, R E

    1988-06-01

    Mutants with insertion mutations in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa protein F (oprF) gene were created in vivo by Tn1 mutagenesis of the cloned gene in Escherichia coli and in vitro by insertion of the streptomycin resistance-encoding omega fragment into the cloned gene, followed by transfer of the mutated protein F gene back to P. aeruginosa. Homologous recombination into the P. aeruginosa chromosome was driven by a bacteriophage F116L transduction method in the oprF::Tn1 mutants or Tn5-instability in the oprF::omega mutants. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western immunoblotting demonstrated that the resultant oprF insertion mutants had lost protein F, whereas restriction digestion and Southern blotting experiments proved that the mutants contained a single chromosomal oprF gene with either Tn1 or omega inserted into it. It has been proposed that protein F has a role in antibiotic uptake in P. aeruginosa. Measurement of antibiotic resistance levels showed small to marginal increases in resistance, compared with that of the parent P. aeruginosa strain, to a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. Protein F-deficient mutants had altered barrier properties as revealed by a three- to fivefold increase in the uptake of the hydrophobic fluorescent probe 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine.

  9. Superoxide-dismutase deficient mutants in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): genetic control, differential expressions of isozymes, and sensitivity to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2013-01-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) mutants, sodPv 1 and sodPv 2, exhibiting foliar superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of only 25% and 40% of their mother control (MC) cv. VL 63 were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 8 h) M2 progeny. Native-PAGE analysis revealed occurrence of Mn SOD, Fe SOD, Cu/Zn SOD I and Cu/Zn SOD II isozymes in MC, while Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were not formed in sodPv 1 and sodPv 2 leaves, respectively. In-gel activity of individual isozymes differed significantly among the parents. SOD deficiency is inherited as recessive mutations, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. Gene expressions using qRT PCR confirmed higher expressions of Cu/Zn SOD transcripts in both mutants and the absence of Fe SOD in sodPv 1 and Mn SOD in sodPv 2. In 50 μM arsenic, Cu/Zn SODs genes were further upregulated but other isoforms downregulated in the two mutants, maintaining SOD activity in its control level. In an F2 double mutants of sodPv 1 × sodPv 2, no Fe SOD, and Mn SOD expressions were detectable, while both Cu/Zn SODs are down-regulated and arsenic-induced leaf necrosis appeared. In contrast to both mutants, ROS-imaging study revealed overaccumulation of both superoxides and H2O2 in leaves of double mutant.

  10. Superoxide-Dismutase Deficient Mutants in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.: Genetic Control, Differential Expressions of Isozymes, and Sensitivity to Arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. mutants, sodPv 1 and sodPv 2, exhibiting foliar superoxide dismutase (SOD activity of only 25% and 40% of their mother control (MC cv. VL 63 were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 8 h M2 progeny. Native-PAGE analysis revealed occurrence of Mn SOD, Fe SOD, Cu/Zn SOD I and Cu/Zn SOD II isozymes in MC, while Fe SOD, and Mn SOD were not formed in sodPv 1 and sodPv 2 leaves, respectively. In-gel activity of individual isozymes differed significantly among the parents. SOD deficiency is inherited as recessive mutations, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. Gene expressions using qRT PCR confirmed higher expressions of Cu/Zn SOD transcripts in both mutants and the absence of Fe SOD in sodPv 1 and Mn SOD in sodPv 2. In 50 M arsenic, Cu/Zn SODs genes were further upregulated but other isoforms downregulated in the two mutants, maintaining SOD activity in its control level. In an F2 double mutants of sodPv 1 × sodPv 2, no Fe SOD, and Mn SOD expressions were detectable, while both Cu/Zn SODs are down-regulated and arsenic-induced leaf necrosis appeared. In contrast to both mutants, ROS-imaging study revealed overaccumulation of both superoxides and H2O2 in leaves of double mutant.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Aneurinibacillus migulanus E1, a Gramicidin S- and d-Phenylalanyl-l-Propyl Diketopiperazine-Deficient Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenezi, Faizah N.; Luptakova, Lenka; Rateb, Mostafa E.; Woodward, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the Aneurinibacillus migulanus E1 mutant deficient in gramicidin S (GS) and d-phenylalanyl-l-propyl diketopiperazine (DKP) formation. The genome consists of a circular chromosome (6,301,904 bp, 43.20% G+C content) without any plasmid. The complete genome sequence enables further investigation of the biosynthetic mechanism and the biological function of gramicidin S. PMID:26679577

  12. Gas exchange in the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme strain ATCC 29133 and Its hydrogenase-deficient mutant strain NHM5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Pia; Lindblad, Peter; Cournac, Laurent

    2004-04-01

    Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a nitrogen-fixing, heterocystous cyanobacterium of symbiotic origin. During nitrogen fixation, it produces molecular hydrogen (H(2)), which is recaptured by an uptake hydrogenase. Gas exchange in cultures of N. punctiforme ATCC 29133 and its hydrogenase-free mutant strain NHM5 was studied. Exchange of O(2), CO(2), N(2), and H(2) was followed simultaneously with a mass spectrometer in cultures grown under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Isotopic tracing was used to separate evolution and uptake of CO(2) and O(2). The amount of H(2) produced per molecule of N(2) fixed was found to vary with light conditions, high light giving a greater increase in H(2) production than N(2) fixation. The ratio under low light and high light was approximately 1.4 and 6.1 molecules of H(2) produced per molecule of N(2) fixed, respectively. Incubation under high light for a longer time, until the culture was depleted of CO(2), caused a decrease in the nitrogen fixation rate. At the same time, hydrogen production in the hydrogenase-deficient strain was increased from an initial rate of approximately 6 micro mol (mg of chlorophyll a)(-1) h(-1) to 9 micro mol (mg of chlorophyll a)(-1) h(-1) after about 50 min. A light-stimulated hydrogen-deuterium exchange activity stemming from the nitrogenase was observed in the two strains. The present findings are important for understanding this nitrogenase-based system, aiming at photobiological hydrogen production, as we have identified the conditions under which the energy flow through the nitrogenase can be directed towards hydrogen production rather than nitrogen fixation.

  13. Aberrant recombination and repair during immunoglobulin class switching in BRCA1-deficient human B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Andrea; Qvist, Per; Du, Likun

    2015-01-01

    machinery. A shift to the use of microhomology-based, alternative end-joining (A-EJ) and increased frequencies of intra-S region deletions as well as insertions of inverted S sequences were observed at the recombination junctions amplified from BRCA1-deficient human B cells. Furthermore, increased use...... underlying BRCA1’s function in maintaining genome stability and tumor suppression but may also point to a previously unrecognized role of BRCA1 in B-cell lymphomagenesis....... of long microhomologies was found at recombination junctions derived from E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF168-deficient, Fanconi anemia group J protein (FACJ, BRIP1)-deficient, or DNA endonuclease RBBP8 (CtIP)-compromised cells, whereas an increased frequency of S-region inversions was observed in breast...

  14. Isolation of mutants deficient in acetyl-CoA synthetase and a possible regulator of acetate induction in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy-Lewis, H M; Fairhurst, V

    1998-07-01

    Acetate-non-utilizing mutants in Aspergillus niger were selected by resistance to 1.2% propionate in the presence of 0.1% glucose. Mutants showing normal morphology fell into two complementation groups. One class of mutant lacked acetyl-CoA synthetase but had high levels of isocitrate lyase, while the second class showed reduced levels of both acetyl-CoA synthetase and isocitrate lyase compared to the wild-type strain. By analogy with mutants selected by resistance to 1.2% propionate in Aspergillus nidulans, the properties of the mutants in A. niger suggest that the mutations are either in the structural gene for acetyl-CoA synthetase (acuA) or in a possible regulatory gene of acetate induction (acuB). A third class of mutant in a different complementation group was obtained which had abnormal morphology (yellow mycelium and few conidia); the specific lesion in these mutants has not been determined.

  15. Influence of Altered NADH Metabolic Pathway on the Respiratory-deficient Mutant of Rhizopus oryzae and its L-lactate Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Guo, Chenchen; Luo, Shuizhong; Jiang, Shaotong; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory-deficient mutants of Rhizopus oryzae (R. oryzae) AS 3.3461 were acquired by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to investigate changes in intracellular NADH metabolic pathway and its influence on the fermentation characteristics of the strain. Compared with R. oryzae AS 3.3461, the intracellular ATP level of the respiratory-deficient strain UV-1 decreased by 52.7 % and the glucose utilization rate rose by 8.9 %; When incubated for 36 h, the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK), hexokinase (HK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the mutant rose by 74.2, 7.2, and 12.0 %, respectively; when incubated for 48 h, the intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio of the mutant rose by 14.6 %; when a mixed carbon source with a glucose/gluconic acid ratio of 1:1 was substituted to culture the mutant, the NADH/NAD(+) ratio decreased by 4.6 %; the ATP content dropped by 27.6 %; the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity rose by 22.7 %; and the lactate yield rose by 11.6 %. These results indicated that changes to the NADH metabolic pathway under a low-energy charge level can effectively increase the glycolytic rate and further improve the yield of L-lactate of R. oryzae.

  16. DNA damage and gene therapy of xeroderma pigmentosum, a human DNA repair-deficient disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Aurélie; Sarasin, Alain

    2015-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic disease characterized by hypersensitivity to ultra-violet and a very high risk of skin cancer induction on exposed body sites. This syndrome is caused by germinal mutations on nucleotide excision repair genes. No cure is available for these patients except a complete protection from all types of UV radiations. We reviewed the various techniques to complement or to correct the genetic defect in XP cells. We, particularly, developed the correction of XP-C skin cells using the fidelity of the homologous recombination pathway during repair of double-strand break (DSB) in the presence of XPC wild type sequences. We used engineered nucleases (meganuclease or TALE nuclease) to induce a DSB located at 90 bp of the mutation to be corrected. Expression of specific TALE nuclease in the presence of a repair matrix containing a long stretch of homologous wild type XPC sequences allowed us a successful gene correction of the original TG deletion found in numerous North African XP patients. Some engineered nucleases are sensitive to epigenetic modifications, such as cytosine methylation. In case of methylated sequences to be corrected, modified nucleases or demethylation of the whole genome should be envisaged. Overall, we showed that specifically-designed TALE-nuclease allowed us to correct a 2 bp deletion in the XPC gene leading to patient's cells proficient for DNA repair and showing normal UV-sensitivity. The corrected gene is still in the same position in the human genome and under the regulation of its physiological promoter. This result is a first step toward gene therapy in XP patients.

  17. Rearrangement of Rag-1 recombinase gene in DNA-repair deficient/immunodeficient wasted'' mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Weaver, P.; Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C-M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Libertin, C.R. (Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene wasted'' (wst) display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (Rag-l/Rag-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed that in thymus tissue, a small Rag-I transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/[sm bullet] mice, a two-fold increase in Rag-1 mRNA was evident in thymus tissue. Rag-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/[sm bullet] and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF, mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement or deletion within the Rag-1 gene of affected wasted mice that was not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the Rag-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  18. Divergent impact of Toll-like receptor 2 deficiency on repair mechanisms in healthy muscle versus Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojumdar, Kamalika; Giordano, Christian; Lemaire, Christian; Liang, Feng; Divangahi, Maziar; Qureshi, Salman T; Petrof, Basil J

    2016-05-01

    Injury to skeletal muscle, whether acute or chronic, triggers macrophage-mediated innate immunity in a manner which can be either beneficial or harmful for subsequent repair. Endogenous ligands for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) are released by damaged tissues and might play an important role in activating the innate immune system following muscle injury. To test this hypothesis, we compared macrophage behaviour and muscle repair mechanisms in mice lacking TLR2 under conditions of either acute (cardiotoxin-induced) or chronic (mdx mouse genetic model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy; DMD) muscle damage. In previously healthy muscle subjected to acute damage, TLR2 deficiency reduced macrophage numbers in the muscle post-injury but did not alter the expression pattern of the prototypical macrophage polarization markers iNOS and CD206. In addition, there was abnormal persistence of necrotic fibres and impaired regeneration in TLR2-/- muscles after acute injury. In contrast, TLR2 ablation in chronically diseased muscles of mdx mice not only resulted in significantly reduced macrophage numbers but additionally modified their phenotype by shifting from inflammatory (iNOS(pos) CD206(neg) ) to more anti-inflammatory (iNOS(neg) CD206(pos) ) characteristics. This decrease in macrophage-mediated inflammation was associated with ameliorated muscle histopathology and improved force-generating capacity of the dystrophic muscle. Our results suggest that the role of TLR2 in macrophage function and skeletal muscle repair depends greatly upon the muscle injury context, and raise the possibility that inhibition of TLR2 could serve as a useful therapeutic measure in DMD.

  19. Mismatch repair protein deficient endometrioid adenocarcinomas, metastasizing to adrenal gland and lymph nodes: Unusual cases with diagnostic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Rekhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, certain endometrial carcinomas have been found to be associated with mismatch repair (MMR protein defects/deficiency. A 39-year-old female presented with cough, decreased appetite and significant weight loss since 2 months. Earlier, she had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO for endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Imaging disclosed an 8 cm-sized adrenal mass that was surgically excised. Histopathology of the adrenal tumor, endocervical tumor, and endometrial biopsy revealed Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO Grade II to III endometrioid adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen, PAX8, MLH1 and PMS2 while negative for estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, MSH2 and MSH6. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A 34-year-old lady presented with vaginal bleeding since 9 months. She underwent TAH-BSO, reported as FIGO Grade III endometrioid adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were negative for ER, PR, MLH1, and PMS2 while positive for MSH2 and MSH6. She underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, she developed multiple nodal and pericardial metastases and succumbed to the disease within a year post-diagnosis. Certain high-grade endometrioid adenocarcinomas occurring in younger women are MMR protein deficient and display an aggressive clinical course. Adrenal metastasis in endometrial carcinomas is rare.

  20. The RANK/ RANKL/ OPG interaction in the repair of autogenous bone grafts in female rats with estrogen deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tábata de Mello TERA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the resorption process during the repair of autogenous bone grafts with or without coverage by an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE membrane in female rats with estrogen deficiency using the immunohistochemical technique. Eighty female rats were randomly divided into two groups (OVX and SHAM. The 40 female rats in the OVX group were subjected to ovariectomy, and the 40 female rats in the SHAM group were subjected to simulated ovariectomy. The two groups were further divided in subgroup E, which was subjected to surgery for placement of autogenous bone graft (ABG, and subgroup ME, in which the ABG was covered with an e-PTFE membrane. The animals were killed at 0, 7, 21, 45 and 60 days. The specimens were analyzed using immunohistochemistry for the bone resorption markers RANK, RANK-L and Osteoprotegerin (OPG. A higher remodeling rate was observed at 7 and 21 days after the autogenous bone grafts, when the markers were more intensely expressed. At the final time point, the specimens presented similar characteristics to those observed at the initial time point. The expression of immunohistochemical markers was not altered by the estrogen deficiency. The presence of the e-PTFE membrane delayed the bone resorption process, influencing the immunohistochemical expression of markers.

  1. Anaesthesia management in a patient with a severe biotinidase deficiency for congenital scoliosis repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Almasri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17 year old female patient with a biotinidase enzyme deficiency, cerebral palsy, aphamis, generalized hyperreflexia and spasticity, epilepsy and mental retardation came for the severe kyphoscoliotic deformity correction. Biotinidase enzyme deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder with incidence of 1:60,000 neonatal birth. Treatment with biotin results in a rapid biochemical and clinical improvement. This enzyme deficiency involves neurological, neuromuscular, respiratory, dermatological and immunological problems. If untreated it can lead to convulsions, coma and death. Cobb’s angle that measures the curvature of scoliosis, determined by measurements made on X rays in this case was 120° with clinical presentation of recurrent respiratory tract infection, inability to maintain sagittal posture, inability to eat or feed and difficulty in nursing care. Anaesthetic management in these patients should focus primarily on associated comorbidities and congenital anomalies affecting the course of the perioperative management and thereafter comprehensive preoperative strategies must be executed to enhance the safety profile during the surgery.

  2. Characterization and genetic mapping of eceriferum-ym (cer-ym), a cutin deficient barley mutant with impaired leaf water retention capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Liu, Cheng; Ma, Xiaoying; Wang, Aidong; Duan, Ruijun; Nawrath, Christiane; Komatsuda, Takao; Chen, Guoxiong

    2015-09-01

    The cuticle covers the aerial parts of land plants, where it serves many important functions, including water retention. Here, a recessive cuticle mutant, eceriferum-ym (cer-ym), of Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) showed abnormally glossy spikes, sheaths, and leaves. The cer-ym mutant plant detached from its root system was hypersensitive to desiccation treatment compared with wild type plants, and detached leaves of mutant lost 41.8% of their initial weight after 1 h of dehydration under laboratory conditions, while that of the wild type plants lost only 7.1%. Stomata function was not affected by the mutation, but the mutant leaves showed increased cuticular permeability to water, suggesting a defective leaf cuticle, which was confirmed by toluidine blue staining. The mutant leaves showed a substantial reduction in the amounts of the major cutin monomers and a slight increase in the main wax component, suggesting that the enhanced cuticle permeability was a consequence of cutin deficiency. cer-ym was mapped within a 0.8 cM interval between EST marker AK370363 and AK251484, a pericentromeric region on chromosome 4H. The results indicate that the desiccation sensitivity of cer-ym is caused by a defect in leaf cutin, and that cer-ym is located in a chromosome 4H pericentromeric region.

  3. Insights into genes involved in electricity generation in Geobacter sulfurreducens via whole genome microarray analysis of the OmcF-deficient mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Chan; Postier, Bradley L; Didonato, Raymond J; Chaudhuri, Swades K; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

    2008-06-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens effectively produces electricity in microbial fuel cells by oxidizing acetate with an electrode serving as the sole electron acceptor. Deletion of the gene encoding OmcF, a monoheme outer membrane c-type cytochrome, substantially decreased current production. Previous studies demonstrated that inhibition of Fe(III) reduction in the OmcF-deficient mutant could be attributed to poor transcription of the gene for OmcB, an outer membrane c-type cytochrome that is required for Fe(III) reduction. However, a mutant in which omcB was deleted produced electricity as well as wild type. Microarray analysis of the OmcF-deficient mutant versus the wild type revealed that many of the genes with the greatest decreases in transcript levels were genes whose expression was previously reported to be upregulated in cells grown with an electrode as the sole electron acceptor. These included genes with putative functions related to metal efflux and/or type I secretion and two hypothetical proteins. The outer membrane cytochromes, OmcS and OmcE, which previous studies have demonstrated are required for optimal current generation, were not detected on the outer surface of the OmcF-deficient mutant even though the omcS and omcE genes were still transcribed, suggesting that the putative secretion system could be involved in the export of outer membrane proteins necessary for electron transfer to the fuel cell anode. These results suggest that the requirement for OmcF for optimal current production is not because OmcF is directly involved in extracellular electron transfer but because OmcF is required for the appropriate transcription of other genes either directly or indirectly involved in electricity production.

  4. Structural characterization of a mixed-linkage glucan deficient mutant reveals alteration in cellulose microfibril orientation in rice coleoptile mesophyll cell walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Michelle Smith-Moritz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE F6 (CslF6 gene was previously shown to mediate the biosynthesis of mixed-linkage glucan (MLG, a cell wall polysaccharide that is hypothesized to be a tightly associated with cellulose and also have a role in cell expansion in the primary cell wall of young seedlings in grass species. We have recently shown that loss-of-function cslf6 rice mutants do not accumulate MLG in most vegetative tissues. Despite the absence of a structurally important polymer, MLG, these mutants are unexpectedly viable and only show a moderate growth compromise compared to wild type. Therefore these mutants are ideal biological systems to test the current grass cell wall model. In order to gain a better understanding of the role of MLG in the primary wall, we performed in-depth compositional and structural analyses of the cell walls of three day-old rice seedlings using various biochemical and novel microspectroscopic approaches. We found that cellulose content as well as matrix polysaccharide composition was not significantly altered in the MLG deficient mutant. However, we observed a significant change in cellulose microfibril bundle organization in mesophyll cell walls of the cslf6 mutant. Using synchrotron source Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectromicroscopy for high-resolution imaging, we determined that the bonds associated with cellulose and arabinoxylan, another major component of the primary cell was of grasses, were in a lower energy configuration compared to wild type, suggesting a slightly weaker primary wall in MLG deficient mesophyll cells. Taken together, these results suggest that MLG may influence cellulose deposition in mesophyll cell walls without significantly affecting anisotropic growth thus challenging MLG importance in cell wall expansion.

  5. Rhizobium leguminosarum exoB mutants are deficient in the synthesis of UDP-glucose 4'-epimerase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CREMERS, HCJC; Batley, M; Redmond, J W; Eijdems, Elisabeth; BREEDVELD, MW; ZEVENHUIZEN, LPTM; Pees, Elisabeth; Wijffelman, C A; Lugtenberg, Ben J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Exo- mutant strains RBL5523,exo7::Tn5,RBL5523,exo8::Tn5 and RBL5523,exo52::Tn5 are affected in nodulation and in the syntheses of lipopolysaccharide, capsular polysaccharide, and exocellular polysaccharide. These mutants were complemented for nodulation and for the

  6. Strategy in clinical practice for classification of unselected colorectal tumours based on mismatch repair deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Lindebjerg, J; Byriel, L

    2007-01-01

    nonpolyposis colon cancer or Lynch syndrome), but most are epigenetic changes of sporadic origin. The aim of this study was to define a robust and inexpensive strategy for such classification in clinical practice. Method Tumours and blood samples from 262 successive patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas...... to be sporadic. Results Thirty-nine (14.9%) of the tumours showed MMR deficiency by IHC or by microsatellite analysis. Sporadic inactivation by methylation of MLH1 promoter was found in 35 patients whereby the BRAF activating V600E mutation, indicating sporadic origin, was found in 32 tumours. On the basis...

  7. Evolution and Adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Driven by Mismatch Repair System-Deficient Mutators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luján, Adela M.; Maciá, María D.; Yang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease......, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS)], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic...... infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition...

  8. The Photoheterotrophic Growth of Bacteriochlorophyll Synthase-Deficient Mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Is Restored by I44F Mutant Chlorophyll Synthase of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Jin; Kim, Hyeonjun; Lee, Jeong K

    2016-05-28

    Chlorophyll synthase (ChlG) and bacteriochlorophyll synthase (BchG) have a high degree of substrate specificity. The BchG mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, BG1 strain, is photosynthetically incompetent. When BG1 harboring chlG of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was cultured photoheterotrophically, colonies arose at a frequency of approximately 10(-8). All the suppressor mutants were determined to have the same mutational change, ChlGI44F. The mutated enzyme ChlGI44F showed BchG activity. Remarkably, BchGF28I, which has the substitution of F at the corresponding 28(th) residue to I, showed ChlG activity. The Km values of ChlGI44F and BchGF28I for their original substrates, chlorophyllide (Chlide) a and bacteriochlorophyllide (Bchlide) a, respectively, were not affected by the mutations, but the Km values of ChlGI44F and BchGF28I for the new substrates Bchlide a and Chlide a, respectively, were more than 10-fold larger than those for their original substrates, suggesting the lower affinities for new substrates. Taken together, I44 and F28 are important for the substrate specificities of ChlG and BchG, respectively. The BchG activity of ChlGI44F and the ChlG activity of BchGF28I further suggest that ChlG and BchG are evolutionarily related enzymes.

  9. Light-regulated expression of the nitrate-reductase and nitrite-reductase genes in tomato and in the phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T W; Foyer, C; Caboche, M

    1992-08-01

    The phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill) was used to investigate if phytochrome plays a role in the regulation of nitrate-reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1) and nitrite-reductase (NiR, EC 1.7.7.1) gene expression. We show that the expression of the tomato NR and NiR genes is stimulated by light and that this light response is mediated by the photoreceptor phytochrome. The red-light response of the NR and NiR genes was reduced in etiolated aurea seedlings when compared to isogenic wild-type cotyledons. The relative levels of NR mRNA and NiR transcripts and their diurnal fluctuations were identical in mature white-light-grown leaves of the wild-type and of the aurea mutant. The transcript levels for cab and RbcS (genes for the chlorophyll-a/b-binding protein of PSII and the small subunit of the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, respectively) in aurea leaves grown in white light were indistinguishable from the respective transcript levels in the leaves of the wildtype grown under the same conditions. Despite a severe reduction in the chlorophyll content, the rate of net CO2 uptake by leaves of the aurea mutant was only slightly reduced when compared to the rate of net photosynthesis of wild-type leaves. This difference in the photosynthetic performances of wild-type and aurea mutant plants disappeared during aging of the plants. The increase in zeaxanthin and the concomitant decrease in violaxanthin in leaves of the aurea mutant compared with the same pigment levels in leaves of the wild-type indicate that the activity of the xanthophyll cycle is increased in aurea leaves as a consequence of the reduced CO2-fixation capacity of the mutant leaves.

  10. Unravelling molecular responses to moderate dehydration in harvested fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) using a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paco; Rodrigo, María J.; Alférez, Fernando; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Lafuente, María T.

    2012-01-01

    Water stress affects many agronomic traits that may be regulated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Within these traits, loss of fruit quality becomes important in many citrus cultivars that develop peel damage in response to dehydration. To study peel dehydration transcriptional responsiveness in harvested citrus fruit and the putative role of ABA in this process, this study performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis of water-stressed fruits of the wild-type Navelate orange (Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck) and its spontaneous ABA-deficient mutant Pinalate, which is more prone to dehydration and to developing peel damage. Major changes in gene expression occurring in the wild-type line were impaired in the mutant fruit. Gene ontology analysis revealed the ability of Navelate fruits to induce the response to water deprivation and di-, tri-valent inorganic cation transport biological processes, as well as repression of the carbohydrate biosynthesis process in the mutant. Exogenous ABA triggered relevant transcriptional changes and repressed the protein ubiquitination process, although it could not fully rescue the physiological behaviour of the mutant. Overall, the results indicated that dehydration responsiveness requires ABA-dependent and -independent signals, and highlight that the ability of citrus fruits to trigger molecular responses against dehydration is an important factor in reducing their susceptibility to developing peel damage. PMID:22315241

  11. Increased leaf photosynthesis caused by elevated stomatal conductance in a rice mutant deficient in SLAC1, a guard cell anion channel protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Kensuke; Hirotsuka, Shoko; Kumamaru, Toshiharu; Iba, Koh

    2012-09-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), leaf photosynthesis is known to be highly correlated with stomatal conductance; however, it remains unclear whether stomatal conductance dominantly limits the photosynthetic rate. SLAC1 is a stomatal anion channel protein controlling stomatal closure in response to environmental [CO(2)]. In order to examine stomatal limitations to photosynthesis, a SLAC1-deficient mutant of rice was isolated and characterized. A TILLING screen of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-derived mutant lines was conducted for the rice SLAC1 orthologue gene Os04g0674700, and four mutant lines containing mutations within the open reading frame were obtained. A second screen using an infrared thermography camera revealed that one of the mutants, named slac1, had a constitutive low leaf temperature phenotype. Measurement of leaf gas exchange showed that slac1 plants grown in the greenhouse had significantly higher stomatal conductance (g (s)), rates of photosynthesis (A), and ratios of internal [CO(2)] to ambient [CO(2)] (C (i)/C (a)) compared with wild-type plants, whereas there was no significant difference in the response of photosynthesis to internal [CO(2)] (A/C (i) curves). These observations demonstrate that in well-watered conditions, stomatal conductance is a major determinant of photosynthetic rate in rice.

  12. Pathogenicity of EPS-deficient mutants (gumB-, gumD and gumE - ) of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Three extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) -deficient mutants of the pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, gumB - , gumD - and gumE- were constructed by Tn5 gusA5 mutagenesis in this study. The results of pathogenicity bioassay showed that three mutants had the obviously decreased pathogenicity on radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) leaves. Because dead body of the bacteria still caused symptoms, it seemed that some unknown factors on the bac terial cell surface might play certain roles in the pathogenicity of the pathogen. The extracted raw EPS could lead to the chlorotic symptom on radish leaves, and its virulence was increased with the increase of EPS dosage, which suggested that EPS was a main component that caused the danage on radish leaves.

  13. Pleiotropic phenotypes of the sticky peel mutant provide new insight into the role of CUTIN DEFICIENT2 in epidermal cell function in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadakuduti, Satya Swathi; Pollard, Mike; Kosma, Dylan K; Allen, Charles; Ohlrogge, John B; Barry, Cornelius S

    2012-07-01

    Plant epidermal cells have evolved specialist functions associated with adaptation to stress. These include the synthesis and deposition of specialized metabolites such as waxes and cutin together with flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have important roles in providing a barrier to water loss and protection against UV radiation, respectively. Characterization of the sticky peel (pe) mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) revealed several phenotypes indicative of a defect in epidermal cell function, including reduced anthocyanin accumulation, a lower density of glandular trichomes, and an associated reduction in trichome-derived terpenes. In addition, pe mutant fruit are glossy and peels have increased elasticity due to a severe reduction in cutin biosynthesis and altered wax deposition. Leaves of the pe mutant are also cutin deficient and the epicuticular waxes contain a lower proportion of long-chain alkanes. Direct measurements of transpiration, together with chlorophyll-leaching assays, indicate increased cuticular permeability of pe leaves. Genetic mapping revealed that the pe locus represents a new allele of CUTIN DEFICIENT2 (CD2), a member of the class IV homeodomain-leucine zipper gene family, previously only associated with cutin deficiency in tomato fruit. CD2 is preferentially expressed in epidermal cells of tomato stems and is a homolog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ANTHOCYANINLESS2 (ANL2). Analysis of cuticle composition in leaves of anl2 revealed that cutin accumulates to approximately 60% of the levels observed in wild-type Arabidopsis. Together, these data provide new insight into the role of CD2 and ANL2 in regulating diverse metabolic pathways and in particular, those associated with epidermal cells.

  14. Novel roles for MLH3 deficiency and TLE6-like amplification in DNA mismatch repair-deficient gastrointestinal tumorigenesis and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Chieh Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA mismatch repair suppresses gastrointestinal tumorgenesis. Four mammalian E. coli MutL homologues heterodimerize to form three distinct complexes: MLH1/PMS2, MLH1/MLH3, and MLH1/PMS1. To understand the mechanistic contributions of MLH3 and PMS2 in gastrointestinal tumor suppression, we generated Mlh3(-/-;Apc(1638N and Mlh3(-/-;Pms2(-/-;Apc(1638N (MPA mice. Mlh3 nullizygosity significantly increased Apc frameshift mutations and tumor multiplicity. Combined Mlh3;Pms2 nullizygosity further increased Apc base-substitution mutations. The spectrum of MPA tumor mutations was distinct from that observed in Mlh1(-/-;Apc(1638N mice, implicating the first potential role for MLH1/PMS1 in tumor suppression. Because Mlh3;Pms2 deficiency also increased gastrointestinal tumor progression, we used array-CGH to identify a recurrent tumor amplicon. This amplicon contained a previously uncharacterized Transducin enhancer of Split (Tle family gene, Tle6-like. Expression of Tle6-like, or the similar human TLE6D splice isoform in colon cancer cells increased cell proliferation, colony-formation, cell migration, and xenograft tumorgenicity. Tle6-like;TLE6D directly interact with the gastrointestinal tumor suppressor RUNX3 and antagonize RUNX3 target transactivation. TLE6D is recurrently overexpressed in human colorectal cancers and TLE6D expression correlates with RUNX3 expression. Collectively, these findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms of individual MutL homologue tumor suppression and demonstrate an association between TLE mediated antagonism of RUNX3 and accelerated human colorectal cancer progression.

  15. ZIP4H (TEX11 deficiency in the mouse impairs meiotic double strand break repair and the regulation of crossing over.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A Adelman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that hypomorphic Mre11 complex mouse mutants exhibit defects in the repair of meiotic double strand breaks (DSBs. This is associated with perturbation of synaptonemal complex morphogenesis, repair and regulation of crossover formation. To further assess the Mre11 complex's role in meiotic progression, we identified testis-specific NBS1-interacting proteins via two-hybrid screening in yeast. In this screen, Zip4h (Tex11, a male germ cell specific X-linked gene was isolated. Based on sequence and predicted structural similarity to the S. cerevisiae and A. thaliana Zip4 orthologs, ZIP4H appears to be the mammalian ortholog. In S. cerevisiae and A. thaliana, Zip4 is a meiosis-specific protein that regulates the level of meiotic crossovers, thus influencing homologous chromosome segregation in these organisms. As is true for hypomorphic Nbs1 (Nbs1(DeltaB/DeltaB mice, Zip4h(-/Y mutant mice were fertile. Analysis of spermatocytes revealed a delay in meiotic double strand break repair and decreased crossover formation as inferred from DMC1 and MLH1 staining patterns, respectively. Achiasmate chromosomes at the first meiotic division were also observed in Zip4h(-/Y mutants, consistent with the observed reduction in MLH1 focus formation. These results indicate that meiotic functions of Zip4 family members are conserved and support the view that the Mre11 complex and ZIP4H interact functionally during the execution of the meiotic program in mammals.

  16. Integration of metabolic modeling and phenotypic data in evaluation and improvement of ethanol production using respiration-deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikicioglu, Duygu; Pir, Pinar; Onsan, Z Ilsen; Ulgen, Kutlu O; Kirdar, Betul; Oliver, Stephen G

    2008-09-01

    Flux balance analysis and phenotypic data were used to provide clues to the relationships between the activities of gene products and the phenotypes resulting from the deletion of genes involved in respiratory function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effect of partial or complete respiratory deficiency on the ethanol production and growth characteristics of hap4Delta/hap4Delta, mig1Delta/mig1Delta, qdr3Delta/qdr3Delta, pdr3Delta/pdr3Delta, qcr7Delta/qcr7Delta, cyt1Delta/cyt1Delta, and rip1Delta/rip1Delta mutants grown in microaerated chemostats was investigated. The study provided additional evidence for the importance of the selection of a physiologically relevant objective function, and it may improve quantitative predictions of exchange fluxes, as well as qualitative estimations of changes in intracellular fluxes. Ethanol production was successfully predicted by flux balance analysis in the case of the qdr3Delta/qdr3Delta mutant, with maximization of ethanol production as the objective function, suggesting an additional role for Qdr3p in respiration. The absence of similar changes in estimated intracellular fluxes in the qcr7Delta/qcr7Delta mutant compared to the rip1Delta/rip1Delta and cyt1Delta/cyt1Delta mutants indicated that the effect of the deletion of this subunit of complex III was somehow compensated for. Analysis of predicted flux distributions indicated self-organization of intracellular fluxes to avoid NAD(+)/NADH imbalance in rip1Delta/rip1Delta and cyt1Delta/cyt1Delta mutants, but not the qcr7Delta/qcr7Delta mutant. The flux through the glycerol efflux channel, Fps1p, was estimated to be zero in all strains under the investigated conditions. This indicates that previous strategies for improving ethanol production, such as the overexpression of the glutamate synthase gene GLT1 in a GDH1 deletion background or deletion of the glycerol efflux channel gene FPS1 and overexpression of GLT1, are unnecessary in a respiration-deficient background.

  17. Molecular insights into how a deficiency of amylose affects carbon allocation – carbohydrate and oil analyses and gene expression profiling in the seeds of a rice waxy mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ming-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding carbon partitioning in cereal seeds is of critical importance to develop cereal crops with enhanced starch yields for food security and for producing specified end-products high in amylose, β-glucan, or fructan, such as functional foods or oils for biofuel applications. Waxy mutants of cereals have a high content of amylopectin and have been well characterized. However, the allocation of carbon to other components, such as β-glucan and oils, and the regulation of the altered carbon distribution to amylopectin in a waxy mutant are poorly understood. In this study, we used a rice mutant, GM077, with a low content of amylose to gain molecular insight into how a deficiency of amylose affects carbon allocation to other end products and to amylopectin. We used carbohydrate analysis, subtractive cDNA libraries, and qPCR to identify candidate genes potentially responsible for the changes in carbon allocation in GM077 seeds. Results Carbohydrate analysis indicated that the content of amylose in GM077 seeds was significantly reduced, while that of amylopectin significantly rose as compared to the wild type BP034. The content of glucose, sucrose, total starch, cell-wall polysaccharides and oil were only slightly affected in the mutant as compared to the wild type. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH experiments generated 116 unigenes in the mutant on the wild-type background. Among the 116 unigenes, three, AGP, ISA1 and SUSIBA2-like, were found to be directly involved in amylopectin synthesis, indicating their possible roles in redirecting carbon flux from amylose to amylopectin. A bioinformatics analysis of the putative SUSIBA2-like binding elements in the promoter regions of the upregulated genes indicated that the SUSIBA2-like transcription factor may be instrumental in promoting the carbon reallocation from amylose to amylopectin. Conclusion Analyses of carbohydrate and oil fractions and gene expression

  18. High prevalence of deficient mismatch repair phenotype and the V600E BRAF mutation in elderly patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Thomas; Schischmanoff, Olivier; Poupardin, Cecile; Mary, Florence; Soufir, Nadem; Barrat, Christophe; Bellaiche, Guy; Boubaya, Marouane; Choudat, Laurence; Cucherousset, Joel; DesGuetz, Gaetan; Wind, Philippe; Benamouzig, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) occurs mostly in the elderly. However, the biology of CRC in elderly has been poorly studied. This study examined the prevalence of deficient mismatch repair phenotype (dMMR) and BRAF mutations according to age. MMR phenotype was prospectively determined by molecular analysis in patients of all ages undergoing surgery for CRC. BRAF V600E mutation status was analysed in a subset of dMMR tumours. A total of 754 patients who underwent surgery between 2005 and 2008 were included in the study. Amongst them, 272 (36%) were ≥75years old. The proportion of women prevalence of dMMR was 19.4% in patients ≥75 and 10.7% in patients prevalence of dMMR was significantly higher in women than in men (27% vs 10.2%, respectively; p=0.003) but was similar in women and men prevalence of the BRAF V600E mutation according to sex (78% in women and 70% in men, p=0.9). The prevalence of dMMR in CRC is high in patients over 75. In elderly patients, dMMR tumours are significantly more frequent in women than in men. The BRAF mutation is frequent in elderly patients with CRC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of a Mutant Deficient for Ammonium and Nitric Oxide Signalling in the Model System Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sanz-Luque

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous signalling molecule Nitric Oxide (NO is characterized not only by the variety of organisms in which it has been described, but also by the wealth of biological processes that it regulates. In contrast to the expanding repertoire of functions assigned to NO, however, the mechanisms of NO action usually remain unresolved, and genes that work within NO signalling cascades are seldom identified. A recent addition to the list of known NO functions is the regulation of the nitrogen assimilation pathway in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a well-established model organism for genetic and molecular studies that offers new possibilities in the search for mediators of NO signalling. By further exploiting a collection of Chlamydomonas insertional mutant strains originally isolated for their insensitivity to the ammonium (NH4+ nitrogen source, we found a mutant which, in addition to its ammonium insensitive (AI phenotype, was not capable of correctly sensing the NO signal. Similarly to what had previously been described in the AI strain cyg56, the expression of nitrogen assimilation genes in the mutant did not properly respond to treatments with various NO donors. Complementation experiments showed that NON1 (NO Nitrate 1, a gene that encodes a protein containing no known functional domain, was the gene underlying the mutant phenotype. Beyond the identification of NON1, our findings broadly demonstrate the potential for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to be used as a model system in the search for novel components of gene networks that mediate physiological responses to NO.

  20. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Du, Libo [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Wenlan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Yang [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hudson, Laurie G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: kliu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  1. Serotonin hyperinnervation and upregulated 5-HT2A receptor expression and motor-stimulating function in nigrostriatal dopamine-deficient Pitx3 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Qiu, Guozhen; Ding, Shengyuan; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2013-01-23

    The striatum receives serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) innervation and expresses 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) and other 5-HT receptors, raising the possibility that the striatal 5-HT system may undergo adaptive changes after chronic severe dopamine (DA) loss and contribute to the function and dysfunction of the striatum. Here we show that in transcription factor Pitx3 gene mutant mice with a selective, severe DA loss in the dorsal striatum mimicking the DA denervation in late Parkinson's disease (PD), both the 5-HT innervation and the 5-HT2AR mRNA expression were increased in the dorsal striatum. Functionally, while having no detectable motor effect in wild type mice, the 5-HT2R agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine increased both the baseline and l-dopa-induced normal ambulatory and dyskinetic movements in Pitx3 mutant mice, whereas the selective 5-HT2AR blocker volinanserin had the opposite effects. These results demonstrate that Pitx3 mutant mice are a convenient and valid mouse model to study the compensatory 5-HT upregulation following the loss of the nigrostriatal DA projection and that the upregulated 5-HT2AR function in the DA deficient dorsal striatum may enhance both normal and dyskinetic movements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure–Biological Function Relationship Extended to Mitotic Arrest-Deficient 2-Like Protein Mad2 Native and Mutants-New Opportunity for Genetic Disorder Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Speranta; Milac, Adina; Mernea, Maria; Mihailescu, Dan; Putz, Mihai V.; Buiu, Catalin

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of mitotic arrest-deficient proteins Mad1 and Mad2, two components of spindle assembly checkpoint, is a risk factor for chromosomal instability (CIN) and a trigger of many genetic disorders. Mad2 transition from inactive open (O-Mad2) to active closed (C-Mad2) conformations or Mad2 binding to specific partners (cell-division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) or Mad1) were targets of previous pharmacogenomics studies. Here, Mad2 binding to Cdc20 and the interconversion rate from open to closed Mad2 were predicted and the molecular features with a critical contribution to these processes were determined by extending the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method to large-size proteins such as Mad2. QSAR models were built based on available published data on 23 Mad2 mutants inducing CIN-related functional changes. The most relevant descriptors identified for predicting Mad2 native and mutants action mechanism and their involvement in genetic disorders are the steric (van der Waals area and solvent accessible area and their subdivided) and energetic van der Waals energy descriptors. The reliability of our QSAR models is indicated by significant values of statistical coefficients: Cross-validated correlation q2 (0.53–0.65) and fitted correlation r2 (0.82–0.90). Moreover, based on established QSAR equations, we rationally design and analyze nine de novo Mad2 mutants as possible promoters of CIN. PMID:25411801

  3. Structure–Biological Function Relationship Extended to Mitotic Arrest-Deficient 2-Like Protein Mad2 Native and Mutants-New Opportunity for Genetic Disorder Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranta Avram

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of mitotic arrest-deficient proteins Mad1 and Mad2, two components of spindle assembly checkpoint, is a risk factor for chromosomal instability (CIN and a trigger of many genetic disorders. Mad2 transition from inactive open (O-Mad2 to active closed (C-Mad2 conformations or Mad2 binding to specific partners (cell-division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20 or Mad1 were targets of previous pharmacogenomics studies. Here, Mad2 binding to Cdc20 and the interconversion rate from open to closed Mad2 were predicted and the molecular features with a critical contribution to these processes were determined by extending the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR method to large-size proteins such as Mad2. QSAR models were built based on available published data on 23 Mad2 mutants inducing CIN-related functional changes. The most relevant descriptors identified for predicting Mad2 native and mutants action mechanism and their involvement in genetic disorders are the steric (van der Waals area and solvent accessible area and their subdivided and energetic van der Waals energy descriptors. The reliability of our QSAR models is indicated by significant values of statistical coefficients: Cross-validated correlation q2 (0.53–0.65 and fitted correlation r2 (0.82–0.90. Moreover, based on established QSAR equations, we rationally design and analyze nine de novo Mad2 mutants as possible promoters of CIN.

  4. Transcriptome analyses of a salt-tolerant cytokinin-deficient mutant reveal differential regulation of salt stress response by cytokinin deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Nishiyama

    Full Text Available Soil destruction by abiotic environmental conditions, such as high salinity, has resulted in dramatic losses of arable land, giving rise to the need of studying mechanisms of plant adaptation to salt stress aimed at creating salt-tolerant plants. Recently, it has been reported that cytokinins (CKs regulate plant environmental stress responses through two-component systems. A decrease in endogenous CK levels could enhance salt and drought stress tolerance. Here, we have investigated the global transcriptional change caused by a reduction in endogenous CK content under both normal and salt stress conditions. Ten-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (WT and CK-deficient ipt1,3,5,7 plants were transferred to agar plates containing either 0 mM (control or 200 mM NaCl and maintained at normal growth conditions for 24 h. Our experimental design allowed us to compare transcriptome changes under four conditions: WT-200 mM vs. WT-0 mM, ipt1,3,5,7-0 mM vs. WT-0 mM, ipt1,3,5,7-200 mM vs. ipt1,3,5,7-0 mM and ipt1,3,5,7-200 mM vs. WT-200 mM NaCl. Our results indicated that the expression of more than 10% of all of the annotated Arabidopsis genes was altered by CK deficiency under either normal or salt stress conditions when compared to WT. We found that upregulated expression of many genes encoding either regulatory proteins, such as NAC, DREB and ZFHD transcription factors and the calcium sensor SOS3, or functional proteins, such as late embryogenesis-abundant proteins, xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases, glycosyltransferases, glycoside hydrolases, defensins and glyoxalase I family proteins, may contribute to improved salt tolerance of CK-deficient plants. We also demonstrated that the downregulation of photosynthesis-related genes and the upregulation of several NAC genes may cause the altered morphological phenotype of CK-deficient plants. This study highlights the impact of CK regulation on the well-known stress-responsive signaling pathways, which

  5. Site-specific analysis of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in nucleotide excision repair-proficient and -deficient hamster cells: Lack of correlation with mutational spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G., E-mail: vreeswijk@lumc.nl [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Einthovenweg 20, P.O. Box 9600, Postzone S4-P, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Human Genetics, Center for Human and Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-04, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Meijers, Caro M.; Giphart-Gassler, Micheline; Vrieling, Harry; Zeeland, Albert A. van; Mullenders, Leon H.F.; Loenen, Wil A.M. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Einthovenweg 20, P.O. Box 9600, Postzone S4-P, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-04-26

    Irradiation of cells with UVC light induces two types of mutagenic DNA photoproducts, i.e. cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PP). To investigate the relationship between the frequency of UV-induced photolesions at specific sites and their ability to induce mutations, we quantified CPD formation at the nucleotide level along exons 3 and 8 of the hprt gene using ligation-mediated PCR, and determined the mutational spectrum of 132 UV-induced hprt mutants in the AA8 hamster cell line and of 165 mutants in its nucleotide excision repair-defective derivative UV5. In AA8 cells, transversions predominated with a strong strand bias towards thymine-containing photolesions in the non-transcribed strand. As hamster AA8 cells are proficient in global genome repair of 6-4PP but selectively repair CPD from the transcribed strand of active genes, most mutations probably resulted from erroneous bypass of CPD in the non-transcribed strand. However, the relative incidence of CPD and the positions where mutations most frequently arose do not correlate. In fact some major damage sites hardly gave rise to the formation of mutations. In the repair-defective UV5 cells, mutations were almost exclusively C > T transitions caused by photoproducts at PyC sites in the transcribed strand. Even though CPD were formed at high frequencies at some TT sites in UV5, these photoproducts did not contribute to mutation induction at all. We conclude that, even in the absence of repair, large variations in the level of induction of CPD at different sites throughout the two exons do not correspond to frequencies of mutation induction.

  6. Site-specific analysis of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in nucleotide excision repair-proficient and -deficient hamster cells: Lack of correlation with mutational spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; Meijers, Caro M; Giphart-Gassler, Micheline; Vrieling, Harry; van Zeeland, Albert A; Mullenders, Leon H F; Loenen, Wil A M

    2009-04-26

    Irradiation of cells with UVC light induces two types of mutagenic DNA photoproducts, i.e. cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4 PP). To investigate the relationship between the frequency of UV-induced photolesions at specific sites and their ability to induce mutations, we quantified CPD formation at the nucleotide level along exons 3 and 8 of the hprt gene using ligation-mediated PCR, and determined the mutational spectrum of 132 UV-induced hprt mutants in the AA8 hamster cell line and of 165 mutants in its nucleotide excision repair-defective derivative UV5. In AA8 cells, transversions predominated with a strong strand bias towards thymine-containing photolesions in the non-transcribed strand. As hamster AA8 cells are proficient in global genome repair of 6-4 PP but selectively repair CPD from the transcribed strand of active genes, most mutations probably resulted from erroneous bypass of CPD in the non-transcribed strand. However, the relative incidence of CPD and the positions where mutations most frequently arose do not correlate. In fact some major damage sites hardly gave rise to the formation of mutations. In the repair-defective UV5 cells, mutations were almost exclusively C>T transitions caused by photoproducts at PyC sites in the transcribed strand. Even though CPD were formed at high frequencies at some TT sites in UV5, these photoproducts did not contribute to mutation induction at all. We conclude that, even in the absence of repair, large variations in the level of induction of CPD at different sites throughout the two exons do not correspond to frequencies of mutation induction.

  7. Intermolecular forces and enthalpies in the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and an antigen I/II-deficient mutant to laminin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busscher, Henk J; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Norde, Willem; Petersen, Fernanda C; Scheie, Anne A; van der Mei, Henny C

    2007-04-01

    The antigen I/II family of surface proteins is expressed by most oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans, and mediates specific adhesion to, among other things, salivary films and extracellular matrix proteins. In this study we showed that antigen I/II-deficient S. mutans isogenic mutant IB03987 was nearly unable to adhere to laminin films under flow conditions due to a lack of specific interactions (0.8 x 10(6) and 1.1 x 10(6) cells cm(-2) at pH 5.8 and 6.8, respectively) compared with parent strain LT11 (21.8 x 10(6) and 26.1 x 10(6) cells cm(-2)). The adhesion of both the parent and mutant strains was slightly greater at pH 6.8 than at pH 5.8. In addition, atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments demonstrated that the parent strain experienced less repulsion when it approached a laminin film than the mutant experienced. Upon retraction, combined specific and nonspecific adhesion forces were stronger for the parent strain (up to -5.0 and -4.9 nN at pH 5.8 and 6.8, respectively) than for the mutant (up to -1.5 and -2.1 nN), which was able to interact only through nonspecific interactions. Enthalpy was released upon adsorption of laminin to the surface of the parent strain but not upon adsorption of laminin to the surface of IB03987. A comparison of the adhesion forces in AFM with the adhesion forces reported for specific ligand-receptor complexes resulted in the conclusion that the number of antigen I/II binding sites for laminin on S. mutans LT11 is on the order of 6 x 10(4) sites per organism and that the sites are probably arranged along exterior surface structures, as visualized here by immunoelectron microscopy.

  8. Na(v)1.8 channelopathy in mutant mice deficient for myelin protein zero is detrimental to motor axons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez Herrero, Susana; Pinchenko, Volodymyr; Klein, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    by pharmacologic block using the subtype-selective Na(V)1.8 blocker A-803467 and chronically in Na(V)1.8 knock-outs. We found that in the context of dysmyelination, abnormal potassium ion currents and membrane depolarization, the ectopic Na(V)1.8 channels further impair the motor axon excitability in protein zero...... and progressive dysmyelinating neuropathy from birth with compromised myelin compaction, hypomyelination and distal axonal degeneration. A previous study using immunofluorescence showed that motor nerves deficient of myelin protein zero upregulate the Na(V)1.8 voltage gated sodium channel isoform, which...... is normally present only in restricted populations of sensory axons. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of motor axons in protein zero-deficient mice with particular emphasis on ectopic Na(V)1.8 voltage gated sodium channel. We combined 'threshold tracking' excitability studies...

  9. The impact of homologous recombination repair deficiency on depleted uranium clastogenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells: XRCC3 protects cells from chromosome aberrations, but increases chromosome fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Amie L. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Joyce, Kellie [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Xie, Hong [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Falank, Carolyne [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); and others

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • The role of homologous recombination repair in DU-induced toxicity was examined. • Loss of RAD51D did not affect DU-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. • XRCC3 protects cell from DU-induced chromosome breaks and fusions. • XRCC3 plays a role in DU-induced chromosome fragmentation of the X chromosome. - Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is extensively used in both industry and military applications. The potential for civilian and military personnel exposure to DU is rising, but there are limited data on the potential health hazards of DU exposure. Previous laboratory research indicates DU is a potential carcinogen, but epidemiological studies remain inconclusive. DU is genotoxic, inducing DNA double strand breaks, chromosome damage and mutations, but the mechanisms of genotoxicity or repair pathways involved in protecting cells against DU-induced damage remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of homologous recombination repair deficiency on DU-induced genotoxicity using RAD51D and XRCC3-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Cells deficient in XRCC3 (irs1SF) exhibited similar cytotoxicity after DU exposure compared to wild-type (AA8) and XRCC3-complemented (1SFwt8) cells, but DU induced more break-type and fusion-type lesions in XRCC3-deficient cells compared to wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Surprisingly, loss of RAD51D did not affect DU-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. DU induced selective X-chromosome fragmentation irrespective of RAD51D status, but loss of XRCC3 nearly eliminated fragmentation observed after DU exposure in wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Thus, XRCC3, but not RAD51D, protects cells from DU-induced breaks and fusions and also plays a role in DU-induced chromosome fragmentation.

  10. Mice with DNA repair gene Ercc1 deficiency in a neural crest lineage are a model for late-onset Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfridge, Jim; Song, Liang; Brownstein, David G; Melton, David W

    2010-06-04

    The Ercc1 gene is essential for nucleotide excision repair and is also important in recombination repair and the repair of interstrand crosslinks. We have previously used a floxed Ercc1 allele with a keratinocyte-specific Cre recombinase transgene to inactivate Ercc1 in the epidermal layer of the skin and so generate a mouse model for UV-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. Now, in an attempt to generate a model for UV-induced melanoma, we have used the floxed Ercc1 allele in combination with a Cre transgene under the control of the tyrosinase gene promoter to produce mice with Ercc1-deficient melanocytes that are hypersensitive to UV irradiation. These animals developed normally, but died when 4-6 months old with severe colonic obstruction. Melanocytes are derived from the neural crest and the tyrosinase promoter is also expressed in additional neural crest-derived lineages, including the progenitors of the parasympathetic nervous system that innervates the gastrointestinal tract and controls gut peristalsis. A functional enteric nervous system developed in floxed Ercc1 mice with the tyrosinase Cre transgene, but was found to have degenerated in the colons of affected mice. We suggest that accumulating unrepaired endogenous DNA damage in the Ercc1-deficient colonic parasympathetic ganglia leads to the degeneration of this network and results in a colonic obstructive disorder that resembles late-onset Hirschsprung disease in man.

  11. In vitro interactions of Candida parapsilosis wild type and lipase deficient mutants with human monocyte derived dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vágvölgyi Csaba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida parapsilosis typically is a commensal of human skin. However, when host immune defense is compromised or the normal microflora balance is disrupted, C. parapsilosis transforms itself into an opportunistic pathogen. Candida-derived lipase has been identified as potential virulence factor. Even though cellular components of the innate immune response, such as dendritic cells, represent the first line of defense against invading pathogens, little is known about the interaction of these cells with invading C. parapsilosis. Thus, the aim of our study was to assess the function of dendritic cells in fighting C. parapsilosis and to determine the role that C. parapsilosis-derived lipase plays in the interaction with dendritic cells. Results Monocyte-derived immature and mature dendritic cells (iDCs and mDCs, respectively co-cultured with live wild type or lipase deficient C. parapsilosis strains were studied to determine the phagocytic capacity and killing efficiency of host cells. We determined that both iDCs and mDCs efficiently phagocytosed and killed C. parapsilosis, furthermore our results show that the phagocytic and fungicidal activities of both iDCs and mDCs are more potent for lipase deficient compared to wild type yeast cells. In addition, the lipase deficient C. parapsilosis cells induce higher gene expression and protein secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in both DC types relative to the effect of co-culture with wild type yeast cells. Conclusions Our results show that DCs are activated by exposure to C. parapsilosis, as shown by increased phagocytosis, killing and proinflammatory protein secretion. Moreover, these data strongly suggest that C. parapsilosis derived lipase has a protective role during yeast:DC interactions, since lipase production in wt yeast cells decreased the phagocytic capacity and killing efficiency of host cells and downregulated the expression of host effector molecules.

  12. Differential response of the plant Medicago truncatula to its symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti or an exopolysaccharide-deficient mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kathryn M; Sharopova, Natalya; Lohar, Dasharath P; Zhang, Jennifer Q; VandenBosch, Kathryn A; Walker, Graham C

    2008-01-15

    Sinorhizobium meliloti forms symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of Medicago truncatula. The bacteria invade and colonize the roots through structures called infection threads. S. meliloti unable to produce the exopolysaccharide succinoglycan are unable to establish a symbiosis because they are defective in initiating the production of infection threads and in invading the plant. Here, we use microarrays representing 16,000 M. truncatula genes to compare the differential transcriptional responses of this host plant to wild-type and succinoglycan-deficient S. meliloti at the early time point of 3 days postinoculation. This report describes an early divergence in global plant gene expression responses caused by a rhizobial defect in succinoglycan production, rather than in Nod factor production. The microarray data show that M. truncatula inoculated with wild-type, succinoglycan-producing S. meliloti more strongly express genes encoding translation components, protein degradation machinery, and some nodulins than plants inoculated with succinoglycan-deficient bacteria. This finding is consistent with wild-type-inoculated plants having received a signal, distinct from the well characterized Nod factor, to alter their metabolic activity and prepare for invasion. In contrast, M. truncatula inoculated with succinoglycan-deficient S. meliloti more strongly express an unexpectedly large number of genes in two categories: plant defense responses and unknown functions. One model consistent with our results is that appropriate symbiotically active exopolysaccharides act as signals to plant hosts to initiate infection thread formation and that, in the absence of this signal, plants terminate the infection process, perhaps via a defense response.

  13. COOH-terminal collagen Q (COLQ) mutants causing human deficiency of endplate acetylcholinesterase impair the interaction of ColQ with proteins of the basal lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Juan; Lara, Marian; Ng, Fiona; Gochez, Danielle A; Lee, Diana C; Logia, Stephanie P; Nguyen, Joanna; Maselli, Ricardo A

    2014-05-01

    Collagen Q (ColQ) is a key multidomain functional protein of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), crucial for anchoring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to the basal lamina (BL) and accumulating AChE at the NMJ. The attachment of AChE to the BL is primarily accomplished by the binding of the ColQ collagen domain to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan and the COOH-terminus to the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK), which in turn plays a fundamental role in the development and maintenance of the NMJ. Yet, the precise mechanism by which ColQ anchors AChE at the NMJ remains unknown. We identified five novel mutations at the COOH-terminus of ColQ in seven patients from five families affected with endplate (EP) AChE deficiency. We found that the mutations do not affect the assembly of ColQ with AChE to form asymmetric forms of AChE or impair the interaction of ColQ with perlecan. By contrast, all mutations impair in varied degree the interaction of ColQ with MuSK as well as basement membrane extract (BME) that have no detectable MuSK. Our data confirm that the interaction of ColQ to perlecan and MuSK is crucial for anchoring AChE to the NMJ. In addition, the identified COOH-terminal mutants not only reduce the interaction of ColQ with MuSK, but also diminish the interaction of ColQ with BME. These findings suggest that the impaired attachment of COOH-terminal mutants causing EP AChE deficiency is in part independent of MuSK, and that the COOH-terminus of ColQ may interact with other proteins at the BL.

  14. A MATE-family efflux pump rescues the Escherichia coli 8-oxoguanine-repair-deficient mutator phenotype and protects against H(2O(2 killing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier R Guelfo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypermutation may accelerate bacterial evolution in the short-term. In the long-term, however, hypermutators (cells with an increased rate of mutation can be expected to be at a disadvantage due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations. Therefore, in theory, hypermutators are doomed to extinction unless they compensate the elevated mutational burden (deleterious load. Different mechanisms capable of restoring a low mutation rate to hypermutators have been proposed. By choosing an 8-oxoguanine-repair-deficient (GO-deficient Escherichia coli strain as a hypermutator model, we investigated the existence of genes able to rescue the hypermutable phenotype by multicopy suppression. Using an in vivo-generated mini-MudII4042 genomic library and a mutator screen, we obtained chromosomal fragments that decrease the rate of mutation in a mutT-deficient strain. Analysis of a selected clone showed that the expression of NorM is responsible for the decreased mutation rate in 8-oxoguanine-repair-deficient (mutT, mutY, and mutM mutY strains. NorM is a member of the multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE family of efflux pumps whose role in E. coli cell physiology remains unknown. Our results indicate that NorM may act as a GO-system backup decreasing AT to CG and GC to TA transversions. In addition, the ability of NorM to reduce the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in a GO-deficient strain and protect the cell from oxidative stress, including protein carbonylation, suggests that it can extrude specific molecules-byproducts of bacterial metabolism-that oxidize the guanine present in both DNA and nucleotide pools. Altogether, our results indicate that NorM protects the cell from specific ROS when the GO system cannot cope with the damage.

  15. Hydrogen production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and megaplasmid-deficient mutant M5 evaluated using a large headspace volume technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sang-Eun [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-do (Korea); Zuo, Yi; Zhang, Husen [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Guiltinan, Mark J. [Department of Horticulture, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hydrogen Energy (H2E) Center, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Logan, Bruce E.; Regan, John M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hydrogen Energy (H2E) Center, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Biohydrogen production is measured using a variety of techniques, ranging from low cost intermittent gas release methods where yields are usually reduced due to high partial pressures of hydrogen, to expensive respirometers that can eliminate pressure buildup. A new large headspace volume technique was developed that reduces the potential for hydrogen gas inhibition without the need for a respirometer. We tested this method with two strains of clostridia, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and its mutant M5 that lacks a megaplasmid responsible for butanol and acetone production, and a mixed culture (heat-treated sludge). The hydrogen yield using M5 (2.64 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose) was 47% higher than that of the parent strain (1.79 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose), and 118% larger than that obtained in tests with the sludge inoculum (1.21 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose). The increased yield for M5 was primarily due to a decrease in biomass synthesis (38%) compared to the parent strain. Hydrogen yields measured using this new method were on average 14% higher than those obtained using a conventional respirometric method. These findings indicate enhanced biohydrogen production from the megaplasmid-deficient mutant of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824, and that an intermittent gas-sampling technique can effectively measure high hydrogen gas by using a large headspace volume. (author)

  16. Mutations in ribosomal proteins, RPL4 and RACK1, suppress the phenotype of a thermospermine-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Kakehi

    Full Text Available Thermospermine acts in negative regulation of xylem differentiation and its deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, acaulis5 (acl5, shows excessive xylem formation and severe dwarfism. Studies of two dominant suppressors of acl5, sac51-d and sac52-d, have revealed that SAC51 and SAC52 encode a transcription factor and a ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10, respectively, and these mutations enhance translation of the SAC51 mRNA, which contains conserved upstream open reading frames in the 5' leader. Here we report identification of SAC53 and SAC56 responsible for additional suppressors of acl5. sac53-d is a semi-dominant allele of the gene encoding a receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1 homolog, a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit. sac56-d represents a semi-dominant allele of the gene for RPL4. We show that the GUS reporter activity driven by the CaMV 35S promoter plus the SAC51 5' leader is reduced in acl5 and restored by sac52-d, sac53-d, and sac56-d as well as thermospermine. Furthermore, the SAC51 mRNA, which may be a target of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, was found to be stabilized in these ribosomal mutants and by thermospermine. These ribosomal proteins are suggested to act in the control of uORF-mediated translation repression of SAC51, which is derepressed by thermospermine.

  17. A comparative glycoproteome study of developing endosperm in the hexose-deficient miniature1 (mn1 seed mutant and its wild type Mn1 in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia eSilva-Sanchez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In maize developing seeds, transfer cells are prominently located at the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL. As the first filial cell layer, BETL is a gateway to sugars, nutrients and water from mother plant; and anchor of numerous functions such as sucrose turnover, auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis/accumulation, energy metabolism, defense response, and signaling between maternal and filial generations. Previous studies showed that basal developing endosperms of miniature1 (mn1 mutant seeds lacking the Mn1-encoded cell wall invertase II, are also deficient for hexose. Given the role of glucose as one of the key sugars in protein glycosylation and proper protein folding; we performed a comparative large scale glycoproteome profiling of total proteins of these two genotypes (mn1 mutant vs Mn1 wild type using 2D gel electrophoresis and glycosylation/total protein staining, followed by image analysis. Protein identification was done by LC-MS/MS. A total of 413 spots were detected; from which, 113 spots matched between the two genotypes. Of these, 45 showed > 20% decrease/increase in glycosylation level and were selected for protein identification. A large number of identified proteins showed decreased glycosylation levels in mn1 developing endosperms as compared to the Mn1. Functional classification of proteins, showed mainly of post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperone activities, carbohydrate and amino acid biosynthesis / transport, and cell wall biosynthesis. These proteins and activities were related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR as a result of the low glycolsylation levels of the mutant proteins. Overall, these results provide for the first time a global glycoproteome profile of maize BETL-enriched basal endosperm to better understand their role in seed development in maize.

  18. HMG CoA Lyase (HL): Mutation detection and development of a bacterial expression system for screening the activity of mutant alleles from HL-deficient patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, M.F.; Ashmarina, L.; Poitier, E. [Hospital Ste-Justine, Montreal (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    HL catalyzes the last step of ketogenesis, and autosomal recessive HL deficiency in humans can cause episodes of hypoglycemia and coma. Structurally, HL is a dimer of identical 325-residue peptides which requires a reducing environment to maintain activity. We cloned the human and mouse HL cDNAs and genes and have performed mutation analysis on cells from 30 HL-deficient probands. Using SSCP and also genomic Southern analysis we have identified putative mutations on 53/60 alleles of these patients (88%). To date, we have found 20 mutations: 3 large deletions, 4 termination mutations, 5 frameshift mutations, and 8 missense mutations which we suspect to be pathogenic based on evolutionary conservation and/or our previous studies on purified HL protein. We have also identified 3 polymorphic variants. In order to directly test the activity of the missense mutations, we established a pGEX-based system, using a glutathione S transferase (GST)-HL fusion protein. Expressed wild-type GST-HL was insoluble. We previously located a reactive Cys at the C-terminus of chicken HL which is conserved in human HL. We produced a mutant HL peptide, C323S, which replaced Cys323 with Ser. Purified C323S is soluble and has similar kinetics to wild-type HL. C323S-containing GST-HL is soluble and enzymatically active. We are cloning and expressing the 8 missense mutations.

  19. Engineering Limonene and Bisabolene Production in Wild Type and a Glycogen-Deficient Mutant of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Fiona K.; Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alexander S.; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    The plant terpenoids limonene (C10H16) and α-bisabolene (C15H24) are hydrocarbon precursors to a range of industrially relevant chemicals. High-titer microbial synthesis of limonene and α-bisabolene could pave the way for advances in in vivo engineering of tailor-made hydrocarbons, and production at commercial scale. We have engineered the fast-growing unicellular euryhaline cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce yields of 4 mg L−1 limonene and 0.6 mg L−1 α-bisabolene through heterologous expression of the Mentha spicata l-limonene synthase or the Abies grandis (E)-α-bisabolene synthase genes, respectively. Titers were significantly higher when a dodecane overlay was applied during culturing, suggesting either that dodecane traps large quantities of volatile limonene or α-bisabolene that would otherwise be lost to evaporation, and/or that continuous product removal in dodecane alleviates product feedback inhibition to promote higher rates of synthesis. We also investigate limonene and bisabolene production in the ΔglgC genetic background, where carbon partitioning is redirected at the expense of glycogen biosynthesis. The Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 ΔglgC mutant excreted a suite of overflow metabolites (α-ketoisocaproate, pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, succinate, and acetate) during nitrogen-deprivation, and also at the onset of stationary growth in nutrient-replete media. None of the excreted metabolites, however, appeared to be effectively utilized for terpenoid metabolism. Interestingly, we observed a 1.6- to 2.5-fold increase in the extracellular concentration of most excreted organic acids when the ΔglgC mutant was conferred with the ability to produce limonene. Overall, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 provides a highly promising platform for terpenoid biosynthetic and metabolic engineering efforts. PMID:25152894

  20. Engineering limonene and bisabolene production in wild type and a glycogen-deficient mutant of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Fiona K.; Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2014-06-19

    The plant terpenoids limonene (C10H16) and α-bisabolene (C15H24) are hydrocarbon precursors to a range of industrially-relevant chemicals. High-titer microbial synthesis of limonene and α- bisabolene could pave the way for advances in in vivo engineering of tailor-made hydrocarbons, and production at commercial scale. We have engineered the fast-growing unicellular euryhaline cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce yields of 4 mg L-1 limonene and 0.6 mg L-1 α-bisabolene through heterologous expression of the Mentha spicata L-limonene synthase or the Abies grandis (E)-α-bisabolene synthase genes, respectively. Titers were significantly higher when a dodecane overlay was applied during culturing, suggesting either that dodecane traps large quantities of volatile limonene and α-bisabolene that would otherwise be lost to evaporation, and/or that continuous product removal in dodecane alleviates product feedback inhibition to promote higher rates of synthesis. We also investigate limonene and bisabolene production in the ΔglgC genetic background, where carbon partitioning is redirected at the expense of glycogen biosynthesis. The Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 ΔglgC mutant excreted a suite of overflow metabolites (α-ketoisocaproate, pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, succinate and acetate) during nitrogen deprivation, and also at the onset of stationary growth in nutrient-replete media. None of the excreted metabolites, however, appeared to be effectively utilized for terpenoid metabolism. Interestingly, we observed a 1.6 to 2.5-fold increase in the extracellular concentration of most excreted organic acids when the ΔglgC mutant was conferred with the ability to produce limonene. Overall, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 provides a highly promising platform for terpenoid biosynthetic and metabolic engineering efforts.

  1. Engineering limonene and bisabolene production in wild type and a glycogen-deficient mutant of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona K Davies

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant terpenoids limonene (C10H16 and α-bisabolene (C15H24 are hydrocarbon precursors to a range of industrially-relevant chemicals. High-titer microbial synthesis of limonene and α-bisabolene could pave the way for advances in in vivo engineering of tailor-made hydrocarbons, and production at commercial scale. We have engineered the fast-growing unicellular euryhaline cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce yields of 4 mg L-1 limonene and 0.6 mg L-1 α-bisabolene through heterologous expression of the Mentha spicata L-limonene synthase or the Abies grandis (E-α-bisabolene synthase genes, respectively. Titers were significantly higher when a dodecane overlay was applied during culturing, suggesting either that dodecane traps large quantities of volatile limonene and α-bisabolene that would otherwise be lost to evaporation, and/or that continuous product removal in dodecane alleviates product feedback inhibition to promote higher rates of synthesis. We also investigate limonene and bisabolene production in the ΔglgC genetic background, where carbon partitioning is redirected at the expense of glycogen biosynthesis. The Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 ΔglgC mutant excreted a suite of overflow metabolites (α-ketoisocaproate, pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, succinate and acetate during nitrogen deprivation, and also at the onset of stationary growth in nutrient-replete media. None of the excreted metabolites, however, appeared to be effectively utilized for terpenoid metabolism. Interestingly, we observed a 1.6 to 2.5-fold increase in the extracellular concentration of most excreted organic acids when the ΔglgC mutant was conferred with the ability to produce limonene. Overall, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 provides a highly promising platform for terpenoid biosynthetic and metabolic engineering efforts.

  2. Stimulation of the Replication of ICP0-Null Mutant Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and pp71-Deficient Human Cytomegalovirus by Epstein-Barr Virus Tegument Protein BNRF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongxu; Orr, Anne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is now well established that several cellular proteins that are components of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs, also known as ND10) have restrictive effects on herpesvirus infections that are countered by viral proteins that are either present in the virion particle or are expressed during the earliest stages of infection. For example, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early (IE) protein ICP0 overcomes the restrictive effects of PML-NB components PML, Sp100, hDaxx, and ATRX while human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IE protein IE1 targets PML and Sp100, and its tegument protein pp71 targets hDaxx and ATRX. The functions of these viral regulatory proteins are in part interchangeable; thus, both IE1 and pp71 stimulate the replication of ICP0-null mutant HSV-1, while ICP0 increases plaque formation by pp71-deficient HCMV. Here, we extend these studies by examining proteins that are expressed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We report that EBV tegument protein BNRF1, discovered by other investigators to target the hDaxx/ATRX complex, increases the replication of both ICP0-null mutant HSV-1 and pp71-deficient HCMV. In addition, EBV protein EBNA-LP, which targets Sp100, also augments ICP0-null mutant HSV-1 replication. The combination of these two EBV regulatory proteins had a greater effect than each one individually. These findings reinforce the concept that disruption of the functions of PML-NB proteins is important for efficient herpesvirus infections. IMPORTANCE Whether a herpesvirus initiates a lytic infection in a host cell or establishes quiescence or latency is influenced by events that occur soon after the viral genome has entered the host cell nucleus. Certain cellular proteins respond in a restrictive manner to the invading pathogen's DNA, while viral functions are expressed that counteract the cell-mediated repression. One aspect of cellular restriction of herpesvirus infections is mediated by components of nuclear structures known as

  3. Rad51c- and Trp53-double-mutant mouse model reveals common features of homologous recombination-deficient breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumiati, M; Munne, P M; Edgren, H; Eldfors, S; Hemmes, A; Kuznetsov, S G

    2016-09-01

    Almost half of all hereditary breast cancers (BCs) are associated with germ-line mutations in homologous recombination (HR) genes. However, the tumor phenotypes associated with different HR genes vary, making it difficult to define the role of HR in BC predisposition. To distinguish between HR-dependent and -independent features of BCs, we generated a mouse model in which an essential HR gene, Rad51c, is knocked-out specifically in epidermal tissues. Rad51c is one of the key mediators of HR and a well-known BC predisposition gene. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of Rad51c invariably requires inactivation of the Trp53 tumor suppressor (TP53 in humans) to produce mammary carcinomas in 63% of female mice. Nonetheless, loss of Rad51c shortens the latency of Trp53-deficient mouse tumors from 11 to 6 months. Remarkably, the histopathological features of Rad51c-deficient mammary carcinomas, such as expression of hormone receptors and luminal epithelial markers, faithfully recapitulate the histopathology of human RAD51C-mutated BCs. Similar to other BC models, Rad51c/p53 double-mutant mouse mammary tumors also reveal a propensity for genomic instability, but lack the focal amplification of the Met locus or distinct mutational signatures reported for other HR genes. Using the human mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A, we show that deletion of TP53 can rescue RAD51C-deficient cells from radiation-induced cellular senescence, whereas it exacerbates their centrosome amplification and nuclear abnormalities. Altogether, our data indicate that a trend for genomic instability and inactivation of Trp53 are common features of HR-mediated BCs, whereas histopathology and somatic mutation patterns are specific for different HR genes.

  4. Functional variants of human APE1 rescue the DNA repair defects of the yeast AP endonuclease/3'-diesterase-deficient strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ayoub, Emily; Mazouzi, Abdelghani; Grin, Inga; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Fan, Jinjiang; Yang, Xiaoming; Harihar, Taramatti; Saparbaev, Murat; Ramotar, Dindial

    2014-10-01

    Human APE1 is an essential enzyme performing functions in DNA repair and transcription. It possesses four distinct repair activities acting on a variety of base and sugar derived DNA lesions. APE1 has seven cysteine residues and Cys65, and to a lesser extent Cys93 and Cys99, is uniquely involved in maintaining a subset of transcription factors in the reduced and active state. Four of the cysteines Cys93, 99, 208 and 310 of APE1 are located proximal to its active site residues Glu96, Asp210 and His309 involved in processing damaged DNA, raising the possibility that missense mutation of these cysteines could alter the enzyme DNA repair functions. An earlier report documented that serine substitution of the individual cysteine residues did not affect APE1 ability to cleave an abasic site oligonucleotide substrate in vitro, except for Cys99Ser, although any consequences of these variants in the repair of in vivo DNA lesions were not tested. Herein, we mutated all seven cysteines of APE1, either singly or in combination, to alanine and show that none of the resulting variants interfered with the enzyme DNA repair functions. Cross-specie complementation analysis reveals that these APE1 cysteine variants fully rescued the yeast DNA repair deficient strain YW778, lacking AP endonucleases and 3'-diesterases, from toxicities caused by DNA damaging agents. Moreover, the elevated spontaneous mutations arising in strain YW778 from the lack of the DNA repair activities were completely suppressed by the APE1 cysteine variants. These findings suggest that the cysteine residues of APE1 are unlikely to play a role in the DNA repair functions of the enzyme in vivo. We also examine other APE1 missense mutations and provide the first evidence that the variant Asp308Ala with normal AP endonuclease, but devoid of 3'→5' exonuclease, displays hypersensitivity to the anticancer drug bleomycin, and not to other agents, suggesting that it has a defect in processing unique DNA lesions

  5. Genetically Engineered Ascorbic acid-deficient Live Mutants of Leishmania donovani induce long lasting Protective Immunity against Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sneha; Madhubala, Rentala

    2015-06-02

    Visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani is the most severe systemic form of the disease. There are still no vaccines available for humans and there are limitations associated with the current therapeutic regimens for leishmaniasis. Recently, we reported functional importance of Arabino-1, 4-lactone oxidase (ALO) enzyme from L. donovani involved in ascorbate biosynthesis pathway. In this study, we have shown that ΔALO parasites do not affect the ability of null mutants to invade visceral organs but severely impair parasite persistence beyond 16 week in BALB/c mice and hence are safe as an immunogen. Both short term (5 week) and long term (20 week) immunization with ΔALO parasites conferred sustained protection against virulent challenge in BALB/c mice, activated splenocytes and resulted in induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Protection in immunized mice after challenge correlated with the stimulation of IFN-γ producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Antigen-mediated cell immunity correlated with robust nitrite and superoxide generation, macrophage-derived oxidants critical in controlling Leishmania infection. Our data shows that live attenuated ΔALO parasites are safe, induce protective immunity and can provide sustained protection against Leishmania donovani. We further conclude that the parasites attenuated in their anti-oxidative defence mechanism can be exploited as vaccine candidates.

  6. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chen, D.S. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1993-02-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  7. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Chen, D.S. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology)

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  8. Recombination-dependent deletion formation in mammalian cells deficient in the nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC1

    OpenAIRE

    Sargent, R. Geoffrey; Rolig, Rhonda L.; Kilburn, April E.; Adair, Gerald M.; Wilson, John H.; Nairn, Rodney S.

    1997-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair proteins have been implicated in genetic recombination by experiments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster, but their role, if any, in mammalian cells is undefined. To investigate the role of the nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC1, the hamster homologue to the S. cerevisiae RAD10 gene, we disabled the gene by targeted knockout. Partial tandem duplications of the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) gene then were constructed at the endogeno...

  9. A Colletotrichum graminicola mutant deficient in the establishment of biotrophy reveals early transcriptional events in the maize anthracnose disease interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria F; Ghaffari, Noushin; Buiate, Ester A S; Moore, Neil; Schwartz, Scott; Johnson, Charles D; Vaillancourt, Lisa J

    2016-03-08

    Colletotrichum graminicola is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes maize anthracnose disease. It progresses through three recognizable phases of pathogenic development in planta: melanized appressoria on the host surface prior to penetration; biotrophy, characterized by intracellular colonization of living host cells; and necrotrophy, characterized by host cell death and symptom development. A "Mixed Effects" Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was developed and applied to an existing Illumina transcriptome dataset, substantially increasing the statistical power of the analysis of C. graminicola gene expression during infection and colonization. Additionally, the in planta transcriptome of the wild-type was compared with that of a mutant strain impaired in the establishment of biotrophy, allowing detailed dissection of events occurring specifically during penetration, and during early versus late biotrophy. More than 2000 fungal genes were differentially transcribed during appressorial maturation, penetration, and colonization. Secreted proteins, secondary metabolism genes, and membrane receptors were over-represented among the differentially expressed genes, suggesting that the fungus engages in an intimate and dynamic conversation with the host, beginning prior to penetration. This communication process probably involves reception of plant signals triggering subsequent developmental progress in the fungus, as well as production of signals that induce responses in the host. Later phases of biotrophy were more similar to necrotrophy, with increased production of secreted proteases, inducers of plant cell death, hydrolases, and membrane bound transporters for the uptake and egress of potential toxins, signals, and nutrients. This approach revealed, in unprecedented detail, fungal genes specifically expressed during critical phases of host penetration and biotrophic establishment. Many encoded secreted proteins, secondary metabolism enzymes, and receptors that may

  10. Biologic characteristic studies of DNA mismatch—repair enzyme hMSH2—deficient cell strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeY; ZhuaZX

    2002-01-01

    The effect of hMSH2 enzyme-deficiency on the cell growing phenotypes,cell ultrastructure,growth character and cell cycle were observed with electronic microscopy examination,cell counting and flow cytometry.hMSH2-deficient cell strain was constructed by transfecting hMSH2 recombination plasmid of antisense RNA into human embryo lung fibroblasts(HLF).In hMSH2-deficient cells,there were a lot of morphological changes under electronic microscopy,such as irregular shape,a lot of protuberances on the surface of cell,the enlarged nuclei.The average time of double increment of HLF and hMSH2-deficient cells were 1.0d and 0.78d,respectively.This suggested that the cell proliferation of hMSH2-deficient cells was greater than that of HLF.The distribution of HLF and hMSH2-deficient cells in G1,G2 and S phases was different.A large part of hMSH2-deficient cells was blocked in G1 phase.hMSH2-deficient cells increased,but it is still not a typical malignant cells.Thus,this cell strain could be used as biologic material to detect mutagenesis of environmental chemicals.

  11. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs: differential expression of oxidative stress and DNA repair in liver and brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E;

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...

  12. Effect of gamma rays on the bone repair process in rats with estrogen deficiency Efeito da radiação gama no processo de reparo ósseo em ratas com deficiência de estrógeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariliani Chicarelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the bone repair process in ovariectomized rats submitted to an irradiation procedure. For this purpose, one hundred rats were randomly divided in four experimental groups: control, ovariectomized, irradiated and irradiated/ovariectomized. A bone defect was made on all animals' tibias. Three days after surgery, only irradiated and irradiated/ovariectomized rats received 8 Gy of gamma rays on the lower limbs region. The animals were sacrificed 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after surgery in order to assess the repair process. It was possible to observe a delay in the bone repair process in the irradiated/ovariectomized group, in which there was a remarkable association between estrogen deficiency and ionizing radiation resulting in the reduction of newly formed bone production, thus accelerating the resorption process.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o processo de reparo ósseo em ratas ovariectomizadas submetidas ao procedimento de irradiação. Para isto, cem ratas foram aleatoriamente divididas em quatro grupos experimentais: controle, ovariectomizado, irradiado e ovariectomizado/irradiado. Um defeito ósseo foi confeccionado nas tíbias de todos os animais. Três dias após a cirurgia, apenas os animais pertencentes aos grupos irradiado e ovariectomizado/irradiado receberam 8 Gy de radiação gama na região dos membros inferiores. Os animais foram sacrificados 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a cirurgia. Foi possível observar um atraso no processo de reparo ósseo nos animais do grupo ovariectomizado/irradiado, no qual houve uma marcante associação entre deficiência de estrógeno e radiação ionizante, resultando na redução da produção de osso neoformado, acelerando o processo de reabsorção.

  13. ERCC1-XPF endonuclease facilitates DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anwaar; Robinson, Andria Rasile; Duensing, Anette; van Drunen, Ellen; Beverloo, H Berna; Weisberg, David B; Hasty, Paul; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Niedernhofer, Laura J

    2008-08-01

    ERCC1-XPF endonuclease is required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) of helix-distorting DNA lesions. However, mutations in ERCC1 or XPF in humans or mice cause a more severe phenotype than absence of NER, prompting a search for novel repair activities of the nuclease. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, orthologs of ERCC1-XPF (Rad10-Rad1) participate in the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Rad10-Rad1 contributes to two error-prone DSB repair pathways: microhomology-mediated end joining (a Ku86-independent mechanism) and single-strand annealing. To determine if ERCC1-XPF participates in DSB repair in mammals, mutant cells and mice were screened for sensitivity to gamma irradiation. ERCC1-XPF-deficient fibroblasts were hypersensitive to gamma irradiation, and gammaH2AX foci, a marker of DSBs, persisted in irradiated mutant cells, consistent with a defect in DSB repair. Mutant mice were also hypersensitive to irradiation, establishing an essential role for ERCC1-XPF in protecting against DSBs in vivo. Mice defective in both ERCC1-XPF and Ku86 were not viable. However, Ercc1(-/-) Ku86(-/-) fibroblasts were hypersensitive to gamma irradiation compared to single mutants and accumulated significantly greater chromosomal aberrations. Finally, in vitro repair of DSBs with 3' overhangs led to large deletions in the absence of ERCC1-XPF. These data support the conclusion that, as in yeast, ERCC1-XPF facilitates DSB repair via an end-joining mechanism that is Ku86 independent.

  14. Evaluation of the effect of laser radiation on fibroblast proliferation in repair of skin wounds of rats with iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Isabele C. V.; Oliveira-Sampaio, Susana C. P.; Monteiro, Juliana S. de C.; Ferreira, Maria de Fátima L.; Cangussu, Maria T.; N. dos Santos, Jean; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) on fibroblast proliferation on wound repair of rats with Iron deficiency anemia since there is no reports on literature about this subject. Iron deficiency anemia was induced on 36 newborn rats then an excisional wound was created on the dorsum of the animals which were divided into four groups: (I) - non-anemic, (II) - Anemic, (III) - non-anemic + LLLT, (IV) Anemic+ LLLT. The animals in each group were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 days. Laser irradiation was performed on each group (λ660nm,40Mw,CW) by contact mode with a dose of 2,5J/ cm2 in four points on the area of the wound and total of 10J/cm2 per session. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Paired t-test. The results showed LLLT was able to stimulate fibroblastic proliferation in rats with iron deficiency anemia at the 21st day while at control group (III) no statistically significant differences was found.

  15. Differential UVB-induced modulation of cytokine production in XPA, XPC, and CSB repair-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.P.; Oudenaren, van A.; Baert, M.R.M.; Steeg, van H.; Leenen, P.J.; Horst, van der G.T.J.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Garssen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Ultraviolet B irradiation has serious consequences for cellular immunity and can suppress the rejection of skin tumors and the resistance to infectious diseases. DNA damage plays a crucial role in these immunomodulatory effects of ultraviolet B, as impaired repair of ultraviolet-B-induced DNA damage

  16. Acquired temozolomide resistance in human glioblastoma cell line U251 is caused by mismatch repair deficiency and can be overcome by lomustine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzelberger, J; Distel, L; Buslei, R; Fietkau, R; Putz, F

    2017-08-20

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults. While the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) has prolonged overall survival, resistance evolution represents an important clinical problem. Therefore, we studied the effectiveness of radiotherapy and CCNU in an in vitro model of acquired TMZ resistance. We studied the MGMT-methylated GBM cell line U251 and its in vitro derived TMZ-resistant subline, U251/TMZ-R. Cytotoxicity of TMZ, CCNU, and radiation was tested. Both cell lines were analyzed for MGMT promotor status and expression of mismatch repair genes (MMR). The influence of MMR inhibition by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on the effects of both drugs was evaluated. During the resistance evolution process in vitro, U251/TMZ-R developed MMR deficiency, but MGMT status did not change. U251/TMZ-R cells were more resistant to TMZ than parental U251 cells (cell viability: 92.0% in U251/TMZ-R/69.2% in U251; p = 0.032) yet more sensitive to CCNU (56.4%/80.8%; p = 0.023). The effectiveness of radiotherapy was not reduced in the TMZ-resistant cell line. Combination of CCNU and TMZ showed promising results for both cell lines and overcame resistance. CdCl2-induced MMR deficiency increased cytotoxicity of CCNU. Our results confirm MMR deficiency as a crucial process for resistance evolution to TMZ. MMR-deficient TMZ-resistant GBM cells were particularly sensitive to CCNU and to combined CCNU/TMZ. Effectiveness of radiotherapy was preserved in TMZ-resistant cells. Consequently, CCNU might be preferentially considered as a treatment option for recurrent MGMT-methylated GBM and may even be suitable for prevention of resistance evolution in primary treatment.

  17. Neil3-dependent base excision repair regulates lipid metabolism and prevents atherosclerosis in Apoe-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarpengland, Tonje; Holm, Sverre; Scheffler, Katja

    2016-01-01

    an atherogenic lipid profile, increased hepatic triglyceride levels and attenuated macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity. Apoe-/- Neil3-/- mice showed marked alterations in several pathways affecting hepatic lipid metabolism, but no genotypic alterations in genome integrity or genome-wide accumulation...... of oxidative DNA damage. These results suggest a novel role for the DNA glycosylase Neil3 in atherogenesis in balancing lipid metabolism and macrophage function, potentially independently of genome-wide canonical base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage....

  18. Nucleotide excision repair deficiency increases levels of acrolein-derived cyclic DNA adduct and sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by docosahexaenoic acid and acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jishen; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Xuan, Zhuoli; Dyba, Marcin; Fu, Ying; Sen, Supti; Berry, Deborah; Creswell, Karen; Hu, Jiaxi; Roy, Rabindra; Chung, Fung-Lung

    2016-07-01

    The acrolein derived cyclic 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct (Acr-dG), formed primarily from ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) under oxidative conditions, while proven to be mutagenic, is potentially involved in DHA-induced apoptosis. The latter may contribute to the chemopreventive effects of DHA. Previous studies have shown that the levels of Acr-dG are correlated with apoptosis induction in HT29 cells treated with DHA. Because Acr-dG is shown to be repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, to further investigate the role of Acr-dG in apoptosis, in this study, NER-deficient XPA and its isogenic NER-proficient XAN1 cells were treated with DHA. The Acr-dG levels and apoptosis were sharply increased in XPA cells, but not in XAN1 cells when treated with 125μM of DHA. Because DHA can induce formation of various DNA damage, to specifically investigate the role of Acr-dG in apoptosis induction, we treated XPA knockdown HCT116+ch3 cells with acrolein. The levels of both Acr-dG and apoptosis induction increased significantly in the XPA knockdown cells. These results clearly demonstrate that NER deficiency induces higher levels of Acr-dG in cells treated with DHA or acrolein and sensitizes cells to undergo apoptosis in a correlative manner. Collectively, these results support that Acr-dG, a ubiquitously formed mutagenic oxidative DNA adduct, plays a role in DHA-induced apoptosis and suggest that it could serve as a biomarker for the cancer preventive effects of DHA.

  19. Modeling nucleotide excision repair and its impact on UV-induced mutagenesis during SOS-response in bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugay, Aleksandr N; Krasavin, Evgeny A; Parkhomenko, Aleksandr Yu; Vasilyeva, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    A model of the UV-induced mutation process in Escherichia coli bacteria has been developed taking into account the whole sequence of molecular events starting from initial photo-damage and finishing with the fixation of point mutations. The wild-type phenotype bacterial cells are compared with UV-sensitive repair-deficient mutant cells. Attention is mainly paid to excision repair system functioning as regards induced mutagenesis.

  20. A influência da deficiência estrogênica no processo de remodelação e reparação óssea Effect of estrogen deficiency on bone turnover and bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Ungaro Amadei

    2006-02-01

    cellular activity and several studies focus on the factors able to modulate the bone functions. The increase of bone research is, in part, due to the establishment of osteoporosis as a healthy problem common in elderly. Osteoporosis is one of the most important osteopathy, characterized by the bone mass reduction, resulted from disequilibrium between bone resorption and bone formation. OBJECTIVE: Based on the relationship between estrogen and bone metabolism, the aim of this study is present a review of literature about the principal aspects of bone turnover and bone repair associated to estrogen deficiency. Bone turnover: Bone tissue is in continuous turnover, however, changes in this process can result in some disorders, such as osteoporosis. Bone repair: Involves a sequence of biological events. It is affected by local and external factors and regulated by interaction of several mechanisms, like bone turnover. Estrogen deficiency and bone metabolism: The capacity to repair has been associated to changes in bone turnover and repair. DISCUSSION: It is not known which bone repair stage is modified: the bone formation, the mineralization or the resorption stage. CONCLUSION: The pathophysiology of bone changes caused by estrogen deficiency are not completely clear, so, new studies are still necessary.

  1. Inducible Apoe Gene Repair in Hypomorphic ApoE Mice Deficient in the LDL Receptor Promotes Atheroma Stabilization with a Human-like Lipoprotein Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlé, Delphine; Luk, Fu Sang; Kim, Roy Y.; Olivas, Victor R.; Kumar, Nikit; Posada, Jessica M.; Li, Kang; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Rapp, Joseph H.; Raffai, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study atherosclerosis regression in mice following plasma lipid reduction to moderately elevated apolipoprotein B (apoB)-lipoprotein levels. Approach and Results Chow-fed hypomorphic Apoe mice deficient in LDL receptor expression (Apoeh/hLdlr−/−Mx1-cre mice) develop hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. These mice were studied before and after inducible cre-mediated Apoe gene repair. By 1 week, induced mice displayed a 2-fold reduction in plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels and a decrease in the non-HDL:HDL-cholesterol ratio from 87%:13% to 60%:40%. This halted atherosclerotic lesion growth and promoted macrophage loss and accumulation of thick collagen fibers for up to 8 weeks. Concomitantly, blood Ly-6Chi monocytes were decreased by 2-fold but lesional macrophage apoptosis was unchanged. The expression of several genes involved in extra-cellular matrix remodeling and cell migration were changed in lesional macrophages 1 week after Apoe gene repair. However, mRNA levels of numerous genes involved in cholesterol efflux and inflammation were not significantly changed at this time point. Conclusions Restoring apoE expression in Apoeh/hLdlr−/−Mx1-cre mice resulted in lesion stabilization in the context of a human-like ratio of non-HDL:HDL-cholesterol. Our data suggest that macrophage loss derived in part from reduced blood Ly-6Chi monocytes levels and genetic reprogramming of lesional macrophages. PMID:23788760

  2. Plant responses to drought stress and exogenous ABA application are modulated differently by mycorrhization in tomato and an ABA-deficient mutant (sitiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca, Ricardo; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Vernieri, Paolo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2008-11-01

    The aims of the present study are to find out whether the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis on plant resistance to water deficit are mediated by the endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) content of the host plant and whether the exogenous ABA application modifies such effects. The ABA-deficient tomato mutant sitiens and its near-isogenic wild-type parental line were used. Plant development, physiology, and expression of plant genes expected to be modulated by AM symbiosis, drought, and ABA were studied. Results showed that only wild-type tomato plants responded positively to mycorrhizal inoculation, while AM symbiosis was not observed to have any effect on plant development in sitiens plants grown under well-watered conditions. The application of ABA to sitiens plants enhanced plant growth both under well-watered and drought stress conditions. In respect to sitiens plants subjected to drought stress, the addition of ABA had a cumulative effect in relation to that of inoculation with G. intraradices. Most of the genes analyzed in this study showed different regulation patterns in wild-type and sitiens plants, suggesting that their gene expression is modulated by the plant ABA phenotype. In the same way, the colonization of roots with the AM fungus G. intraradices differently regulated the expression of these genes in wild-type and in sitiens plants, which could explain the distinctive effect of the symbiosis on each plant ABA phenotype. This also suggests that the effects of the AM symbiosis on plant responses and resistance to water deficit are mediated by the plant ABA phenotype.

  3. Jasmonic acid accumulation and systemic photosynthetic and electrical changes in locally burned wild type tomato, ABA-deficient sitiens mutants and sitiens pre-treated by ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nožková-Hlaváčková, Vladimíra; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Nauš, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Burning the terminal leaflet of younger tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaf caused local and systemic changes in the surface electrical potential (SEP) and gas exchange (GE) parameters. The local and systemic accumulation of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was measured 85 min after burning. The experiments were conducted with wild type (WT) plants, ABA-deficient mutant sitiens (SIT) and ABA pre-treated SIT plants (SITA). First changes in SEP were detected within 1.5 min after burning and were followed by a decrease in GE parameters within 3-6 min in WT, SIT and SITA plants. GE and SEP time courses of SIT were different and wave amplitudes of SEP of SIT were lower compared to WT and SITA. ABA content in WT and SITA control plants was similar and substantially higher compared to SIT, JA content was similar among WT, SIT and SITA. While changes in the ABA content in systemic leaves have not been recorded after burning, the systemic JA content was substantially increased in WT and more in SIT and SITA. The results suggest that ABA content governs the systemic reaction of GE and the SEP shape upon local burning. ABA, JA and SEP participate in triggering the GE reaction. The ABA shortage in the SIT in the reaction to burning is partly compensated by an enhanced JA accumulation. This JA compensation is maintained even in SIT endogenously supplied with ABA. A correlation between the systemic JA content and changes in GE parameters or SEP was not found.

  4. DNA adduct kinetics in reproductive tissues of DNA repair proficient and deficient male mice after oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhofstad, Nicole; van Oostrom, Conny Th M; van Benthem, Jan; van Schooten, Frederik J; van Steeg, Harry; Godschalk, Roger W L

    2010-03-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) can induce somatic mutations, whereas its potential to induce germ cell mutations is unclear. There is circumstantial evidence that paternal exposure to B[a]P can result in germ cell mutations. Since DNA adducts are thought to be a prerequisite for B[a]P induced mutations, we studied DNA adduct kinetics by (32)P-postlabeling in sperm, testes and lung tissues of male mice after a single exposure to B[a]P (13 mg/kg bw, by gavage). To investigate DNA adduct formation at different stages of spermatogenesis, mice were sacrificed at Day 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 32, and 42 after exposure. In addition, DNA repair deficient (Xpc(-/-)) mice were used to study the contribution of nucleotide excision repair in DNA damage removal. DNA adducts were detectable with highest levels in lung followed by sperm and testis. Maximum adduct levels in the lung and testis were observed at Day 1 after exposure, while adduct levels in sperm reached maximum levels at approximately 1 week after exposure. Lung tissue and testis of Xpc(-/-) mice contained significantly higher DNA adduct levels compared to wild type (Wt) mice over the entire 42 day observation period (P adduct half-life between Xpc(-/-) and Wt mice were only observed in testis. In sperm, DNA adduct levels were significantly higher in Xpc(-/-) mice than in Wt mice only at Day 42 after exposure (P = 0.01). These results indicate that spermatogonia and testes are susceptible for the induction of DNA damage and rely on nucleotide excision repair for maintaining their genetic integrity.

  5. Chimeric negative regulation of p14ARF and TBX1 by a t(9;22) translocation associated with melanoma, deafness, and DNA repair deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaohui; Anzick, Sarah L; Khan, Sikandar G; Ueda, Takahiro; Stone, Gary; Digiovanna, John J; Tamura, Deborah; Wattendorf, Daniel; Busch, David; Brewer, Carmen C; Zalewski, Christopher; Butman, John A; Griffith, Andrew J; Meltzer, Paul S; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2013-09-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer and DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is the most frequent interstitial deletion syndrome. We characterized a novel balanced t(9;22)(p21;q11.2) translocation in a patient with melanoma, DNA repair deficiency, and features of DGS including deafness and malformed inner ears. Using chromosome sorting, we located the 9p21 breakpoint in CDKN2A intron 1. This resulted in underexpression of the tumor suppressor p14 alternate reading frame (p14ARF); the reduced DNA repair was corrected by transfection with p14ARF. Ultraviolet radiation-type p14ARF mutations in his melanoma implicated p14ARF in its pathogenesis. The 22q11.2 breakpoint was located in a palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR22). We identified a new gene, FAM230A, that contains PATRR22 within an intron. The 22q11.2 breakpoint was located 800 kb centromeric to TBX1, which is required for inner ear development. TBX1 expression was greatly reduced. The translocation resulted in a chimeric transcript encoding portions of p14ARF and FAM230A. Inhibition of chimeric p14ARF-FAM230A expression increased p14ARF and TBX1 expression and improved DNA repair. Expression of the chimera in normal cells produced dominant negative inhibition of p14ARF. Similar chimeric mRNAs may mediate haploinsufficiency in DGS or dominant negative inhibition of other genes such as those involved in melanoma.

  6. BMN 673, a novel and highly potent PARP1/2 inhibitor for the treatment of human cancers with DNA repair deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuqiao; Rehman, Farah L; Feng, Ying; Boshuizen, Julia; Bajrami, Ilirjana; Elliott, Richard; Wang, Bing; Lord, Christopher J; Post, Leonard E; Ashworth, Alan

    2013-09-15

    PARP1/2 inhibitors are a class of anticancer agents that target tumor-specific defects in DNA repair. Here, we describe BMN 673, a novel, highly potent PARP1/2 inhibitor with favorable metabolic stability, oral bioavailability, and pharmacokinetic properties. Potency and selectivity of BMN 673 was determined by biochemical assays. Anticancer activity either as a single-agent or in combination with other antitumor agents was evaluated both in vitro and in xenograft cancer models. BMN 673 is a potent PARP1/2 inhibitor (PARP1 IC50 = 0.57 nmol/L), but it does not inhibit other enzymes that we have tested. BMN 673 exhibits selective antitumor cytotoxicity and elicits DNA repair biomarkers at much lower concentrations than earlier generation PARP1/2 inhibitors (such as olaparib, rucaparib, and veliparib). In vitro, BMN 673 selectively targeted tumor cells with BRCA1, BRCA2, or PTEN gene defects with 20- to more than 200-fold greater potency than existing PARP1/2 inhibitors. BMN 673 is readily orally bioavailable, with more than 40% absolute oral bioavailability in rats when dosed in carboxylmethyl cellulose. Oral administration of BMN 673 elicited remarkable antitumor activity in vivo; xenografted tumors that carry defects in DNA repair due to BRCA mutations or PTEN deficiency were profoundly sensitive to oral BMN 673 treatment at well-tolerated doses in mice. Synergistic or additive antitumor effects were also found when BMN 673 was combined with temozolomide, SN38, or platinum drugs. BMN 673 is currently in early-phase clinical development and represents a promising PARP1/2 inhibitor with potentially advantageous features in its drug class. ©2013 AACR.

  7. The type and yield of ionising radiation induced chromosomal aberrations depend on the efficiency of different DSB repair pathways in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, Adayapalam T.; Berni, Andrea; Marimuthu, Kodumudi M. [Department of Agrobiology and Agrochemistry, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Palitti, Fabrizio [Department of Agrobiology and Agrochemistry, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo (Italy)], E-mail: palitti@unitus.it

    2008-07-03

    In order to evaluate the relative role of two major DNA double strand break repair pathways, i.e., non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR), CHO mutants deficient in these two pathways and the parental cells (AA8) were X-irradiated with various doses. The cells were harvested at different times after irradiation, representing G{sub 2}, S and G{sub 1} phase at the time of irradiation, The mutant cell lines used were V33 (NHEJ deficient), Irs1SF, 51-D1 (HRR deficient). In addition to parental cell line (AA8), a revertant of V33, namely V33-155 was employed. Both types of mutant cells responded with increased frequencies of chromosomal aberrations at all recovery times in comparison to the parental and revertant cells. Mutant cells deficient in NHEJ were more sensitive in all cell stages in comparison to HRR deficient mutant cells, indicating NHEJ is the major repair pathway for DSB repair through out the cell cycle. Both chromosome and chromatid types of exchange aberrations were observed following G{sub 1} irradiation (16 and 24 h recovery). Interestingly, configurations involving both chromosome (dicentrics) and chromatid exchanges were encountered in G{sub 1} irradiated V33 cells. This may indicate that unrepaired DSBs accumulate in G{sub 1} in these mutant cells and carried over to S phase, where they are repaired by HRR or other pathways such as B-NHEJ (back up NHEJ), which appear to be highly error prone. Both NHEJ and HRR, which share some of the same proteins in their pathways, are involved in the repair of DSBs leading to chromosomal aberrations, but with a major role of NHEJ in all stages of cell cycle.

  8. Characterization of wild-type human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and mutant enzymes present in MCAD-deficient patients by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, P; Jensen, T G; Andresen, B S;

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to study and compare wild-type medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; EC 1.3.99.3) and mis-sense mutant enzyme found in patients with MCAD deficiency. By comparing the patterns for wild-type and mutant MCAD expressed in Escherichia coli or in eukar......Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to study and compare wild-type medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; EC 1.3.99.3) and mis-sense mutant enzyme found in patients with MCAD deficiency. By comparing the patterns for wild-type and mutant MCAD expressed in Escherichia coli...... of one aspartic acid residue per monomer. Comparison of pulse labeling and steady-state amounts of MCAD protein in overexpressing COS-7 cells confirms that K304E MCAD is synthesized and transported into mitochondria in amounts similar to the wild-type protein, but is degraded much more readily. For wild...

  9. The Effect of Bioceramic Composite Extracellular Matrixes Used to Repair Bone Deficiency on Relevant Blood Biochemical Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    At the base of experimental animal model construction of bone defect in New Zealand rabbit, the promoting repair effect of bioactive ceramics on bone defect as well as its machanism was studied through testing body mineral elements, enzymes related to bone morphogenetic proteins and some biochemical indexes. Refering to some documents, materials of TCP, CHA and HA were combined and TCP/BMP/ TCP-β1 and CHA/BMP/ TCP-β1, HA/BMP/ TCP-β1 composite materials were made. All kinds of them were implanted into the radial defect site of rabbit, respectively. The chosen blood indexes (Ca, P, ALP, GGT, AST, ALT, TPA, BUN and Cr) were tested by colorimetry, speed rate and bromocresol green testing methods. No abnormal effects were found in any animal after operation. Serum concentrations of Ca, P and ALP were increased with the length of time in all groups of the three kinds of composite material, mixed material and pure materials. The increases in composite material groups were more significant ( P <0.05). Comparison of the three kinds of material showed TCP > CHA > HA. There was a tendency of increased TPA and decreased BUN with the length of time. There was no significant difference between the composite material groups and pure material group (P >0.05). The three kinds of bioactive ceramics composed of extracellular matrix could increase the serum concentrations of Ca and P and activity of ALP after being implanted into defect bone and showed some repairing capacity. This provided a new area of machanism study of bone defect repair by biomaterials.

  10. Genome stability of Arabidopsis atm, ku80 and rad51b mutants: somatic and transgenerational responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Youli; Bilichak, Andriy; Titov, Viktor; Golubov, Andrey; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2013-06-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired via two main mechanisms: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Our previous work showed that exposure to abiotic stresses resulted in an increase in point mutation frequency (PMF) and homologous recombination frequency (HRF), and these changes were heritable. We hypothesized that mutants impaired in DSB recognition and repair would also be deficient in somatic and transgenerational changes in PMF and HRF. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the genome stability of the Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in ATM (communication between DNA strand break recognition and the repair machinery), KU80 (deficient in NHEJ) and RAD51B (deficient in HR repair) genes. We found that all three mutants exhibited higher levels of DSBs. Plants impaired in ATM had a lower spontaneous PMF and HRF, whereas ku80 plants had higher frequencies. Plants impaired in RAD51B had a lower HRF. HRF in wild-type, atm and rad51b plants increased in response to several abiotic stressors, whereas it did not increase in ku80 plants. The progeny of stressed wild-type and ku80 plants exhibited an increase in HRF in response to all stresses, and the increase was higher in ku80 plants. The progeny of atm plants showed an increase in HRF only when the parental generation was exposed to cold or flood, whereas the progeny of rad51b plants completely lacked a transgenerational increase in HRF. Our experiments showed that mutants impaired in the recognition and repair of DSBs exhibited changes in the efficiency of DNA repair as reflected by changes in strand breaks, point mutation and HRF. They also showed that the HR RAD51B protein and the protein ATM that recognized damaged DNA might play an important role in transgenerational changes in HRF.

  11. Arabidopsis DNA polymerase lambda mutant is mildly sensitive to DNA double strand breaks but defective in integration ofa transgene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki eFurukawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The DNA double-strand break (DSB is a critical type of damage, and can be induced by both endogenous sources (e.g. errors of oxidative metabolism, transposable elements, programmed meiotic breaks, or perturbation of the DNA replication fork and exogenous sources (e.g. ionizing radiation or radiomimetic chemicals. Although higher plants, like mammals, are thought to preferentially repair DSBs via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ, much remains unclear about plant DSB repair pathways. Our reverse genetic approach suggests that DNA polymerase λ is involved in DSB repair in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant (atpolλ-1 displayed sensitivity to both gamma-irradiation and treatment with radiomimetic reagents, but not to other DNA damaging treatments. The atpolλ-1 mutant showed a moderate sensitivity to DSBs, while Arabidopsis Ku70 and DNA ligase 4 mutants (atku70-3 and atlig4-2, both of which play critical roles in NHEJ, exhibited a hypersensitivity to these treatments. The atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant exhibited a higher sensitivity to DSBs than each single mutant, but the atku70/atpolλ-1 showed similar sensitivity to the atku70-3 mutant. We showed that transcription of the DNA ligase 1, DNA ligase 6, and Wee1 genes was quickly induced by BLM in several NHEJ deficient mutants in contrast to wild-type. Finally, the T-DNA transformation efficiency dropped in NHEJ deficient mutants and the lowest transformation efficiency was scored in the atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant. These results imply that AtPolλ is involved in both DSB repair and DNA damage response pathway.

  12. Repairing the Sickle Cell mutation. III. Effect of irradiation wavelength on the specificity and type of photoproduct formed by a 3′-terminal psoralen on a third strand directed to the mutant base pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Steven L.; Amosova, Olga; Fresco, Jacques R.

    2003-01-01

    Using a psoralen delivery system mediated by a DNA third strand that binds selectively to linear target duplexes immediately downstream from the Sickle Cell β-globin gene mutation and the comparable wild-type β-globin gene sequence, the kinetics of formation and yield of psoralen monoadducts and crosslinks with pyrimidine residues at and near the mutant base pair site and its wild-type counterpart were determined. By exploiting irradiation specificities at 300, 365 and 419 nm, it was possible to evaluate the orientation equilibrium of 3′-linked intercalated psoralen and to develop conditions that lead to preferential formation of each type of photoproduct in both the mutant and wild-type sequences. This makes possible the preparation of each type of photoproduct for use as a substrate for DNA repair. In this way, the base pair change(s) that each generates can be established. PMID:12907707

  13. Repairing the Sickle Cell mutation. III. Effect of irradiation wavelength on the specificity and type of photoproduct formed by a 3'-terminal psoralen on a third strand directed to the mutant base pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Steven L; Amosova, Olga; Fresco, Jacques R

    2003-08-15

    Using a psoralen delivery system mediated by a DNA third strand that binds selectively to linear target duplexes immediately downstream from the Sickle Cell beta-globin gene mutation and the comparable wild-type beta-globin gene sequence, the kinetics of formation and yield of psoralen monoadducts and crosslinks with pyrimidine residues at and near the mutant base pair site and its wild-type counterpart were determined. By exploiting irradiation specificities at 300, 365 and 419 nm, it was possible to evaluate the orientation equilibrium of 3'-linked intercalated psoralen and to develop conditions that lead to preferential formation of each type of photoproduct in both the mutant and wild-type sequences. This makes possible the preparation of each type of photoproduct for use as a substrate for DNA repair. In this way, the base pair change(s) that each generates can be established.

  14. Deficiency in nucleotide excision repair family gene activity, especially ERCC3, is associated with non-pigmented hair fiber growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    Full Text Available We conducted a microarray study to discover gene expression patterns associated with a lack of melanogenesis in non-pigmented hair follicles (HF by microarray. Pigmented and non-pigmented HFs were collected and micro-dissected into the hair bulb (HB and the upper hair sheaths (HS including the bulge region. In comparison to pigmented HS and HBs, nucleotide excision repair (NER family genes ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, XPA, NTPBP, HCNP, DDB2 and POLH exhibited statistically significantly lower expression in non- pigmented HS and HBs. Quantitative PCR verified microarray data and identified ERCC3 as highly differentially expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ERCC3 expression in HF melanocytes. A reduction in ERCC3 by siRNA interference in human melanocytes in vitro reduced their tyrosinase production ability. Our results suggest that loss of NER gene function is associated with a loss of melanin production capacity. This may be due to reduced gene transcription and/or reduced DNA repair in melanocytes which may eventually lead to cell death. These results provide novel information with regard to melanogenesis and its regulation.

  15. Changes in Thermostability of Photosystem Ⅱ and Leaf Lipid Composition of Rice Mutant with Deficiency of Light-harvesting Chlorophyll Protein Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunlai Tang; Mei Chen; Yinong Xu; Tingyun Kuang

    2007-01-01

    We studied the difference in thermostability of photosystem Ⅱ (PSⅡ) and leaf lipid composition between a T-DNA insertion mutant rice (Oryza sativa L.) VG28 and its wild type Zhonghua11. Native green gel and SDS-PAGE electrophoreses revealed that the mutant VG28 lacked all light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complexes. Both the mutant and wild type were sensitive to high temperatures, and the maximal efficiency of PSⅡ photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and oxygen-evolving activity of PSⅡ in leaves significantly decreased with increasing temperature. However, the PSⅡ activity of the mutant was markedly more sensitive to high temperatures than that of the wild type. Lipid composition analysis showed that the mutant had less phosphatidylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol compared with the wild type. Fatty acid analysis revealed that the mutant had an obvious decrease in the content of unsaturation of membrane lipids on the thermostability of PSll are discussed.

  16. Tumor suppressor PTEN affects tau phosphorylation: deficiency in the phosphatase activity of PTEN increases aggregation of an FTDP-17 mutant Tau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xue

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant hyperphosphorylation of tau protein has been implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Although a number of protein kinases have been shown to phosphorylate tau in vitro and in vivo, the molecular mechanisms by which tau phosphorylation is regulated pathophysiologically are largely unknown. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests a link between tau phosphorylation and PI3K signaling. In this study, phosphorylation, aggregation and binding to the microtubule of a mutant frontal temporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17 tau in the presence of tumor suppressor PTEN, a major regulatory component in PI3K signaling, were investigated. Results Phosphorylation of the human mutant FTDP-17 tau, T40RW, was evaluated using different phospho-tau specific antibodies in the presence of human wild-type or phosphatase activity null mutant PTEN. Among the evaluated phosphorylation sites, the levels of Ser214 and Thr212 phospho-tau proteins were significantly decreased in the presence of wild-type PTEN, and significantly increased when the phosphatase activity null mutant PTEN was ectopically expressed. Fractionation of the mutant tau transfected cells revealed a significantly increased level of soluble tau in cytosol when wild-type PTEN was expressed, and an elevated level of SDS-soluble tau aggregates in the presence of the mutant PTEN. In addition, the filter/trap assays detected more SDS-insoluble mutant tau aggregates in the cells overexpressing the mutant PTEN compared to those in the cells overexpressing wild-type PTEN and control DNA. This notion was confirmed by the immunocytochemical experiment which demonstrated that the overexpression of the phosphatase activity null mutant PTEN caused the mutant tau to form aggregates in the COS-7 cells. Conclusion Tumor suppressor PTEN can alleviate the phosporylation of the mutant FTDP-17 tau at specific sites, and the phosphatase activity

  17. Characterization and responses to environmental cues of a photosynthetic antenna-deficient mutant of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leganés, Francisco; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; Muñoz-Martín, M Ángeles; Marco, Eduardo; Jorge, Alberto; Carvajal, Laura; Vida, Teresa; González-Pleiter, Miguel; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

    2014-07-01

    The cyanobacterial phycobilisome (PBS) is a giant pigment-protein complex which harvests light energy for photosynthesis and comprises two structures: a core and peripheral rods. Most studies on PBS structure and function are based on mutants of unicellular strains. In this report, we describe the phenotypic and genetic characterization of a transposon mutant of the filamentous Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, denoted LC1, which cannot synthesize the phycobiliprotein phycocyanin (PC), the main component of the rods; in this mutant, the transposon had inserted into the cpcB gene (orf alr0528) which putatively encodes PC-β chain. Mutant LC1 was able to synthesize phycoerythrocyanin (PEC), a phycobiliprotein (PBP) located at the terminal region of the rods; but in the absence of PC, PEC did not attach to the PBSs that only retained the allophycocyanin (APC) core; ferredoxin: NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR) that is associated with the PBS in the wild type, was not found in isolated PBSs from LC1. The performance of the mutant exposed to different environmental conditions was evaluated. The mutant phenotype was successfully complemented by cloning and transfer of the wild type complete cpc operon to mutant LC1. Interestingly, LC1 compensated its mutation by significantly increasing the number of its core-PBS and the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry; this feature suggests a more efficient energy conversion in the mutant which may be useful for biotechnological applications.

  18. Production of truncated MBD4 protein by frameshift mutation in DNA mismatch repair-deficient cells enhances 5-fluorouracil sensitivity that is independent of hMLH1 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Tseng-Rogenski, Stephanie; Hamaya, Yasushi; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Kanaoka, Shigeru; Sugimoto, Ken; Carethers, John M

    2016-07-02

    Methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) is a DNA glycosylase that can remove 5-fluorodeoxyuracil from DNA as well as repair T:G or U:G mismatches. MBD4 is a target for frameshift mutation with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, creating a truncated MBD4 protein (TruMBD4) that lacks its glycosylase domain. Here we show that TruMBD4 plays an important role for enhancing 5-fluorouracil (5FU) sensitivity in MMR-deficient colorectal cancer cells. We found biochemically that TruMBD4 binds to 5FU incorporated into DNA with higher affinity than MBD4. TruMBD4 reduced the 5FU affinity of the MMR recognition complexes that determined 5FU sensitivity by previous reports, suggesting other mechanisms might be operative to trigger cytotoxicity. To analyze overall 5FU sensitivity with TruMBD4, we established TruMBD4 overexpression in hMLH1-proficient or -deficient colorectal cancer cells followed by treatment with 5FU. 5FU-treated TruMBD4 cells demonstrated diminished growth characteristics compared to controls, independently of hMLH1 status. Flow cytometry revealed more 5FU-treated TruMBD4 cells in S phase than controls. We conclude that patients with MMR-deficient cancers, which show characteristic resistance to 5FU therapy, may be increased for 5FU sensitivity via secondary frameshift mutation of the base excision repair gene MBD4.

  19. Expression of TGF-β1 in the blood during fracture repair in an estrogen-deficient rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdalla Estai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency influences fracture healing. Transforming growth factor (TGF-b has been found to be involved in fracture healing via the regulation of the differentiation and activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The current study aimed to determine the effects of estrogen on the expression of TGF-β1 during fracture healing in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were assigned to: (i a sham-operated group that was given a normal saline; (ii an ovariectomized control group that was given a normal saline; or (iii an ovariectomized + estrogen (100 mg/kg/day group that was treated with conjugated equine estrogen. The right femur of all rats was fractured, and a Kirschner wire was inserted six weeks post-ovariectomy. Treatment with estrogen was given for another six weeks post-fracture. At the end of the study, blood samples were taken, and the right femur was harvested and subjected to biomechanical strength testing. RESULTS: The percentage change in the plasma TGF-β1 level before treatment was significantly lower in the ovariectomized control and estrogen groups when compared with the sham group (p<0.001. After six weeks of treatment, the percentage change in the plasma TGF-β1 level in the estrogen group was significantly higher compared with the level in the ovariectomized control group (p = 0.001. The mean ultimate force was significantly increased in the ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen when compared with the ovariectomized control group (p = 0.02. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that treatment with conjugated equine estrogen enhanced the strength of the healed bone in estrogen-deficient rats by most likely inducing the expression of TGF-β1.

  20. Homologous, homeologous, and illegitimate repair of double-strand breaks during transformation of a wild-type strain and a rad52 mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezard, C.; Nicolas, A. [Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

    1994-02-01

    Different modes of in vivo repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) have been described for various organisms: the recombinational DSB repair (DSBR) mode, the single-strand annealing (SSA) mode, and end-to-end joining. To investigate these modes of DSB repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have examined the fate of in vitro linearized replicative plasmids during transformation with respect to several parameters. We found that (i) the efficiencies of both intramolecular and intermolecular linear plasmid DSB repair are homology dependent (according to the amount of DNA used during transformation [100 ng or less], recombination between similar but not identical [homeologous] P450s sequences sharing 73% identity is 2- to 18-fold lower than recombination between identical sequences); (ii) the RAD52 gene product is not essential for intramolecular recombination between homologous and homeologous direct repeats (as in the wild-type strain, recombination occurs with respect to the overall alignment of the parental sequences); (iii) in contrast, the RAD52 gene product is required for intermolecular interactions; (iv) similarly, sequencing data revealed examples of intramolecular joining within the few terminal nucleotides of the transforming DNA upon transformation with a linear plasmid with no repeat in the wild-type strain. The recombinant junctions of the rare illegitimate events obtained with S. cerevisiae are very similar to those observed in the repair of DSB in mammalian cells. Together, these and previous results suggest the existence of alternative modes for DSB repair during transformation which differ in their efficiencies and in the structure of their products. We discuss the implications of these results with respect to the existence of alternative pathways and the role of the RAD52 gene product. 67 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Lifespan extension and paraquat resistance in a ubiquinone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant depend on transcription factors ArcA and TdcA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonidakis, Stavros; Finkel, Steven E; Longo, Valter D

    2011-03-01

    We recently reported a genome-wide screen for extended stationary phase survival in Escherichia coli. One of the mutants recovered is deleted for ubiG, which encodes a methyltransferase required for the biosynthesis of ubiquinone. The ubiG mutant exhibits longer lifespan, as well as enhanced resistance to thermal and oxidative stress compared to wt at extracellular pH9. The longevity of the mutant, as well as its resistance to the superoxide-generating agent paraquat, is partially dependent on the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ArcA. A microarray analysis revealed several genes whose expression is either suppressed or enhanced by ArcA in the ubiG mutant. TdcA is a transcription factor involved in the transport and metabolism of amino acids during anaerobic growth. Its enhanced expression in the ubiG mutant is dependent on ArcA. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that ArcA and TdcA function in the same genetic pathway to increase lifespan and enhance oxidative stress resistance in the ubiG mutant. Our results might be relevant for the elucidation of the mechanism of lifespan extension in mutant mice and worms bearing mutations in ubiquinone biosynthetic genes.

  2. Repairing the Sickle Cell mutation. II. Effect of psoralen linker length on specificity of formation and yield of third strand-directed photoproducts with the mutant target sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosova, Olga; Broitman, Steven L; Fresco, Jacques R

    2003-08-15

    Three identical deoxyoligonucleotide third strands with a 3'-terminal psoralen moiety attached by linkers that differ in length (N = 16, 6 and 4 atoms) and structure were examined for their ability to form triplex-directed psoralen photoproducts with both the mutant T residue of the Sickle Cell beta-globin gene and the comparable wild-type sequence in linear duplex targets. Specificity and yield of UVA (365 nm) and visible (419 nm) light-induced photoadducts were studied. The total photoproduct yield varies with the linker and includes both monoadducts and crosslinks at various available pyrimidine sites. The specificity of photoadduct formation at the desired mutant T residue site was greatly improved by shortening the psoralen linker. In particular, using the N-4 linker, psoralen interaction with the residues of the non-coding duplex strand was essentially eliminated, while modification of the Sickle Cell mutant T residue was maximized. At the same time, the proportion of crosslink formation at the mutant T residue upon UV irradiation was much greater for the N-4 linker. The photoproducts formed with the wild-type target were fully consistent with its single base pair difference. The third strand with the N-4 linker was also shown to bind to a supercoiled plasmid containing the Sickle Cell mutation site, giving photoproduct yields comparable with those observed in the linear mutant target.

  3. Frequent mutations of the CA simple sequence repeat in intron 1 of EGFR in mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marie-Pierre Buisine; Thècla Lesuffleur; Agnès Wacrenier; Christophe Mariette; Emmanuelle Leteurtre; Fabienne Escande; Sana Aissi; Amandine Ketele; Annette Leclercq; Nicole Porchet

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the polymorphic simple sequence repeat in intron 1 of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene(EGFR)(CA-SSR I),which is known to affect the efficiency of gene transcription as a putative target of the mismatch repair (MMR) machinery in colorectal tumors.METHODS:The CA-SSR I genotype was analyzed in a total of 86 primary colorectal tumors,selected upon their microsatellite instability (MSI) status [42 with high frequency MSI (MSI-H) and 44 microsatellite stable (MSS)]and their respective normal tissue.The effect of the CASSR I genotype on the expression of the EGFR gene was evaluated in 18 specimens using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry.RESULTS:Mutations in CA-SSR I were detected in 86%(36 of 42) of MSI-H colorectal tumors and 0% (0 of 44) of MSS tumors,indicating the EGFR gene as a novel putative specific target of the defective MMR system (P<0.001).Impaired expression of EGFR was detected in most of the colorectal tumors analyzed [6/12 (50%) at the mRNA level and 15/18 (83%) at the peptide level].However,no association was apparent between EGFR expression and CA-SSR I status in tumors or normal tissues.CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that CA-SSR I sequence does not contribute to the regulation of EGFR transcription in colon,and should thus not be considered as a promising predictive marker for response to EGFR inhibitors in patients with colorectal cancer.

  4. Deficient BIM Expression as a Mechanism of Intrinsic and Acquired Resistance to Targeted Therapies in EGFR Mutant and ALK Positive Lung Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    EGFR-Mutant and ALK-Positive Lung Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lecia Sequist MD. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Massachusetts General Hospital...Intrinsic and Acquired Resistance to Targeted Therapies in EGFR-Mutant and ALK-Positive Lung Cancers 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0227 5c. PROGRAM...submitted) have been written this year describing our findings. 15. SUBJECT TERMS BIM, apoptosis, targeted therapy, BCL-XL, kinase, EGFR, ALK, lung

  5. Deficient BIM Expression as a Mechanism of Intrinsic and Acquired Resistance to Targeted Therapies in EGFR-Mutant and ALK-Positive Lung Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    EGFR-Mutant and ALK-Positive Lung Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jeffrey Engelman MD. PhD. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Massachusetts General Hospital...Acquired Resistance to 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeted Therapies in EGFR-Mutant and ALK-Positive Lung Cancers 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1...ALK, lung cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT

  6. Blue light is required for survival of the tomato phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant and the expression of four nuclear genes coding for plastidic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelmüller, R; Kendrick, R E

    1991-02-01

    When dark-grown aurea mutant tomato seedlings which lack more than 95% of the phytochrome present in isogenic wild-type seedlings are kept in white or blue light, four nuclear-encoded transcripts coding for plastidic proteins (the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of photosystem I and II [cab-PSII], plastocyanin and subunit 2 of photosystem I) are present in comparable amounts. These transcript levels in red light are strongly reduced in aurea seedlings when compared with those of wild type. Thus, blue light is required for normal expression of these genes in the mutant, while red light alone is not sufficient. Red light-grown aurea seedlings are very sensitive to blue light, even 10 minutes of blue light every day suffices to cause a measurable increase in cab-PSII transcript level. The action of blue light on the expression of cab-PSII in the mutant is under phytochrome control. After 8 days of blue light, phytochrome is almost as effective in inducing cab-PSII mRNA as in the isogenic wild type, whereas after 8 days of red light, only a small phytochrome response was observed in the mutant. It is concluded that blue light sensitizes the mutant to the residual phytochrome which allows normal gene expression and survival of the mutant under daylight conditions.

  7. Role of metabolic rate and DNA-repair in Drosophila aging Implications for the mitochondrial mutation theory of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J.; Binnard, R.; Fleming, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The notion that injury to mitochondrial DNA is a cause of intrinsic aging was tested by correlating the different respiration rates of several wild strains of Drosophila melanogaster with the life-spans. Respiration rate and aging in a mutant of D. melanogaster deficient in postreplication repair were also investigated. In agreement with the rate of living theory, there was an inverse relation between oxygen consumption and median life-span in flies having normal DNA repair. The mutant showed an abnormally low life-span as compared to the controls and also exhibited significant deficiency in mating fitness and a depressed metabolic rate. Therefore, the short life-span of the mutant may be due to the congenital condition rather than to accelerated aging.

  8. Short branched-chain C6 carboxylic acids result in increased growth, novel 'unnatural' fatty acids and increased membrane fluidity in a Listeria monocytogenes branched-chain fatty acid-deficient mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Suranjana; Sirobhushanam, Sirisha; Hantak, Michael P; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2015-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotolerant food borne pathogen, responsible for the high fatality disease listeriosis, and expensive food product recalls. Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) of the membrane play a critical role in providing appropriate membrane fluidity and optimum membrane biophysics. The fatty acid composition of a BCFA-deficient mutant is characterized by high amounts of straight-chain fatty acids and even-numbered iso fatty acids, in contrast to the parent strain where odd-numbered anteiso fatty acids predominate. The presence of 2-methylbutyrate (C5) stimulated growth of the mutant at 37°C and restored growth at 10°C along with the content of odd-numbered anteiso fatty acids. The C6 branched-chain carboxylic acids 2-ethylbutyrate and 2-methylpentanoate also stimulated growth to a similar extent as 2-methylbutyrate. However, 3-methylpentanoate was ineffective in rescuing growth. 2-Ethylbutyrate and 2-methylpentanoate led to novel major fatty acids in the lipid profile of the membrane that were identified as 12-ethyltetradecanoic acid and 12-methylpentadecanoic acid respectively. Membrane anisotropy studies indicated that growth of strain MOR401 in the presence of these precursors increased its membrane fluidity to levels of the wild type. Cells supplemented with 2-methylpentanoate or 2-ethylbutyrate at 10°C shortened the chain length of novel fatty acids, thus showing homeoviscous adaptation. These experiments use the mutant as a tool to modulate the membrane fatty acid compositions through synthetic precursor supplementation, and show how existing enzymes in L. monocytogenes adapt to exhibit non-native activity yielding unique 'unnatural' fatty acid molecules, which nevertheless possess the correct biophysical properties for proper membrane function in the BCFA-deficient mutant.

  9. Deficient BIM Expression as a Mechanism of Intrinsic and Acquired Resistance to Targeted Therapies in EGFR-Mutant and ALK-Positive Lung Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0227 TITLE: Deficient BIM Expression as a Mechanism of Intrinsic and Acquired Resistance to Targeted Therapies in...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Aug 2014 - 31 Jul 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Deficient BIM Expression as a Mechanism of Intrinsic...time of resistance. We are now using these patient-derived cell lines to assess BIM levels and apoptotic response to next-generation inhibitors. The

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa rfc genes of serotypes O2 and O5 could complement O-polymerase-deficient semi-rough mutants of either serotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kievit, T R; Staples, T; Lam, J S

    1997-02-15

    Using a gene-replacement strategy and a mutated copy of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa O5 rfc gene, we were able to generate a rfc mutant in P. aeruginosa serotype O2. This mutant, which exhibits the semi-rough (SR) LPS phenotype, was used to isolate the O2 rfc gene. Mobilization of the O2 and O5 rfc genes into SR mutants of the heterologous serotype resulted in 'cross-polymerization' of O-repeat units, indicating that the genes are functionally exchangeable. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the rfc genes revealed that the two Rfc proteins are identical. The results of this study have enabled us to propose the linkage catalyzed by the O5 O-polymerase enzyme.

  11. NPM-ALK mediates phosphorylation of MSH2 at tyrosine 238, creating a functional deficiency in MSH2 and the loss of mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, K M; Wang, P; Wu, F; Wu, C; Li, L; Bacani, J T; Andrew, S E; Lai, R

    2015-05-15

    The vast majority of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ALCL) tumors express the characteristic oncogenic fusion protein NPM-ALK, which mediates tumorigenesis by exerting its constitutive tyrosine kinase activity on various substrates. We recently identified MSH2, a protein central to DNA mismatch repair (MMR), as a novel binding partner and phosphorylation substrate of NPM-ALK. Here, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we report for the first time that MSH2 is phosphorylated by NPM-ALK at a specific residue, tyrosine 238. Using GP293 cells transfected with NPM-ALK, we confirmed that the MSH2(Y238F) mutant is not tyrosine phosphorylated. Furthermore, transfection of MSH2(Y238F) into these cells substantially decreased the tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous MSH2. Importantly, gene transfection of MSH2(Y238F) abrogated the binding of NPM-ALK with endogenous MSH2, re-established the dimerization of MSH2:MSH6 and restored the sensitivity to DNA mismatch-inducing drugs, indicative of MMR return. Parallel findings were observed in two ALK+ALCL cell lines, Karpas 299 and SUP-M2. In addition, we found that enforced expression of MSH2(Y238F) into ALK+ALCL cells alone was sufficient to induce spontaneous apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings have identified NPM-ALK-induced phosphorylation of MSH2 at Y238 as a crucial event in suppressing MMR. Our studies have provided novel insights into the mechanism by which oncogenic tyrosine kinases disrupt MMR.

  12. Arthroscopic Subscapularis Augmentation of Bankart Repair in Chronic Anterior Shoulder Instability With Bone Loss Less Than 25% and Capsular Deficiency: Clinical Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiotti, Marco; Massoni, Carlo; Russo, Raffaele; Schroter, Steffen; Zanini, Antonio; Bianchedi, Diana

    2017-05-01

    To assess the short-term outcomes of the arthroscopic subscapularis augmentation (ASA) technique, consisting of a tenodesis of the upper third of the subscapularis tendon and a Bankart repair, and its effect on shoulder external rotation. Patients selected for this study were involved in contact sports, with a history of traumatic recurrent shoulder dislocations and a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Inclusion criteria were patients with glenoid bone loss (GBL) ranging from 5% to 25%, anterior capsular deficiency, and Hill-Sachs lesion who underwent ASA technique. Exclusion criteria were GBL >25%, multidirectional instability, preexisting osteoarthritis, and overhead sports activities. Visual analog scale (VAS) scale for pain, Rowe score, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores were used to assess results. Loss of shoulder external rotation was measured with the arm at the side (ER1 position) or 90° in abduction (ER2 position). Analysis of variance and Fisher tests were used for data evaluation. Significance was established at P ≤ .05. One hundred ten patients (84 men and 26 women, mean age 27 years) were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 40.5 months (range: 24 to 65 months). In 98 patients, a Hill-Sachs lesion was observed and in 57 patients a capsular deficiency was present. Three patients (2.7%) had a traumatic redislocation. At final follow-up, the mean scores were as follows: VAS scale decreased from a mean of 3.5 to 0.5 (P = .015), Rowe score increased from 57.4 to 95.3 (P = .035), and ASES score increased from 66.5 to 96.5 (P = .021). The mean deficit of external rotation was 8° ± 2.5° in the ER1 position and 4° ± 1.5° in the ER2 position. The ASA procedure has been shown to be effective in restoring joint stability in patients practicing sports, affected by chronic anterior shoulder instability associated with anterior GBL (lesions, with mild restriction of external rotation. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2016

  13. Generation of a catR deficient mutant of P. putida KT2440 that produces cis, cis-muconate from benzoate at high rate and yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, J.B.J.H. van; Wijte, D.; Leprince, A.; Karge, B.; Puchalka, J.; Wery, J.; Dos Santos, V.A.P.M.; Eggink, G.; Mars, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 was derived from P. putida KT2440 after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG)-mutagenesis and exposure to 3-fluorobenzoate (3-FB). The mutant was no longer able to grow using benzoate as a sole carbon source, but co-metabolized benzoate to cis, cis-muconate during

  14. A Carotenoid-Deficient Mutant in Pantoea sp. YR343, a Bacteria Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, Is Defective in Root Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Amber N.; Fletcher, Sarah J.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Jawdy, Sara S.; Weston, David J.; Engle, Nancy L.; Tschaplinski, Timothy; Masyuko, Rachel; Polisetti, Sneha; Bohn, Paul W.; Coutinho, Teresa A.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The complex interactions between plants and their microbiome can have a profound effect on the health and productivity of the plant host. A better understanding of the microbial mechanisms that promote plant health and stress tolerance will enable strategies for improving the productivity of economically important plants. Pantoea sp. YR343 is a motile, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the roots of Populus deltoides that possesses the ability to solubilize phosphate and produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Pantoea sp. YR343 readily colonizes plant roots and does not appear to be pathogenic when applied to the leaves or roots of selected plant hosts. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in plant association and rhizosphere survival by Pantoea sp. YR343, we constructed a mutant in which the crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was deleted. Phytoene synthase is responsible for converting geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene, an important precursor to the production of carotenoids. As predicted, the ΔcrtB mutant is defective in carotenoid production, and shows increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Moreover, we find that the ΔcrtB mutant is impaired in biofilm formation and production of IAA. Finally we demonstrate that the ΔcrtB mutant shows reduced colonization of plant roots. Taken together, these data suggest that carotenoids are important for plant association and/or rhizosphere survival in Pantoea sp. YR343. PMID:27148182

  15. A carotenoid-deficient mutant in Pantoea sp. YR343, a bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, is defective in root colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber N Bible

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complex interactions between plants and their microbiome can have a profound effect on the health and productivity of the plant host. A better understanding of the microbial mechanisms that promote plant health and stress tolerance will enable strategies for improving the productivity of economically-important plants. Pantoea sp. YR343 is a motile, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the roots of Populus deltoides that possesses the ability to solubilize phosphate and produce the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. Pantoea sp. YR343 readily colonizes plant roots and does not appear to be pathogenic when applied to the leaves or roots of selected plant hosts. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in plant association and rhizosphere survival by Pantoea sp. YR343, we constructed a mutant in which the crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase was deleted. Phytoene synthase is responsible for converting geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene, an important precursor to the production of carotenoids. As predicted, the ΔcrtB mutant is defective in carotenoid production, and shows increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Moreover, we find that the ΔcrtB mutant is impaired in biofilm formation and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Finally we demonstrate that the ΔcrtB mutant shows reduced colonization of plant roots. Taken together, these data suggest that carotenoids are important for plant association and/or rhizosphere survival in Pantoea sp. YR343.

  16. NT-3 protein levels are enhanced in the hippocampus of PRG1-deficient mice but remain unchanged in PRG1/LPA2 double mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Sandra; Sommer, Babette; Kröber, Andrea; Nitsch, Robert; Schwegler, Herbert; Vogt, Johannes; Roskoden, Thomas

    2016-01-26

    The plasticity-related gene 1 (PRG1) modulates bioactive lipids at the postsynaptic density and is a novel player in neuronal plasticity and regulation of glutamatergic transmission at principal neurons. PRG1, a neuronal molecule, is highly expressed during development and regeneration processes at the postsynaptic density, modulates synaptic lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels and is related to epilepsy and brain injury. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction between the synaptic molecules PRG1 and LPA2R with other plasticity-related molecules the neurotrophins. The protein levels of NGF, BDNF and NT-3 were measured using ELISA in hippocampal tissue of homozygous (PRG(-/-)) and heterozygous (PRG(+/-)) PRG1 deficient mice and compared to their wild type (PRG(+/+)/WT) littermates. In the hippocampus, protein levels of NT-3 were significantly increased in PRG(-/-) mice (compared to WT-litters) while protein levels of NGF and BDNF were not affected. Since PRG1 deficiency leads to increased neuronal excitability and higher hippocampal network activity, which may well influence neurotrophin levels, we further assessed PRG1 deficient mice on an LPA2-receptor (LPA2R) deficient background, reported to normalize hippocampal over-excitability in PRG1(-/-) mice. However, on an LPA2R deficient background, protein levels of NT-3 in PRG1(-/-) mice (PRG1(-/-)/LPA2R(-/-)) were not significantly different when compared to WT animals. Since PRG1 deficient mice showed over-excitability in glutamatergic neurons. This was normalized by additional LPA2R deletion, and we conclude the increased NT3-levels were directly or indirectly attributable to increased hippocampal network activity, possibly exerting a protective effect against over-excitability.

  17. Nif- Hup- mutants of Rhizobium japonicum.

    OpenAIRE

    Moshiri, F; Stults, L; Novak, P.; Maier, R J

    1983-01-01

    Two H2 uptake-negative (Hup-) Rhizobium japonicum mutants were obtained that also lacked symbiotic N2 fixation (acetylene reduction) activity. One of the mutants formed green nodules and was deficient in heme. Hydrogen oxidation activity in this mutant could be restored by the addition of heme plus ATP to crude extracts. Bacteroid extracts from the other mutant strain lacked hydrogenase activity and activity for both of the nitrogenase component proteins. Hup+ revertants of the mutant strains...

  18. [Studies of the repair of radiation-induced genetic damage in Drosophila]. Annual progress report, October 1, 1988--June 1, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-31

    The primary goal of this study is to achieve a more thorough understanding of the mechanisms employed by higher organisms to repair DNA damage induced by both ionizing and nonionizing radiation. These studies are also contributing to an improved understanding of the processes of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in higher eukaryotes. The studies employ Drosophila as a model organism for investigating repair functions that are common to all higher eukaryotes. Drosophila was chosen in the early phases of this study primarily because of the ease with which one can isolate and characterize repair-deficient mutants in a metazoan organism. The laboratory has gone on to investigate the metabolic defects of such mutants while others have performed complementary genetic and cytogenetic studies which relate DNA repair processes to mutagenesis and chromosome stability. The repair studies have exploited the capacity to introduce mutant Drosophila cells into tissue culture and thereby compare repair defects directly with those of homologous human disorders. Researchers are currently employing recombinant DNA technology to investigate the mechanisms of the DNA repair pathways defined by those mutants.

  19. Comparison of H{sub 2} accumulation by Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131 and its uptake hydrogenase and PHB synthase deficient mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Baek, Jin-Sook [Biomass Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong K. [Department of Life Science, Sogang University, Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131 and its mutant strain lacking uptake hydrogenase (Hup{sup -}) and PHB synthase (Phb{sup -}) have been studied on H{sub 2} production and cell growth under different culture conditions. Both strains started producing H{sub 2} from the middle of the logarithmic growth phase and continued until the cell concentration leveled out. The rates of H{sub 2} production were 1.32 and 3.34ml H{sub 2}/mg-dcw for the wild-type and Hup{sup -}/Phb{sup -} mutant strain, respectively, at the optimum conditions. Malate and lactate were better carbon sources than starch, sucrose or glycerol. Approximately 60% of acetic acid was degraded in 48h by the wild-type strain and pH increased to 9.4. However, the Hup{sup -}/Phb{sup -} mutant strain did not grow well and degraded only 19% of acetic acid. The pH ranges of 7.0 were the optimum for the cell growth and pH 7.5 for the H{sub 2} production. Both strains grew and produced hydrogen under the irradiance of 12-120W/m{sup 2}, but cell growth was inhibited over 400W/m{sup 2}. (author)

  20. Blue-light mediated accumulation of nuclear-encoded transcripts coding for proteins of the thylakoid membrane is absent in the phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelmüller, R; Kendrick, R E; Briggs, W R

    1989-08-01

    Polyclonal antibodies against pea phytochrome detect 2 protein bands (about 116 and 120 kDa) on blots of crude protein extracts and protein of microsomal preparations of dark-grown tomato seedlings. Both protein bands are undetectable in Western blots of the aurea mutant extracts. Neither protein band is detectable after isogenic wild-type seedlings are illuminated with 3 h of red light, either in the crude extract or in the membrane fraction of the irradiated seedlings; this result is consistent with the hypothesis that both bands are phytochrome. When dark-grown wild-type seedlings are illuminated with 3 h of red light or blue light against a red light background, the transcript levels for chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of photosystem I and II, plastocyanin, and the subunit II of photosystem I increase. In all cases, the same fluence rate of blue light is much more effective than red light alone, a result that indicates the involvement of a blue/UV-A light photoreceptor in addition to the involvement of the far-red-absorbing form of phytochrome, Pfr. The aurea mutant responds neither to red light nor to blue light. Thus, no Pfr-independent induction of the four transcripts by a blue/UV-A light photoreceptor can be measured in the aurea mutant.

  1. Correlation of electronic carotenoid-chlorophyll interactions and fluorescence quenching with the aggregation of native LHC II and chlorophyll deficient mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Pen-Nan; Bode, Stefan [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Department for Biophysical Chemistry, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Wilk, Laura [Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Department of Structural Biology, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hafi, Nour [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Department for Biophysical Chemistry, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Walla, Peter J., E-mail: pwalla@gwdg.de [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Department for Biophysical Chemistry, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Spectroscopy and Photochemical Kinetics, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-07-19

    The aggregation dependent correlation between fluorescence quenching and the electronic carotenoid-chlorophyll interactions, {phi}{sub Coupling}{sup Car S{sub 1}-Chl}, as measured by comparing chlorophyll fluorescence observed after two- and one-photon excitation, has been investigated using native LHC II samples as well as mutants lacking Chl 2 and Chl 13. For native LHC II the same linear correlation between {phi}{sub Coupling}{sup Car S{sub 1}-Chl} and the fluorescence quenching was observed as previously reported for the pH and Zea-dependent quenching of LHC II . In order to elucidate which carotenoid-chlorophyll pair might dominate this correlation we also investigated the mutants lacking Chl 2 and Chl 13. However, also with these mutants the same linear correlation as for native LHC II was observed. This provides indication that these two chlorophylls play only a minor role for the observed effects. Nevertheless, we also conclude that this does not exclude that their neighboured carotenoids, lutein 1 and neoxanthin, might interact electronically with other chlorophylls close by.

  2. Mutations in matrix and SP1 repair the packaging specificity of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 mutant by reducing the association of Gag with spliced viral RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristic Natalia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The viral genome of HIV-1 contains several secondary structures that are important for regulating viral replication. The stem-loop 1 (SL1 sequence in the 5' untranslated region directs HIV-1 genomic RNA dimerization and packaging into the virion. Without SL1, HIV-1 cannot replicate in human T cell lines. The replication restriction phenotype in the SL1 deletion mutant appears to be multifactorial, with defects in viral RNA dimerization and packaging in producer cells as well as in reverse transcription of the viral RNA in infected cells. In this study, we sought to characterize SL1 mutant replication restrictions and provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of compensation in revertants. Results HIV-1 lacking SL1 (NLΔSL1 did not replicate in PM-1 cells until two independent non-synonymous mutations emerged: G913A in the matrix domain (E42K on day 18 postinfection and C1907T in the SP1 domain (P10L on day 11 postinfection. NLΔSL1 revertants carrying either compensatory mutation showed enhanced infectivity in PM-1 cells. The SL1 revertants produced significantly more infectious particles per nanogram of p24 than did NLΔSL1. The SL1 deletion mutant packaged less HIV-1 genomic RNA and more cellular RNA, particularly signal recognition particle RNA, in the virion than the wild-type. NLΔSL1 also packaged 3- to 4-fold more spliced HIV mRNA into the virion, potentially interfering with infectious virus production. In contrast, both revertants encapsidated 2.5- to 5-fold less of these HIV-1 mRNA species. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of RNA cross-linked with Gag in formaldehyde-fixed cells demonstrated that the compensatory mutations reduced the association between Gag and spliced HIV-1 RNA, thereby effectively preventing these RNAs from being packaged into the virion. The reduction of spliced viral RNA in the virion may have a major role in facilitating infectious virus production, thus restoring the infectivity of NLΔSL1

  3. The effects of various inhibitors on the regulation of orotic acid excretion in sparse-fur mutant mice (spf/Y) deficient in ornithine transcarbamylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J; Qureshi, I A; Vasudevan, S; Sarma, D S

    1993-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether the excessive orotic aciduria, induced in sparse-fur male mice (spf/Y) deficient in ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), may be regulated by some inhibitors, such as acivicin (0.014 mmol/100 g body weight, i.p.), N-(phosphonoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA, 2.5 mg/100 g body weight, i.p.), adenine (3 g/kg diet) and cycloheximide (0.35 mmol/kg body weight, i.p.). We also administered ornithine (1 mmol/100 g body weight, i.p.), a substrate of the urea cycle, to alleviate the metabolic deficiency of arginine in spf/Y mice which may also be responsible for excessive orotic aciduria. The orotic aciduria remained insensitive to acivicin, indicating mitochondria as the source of carbamyl phosphate. However, orotate excretion was significantly decreased by PALA (P handle excess mitochondrial carbamyl phosphate and orotic acid.

  4. The Elephant and the Blind Men: Making Sense of PARP Inhibitors in Homologous Recombination Deficient Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana eDe Lorenzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1 is an important component of the base excision repair (BER pathway as well as a regulator of homologous recombination (HR and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ. Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment of HR-deficient cells with PARP inhibitors results in stalled and collapsed replication forks. Consequently, HR-deficient cells are extremely sensitive to PARP inhibitors. Several explanations have been advanced to explain this so-called synthetic lethality between HR deficiency and PARP inhibition: i inhibition of base excision repair leading to enhanced DNA double-strand breaks, which cannot be repaired in the absence of HR; ii trapping of inhibited PARP1 at sites of DNA damage, which inhibits access of other repair proteins; iii failure to synthesize poly(ADP-ribose polymer, which is required to recruit mutant BRCA1 to sites of DNA damage; and iv activation of the NHEJ pathway, which selectively induces error-prone repair in HR-deficient cells. Here we review evidence regarding these various explanations for the ability of PARP inhibitors to selectively kill HR-deficient cancer cells.

  5. 果蝇长时程记忆缺陷型突变体的鉴定%Identifying Furrowed Mutant in Drosophila with Long-term Memory Deficience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世清; 孙侃; 帅祎春; 王连章; 钟毅

    2012-01-01

    长时程记忆作为依赖蛋白合成的记忆组分,对于了解高等认知活动的分子机制有着重要意义.与此同时,细胞粘连分子作为影响突触可塑性的重要因子在学习与记忆研究领域也日益得到重视.为探索作用于长时程记忆的细胞粘连分子,利用P因子在果蝇基因组随机插入制造突变体,并通过大规模行为筛选得到了一个可能的长时程记忆突变体RUO.测序结果表明,突变体RUO的P因子位于果蝇中selectin超家族对应的furrowed同源基因功能片段和未知功能的CG1806基因编码片段之间,且更靠近furrowed片段.RT-PCR结果和互补遗传学实验均表明,突变体RUO主要影响furrowed基因的表达.为了进一步确认furrowed基因与长时程记忆的相关性,引入已知的furrowed基因突变体fw1.结果表明,fw1同样具有长时程记忆缺陷,同时具备正常的学习能力.荧光共聚焦扫描成像显示,该基因特异性的表达在果蝇大脑两个对称的未知神经元中.此项工作不仅证明了furrowed基因在果蝇长时程记忆中的重要作用,而且在解剖学上揭示了果蝇神经系统中可能参与长时程记忆形成的新的神经元.%Long-term memory related protein synthesis is a significant aspect for understanding of advanced cognitive behavior. Exploration of the relationship between long-term memory and adhesion molecules helped to link synaptic plasticity change with behavior modification. To discover novel adhesion molecules participating memory formation, we screened for defective long-term memory mutants in Drosophila of P-element inserted stocks, and obtained one defective mutant RUO. DNA sequencing and RT-PCR showed that the P-element in RUO mutant only disrupted the expression of the protein furrowed, an adhesion molecule of selectin superfamily. Both RUO mutant and an existed furrow mutant fw1 were observed defective for long-term memory in behavior experiments, but with normal aversive

  6. Mutants of bacteriophage T4 deficient in the ability to induce nuclear disruption: shutoff of host DNA and protein synthesis gene dosage experiments, identification of a restrictive host, and possible biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snustad, D P; Bursch, C J; Parson, K A; Hefeneider, S H

    1976-04-01

    The shutoff of host DNA synthesis is delayed until about 8 to 10 min after infection when Escherichia coli B/5 cells were infected with bacteriophage T4 mutants deficient in the ability to induce nuclear disruption (ndd mutants). The host DNA synthesized after infection with ndd mutants is stable in the absence of T4 endonucleases II and IV, but is unstable in the presence of these nucleases. Host protein synthesis, as indicated by the inducibility of beta-galactosidase and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel patterns of isoptopically labeled proteins synthesize after infection, is shut off normally in ndd-infected cells, even in the absence of host DNA degradation. The Cal Tech wild-type strain of E. coli CT447 was found to restrict growth of the ndd mutants. Since T4D+ also has a very low efficiency of plating on CT447, we have isolated a nitrosoguanidine-induced derivative of CT447 which yields a high T4D+ efficiency of plating while still restricting the ndd mutants. Using this derivative, CT447 T4 plq+ (for T4 plaque+), we have shown that hos DNA degradation and shutoff of host DNA synthesis occur after infection with either ndd98 X 5 (shutoff delayed) or T4D+ (shutoff normal) with approximately the same kinetics as in E. coli strain B/5. Nuclear disruption occurs after infection of CT447 with ndd+ phage, but not after infection with ndd- phage. The rate of DNA synthesis after infection of CT447 T4 plq+ with ndd98 X 5 is about 75% of the rate observed after infection with T4D+ while the burst size of ndd98 X 5 is only 3.5% of that of T4D+. The results of gene dosage experiments using the ndd restrictive host C5447 suggest that the ndd gene product is required in stoichiometric amounts. The observation by thin-section electron microscopy of two distinct pools of DNA, one apparently phage DNA and the other host DNA, in cells infected with nuclear disruption may be a compartmentalization mechanism which separates the pathways of host DNA degradation and

  7. Distribution of the invA, -B, -C, and -D genes of Salmonella typhimurium among other Salmonella serovars: invA mutants of Salmonella typhi are deficient for entry into mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, J E; Curtiss, R

    1991-09-01

    Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells is an essential virulence factor of salmonellae. A group of genes, invABC and invD, that allow Salmonella typhimurium to penetrate cultured epithelial cells have previously been characterized (J. E. Galán and R. Curtiss III, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:6383-6387, 1989). The distribution of these genes among Salmonella isolates belonging to 37 different species or serovars was investigated by Southern and colony blot hybridization analyses. Regions of high sequence similarity to the invABC genes were present in all Salonella isolates examined, while regions of sequence similarity to the invD gene were present in all but one (S. arizonae) of the isolates tested, with little restriction fragment length polymorphism. Sequences similar to these genes were not detected in strains of Escherichia coli, Yersinia spp., or Shigella spp. invA mutants (unable to express the invABC genes) of several Salmonella species or serovars, including S. typhi, were constructed and examined for their ability to penetrate Henle-407 cells. All mutants were deficient for entry into cultured epithelial cells, indicating that the invABC genes were not only present in these strains but also functional.

  8. Cisplatin sensitivity of testis tumour cells is due to deficiency in interstrand-crosslink repair and low ERCC1-XPF expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaina Bernd

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin based chemotherapy cures over 80% of metastatic testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT. In contrast, almost all other solid cancers in adults are incurable once they have spread beyond the primary site. Cell lines derived from TGCTs are hypersensitive to cisplatin reflecting the clinical response. Earlier findings suggested that a reduced repair capacity might contribute to the cisplatin hypersensitivity of testis tumour cells (TTC, but the critical DNA damage has not been defined. This study was aimed at investigating the formation and repair of intrastrand and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs induced by cisplatin in TTC and their contribution to TTC hypersensitivity. Results We observed that repair of intrastrand crosslinks is similar in cisplatin sensitive TTC and resistant bladder cancer cells, whereas repair of ICLs was significantly reduced in TTC. γH2AX formation, which serves as a marker of DNA breaks formed in response to ICLs, persisted in cisplatin-treated TTC and correlated with sustained phosphorylation of Chk2 and enhanced PARP-1 cleavage. Expression of the nucleotide excision repair factor ERCC1-XPF, which is implicated in the processing of ICLs, is reduced in TTC. To analyse the causal role of ERCC1-XPF for ICL repair and cisplatin sensitivity, we over-expressed ERCC1-XPF in TTC by transient transfection. Over-expression increased ICL repair and rendered TTC more resistant to cisplatin, which suggests that ERCC1-XPF is rate-limiting for repair of ICLs resulting in the observed cisplatin hypersensitivity of TTC. Conclusion Our data indicate for the first time that the exceptional sensitivity of TTC and, therefore, very likely the curability of TGCT rests on their limited ICL repair due to low level of expression of ERCC1-XPF.

  9. Adaptation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to cells expressing a binding-deficient CD4 mutant (lysine 46 to aspartic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, H R; Sodroski, J

    1995-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) was adapted to replicate efficiently in cells expressing an altered form of the CD4 viral receptor. The mutant CD4 (46 K/D) contained a single amino acid change (lysine 46 to aspartic acid) in the CDR2 loop of domain 1, which results in a 15-fold reduction in affinity for the viral gp120 glycoprotein. The ability of the adapted virus to replicate in CD4 46 K/D-expressing cells was independently enhanced by single amino acid changes in the V2 variable loop, the V3 variable loop, and the fourth conserved (C4) region of the gp120 glycoprotein. Combinations of these amino acids in the same envelope glycoprotein resulted in additive enhancement of virus replication in cells expressing the CD4 46 K/D molecule. In cells expressing the wild-type CD4 glycoproteins, the same V2 and V3 residue changes also increased the efficiency of replication of a virus exhibiting decreased receptor-binding ability due to an amino acid change (aspartic acid 368 to glutamic acid) in the gp120 glycoprotein. In neither instance did the adaptive changes restore the binding ability of the monomeric gp120 glycoprotein or the oligomeric envelope glycoprotein complex for the mutant or wild-type CD4 glycoproteins, respectively. Thus, particular conformations of the gp120 V2 and V3 variable loops and of the C4 region allow postreceptor binding events in the membrane fusion process to occur in the context of less than optimal receptor binding. These results suggest that the fusion-related functions of the V2, V3, and C4 regions of gp120 are modulated by CD4 binding. PMID:7707502

  10. A human iPSC model of Ligase IV deficiency reveals an important role for NHEJ-mediated-DSB repair in the survival and genomic stability of induced pluripotent stem cells and emerging haematopoietic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilgner, K; Neganova, I; Moreno-Gimeno, I; Al-Aama, J Y; Burks, D; Yung, S; Singhapol, C; Saretzki, G; Evans, J; Gorbunova, V; Gennery, A; Przyborski, S; Stojkovic, M; Armstrong, L; Jeggo, P; Lako, M

    2013-08-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are the most common form of DNA damage and are repaired by non-homologous-end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). Several protein components function in NHEJ, and of these, DNA Ligase IV is essential for performing the final 'end-joining' step. Mutations in DNA Ligase IV result in LIG4 syndrome, which is characterised by growth defects, microcephaly, reduced number of blood cells, increased predisposition to leukaemia and variable degrees of immunodeficiency. In this manuscript, we report the creation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of LIG4 deficiency, which accurately replicates the DSB repair phenotype of LIG4 patients. Our findings demonstrate that impairment of NHEJ-mediated-DSB repair in human iPSC results in accumulation of DSBs and enhanced apoptosis, thus providing new insights into likely mechanisms used by pluripotent stem cells to maintain their genomic integrity. Defects in NHEJ-mediated-DSB repair also led to a significant decrease in reprogramming efficiency of human cells and accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities, suggesting a key role for NHEJ in somatic cell reprogramming and providing insights for future cell based therapies for applications of LIG4-iPSCs. Although haematopoietic specification of LIG4-iPSC is not affected per se, the emerging haematopoietic progenitors show a high accumulation of DSBs and enhanced apoptosis, resulting in reduced numbers of mature haematopoietic cells. Together our findings provide new insights into the role of NHEJ-mediated-DSB repair in the survival and differentiation of progenitor cells, which likely underlies the developmental abnormalities observed in many DNA damage disorders. In addition, our findings are important for understanding how genomic instability arises in pluripotent stem cells and for defining appropriate culture conditions that restrict DNA damage and result in ex vivo expansion of stem cells with intact genomes.

  11. Relationship of DNA repair processes to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in mammalian cells. Progress report, August 1, 1977-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, H.H.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the role of DNA repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in mammalian cells. More specifically, mutant strains will be selected which are deficient in various DNA repair pathways. These strains will be studied with regard to (1) the nature of the defect in repair, and (2) the mutability and transformability of the defective cells by various agents as compared to the wild type parental cells. The results to date include progress in the following areas: (1) determination of optimum conditions for growth and maintenance of cells and for quantitative measurement of various cellular parameters; (2) investigation of the effect of holding mutagenized cells for various periods in a density inhibited state on survival and on mutation and transformation frequencies; (3) examination of the repair capabilities of BHK cells, as compared to repair-proficient and repair-deficient human cells and excision-deficient mouse cells, as measured by the reactivation of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) treated with radiation and ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS); (4) initiation of host cell reactivation viral sucide enrichment and screening of survivors of the enrichment for sensitivity to ionizing radiation; and (5) investigation of the toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of various metabolites of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO). (ERB)

  12. LC-MS Proteomics Analysis of the Insulin/IGF-1 Deficient Caenorhabditis elegans daf-2(e1370) Mutant Reveals Extensive Restructuring of Intermediary Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depuydt, Geert G.; Xie, Fang; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smolders, Arne; Brewer, Heather M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Braeckman, Bart P.

    2014-02-20

    The insulin/IGF-1 receptor is a major known determinant of dauer formation, stress resistance, longevity and metabolism in C. elegans. In the past, whole-genome transcript profiling was used extensively to study differential gene expression in response to reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling, including expression levels of metabolism-associated genes. Taking advantage of the recent developments in quantitative liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics, we profiled the proteomic changes that occur in response to activation of the DAF-16 transcription factor in the germline-less glp-4(bn2); daf-2(e1370) receptor mutant. Strikingly, the daf-2 profile suggests extensive reorganization of intermediary metabolism, characterized by the up-regulation of many core intermediary metabolic pathways. These include, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, pentose phosphate cycle, citric acid cycle, glyoxylate shunt, fatty acid β-oxidation, one-carbon metabolism, propionate and tyrosine catabolism, and complex I, II, III and V of the electron transport chain. Interestingly, we found simultaneous activation of reciprocally regulated metabolic pathways, which is indicative for spatio-temporal coordination of energy metabolism and/or extensive post-translational regulation of these enzymes. This restructuring of daf-2 metabolism is reminiscent to that of hypometabolic dauers, allowing the efficient and economical utilization of internal nutrient reserves, possibly also shunting metabolites through alternative energy-generating pathways, in order to sustain longevity.

  13. LC–MS Proteomics Analysis of the Insulin/IGF-1-Deficient Caenorhabditis elegans daf-2(e1370) Mutant Reveals Extensive Restructuring of Intermediary Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depuydt, Geert; Xie, Fang; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smolders, Arne; Brewer, Heather M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Braeckman, Bart P.

    2014-04-04

    The insulin/IGF-1 receptor is a major known determinant of dauer formation, stress resistance, longevity, and metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans. In the past, whole-genome transcript profiling was used extensively to study differential gene expression in response to reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling, including the expression levels of metabolism-associated genes. Taking advantage of the recent developments in quantitative liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC–MS)-based proteomics, we profiled the proteomic changes that occur in response to activation of the DAF-16 transcription factor in the germline-less glp-4(bn2);daf-2(e1370) receptor mutant. Strikingly, the daf-2 profile suggests extensive reorganization of intermediary metabolism, characterized by the upregulation of many core intermediary metabolic pathways. These include glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, pentose phosphate cycle, citric acid cycle, glyoxylate shunt, fatty acid β-oxidation, one-carbon metabolism, propionate and tyrosine catabolism, and complexes I, II, III, and V of the electron transport chain. Interestingly, we found simultaneous activation of reciprocally regulated metabolic pathways, which is indicative of spatiotemporal coordination of energy metabolism and/or extensive post-translational regulation of these enzymes. Finally, this restructuring of daf-2 metabolism is reminiscent to that of hypometabolic dauers, allowing the efficient and economical utilization of internal nutrient reserves and possibly also shunting metabolites through alternative energy-generating pathways to sustain longevity.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of heteroduplex DNA in mismatch repair-deficient yeast cells reveals novel properties of meiotic recombination pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Martini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs initiate crossover (CO recombination, which is necessary for accurate chromosome segregation, but DSBs may also repair as non-crossovers (NCOs. Multiple recombination pathways with specific intermediates are expected to lead to COs and NCOs. We revisited the mechanisms of meiotic DSB repair and the regulation of CO formation, by conducting a genome-wide analysis of strand-transfer intermediates associated with recombination events. We performed this analysis in a SK1 × S288C Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrid lacking the mismatch repair (MMR protein Msh2, to allow efficient detection of heteroduplex DNAs (hDNAs. First, we observed that the anti-recombinogenic activity of MMR is responsible for a 20% drop in CO number, suggesting that in MMR-proficient cells some DSBs are repaired using the sister chromatid as a template when polymorphisms are present. Second, we observed that a large fraction of NCOs were associated with trans-hDNA tracts constrained to a single chromatid. This unexpected finding is compatible with dissolution of double Holliday junctions (dHJs during repair, and it suggests the existence of a novel control point for CO formation at the level of the dHJ intermediate, in addition to the previously described control point before the dHJ formation step. Finally, we observed that COs are associated with complex hDNA patterns, confirming that the canonical double-strand break repair model is not sufficient to explain the formation of most COs. We propose that multiple factors contribute to the complexity of recombination intermediates. These factors include repair of nicks and double-stranded gaps, template switches between non-sister and sister chromatids, and HJ branch migration. Finally, the good correlation between the strand transfer properties observed in the absence of and in the presence of Msh2 suggests that the intermediates detected in the absence of Msh2 reflect normal intermediates.

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ppGpp-deficient mutant to identify a novel virulence protein required for intracellular survival in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumagai Yoshinori

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global ppGpp-mediated stringent response in pathogenic bacteria plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, several genes, including virulence genes, are regulated by ppGpp when bacteria are under the stringent response. To understand the control of virulence genes by ppGpp in S. Typhimurium, agarose 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE combined with mass spectrometry was used and a comprehensive 2-DE reference map of amino acid-starved S. Typhimurium strain SH100, a derivative of ATCC 14028, was established. Results Of the 366 examined spots, 269 proteins were successfully identified. The comparative analysis of the wild-type and ppGpp0 mutant strains revealed 55 proteins, the expression patterns of which were affected by ppGpp. Using a mouse infection model, we further identified a novel virulence-associated factor, STM3169, from the ppGpp-regulated and Salmonella-specific proteins. In addition, Salmonella strains carrying mutations in the gene encoding STM3169 showed growth defects and impaired growth within macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, we found that expression of stm3169 was controlled by ppGpp and SsrB, a response regulator of the two-component system located on Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Conclusions A proteomic approach using a 2-DE reference map can prove a powerful tool for analyzing virulence factors and the regulatory network involved in Salmonella pathogenesis. Our results also provide evidence of a global response mediated by ppGpp in S. enterica.

  16. Preparation and characterization of Neisseria meningitidis mutants deficient in production of the human lactoferrin-binding proteins LbpA and LbpB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnah, R A; Schryvers, A B

    1998-06-01

    Pathogenic members of the family Neisseriaceae produce specific receptors facilitating iron acquisition from transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf) of their mammalian host. Tf receptors are composed of two outer membrane proteins, Tf-binding proteins A and B (TbpA and TbpB; formerly designated Tbp1 and Tbp2, respectively). Although only a single Lf-binding protein, LbpA (formerly designated Lbp1), had previously been recognized, we recently identified additional bacterial Lf-binding proteins in the human pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis and the bovine pathogen Moraxella bovis by a modified affinity isolation technique (R. A. Bonnah, R.-H. Yu, and A. B. Schryvers, Microb. Pathog. 19:285-297, 1995). In this report, we characterize an open reading frame (ORF) located immediately upstream of the N. meningitidis B16B6 lbpA gene. Amino acid sequence comparisons of various TbpBs with the product of the translated DNA sequence from the upstream ORF suggests that the region encodes the Lf-binding protein B homolog (LbpB). The LbpB from strain B16B6 has two large stretches of negatively charged amino acids that are not present in the various transferrin receptor homologs (TbpBs). Expression of the recombinant LbpB protein as a fusion with maltose binding protein demonstrated functional Lf-binding activity. Studies with N. meningitidis isogenic mutants in which the lbpA gene and the ORF immediately upstream of lbpA (putative lbpB gene) were insertionally inactivated demonstrated that LbpA, but not LbpB, is essential for iron acquisition from Lf in vitro.

  17. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency in south Italy: Genotype-phenotype correlations, identification of a novel mutant PAH allele and prediction of BH4 responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunzo, Roberta; Santacroce, Rosa; D'Andrea, Giovanna; Longo, Vittoria; De Girolamo, Giuseppe; Dimatteo, Claudia; Leccese, Angelica; Bafunno, Valeria; Lillo, Vincenza; Papadia, Francesco; Margaglione, Maurizio

    2015-10-23

    We investigated the mutation spectrum of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) in a cohort of patients from 33 Italian PKU families. Mutational screening of the known coding region, including conventional intron splice sites, was performed by direct sequencing of the patients' genomic DNA. Thirty-three different disease causing mutations were identified in our patient group, including 19 missense, 6 splicing, 3 nonsense, 5 deletions, with a detection rate of 100%. The most prevalent mutation was the IVS10-11G>A, accounting for 12.1% of PKU alleles studied. Other frequent mutations were: p.R261Q (9.1%), p.P281L (7.6%), and p.R408W (6.1%). We also identified one novel missense mutation, p.H290Q. A spectrum of 31 different genotypes was observed and a genotype based predictions of BH4-responsiveness were assessed. Among all genotypes, 13 were predicted to be BH4-responsive represented by thirteen PKU families. In addition, genotype-phenotype correlations were performed. This study reveals the importance of a full genotyping of PKU patients and the prediction of BH4-responsiveness, not only because of the definitive diagnosis and prediction of the optimal diet, but also to point out those patients that could benefit from new therapeutic approach. They may potentially benefit from BH4 therapy which, combined with a less strict diet, or eventually in special cases as monotherapy, may contribute to reduce nutritional deficiencies and minimize neurological and psychological dysfunctions.

  18. Factors affecting growth and antibiotic susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori: effect of pH and urea on the survival of a wild-type strain and a urease-deficient mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, J E; Larsson, H

    1996-06-01

    This study investigated how pH and the presence of urea affect the survival and growth of Helicobacter pylori and whether these factors affect susceptibility to antibiotics in vitro. The viability of a wild-type strain and a urease-deficient mutant of H. pylori was studied after incubation for 1 h in buffers at different pH values at 37 degrees C under microaerophilic conditions. Viable counts were not affected at pH 5 and pH 7. In buffer at pH 3, there were no viable organisms, but urea (6.25 mM) protected the wild-type strain, which survived well. At pH 9, urea further reduced the viability of H. pylori and flurofamide almost abolished the effect of urea on the wild-type strain. Neither urea nor flurofamide affected the viability of the urease-deficient mutant under the same conditions. Growth was also pH dependent and was enhanced in shake-cultures. At pH 5, urea supported growth of the wild-type strain, but at pH 7 a toxic effect on the bacteria was observed. Growth of H. pylori at pH 5.9 was poor, and susceptibility to amoxycillin, erythromycin and clarithromycin was markedly less than at pH 7.2 and 7.9. The bactericidal activities of metronidazole and tetracycline were similar at the different pH values studied. At neutral pH the killing rates of amoxycillin and clarithromycin were growth rate dependent. Susceptibility to metronidazole was enhanced in stationary cultures. The interaction obtained between the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, and amoxycillin at pH 7 was of additive type. These results suggest that pH and growth conditions may be important in the antibacterial efficacy of different antibiotics in vivo and also provide a possible explanation for the potentiating effect of omeprazole with antibiotics in the treatment of H. pylori infections.

  19. Proteomic analysis reveals differential accumulation of small heat shock proteins and late embryogenesis abundant proteins between ABA-deficient mutant vp5 seeds and wild-type Vp5 seeds in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin eWu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABA is a major plant hormone that plays important roles during many phases of plant life cycle, including seed development, maturity and dormancy, and especially the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. Understanding of the molecular basis of ABA-mediated plant response to stress is of interest not only in basic research on plant adaptation but also in applied research on plant productivity. Maize mutant viviparous-5 (vp5, deficient in ABA biosynthesis in seeds, is a useful material for studying ABA-mediated response in maize. Due to carotenoid deficiency, vp5 endosperm is white, compared to yellow Vp5 endosperm. However, the background difference at proteome level between vp5 and Vp5 seeds is unclear. This study aimed to characterize proteome alterations of maize vp5 seeds and to identify ABA-dependent proteins during seed maturation. We compared the embryo and endosperm proteomes of vp5 and Vp5 seeds by gel-based proteomics. Up to 46 protein spots, most in embryos, were found to be differentially accumulated between vp5 and Vp5. The identified proteins included small heat shock proteins (sHSPs, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins, stress proteins, storage proteins and enzymes among others. However, EMB564, the most abundant LEA protein in maize embryo, accumulated in comparable levels between vp5 and Vp5 embryos, which contrasted to previously characterized, greatly lowered expression of emb564 mRNA in vp5 embryos. Moreover, LEA proteins and sHSPs displayed differential accumulations in vp5 embryos: six out of eight identified LEA proteins decreased while nine sHSPs increased in abundance. Finally, we discussed the possible causes of global proteome alterations, especially the observed differential accumulation of identified LEA proteins and sHSPs in vp5 embryos. The data derived from this study provides new insight into ABA-dependent proteins and ABA-mediated response during maize seed maturation.

  20. UV-induced DNA incision and proliferating cell nuclear antigen recruitment to repair sites occur independently of p53-replication protein A interaction in p53 wild type and mutant ovarian carcinoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, F.; Zuco, V.; Vink, A.A.; Supino, R.; Prosperi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The tumour suppressor gene TP53 plays an important role in the regulation of DNA repair, and particularly of nucleotide excision repair. The influence of p53 status on the efficiency of the principal steps of this repair pathway was investigated after UV-C irradiation in the human ovarian carcinoma

  1. First reported patient with human ERCC1 deficiency has cerebro-oculo-facio- skeletal syndrome with a mild defect in nucleotide excision repair and severe developmental failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); A. Raams (Anja); M.C. Silengo; N. Wijgers (Nils); L.J. Niedernhofer (Laura); A.R. Robinson (Andria Rasile); G. Giglia-Mari (Giuseppina); D. Hoogstraten (Deborah); W.J. Kleijer (Wim); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); W. Vermeulen (Wim)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide excision repair (NER) is a genome caretaker mechanism responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA lesions, most notably ultraviolet photodimers. Inherited defects in NER result in profound photosensitivity and the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) or two

  2. Structural chromosome abnormalities, increased DNA strand breaks and DNA strand break repair deficiency in dermal fibroblasts from old female human donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfalah, Faiza; Seggewiß, Sabine; Walter, Regina; Tigges, Julia; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Bürkle, Alexander; Ohse, Sebastian; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte; Boege, Fritz

    2015-02-01

    Dermal fibroblasts provide a paradigmatic model of cellular adaptation to long-term exogenous stress and ageing processes driven thereby. Here we addressed whether fibroblast ageing analysedex vivo entails genome instability. Dermal fibroblasts from human female donors aged 20-67 years were studied in primary culture at low population doubling. Under these conditions, the incidence of replicative senescence and rates of age-correlated telomere shortening were insignificant. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed age-related impairment of mitosis, telomere and chromosome maintenance and induction of genes associated with DNA repair and non-homologous end-joining, most notably XRCC4 and ligase 4. We observed an age-correlated drop in proliferative capacity and age-correlated increases in heterochromatin marks, structural chromosome abnormalities (deletions, translocations and chromatid breaks), DNA strand breaks and histone H2AX-phosphorylation. In a third of the cells from old and middle-aged donors repair of X-ray induced DNA strand breaks was impaired despite up-regulation of DNA repair genes. The distinct phenotype of genome instability, increased heterochromatinisation and (in 30% of the cases futile) up-regulation of DNA repair genes was stably maintained over several cell passages indicating that it represents a feature of geroconversion that is distinct from cellular senescence, as it does not encompass a block of proliferation.

  3. First reported patient with human ERCC1 deficiency has cerebro-oculo-facio- skeletal syndrome with a mild defect in nucleotide excision repair and severe developmental failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); A. Raams (Anja); M.C. Silengo; N. Wijgers (Nils); L.J. Niedernhofer (Laura); A.R. Robinson (Andria Rasile); G. Giglia-Mari (Giuseppina); D. Hoogstraten (Deborah); W.J. Kleijer (Wim); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); W. Vermeulen (Wim)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide excision repair (NER) is a genome caretaker mechanism responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA lesions, most notably ultraviolet photodimers. Inherited defects in NER result in profound photosensitivity and the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) or two proge

  4. XRCC1 deficiency increased the DNA damage induced by γ-ray in HepG2 cell: Involvement of DSB repair and cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yujie; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhang, Rong

    2013-09-01

    γ-ray irradiation can induce DNA damages which include base damages, single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks in various type cells. The DNA repair protein XRCC1, as a part of the BER pathway, forms complexes with DNA polymerase beta, DNA ligase III and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) in the repair of DNA single strand breaks and also affects the repair of double strand breaks. However, it is still not known well whether XRCC1 contributes to affect the irradiation sensitivity and DNA damage in HepG2 cell and the potential mechanism. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore whether abrogation of XRCC1 gene expression by shRNA could reduce DNA repair and thus sensitize HepG2 cells to γ-ray. Cell viability was measured by Trypan blue staining and cloning efficiency assay. The DNA damage was detected by Comet assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. The DNA-PKcs and gadd153 mRNA expression were determined by Real-time PCR. Our results showed that abrogation of XRCC 1 could sensitize HepG2 cells to γ-ray. This enhanced sensitivity could be attributed to the increased DNA damage and increased cell cycle arrest, which might be related with the increasing of DNA-PKcs and gadd153 mRNA expression. Therefore, our results suggested that the γ-ray irradiation sensitivity could be increased by targeting inhibition of XRCC1 in HepG2 cell.

  5. Nif- Hup- mutants of Rhizobium japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, F; Stults, L; Novak, P; Maier, R J

    1983-01-01

    Two H2 uptake-negative (Hup-) Rhizobium japonicum mutants were obtained that also lacked symbiotic N2 fixation (acetylene reduction) activity. One of the mutants formed green nodules and was deficient in heme. Hydrogen oxidation activity in this mutant could be restored by the addition of heme plus ATP to crude extracts. Bacteroid extracts from the other mutant strain lacked hydrogenase activity and activity for both of the nitrogenase component proteins. Hup+ revertants of the mutant strains regained both H2 uptake ability and nitrogenase activity. Images PMID:6874648

  6. Repair of endonuclease-induced double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: essential role for genes associated with nonhomologous end-joining.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, L K; Westmoreland, J W; Resnick, M A

    1999-01-01

    Repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in chromosomal DNA by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is not well characterized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we demonstrate that several genes associated with NHEJ perform essential functions in the repair of endonuclease-induced DSBs in vivo. Galactose-induced expression of EcoRI endonuclease in rad50, mre11, or xrs2 mutants, which are deficient in plasmid DSB end-joining and some forms of recombination, resulted in G2 arrest and rapid ce...

  7. Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase 2 is constitutively active in vivo and can rescue the growth defect of the PCS1-deficient cad1-3 mutant on Cd-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnlenz, Tanja; Schmidt, Holger; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Clemens, Stephan

    2014-08-01

    Phytochelatins play a key role in the detoxification of metals in plants and many other eukaryotes. Their formation is catalysed by phytochelatin synthases (PCS) in the presence of metal excess. It appears to be common among higher plants to possess two PCS genes, even though in Arabidopsis thaliana only AtPCS1 has been demonstrated to confer metal tolerance. Employing a highly sensitive quantification method based on ultraperformance electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we detected AtPCS2-dependent phytochelatin formation. Overexpression of AtPCS2 resulted in constitutive phytochelatin accumulation, i.e. in the absence of metal excess, both in planta and in a heterologous system. This indicates distinct enzymatic differences between AtPCS1 and AtPCS2. Furthermore, AtPCS2 was able to partially rescue the Cd hypersensitivity of the AtPCS1-deficient cad1-3 mutant in a liquid seedling assay, and, more importantly, when plants were grown on soil spiked with Cd to a level that is close to what can be found in agricultural soils. No rescue was found in vertical-plate assays, the most commonly used method to assess metal tolerance. Constitutive AtPCS2-dependent phytochelatin synthesis suggests a physiological role of AtPCS2 other than metal detoxification. The differences observed between wild-type plants and cad1-3 on Cd soil demonstrated: (i) the essentiality of phytochelatin synthesis for tolerating levels of Cd contamination that can naturally be encountered by plants outside of metal-rich habitats, and (ii) a contribution to Cd accumulation under these conditions.

  8. Calcium-binding capacity of centrin2 is required for linear POC5 assembly but not for nucleotide excision repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago J Dantas

    Full Text Available Centrosomes, the principal microtubule-organising centres in animal cells, contain centrins, small, conserved calcium-binding proteins unique to eukaryotes. Centrin2 binds to xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein (XPC, stabilising it, and its presence slightly increases nucleotide excision repair (NER activity in vitro. In previous work, we deleted all three centrin isoforms present in chicken DT40 cells and observed delayed repair of UV-induced DNA lesions, but no centrosome abnormalities. Here, we explore how centrin2 controls NER. In the centrin null cells, we expressed centrin2 mutants that cannot bind calcium or that lack sites for phosphorylation by regulatory kinases. Expression of any of these mutants restored the UV sensitivity of centrin null cells to normal as effectively as expression of wild-type centrin. However, calcium-binding-deficient and T118A mutants showed greatly compromised localisation to centrosomes. XPC recruitment to laser-induced UV-like lesions was only slightly slower in centrin-deficient cells than in controls, and levels of XPC and its partner HRAD23B were unaffected by centrin deficiency. Interestingly, we found that overexpression of the centrin interactor POC5 leads to the assembly of linear, centrin-dependent structures that recruit other centrosomal proteins such as PCM-1 and NEDD1. Together, these observations suggest that assembly of centrins into complex structures requires calcium binding capacity, but that such assembly is not required for centrin activity in NER.

  9. DNA double strand break repair enzymes function at multiple steps in retroviral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agematsu Kazunaga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA double strand break (DSB repair enzymes are thought to be necessary for retroviral infection, especially for the post-integration repair and circularization of viral cDNA. However, the detailed roles of DSB repair enzymes in retroviral infection remain to be elucidated. Results A GFP reporter assay showed that the infectivity of an HIV-based vector decreased in ATM- and DNA-PKcs-deficient cells when compared with their complemented cells, while that of an MLV-based vector was diminished in Mre11- and DNA-PKcs-deficient cells. By using a method based on inverse- and Alu-PCR, we analyzed sequences around 3' HIV-1 integration sites in ATM-, Mre11- and NBS1- deficient cells. Increased abnormal junctions between the HIV-1 provirus and the host DNA were found in these mutant cell lines compared to the complemented cell lines and control MRC5SV cells. The abnormal junctions contained two types of insertions: 1 GT dinucleotides, which are normally removed by integrase during integration, and 2 inserted nucleotides of unknown origin. Artemis-deficient cells also showed such abnormalities. In Mre11-deficient cells, part of a primer binding site sequence was also detected. The 5' host-virus junctions in the mutant cells also contained these types of abnormal nucleotides. Moreover, the host-virus junctions of the MLV provirus showed similar abnormalities. These findings suggest that DSB repair enzymes play roles in the 3'-processing reaction and protection of the ends of viral DNA after reverse transcription. We also identified both 5' and 3' junctional sequences of the same provirus by inverse PCR and found that only the 3' junctions were abnormal with aberrant short repeats, indicating that the integration step was partially impaired in these cells. Furthermore, the conserved base preferences around HIV-1 integration sites were partially altered in ATM-deficient cells. Conclusions These results suggest that DSB repair enzymes are

  10. Evaluation of the effect of LED radiation in the repair of skin wounds on the dorsum of rats with iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Susana Carla Pires Sampaio; de Carvalho Monteiro, Juliana Santos; dos Santos Aciole, Gilberth Tadeu; DeCastro, Isabele Cardoso V.; Menezes, Diego Silva; de Fátima Lima Ferreira, Maria; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Zanin, Fátima; Barbosa Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz

    2010-05-01

    Iron deficiency anemia causes reduction on the level of hemoglobin and of the number of RBC and affects around 35% of the human population. Laser and LED therapies have been successfully used on wound healing studies. The aim of the present study was to assess histologically the effect of LED Phototherapy on the healing of cutaneous wounds on anemic rats. Fifty one 21 days old male wistar rats weighting around 50 g were kept under iron free die (Sem ferro-AIN93-G) during 15 days in order to induce anemia. Non treated animals acted as controls. A standartized cutaneous wound was created on the dorsum of each animal whom were distributed into four groups: Group I—Anemia+LED, Group II—Non anemic+LED, Group III—Anemia+no treatment, Group IV—No anemic+no-treatment. Irradiation started immediately after surgery and repeated at 48 h intervals during 21 days. Animal death occurred after 7, 14 and 21 days after wounding. The results of the histologic analysis showed that LED Phototherapy stimulated fibroblastic proliferation. It is concluded that LED irradiation improves wound healing on iron deficient anemic animals.

  11. Macrophage Wnt-Calcineurin-Flt1 signaling regulates mouse wound angiogenesis and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefater, James A; Rao, Sujata; Bezold, Katie; Aplin, Alfred C; Nicosia, Roberto F; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Ferrara, Napoleone; Lang, Richard A

    2013-03-28

    The treatment of festering wounds is one of the most important aspects of medical care. Macrophages are important components of wound repair, both in fending off infection and in coordinating tissue repair. Here we show that macrophages use a Wnt-Calcineurin-Flt1 signaling pathway to suppress wound vasculature and delay repair. Conditional mutants deficient in both Wntless/GPR177, the secretory transporter of Wnt ligands, and CNB1, the essential component of the nuclear factor of activated T cells dephosporylation complex, displayed enhanced angiogenesis and accelerated repair. Furthermore, in myeloid-like cells, we show that noncanonical Wnt activates Flt1, a naturally occurring inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor-A-mediated angiogenesis, but only when calcineurin function is intact. Then, as expected, conditional deletion of Flt1 in macrophages resulted in enhanced wound angiogenesis and repair. These results are consistent with the published link between enhanced angiogenesis and enhanced repair, and establish novel therapeutic approaches for treatment of wounds.

  12. The Role of Inducible DNA Repair in W-Reactivation and Related Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-14

    sealing the backbone by a DNA ligase (Kushner et al. 1971) This "short-patch" excision repair eliminates photodimers by bacterial Uvr+ functions before DNA...Hart and Ellison 1970). W-reactivation of UV-irradiated phage X also occurs on E. coli with DNA ligase deficiency (Morse and Pauling 1975) or with the...arrest of DNA synthesis is essential for X induction. E. coli lig mutants produce defective DNA ligase , which is an enzyme that closes single-strand

  13. Comparison of clastogen-induced gene expression profiles in wild-type and DNA repair-deficient Rad54/Rad54B cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Benthem Jan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we found that Rad54/Rad54B cells are more sensitive towards mitomycin C (MMC as compared to wild-type (WT cells. This difference in sensitivity was absent upon exposure to other clastogens like bleomycin (BLM and γ-radiation. In order to get further insight into possible underlying mechanisms, gene expression changes in WT and Rad54/Rad54B MEFs (mouse embryonic fibroblasts after exposure to the clastogens MMC and BLM were investigated. Exposures of these cells to mutagens (N-ac-AAF and ENU and vehicle were taken as controls. Results Most exposures resulted in an induction of DNA damage signaling and apoptosis genes and a reduced expression of cell division genes in cells of both genotypes. As expected, responses to N-ac-AAF were very similar in both genotypes. ENU exposure did not lead to significant gene expression changes in cells of both genotypes, presumably due to its short half-life. Gene expression responses to clastogens, however, showed a genotype-dependent effect for BLM and MMC. MMC treated Rad54/Rad54B MEFs showed no induction of p53-signaling, DNA damage response and apoptosis as seen for all the other treatments. Conclusion These data support our finding that different types of clastogens exist and that responses to these types depend on the DNA repair status of the cells.

  14. Tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of tendon ... Tendon repair can be performed using: Local anesthesia (the immediate area of the surgery is pain-free) ... a cut on the skin over the injured tendon. The damaged or torn ends of the tendon ...

  15. Specific targeted gene repair using single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides at an endogenous locus in mammalian cells uses homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Jennifer; Fernandez, Serena; Helleday, Thomas; Bryant, Helen E

    2009-12-03

    The feasibility of introducing point mutations in vivo using single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides (ssON) has been demonstrated but the efficiency and mechanism remain elusive and potential side effects have not been fully evaluated. Understanding the mechanism behind this potential therapy may help its development. Here, we demonstrate the specific repair of an endogenous non-functional hprt gene by a ssON in mammalian cells, and show that the frequency of such an event is enhanced when cells are in S-phase of the cell cycle. A potential barrier in using ssONs as gene therapy could be non-targeted mutations or gene rearrangements triggered by the ssON. Both the non-specific mutation frequencies and the frequency of gene rearrangements were largely unaffected by ssONs. Furthermore, we find that the introduction of a mutation causing the loss of a functional endogenous hprt gene by a ssON occurred at a similarly low but statistically significant frequency in wild type cells and in cells deficient in single strand break repair, nucleotide excision repair and mismatch repair. However, this mutation was not induced in XRCC3 mutant cells deficient in homologous recombination. Thus, our data suggest ssON-mediated targeted gene repair is more efficient in S-phase and involves homologous recombination.

  16. Integration of principles of systems biology and radiation biology: toward development of in silico models to optimize IUdR-mediated radiosensitization of DNA mismatch repair-deficient (damage tolerant human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy James Kinsella

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 7 years, we have focused our experimental and computational research efforts on improving our understanding of the biochemical, molecular, and cellular processing of iododeoxyuridine (IUdR and ionizing radiation (IR induced DNA base damage by DNA mismatch repair (MMR. These coordinated research efforts, sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Integrative Cancer Biology Program (ICBP, brought together system scientists with expertise in engineering, mathematics, and complex systems theory and translational cancer researchers with expertise in radiation biology. Our overall goal was to begin to develop computational models of IUdR- and/or IR- induced base damage processing by MMR that may provide new clinical strategies to optimize IUdR-mediated radiosensitiztion in MMR deficient (MMR- damage tolerant human cancers. Using multiple scales of experimental testing, ranging from purified protein systems to in vitro (cellular and to in vivo (human tumor xenografts in athymic mice models, we have begun to integrate and interpolate these experimental data with hybrid stochastic biochemical models of MMR damage processing and probabilistic cell cycle regulation models through a systems biology approach. In this article, we highlight the results and current status of our integration of radiation biology approaches and computational modeling to enhance IUdR-mediated radiosensitization in MMR- damage tolerant cancers.

  17. Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durandy, Anne; Kracker, Sven

    2012-07-30

    Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies (Ig-CSR-Ds) are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defective switched isotype (IgG/IgA/IgE) production. Depending on the molecular defect in question, the Ig-CSR-D may be combined with an impairment in somatic hypermutation (SHM). Some of the mechanisms underlying Ig-CSR and SHM have been described by studying natural mutants in humans. This approach has revealed that T cell-B cell interaction (resulting in CD40-mediated signaling), intrinsic B-cell mechanisms (activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA damage), and complex DNA repair machineries (including uracil-N-glycosylase and mismatch repair pathways) are all involved in class-switch recombination and SHM. However, several of the mechanisms required for full antibody maturation have yet to be defined. Elucidation of the molecular defects underlying the diverse set of Ig-CSR-Ds is essential for understanding Ig diversification and has prompted better definition of the clinical spectrum of diseases and the development of increasingly accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  18. DNA double-strand break induction in Ku80-deficient CHO cells following Boron Neutron Capture Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masunaga Shinichiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR is based on irradiation of tumors after accumulation of boron compound. 10B captures neutrons and produces an alpha (4He particle and a recoiled lithium nucleus (7Li. These particles have the characteristics of high linear energy transfer (LET radiation and have marked biological effects. The purpose of this study is to verify that BNCR will increase cell killing and slow disappearance of repair protein-related foci to a greater extent in DNA repair-deficient cells than in wild-type cells. Methods Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1 cells and a DNA double-strand break (DSB repair deficient mutant derivative, xrs-5 (Ku80 deficient CHO mutant cells, were irradiated by thermal neutrons. The quantity of DNA-DSBs following BNCR was evaluated by measuring the phosphorylation of histone protein H2AX (gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci using immunofluorescence intensity. Results Two hours after neutron irradiation, the number of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in the CHO-K1 cells was decreased to 36.5-42.8% of the levels seen 30 min after irradiation. In contrast, two hours after irradiation, foci levels in the xrs-5 cells were 58.4-69.5% of those observed 30 min after irradiation. The number of gamma-H2AX foci in xrs-5 cells at 60-120 min after BNCT correlated with the cell killing effect of BNCR. However, in CHO-K1 cells, the RBE (relative biological effectiveness estimated by the number of foci following BNCR was increased depending on the repair time and was not always correlated with the RBE of cytotoxicity. Conclusion Mutant xrs-5 cells show extreme sensitivity to ionizing radiation, because xrs-5 cells lack functional Ku-protein. Our results suggest that the DNA-DSBs induced by BNCR were not well repaired in the Ku80 deficient cells. The RBE following BNCR of radio-sensitive mutant cells was not increased but was lower than that of radio-resistant cells. These results suggest that gamma-ray resistant cells have

  19. Heterozygosity for an in-frame deletion causes glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient detected by newborn screening: investigation of the effect of the mutant allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, Peter; Frederiksen, Jane B; Bie, Anne S

    2012-01-01

    the proband were consistent with a mild biochemical GA-1 phenotype. Recombinant expression of the mutant variant in E. coli showed that the GCDH-(p.Gly185_Ser190del) protein displayed severely decreased assembly into tetramers and enzyme activity. To discover a potential dominant negative effect of the mutant...... with the hypothesis that heterozygosity for this mutation confers a dominant negative effect resulting in a GCDH enzyme activity that is significantly lower than the expected 50%....

  20. Bladder exstrophy repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... Bladder exstrophy repair involves two surgeries. The first surgery is to repair the bladder and the second one is to attach ...

  1. Frataxin Deficiency Promotes Excess Microglial DNA Damage and Inflammation that Is Rescued by PJ34.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shen

    Full Text Available An inherited deficiency in the frataxin protein causes neurodegeneration of the dorsal root ganglia and Friedreich's ataxia (FA. Frataxin deficiency leads to oxidative stress and inflammatory changes in cell and animal models; however, the cause of the inflammatory changes, and especially what causes brain microglial activation is unclear. Here we investigated: 1 the mechanism by which frataxin deficiency activates microglia, 2 whether a brain-localized inflammatory stimulus provokes a greater microglial response in FA animal models, and 3 whether an anti-inflammatory treatment improves their condition. Intracerebroventricular administration of LPS induced higher amounts of microglial activation in the FA mouse model vs controls. We also observed an increase in oxidative damage in the form of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G and the DNA repair proteins MUTYH and PARP-1 in cerebellar microglia of FA mutant mice. We hypothesized that frataxin deficiency increases DNA damage and DNA repair genes specifically in microglia, activating them. siRNA-mediated frataxin knockdown in microglial BV2 cells clearly elevated DNA damage and the expression of DNA repair genes MUTYH and PARP-1. Frataxin knockdown also induced a higher level of PARP-1 in MEF cells, and this was suppressed in MUTYH-/- knockout cells. Administration of the PARP-1 inhibitor PJ34 attenuated the microglial activation induced by intracerebroventricular injection of LPS. The combined administration of LPS and angiotensin II provoke an even stronger activation of microglia and neurobehavioral impairment. PJ34 treatment attenuated the neurobehavioral impairments in FA mice. These results suggest that the DNA repair proteins MUTYH and PARP-1 may form a pathway regulating microglial activation initiated by DNA damage, and inhibition of microglial PARP-1 induction could be an important therapeutic target in Friedreich's ataxia.

  2. The ATPase activity of Fml1 is essential for its roles in homologous recombination and DNA repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Saikat; Whitby, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    In fission yeast, the DNA helicase Fml1, which is an orthologue of human FANCM, is a key component of the machinery that drives and governs homologous recombination (HR). During the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by HR, it limits the occurrence of potentially deleterious crossover recombinants, whereas at stalled replication forks, it promotes HR to aid their recovery. Here, we have mutated conserved residues in Fml1’s Walker A (K99R) and Walker B (D196N) motifs to determine whether its activities are dependent on its ability to hydrolyse ATP. Both Fml1K99R and Fml1D196N are proficient for DNA binding but totally deficient in DNA unwinding and ATP hydrolysis. In vivo both mutants exhibit a similar reduction in recombination at blocked replication forks as a fml1Δ mutant indicating that Fml1’s motor activity, fuelled by ATP hydrolysis, is essential for its pro-recombinogenic role. Intriguingly, both fml1K99R and fml1D196N mutants exhibit greater sensitivity to genotoxins and higher levels of crossing over during DSB repair than a fml1Δ strain. These data suggest that without its motor activity, the binding of Fml1 to its DNA substrate can impede alternative mechanisms of repair and crossover avoidance. PMID:22844101

  3. Arabidopsis ZDP DNA 3'-phosphatase and ARP endonuclease function in 8-oxoG repair initiated by FPG and OGG1 DNA glycosylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Cañero, Dolores; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R

    2014-09-01

    Oxidation of guanine in DNA generates 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), an ubiquitous lesion with mutagenic properties. 8-oxoG is primarily removed by DNA glycosylases distributed in two families, typified by bacterial Fpg proteins and eukaryotic Ogg1 proteins. Interestingly, plants possess both Fpg and Ogg1 homologs but their relative contributions to 8-oxoG repair remain uncertain. In this work we used Arabidopsis cell-free extracts to monitor 8-oxoG repair in wild-type and mutant plants. We found that both FPG and OGG1 catalyze excision of 8-oxoG in Arabidopsis cell extracts by a DNA glycosylase/lyase mechanism, and generate repair intermediates with blocked 3'-termini. An increase in oxidative damage is detected in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from double fpg ogg1 mutants, but not in single mutants, which suggests that a single deficiency in one of these DNA glycosylases may be compensated by the other. We also found that the DNA 3'-phosphatase ZDP (zinc finger DNA 3'-phosphoesterase) and the AP(apurinic/apyirmidinic) endonuclease ARP(apurinic endonuclease redox protein) are required in the 8-oxoG repair pathway to process the 3'-blocking ends generated by FPG and OGG1. Furthermore, deficiencies in ZDP and/or ARP decrease germination ability after seed deteriorating conditions. Altogether, our results suggest that Arabidopsis cells use both FPG and OGG1 to repair 8-oxoG in a pathway that requires ZDP and ARP in downstream steps.

  4. Defects in Base Excision Repair Sensitize Cells to Manganese in S. cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne P. Stephenson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is essential for normal physiologic functioning; therefore, deficiencies and excess intake of manganese can result in disease. In humans, prolonged exposure to manganese causes neurotoxicity characterized by Parkinson-like symptoms. Mn2+ has been shown to mediate DNA damage possibly through the generation of reactive oxygen species. In a recent publication, we showed that Mn induced oxidative DNA damage and caused lesions in thymines. This study further investigates the mechanisms by which cells process Mn2+-mediated DNA damage using the yeast S. cerevisiae. The strains most sensitive to Mn2+ were those defective in base excision repair, glutathione synthesis, and superoxide dismutase mutants. Mn2+ caused a dose-dependent increase in the accumulation of mutations using the CAN1 and lys2-10A mutator assays. The spectrum of CAN1 mutants indicates that exposure to Mn results in accumulation of base substitutions and frameshift mutations. The sensitivity of cells to Mn2+ as well as its mutagenic effect was reduced by N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, and Mg2+. These data suggest that Mn2+ causes oxidative DNA damage that requires base excision repair for processing and that Mn interferes with polymerase fidelity. The status of base excision repair may provide a biomarker for the sensitivity of individuals to manganese.

  5. Challenges in the identification of MSH6-associated colorectal cancer: rectal location, less typical histology, and a subset with retained mismatch repair function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise; Holck, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Identification of Lynch syndrome tumors is challenging. This relates particularly to MSH6-associated cases, which show reduced penetrance of colorectal cancer and a higher age at diagnosis. We recorded the clinical and morphologic features of 52 MSH6-associated colorectal cancers in comparison...... with MLH1/MSH2-mutant tumors and sporadic mismatch repair-deficient cancers. In the MSH6 subset, we confirmed a higher age (median, 56 y) at diagnosis and found a significantly larger proportion (25%) of rectal cancers. Presence of dirty necrosis was the sole histologic component that significantly...... differed between MSH6 and MLH1/MSH2 tumors. Compared with the sporadic mismatch repair-defective cohort, MSH6 cases had a lower prevalence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and Crohn-like reactions. Mismatch repair defects were identified in 92% of MSH6 tumors, with high concordance between microsatellite...

  6. Challenges in the Identification of MSH6-Associated Colorectal Cancer: Rectal Location, Less Typical Histology, and a Subset With Retained Mismatch Repair Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise Laurberg; Holck, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen

    2011-01-01

    Identification of Lynch syndrome tumors is challenging. This relates particularly to MSH6-associated cases, which show reduced penetrance of colorectal cancer and a higher age at diagnosis. We recorded the clinical and morphologic features of 52 MSH6-associated colorectal cancers in comparison...... with MLH1/MSH2-mutant tumors and sporadic mismatch repair-deficient cancers. In the MSH6 subset, we confirmed a higher age (median, 56 y) at diagnosis and found a significantly larger proportion (25%) of rectal cancers. Presence of dirty necrosis was the sole histologic component that significantly...... differed between MSH6 and MLH1/MSH2 tumors. Compared with the sporadic mismatch repair-defective cohort, MSH6 cases had a lower prevalence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and Crohn-like reactions. Mismatch repair defects were identified in 92% of MSH6 tumors, with high concordance between microsatellite...

  7. A role for the malignant brain tumour (MBT domain protein LIN-61 in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Johnson

    Full Text Available Malignant brain tumour (MBT domain proteins are transcriptional repressors that function within Polycomb complexes. Some MBT genes are tumour suppressors, but how they prevent tumourigenesis is unknown. The Caenorhabditis elegans MBT protein LIN-61 is a member of the synMuvB chromatin-remodelling proteins that control vulval development. Here we report a new role for LIN-61: it protects the genome by promoting homologous recombination (HR for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. lin-61 mutants manifest numerous problems associated with defective HR in germ and somatic cells but remain proficient in meiotic recombination. They are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and interstrand crosslinks but not UV light. Using a novel reporter system that monitors repair of a defined DSB in C. elegans somatic cells, we show that LIN-61 contributes to HR. The involvement of this MBT protein in HR raises the possibility that MBT-deficient tumours may also have defective DSB repair.

  8. Treatment and Controversies in Paraesophageal Hernia Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marco eFisichella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically all paraesophageal hernias were repaired surgically, today intervention is reserved for symptomatic paraesophageal hernias. In this review, we describe the indications for repair and explore the controversies in paraesophageal hernia repair, which include a comparison of open to laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair, the necessity of complete sac excision, the routine performance of fundoplication, and the use of mesh for hernia repair.Methods: We searched Pubmed for papers published between 1980 and 2015 using the following keywords: hiatal hernias, paraesophageal hernias, regurgitation, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, aspiration, GERD, endoscopy, manometry, pH monitoring, proton pump inhibitors, anemia, iron deficiency anemia, Nissen fundoplication, sac excision, mesh, mesh repair. Results: Indications for paraesophageal hernia repair have changed, and currently symptomatic paraesophageal hernias are recommended for repair. In addition, it is important not to overlook iron-deficiency anemia and pulmonary complaints, which tend to improve with repair. Current practice favors a laparoscopic approach, complete sac excision, primary crural repair with or without use of mesh, and a routine fundoplication.

  9. Homologous recombination contributes to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by high-energy iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Faria; Seidler, Sara B.; Kronenberg, Amy; Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia

    2010-06-29

    To test the contribution of homologous recombinational repair (HRR) in repairing DNA damaged sites induced by high-energy iron ions, we used: (1) HRR-deficient rodent cells carrying a deletion in the RAD51D gene and (2) syngeneic human cells impaired for HRR by RAD51D or RAD51 knockdown using RNA interference. We show that in response to iron ions, HRR contributes to cell survival in rodent cells, and that HRR-deficiency abrogates RAD51 foci formation. Complementation of the HRR defect by human RAD51D rescues both enhanced cytotoxicity and RAD51 foci formation. For human cells irradiated with iron ions, cell survival is decreased, and, in p53 mutant cells, the levels of mutagenesis are increased when HRR is impaired. Human cells synchronized in S phase exhibit more pronounced resistance to iron ions as compared with cells in G1 phase, and this increase in radioresistance is diminished by RAD51 knockdown. These results implicate a role for RAD51-mediated DNA repair (i.e. HRR) in removing a fraction of clustered lesions induced by charged particle irradiation. Our results are the first to directly show the requirement for an intact HRR pathway in human cells in ensuring DNA repair and cell survival in response to high-energy high LET radiation.

  10. ROLE OF INTERACTION OF XPF WITH RPA IN NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Laura A.; Bessho, Mika; Wakasugi, Mitsuo; Matsunaga, Tsukasa; Bessho, Tadayoshi

    2011-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a very important defense system against various types of DNA damage and it is necessary for maintaining genomic stability. The molecular mechanism of NER has been studied in considerable detail, and it has been shown that proper protein-protein interactions among NER factors are critical for efficient repair. A structure-specific endonuclease, XPF-ERCC1, which makes the 5’ incision in NER, was shown to interact with a single-stranded DNA binding protein, RPA. However, the biological significance of this interaction was not studied in detail. We used the yeast two-hybrid assay to determine that XPF interacts with the p70 subunit of RPA. To further examine the role of this XPF-p70 interaction, a p70-interaction deficient mutant form of XPF that contains a single amino acid substitution in the N-terminus of XPF was isolated by the reverse yeast two-hybrid assay using randomly mutagenized XPF. Biochemical properties of this RPA-interaction deficient mutant XPF-ERCC1 are very similar to wild type XPF-ERCC1 in vitro. Interestingly, expression of this mutated form of XPF in the XPF-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, UV41, only partially restores NER activity and UV resistance in vivo compared to wild type XPF. We discovered that the RPA-interaction deficient XPF is not localized in nuclei and the mislocalization of XPF-ERCC1 prevents the complex from functioning in NER. PMID:21875596

  11. Energy and Technology Review: Unlocking the mysteries of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.A.

    1993-04-01

    DNA, the genetic blueprint, has the remarkable property of encoding its own repair following diverse types of structural damage induced by external agents or normal metabolism. We are studying the interplay of DNA damaging agents, repair genes, and their protein products to decipher the complex biochemical pathways that mediate such repair. Our research focuses on repair processes that correct DNA damage produced by chemical mutagens and radiation, both ionizing and ultraviolet. The most important type of DNA repair in human cells is called excision repair. This multistep process removes damaged or inappropriate pieces of DNA -- often as a string of 29 nucleotides containing the damage -- and replaces them with intact ones. We have isolated, cloned, and mapped several human repair genes associated with the nucleotide excision repair pathway and involved in the repair of DNA damage after exposure to ultraviolet light or mutagens in cooked food. We have shown that a defect in one of these repair genes, ERCC2, is responsible for the repair deficiency in one of the groups of patients with the recessive genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP group D). We are exploring ways to purify sufficient quantities (milligrams) of the protein products of these and other repair genes so that we can understand their functions. Our long-term goals are to link defective repair proteins to human DNA repair disorders that predispose to cancer, and to produce DNA-repair-deficient mice that can serve as models for the human disorders.

  12. FANCJ localization by mismatch repair is vital to maintain genomic integrity after UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, Shawna; Branagan, Amy; Peng, Min; Dhruva, Aashana; Schärer, Orlando D; Cantor, Sharon B

    2014-02-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is critical for the repair of DNA lesions induced by UV radiation, but its contribution in replicating cells is less clear. Here, we show that dual incision by NER endonucleases, including XPF and XPG, promotes the S-phase accumulation of the BRCA1 and Fanconi anemia-associated DNA helicase FANCJ to sites of UV-induced damage. FANCJ promotes replication protein A phosphorylation and the arrest of DNA synthesis following UV irradiation. Interaction defective mutants of FANCJ reveal that BRCA1 binding is not required for FANCJ localization, whereas interaction with the mismatch repair (MMR) protein MLH1 is essential. Correspondingly, we find that FANCJ, its direct interaction with MLH1, and the MMR protein MSH2 function in a common pathway in response to UV irradiation. FANCJ-deficient cells are not sensitive to killing by UV irradiation, yet we find that DNA mutations are significantly enhanced. Thus, we considered that FANCJ deficiency could be associated with skin cancer. Along these lines, in melanoma we found several somatic mutations in FANCJ, some of which were previously identified in hereditary breast cancer and Fanconi anemia. Given that, mutations in XPF can also lead to Fanconi anemia, we propose collaborations between Fanconi anemia, NER, and MMR are necessary to initiate checkpoint activation in replicating human cells to limit genomic instability.

  13. New insight into the molecular basis of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency: identification of eight mutations in the HSD3B2 gene eleven patients from seven new families and comparison of the functional properties of twenty-five mutant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, A M; Ricketts, M L; Tardy, V; Desrochers, M; Mébarki, F; Chaussain, J L; Cabrol, S; Raux-Demay, M C; Forest, M G; Sippell, W G; Peter, M; Morel, Y; Simard, J

    1999-12-01

    Classical 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta5-delta4 isomerase (3betaHSD) deficiency is a form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that impairs steroidogenesis in both the adrenals and gonads resulting from mutations in the HSD3B2 gene and causing various degrees of salt-wasting in both sexes and incomplete masculinization of the external genitalia in genetic males. To identify the molecular lesion(s) in the HSD3B2 gene in the 11 patients from the seven new families suffering from classical 3betaHSD deficiency, the complete nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and exon-intron splicing boundaries of this gene was determined by direct sequencing. Five of these families were referred to Morel's molecular diagnostics laboratory in France, whereas the two other families were investigated by Peter's group in Germany. Functional characterization studies were performed by Simard's group in Canada. Following transient expression in 293 cells of each of the mutant recombinant proteins generated by site-directed mutagenesis, the effect of the 25 mutations on enzyme activity was assessed by incubating intact cells in culture with 10 nM [14C]-DHEA as substrate. The stability of the mutant proteins has been investigated using a combination of Northern and Western blot analyses, as well as an in vitro transcription/translation assay using rabbit reticulocyte lysates. The present report describes the identification of 8 mutations, in seven new families with individuals suffering from classical 3betaHSD deficiency, thus increasing the number of known HSD3B2 mutations involved in this autosomal recessive disorder to 31 (1 splicing, 1 in-frame deletion, 3 nonsense, 4 frameshift and 22 missense mutations). In addition to the mutations reported here in these new families, we have also investigated for the first time the functional significance of previously reported missense mutations and or sequence variants namely, A82T, A167V, L173R, L205P, S213G and K216E, P222H, T259

  14. Biogenesis of lysosomal enzymes in the alpha-glucosidase II-deficient modA mutant of Dictyostelium discoideum: retention of alpha-1,3-linked glucose on N-linked oligosaccharides delays intracellular transport but does not alter sorting of alpha-mannosidase or beta-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, D L; Bush, J M; Dimond, R L; Cardelli, J A

    1989-09-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-localized enzyme alpha-glucosidase II is responsible for removing the two alpha-1,3-linked glucose residues from N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins. This activity is missing in the modA mutant strain, M31, of Dictyostelium discoideum. Results from both radiolabeled pulse-chase and subcellular fractionation experiments indicate that this deficiency did not prevent intracellular transport and proteolytic processing of the lysosomal enzymes, alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase. However, the rate at which the glucosylated precursors left the rough endoplasmic reticulum was several-fold slower than the rate at which the wild-type precursors left this compartment. Retention of glucose residues did not disrupt the binding of the precursor forms of the enzymes with intracellular membranes, indicating that the delay in movement of proteins from the ER did not result from lack of association with membranes. However, the mutant alpha-mannosidase precursor contained more trypsin-sensitive sites than did the wild-type precursor, suggesting that improper folding of precursor molecules might account for the slow rate of transport to the Golgi complex. Percoll density gradient fractionation of extracts prepared from M31 cells indicated that the proteolytically processed mature forms of alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase were localized to lysosomes. Finally, the mutation in M31 may have other, more dramatic, effects on the lysosomal system since two enzymes, N-acetylglucosaminidase and acid phosphatase, were secreted much less efficiently from lysosomal compartments by the mutant strain.

  15. Concrete structures protection, repair and rehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Woodson, R Dodge

    2009-01-01

    The success of a repair or rehabilitation project depends on the specific plans designed for it. Concrete Structures: Protection, Repair and Rehabilitation provides guidance on evaluating the condition of the concrete in a structure, relating the condition of the concrete to the underlying cause or causes of that condition, selecting an appropriate repair material and method for any deficiency found, and using the selected materials and methods to repair or rehabilitate the structure. Guidance is also provided for engineers focused on maintaining concrete and preparing concrete investigation r

  16. DNA repair and transcription deficiency syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Vermeulen (Wim)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe genetic information of all living organisms is stored in DNA, a long macromolecule composed of four different nucleotides. Preservation of the sequence of nucleotides, defining the genetic code, is a prerequisite for a faithful transmission of the genetic information to subsequent ge

  17. Hypospadias repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem. If the repair is not done, problems may occur later on such as: Difficulty controlling and directing urine stream A curve in the penis during erection Decreased fertility Embarrassment about appearance of penis Surgery ...

  18. Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) DNA adduct formation in DNA repair-deficient p53 haploinsufficient [Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-)] and wild-type mice fed BP and BP plus chlorophyllin for 28 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Kaarthik; Pratt, M Margaret; Beland, Frederick A; Churchwell, Mona I; McMullen, Gail; Olivero, Ofelia A; Pogribny, Igor P; Poirier, Miriam C

    2012-11-01

    We have evaluated DNA damage (DNA adduct formation) after feeding benzo[a]pyrene (BP) to wild-type (WT) and cancer-susceptible Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-) mice deficient in nucleotide excision repair and haploinsufficient for the tumor suppressor p53. DNA damage was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ES-MS/MS), which measures r7,t8,t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N (2)-deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPdG), and a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA), using anti-r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE)-DNA antiserum, which measures both BPdG and the other stable BP-DNA adducts. When mice were fed 100 ppm BP for 28 days, BP-induced DNA damage measured in esophagus, liver and lung was typically higher in Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-) mice, compared with WT mice. This result is consistent with the previously observed tumor susceptibility of Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-) mice. BPdG, the major DNA adduct associated with tumorigenicity, was the primary DNA adduct formed in esophagus (a target tissue in the mouse), whereas total BP-DNA adducts predominated in higher levels in the liver (a non-target tissue in the mouse). In an attempt to lower BP-induced DNA damage, we fed the WT and Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-) mice 0.3% chlorophyllin (CHL) in the BP-containing diet for 28 days. The addition of CHL resulted in an increase of BP-DNA adducts in esophagus, liver and lung of WT mice, a lowering of BPdG in esophagi of WT mice and livers of Xpa(-/-)p53(+/-) mice and an increase of BPdG in livers of WT mice. Therefore, the addition of CHL to a BP-containing diet showed a lack of consistent chemoprotective effect, indicating that oral CHL administration may not reduce PAH-DNA adduct levels consistently in human organs.

  19. Epigenetic reduction of DNA repair in progression togastrointestinal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies in DNA repair due to inherited germ-linemutations in DNA repair genes cause increased risk ofgastrointestinal (GI) cancer. In sporadic GI cancers,mutations in DNA repair genes are relatively rare.However, epigenetic alterations that reduce expressionof DNA repair genes are frequent in sporadic GI cancers.These epigenetic reductions are also found in fielddefects that give rise to cancers. Reduced DNA repairlikely allows excessive DNA damages to accumulatein somatic cells. Then either inaccurate translesionsynthesis past the un-repaired DNA damages or errorproneDNA repair can cause mutations. ErroneousDNA repair can also cause epigenetic alterations (i.e. ,epimutations, transmitted through multiple replicationcycles). Some of these mutations and epimutations maycause progression to cancer. Thus, deficient or absentDNA repair is likely an important underlying cause ofcancer. Whole genome sequencing of GI cancers showthat between thousands to hundreds of thousands ofmutations occur in these cancers. Epimutations thatreduce DNA repair gene expression and occur early inprogression to GI cancers are a likely source of this highgenomic instability. Cancer cells deficient in DNA repairare more vulnerable than normal cells to inactivation byDNA damaging agents. Thus, some of the most clinicallyeffective chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatmentare DNA damaging agents, and their effectivenessoften depends on deficient DNA repair in cancer cells.Recently, at least 18 DNA repair proteins, each activein one of six DNA repair pathways, were found to besubject to epigenetic reduction of expression in GIcancers. Different DNA repair pathways repair differenttypes of DNA damage. Evaluation of which DNA repairpathway(s) are deficient in particular types of GI cancerand/or particular patients may prove useful in guidingchoice of therapeutic agents in cancer therapy.

  20. Localization of transposon insertions in pathogenicity mutants of Erwinia amylovora and their biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemann, P; Geider, K

    1992-05-01

    Transposon Tn5, on a mobilizable ColE1 plasmid, on a Ti plasmid derepressed for bacterial transfer, and on the bacteriophage fd genome, was used to construct pathogenicity mutants of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Eleven nonpathogenic mutants were isolated from 1600 independent mutants screened. These mutants were divided into three types: auxotrophs, exopolysaccharide (EPS)-deficient mutants and a mutant of the dsp phenotype. According to their insertion sites the Tn5 mutants were mapped into several classes. Some of the mutants could be complemented with cosmid clones from a genomic library of the parent strain for EPS production on minimal agar. EPS-deficient mutants and the dsp mutant could complement each other to produce virulence symptoms on pear slices.

  1. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 By ATA | Featured , Iodine Deficiency , News Releases , Potassium Iodide (KI) | No Comments IDD NEWSLETTER – February 2017 VOLUME ... 2016 By ATA | Featured , Iodine Deficiency , News Releases , Potassium Iodide (KI) | No Comments IDD NEWSLETTER – November 2015 (PDF ...

  2. Hypersensitivity of Drosophila mei-41 mutants to hydroxyurea is associated with reduced mitotic chromosome stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, S S; Shenkar, R; Boyd, J B

    1986-11-01

    6 mutant alleles of the mei-41 locus in Drosophila melanogaster are shown to cause hypersensitivity to hydroxyurea in larvae. The strength of that sensitivity is directly correlated with the influence of the mutant alleles on meiosis in that: alleles exhibiting a strong meiotic effect (mei-41D2, mei-41D5, mei-41D7) are highly sensitive; alleles with negligible meiotic effects (mei-41(104)D1, mei-41(104)D2) are moderately sensitive and an allele which expresses meiotic effects only under restricted conditions (mei-41D9) has an intermediate sensitivity. This sensitivity is not a general feature of strong postreplication repair-deficient mutants, because mutants with that phenotype from other loci do not exhibit sensitivity (mus(2)205A1, mus(3)302D1, mus(3)310D1). The observed lethality is not due to hypersensitivity of DNA synthesis in mei-41 larvae to hydroxyurea as assayed by tritiated thymidine incorporation. Lethality is, however, potentially attributable to an abnormal enhancement of chromosomal aberrations by hydroxyurea in mutant mei-41 larvae. Both in vivo and in vitro exposure of neuroblast cells to hydroxyurea results in an increase in 3 types of aberrations which is several fold higher in mei-41 tissue. Since hydroxyurea disrupts DNA synthesis, these results further implicate the mei-41 locus in DNA metabolism and provide an additional tool for an elucidation of its function. The possible existence of additional genes of this nature is suggested by a more modest sensitivity to hydroxyurea which has been detected in two stocks carrying mutagen-sensitive alleles of alternate genes.

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors selectively target homology dependent DNA repair defective cells and elevate non-homologous endjoining activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously used the ATAD5-luciferase high-throughput screening assay to identify genotoxic compounds with potential chemotherapeutic capabilities. The successful identification of known genotoxic agents, including the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi trichostatin A (TSA, confirmed the specificity of the screen since TSA has been widely studied for its ability to cause apoptosis in cancer cells. Because many cancers have acquired mutations in DNA damage checkpoints or repair pathways, we hypothesized that these cancers may be susceptible to treatments that target compensatory pathways. Here, we used a panel of isogenic chicken DT40 B lymphocyte mutant and human cell lines to investigate the ability of TSA to define selective pathways that promote HDACi toxicity. RESULTS: HDACi induced a DNA damage response and reduced viability in all repair deficient DT40 mutants although ATM-nulls were least affected. The most dramatic sensitivity was observed in mutants lacking the homology dependent repair (HDR factor BLM or the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ and HDR factors, KU/RAD54, suggesting an involvement of either HDR or NHEJ in HDACi-induced cell death. To extend these findings, we measured the frequencies of HDR and NHEJ after HDACi treatment and monitored viability in human cell lines comparably deficient in HDR or NHEJ. Although no difference in HDR frequency was observed between HDACi treated and untreated cells, HDR-defective human cell lines were clearly more sensitive than wild type. Unexpectedly, cells treated with HDACis showed a significantly elevated NHEJ frequency. CONCLUSIONS: HDACi targeting drugs induced significant increases in NHEJ activity in human cell lines but did not alter HDR frequency. Moreover, HDR is required for cellular resistance to HDACi therapy; therefore, NHEJ does not appear to be a critical axis for HDACi resistance. Rather, HDACi compounds induced DNA damage, most likely double strand breaks

  4. Deletion of Cg-emb in corynebacterianeae leads to a novel truncated cell wall arabinogalactan, whereas inactivation of Cg-ubiA results in an arabinan-deficient mutant with a cell wall galactan core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderwick, Luke J; Radmacher, Eva; Seidel, Mathias; Gande, Roland; Hitchen, Paul G; Morris, Howard R; Dell, Anne; Sahm, Hermann; Eggeling, Lothar; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2005-09-16

    The cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a complex ultrastructure that consists of mycolic acids connected to peptidoglycan via arabinogalactan (AG) and abbreviated as the mAGP complex. The mAGP complex is crucial for the survival and pathogenicity of M. tuberculosis and is the target of several anti-tubercular agents. Apart from sharing a similar mAGP and the availability of the complete genome sequence, Corynebacterium glutamicum has proven useful in the study of orthologous M. tuberculosis genes essential for viability. Here we examined the effects of particular genes involved in AG polymerization by gene deletion in C. glutamicum. The anti-tuberculosis drug ethambutol is thought to target a set of arabinofuranosyltransferases (Emb) that are involved in arabinan polymerization. Deletion of emb in C. glutamicum results in a slow growing mutant with profound morphological changes. Chemical analysis revealed a dramatic reduction of arabinose resulting in a novel truncated AG structure possessing only terminal arabinofuranoside (t-Araf) residues with a corresponding loss of cell wall bound mycolic acids. Treatment of wild-type C. glutamicum with ethambutol and subsequent cell wall analyses resulted in an identical phenotype comparable to the C. glutamicum emb deletion mutant. Additionally, disruption of ubiA in C. glutamicum, the first enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the sugar donor decaprenol phosphoarabinose (DPA), resulted in a complete loss of cell wall arabinan. Herein, we establish for the first time, (i) that in contrast to M. tuberculosis embA and embB mutants, deletion of C. glutamicum emb leads to a highly truncated AG possessing t-Araf residues, (ii) the exact site of attachment of arabinan chains in AG, and (iii) DPA is the only Araf sugar donor in AG biosynthesis suggesting the presence of a novel enzyme responsible for "priming" the galactan domain for further elaboration by Emb, resulting in the final maturation of the native AG

  5. Identification and molecular characterization of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that shows a light intensity dependent progressive chlorophyll deficiency [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1b6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip B Grovenstein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The green micro-alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an elegant model organism to study all aspects of oxygenic photosynthesis. Chlorophyll (Chl and heme are major tetrapyrroles that play an essential role in energy metabolism in photosynthetic organisms. These tetrapyrroles are synthesized via a common branched pathway that involves mainly nuclear encoded enzymes. One of the enzymes in the pathway is Mg chelatase (MgChel which inserts Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX (PPIX, proto to form Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX (MgPPIX, Mgproto, the first biosynthetic intermediate in the Chl branch. The GUN4 (genomes uncoupled 4 protein is not essential for the MgChel activity but has been shown to significantly stimulate its activity. We have isolated a light sensitive mutant, 6F14, by random DNA insertional mutagenesis. 6F14 cannot tolerate light intensities higher than 90-100 μmol photons m-2 s-1. It shows a light intensity dependent progressive photo-bleaching. 6F14 is incapable of photo-autotrophic growth under light intensity higher than 100 μmol photons m-2 s-1. PCR based analyses show that in 6F14 the insertion of the plasmid outside the GUN4 locus has resulted in a genetic rearrangement of the GUN4 gene and possible deletions in the genomic region flanking the GUN4 gene. Our gun4 mutant has a Chl content very similar to that in the wild type in the dark and is very sensitive to fluctuations in the light intensity in the environment unlike the earlier identified Chlamydomonas gun4 mutant. Complementation with a functional copy of the GUN4 gene restored light tolerance, Chl biosynthesis and photo-autotrophic growth under high light intensities in 6F14. 6F14 is the second gun4 mutant to be identified in C. reinhardtii. Additionally, we show that our two gun4 complements over-express the GUN4 protein and show a higher Chl content per cell compared to that in the wild type strain.

  6. The effects of modeled microgravity on growth kinetics, antibiotic susceptibility, cold growth, and the virulence potential of a Yersinia pestis ymoA-deficient mutant and its isogenic parental strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Abidat; Kirtley, Michelle L; van Lier, Christina J; Erova, Tatiana E; Kozlova, Elena V; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K; Rosenzweig, Jason A

    2013-09-01

    Previously, we reported that there was no enhancement in the virulence potential (as measured by cell culture infections) of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis (YP) following modeled microgravity/clinorotation growth. We have now further characterized the effects of clinorotation (CR) on YP growth kinetics, antibiotic sensitivity, cold growth, and YP's virulence potential in a murine model of infection. Surprisingly, none of the aforementioned phenotypes were altered. To better understand why CR did not enhance YP's virulence potential as it did for other bacterial pathogens, a YP ΔymoA isogenic mutant in the KIM/D27 background strain that is unable to produce the histone-like YmoA protein and influences DNA topography was used in both cell culture and murine models of infection. YmoA represses type three secretion system (T3SS) virulence gene expression in the yersiniae. Similar to our CR-grown parental YP strain data, the CR-grown ΔymoA mutant induced reduced HeLa cell cytotoxicity with concomitantly decreased Yersinia outer protein E (YopE) and low calcium response V (LcrV) antigen production and secretion. Important, however, were our findings that, although no significant differences were observed in survival of mice infected intraperitoneally with either normal gravity (NG)- or CR-grown parental YP, the ΔymoA mutant induced significantly more mortality in infected mice than did the parental strain following CR growth. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CR did enhance the virulence potential of the YP ΔymoA mutant in a murine infection model (relative to the CR-grown parental strain), despite inducing less HeLa cell rounding in our cell culture infection assay due to reduced T3SS activity. Therefore, CR, which induces a unique type of bacterial stress, might be enhancing YP's virulence potential in vivo through a T3SS-independent mechanism when the histone-like YmoA protein is absent.

  7. Femoral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femorocele repair; Herniorrhaphy; Hernioplasty - femoral ... During surgery to repair the hernia, the bulging tissue is pushed back in. The weakened area is sewn closed or strengthened. This repair ...

  8. Undescended testicle repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchidopexy; Inguinal orchidopexy; Orchiopexy; Repair of undescended testicle; Cryptorchidism repair ... first year of life without treatment. Undescended testicle repair surgery is recommended for patients whose testicles do ...

  9. Expression of Caenorhabditis elegans PCS in the AtPCS1-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana cad1-3 mutant separates the metal tolerance and non-host resistance functions of phytochelatin synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnlenz, Tanja; Westphal, Lore; Schmidt, Holger; Scheel, Dierk; Clemens, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Phytochelatin synthases (PCS) play key roles in plant metal tolerance. They synthesize small metal-binding peptides, phytochelatins, under conditions of metal excess. Respective mutants are strongly cadmium and arsenic hypersensitive. However, their ubiquitous presence and constitutive expression had long suggested a more general function of PCS besides metal detoxification. Indeed, phytochelatin synthase1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPCS1) was later implicated in non-host resistance. The two different physiological functions may be attributable to the two distinct catalytic activities demonstrated for AtPCS1, that is the dipeptidyl transfer onto an acceptor molecule in phytochelatin synthesis, and the proteolytic deglycylation of glutathione conjugates. In order to test this hypothesis and to possibly separate the two biological roles, we expressed a phylogenetically distant PCS from Caenorhabditis elegans in an AtPCS1 mutant. We confirmed the involvement of AtPCS1 in non-host resistance by showing that plants lacking the functional gene develop a strong cell death phenotype when inoculated with the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, we found that the C. elegans gene rescues phytochelatin synthesis and cadmium tolerance, but not the defect in non-host resistance. This strongly suggests that the second enzymatic function of AtPCS1, which remains to be defined in detail, is underlying the plant immunity function.

  10. Repair of I-SceI induced DSB at a specific site of chromosome in human cells: influence of low-dose, low-dose-rate gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, Fumio; Suzuki, Masao; Ishioka, Noriaki; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Honma, Masamitsu

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the influence of low-dose, low-dose-rate gamma-ray irradiation on DNA double strand break (DSB) repair in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells. A single DSB was introduced at intron 4 of the TK+ allele (chromosome 17) by transfection with the I-SceI expression vector pCBASce. We assessed for DSB repair due to non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) by determining the generation of TK-deficient mutants in the TK6 derivative TSCE5 (TK +/-) carrying an I-SceI recognition site. We similarly estimated DSB repair via homologous recombination (HR) at the same site in the derived compound heterozygote (TK-/-) cell line TSCER2 that carries an additional point mutation in exon 5. The NHEJ repair of DSB was barely influenced by pre-irradiation of the cells with 30 mGy gamma-rays at 1.2 mGy h(-1). DSB repair by HR, in contrast, was enhanced by approximately 50% after pre-irradiation of the cells under these conditions. Furthermore, when I-SceI digestion was followed by irradiation at a dose of 8.5 mGy, delivered at a dose rate of only 0.125 mGy h(-1), HR repair efficiency was enhanced by approximately 80%. This experimental approach can be applied to characterize DSB repair in the low-dose region of ionizing radiation.

  11. An interaction between teh DNA repair factor XPA and replication protein A appears essential for nucleotide excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lei; Lu, Xiaoyan; Peterson, C.A.; Legerski, R.J. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is required for simian virus 40-directed DNA replication in vitro and for nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here we report that RPA and the human repair protein XPA specifically interact both in vitro and in vivo. Mapping of the RPA-interactive domains in XPA revealed that both of the largest subunits of RPA, RPA-70 and RPA-34, interact with XPA at distinct sites. A domain involved in mediating the interaction with RPA-70 was located between XPA residues 153 and 176. Deletion of highly conserved motifs within this region identified two mutants that were deficient in binding RPA in vitro and highly defective in NER both in vitro and in vivo. The second domain mediating the interaction with RPA-34 was identified within the first 58 residues in XPA. Deletion of this region, however, only moderately affects the complementing activity of XPA in vivo. Finally, the XPA-RPA complex is shown to have a greater affinity for damaged DNA than XPA alone. Taken together, these results indicate that the interaction between XPA and RPA is required for NER but that only the interaction with RPA-70 is essential. 52 refs., 7 figs.

  12. 普城沙雷氏菌splI及spsI基因突变株的构建%Construction of mutants deficient in splI and spsI in Serratia plymuthica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛军; 丁丽娜; 刘晓光

    2013-01-01

    普城沙雷氏菌(Serratia plymuthica)G3分离自小麦内茎,是一种可产生多种抗菌因子和植物激素的内生细菌.目前对S.plymuthica G3的两个群体感应系统splI/splR与SpsR/SpsI的了解仍十分有限.构建了2个N-乙酰基高丝氨酸内酯信号合成酶编码基因splI和spsI突变菌株及互补菌株,并检测了其生物表型.结果发现spsI、splI突变后,对细菌信号分子合成有一定的影响,蛋白酶活性明显降低.通过对突变体和互补菌株的泳动性分析发现,splI负调控G3的运动性,而spsI正调控G3的运动性.%An endophytic strain G3 of Serratia plymuthica isolated from the stems of wheat can be used as biocontrol agent against variety of phytopathogenic fungi due to its ability to produce several antifungal factors, as well as plant auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). So far, our knowledge about the two Quorum sensing (QS) systems (SplI/SplR and SpsR/SpsI) in S. plymuthica G3 is still very limited. In this study, strain G3 was used as the model organism, splI and spsI mutants in G3 through gene-replacement strategy were constructed. The phenotypic analysis of G3 and its derivatives revealed that mutation of spsI and splI slightly affected the biosysthesis of bacterial signal molecules N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), However, these tow mutants significantly decreased the protease activity in comparision with the wild type G3. Furthermore, swimming assay of the mutants and the complementary strains showed that splI negatively regulated the swimming motility of G3, in contrast, spsI positively controlled the swimming motility of strain G3. These findings provided a basis for further studies of the two QS systems in Serratia.

  13. Disaccharidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, T M; Christopher, N L

    1969-02-01

    This review of the literature and current knowledge concerning a nutritional disorder of disaccharidase deficiency discusses the following topics: 1) a description of disorders of disaccharide digestion; 2) some historical perspective on the laboratory and bedside advances in the past 10 years that have helped define a group of these digestive disorders; 3) a classification of conditions causing disaccharide intolerance; and 4) a discussion of some of the specific clinical syndromes emphasizing nutritional consequences of these syndromes. The syndromes described include congenital lactase deficiency, acquired lactase deficiency in teenagers and adults, acquired generalized disaccharidase deficiency secondary to diffuse mucosal damage, acquired lactose intolerance secondary to alterations in the intestinal transit, sucrase-isomaltase deficiencies, and other disease associations connected with lactase deficiency such as colitis.

  14. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  15. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... Endovascular aortic repair is done because your aneurysm is very large, growing quickly, or is leaking or bleeding. You may have ...

  16. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  17. A PHD in histone language: on the role of histone methylation in plant responses to phosphate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, Nulu Naga Prafulla; Sundaravelpandian, Kalaipandian; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    Post-translational modifications of core histones are important for various DNA-templated processes such as transcription and repair. We recently reported that the ALFIN LIKE 6 (AL6) gene, identified in a forward genetic screen, is critical for phosphate deficiency-induced root hair formation and several other processes associated with the regulation of cellular phosphate homeostasis. AL6 contains a Plant Homeo Domain (PHD) finger that can bind to trimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3). Homozygous mutants defective in AL6 expression form very short root hairs under phosphate-deficient conditions, presumably caused by altered expression of putative primary and secondary down-stream targets of AL6. In this Addendum, we speculate about possible roles of AL6, H3K4 trimethylation and other chromatin modifications in the adaptation of plants to low phosphate availability.

  18. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  19. PHOTOCHEMICAL TISSUE BONDING TECHNIQUE FOR REPAIRING LIMBAL STEM CELL DEFICIENCY%光化学组织黏合技术在修复角膜缘干细胞缺失中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾钏; 王莹; 姚敏; 方勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) technique in repairinglimbal stem cell (LSC) deficiency and the effect on cornea wound healing. Methods LSCs were isolated from limbus of New Zealand rabbits by tissue block culture method, and then the LSCs of 2nd passage were cultured on de-epithelialized human amniotic membrane (HAM) for 3 weeks to prepare the HAM/LSC grafts. The LSC deficiency models of the left eyes were established by 0.5 mol/L NaOH in 24 New Zealand female rabbits, aged 3-4 months and weighing 1.5-2.0 kg. HAM/LSC grafts were used to repair the cornea wounds by sutures (suture group, n=12) or by PTB technique (PTB group, n=12). The gross was observed including the corneal transparency, erythema, and new blood vessel formation after surgery. At 3 and 28 days, the inflammatory cytokine of interleukin lβ (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-α) were assayed by ELISA method; and the amount of new blood vessels were quantified by immunohistochemistry staining at 28 days. Results All animals survived to the end of the experiment. At 3 days, there was no obvious difference in the corneal transparency between 2 groups; at 28 days, the corneal transparency of PTB group was higher than that of suture group, and new blood vessels decreased. HE staining showed that mass inflammatory cells infiltrated between graft and cornea basal layer at 3 days, and no new blood vessel formed, inflammatory cells infiltration significantly decreased at 28 days in PTB group; the amount of new blood vessels was (2.0 ± 0.8)/HP in PTB group and was (6.3 ± 1.3)/HP in suture group, showing significant difference ((=7.966, P=0.002). At 28 days, the concentrations of inflammatory cytokine of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-a in suture group were significantly higher than those in PTB group (P 0.05). Conclusion PTB technique can be used to fix HAM/LSC grafts, which can decrease inflammatory cell infiltration and new vessel formation, and improve

  20. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...

  1. Prolidase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Qazi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolidase deficiency is a rare inborn disorder of collagen metabolism characterized by chronic recurrent skin ulceration. A seven-year-old girl and her younger sibling with clinical features and laboratory criteria fulfilling the diagnosis of prolidase deficiency are presented in view of rarity of the condition.

  2. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. Howeve

  3. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. Howeve

  4. Inter-individual variation in DNA double-strand break repair in human fibroblasts before and after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul F.; Nham, Peter B.; Urbin, Salustra S.; Hinz, John M.; Jones, Irene M. [Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, PO Box 808, L-452, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94551-0808 (United States); Thompson, Larry H., E-mail: thompson14@llnl.gov [Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, PO Box 808, L-452, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94551-0808 (United States)

    2010-01-05

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are generally considered the most critical lesion induced by ionizing radiation (IR) and may initiate carcinogenesis and other disease. Using an immunofluorescence assay to simultaneously detect nuclear foci of the phosphorylated forms of histone H2AX and ATM kinase at sites of DSBs, we examined the response of 25 apparently normal and 10 DNA repair-deficient (ATM, ATR, NBN, LIG1, LIG4, and FANCG) primary fibroblast strains irradiated with low doses of {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays. Quiescent G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-phase cultures were exposed to 5, 10, and 25 cGy and allowed to repair for 24 h. The maximum level of IR-induced foci (0.15 foci per cGy, at 10 or 30 min) in the normal strains showed much less inter-individual variation (CV {approx} 0.2) than the level of spontaneous foci, which ranged from 0.2-2.6 foci/cell (CV {approx} 0.6; mean {+-} SD of 1.00 {+-} 0.57). Significantly slower focus formation post-irradiation was observed in seven normal strains, similar to most mutant strains examined. There was variation in repair efficiency measured by the fraction of IR-induced foci remaining 24 h post-irradiation, curiously with the strains having slower focus formation showing more efficient repair after 25 cGy. Interestingly, the ranges of spontaneous and residual induced foci levels at 24 h in the normal strains were as least as large as those observed for the repair-defective mutant strains. The inter-individual variation in DSB foci parameters observed in cells exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation in this small survey of apparently normal people suggests that hypomorphic genetic variants in genomic maintenance and/or DNA damage signaling and repair genes may contribute to differential susceptibility to cancer induced by environmental mutagens.

  5. Assessment of the repair and damage of DNA induced by parent and reduced RSU-1069, a 2-nitroimidazole-aziridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, P.; Cunniffe, S.M.

    1989-04-01

    The cellular repair and damage of DNA induced by parent and reduced RSU-1069, a 2-nitroimidazole-aziridine, was assessed at both the molecular and cellular level. At the molecular level, after in vitro incubation with parent or reduced RSU-1069, plasmid DNA was transfected into Escherichia coli (AB1157) with subsequent selection for gene expression. For equivalent levels of DNA strand breakage following such treatment it is evident from the relative transformation frequencies that interactions with reduced RSU-1069 lead to DNA damage consistent with bifunctional action of a metabolite(s). At the cellular level, the cytoxicity of RSU-1069 was determined for a series of repair deficient mutants of E. coli under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. The differential aerobic:hypoxic cytotoxicity ratio is approximately 3. We conclude that the repair of cellular DNA damage induced by RSU-1069 involves activation of the gene products under the control of the recA gene and not those under the control of the ada gene. The ability of cellular systems to repair damage induced by RSU-1069 may play a significant role in determining its efficiency to act as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer and a hypoxia selective cytotoxin.

  6. Analysis of the tolerance to DNA alkylating damage in MEC1 and RAD53 checkpoint mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gallego-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Checkpoint response, tolerance and repair are three major pathways that eukaryotic cells evolved independently to maintain genome stability and integrity. Here, we studied the sensitivity to DNA damage in checkpoint-deficient budding yeast cells and found that checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53 may modulate the balance between error-free and error-prone branches of the tolerance pathway. We have consistently observed that mutation of the RAD53 counterbalances error-free and error-prone branches upon exposure of cells to DNA damage induced either by MMS alkylation or by UV-radiation. We have also found that the potential Mec1/Rad53 balance modulation is independent from Rad6/Rad18-mediated PCNA ubiquitylation, as mec1Δ or rad53Δ mutants show no defects in the modification of the sliding clamp, therefore, we infer that it is likely exerted by acting on TLS polymerases and/or template switching targets.

  7. 利用Cre/loxP系统构建无标记的htrA基因缺失的变链菌突变株%Construction of Unmarked HtrA-Deficient Mutant of Streptococcus Mutans with Cre/loxP System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文娟; 于丹妮; 韩育植; 任志明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To construct the Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) htrA-deficient mutant and to remove the antibiotic resistance marker with the Cre/loxP site-specific recombination system. Methods: The DNA fragment containing htrA was amplified by PCR and cloned into the pGEM-T-Easy TA cloning vector. Then, a kanamycin resistance cassette ( loxP-Km-loxP ) was inserted into this recomhinant plasmid and replaced a part of the htrA gene, yielding homologous recombination plasmid pIB △ htrA-Km. The electrotransformation of S. mutans cells with pIB △ htrA-Km resulted in the isolation of kanamycin resistant S. mutans transformant. One such mutant was transformed with a cre expression plasmid (pCrePA). The kanamycin resistance gene was then excised. The pCrePA was then easily eliminated at the nonpermissive temperature, resulting in a markerless mutant strain carrying a deletion at the htrA loci, which was verif'ied by PCR and DNA sequencing. Results: The deletion of' a part of htrA and the kanamycin resistance gene was confirmed by PCR analysis and DNA sequencing.There was a loxP at this locus. Conclusion: A htrA-deficient mutant of S. mutans was construrted and the antibiotic resistance marker was deleted successfully, which can help to further study the role of htrA in the pathogenesis of S.mutans.%目的:利用Cre/loxP位点特异性重组系统构建口腔变异链球菌htrA基因缺陷株,并删除选择标记.方法:PCR扩增变链菌的htrA基因片段并克隆到pGEM-T-Easy TA载体.随后插入卡那霉素(Km)抗性基因盒(loxP-Km-loxP)并替换htrA基因的部分序列,使htrA基因失活,构建出htrA基因缺失的同源重组载体pIB△htrA-Km.将该质粒电转化变链菌标准株,抗生素筛选出发生同源重组的菌株,再用含cre基因的热敏质粒pCrePA电转化,删除Km抗性基因.在限制性温度下培养,消除质粒pCrePA,获得无标记的变链菌htrA基因缺陷株,经PCR及DNA测序鉴定.结果:PCR及DNA测序分

  8. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0 Iodine Daily Serving now recommended in Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements for Pregnant and Lactating Women By ATA | 2015 News Releases , Iodine Deficiency , News Releases , Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy | No Comments Falls Church, February 10, 2015 —The ...

  9. Iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world.

  10. The Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal Syndrome Point Mutation F231L in the ERCC1 DNA Repair Protein Causes Dissociation of the ERCC1-XPF Complex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridounnia, Maryam; Wienk, Hans; Kovačič, Lidija; Folkers, Gert E.; Jaspers, Nicolaas G. J.; Kaptein, Robert; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Boelens, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    The ERCC1-XPF heterodimer, a structure-specific DNA endonuclease, is best known for its function in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The ERCC1 point mutation F231L, located at the hydrophobic interaction interface of ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) and XPF (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F), leads to severe NER pathway deficiencies. Here, we analyze biophysical properties and report the NMR structure of the complex of the C-terminal tandem helix-hairpin-helix domains of ERCC1-XPF that contains this mutation. The structures of wild type and the F231L mutant are very similar. The F231L mutation results in only a small disturbance of the ERCC1-XPF interface, where, in contrast to Phe231, Leu231 lacks interactions stabilizing the ERCC1-XPF complex. One of the two anchor points is severely distorted, and this results in a more dynamic complex, causing reduced stability and an increased dissociation rate of the mutant complex as compared with wild type. These data provide a biophysical explanation for the severe NER deficiencies caused by this mutation. PMID:26085086

  11. The Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal Syndrome Point Mutation F231L in the ERCC1 DNA Repair Protein Causes Dissociation of the ERCC1-XPF Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridounnia, Maryam; Wienk, Hans; Kovačič, Lidija; Folkers, Gert E; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Kaptein, Robert; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Boelens, Rolf

    2015-08-14

    The ERCC1-XPF heterodimer, a structure-specific DNA endonuclease, is best known for its function in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The ERCC1 point mutation F231L, located at the hydrophobic interaction interface of ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) and XPF (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F), leads to severe NER pathway deficiencies. Here, we analyze biophysical properties and report the NMR structure of the complex of the C-terminal tandem helix-hairpin-helix domains of ERCC1-XPF that contains this mutation. The structures of wild type and the F231L mutant are very similar. The F231L mutation results in only a small disturbance of the ERCC1-XPF interface, where, in contrast to Phe(231), Leu(231) lacks interactions stabilizing the ERCC1-XPF complex. One of the two anchor points is severely distorted, and this results in a more dynamic complex, causing reduced stability and an increased dissociation rate of the mutant complex as compared with wild type. These data provide a biophysical explanation for the severe NER deficiencies caused by this mutation.

  12. Cushing, acromegaly, GH deficiency and tendons

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cushing’s syndrome, induced by an endogenous or exogenous cortisol excess, and acromegaly, the clinical syndrome caused by growth hormone (GH) excess in adulthood, as well as the disease induced by GH deficiency (GHD), represent perfect models for the evaluation of the effects induced by chronic exposure in vivo, respectively, to cortisol and GH/IGF-1 excess or deficiency on the complex structure of the tendons as well as on the related post-traumatic repair mechanism. Although the literature...

  13. Transcription-coupled DNA repair in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Ann; Spivak, Graciela; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2012-01-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER) that acts specifically on lesions in the transcribed strand of expressed genes. First reported in mammalian cells, TCR was then documented in Escherichia coli. In this organism, an RNA polymerase arrested at a lesion is displaced by the transcription repair coupling factor, Mfd. This protein recruits the NER lesion-recognition factor UvrA, and then dissociates from the DNA. UvrA binds UvrB, and the assembled UvrAB* complex initiates repair. In mutants lacking active Mfd, TCR is absent. A gene transcribed by the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase in E. coli also requires Mfd for TCR. The CSB protein (missing or defective in cells of patients with Cockayne syndrome, complementation group B) is essential for TCR in humans. CSB and its homologs in higher eukaryotes are likely functional equivalents of Mfd. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  15. Ventral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007661.htm Ventral hernia repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ventral hernia repair is surgery to repair a ventral hernia. ...

  16. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  17. Action of the protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) in the life period of Drosophila mutants deficient in endogenous antioxidants; Accion de la protoporfirina-IX (PP-IX) en el periodo de vida de mutantes de Drosophila deficientes en antioxidantes endogenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal E, L. M.

    2012-07-01

    The human being is daily exposed to free radicals or reactive oxygen species (Ros), as a result of the breathing and the interactions with xenobiotics that can cause irreversible lesions in molecules and cellular structures and that they are associated to diseases like the cancer, neuro degenerative and to the acceleration of the normal process of aging. Fortunately, to reduce the damaging effect of the Ros the cell has endogenous antioxidant systems constituted by antioxidant enzymes as: the superoxide dismutase (Sod), the catalase (Cat), and the glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Even, when these systems are not enough, we find to the exogenous antioxidants that cooperate in the balance of the Ros, as the porphyrins that include to the chlorophyllin, the hemin and the bilirubin among others. The protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) is a tetra pyrrole without metallic center with antimutagenic and antioxidant activity similar to that of the chlorophyllin. However, is also known that their over-expression has toxic effects, because induces Ros. In Drosophila melanogaster, recently was found that the Pp-Ix have dual action anti and persistent mutagenic. One of their possible mechanism to act like mutagen is through the Ros induction. To evaluate this possibility and based in that the increase in the Ros levels can accelerate the aging process, in the present work the Pp-Ix role was evaluated, in the life period of Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in Sod and Cat, sensitive to radiation or oxidative stress (rad, whd and flr{sup 3}) and a wild one as control (C-S). Females and males of each strain were treated chronically for separate with sucrose or Pp-Ix and every 15 days a group of each sex was irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results indicated that the chronic treatment with Pp-Ix and in combination with radiation, increased the life period of the C-S strain. The Sod strain had a contrary effect and this effect was pronounced with the combined treatment of

  18. Age-related neuronal degeneration: complementary roles of nucleotide excision repair and transcription-coupled repair in preventing neuropathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Jaarsma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal degeneration is a hallmark of many DNA repair syndromes. Yet, how DNA damage causes neuronal degeneration and whether defects in different repair systems affect the brain differently is largely unknown. Here, we performed a systematic detailed analysis of neurodegenerative changes in mouse models deficient in nucleotide excision repair (NER and transcription-coupled repair (TCR, two partially overlapping DNA repair systems that remove helix-distorting and transcription-blocking lesions, respectively, and that are associated with the UV-sensitive syndromes xeroderma pigmentosum (XP and Cockayne syndrome (CS. TCR-deficient Csa(-/- and Csb(-/- CS mice showed activated microglia cells surrounding oligodendrocytes in regions with myelinated axons throughout the nervous system. This white matter microglia activation was not observed in NER-deficient Xpa(-/- and Xpc(-/- XP mice, but also occurred in Xpd(XPCS mice carrying a point mutation (G602D in the Xpd gene that is associated with a combined XPCS disorder and causes a partial NER and TCR defect. The white matter abnormalities in TCR-deficient mice are compatible with focal dysmyelination in CS patients. Both TCR-deficient and NER-deficient mice showed no evidence for neuronal degeneration apart from p53 activation in sporadic (Csa(-/-, Csb(-/- or highly sporadic (Xpa(-/-, Xpc(-/- neurons and astrocytes. To examine to what extent overlap occurs between both repair systems, we generated TCR-deficient mice with selective inactivation of NER in postnatal neurons. These mice develop dramatic age-related cumulative neuronal loss indicating DNA damage substrate overlap and synergism between TCR and NER pathways in neurons, and they uncover the occurrence of spontaneous DNA injury that may trigger neuronal degeneration. We propose that, while Csa(-/- and Csb(-/- TCR-deficient mice represent powerful animal models to study the mechanisms underlying myelin abnormalities in CS, neuron

  19. Triple-helix formation induces recombination in mammalian cells via a nucleotide excision repair-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A F; Datta, H J; Carroll, D; Seidman, M M; Glazer, P M

    2000-02-01

    The ability to stimulate recombination in a site-specific manner in mammalian cells may provide a useful tool for gene knockout and a valuable strategy for gene therapy. We previously demonstrated that psoralen adducts targeted by triple-helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) could induce recombination between tandem repeats of a supF reporter gene in a simian virus 40 vector in monkey COS cells. Based on work showing that triple helices, even in the absence of associated psoralen adducts, are able to provoke DNA repair and cause mutations, we asked whether intermolecular triplexes could stimulate recombination. Here, we report that triple-helix formation itself is capable of promoting recombination and that this effect is dependent on a functional nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Transfection of COS cells carrying the dual supF vector with a purine-rich TFO, AG30, designed to bind as a third strand to a region between the two mutant supF genes yielded recombinants at a frequency of 0.37%, fivefold above background, whereas a scrambled sequence control oligomer was ineffective. In human cells deficient in the NER factor XPA, the ability of AG30 to induce recombination was eliminated, but it was restored in a corrected subline expressing the XPA cDNA. In comparison, the ability of triplex-directed psoralen cross-links to induce recombination was only partially reduced in XPA-deficient cells, suggesting that NER is not the only pathway that can metabolize targeted psoralen photoadducts into recombinagenic intermediates. Interestingly, the triplex-induced recombination was unaffected in cells deficient in DNA mismatch repair, challenging our previous model of a heteroduplex intermediate and supporting a model based on end joining. This work demonstrates that oligonucleotide-mediated triplex formation can be recombinagenic, providing the basis for a potential strategy to direct genome modification by using high-affinity DNA binding ligands.

  20. Excision repair of UV radiation-induced DNA damage in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, P.S.; Hevelone, J.; Dwarakanath, V.; Mitchell, D.L. (Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Radioimmunoassays were used to monitor the removal of antibody-binding sites associated with the two major UV radiation-induced DNA photoproducts (cyclobutane dimers and (6-4) photoproducts). Unlike with cultured human cells, where (6-4) photoproducts are removed more rapidly than cyclobutane dimers, the kinetics of repair were similar for both lesions. Repair capacity in wild type diminished throughout development. The radioimmunoassays were also employed to confirm the absence of photoreactivation in C. elegans. In addition, three radiation-sensitive mutants (rad-1, rad-2, rad-7) displayed normal repair capacities. An excision defect was much more pronounced in larvae than embryos in the fourth mutant tested (rad-3). This correlates with the hypersensitivity pattern of this mutant and suggests that DNA repair may be developmentally regulated in C. elegans. The mechanism of DNA repair in C. elegans as well as the relationship between the repair of specific photoproducts and UV radiation sensitivity during development are discussed.

  1. Cobalamin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) consists of a corrinoid structure with cobalt in the centre of the molecule. Neither humans nor animals are able to synthesize this vitamin. Foods of animal source are the only natural source of cobalamin in human diet. There are only two enzymatic reactions in mammalian cells that require cobalamin as cofactor. Methylcobolamin is a cofactor for methionine synthase. The enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA-mutase requires adenosylcobalamin as a cofactor. Therefore, serum concentrations of homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) will increase in cobalamin deficiency. The cobalamin absorption from diet is a complex process that involves different proteins: haptocorrin, intrinsic factor and transcobalamin (TC). Cobalamin that is bound to TC is called holotranscobalamin (holoTC) which is the metabolically active vitamin B12 fraction. HoloTC consists 6 and 20% of total cobalamin whereas 80% of total serum cobalamin is bound to another binding protein, haptocorrin. Cobalamin deficiency is common worldwide. Cobalamin malabsorption is common in elderly subjects which might explain low vitamin status. Subjects who ingest low amount of cobalamin like vegetarians develop vitamin deficiency. No single parameter can be used to diagnose cobalamin deficiency. Total serum cobalamin is neither sensitive nor it is specific for cobalamin deficiency. This might explain why many deficient subjects would be overlooked by utilizing total cobalamin as status marker. Concentration of holotranscobalamin (holoTC) in serum is an earlier marker that becomes decreased before total serum cobalamin. Concentrations of MMA and tHcy increase in blood of cobalamin deficient subjects. Despite limitations of these markers in patients with renal dysfunction, concentrations of MMA and tHcy are useful functional markers of cobalamin status. The combined use of holoTC and MMA assays may better indicate cobalamin status than either of them. Because Cbl deficiency is a risk factor

  2. The long N-terminus of the C. elegans DNA repair enzyme APN-1 targets the protein to the nucleus of a heterologous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Xiaoming; Mazouzi, Abdelghani; Ramotar, Dindial

    2014-12-15

    We previously isolated from a Caenorhabditis elegans cDNA library, designed for two-hybrid screening, a gene encoding the DNA repair enzyme APN-1 using cross-specie complementation analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae apn1∆ apn2∆ tpp1∆ triple mutant deficient in the ability to repair several types of DNA lesions including apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites. We subsequently purified the APN-1 from this yeast mutant and demonstrated that it possesses four distinct DNA repair activities. However, following the re-annotation of the C. elegans genome we discovered that the functionally active APN-1 encoded by the cDNA from the library might lack 108 amino acid residues from the N-terminus. We therefore synthesized the entire C. elegans apn-1 gene encoding the putative full-length APN-1 and created several N-terminal deletion mutants lacking either 63, 83 or 118 amino acid residues. The full-length APN-1, APN-1 (1-63Δ) and APN-1 (1-83Δ), but not APN-1 (1-118Δ) were stably expressed in the yeast triple mutant and cleaved the AP site substrate. However, only the full-length APN-1 rescued the yeast mutant from the genotoxicity caused by methyl methane sulfonate, a DNA damaging agent that creates AP sites in the genome. The full-length APN-1 was localized to the yeast nucleus, while APN-1 (1-63Δ) and APN-1 (1-83Δ) retained a cytoplasmic distribution. Our data suggest that the N-terminal region has no direct role in the DNA repair functions of APN-1 other than to target the protein to the nucleus and possibly to maintain its stability. Thus, the truncated APN-1, previously isolated from the two-hybrid library, ability to complement the yeast triple mutant depends on the engineered SV40 nuclear localization signal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mismatch repair status may predict response to adjuvant chemotherapy in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazy, Maziar; Kalloger, Steve E; Sheffield, Brandon S; Peixoto, Renata D; Li-Chang, Hector H; Scudamore, Charles H; Renouf, Daniel J; Schaeffer, David F

    2015-10-01

    Deficiencies in DNA mismatch repair have been associated with inferior response to 5-FU in colorectal cancer. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is similarly treated with pyrimidine analogs, yet the predictive value of mismatch repair status for response to these agents has not been examined in this malignancy. A tissue microarray with associated clinical outcome, comprising 254 resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients was stained for four mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2). Mismatch repair deficiency and proficiency was determined by the absence or presence of uniform nuclear staining in tumor cells, respectively. Cases identified as mismatch repair deficient on the tissue microarray were confirmed by immunohistochemistry on whole slide sections. Of the 265 cases, 78 (29%) received adjuvant treatment with a pyrimidine analog and 41 (15%) showed a mismatch repair-deficient immunoprofile. Multivariable disease-specific survival in the mismatch repair-proficient cohort demonstrated that adjuvant chemotherapy, regional lymph-node status, gender, and the presence of tumor budding were significant independent prognostic variables (P≤0.04); however, none of the eight clinico-pathologic covariates examined in the mismatch repair-deficient cohort were of independent prognostic significance. Univariable assessment of disease-specific survival revealed an almost identical survival profile for both treated and untreated patients with a mismatch repair-deficient profile, while treatment in the mismatch repair-proficient cohort conferred a greater than 10-month median disease-specific survival advantage over their untreated counterparts (P=0.0018). In this cohort, adjuvant chemotherapy with a pyrimidine analog conferred no survival advantage to mismatch repair-deficient pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients. Mismatch repair immunoprofiling is a feasible predictive marker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients, and further prospective

  4. VLCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boneh, A; Andresen, B S; Gregersen, N

    2006-01-01

    We diagnosed six newborn babies with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) through newborn screening in three years in Victoria (prevalence rate: 1:31,500). We identified seven known and two new mutations in our patients (2/6 homozygotes; 4/6 compound heterozygotes). Blood...

  5. plenty, a novel hypernodulation mutant in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Chie; Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2010-09-01

    Nitrogen fixation in nodules that contain symbiotic rhizobial bacteria enables legumes to thrive in nitrogen-poor soils. However, this symbiosis is energy consuming. Therefore, legumes strictly control nodulation at both local and systemic levels. Mutants deficient in such controls exhibit a range of phenotypes from non-nodulation to hypernodulation. Here, we isolated a novel hypernodulation mutant from the M(2) progeny derived from Lotus japonicus MG-20 seeds mutagenized by irradiation with a carbon ion beam. We named the mutant 'plenty' because it formed more nodules than the wild-type MG-20. The nodulation zone in the plenty mutant was wider than that in the wild type, but not as enhanced as those in other previously reported hypernodulation mutants such as har1, klv or tml of L. japonicus. Unlike these hypernodulation mutants, the plenty mutant developed nodules of the same size as MG-20. Overall, the plenty mutant exhibited a unique phenotype of moderate hypernodulation. However, a biomass assay indicated that this unique pattern of hypernodulation was a hindrance to host plant growth. The plenty mutant displayed some tolerance to external nitrates and a normal triple response to ethylene. Grafting experiments demonstrated that the root of plenty was responsible for its hypernodulation phenotype. Genetic mapping indicated that the PLENTY gene was located on chromosome 2.

  6. Polynucleotide phosphorylase is implicated in homologous recombination and DNA repair in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carzaniga, Thomas; Sbarufatti, Giulia; Briani, Federica; Dehò, Gianni

    2017-04-04

    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase, encoded by pnp) is generally thought of as an enzyme dedicated to RNA metabolism. The pleiotropic effects of PNPase deficiency is imputed to altered processing and turnover of mRNAs and small RNAs, which in turn leads to aberrant gene expression. However, it has long since been known that this enzyme may also catalyze template-independent polymerization of dNDPs into ssDNA and the reverse phosphorolytic reaction. Recently, PNPase has been implicated in DNA recombination, repair, mutagenesis and resistance to genotoxic agents in diverse bacterial species, raising the possibility that PNPase may directly, rather than through control of gene expression, participate in these processes. In this work we present evidence that in Escherichia coli PNPase enhances both homologous recombination upon P1 transduction and error prone DNA repair of double strand breaks induced by zeocin, a radiomimetic agent. Homologous recombination does not require PNPase phosphorolytic activity and is modulated by its RNA binding domains whereas error prone DNA repair of zeocin-induced DNA damage is dependent on PNPase catalytic activity and cannot be suppressed by overexpression of RNase II, the other major enzyme (encoded by rnb) implicated in exonucleolytic RNA degradation. Moreover, E. coli pnp mutants are more sensitive than the wild type to zeocin. This phenotype depends on PNPase phosphorolytic activity and is suppressed by rnb, thus suggesting that zeocin detoxification may largely depend on RNA turnover. Our data suggest that PNPase may participate both directly and indirectly through regulation of gene expression to several aspects of DNA metabolism such as recombination, DNA repair and resistance to genotoxic agents.

  7. Plants Possess a Cyclic Mitochondrial Metabolic Pathway similar to the Mammalian Metabolic Repair Mechanism Involving Malate Dehydrogenase and l-2-Hydroxyglutarate Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüdig, Meike; Maier, Alexander; Scherrers, Isabell; Seidel, Laura; Jansen, Erwin E W; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Engqvist, Martin K M; Maurino, Veronica G

    2015-09-01

    Enzymatic side reactions can give rise to the formation of wasteful and toxic products that are removed by metabolite repair pathways. In this work, we identify and characterize a mitochondrial metabolic repair mechanism in Arabidopsis thaliana involving malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and l-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (l-2HGDH). We analyze the kinetic properties of both A. thaliana mMDH isoforms, and show that they produce l-2-hydroxyglutarate (l-2HG) from 2-ketoglutarate (2-KG) at low rates in side reactions. We identify A. thaliana l-2HGDH as a mitochondrial FAD-containing oxidase that converts l-2HG back to 2-KG. Using loss-of-function mutants, we show that the electrons produced in the l-2HGDH reaction are transferred to the mitochondrial electron transport chain through the electron transfer protein (ETF). Thus, plants possess the biochemical components of an l-2HG metabolic repair system identical to that found in mammals. While deficiencies in the metabolism of l-2HG result in fatal disorders in mammals, accumulation of l-2HG in plants does not adversely affect their development under a range of tested conditions. However, orthologs of l-2HGDH are found in all examined genomes of viridiplantae, indicating that the repair reaction we identified makes an essential contribution to plant fitness in as yet unidentified conditions in the wild.

  8. Mislocalization of XPF-ERCC1 nuclease contributes to reduced DNA repair in XP-F patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwaar Ahmad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is caused by defects in the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway. NER removes helix-distorting DNA lesions, such as UV-induced photodimers, from the genome. Patients suffering from XP exhibit exquisite sun sensitivity, high incidence of skin cancer, and in some cases neurodegeneration. The severity of XP varies tremendously depending upon which NER gene is mutated and how severely the mutation affects DNA repair capacity. XPF-ERCC1 is a structure-specific endonuclease essential for incising the damaged strand of DNA in NER. Missense mutations in XPF can result not only in XP, but also XPF-ERCC1 (XFE progeroid syndrome, a disease of accelerated aging. In an attempt to determine how mutations in XPF can lead to such diverse symptoms, the effects of a progeria-causing mutation (XPF(R153P were compared to an XP-causing mutation (XPF(R799W in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant XPF harboring either mutation was purified in a complex with ERCC1 and tested for its ability to incise a stem-loop structure in vitro. Both mutant complexes nicked the substrate indicating that neither mutation obviates catalytic activity of the nuclease. Surprisingly, differential immunostaining and fractionation of cells from an XFE progeroid patient revealed that XPF-ERCC1 is abundant in the cytoplasm. This was confirmed by fluorescent detection of XPF(R153P-YFP expressed in Xpf mutant cells. In addition, microinjection of XPF(R153P-ERCC1 into the nucleus of XPF-deficient human cells restored nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Intriguingly, in all XPF mutant cell lines examined, XPF-ERCC1 was detected in the cytoplasm of a fraction of cells. This demonstrates that at least part of the DNA repair defect and symptoms associated with mutations in XPF are due to mislocalization of XPF-ERCC1 into the cytoplasm of cells, likely due to protein misfolding. Analysis of these patient cells therefore reveals a novel mechanism to potentially

  9. Increased repair of {gamma}-induced DNA double-strand breaks at lower dose-rate in CHO cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, D.; Hindo, J.; Averbeck, D. [Centre Universitaire d' Orsay, Inst. Curie-Section de Recherche, Orsay CEDEX (France)]. E-mail: dietrich.averbeck@curie.u-psud.fr

    2004-02-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cell damaging. We asked whether for a given dose a longer irradiation time would be advantageous for the repair of DSBs. Varying the {gamma}-irradiation dose and its delivery time (0.05 Gy/min low dose-rate (LDR) compared with 3.5 Gy/min high dose-rate), confluent Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) and Ku80 mutant cells (xrs-6) deficient in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) were irradiated in agarose plugs at room temperature using a cesium-137 {gamma}-ray source. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to measure DSBs in terms of the fraction of activity released (FAR). At LDR, one third of DSBs were repaired in CHO-K1 but not in xrs-6 cells, indicating the involvement of NHEJ in the repair of {gamma}-induced DSBs at a prolonged irradiation incubation time. To improve DSB measurements, we introduced in our PFGE protocol an antioxidant at the cell lysis step, thus avoiding free-radical side reactions on DNA and spurious DSBs. Addition of the metal chelator deferoxamine (DFO) decreased more efficiently the basal DSB level than did reduced glutathione (GSH), showing that measuring DSBs in the absence of DFO reduces precision and underestimates the role of NHEJ in the dose-rate effect on DSB yield. (author)

  10. Dimerization deficiency of enigmatic retinitis pigmentosa-linked rhodopsin mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploier, Birgit; Caro, Lydia N.; Morizumi, Takefumi; Pandey, Kalpana; Pearring, Jillian N.; Goren, Michael A.; Finnemann, Silvia C.; Graumann, Johannes; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Ernst, Oliver P.; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-10-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a blinding disease often associated with mutations in rhodopsin, a light-sensing G protein-coupled receptor and phospholipid scramblase. Most RP-associated mutations affect rhodopsin's activity or transport to disc membranes. Intriguingly, some mutations produce apparently normal rhodopsins that nevertheless cause disease. Here we show that three such enigmatic mutations--F45L, V209M and F220C--yield fully functional visual pigments that bind the 11-cis retinal chromophore, activate the G protein transducin, traffic to the light-sensitive photoreceptor compartment and scramble phospholipids. However, tests of scramblase activity show that unlike wild-type rhodopsin that functionally reconstitutes into liposomes as dimers or multimers, F45L, V209M and F220C rhodopsins behave as monomers. This result was confirmed in pull-down experiments. Our data suggest that the photoreceptor pathology associated with expression of these enigmatic RP-associated pigments arises from their unexpected inability to dimerize via transmembrane helices 1 and 5.

  11. Epigenetic changes of DNA repair genes in cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Lahtz; Gerd P. Pfeifer

    2011-01-01

    'Every Hour Hurts, The Last One Kills'. That is an old saying about getting old. Every day, thousands of DNA damaging events take place in each cell of our body, but efficient DNA repair systems have evolved to prevent that. However, our DNA repair system and that of most other organisms are not as perfect as that of Deinococcus radiodurans, for example, which is able to repair massive amounts of DNA damage at one time. In many instances, accumulation of DNA damage has been linked to cancer, and genetic deficiencies in specific DNA repair genes are associated with tumor-prone phenotypes. In addition to mutations, which can be either inherited or somatically acquired, epigenetic silencing of DNA repair genes may promote tumorigenesis. This review will summarize current knowledge of the epigenetic inactivation of different DNA repair components in human cancer.

  12. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  13. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  14. DNA Mismatch Repair and Oxidative DNA Damage: Implications for Cancer Biology and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, Gemma; Rashid, Sukaina; Martin, Sarah A., E-mail: sarah.martin@qmul.ac.uk [Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-05

    Many components of the cell, including lipids, proteins and both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, are vulnerable to deleterious modifications caused by reactive oxygen species. If not repaired, oxidative DNA damage can lead to disease-causing mutations, such as in cancer. Base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair are the two DNA repair pathways believed to orchestrate the removal of oxidative lesions. However, recent findings suggest that the mismatch repair pathway may also be important for the response to oxidative DNA damage. This is particularly relevant in cancer where mismatch repair genes are frequently mutated or epigenetically silenced. In this review we explore how the regulation of oxidative DNA damage by mismatch repair proteins may impact on carcinogenesis. We discuss recent studies that identify potential new treatments for mismatch repair deficient tumours, which exploit this non-canonical role of mismatch repair using synthetic lethal targeting.

  15. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  16. Characterization of a Salmonella typhimurium mutant defective in phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochimsen, Bjarne; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Garber, Bruce B.;

    1985-01-01

    This study describes the isolation and characterization of a mutant (strain GP122) of Salmonella typhimurium with a partial deficiency of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase activity. This strain was isolated in a purE deoD gpt purine auxotroph by a procedure designed to select guanosine......-utilizing mutants. Strain GP122 had roughly 15% of the PRPP synthetase activity and 25% of the PRPP pool of its parent strain. The mutant exhibited many of the predicted consequences of a decreased PRPP pool and a defective PRPP synthetase enzyme, including: poor growth on purine bases; decreased accumulation of 5...... phosphoribosyltransferase, enzymes involved in the pyrimidine de novo biosynthetic pathway; growth stimulation by PRPP-sparing compounds (e.g. guanosine, histidine); poor growth in low phosphate medium; and increased heat lability of the defective enzyme. This mutant strain also had increased levels of guanosine 5...

  17. Differential repair of UV damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terleth, C; van Sluis, C A; van de Putte, P

    1989-06-26

    Preferential repair of UV-induced damage is a phenomenon by which mammalian cells might enhance their survival. This paper presents the first evidence that preferential repair occurs in the lower eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover an unique approach is reported to compare identical sequences present on the same chromosome and only differing in expression. We determined the removal of pyrimidine dimers from two identical alpha-mating type loci and we were able to show that the active MAT alpha locus is repaired preferentially to the inactive HML alpha locus. In a sir-3 mutant, in which both loci are active this preference is not observed.

  18. Pectus excavatum repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002949.htm Pectus excavatum repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pectus excavatum repair is surgery to correct pectus excavatum . This ...

  19. Sensitization of Pancreatic Cancers to Gemcitabine Chemoradiation by WEE1 Kinase Inhibition Depends on Homologous Recombination Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasneem Kausar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficacy of chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer and begin to establish patient selection criteria, we investigated the combination of the WEE1 inhibitor AZD1775 with gemcitabine-radiation in homologous recombination (HR repair proficient and deficient pancreatic cancers. Sensitization to gemcitabine-radiation by AZD1775 was assessed in pancreatic cancer cells by clonogenic survival and in patient-derived xenografts by tumor growth. The contributions of HR repair inhibition and G2 checkpoint abrogation to sensitization were assessed by γH2AX, BRCA2 manipulation, and RAD51 focus formation and pHistone H3 flow cytometry, respectively. We found that AZD1775 sensitized to gemcitabine-radiation in BRCA2 wild-type but not BRCA2 mutant pancreatic cancer cells. In all cells, AZD1775 caused inhibition of CDK1 phosphorylation and G2 checkpoint abrogation. However, sensitization by AZD1775 was associated with persistent γH2AX and inhibition of RAD51 focus formation. In HR-proficient (BRCA2 wild-type or -deficient (BRAC2 null isogenic cells, AZD1775 sensitized to gemcitabine-radiation in BRCA2 wild-type, but not in BRCA2 null cells, despite significant G2 checkpoint abrogation. In patient-derived pancreatic tumor xenografts, AZD1775 significantly inhibited tumor growth and impaired RAD51 focus formation in response to gemcitabine-radiation. In conclusion, WEE1 inhibition by AZD1775 is an effective strategy for sensitizing pancreatic cancers to gemcitabine chemoradiation. Although this sensitization is accompanied by inhibition of CDK1 phosphorylation and G2 checkpoint abrogation, this mechanism is not sufficient for sensitization. Our findings demonstrate that sensitization to chemoradiation by WEE1 inhibition results from inhibition of HR repair and suggest that patient tumors without underlying HR defects would benefit most from this therapy.

  20. Macrophages in Tissue Repair, Regeneration, and Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Thomas A; Vannella, Kevin M

    2016-03-15

    Inflammatory monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages are key regulators of tissue repair, regeneration, and fibrosis. After tissue injury, monocytes and macrophages undergo marked phenotypic and functional changes to play critical roles during the initiation, maintenance, and resolution phases of tissue repair. Disturbances in macrophage function can lead to aberrant repair, such that uncontrolled production of inflammatory mediators and growth factors, deficient generation of anti-inflammatory macrophages, or failed communication between macrophages and epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stem or tissue progenitor cells all contribute to a state of persistent injury, and this could lead to the development of pathological fibrosis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that instruct macrophages to adopt pro-inflammatory, pro-wound-healing, pro-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, pro-resolving, and tissue-regenerating phenotypes after injury, and we highlight how some of these mechanisms and macrophage activation states could be exploited therapeutically.

  1. RecG Directs DNA Synthesis during Double-Strand Break Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benura Azeroglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination provides a mechanism of DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR that requires an intact, homologous template for DNA synthesis. When DNA synthesis associated with DSBR is convergent, the broken DNA strands are replaced and repair is accurate. However, if divergent DNA synthesis is established, over-replication of flanking DNA may occur with deleterious consequences. The RecG protein of Escherichia coli is a helicase and translocase that can re-model 3-way and 4-way DNA structures such as replication forks and Holliday junctions. However, the primary role of RecG in live cells has remained elusive. Here we show that, in the absence of RecG, attempted DSBR is accompanied by divergent DNA replication at the site of an induced chromosomal DNA double-strand break. Furthermore, DNA double-stand ends are generated in a recG mutant at sites known to block replication forks. These double-strand ends, also trigger DSBR and the divergent DNA replication characteristic of this mutant, which can explain over-replication of the terminus region of the chromosome. The loss of DNA associated with unwinding joint molecules previously observed in the absence of RuvAB and RecG, is suppressed by a helicase deficient PriA mutation (priA300, arguing that the action of RecG ensures that PriA is bound correctly on D-loops to direct DNA replication rather than to unwind joint molecules. This has led us to put forward a revised model of homologous recombination in which the re-modelling of branched intermediates by RecG plays a fundamental role in directing DNA synthesis and thus maintaining genomic stability.

  2. Connexin mutants and cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Beyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lens is a multicellular, but avascular tissue that must stay transparent to allow normal transmission of light and focusing of it on the retina. Damage to lens cells and/or proteins can cause cataracts, opacities that disrupt these processes. The normal survival of the lens is facilitated by an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly of connexin46 and connexin50. Mutations of the genes that encode these connexins (GJA3 and GJA8 have been identified and linked to inheritance of cataracts in human families and mouse lines. In vitro expression studies of several of these mutants have shown that they exhibit abnormalities that may lead to disease. Many of the mutants reduce or modify intercellular communication due to channel alterations (including loss of function or altered gating or due to impaired cellular trafficking which reduces the number of gap junction channels within the plasma membrane. However, the abnormalities detected in studies of other mutants suggest that they cause cataracts through other mechanisms including gain of hemichannel function (leading to cell injury and death and formation of cytoplasmic accumulations (that may act as light scattering particles. These observations and the anticipated results of ongoing studies should elucidate the mechanisms of cataract development due to mutations of lens connexins and abnormalities of other lens proteins. They may also contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease due to connexin mutations in other tissues.

  3. Mutation rates of TGFBR2 and ACVR2 coding microsatellites in human cells with defective DNA mismatch repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekyung Chung

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability promotes colonic tumorigenesis through generating frameshift mutations at coding microsatellites of tumor suppressor genes, such as TGFBR2 and ACVR2. As a consequence, signaling through these TGFbeta family receptors is abrogated in DNA Mismatch repair (MMR-deficient tumors. How these mutations occur in real time and mutational rates of these human coding sequences have not previously been studied. We utilized cell lines with different MMR deficiencies (hMLH1-/-, hMSH6-/-, hMSH3-/-, and MMR-proficient to determine mutation rates. Plasmids were constructed in which exon 3 of TGFBR2 and exon 10 of ACVR2 were cloned +1 bp out of frame, immediately after the translation initiation codon of an enhanced GFP (EGFP gene, allowing a -1 bp frameshift mutation to drive EGFP expression. Mutation-resistant plasmids were constructed by interrupting the coding microsatellite sequences, preventing frameshift mutation. Stable cell lines were established containing portions of TGFBR2 and ACVR2, and nonfluorescent cells were sorted, cultured for 7-35 days, and harvested for flow cytometric mutation detection and DNA sequencing at specific time points. DNA sequencing revealed a -1 bp frameshift mutation (A9 in TGFBR2 and A7 in ACVR2 in the fluorescent cells. Two distinct fluorescent populations, M1 (dim, representing heteroduplexes and M2 (bright, representing full mutants were identified, with the M2 fraction accumulating over time. hMLH1 deficiency revealed 11 (5.91 x 10(-4 and 15 (2.18 x 10(-4 times higher mutation rates for the TGFBR2 and ACVR2 microsatellites compared to hMSH6 deficiency, respectively. The mutation rate of the TGFBR2 microsatellite was approximately 3 times higher in both hMLH1 and hMSH6 deficiencies than the ACVR2 microsatellite. The -1 bp frameshift mutation rates of TGFBR2 and ACVR2 microsatellite sequences are dependent upon the human MMR background.

  4. When "Other" Initiate Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.

    2000-01-01

    Elaborates on the locus of other-initiated repair, and reports on a number of environments in which others initiate repair turns later than the one directly following the trouble-source turn. Describes several ways that other initiation of repair, which occurs in next-turn position, may be delayed within that position. (Author/VWL)

  5. Tryptophan provision by dietary supplementation of a Bacillus subtilis mutant strain in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Pitarch, A; Nielsen, B.; Canibe, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Supplementing Bacillus (B.) subtilis mutants selected to overproduce a specific amino acid (AA) may be an alternative method to provide essential AA in pig diets. Two experiments on a B. subtilis strain selected to overproduce Trp were conducted using 8-kg pigs fed Trp-deficient diets for 20 d. B...... to counterbalance the Trp deficiency in any of the two experiments. No effect of B. subtilis supplementation to piglet diets was observed on the plasma AA profile. In conclusion, this mutant strain of B. subtilis was not able to compensate a Trp deficiency in the tested doses....

  6. Interface Capacity of Repaired Concrete Columns Strengthened with RC Jackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achillopoulou Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the retrofit of repaired elements by reinforced concrete (RC jacketing conducted to quantify the influence of initial construction deficiencies and of different type of anchors to the ability of the interface to transfer loads. Sixteen specimens (section scale 1:2 were designed with variables the initial deficiencies and the confinement ratio. The results indicate that: a the maximum resistance load and dissipated energy of initially damaged specimens are decreased; b surpassing a specific amount of damage, columns even suitably repaired present lower strain capacity, c welded bars lead to buckling of longitudinal bars.

  7. Mouse model for the DNA repair/basal transcription disorder trichothiodystrophy reveals cancer predisposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Boer (Jan); C.F. van Kreijl (Coen); G. Weeda (Geert); F.R. de Gruijl (Frank); D. Bootsma (Dirk); H. van Steeg (Harry); R.J.W. Berg (Rob); J. Garssen (Johan); J. de Wit (Jan); C.T. van Oostrum; R.B. Beems (Rudolf); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPatients with the nucleotide excision repair (NER) disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are highly predisposed to develop sunlight-induced skin cancer, in remarkable contrast to photosensitive NER-deficient trichothiodystrophy (TTD) patients carrying mutations in the sam

  8. Isolation and characterization of Rhizobium meliloti mutants affected in exopolysaccharide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Navarro, D N; Palomares, A J; Casadesús, J

    1991-06-01

    Rhizobium meliloti mutants affected in the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) were isolated after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. The mutants were classified into three phenotypic classes: (I) Exo-, rough mutants lacking exopolysaccharide; (II) Exos (for "small") which form tiny, compact colonies and synthesize reduced amounts of EPS; and (III) Exoc (for "constitutive"), hypermucoid mutants which overproduce EPS. Hypermucoid strains showed increased resistance to desiccation. All the mutants were able to nodulate, although a significant decrease in infectivity degree and/or competitiveness was found in rough and compact strains. Two mutants proved to be deficient in nitrogen fixation. Complementation analysis with cloned R. meliloti exo genes could not be applied to the study of these Fix- mutants because introduction of plasmids derived from cosmid vector pLAFR1 caused loss of nodulating ability. However, complementation of calcofluor staining and EPS production was observed. Complementation with certain exo genes also caused a marked increase in motility.

  9. Elevated mutation frequency in surviving populations of carbon-starved rpoS-deficient Pseudomonas putida is caused by reduced expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarassova, Kairi; Tegova, Radi; Tover, Andres; Teras, Riho; Tark, Mariliis; Saumaa, Signe; Kivisaar, Maia

    2009-06-01

    RpoS is a bacterial sigma factor of RNA polymerase which is involved in the expression of a large number of genes to facilitate survival under starvation conditions and other stresses. The results of our study demonstrate that the frequency of emergence of base substitution mutants is significantly increased in long-term-starved populations of rpoS-deficient Pseudomonas putida cells. The increasing effect of the lack of RpoS on the mutation frequency became apparent in both a plasmid-based test system measuring Phe(+) reversion and a chromosomal rpoB system detecting rifampin-resistant mutants. The elevated mutation frequency coincided with the death of about 95% of the cells in a population of rpoS-deficient P. putida. Artificial overexpression of superoxide dismutase or catalase in the rpoS-deficient strain restored the survival of cells and resulted in a decline in the mutation frequency. This indicated that, compared to wild-type bacteria, rpoS-deficient cells are less protected against damage caused by reactive oxygen species. 7,8-Dihydro-8-oxoguanine (GO) is known to be one of the most stable and frequent base modifications caused by oxygen radical attack on DNA. However, the spectrum of base substitution mutations characterized in rpoS-deficient P. putida was different from that in bacteria lacking the GO repair system: it was broader and more similar to that identified in the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the formation of large deletions was also accompanied by a lack of RpoS. Thus, the accumulation of DNA damage other than GO elevates the frequency of mutation in these bacteria. It is known that oxidative damage of proteins and membrane components, but not that of DNA, is a major reason for the death of cells. Since the increased mutation frequency was associated with a decline in the viability of bacteria, we suppose that the elevation of the mutation frequency in the surviving population of carbon-starved rpoS-deficient P. putida may be caused both by

  10. Percutaneous mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, A Marc; Liddicoat, John R

    2006-01-01

    Surgical mitral valve repair is the procedure of choice to treat mitral regurgitation of all etiologies. Whereas annuloplasty is the cornerstone of mitral valve repair, a variety of other surgical techniques are utilized to correct dysfunction of the leaflets and subvalvular apparatus; in most cases, surgical repair entails application of multiple repair techniques in each patient. Preclinical studies and early human experience have demonstrated that some of these surgical repair techniques can be performed using percutaneous approaches. Specifically, there has been great progress in the development of novel technology to facilitate percutaneous annuloplasty and percutaneous edge-to-edge repair. The objectives of this report were to (1) discuss the surgical foundations for these percutaneous approaches; (2) review device design and experimental and clinical results of percutaneous valve repair; and (3) address future directions, including the key challenges of patient selection and clinical trial design.

  11. Relationship between microsatellite instability and deficiency of DNA mismatch repair system in lung carcinoma%肺癌微卫星不稳定性与错配修复基因缺陷的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曼; 喻喆; 李英华; 张晶

    2011-01-01

    Objectiye To investigate the relationship between microsatellite instability (MSI) and mismatch repair gene (MMR) in lung carcinoma,and to analyze its action in lung carcinogenesis.Methods DNA was extracted from 50 cases of lung carcinoma and adjacent normal tissue.SSCP was used to detect MSI.Immunohistochemistry was performed to measure the expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein in lung carcinoma.Results Of the 50 cases of lung carcinoma,14 with high MSI,21 with low MSI,and 15 with microsatellite stability,0 with MSI in normal group (P = 0.000).Lack of hMLH1 and hMLH2 staining was found in 37 of 50 (74 %) and 16 of 50 (32 %) lung carcinoma tissues with MSI,respectively; but both of hMLH1 and hMSH2 positive staining was found in the lung carcinoma tissues with MSS.Conclusion MSI appears to be associated with lung carcinogenesis,and inactivation of either hMLH1 or hMSH2 may be responsible for MSI,suggesting that MSI may become one of diagnosis indexes of lung carcinoma.%目的 通过对肺癌微卫星不稳定性(MSI)的分析与错配修复基因蛋白表达的检测,探讨肺癌发病的分子机制.方法 从50例肺癌患者的正常肺组织、癌组织中提取DNA;SSCP法检测标本中MSI发生情况;免疫组织化学法检测错配修复基因hMLH1及hMSH2在肺癌中的表达情况.结果 50例肺癌中微卫星高度不稳定(MSI-H)14例,低度不稳定(MSI-I)21例,稳定(MSS)15例,正常组织中未出现MSI,两者之间差异有统计学意义(P=0.000);免疫组化结果显示hMLH1在MSI肺癌组织中常为缺失表达,表达率为74%(37/50);hMSH2在MSI肺癌组织中也呈缺失表达,表达率为32%(16/50);而在MSS肺癌组织中均显示hMLH1、hMSH2基因蛋白表达阳性.结论 肺癌的发生可能存在MSI途径,而hMLH1、hMSH2的表达失活则可能导致MSI的发生,因此,MSI可作为肺癌诊断的指标之一.

  12. Functional complementation of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis AP endonuclease gene (lamap) in Escherichia coli mutant strains challenged with DNA damage agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verissimo-Villela, Erika; Kitahara-Oliveira, Milene Yoko; Reis, Ana Beatriz de Bragança Dos; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Bello, Alexandre Ribeiro

    2016-05-01

    During its life cycle Leishmania spp. face several stress conditions that can cause DNA damages. Base Excision Repair plays an important role in DNA maintenance and it is one of the most conserved mechanisms in all living organisms. DNA repair in trypanosomatids has been reported only for Old World Leishmania species. Here the AP endonuclease from Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli mutants defective on the DNA repair machinery, that were submitted to different stress conditions, showing ability to survive in comparison to the triple null mutant parental strain BW535. Phylogenetic and multiple sequence analyses also confirmed that LAMAP belongs to the AP endonuclease class of proteins.

  13. Functional complementation of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis AP endonuclease gene (lamap) in Escherichia coli mutant strains challenged with DNA damage agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verissimo-Villela, Erika; Kitahara-Oliveira, Milene Yoko; dos Reis, Ana Beatriz de Bragança; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Bello, Alexandre Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    During its life cycle Leishmania spp. face several stress conditions that can cause DNA damages. Base Excision Repair plays an important role in DNA maintenance and it is one of the most conserved mechanisms in all living organisms. DNA repair in trypanosomatids has been reported only for Old World Leishmania species. Here the AP endonuclease from Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli mutants defective on the DNA repair machinery, that were submitted to different stress conditions, showing ability to survive in comparison to the triple null mutant parental strain BW535. Phylogenetic and multiple sequence analyses also confirmed that LAMAP belongs to the AP endonuclease class of proteins. PMID:27223868

  14. Secretos de Mutantes

    OpenAIRE

    Marín, Martha; Muñoz, Germán; Serrano, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Apartándose de enfoques que consideran las culturas juveniles como ‘desviaciones sociales', ‘tribus urbanas' o ‘nuevos movimientos políticos', Secretos de mutantes bucea en culturas juveniles urbanas como la Skinhead, el Punk, el Metal, el Hardcore, el Grunge y el Hip Hop, explorándolas desde un punto de vista inédito: su dimensión de creación, para percibir los cruciales y casi desconocidos procesos que sus miembros llevan a cabo en estos vastos universos de experimentación. Esta obra se nut...

  15. Homologous Recombination Defective Arabidopsis Mutants Exhibit Enhanced Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sujit; Das, Kali Pada

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) acts as an important plant hormone in regulating various aspects of plant growth and developmental processes particularly under abiotic stress conditions. An increased ABA level in plant cells inhibits DNA replication and cell division, causing plant growth retardation. In this study, we have investigated the effects of ABA on the growth responses of some major loss-of-function mutants of DNA double-stand break (DSB) repair genes in Arabidopsis during seed germination and early stages of seedling growth for understanding the role of ABA in the induction of genome instability in plants. A comparative analysis of ABA sensitivity of wild-type Arabidopsis and the knockout mutant lines related to DSB sensors, including atatm, atatr, the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway genes, and mutants related to homologous recombination (HR) pathway genes showed relatively enhanced sensitivity of atatr and HR-related mutants to ABA treatment. The expression levels of HR-related genes were increased in wild-type Arabidopsis (Col-0) during seed germination and early stages of seedling growth. Immunoblotting experiments detected phosphorylation of histone H2AX in wild-type (Col-0) and DSB repair gene mutants after ABA treatment, indicating the activation of DNA damage response due to ABA treatment. Analyses of DSB repair kinetics using comet assay under neutral condition have revealed comparatively slower DSB repair activity in HR mutants. Overall, our results have provided comprehensive information on the possible effect of ABA on DNA repair machinery in plants and also indicated potential functional involvement of HR pathway in repairing ABA induced DNA damage in Arabidopsis. PMID:28046013

  16. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at highest risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Outlook Doctors usually can successfully treat iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment ... poor skin tone, dizziness, and depression. After her doctor diagnosed her with iron-deficiency anemia, Susan got ...

  18. Repairing the basic defect in cystic fibrosis - one approach is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Carlos M; Matos, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis has attracted much attention in recent years due to significant advances in the pharmacological targeting of the basic defect underlying this recessive disorder: the deficient functional expression of mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels at the apical membrane of epithelial cells. However, increasing evidence points to the reduced efficacy of single treatments, thus reinforcing the need to combine several therapeutic strategies to effectively target the multiple basic defect(s). Protein-repair therapies that use potentiators (activating membrane-located CFTR) or correctors (promoting the relocation of intracellular-retained trafficking mutants of CFTR) in frequent mutations such as F508del and G551D have been put forward and made their way to the clinic with moderate to good efficiency. However, alternative (or additional) approaches targeting the membrane stability of mutant proteins, or correcting the cellular phenotype through a direct effect upon other ion channels (affecting the overall electrolyte transport or simply promoting alternative chloride transport) or targeting less frequent mutations (splicing variants, for example), have been proposed and tested in the field of cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we cover the different strategies that rely on novel findings concerning the CFTR interactome and signalosome through which it might be possible to further influence the cellular trafficking and post-translational modification machinery (to increase rescued CFTR abundance and membrane stability). We also highlight the new data on strategies aiming at the regulation of sodium absorption or to increase chloride transport through alternative channels. The development and implementation of these complementary approaches will pave the way to combinatorial therapeutic strategies with increased benefit to CF patients.

  19. Defective transcription-coupled repair in Cockayne syndrome B mice is associated with skin cancer predisposition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); H. van Steeg (Harry); R.J.W. Berg (Rob); A.J. van Gool (Alain); J. de Wit (Jan); G. Weeda (Geert); H. Morreau (Hans); R.B. Beems (Rudolf); C.F. van Kreijl (Coen); F.R. de Gruijl (Frank); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA mouse model for the nucleotide excision repair disorder Cockayne syndrome (CS) was generated by mimicking a truncation in the CSB(ERCC6) gene of a CS-B patient. CSB-deficient mice exhibit all of the CS repair characteristics: ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, inactivation of transcription-

  20. DNA repair in human cells: from genetic complementation to isolation of genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bootsma (Dirk); A. Westerveld (Andries); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) demonstrates the association between defective repair of DNA lesions and cancer. Complementation analysis performed on XP cell strains and on repair deficient rodent cell lines has revealed that at least nine and possibly more than 13 genes

  1. DNA repair in human cells: from genetic complementation to isolation of genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bootsma (Dirk); A. Westerveld (Andries); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) demonstrates the association between defective repair of DNA lesions and cancer. Complementation analysis performed on XP cell strains and on repair deficient rodent cell lines has revealed that at least nine and possibly more than 13 genes

  2. Interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and aflatoxin B1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is an important environmental carcinogen and can induce DNA damage and involve in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The deficiency of DNA repair capacity related to the polymorphisms of DNA repair genes might play a central role in the process of HCC tumorigenesis. However, the interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and AFB1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether six polymorphisms (i...

  3. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, A.; Oliver, S.G. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23{Delta}pet191 and FY23{Delta}cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23{rho}{sup 0}. Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant. K{sub i}, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, q{sub p}, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. FY23{rho}{sup 0} was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a K{sub i} of 1.71% (w/v) and q{sub p} of 0.87 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23{Delta}pet191, having a K{sub i} of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23{Delta}cox5a, having a K{sub i} of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23{rho}{sup 0} is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject of the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation. (orig.)

  4. Optimality in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

    2012-01-07

    DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge.

  5. ECB deacylase mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Frances H.; Shao, Zhixin; Zhao, Huimin; Giver, Lorraine J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  6. Detection of PIGO-deficient cells using proaerolysin: a valuable tool to investigate mechanisms of mutagenesis in the DT40 cell system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nakamura

    Full Text Available While isogenic DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways are a great tool to understand the DNA damage response to genotoxic agents by a comparison of cell toxicity in mutants and parental DT40 cells, no convenient mutation assay for mutagens currently exists for this reverse-genetic system. Here we establish a proaerolysin (PA selection-based mutation assay in DT40 cells to identify glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchor deficient cells. Using PA, we detected an increase in the number of PA-resistant DT40 cells exposed to MMS for 24 hours followed by a 5-day period of phenotype expression. GPI anchor synthesis is catalyzed by a series of phosphatidylinositol glycan complementation groups (PIGs. The PIG-O gene is on the sex chromosome (Chromosome Z in chicken cells and is critical for GPI anchor synthesis at the intermediate step. Among all the mutations detected in the sequence levels observed in DT40 cells exposed to MMS at 100 µM, we identified that ∼55% of the mutations are located at A:T sites with a high frequency of A to T transversion mutations. In contrast, we observed no transition mutations out of 18 mutations. This novel assay for DT40 cells provides a valuable tool to investigate the mode of action of mutations caused by reactive agents using a series of isogenic mutant DT40 cells.

  7. Spontaneous chlorophyll mutants of Pennisetum americanum: Genetics and chlorophyll quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduru, P R; Rao, M K

    1980-05-01

    Thirteen spontaneously occurring chlorophyll deficient phenotypes have been described and their genetic basis was established. Ten of these - 'white', 'white tipped green', 'patchy white', 'white virescent', 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2', 'white striping 4', 'fine striping', 'chlorina' and 'yellow virescent' showed monogenic recessive inheritance and the remaining three - 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' seedling phenotypes showed digenic recessive inheritance. The genes for (i) 'white tipped green' (wr) and 'yellow virescent' (yv) and (ii) 'patchy white' (pw) and 'white striping 1' (wst 1) showed independent assortment. Further, the genes for 'white' (w), 'white tipped green' (wr) and 'yellow virescent' (yv) were inherited independently of the gene for hairy leaf margin (Hm).In the mutants - 'white tipped green', 'patchy white', 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2', 'fine striping', 'chlorina', 'yellow virescent', 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' phenotypes total quantity of chlorophyll was significantly less than that in the corresponding controls, while in 'white virescent' there was no reduction in the mature stage. For nine of the mutants the quantity of chlorophyll was also estimated in F1's (mutant x control green). In F1's of six of the mutants - 'white tip', 'patchy white', 'chlorina', 'yellow virescent', 'fine striping' and 'yellow striping' the quantity of chlorophyll was almost equal to the wild type. In the F1's of three of the mutants - 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2' and 'light green' an intermediate value between the mutant and wild types was observed. In 'yellow virescent' retarded synthesis of chlorophyll, particularly chlorophyll a was observed in the juvenile stage. Reduced quantity of chlorophyll was associated with defective chloroplasts. In the mutants - 'white tipped green, 'white virescent', 'fine striping', 'chlorina', 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' defective

  8. Assessment of Human DNA Repair (NER) Capacity With DNA Repair Rate (DRR) by Comet Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI ZHENG; JI-LIANG HE; LI-FEN JIN; JIAN-LIN LOU; BAO-HONG WANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective Alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate DNA repair (nucleotide excision repair, NER) capacity of human fresh lymphocytes from 12 young healthy non-smokers (6 males and 6 females). Methods Lymphocytes were exposed to UV-C (254 nm) at the dose rate of 1.5 J/m2/sec. Novobiocin (NOV) and aphidicolin (APC), DNA repair inhibitors, were utilized to imitate the deficiency of DNA repair capacity at the incision and ligation steps of NER. Lymphocytes from each donor were divided into three grougs: UVC group, UVC plus NOV group, and UVC plus APC group. DNA single strand breaks were detected in UVC irradiated cells incubated for 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min after UVC irradiation. DNA repair rate (DRR) served as an indicator of DNA repair capacity. Results The results indicated that the maximum DNA damage (i.e. maximum tail length) in the UVC group mainly appeared at 90 min. The ranges of DRRs in the UVC group were 62.84%-98.71%. Average DRR value was 81.84%. The DRR difference between males and females was not significant (P<0.05). However, the average DRR value in the UVC plus NOV group and the UVC plus APC group was 52.98% and 39.57% respectively, which were significantly lower than that in the UVC group (P<0.01). Conclusion The comet assay is a rapid, simple and sensitive screening test to assess individual DNA repair (NER) capacity. It is suggested that the time to detect DNA single strand breaks in comet assay should include 0 (before UV irradiation), 90 and 240 min after exposure to 1.5 J·m-2 UVC at least. The DRR, as an indicator, can represent the individual DNA repair capacity in comet assay.

  9. Hyperrecombination in pneumococcus: A/G to C.G repair and requirement for DNA polymerase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, F; Sicard, M A

    1994-09-01

    During pneumococcal transformation, we had previously described that the ami36 mutation, which results from a C.G to A.T transversion, induces a large excess of wild-type recombinants in two point crosses. Upon donor-recipient DNA recombination, two heteroduplexes are generated by this mutation: A36/G+ and C+/T36. In two point crosses, hyperrecombination is observed only when transformation leads to the A/G mismatch. Here, we have studied the separate evolution of A36/G+ and C+/T36 heterozygotes created upon transformation of an ami36 mutant strain with artificial heteroduplex DNAs. We found that the A36/G+ mismatch leads to a preferential generation of wild-type progeny as compared with the complementary C+/T36 mismatch. This result suggests that A/G carrying transformants partly behave as wild-type homozygotes. The only way to account for such behavior is an excision repair correcting some A/G mispairs created upon transformation into C.G pairs. Moreover, we show that hyperrecombination triggered by ami36 is strongly reduced in a DNA polymerase I deficient strain. This strengthens the fact of DNA repair synthesis, which should be therefore prominently due to DNA polymerase I.

  10. The MCM-binding protein ETG1 aids sister chromatid cohesion required for postreplicative homologous recombination repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The DNA replication process represents a source of DNA stress that causes potentially spontaneous genome damage. This effect might be strengthened by mutations in crucial replication factors, requiring the activation of DNA damage checkpoints to enable DNA repair before anaphase onset. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of the evolutionarily conserved minichromosome maintenance helicase-binding protein ETG1 of Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in a stringent late G2 cell cycle arrest. This arrest correlated with a partial loss of sister chromatid cohesion. The lack-of-cohesion phenotype was intensified in plants without functional CTF18, a replication fork factor needed for cohesion establishment. The synergistic effect of the etg1 and ctf18 mutants on sister chromatid cohesion strengthened the impact on plant growth of the replication stress caused by ETG1 deficiency because of inefficient DNA repair. We conclude that the ETG1 replication factor is required for efficient cohesion and that cohesion establishment is essential for proper development of plants suffering from endogenous DNA stress. Cohesion defects observed upon knockdown of its human counterpart suggest an equally important developmental role for the orthologous mammalian ETG1 protein.

  11. The RSC and INO80 chromatin-remodeling complexes in DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Anna L; Downs, Jessica A

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, DNA is packaged into chromatin and is therefore relatively inaccessible to DNA repair enzymes. In order to perform efficient DNA repair, ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes are required to alter the chromatin structure near the site of damage to facilitate processing and allow access to repair enzymes. Two of the best-studied remodeling complexes involved in repair are RSC (Remodels the Structure of Chromatin) and INO80 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which are both conserved in higher eukaryotes. RSC is very rapidly recruited to breaks and mobilizes nucleosomes to promote phosphorylation of H2A S129 and resection. INO80 enrichment at a break occurs later and is dependent on phospho-S129 H2A. INO80 activity at the break site also facilitates resection. Consequently, both homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining are defective in rsc mutants, while subsets of these repair pathways are affected in ino80 mutants.

  12. In vivo DNA mismatch repair measurement in zebrafish embryos and its use in screening of environmental carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuanhong [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: cjhuang5711@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Bai, Chenglian; Du, Changchun; Liao, Junhua [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Dong, Qiaoxiang, E-mail: dqxdong@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • We developed an in vivo DNA mismatch repair (MMR) measurement assay in zebrafish embryos. • This assay involves microinjection of homo- and heteroduplex EGFP plasmids into zebrafish embryos. • This novel assay was validated with embryos from the MMR-deficient mlh1 mutant fish. • We successfully applied this assay for detecting environmental chemicals with carcinogenic effect. • This novel assay can be used for screening of environmental carcinogens. - Abstract: Impairment of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) function leads to the development and progression of certain cancers. Many environmental contaminants can target DNA MMR system. Currently, measurement of MMR activity is limited to in vitro or in vivo methods at the cell line level, and reports on measurement of MMR activity at the live organism level are lacking. Here, we report an efficient method to measure DNA MMR activity in zebrafish embryos. A G-T mismatch was introduced into enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. Repair of the G-T mismatch to G-C in the heteroduplex plasmid generates a functional EGFP expression. The heteroduplex plasmid and a similarly constructed homoduplex plasmid were injected in parallel into the same batch of embryos at 1-cell stage and EGFP expression in EGFP positive embryos was quantified at 24 h after injection. MMR efficiency was calculated as the total fluorescence intensity of embryos injected with the heteroduplex construct divided by that of embryos injected with the homoduplex construct. Our results showed 73% reduction of MMR activity in embryos derived from MMR-deficient mlh1 mutant fish (positive control) when compared with embryos from MMR-competent wild type AB line fish, indicating feasibility of in vivo MMR activity measurement in zebrafish embryos. We further applied this novel assay for measurement of MMR efficiency in embryos exposed to environmental chemicals such as cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and

  13. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Anouk de Bruyn; Yves Jacquemyn; Kristof Kinget; François Eyskens

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, su...

  14. Repairs of composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and

  15. Putative Enzymes of UV Photoproduct Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J. Sakofsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the biological relevance of two S. acidocaldarius proteins to the repair of UV photoproducts, the corresponding genes (Saci_1227 and Saci_1096 were disrupted, and the phenotypes of the resulting mutants were examined by various genetic assays. The disruption used integration by homologous recombination of a functional but heterologous pyrE gene, promoted by short sequences attached to both ends via PCR. The phenotypic analyses of the disruptants confirmed that ORF Saci_1227 encodes a DNA photolyase which functions in vivo, but they could not implicate ORF Saci_1096 in repair of UV- or other externally induced DNA damage despite its similarity to genes encoding UV damage endonucleases. The success of the gene-disruption strategy, which used 5′ extensions of PCR primers to target cassette integration, suggests potential advantages for routine construction of Sulfolobus strains.

  16. The nucleotide excision repair (NER system of Helicobacter pylori: Role in mutation prevention and chromosomal import patterns after natural transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moccia Claudia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive genetic diversity and rapid allelic diversification are characteristics of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, and are believed to contribute to its ability to cause chronic infections. Both a high mutation rate and frequent imports of short fragments of exogenous DNA during mixed infections play important roles in generating this allelic diversity. In this study, we used a genetic approach to investigate the roles of nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway components in H. pylori mutation and recombination. Results Inactivation of any of the four uvr genes strongly increased the susceptibility of H. pylori to DNA damage by ultraviolet light. Inactivation of uvrA and uvrB significantly decreased mutation frequencies whereas only the uvrA deficient mutant exhibited a significant decrease of the recombination frequency after natural transformation. A uvrC mutant did not show significant changes in mutation or recombination rates; however, inactivation of uvrC promoted the incorporation of significantly longer fragments of donor DNA (2.2-fold increase into the recipient chromosome. A deletion of uvrD induced a hyper-recombinational phenotype. Conclusions Our data suggest that the NER system has multiple functions in the genetic diversification of H. pylori, by contributing to its high mutation rate, and by controlling the incorporation of imported DNA fragments after natural transformation.

  17. Workshop on DNA repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Lehmann (Alan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.A. van Zeeland (Albert); C.M.P. Backendorf (Claude); B.A. Bridges; A. Collins; R.P.D. Fuchs; G.P. Margison; R. Montesano; E. Moustacchi; A.T. Natarajan; M. Radman; A. Sarasin; E. Seeberg; C.A. Smith; M. Stefanini (Miria); L.H. Thompson; G.P. van der Schans; C.A. Weber (Christine); M.Z. Zdzienika

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA workshop on DNA repair with emphasis on eukaryotic systems was held, under the auspices of the EC Concerted Action on DNA Repair and Cancer, at Noordwijkerhout (The Netherlands) 14-19 April 1991. The local organization of the meeting was done under the auspices of the Medical Genetic C

  18. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Atul K; Ternovits, Craig A; Speck, Karen E; Pritchard, F Elizabeth; Tichansky, David S

    2006-04-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare clinical entities that often pose a challenge for repair. Because of the surrounding anatomy, adequate surgical herniorraphy is often difficult. Minimally invasive surgery has become an option for these hernias. Herein, we describe two patients with lumbar hernias (one with a recurrent traumatic hernia and one with an incisional hernia). Both of these hernias were successfully repaired laparoscopically.

  19. Canonical DNA Repair Pathways Influence R-Loop-Driven Genome Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Peter C; Hieter, Philip

    2016-07-22

    DNA repair defects create cancer predisposition in humans by fostering a higher rate of mutations. While DNA repair is quite well characterized, recent studies have identified previously unrecognized relationships between DNA repair and R-loop-mediated genome instability. R-loops are three-stranded nucleic acid structures in which RNA binds to genomic DNA to displace a loop of single-stranded DNA. Mutations in homologous recombination, nucleotide excision repair, crosslink repair, and DNA damage checkpoints have all now been linked to formation and function of transcription-coupled R-loops. This perspective will summarize recent literature linking DNA repair to R-loop-mediated genomic instability and discuss how R-loops may contribute to mutagenesis in DNA-repair-deficient cancers.

  20. CD18 deficiency improves liver injury in the MCD model of steatohepatitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew A Pierce; Caroline C Duwaerts; Kevin Siao; Aras N Mattis; Amanda Goodsell; Jody L Baron; Jacquelyn J Maher

    2017-01-01

    .... The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which activated innate immune cells promote steatohepatitis by comparing hepatic outcomes in wild-type and CD18-mutant mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet...

  1. Inhibition of DNA repair by Pentoxifylline and related methylxanthine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Lothar; Roos, Wynand Paul; Serafin, Antonio Mendes

    2003-11-15

    The methylxanthine drug Pentoxifylline is reviewed for new properties which have emerged only relatively recently and for which clinical applications can be expected. After a summary on the established systemic effects of Pentoxifylline on the microcirculation and reduction of tumour anoxia, the role of the drug in the treatment of vasoocclusive disorders, cerebral ischemia, infectious diseases, septic shock and acute respiratory distress, the review focuses on another level of drug action which is based on in vitro observations in a variety of cell lines. Pentoxifylline and the related drug Caffeine are known radiosensitizers especially in p53 mutant cells. The explanation that the drug abrogates the G2 block and shortens repair in G2 by promoting early entry into mitosis is not anymore tenable because enhancement of radiotoxicity requires presence of the drug during irradiation and fails when the drug is added after irradiation at the G2 maximum. Repair assays by measurement of recovery ratios and by delayed plating experiments indeed strongly suggested a role in repair which is now confirmed for Pentoxifylline by constant field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) measurements and for Pentoxifylline and for Caffeine by use of a variety of repair mutants. The picture now emerging shows that Caffeine and Pentoxifylline inhibit homologous recombination by targeting members of the PIK kinase family (ATM and ATR) which facilitate repair in G2. Pentoxifylline induced repair inhibition between irradiation dose fractions to counter interfraction repair has been successfully applied in a model for stereotactic surgery. Another realistic avenue of application of Pentoxifylline in tumour therapy comes from experiments which show that repair events in G2 can be targeted directly by addition of cytotoxic drugs and Pentoxifylline at the G2 maximum. Under these conditions massive dose enhancement factors of up to 80 have been observed suggesting that it may be possible to realise

  2. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  3. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  4. Biological effects of exposure to intermediate neutron and repair mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Onishi, Takeo; Onizuka, Masahiko

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was made on cytotoxic effects of neutron capture using chicken B-cell line mutants, DT40, KURO{sup -/-}, RAD54 {sup -/-} and KU70{sup -/-} / RAD54{sup -/-}. Suspensions of these cells were exposed to two times X-radiation at various doses and the cell surviving was evaluated. The sensitivity to radiation was highest in the double defective mutant, KU70{sup -/-} / RAD54{sup -/-} and followed by that of RAD54 {sup -/-}, a homologous recombination mutant, whereas KURO {sup -/-} cell, a non-homologous end-joining mutant showed a peculiar surviving curve composed of two phases and the cell was highly sensitive to a low-dose radiation. This indicates that there are two different DNA repair systems for double-strand breaks and the system for non-homologous end-joining repair can be involved in all phases of cell cycle, but the system for the homologous one is involved only in S-phase. Therefore, it was thought that variation of sensitivity to radiation exposure depending to the phase of cell cycle might explain the alternation of repair system depending to the phase progressing of cell cycle. It was thus likely that the recovery from radiation injury, which is still a black box might be explained with the double strand breaks of DNA. (M.N.)

  5. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  6. Thymidine kinase 1 deficient cells show increased survival rate after UV-induced DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, T; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Balanced deoxynucleotide pools are known to be important for correct DNA repair, and deficiency for some of the central enzymes in deoxynucleotide metabolism can cause imbalanced pools, which in turn can lead to mutagenesis and cell death. Here we show that cells deficient for the thymidine salvage...

  7. End-joining deficiency and radiosensitization induced by gemcitabine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, JWG; Groea, HJM; Smid, K; Peters, GJ; Kampinga, HH

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of radiosensitization by gemcitabine (2',2'-dinuoro-2'-deoxycytidine, dFdC) is not exactly known. We investigated the possible role of inhibition of the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by dFdC by measuring the extent of radiosensitization in different cell lines deficient and

  8. Photodynamic DNA damage induced by phycocyanin and its repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pádula

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we analyzed DNA damage induced by phycocyanin (PHY in the presence of visible light (VL using a set of repair endonucleases purified from Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that the profile of DNA damage induced by PHY is clearly different from that induced by molecules that exert deleterious effects on DNA involving solely singlet oxygen as reactive species. Most of PHY-induced lesions are single strand breaks and, to a lesser extent, base oxidized sites, which are recognized by Nth, Nfo and Fpg enzymes. High pressure liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection revealed that PHY photosensitization did not induce 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo at detectable levels. DNA repair after PHY photosensitization was also investigated. Plasmid DNA damaged by PHY photosensitization was used to transform a series of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair mutants. The results revealed that plasmid survival was greatly reduced in rad14 mutants, while the ogg1 mutation did not modify the plasmid survival when compared to that in the wild type. Furthermore, plasmid survival in the ogg1 rad14 double mutant was not different from that in the rad14 single mutant. The results reported here indicate that lethal lesions induced by PHY plus VL are repaired differently by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Morever, nucleotide excision repair seems to play a major role in the recognition and repair of these lesions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  9. Glutathione plays an essential role in nitric oxide-mediated iron-deficiency signaling and iron-deficiency tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Varanavasiappan; Wang, Yi-Wen; Tsednee, Munkhtsetseg; Karunakaran, Krithika; Yeh, Kuo-Chen

    2015-11-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a common agricultural problem that affects both the productivity and nutritional quality of plants. Thus, identifying the key factors involved in the tolerance of Fe deficiency is important. In the present study, the zir1 mutant, which is glutathione deficient, was found to be more sensitive to Fe deficiency than the wild type, and grew poorly in alkaline soil. Other glutathione-deficient mutants also showed various degrees of sensitivity to Fe-limited conditions. Interestingly, we found that the glutathione level was increased under Fe deficiency in the wild type. By contrast, blocking glutathione biosynthesis led to increased physiological sensitivity to Fe deficiency. On the other hand, overexpressing glutathione enhanced the tolerance to Fe deficiency. Under Fe-limited conditions, glutathione-deficient mutants, zir1, pad2 and cad2 accumulated lower levels of Fe than the wild type. The key genes involved in Fe uptake, including IRT1, FRO2 and FIT, are expressed at low levels in zir1; however, a split-root experiment suggested that the systemic signals that govern the expression of Fe uptake-related genes are still active in zir1. Furthermore, we found that zir1 had a lower accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) and NO reservoir S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Although NO is a signaling molecule involved in the induction of Fe uptake-related genes during Fe deficiency, the NO-mediated induction of Fe-uptake genes is dependent on glutathione supply in the zir1 mutant. These results provide direct evidence that glutathione plays an essential role in Fe-deficiency tolerance and NO-mediated Fe-deficiency signaling in Arabidopsis.

  10. Bone Aging in DNA Repair Deficient Trichothiodystrophy Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E.M. Diderich (Karin)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOur genome is continuously damaged by environmental, endogenous agents as well as by the instrinsic instability of DNA. For example, UV light gives rise to helix-distorting cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-(6,4)-pyrimidone adducts (6-4PPs). Ionizing radiation can cause

  11. DNA-PK inhibition causes a low level of H2AX phosphorylation and homologous recombination repair in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urushihara, Yusuke [Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8562 (Japan); Kobayashi, Junya [Department of Genome Repair Dynamics, Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Matsumoto, Yoshihisa [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Komatsu, Kenshi [Department of Genome Repair Dynamics, Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Oda, Shoji [Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8562 (Japan); Mitani, Hiroshi, E-mail: mitani@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8562 (Japan)

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the effect of DNA-PK inhibition on DSB repair using fish cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A radiation sensitive mutant RIC1 strain showed a low level of DNA-PK activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA-PK dysfunction leads defects in HR repair and DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA-PK dysfunction leads a slight increase in the number of 53BP1 foci after DSBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA-PK dysfunction leads an alternative NHEJ that depends on 53BP1. -- Abstract: Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) are known as DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. It has been reported that DNA-PK, a member of PI3 kinase family, promotes NHEJ and aberrant DNA-PK causes NHEJ deficiency. However, in this study, we demonstrate that a wild-type cell line treated with DNA-PK inhibitor and a mutant cell line with dysfunctional DNA-PK showed decreased HR efficiency in fish cells (Medaka, Oryzias latipes). Previously, we reported that the radiation-sensitive mutant RIC1 strain has a defect in the Histone H2AX phosphorylation after {gamma}-irradiation. Here, we showed that a DNA-PK inhibitor, NU7026, treatment resulted in significant reduction in the number of {gamma}H2AX foci after {gamma}-irradiation in wild-type cells, but had no significant effect in RIC1 cells. In addition, RIC1 cells showed significantly lower levels of DNA-PK kinase activity compared with wild-type cells. We investigated NHEJ and HR efficiency after induction of DSBs. Wild-type cells treated with NU7026 and RIC1 cells showed decreased HR efficiency. These results indicated that aberrant DNA-PK causes the reduction in the number of {gamma}H2AX foci and HR efficiency in RIC1 cells. We performed phosphorylated DNA-PKcs (Thr2609) and 53BP1 focus assay after {gamma}-irradiation. RIC1 cells showed significant reduction in the number of phosphorylated DNA-PKcs foci and no deference in the

  12. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  13. Disruption of Maternal DNA Repair Increases Sperm-DerivedChromosomal Aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Essers, Jeroun; Kanaar, Roland; Wyrobek,Andrew J.

    2007-02-07

    The final weeks of male germ cell differentiation occur in aDNA repair-deficient environment and normal development depends on theability of the egg to repair DNA damage in the fertilizing sperm. Geneticdisruption of maternal DNA double-strand break repair pathways in micesignificantly increased the frequency of zygotes with chromosomalstructural aberrations after paternal exposure to ionizing radiation.These findings demonstrate that radiation-induced DNA sperm lesions arerepaired after fertilization by maternal factors and suggest that geneticvariation in maternal DNA repair can modulate the risk of early pregnancylosses and of children with chromosomal aberrations of paternalorigin.

  14. Salvage hypospadias repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Review of our experience and to develop an algorithm for salvage procedures in the management of hypospadias cripples and treatment of urethral strictures following hypospadias repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of hypospadias surgeries over a 41-month period. Out of a total 168 surgeries, 20 were salvage/re-operative repairs. In three children a Duplay repair was feasible, while in four others a variety of single-stage repairs could be done. The repair was staged in seven children - buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs in five, buccal mucosal tube in one, and skin graft in one. Five children with dense strictures were managed by dorsal BMG inlay grafting in one, vascularized tunical onlay grafting on the ventrum in one, and a free tunical patch in one. Three children were treated by internal urethrotomy and stenting for four weeks with a poor outcome. Results: The age of children ranged from 1.5-15 years (mean 4.5. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.5 years. Excellent results were obtained in 10 children (50% with a well-surfaced erect penis and a slit-like meatus. Glans closure could not be achieved and meatus was coronal in three. Two children developed fistulae following a Duplay repair and following a staged BMG. Three repairs failed completely - a composite repair broke down, a BMG tube stenosed with a proximal leak, and a stricture recurred with loss of a ventral free tunical graft. Conclusions: In salvage procedures performed on hypospadias cripples, a staged repair with buccal mucosa as an inlay in the first stage followed by tubularization 4-6 months later provides good results. A simple algorithm to plan corrective surgery in failed hypospadias cases and obtain satisfactory results is devised.

  15. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000408.htm Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a group of rare genetic ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video— ... treatment. For more information about living with and managing iron-deficiency anemia, go to the Health Topics ...