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Sample records for repair complex formation

  1. Theoretical approach of complex DNA lesions: from formation to repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignon, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    This thesis work is focused on the theoretical modelling of DNA damages, from formation to repair. Several projects have been led in this framework, which can be sorted into three different parts. One on hand, we studied complex DNA reactivity. It included a study about 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine (8oxoG) mechanisms of formation, a project concerning the UV-induced pyrimidine 6-4 pyrimidone (6-4PP) endogenous photo-sensitizer features, and another one about DNA photo-sensitization by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e. ketoprofen and ibuprofen). On the other hand, we investigated mechanical properties of damaged DNA. The structural signature of a DNA lesion is of major importance for their repair, unfortunately only few NMR and X-ray structures of such systems are available. In order to gain insights into their dynamical structure, we investigated a series of complex damages: clustered abasic sites, interstrand cross-links, and the 6-4PP photo-lesion. Likewise, we studied the interaction modes DNA with several polyamines, which are well known to interact with the double helix, but also with the perspective to model DNA-protein cross-linking. The third part concerned the study of DNA interactions with repair enzymes. In line with the structural study about clustered abasic sites, we investigated the dynamics of the same system, but this time interacting with the APE1 endonuclease. We also studied interactions between the Fpg glycosylase with an oligonucleotides containing tandem 8-oxoG on one hand and 8-oxoG - abasic site as multiply damaged sites. Thus, we shed new lights on damaged DNA reactivity, structure and repair, which provides perspectives for biomedicine and life's mechanisms understanding as we begin to describe nucleosomal DNA. (author)

  2. Molecular dynamics of formation of TD lesioned DNA complexed with repair enzyme - onset of the enzymatic repair process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinak, Miroslav [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-12-01

    To describe the first step of the enzymatic repair process (formation of complex enzyme-DNA), in which the thymine dimer (TD) part is removed from DNA, the 500 picosecond (ps) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of TD lesioned DNA and part of repair enzyme cell (inclusive of catalytic center - Arg-22, Glu-23, Arg-26 and Thr-2) was performed. TD is UV originated lesion in DNA and T4 Endonuclease V is TD specific repair enzyme. Both molecules were located in the same simulation cell and their relative movement was examined. During the simulation the research was focused on the role of electrostatic energy in formation of complex enzyme-DNA. It is found, that during the first 100 ps of MD, the part of enzyme approaches the DNA surface at the TD lesion, interacts extensively by electrostatic and van der Walls interactions with TD part of DNA and forms complex that lasts stabile for 500 ps of MD. In the beginning of MD, the positive electrostatic interaction energy between part of enzyme and TD ({approx} +10 kcal/mol) drives enzyme towards the DNA molecule. Water-mediated hydrogen bonds between enzyme and DNA help to keep complex stabile. As a reference, the MD simulation of the identical system with native DNA molecule (two native thymines (TT) instead of TD) was performed. In this system the negative electrostatic interaction energy between part of enzyme and TT ({approx} -11 kcal/mol), in contrary to the positive one in the system with TD, doesn't drive enzyme towards DNA and complex is not formed. (author)

  3. Molecular dynamics of formation of TD lesioned DNA complexed with repair enzyme - onset of the enzymatic repair process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, Miroslav

    1999-12-01

    To describe the first step of the enzymatic repair process (formation of complex enzyme-DNA), in which the thymine dimer (TD) part is removed from DNA, the 500 picosecond (ps) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of TD lesioned DNA and part of repair enzyme cell (inclusive of catalytic center - Arg-22, Glu-23, Arg-26 and Thr-2) was performed. TD is UV originated lesion in DNA and T4 Endonuclease V is TD specific repair enzyme. Both molecules were located in the same simulation cell and their relative movement was examined. During the simulation the research was focused on the role of electrostatic energy in formation of complex enzyme-DNA. It is found, that during the first 100 ps of MD, the part of enzyme approaches the DNA surface at the TD lesion, interacts extensively by electrostatic and van der Walls interactions with TD part of DNA and forms complex that lasts stabile for 500 ps of MD. In the beginning of MD, the positive electrostatic interaction energy between part of enzyme and TD (∼ +10 kcal/mol) drives enzyme towards the DNA molecule. Water-mediated hydrogen bonds between enzyme and DNA help to keep complex stabile. As a reference, the MD simulation of the identical system with native DNA molecule (two native thymines (TT) instead of TD) was performed. In this system the negative electrostatic interaction energy between part of enzyme and TT (∼ -11 kcal/mol), in contrary to the positive one in the system with TD, doesn't drive enzyme towards DNA and complex is not formed. (author)

  4. Biochemical properties and base excision repair complex formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease from Pyrococcus furiosus

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyonari, Shinichi; Tahara, Saki; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Iwai, Shigenori; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2009-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are the most frequently found mutagenic lesions in DNA, and they arise mainly from spontaneous base loss or modified base removal by damage-specific DNA glycosylases. AP sites are cleaved by AP endonucleases, and the resultant gaps in the DNA are repaired by DNA polymerase/DNA ligase reactions. We identified the gene product that is responsible for the AP endonuclease activity in the hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus. Furthermore, we detected...

  5. Complex networks under dynamic repair model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoqi, Fu; Ying, Wang; Kun, Zhao; Yangjun, Gao

    2018-01-01

    Invulnerability is not the only factor of importance when considering complex networks' security. It is also critical to have an effective and reasonable repair strategy. Existing research on network repair is confined to the static model. The dynamic model makes better use of the redundant capacity of repaired nodes and repairs the damaged network more efficiently than the static model; however, the dynamic repair model is complex and polytropic. In this paper, we construct a dynamic repair model and systematically describe the energy-transfer relationships between nodes in the repair process of the failure network. Nodes are divided into three types, corresponding to three structures. We find that the strong coupling structure is responsible for secondary failure of the repaired nodes and propose an algorithm that can select the most suitable targets (nodes or links) to repair the failure network with minimal cost. Two types of repair strategies are identified, with different effects under the two energy-transfer rules. The research results enable a more flexible approach to network repair.

  6. Complexity and formative experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Strieder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporaneity is characterized by instability and diversity calling into question certainties and truths proposed in modernity. We recognize that the reality of things and phenomena become effective as a set of events, interactions, retroactions and chances. This different frame extends the need for revision of the epistemological foundations that sustain educational practices and give them sense. The complex thinking is an alternative option for acting as a counterpoint to classical science and its reductionist logic and knowledge compartmentalization, as well as to answer to contemporary epistemological and educational challenges. It aims to associate different areas and forms of knowledge, without, however merge them, distinguishing without separating the several disciplines and instances of the realities. This study, in theoretical references, highlights the relevance of complex approaches to support formative experiences because also able to produce complexities in reflections about educational issues. We conclude that formative possibilities from complexity potentialize the resignification of human’s conception and the understanding of its singularity in interdependence; The understanding that pedagogical and educational activities is a constant interrogation about the possibilities of knowing the knowledge and reframe learning, far beyond knowing its functions and utilitarian purposes; and, as a formative possibility, places us on the trail of responsibility, not as something eventual, but present and indicative of freedom to choose to stay or go beyond.

  7. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Geary

    Full Text Available Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1 expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1. Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism

  8. Complexity of formation in holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Shira; Marrochio, Hugo; Myers, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    It was recently conjectured that the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state can be computed by evaluating the gravitational action on a bulk region known as the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We apply this complexity=action duality to evaluate the ‘complexity of formation’ (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.191301; 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.086006), i.e. the additional complexity arising in preparing the entangled thermofield double state with two copies of the boundary CFT compared to preparing the individual vacuum states of the two copies. We find that for boundary dimensions d>2, the difference in the complexities grows linearly with the thermal entropy at high temperatures. For the special case d=2, the complexity of formation is a fixed constant, independent of the temperature. We compare these results to those found using the complexity=volume duality.

  9. Complexity of formation in holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Shira [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Marrochio, Hugo [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics & Astronomy and Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute,University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-01-16

    It was recently conjectured that the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state can be computed by evaluating the gravitational action on a bulk region known as the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We apply this complexity=action duality to evaluate the ‘complexity of formation’ (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.191301; 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.086006), i.e. the additional complexity arising in preparing the entangled thermofield double state with two copies of the boundary CFT compared to preparing the individual vacuum states of the two copies. We find that for boundary dimensions d>2, the difference in the complexities grows linearly with the thermal entropy at high temperatures. For the special case d=2, the complexity of formation is a fixed constant, independent of the temperature. We compare these results to those found using the complexity=volume duality.

  10. Exploiting global information in complex network repair processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianyu WANG; Jun ZHANG; Sebastian WANDELT

    2017-01-01

    Robustness of complex networks has been studied for decades,with a particular focus on network attack.Research on network repair,on the other hand,has been conducted only very lately,given the even higher complexity and absence of an effective evaluation metric.A recently proposed network repair strategy is self-healing,which aims to repair networks for larger compo nents at a low cost only with local information.In this paper,we discuss the effectiveness and effi ciency of self-healing,which limits network repair to be a multi-objective optimization problem and makes it difficult to measure its optimality.This leads us to a new network repair evaluation metric.Since the time complexity of the computation is very high,we devise a greedy ranking strategy.Evaluations on both real-world and random networks show the effectiveness of our new metric and repair strategy.Our study contributes to optimal network repair algorithms and provides a gold standard for future studies on network repair.

  11. Biomimetic strategies for fracture repair: engineering the cell microenvironment for directed tissue formation

    OpenAIRE

    Vas, Wollis J.; Shah, Mittal; Al Hosni, Rawiya; Owen, Helen C.; Roberts, Scott J.

    2017-01-01

    Complications resulting from impaired fracture healing have major clinical implications on fracture management strategies. Novel concepts taken from developmental biology have driven research strategies towards the elaboration of regenerative approaches that can truly harness the complex cellular events involved in tissue formation and repair. Advances in polymer technology and a better understanding of naturally derived scaffolds have given rise to novel biomaterials with an increasing abili...

  12. Chronologic and Geographic Trends of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Taichi; Sterbenz, Jennifer M; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-11-01

    This article shows trends in triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) repair since 1990 by geographic area and year. The repair methods presented in the literature were inside-out, outside-in, all-inside, and open repair. The outside-in technique was reported most often for ulnar-side tears, whereas the inside-out technique was reported most frequently for radial-side tears. Recently, a foveal reattachment technique for ulnar-side tears has garnered attention and has been reported with increasing frequency, especially in Asia, because the deepest portion of TFCC, attached to fovea, plays a key role in stabilizing the distal radioulnar joint. Understanding these trends can help clinicians best treat TFCC tears. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nucleotide excision repair : complexes and complexities : a study of global genome repair in human cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Of all exogenous agents that damage genomic DNA and hence threaten its integrity, the ultraviolet B (UVB) component of sunlight is highly relevant because of its abundance. UVB induces predominantly cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts. In humans, these photolesions are repaired by

  14. Crystal Structures of DNA-Whirly Complexes and Their Role in Arabidopsis Organelle Genome Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappadocia, Laurent; Maréchal, Alexandre; Parent, Jean-Sébastien; Lepage, Étienne; Sygusch, Jurgen; Brisson, Normand (Montreal)

    2010-09-07

    DNA double-strand breaks are highly detrimental to all organisms and need to be quickly and accurately repaired. Although several proteins are known to maintain plastid and mitochondrial genome stability in plants, little is known about the mechanisms of DNA repair in these organelles and the roles of specific proteins. Here, using ciprofloxacin as a DNA damaging agent specific to the organelles, we show that plastids and mitochondria can repair DNA double-strand breaks through an error-prone pathway similar to the microhomology-mediated break-induced replication observed in humans, yeast, and bacteria. This pathway is negatively regulated by the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins from the Whirly family, thus indicating that these proteins could contribute to the accurate repair of plant organelle genomes. To understand the role of Whirly proteins in this process, we solved the crystal structures of several Whirly-DNA complexes. These reveal a nonsequence-specific ssDNA binding mechanism in which DNA is stabilized between domains of adjacent subunits and rendered unavailable for duplex formation and/or protein interactions. Our results suggest a model in which the binding of Whirly proteins to ssDNA would favor accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks over an error-prone microhomology-mediated break-induced replication repair pathway.

  15. Roles of Chondrocytes in Endochondral Bone Formation and Fracture Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, R.J.; Jing, Y.; Jing, J.; Feng, J.Q.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) and its subchondral bone is an important but understudied topic in dental research. The current concept regarding endochondral bone formation postulates that most hypertrophic chondrocytes undergo programmed cell death prior to bone formation. Under this paradigm, the MCC and its underlying bone are thought to result from 2 closely linked but separate processes: chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. However, recent investigations using cell lineage tracing techniques have demonstrated that many, perhaps the majority, of bone cells are derived via direct transformation from chondrocytes. In this review, the authors will briefly discuss the history of this idea and describe recent studies that clearly demonstrate that the direct transformation of chondrocytes into bone cells is common in both long bone and mandibular condyle development and during bone fracture repair. The authors will also provide new evidence of a distinct difference in ossification orientation in the condylar ramus (1 ossification center) versus long bone ossification formation (2 ossification centers). Based on our recent findings and those of other laboratories, we propose a new model that contrasts the mode of bone formation in much of the mandibular ramus (chondrocyte-derived) with intramembranous bone formation of the mandibular body (non-chondrocyte-derived). PMID:27664203

  16. Formamidopyrimidines in DNA: mechanisms of formation, repair, and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizdaroglu, Miral; Kirkali, Güldal; Jaruga, Pawel

    2008-12-15

    Oxidatively induced damage to DNA results in a plethora of lesions comprising modified bases and sugars, DNA-protein cross-links, tandem lesions, strand breaks, and clustered lesions. Formamidopyrimidines, 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyAde) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyGua), are among the major lesions generated in DNA by hydroxyl radical attack, UV radiation, or photosensitization under numerous in vitro and in vivo conditions. They are formed by one-electron reduction of C8-OH-adduct radicals of purines and thus have a common precursor with 8-hydroxypurines generated upon one-electron oxidation. Methodologies using mass spectrometry exist to accurately measure FapyAde and FapyGua in vitro and in vivo. Formamidopyrimidines are repaired by base excision repair. Numerous prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA glycosylases are highly specific for removal of these lesions from DNA in the first step of this repair pathway, indicating their biological importance. FapyAde and FapyGua are bypassed by DNA polymerases with the insertion of the wrong intact base opposite them, leading to mutagenesis. In mammalian cells, the mutagenicity of FapyGua exceeds that of 8-hydroxyguanine, which is thought to be the most mutagenic of the oxidatively induced lesions in DNA. The background and formation levels of the former in vitro and in vivo equal or exceed those of the latter under various conditions. FapyAde and FapyGua exist in living cells at significant background levels and are abundantly generated upon exposure to oxidative stress. Mice lacking the genes that encode specific DNA glycosylases accumulate these lesions in different organs and, in some cases, exhibit a series of pathological conditions including metabolic syndrome and cancer. Animals exposed to environmental toxins accumulate formamidopyrimidines in their organs. Here, we extensively review the mechanisms of formation, measurement, repair, and biological effects of formamidopyrimidines

  17. Load response and gap formation in a single-row cruciate suture rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Lachlan; Richardson, Martin; Sobol, Tony; Caldow, Jonathon; Ackland, David C

    2017-06-01

    Double-row rotator cuff tendon repair techniques may provide superior contact area and strength compared with single-row repairs, but are associated with higher material expenses and prolonged operating time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gap formation, ultimate tensile strength and stiffness of a single-row cruciate suture rotator cuff repair construct, and to compare these results with those of the Mason-Allen and SutureBridge repair constructs. Infraspinatus tendons from 24 spring lamb shoulders were harvested and allocated to cruciate suture, Mason-Allen and SutureBridge repair groups. Specimens were loaded cyclically between 10 and 62 N for 200 cycles, and gap formation simultaneously measured using a high-speed digital camera. Specimens were then loaded in uniaxial tension to failure, and construct stiffness and repair strength were evaluated. Gap formation in the cruciate suture repair was significantly lower than that of the Mason-Allen repair (mean difference = 0.6 mm, P = 0.009) and no different from that of the SutureBridge repair (P > 0.05). Both the cruciate suture repair (mean difference = 15.7 N/mm, P = 0.002) and SutureBridge repair (mean difference = 15.8 N/mm, P = 0.034) were significantly stiffer than that of the Mason-Allen repair; however, no significant differences in ultimate tensile strength between repair groups were discerned (P > 0.05). The cruciate suture repair construct, which may represent a simple and cost-effective alternative to double-row and double-row equivalent rotator cuff repairs, has comparable biomechanical strength and integrity with that of the SutureBridge repair, and may result in improved construct longevity and tendon healing compared with the Mason-Allen repair. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. Arthroscopic repair of lateral ankle ligament complex by suture anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingwei; Hua, Yinghui; Chen, Shiyi; Li, Hongyun; Zhang, Jian; Li, Yunxia

    2014-06-01

    Arthroscopic repair of the lateral ligament complex with suture anchors is increasingly used to treat chronic ankle instability (CAI). Our aims are (1) to analyze and evaluate the literature on arthroscopic suture anchor repair of the anterior talofibular ligament and (2) to conduct a systematic review of the clinical evidence on the reported outcomes and complications of treating CAI with this technique. We performed a systematic review of the literature using PubMed, Ovid, Elsevier ScienceDirect, Web of Science-Conference Proceedings Citation Index, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1987 to September 2013. Clinical studies using the arthroscopic suture anchor technique to treat CAI were included. Outcome measures consisted of clinical assessment of postoperative ligament stability and complications. In addition, the methodologic quality of the included studies was assessed by use of the modified Coleman Methodology Score. After reviewing 371 studies, we identified 6 studies (5 retrospective case series and 1 prospective case series, all Level IV) that met the inclusion criteria, with a mean Coleman Methodology Score of 71.8 ± 7.52 (range, 63 to 82). In these studies 178 patients (179 ankles) underwent arthroscopic suture anchor repair of the anterior talofibular ligament with a mean follow-up period of 38.9 months (range, 6 to 117.6 months). All patients were reported to have subjective improvement of their ankle instability, with complications in 31 cases. Studies of arthroscopic suture anchor technique to treat CAI are sparse, with moderate mean methodologic quality. The included studies suggest that the arthroscopic technique is a feasible procedure to restore ankle stability; however, on the basis of our review, this technique seems to be associated with a relatively high complication rate. Extensive cadaveric studies, clinical trials, and comparative studies comparing arthroscopic and open repair should be performed in the future. Level

  19. Abdominal wall closure in bladder exstrophy complex repair by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: The Exstrophy Complex (EC) is a serious malformation of midline abdominal wall. Wide pubis prevents approximating the lateralized rectus muscle and leads to dehiscence and fi stula formation. Our aim was to recommend an easier method for abdominal wall closure in the Bladder Exstrophy ...

  20. STAR FORMATION ACROSS THE W3 COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Ybarra, Jason E.; Tapia, Mauricio [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Unidad Académica en Ensenada, Km 103 Carr. Tijuana–Ensenada, Ensenada 22860 (Mexico); Megías, Guillermo D. [Facultad de Física. Universidad de Sevilla. Dpto. Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla, E-41080 (Spain); Lada, Elizabeth A. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Sciences Center, FL 32611 (United States); Alves, Joáo F. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the history of star formation in the W3 complex. Using deep, near-infrared ground-based images combined with images obtained with Spitzer and Chandra observatories, we identified and classified young embedded sources. We identified the principal clusters in the complex and determined their structure and extension. We constructed extinction-limited samples for five principal clusters and constructed K-band luminosity functions that we compare with those of artificial clusters with varying ages. This analysis provided mean ages and possible age spreads for the clusters. We found that IC 1795, the centermost cluster of the complex, still hosts a large fraction of young sources with circumstellar disks. This indicates that star formation was active in IC 1795 as recently as 2 Myr ago, simultaneous to the star-forming activity in the flanking embedded clusters, W3-Main and W3(OH). A comparison with carbon monoxide emission maps indicates strong velocity gradients in the gas clumps hosting W3-Main and W3(OH) and shows small receding clumps of gas at IC 1795, suggestive of rapid gas removal (faster than the T Tauri timescale) in the cluster-forming regions. We discuss one possible scenario for the progression of cluster formation in the W3 complex. We propose that early processes of gas collapse in the main structure of the complex could have defined the progression of cluster formation across the complex with relatively small age differences from one group to another. However, triggering effects could act as catalysts for enhanced efficiency of formation at a local level, in agreement with previous studies.

  1. Indications, techniques, and outcomes of arthroscopic repair of scapholunate ligament and triangular fibrocartilage complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathoulin, C L

    2017-07-01

    This review includes updated understanding of the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic carpal ligaments in scapholunate instability and details the author's experience of indications, arthroscopic repair methods, and outcomes of treating the instability. A classification on triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries is reviewed, followed by author's indications, methods, and outcomes of arthroscopic repair of triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries.

  2. Pyrimidine dimer formation and repair in human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, B.M.; Harber, L.C.; Kochevar, I.E.

    1980-01-01

    Cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers have been detected in the DNA of human skin following in vivo irradiation with suberythermal doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from FS-20 sun lamp fluorescent tubes. Dimers were assayed by treatment of extracted DNA with Micrococus luteus UV-specific endonuclease, alkaline agarose electrophoresis, and ethidum bromide staining. This technique, in contrast to conventional dimer assays, can be used with nonradioactive DNA and is optimal at low UV light doses. These data suggest that some dimer disappearance by excision repair occurs within 20 min of UV irradiation and that photoreactivation of dimers can make a contribution to the total repair process

  3. Use of penile skin flap in complex anterior urethral stricture repair: our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, A.; Asghar, M.; Kiani, F.; Alvi, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To present our experience of treatment of complex anterior urethral strictures using penile skin flap. Study Design: Descriptive, case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of urology Combined Military Hospital Malir Cantonment, Karachi and Armed Forces Institute of Urology, Rawalpindi from Jan 2012 to Feb 2014. Material and Methods: Total 18 patients with complex anterior urethral strictures and combined anterior and bulborurethral strictures were included. Patients underwent repair using Orandi or circularfacio-cutaneous penile skin flap depending upon the size and site of stricture. First dressing was changed after two days and an in dwelling silicone two way foleycatheter was kept in place for three weeks. Graft was assessed with regards to local infection, fistula formation and restricturing. Re-stricture was assessed by performing uroflowmetery at 6 months and 1 year. Ascending urethrogram was reserved for cases with less than 10 ml/sec Q max on uroflowmetery. Repair failure was considered when there was a need for any subsequent urethral procedure asurethral dilatation, dorsal visual internal urethrotomy, or urethroplasty. Results: Overall success rate was 83.3 percent. Of all the patients operated 1(5.6 percent) had infection with loss of flap, 3(16.7 percent) had urethral fistula and none had re stricture confirmed by uroflowmetery. Conclusion: In our study the excellent results of the penile skin flap both in anterior urethral strictures and combined anterior and bulbar urethral strictures are quite encouraging. It is easy to harvest and seems anatomically more logical. (author)

  4. Peripheral Nerve Repair and Prevention of Neuroma Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    bone disease in Neurofibromatosis type I. Molecular genetics and metabolism . 2008;94(1):105-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2007.12.004. PubMed PMID...isolated from dog, and continue to develop them in a canine model of peripheral nerve extension- repair as well as characterize their contribution...Task 1: To test the functional contribution of the mouse/human cells (athymic rats) and their canine counterpart ( canine ) in critical size nerve

  5. Formation of americium and europium humate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minai, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Meguro, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Binding constants of americium and europium with a humic acid were determined to study if complex formation of trivalent actinide-humates affects dissolved species of the actinides in hydrosphere. The purified humic acid was characterized by means of UV-vis, IR, and pH titration, indicating high carboxylate capacity and low aromaticity. Binding constants of americium and europium humates were determined at pH 4.6 and 6.0 by solvent extraction using 241 Am or 152 Eu as a tracer. The binding constants for americium-humate obtained preliminarily suggest that complexes with humic acid are not negligible in speciation of trivalent actinides in hydrosphere. The obtained binding constants were nearly identical with those determined previously by the same procedures, but with humic acids of different origin and compositions. (author)

  6. Dynamic maps of UV damage formation and repair for the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinchuan; Adebali, Ogun; Adar, Sheera; Sancar, Aziz

    2017-06-27

    Formation and repair of UV-induced DNA damage in human cells are affected by cellular context. To study factors influencing damage formation and repair genome-wide, we developed a highly sensitive single-nucleotide resolution damage mapping method [high-sensitivity damage sequencing (HS-Damage-seq)]. Damage maps of both cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts [(6-4)PPs] from UV-irradiated cellular and naked DNA revealed that the effect of transcription factor binding on bulky adducts formation varies, depending on the specific transcription factor, damage type, and strand. We also generated time-resolved UV damage maps of both CPDs and (6-4)PPs by HS-Damage-seq and compared them to the complementary repair maps of the human genome obtained by excision repair sequencing to gain insight into factors that affect UV-induced DNA damage and repair and ultimately UV carcinogenesis. The combination of the two methods revealed that, whereas UV-induced damage is virtually uniform throughout the genome, repair is affected by chromatin states, transcription, and transcription factor binding, in a manner that depends on the type of DNA damage.

  7. Normal formation and repair of γ-radiation-induced single and double strand DNA breaks in Down syndrome fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.E.; Woods, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fibroblasts from patients with Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) were examined for repair capability of γ-radiation-induced single strand and double strand DNA breaks. Formation and repair of DNA breaks were determined by DNA alkaline and non-denaturing elution techniques. Down syndrome fibroblasts were found to repair single strand and double strand breaks as well as fibroblasts from normal controls. (orig.)

  8. Temporal analysis of meiotic DNA double-strand break formation and repair in Drosophila females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, S; McKim, K S

    2006-11-24

    Using an antibody against the phosphorylated form of His2Av (gamma-His2Av), we have described the time course for the series of events leading from the formation of a double-strand break (DSB) to a crossover in Drosophila female meiotic prophase. MEI-P22 is required for DSB formation and localizes to chromosomes prior to gamma-His2Av foci. Drosophila females, however, are among the group of organisms where synaptonemal complex (SC) formation is not dependent on DSBs. In the absence of two SC proteins, C(3)G and C(2)M, the number of DSBs in oocytes is significantly reduced. This is consistent with the appearance of SC protein staining prior to gamma-His2Av foci. However, SC formation is incomplete or absent in the neighboring nurse cells, and gamma-His2Av foci appear with the same kinetics as in oocytes and do not depend on SC proteins. Thus, competence for DSB formation in nurse cells occurs with a specific timing that is independent of the SC, whereas in the oocytes, some SC proteins may have a regulatory role to counteract the effects of a negative regulator of DSB formation. The SC is not sufficient for DSB formation, however, since DSBs were absent from the heterochromatin even though SC formation occurs in these regions. All gamma-His2Av foci disappear before the end of prophase, presumably as repair is completed and crossovers are formed. However, oocytes in early prophase exhibit a slower response to X-ray-induced DSBs compared to those in the late pachytene stage. Assuming all DSBs appear as gamma-His2Av foci, there is at least a 3:1 ratio of noncrossover to crossover products. From a comparison of the frequency of gamma-His2Av foci and crossovers, it appears that Drosophila females have only a weak mechanism to ensure a crossover in the presence of a low number of DSBs.

  9. Mechanisms of DNA damage repair in adult stem cells and implications for cancer formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Clare E; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse

    2018-01-01

    Maintenance of genomic integrity in tissue-specific stem cells is critical for tissue homeostasis and the prevention of deleterious diseases such as cancer. Stem cells are subject to DNA damage induced by endogenous replication mishaps or exposure to exogenous agents. The type of DNA lesion and the cell cycle stage will invoke different DNA repair mechanisms depending on the intrinsic DNA repair machinery of a cell. Inappropriate DNA repair in stem cells can lead to cell death, or to the formation and accumulation of genetic alterations that can be transmitted to daughter cells and so is linked to cancer formation. DNA mutational signatures that are associated with DNA repair deficiencies or exposure to carcinogenic agents have been described in cancer. Here we review the most recent findings on DNA repair pathways activated in epithelial tissue stem and progenitor cells and their implications for cancer mutational signatures. We discuss how deep knowledge of early molecular events leading to carcinogenesis provides insights into DNA repair mechanisms operating in tumours and how these could be exploited therapeutically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Repair pathways independent of the Fanconi anemia nuclear core complex play a predominant role in mitigating formaldehyde-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Taichi; Takahashi, Akihisa; Kondo, Natsuko; Mori, Eiichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Ohnishi, Ken; Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z.; Thompson, Larry H.; Helleday, Thomas; Asada, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    The role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage induced by formaldehyde was examined in the work described here. The following cell types were used: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines FANCA -/- , FANCC -/- , FANCA -/- C -/- , FANCD2 -/- and their parental cells, the Chinese hamster cell lines FANCD1 mutant (mt), FANCGmt, their revertant cells, and the corresponding wild-type (wt) cells. Cell survival rates were determined with colony formation assays after formaldehyde treatment. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were detected with an immunocytochemical γH2AX-staining assay. Although the sensitivity of FANCA -/- , FANCC -/- and FANCA -/- C -/- cells to formaldehyde was comparable to that of proficient cells, FANCD1mt, FANCGmt and FANCD2 -/- cells were more sensitive to formaldehyde than the corresponding proficient cells. It was found that homologous recombination (HR) repair was induced by formaldehyde. In addition, γH2AX foci in FANCD1mt cells persisted for longer times than in FANCD1wt cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde-induced DSBs are repaired by HR through the FA repair pathway which is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. -- Research highlights: → We examined to clarify the repair pathways of formaldehyde-induced DNA damage. Formaldehyde induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). → DSBs are repaired through the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway. → This pathway is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. → We also found that homologous recombination repair was induced by formaldehyde.

  11. Physics of positronium acceptor complex formation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debarshi; Ganguly, Bichitra Nandi; Mukherjee, Tapas; Dutta-Roy, Binayak

    2002-01-01

    Positronium (P s ) reaction rates (κ) with weak Acceptors (Ac) leading to the formation of Ps-Ac complexes show several interesting features: non-monotonic temperature dependence of κ(departing from the usual Arrhenius behaviour), considerable variability of κ with respect to different solvents, and anomalies in response to external pressure at ambient temperature. The object of this work is to explain all these phenomena using a remarkably simple bubble model (the widely used model for the pick-off component of ortho-positronium decay in liquids), which has been revisited several times in the context and as a result smooth diffuse boundary of the bubble was suggested that yields reasonable agreement of the experimental data. The contractile force on the bubble relies much on the surface tension of the liquid, through our calculation the notion of critical surface tension emerges and enables us to explain the experimental observations satisfactorily. (author)

  12. Replication Stalling and Heteroduplex Formation within CAG/CTG Trinucleotide Repeats by Mismatch Repair

    KAUST Repository

    Viterbo, David

    2016-03-16

    Trinucleotide repeat expansions are responsible for at least two dozen neurological disorders. Mechanisms leading to these large expansions of repeated DNA are still poorly understood. It was proposed that transient stalling of the replication fork by the repeat tract might trigger slippage of the newly-synthesized strand over its template, leading to expansions or contractions of the triplet repeat. However, such mechanism was never formally proven. Here we show that replication fork pausing and CAG/CTG trinucleotide repeat instability are not linked, stable and unstable repeats exhibiting the same propensity to stall replication forks when integrated in a yeast natural chromosome. We found that replication fork stalling was dependent on the integrity of the mismatch-repair system, especially the Msh2p-Msh6p complex, suggesting that direct interaction of MMR proteins with secondary structures formed by trinucleotide repeats in vivo, triggers replication fork pauses. We also show by chromatin immunoprecipitation that Msh2p is enriched at trinucleotide repeat tracts, in both stable and unstable orientations, this enrichment being dependent on MSH3 and MSH6. Finally, we show that overexpressing MSH2 favors the formation of heteroduplex regions, leading to an increase in contractions and expansions of CAG/CTG repeat tracts during replication, these heteroduplexes being dependent on both MSH3 and MSH6. These heteroduplex regions were not detected when a mutant msh2-E768A gene in which the ATPase domain was mutated was overexpressed. Our results unravel two new roles for mismatch-repair proteins: stabilization of heteroduplex regions and transient blocking of replication forks passing through such repeats. Both roles may involve direct interactions between MMR proteins and secondary structures formed by trinucleotide repeat tracts, although indirect interactions may not be formally excluded.

  13. Replication Stalling and Heteroduplex Formation within CAG/CTG Trinucleotide Repeats by Mismatch Repair

    KAUST Repository

    Viterbo, David; Michoud, Gregoire; Mosbach, Valentine; Dujon, Bernard; Richard, Guy-Franck

    2016-01-01

    Trinucleotide repeat expansions are responsible for at least two dozen neurological disorders. Mechanisms leading to these large expansions of repeated DNA are still poorly understood. It was proposed that transient stalling of the replication fork by the repeat tract might trigger slippage of the newly-synthesized strand over its template, leading to expansions or contractions of the triplet repeat. However, such mechanism was never formally proven. Here we show that replication fork pausing and CAG/CTG trinucleotide repeat instability are not linked, stable and unstable repeats exhibiting the same propensity to stall replication forks when integrated in a yeast natural chromosome. We found that replication fork stalling was dependent on the integrity of the mismatch-repair system, especially the Msh2p-Msh6p complex, suggesting that direct interaction of MMR proteins with secondary structures formed by trinucleotide repeats in vivo, triggers replication fork pauses. We also show by chromatin immunoprecipitation that Msh2p is enriched at trinucleotide repeat tracts, in both stable and unstable orientations, this enrichment being dependent on MSH3 and MSH6. Finally, we show that overexpressing MSH2 favors the formation of heteroduplex regions, leading to an increase in contractions and expansions of CAG/CTG repeat tracts during replication, these heteroduplexes being dependent on both MSH3 and MSH6. These heteroduplex regions were not detected when a mutant msh2-E768A gene in which the ATPase domain was mutated was overexpressed. Our results unravel two new roles for mismatch-repair proteins: stabilization of heteroduplex regions and transient blocking of replication forks passing through such repeats. Both roles may involve direct interactions between MMR proteins and secondary structures formed by trinucleotide repeat tracts, although indirect interactions may not be formally excluded.

  14. Repair for mitral stenosis due to pannus formation after Duran ring annuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seunghwan; Cho, Seong Ho; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Park, Pyo Won

    2010-12-01

    Mitral stenosis after mitral repair with using an annuloplasty ring is not common and it is almost always due to pannus formation. Mitral valve replacement was required in most of the previous cases of pannus covering the mitral valve leaflet, which could not be stripped off without damaging the valve leaflets. In two cases, we removed the previous annuloplasty ring and pannus without leaflet injury, and we successfully repaired the mitral valve. During the follow-up of 4 months and 39 months respectively, we observed improvement of the patients' symptoms and good valvular function. Redo mitral repair may be a possible method for treating mitral stenosis due to pannus formation after ring annuloplasty. Copyright © 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Two sides of the same coin: TFIIH complexes in transcription and DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhovmer, Alexander; Oksenych, Valentyn; Coin, Frédéric

    2010-04-13

    TFIIH is organized into a seven-subunit core associated with a three-subunit Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) module. TFIIH has roles in both transcription initiation and DNA repair. During the last 15 years, several studies have been conducted to identify the composition of the TFIIH complex involved in DNA repair. Recently, a new technique combining chromatin immunoprecipitation and western blotting resolved the hidden nature of the TFIIH complex participating in DNA repair. Following the recruitment of TFIIH to the damaged site, the CAK module is released from the core TFIIH, and the core subsequently associates with DNA repair factors. The release of the CAK is specifically driven by the recruitment of the DNA repair factor XPA and is required to promote the incision/excision of the damaged DNA. Once the DNA lesions have been repaired, the CAK module returns to the core TFIIH on the chromatin, together with the release of the repair factors. These data highlight the dynamic composition of a fundamental cellular factor that adapts its subunit composition to the cell needs.

  16. Two Sides of the Same Coin: TFIIH Complexes in Transcription and DNA Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zhovmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TFIIH is organized into a seven-subunit core associated with a three-subunit Cdk-activating kinase (CAK module. TFIIH has roles in both transcription initiation and DNA repair. During the last 15 years, several studies have been conducted to identify the composition of the TFIIH complex involved in DNA repair. Recently, a new technique combining chromatin immunoprecipitation and western blotting resolved the hidden nature of the TFIIH complex participating in DNA repair. Following the recruitment of TFIIH to the damaged site, the CAK module is released from the core TFIIH, and the core subsequently associates with DNA repair factors. The release of the CAK is specifically driven by the recruitment of the DNA repair factor XPA and is required to promote the incision/excision of the damaged DNA. Once the DNA lesions have been repaired, the CAK module returns to the core TFIIH on the chromatin, together with the release of the repair factors. These data highlight the dynamic composition of a fundamental cellular factor that adapts its subunit composition to the cell needs.

  17. A hypothesis: factor VII governs clot formation, tissue repair and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lewis S

    2007-01-01

    A hypothesis: thrombin is a "Universal Enzyme of Energy Transduction" that employs ATP energy in flowing blood to activate biochemical reactions and cell effects in both hemostasis and tissue repair. All cells possess PAR-1 (thrombin) receptors and are affected by thrombin elevations, and thrombin effects on individual cell types are determined by their unique complement of PAR-1 receptors. Disruption of the vascular endothelium (VE) activates a tissue repair mechanism (TRM) consisting of the VE, tissue factor (TF), and circulating Factors VII, IX and X that governs localized thrombin elevations to activate clot formation and cellular effects that repair tissue damage. The culmination of the repair process occurs with the restoration of the VE followed by declines in thrombin production that causes Apoptosis ("programmed cell death") in wound-healing fibroblasts, which functions as a mechanism to draw wound edges together. The location and magnitude of TRM activity governs the location and magnitude of Factor VIII activity and clot formation, but the large size of Factor VIII prevents it from penetrating the clot formed by its activity, so that its effects are self-limiting. Factors VII, IX and X function primarily as tissue repair enzymes, while Factor VIII and Factor XIII are the only serine protease enzymes in the "Coagulation Cascade" that are exclusively associated with hemostasis.

  18. Outcomes of fenestrated and branched endovascular repair of complex abdominal and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzer, Andres; Simons, Jessica P; Flahive, Julie; Durgin, Jonathan; Aiello, Francesco A; Doucet, Danielle; Steppacher, Robert; Messina, Louis M

    2017-09-01

    More than 80% of infrarenal aortic aneurysms are treated by endovascular repair. However, adoption of fenestrated and branched endovascular repair for complex aortic aneurysms has been limited, despite high morbidity and mortality associated with open repair. There are few published reports of consecutive outcomes, inclusive of all fenestrated and branched endovascular repairs, starting from the inception of a complex aortic aneurysm program. Therefore, we examined a single center's consecutive experience of fenestrated and branched endovascular repair of complex aortic aneurysms. This is a single-center, prospective, observational cohort study evaluating 30-day and 1-year outcomes in all consecutive patients who underwent fenestrated and branched endovascular repair of complex aortic aneurysms (definition: requiring one or more fenestrations or branches). Data were collected prospectively through an Institutional Review Board-approved registry and a physician-sponsored investigational device exemption clinical trial (G130210). We performed 100 consecutive complex endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs (November 2010 to March 2016) using 58 (58%) commercially manufactured custom-made devices and 42 (42%) physician-modified devices to treat 4 (4%) common iliac, 42 (42%) juxtarenal, 18 (18%) pararenal, and 36 (36%) thoracoabdominal aneurysms (type I, n = 1; type II, n = 4; type III, n = 12; type IV, n = 18; arch, n = 1). The repairs included 309 fenestrations, branches, and scallops (average of 3.1 branch arteries/case). All patients had 30-day follow-up for 30-day event rates: three (3%) deaths; six (6%) target artery occlusions; five (5%) progressions to dialysis; eight (8%) access complications; one (1%) paraparesis; one (1%) bowel ischemia; and no instances of myocardial infarction, paralysis, or stroke. Of 10 type I or type III endoleaks, 8 resolved (7 with secondary intervention, 1 without intervention). Mean follow-up time was 563 days (interquartile range

  19. Arthroscopic suture anchor repair of the lateral ligament ankle complex: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Eric; Shin, Edward C; Wong, Stephanie E; Acevedo, Jorge I; Mangone, Peter G; Olson, Kirstina; Anderson, Matthew J

    2013-11-01

    Operative treatment of mechanical ankle instability is indicated for patients with multiple sprains and continued episodes of instability. Open repair of the lateral ankle ligaments involves exposure of the attenuated ligaments and advancement back to their anatomic insertions on the fibula using bone tunnels or suture implants. Open and arthroscopic fixation are equal in strength to failure for anatomic Broström repair. Controlled laboratory study. Seven matched pairs of human cadaveric ankle specimens were randomized into 2 groups of anatomic Broström repair: open or arthroscopic. The calcaneofibular ligament and anterior talofibular ligament were excised from their origin on the fibula. In the open repair group, 2 suture anchors were used to reattach the ligaments to their anatomic origins. In the arthroscopic repair group, identical suture anchors were used for repair via an arthroscopic technique. The ligaments were cyclically loaded 20 times and then tested to failure. Torque to failure, degrees to failure, initial stiffness, and working stiffness were measured. A matched-pair analysis was performed. Power analysis of 0.8 demonstrated that 7 pairs needed to show a difference of 30%, with a 15% standard error at a significance level of α = .05. There was no difference in the degrees to failure, torque to failure, or stiffness for the repaired ligament complex. Nine of 14 specimens failed at the suture anchor. There is no statistical difference in strength or stiffness of a traditional open repair as compared with an arthroscopic anatomic repair of the lateral ligaments of the ankle. An arthroscopic technique can be considered for lateral ligament stabilization in patients with mild to moderate mechanical instability.

  20. Resurfacing the Penis of Complex Hypospadias Repair ("Hypospadias Cripples").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, Mina M; Hanna, Moneer K

    2017-03-01

    After the creation of a neourethra in a "hypospadias cripple," resurfacing the penis with healthy skin is a significant challenge because local tissue is often scarred and unusable. We reviewed our experience with various strategies to resurface the penis of hypospadias cripples. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 215 patients referred after multiple unsuccessful hypospadias repairs from 1981 to 2014. In 130 of 215 patients we performed resurfacing using local penile flaps using various techniques, including Byars flaps, Z-plasty or double Z-plasty, or a dorsal relaxing incision. Of the 215 patients 85 did not have adequate healthy local penile skin to resurface the penis after urethroplasty. Scrotal skin was used to resurface the penis in 54 patients, 6 underwent tissue expansion of the dorsal penile skin during a 12 to 16-week period prior to penile resurfacing, 23 underwent full-thickness skin grafting and another 4 received a split-thickness skin graft. Of the 56 patients who underwent fasciomyocutaneous rotational flaps, tissue expansion or a combination of both approaches 54 (96.4%) finally had a successful outcome. All 6 patients who underwent tissue expansion had a successful outcome without complications and were reported on previously. All 23 full-thickness skin grafts took with excellent results. All 4 patients who underwent fenestrated split-thickness skin grafting had 100% graft take but secondary contraction and ulceration were associated with sexual activity. In our experience scrotal skin flaps, tissue expansion of the dorsal penile skin and full-thickness skin grafts serve as reliable approaches in resurfacing the penis in almost any hypospadias cripple lacking healthy local skin. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Complex formation of p-carboxybenzeneboronic acid with fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulbul Islam, T.M.; Yoshino, K.

    2000-01-01

    To increase the solubility of p-caboxybenzeneboronic acid (PCBA) in physiological pH 7.4, the complex formation of PCBA with fructose has been studied by 11 B-NMR. PCBA formed complex with fructose and the complex increased the solubility of PCBA. The complex formation constant (log K) was obtained in pH 7.4 as 2.75 from the 11 B-NMR spectra. Based on this result the complex formation ability of PCBA with fructose has been discussed. (author)

  2. Repair pathways for heavy ion-induced complex DNA double strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Hirohiko; Nakajima, Nakako; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Murakami, Takeshi; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Fujimori, Akira

    2012-01-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) induced by ionizing radiation (IR) is a deleterious damage leading to cell death and genome instability if not properly repaired. It is well known that DSB is repaired by two major pathways, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). It is also known that NHEJ is dominant throughout the cell cycle after X- or gamma-ray irradiation in mammalian cells, Meanwhile, it is thought that heavy-ion radiation (e.g., carbon-ions, iron-ions) gives rise to clustered DNA damages consisting of not only strand breaks but also aberrant bases in the vicinity of DSBs (complex DSBs). Our previous work suggested that the efficiency of NHEJ is diminished for repair of complex DSBs induced by heavy-ion radiation. We thought that this difficulty in NHEJ process associated with heavy ion induced complex DNA damage might be extended to HR process in cells exposed to heavy ions. In order to find out if this notion is true or not, exposed human cells to X-rays and heavy-ions, and studied HR associated processes at the molecular level. Our result indicates that complex DSBs induced by heavy ions effectively evoke DNA end resection activity during the HR process. Together with our results, a relevant recent progress in the field of DNA DSB repair will be discussed. (author)

  3. Complex catalysts from self-repairing ensembles to highly reactive air-based oxidation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig L. Hill; Laurent Delannoy; Dean C. Duncan; Ira A. Weinstock; Roman F. Renneke; Richard S. Reiner; Rajai H. Atalla; Jong Woo Han; Daniel A. Hillesheim; Rui Cao; Travis M. Anderson; Nelya M. Okun; Djamaladdin G. Musaev; Yurii V. Geletii

    2007-01-01

    Progress in four interrelated catalysis research efforts in our laboratory are summarized: (1) catalytic photochemical functionalization of unactivated CeH bonds by polyoxometalates (POMs); (2) self-repairing catalysts; (3) catalysts for air-based oxidations under ambient conditions; and (4) terminal oxo complexes of the late-transition metal elements and their...

  4. Repair of acute injuries of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle by suture anchors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiang-Fei; Fang, Yang; Cao, Zhong-Hua; Li, Guang-Feng; Yang, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical curative effect of stage I repair of acute injuries of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle by the application of suture anchors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 18 cases of III degree acute injuries of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle. Results: There were statistically significant differences in preoperative and last follow-up VAS pain scores and AOFAS ankle hind-foot function scores. The X-ray talus di...

  5. The Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway: structural and functional insights into a complex disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Helen; Deans, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in any of at least sixteen FANC genes (FANCA-Q) cause Fanconi anemia, a disorder characterized by sensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents. The clinical features of cytopenia, developmental defects, and tumor predisposition are similar in each group, suggesting that the gene products participate in a common pathway. The Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway consists of an anchor complex that recognizes damage caused by interstrand crosslinks, a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that monoubiquitinates two substrates, and several downstream repair proteins including nucleases and homologous recombination enzymes. We review progress in the use of structural and biochemical approaches to understanding how each FANC protein functions in this pathway.

  6. NF-κB regulates DNA double-strand break repair in conjunction with BRCA1-CtIP complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcic, Meta; Karl, Sabine; Baumann, Bernd; Salles, Daniela; Daniel, Peter; Fulda, Simone; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    NF-κB is involved in immune responses, inflammation, oncogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Even though NF-κB can be activated by DNA damage via Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) signalling, little was known about an involvement in DNA repair. In this work, we dissected distinct DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair mechanisms revealing a stimulatory role of NF-κB in homologous recombination (HR). This effect was independent of chromatin context, cell cycle distribution or cross-talk with p53. It was not mediated by the transcriptional NF-κB targets Bcl2, BAX or Ku70, known for their dual roles in apoptosis and DSB repair. A contribution by Bcl-xL was abrogated when caspases were inhibited. Notably, HR induction by NF-κB required the targets ATM and BRCA2. Additionally, we provide evidence that NF-κB interacts with CtIP-BRCA1 complexes and promotes BRCA1 stabilization, and thereby contributes to HR induction. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed accelerated formation of replication protein A (RPA) and Rad51 foci upon NF-κB activation indicating HR stimulation through DSB resection by the interacting CtIP-BRCA1 complex and Rad51 filament formation. Taken together, these results define multiple NF-κB-dependent mechanisms regulating HR induction, and thereby providing a novel intriguing explanation for both NF-κB-mediated resistance to chemo- and radiotherapies as well as for the sensitization by pharmaceutical intervention of NF-κB activation.

  7. Repair pathways independent of the Fanconi anemia nuclear core complex play a predominant role in mitigating formaldehyde-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Taichi [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Takahashi, Akihisa [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Kondo, Natsuko [Particle Radiation Oncology Research Center, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Mori, Eiichiro [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Okamoto, Noritomo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Nakagawa, Yosuke [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ohnishi, Ken [Department of Biology, Ibaraki Prefectual University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-mati, Inasiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z. [Department of Molecular Cell Genetics, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus-Copernicus-University in Torun, ul. Sklodowskiej-Curie 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Thompson, Larry H. [Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, L452, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Helleday, Thomas [Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Off Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Asada, Hideo [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); and others

    2011-01-07

    The role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage induced by formaldehyde was examined in the work described here. The following cell types were used: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-}, FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-}, FANCD2{sup -/-} and their parental cells, the Chinese hamster cell lines FANCD1 mutant (mt), FANCGmt, their revertant cells, and the corresponding wild-type (wt) cells. Cell survival rates were determined with colony formation assays after formaldehyde treatment. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were detected with an immunocytochemical {gamma}H2AX-staining assay. Although the sensitivity of FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-} and FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-} cells to formaldehyde was comparable to that of proficient cells, FANCD1mt, FANCGmt and FANCD2{sup -/-} cells were more sensitive to formaldehyde than the corresponding proficient cells. It was found that homologous recombination (HR) repair was induced by formaldehyde. In addition, {gamma}H2AX foci in FANCD1mt cells persisted for longer times than in FANCD1wt cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde-induced DSBs are repaired by HR through the FA repair pathway which is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. -- Research highlights: {yields} We examined to clarify the repair pathways of formaldehyde-induced DNA damage. Formaldehyde induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). {yields} DSBs are repaired through the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway. {yields} This pathway is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. {yields} We also found that homologous recombination repair was induced by formaldehyde.

  8. Ternary complex formation at mineral/solution interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckie, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Adsorption of trace concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals from aqueous solution is dependent on pH, absorbent and adsorbate concentration, and speciation of the metal in solution. In particular, complexation of metal ions by organic and inorganic ligands can dramatically alter adsorption behavior compared to ligand-free systems. The presence of complexing ligands can cause the formation of ''metal like'' or ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes depending on whether adsorption of the ternary complex increases or decreases with increasing pH, respectively. Examples of ternary surface complexes behaving ''metal like'' include uranyl-EDTA surface complexes on goethite, neptunyl-EDTA surface complexes on hematite and neptunyl-humic surface complexes on gibbsite. Examples of ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes include uranyl-carbonato and neptunyl-carbonato surface complexes on iron oxides. The effects of complex solutions and multimineralic systems are discussed. (authors). 39 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Calcium Carbonate Formation in Water Distribution Systems and Autogenous Repair of Leaks by Inert Particle Clogging

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Colin Scott

    2016-01-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) (i.e. scale) in potable water systems has long been a concern in water treatment and distribution. A literature review reveals that CaCO3 scaling issues are re-emerging due to climate change, temperature increases in hot water systems and lower use of scaling and corrosion inhibitors. Moreover, we have gathered insights that suggest CaCO3 coatings can be beneficial and stop pipeline leaks via self-repair or clogging. Ironically, the actions we are ta...

  10. Reversibility and Relaxation Behavior of Polyelectrolyte Complex Micelle Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, Saskia; Norde, Willem; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the formation and disintegration of polyelectrolyte complex micelles is studied by dynamic light scattering titrations with the aim to assess the extent to which these complexes equilibrate. Also, the time evolution of samples at fixed (electroneutral) composition was followed to

  11. Investigation of formation constant of complex of a new synthesized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complex formation between a newly synthesized tripodal ligand and the cation Cu2+ in water and surfactant media was studied spectrophotometrically using rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA). According to molar ratio data the stoichiometry of complexation between the ligand and the cation Cu2+ was 1:1.

  12. Complex Formation Control of Large-Scale Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formation framework of large-scale intelligent autonomous vehicles is developed, which can realize complex formations while reducing data exchange. Using the proposed hierarchy formation method and the automatic dividing algorithm, vehicles are automatically divided into leaders and followers by exchanging information via wireless network at initial time. Then, leaders form formation geometric shape by global formation information and followers track their own virtual leaders to form line formation by local information. The formation control laws of leaders and followers are designed based on consensus algorithms. Moreover, collision-avoiding problems are considered and solved using artificial potential functions. Finally, a simulation example that consists of 25 vehicles shows the effectiveness of theory.

  13. The outcome of A. Double mesh intraperitoneal repair for complex ventral hernia: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Raafat Y; Hamood, Mokhtar; Hassan, Maged

    2018-05-01

    Complex ventral hernia is a challenging surgical entity, commonly attended with huge defect, loss of domain and possible soft tissue infection. It is difficult to repair, especially with multiple recurrences. Numerous methods of repair have been described with no evidence-based data available to prefer one method over the other. The purpose of this study is to determine the long-term outcome of the proposed new modification of intraperitoneal mesh repair procedure in complex ventral hernia. This is a single-center retrospective analysis utilizing the prospectively-maintained dataset in our institution during the study period between January 2003 and June 2017. Patients who fit the inclusion criteria of having a complex ventral hernia, whether de-novo or recurrent and were subjected to A. Double Mesh Intraperitoneal Repair (ADMIR) procedure were included in the study. Patients were followed up till recurrence or lost to follow through a period ranging from 6 to 174 months (mean: 142.96 ± SE: 11.91). Forty-nine cases were included in this study (38 females and 11 males) with a female to male ratio of 3.5:1. The age range was from 28 to 81 years (mean 49 ± 12.4). BMI range from 25 to 42 (mean 33.6 ± 5.42). The ratio between the hernia sac volume and abdominal cavity volume was more than 20% in 12 patients (24.5%), who were subjected to preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum (PPP) for an average period of two weeks. Hernias were recurrent in 28 cases (57%) and associated comorbidities were observed in 29 patients (63%). Postoperative complications occurred in 19 patients (38.7%), among them only 2 patients developed recurrence (4%) after a mean follow up period of 142 months. Five patients were lost to follow and were included in the Kaplan and Meier survival analysis. ADMIR procedure is successful for the repair of complex ventral hernias as it is applicable to all sites of ventral hernias. The mesh is tension free hidden within the abdomen allowing

  14. Curcumin complexation with cyclodextrins by the autoclave process: Method development and characterization of complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbani, Turki Al; Nazzal, Sami

    2017-03-30

    One approach to enhance curcumin (CUR) aqueous solubility is to use cyclodextrins (CDs) to form inclusion complexes where CUR is encapsulated as a guest molecule within the internal cavity of the water-soluble CD. Several methods have been reported for the complexation of CUR with CDs. Limited information, however, is available on the use of the autoclave process (AU) in complex formation. The aims of this work were therefore to (1) investigate and evaluate the AU cycle as a complex formation method to enhance CUR solubility; (2) compare the efficacy of the AU process with the freeze-drying (FD) and evaporation (EV) processes in complex formation; and (3) confirm CUR stability by characterizing CUR:CD complexes by NMR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, and XRD. Significant differences were found in the saturation solubility of CUR from its complexes with CD when prepared by the three complexation methods. The AU yielded a complex with expected chemical and physical fingerprints for a CUR:CD inclusion complex that maintained the chemical integrity and stability of CUR and provided the highest solubility of CUR in water. Physical and chemical characterizations of the AU complexes confirmed the encapsulated of CUR inside the CD cavity and the transformation of the crystalline CUR:CD inclusion complex to an amorphous form. It was concluded that the autoclave process with its short processing time could be used as an alternate and efficient methods for drug:CD complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Arthroscopic-assisted repair of triangular fibrocartilage complex foveal avulsion in distal radioulnar joint injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sung Jong; Jegal, Midum; Park, Min Jong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) foveal insertion can lead to distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability accompanied by ulnar-sided pain, weakness, snapping, and limited forearm rotation. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with TFCC foveal tears treated with arthroscopic-assisted repair. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients underwent foveal repair of avulsed TFCC with the assistance of arthroscopy between 2011 and 2013. These patients were followed up for an average of 19 months (range 14–25 months). The avulsed TFCC were reattached to the fovea using a transosseous pull-out suture or a knotless suture anchor. At the final followup, the range of motion, grip strength and DRUJ stability were measured as objective outcomes. Subjective outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH score) and return to work. Results: Based on the DRUJ stress test, 5 patients had normal stability and 7 patients showed mild laxity as compared with the contralateral side. Postoperatively, the mean range of pronation supination increased from 141° to 166°, and the mean VAS score for pain decreased from 5.3 to 1.7 significantly. The PRWE and DASH questionnaires also showed significant functional improvement. All patients were able to return to their jobs. However, two patients complained of persistent pain. Conclusions: Arthroscopically assisted repair of TFCC foveal injury can provide significant pain relief, functional improvement and restoration of DRUJ stability. PMID:27293286

  16. Non-periodic preventive maintenance with reliability thresholds for complex repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zu-Liang; Huang, Yeu-Shiang; Fang, Chih-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    In general, a non-periodic condition-based PM policy with different condition variables is often more effective than a periodic age-based policy for deteriorating complex repairable systems. In this study, system reliability is estimated and used as the condition variable, and three reliability-based PM models are then developed with consideration of different scenarios which can assist in evaluating the maintenance cost for each scenario. The proposed approach provides the optimal reliability thresholds and PM schedules in advance by which the system availability and quality can be ensured and the organizational resources can be well prepared and managed. The results of the sensitivity anlysis indicate that PM activities performed at a high reliability threshold can not only significantly improve the system availability but also efficiently extend the system lifetime, although such a PM strategy is more costly than that for a low reliabiltiy threshold. The optimal reliability threshold increases along with the number of PM activities to prevent future breakdowns caused by severe deterioration, and thus substantially reduces repair costs. - Highlights: • The PM problems for repairable deteriorating systems are formulated. • The structural properties of the proposed PM models are investigated. • The corresponding algorithms to find the optimal PM strategies are provided. • Imperfect PM activities are allowed to reduce the occurences of breakdowns. • Provide managers with insights about the critical factors in the planning stage

  17. Repair Responses of Dental Pulp to Tooth Injury and Biological Properties of Dentin-pulp Complex

    OpenAIRE

    大島, 勇人; Ohshima, Hayato

    2004-01-01

    Regeneration-the creation of a new tissue after the original one has been lost-is the fundamental biological capability in an organism. Numerous organs are considered to contain stem cells referred to as adult stem cells, even in the adult. Adult stem cells can give rise to a limited set of adult tissue types. In the field of clinical dentistry, it is well-known that the dentin-pulp complex is capable of repair after tooth injuries such as tooth replantation/transplantation or restorative pro...

  18. Formation and repair of DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) in newly replicated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.; Friedman, L.R.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    DPCs preferentially involve proteins of the nuclear matrix, the site of replication and transcription. To elucidate the relationship with replication, the formation and repair of DPCs has been studied in newly replicated DNA. Log-phase V79 cells were pulsed with /sup 3/H-TdR (10-20 μCi/ml) for 30-90 sec at 22 0 followed by up to a 60 min chase at 37 0 . Irradiation (0-100 Gy) immediately after the pulse increases the labeled DNA in DPCs with a dose-dependence that is unaffected by the initial level of labeled DPC or by chase time. When cells are irradiated before the pulse, DNA synthesis is inhibited; however, release of pulse-labeled DPCs appears normal. The data suggest that during replication, DNA is cross-linked to (matrix) protein, contributing to background DPCs

  19. Brca2 C-terminus interacts with Rad51 and contributes to nuclear forcus formation in double-strand break repair of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Morimatsu, Masami; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Syuto, Bunei; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    In humans and mice, the interaction between the breast cancer susceptibility protein, Brca2, and Rad51 recombinase is essential for DNA repair by homologous recombination, the failure of this process can predispose to cancer. Cells with mutated Brca2 are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) and exhibit defective DNA repair. Using yeast and mammalian two-hybrid assays, we demonstrate that canine Rad51 protein interacts specifically with the C-terminus of canine Brca2. In support of the biological significance of this interaction, we found that radiation-induced focus formation of Rad51 in COS-7 cells was compromised by forced expression of the C-terminus of canine Brca2. A similar result was obtained for the murine C-terminus. These data suggest that the C-terminal domain of canine Brca2 functions to bind Rad51 and that this domain contributes to the IR-induced assembly of the Rad51 complex in vivo. (author)

  20. Geology of the Biwabik Iron Formation and Duluth Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, Mark A; Miller, James D; Morey, G B

    2008-10-01

    The Biwabik Iron Formation is a approximately 1.9 billion year-old sequence of iron-rich sedimentary rocks that was metamorphosed at its eastern-most extent by approximately 1.1 billion year-old intrusions of the Duluth Complex. The metamorphic recrystallization of iron-formation locally produced iron-rich amphiboles and other fibrous iron-silicate minerals. The presence of these minerals in iron-formation along the eastern part of what is known as the Mesabi Iron Range, and their potential liberation by iron mining has raised environmental health concerns. We describe here the geologic setting and mineralogic composition of the Biwabik Iron Formation in and adjacent to the contact metamorphic aureole of the Duluth Complex. The effects of metamorphism are most pronounced within a few kilometers of the contact, and decrease progressively away from it. The contact aureole has been divided into four metamorphic zones-each characterized by the composition and crystal structure of the metamorphic minerals it contains. The recrystallization of iron-formation to iron-rich amphibole minerals (grunerite and cummingtonite) and iron-pyroxene minerals (hedenbergite and ferrohypersthene) is best developed in zones that are most proximal to the Duluth Complex contact.

  1. Repair of acute injuries of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle by suture anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Fei; Fang, Yang; Cao, Zhong-Hua; Li, Guang-Feng; Yang, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical curative effect of stage I repair of acute injuries of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle by the application of suture anchors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 18 cases of III degree acute injuries of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle. Results: There were statistically significant differences in preoperative and last follow-up VAS pain scores and AOFAS ankle hind-foot function scores. The X-ray talus displacement values in the anterior drawer test and pressure anteroposterior X-ray talar tilt in the ankle talar tilt test also showed statistically significant differences. Complications occurred in 2 patients, incision surface infection in one, and postoperative lateral dorsal skin numbness in one. All these cases were cured after symptomatic treatment. At the last follow-up all patients’ ankle joint activity recovered to their preinjury function levels. Conclusion: The application of suture anchors for small incision stage I repair of the lateral collateral ligament of ankle joint degree III injury, can effectively restored the stability of ankle joint, and prevent the occurrence of chronic ankle instability complications. It is effective and feasible for the treatment of ankle joint lateral collateral ligament injuries. PMID:26885144

  2. The effect of a collagen-elastin matrix on adhesion formation after flexor tendon repair in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichelhaus, Dagmar Alice; Beyersdoerfer, Sascha Tobias; Gierer, Philip; Vollmar, Brigitte; Mittlmeier, Th

    2016-07-01

    The outcome of flexor tendon surgery is negatively affected by the formation of adhesions which can occur during the healing of the tendon repair. In this experimental study, we sought to prevent adhesion formation by wrapping a collagen-elastin scaffold around the repaired tendon segment. In 28 rabbit hind legs, the flexor tendons of the third and fourth digits were cut and then repaired using a two-strand suture technique on the fourth digit and a four-strand technique on the third digit. Rabbits were randomly assigned to study and control groups. In the control group, the operation ended by closing the tendon sheath and the skin. In the study group, a collagen-elastin scaffold was wrapped around the repaired tendon segment in both digits. After 3 and 8 weeks, the tendons were harvested and processed histologically. The range of motion of the digits and the gap formation between the repaired tendon ends were measured. The formation of adhesions, infiltration of leucocytes and extracellular inflammatory response were quantified. At the time of tendon harvesting, all joints of the operated toes showed free range of motion. Four-strand core sutures lead to significantly less diastasis between the repaired tendon ends than two-strand core suture repairs. The collagen-elastin scaffold leads to greater gapping after 3 weeks compared to the controls treated without the matrix. Within the tendons treated with the collagen-elastin matrix, a significant boost of cellular and extracellular inflammation could be stated after 3 weeks which was reflected by a higher level of CAE positive cells and more formation of myofibroblasts in the αSMA stain in the study group. The inflammatory response subsided gradually and significantly until the late stage of the study. Both the cellular and extracellular inflammatory response was emphasized with the amount of material used for the repair. The use of a collagen-elastin matrix cannot be advised for the prevention of adhesion

  3. Coevolution between Nuclear-Encoded DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair Genes and Plastid Genome Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Sabir, Jamal S M; Blazier, John Chris; Weng, Mao-Lun; Park, Seongjun; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-02-17

    Disruption of DNA replication, recombination, and repair (DNA-RRR) systems has been hypothesized to cause highly elevated nucleotide substitution rates and genome rearrangements in the plastids of angiosperms, but this theory remains untested. To investigate nuclear-plastid genome (plastome) coevolution in Geraniaceae, four different measures of plastome complexity (rearrangements, repeats, nucleotide insertions/deletions, and substitution rates) were evaluated along with substitution rates of 12 nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes from 27 Geraniales species. Significant correlations were detected for nonsynonymous (dN) but not synonymous (dS) substitution rates for three DNA-RRR genes (uvrB/C, why1, and gyrA) supporting a role for these genes in accelerated plastid genome evolution in Geraniaceae. Furthermore, correlation between dN of uvrB/C and plastome complexity suggests the presence of nucleotide excision repair system in plastids. Significant correlations were also detected between plastome complexity and 13 of the 90 nuclear-encoded organelle-targeted genes investigated. Comparisons revealed significant acceleration of dN in plastid-targeted genes of Geraniales relative to Brassicales suggesting this correlation may be an artifact of elevated rates in this gene set in Geraniaceae. Correlation between dN of plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes and plastome complexity supports the hypothesis that the aberrant patterns in angiosperm plastome evolution could be caused by dysfunction in DNA-RRR systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Preoperative Botulinum toxin A enabling defect closure and laparoscopic repair of complex ventral hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Acevedo, Omar; Elstner, Kristen E; Jacombs, Anita S W; Read, John W; Martins, Rodrigo Tomazini; Arduini, Fernando; Wehrhahm, Michael; Craft, Colette; Cosman, Peter H; Dardano, Anthony N; Ibrahim, Nabeel

    2018-02-01

    Operative management of complex ventral hernia still remains a significant challenge for surgeons. Closure of large defects in the unprepared abdomen has serious pathophysiological consequences due to chronic contraction and retraction of the lateral abdominal wall muscles. We report outcomes of 56 consecutive patients who had preoperative Botulinum toxin A (BTA) abdominal wall relaxation facilitating closure and repair. This was a prospective observational study of 56 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided BTA into the lateral abdominal oblique muscles prior to elective ventral hernia repair between November 2012 and January 2017. Serial non-contrast abdominal CT imaging was performed to evaluate changes in lateral oblique muscle length and thickness. All hernias were repaired laparoscopically, or laparoscopic-open-laparoscopic (LOL) using intraperitoneal onlay mesh. 56 patients received BTA injections at predetermined sites to the lateral oblique muscles, which were well tolerated. Mean patient age was 59.7 years, and mean BMI was 30.9 kg/m 2 (range 21.8-54.0). Maximum defect size was 24 × 27 cm. A subset of 18 patients underwent preoperative pneumoperitoneum as an adjunct procedure. A comparison of pre-BTA to post-BTA imaging demonstrated an increase in mean lateral abdominal wall length from 16.1 cm to 20.1 cm per side, a mean gain of 4.0 cm/side (range 1.0-11.7 cm/side) (p LOL primary closure was achieved in all cases, with no clinical evidence of raised intra-abdominal pressures. One patient presented with a new fascial defect 26 months post-operative. Preoperative BTA to the lateral abdominal wall muscles is a safe and effective technique for the preparation of patients prior to operative management of complex ventral hernias. BTA temporary flaccid paralysis relaxes, elongates and thins the chronically contracted abdominal musculature. This in turn reduces lateral traction forces facilitating laparoscopic repair and fascial closure of large

  5. Zein/caseinate/pectin complex nanoparticles: Formation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Wang, Taoran; Hu, Qiaobin; Luo, Yangchao

    2017-11-01

    In this study, pectin was used as coating material to form zein/caseinate/pectin complex nanoparticles through pH adjustment and heating treatment for potential oral delivery applications. The preparation conditions were studied by applying heating treatment at different pHs, either the isoelectric point of zein (pH 6.2) or caseinate (pH 4.6), or consecutively at both pHs. The particulate characteristics, including particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential were monitored for complex nanoparticles formed under different preparation conditions. The complex nanoparticles generally exhibited particle size smaller than 200nm with narrow distribution, spherical shape, and strong negative charge. Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds were involved in the formation of complex nanoparticles, in addition to electrostatic interactions. Fresh colloidal dispersion and freeze-dried powders varied in their morphology, depending on their preparation conditions. Our results suggested that heating pH and sequence significantly affected the morphology of complex nanoparticles, and pectin coating exerted stabilization effect under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The present study provides insight into the formation of protein/polysaccharide complex nanoparticles under different preparation conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ectopic bone formation during tissue-engineered cartilage repair using autologous chondrocytes and novel plasma-derived albumin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robla Costales, David; Junquera, Luis; García Pérez, Eva; Gómez Llames, Sara; Álvarez-Viejo, María; Meana-Infiesta, Álvaro

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: first, to evaluate the production of cartilaginous tissue in vitro and in vivo using a novel plasma-derived scaffold, and second, to test the repair of experimental defects made on ears of New Zealand rabbits (NZr) using this approach. Scaffolds were seeded with chondrocytes and cultured in vitro for 3 months to check in vitro cartilage production. To evaluate in vivo cartilage production, a chondrocyte-seeded scaffold was transplanted subcutaneously to a nude mouse. To check in vivo repair, experimental defects made in the ears of five New Zealand rabbits (NZr) were filled with chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds. In vitro culture produced mature chondrocytes with no extracellular matrix (ECM). Histological examination of redifferentiated in vitro cultures showed differentiated chondrocytes adhered to scaffold pores. Subcutaneous transplantation of these constructs to a nude mouse produced cartilage, confirmed by histological study. Experimental cartilage repair in five NZr showed cartilaginous tissue repairing the defects, mixed with calcified areas of bone formation. It is possible to produce cartilaginous tissue in vivo and to repair experimental auricular defects by means of chondrocyte cultures and the novel plasma-derived scaffold. Further studies are needed to determine the significance of bone formation in the samples. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Positronium formation studies in crystalline molecular complexes: Triphenylphosphine oxide - Acetanilide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F. C.; Denadai, A. M. L.; Guerra, L. D. L.; Fulgêncio, F. H.; Windmöller, D.; Santos, G. C.; Fernandes, N. G.; Yoshida, M. I.; Donnici, C. L.; Magalhães, W. F.; Machado, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen bond formation in the triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), acetanilide (ACN) supramolecular heterosynton system, named [TPPO0.5·ACN0.5], has been studied by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and supported by several analytical techniques. In toluene solution, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) presented a 1:1 stoichiometry and indicated that the complexation process is driven by entropy, with low enthalpy contribution. X-ray structure determination showed the existence of a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds, allowing also the confirmation of the existence of a 1:1 crystalline molecular complex in solid state. The results of thermal analysis (TGA, DTA and DSC) and FTIR spectroscopy showed that the interactions in the complex are relatively weaker than those found in pure precursors, leading to a higher positronium formation probability at [TPPO0.5·ACN0.5]. These weak interactions in the complex enhance the possibility of the n- and π-electrons to interact with positrons and consequently, the probability of positronium formation is higher. Through the present work is shown that PALS is a sensible powerful tool to investigate intermolecular interactions in solid heterosynton supramolecular systems.

  8. complex formation of americium (III) with humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjie; Zhao Xin; Wei Liansheng; Lin Zhangji

    1998-01-01

    The presence of humic substances in natural waters will modify the migration behavior of actinides in the geosphere due to the strong reaction properties of these ligands with actinides. Therefore, the possible reactions of humic acid with actinides have been studied widely in recent years. The complex formation of Am(III) with humic acid is studied with solvent extraction technique. The experiments are performed in the pH range from 4.0 to 8.0 in 0.1 mol/kg NaClO 4 solution at ambient temperature. Experimental results show that the complex formation constants of Am(III) with humic acid are varied with the variation of pH value in solution. 1:2 complex is obtained in the experiments and the complex formation constants determined at each pH are: lgβ 1 = 6.56 +- 0.05, lgβ 2 = 10.77 +- 0.31 at pH 4.0. lgβ 1 = 7.94 +- 0.11, lgβ 2 = 11.80 +- 0.21 at pH = 5.0. lgβ 1 = 10.74 +- 0.28, lgβ 2 = 12.88 +- 0.49 at pH = 6.0. lgβ 1 = 12.85 +- 0.30, lgβ 2 = 14.80 +- 0.62 at pH = 7.0. lgβ 1 = 14.88 +- 0.48, lgβ 2 = 15.65 +- 0.69 at pH = 8.0, respectively. The dependence of the complex formation constant on pH is: lgβ 1 = 2.16 (+-0.98)pH-2.34(+-0.93),lgβ 2 1.28(+-1.04)pH+5.52(+-1.21), respectively

  9. Mismatch repair proteins, meiosis, and mice: understanding the complexities of mammalian meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlanov, Anton; Cohen, Paula E

    2004-05-15

    Mammalian meiosis differs from that seen in lower eukaryotes in several respects, not least of which is the added complexity of dealing with chromosomal interactions across a much larger genome (12 MB over 16 chromosome pairs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae compared to 2500 MB over 19 autosome pairs in Mus musculus). Thus, the recombination machinery, while being highly conserved through eukaryotes, has evolved to accommodate such issues to preserve genome integrity and to ensure propagation of the species. One group of highly conserved meiotic regulators is the DNA mismatch repair protein family that, as their name implies, were first identified as proteins that act to repair DNA mismatches that arise primarily during DNA replication. Their function in ensuring chromosomal integrity has also translated into a critical role for this family in meiotic recombination in most sexually reproducing organisms. In mice, targeted deletion of certain family members results in severe consequences for meiotic progression and infertility. This review will focus on the studies involving these mutant mouse models, with occasional comparison to the function of these proteins in other organisms.

  10. DNA radio-induced tandem lesions: formation, introduction in oligonucleotides and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdat, Anne-Gaelle

    2000-01-01

    Cell killing induced by excited photosensitizers, ionizing radiation or radiomimetic drugs can not be only explained by the formation of single DNA lesions. Thus, multiply damaged sites, are likely to have harmful biological consequences. One example of tandem base damage induced by ".OH radical in X-irradiated aqueous solution of DNA oligomers is N-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-formyl-amine (dβF)/8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo). In order to investigate the biological significance of such a tandem lesion, both 8-oxodGuo and dβF were introduced in synthetic oligonucleotides at vicinal positions using the solid phase phosphoramidite method with the 'Pac phosphoramidite' chemistry. The purity of the synthetic DNA fragments and the integrity of modified nucleosides was confirmed using different complementary techniques: HPLC, PAGE, ESI MS, MALDI-TOF MS and capillary electrophoresis. Using the above synthetic substrates, investigations were carried out in order to determine the substrate specificity and the excision mechanism of three glycosylases involved in the base excision repair pathway: endonuclease III, Fpg and yOggl. Both tandem lesions were substrates for the BER enzymes. However, the tandem lesion are not completely excised by the repair enzymes. The rates of excision as inferred from the determination of the ratios of Vm/Km Michaelis kinetics constants were not found to be significantly affected by the presence of the tandem lesions. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used in order to gain insights into mechanistic aspects of oligonucleotide cleavage by the BER enzymes. During in vitro DNA synthesis by Taq DNA polymerase, Klenow fragment exo- and DNA polymerase β, tandem base damage were found to block the progression of the enzymes. Finally, the level of tandem base damage in the DNA exposed to γ-ray using the liquid chromatography coupled to electro-spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was determined. Both dβF-8-oxodGuo and 8

  11. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC STUDIES OF SANGUINARINE-Β-CYCLODEXTRIN COMPLEX FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veaceslav Boldescu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pH and the presence of hydrophilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone on the formation of sanguinarine-β-cyclodextrin (SANG-β-CD inclusion complex. Spectrophotometric studies of the SANG-β-CD systems in the presence and without 0.1 % PVP at the pH 5.0 did not show any evidence of the complex formation. However, the same systems showed several obvious evidences at the pH 8.0: the hyperchromic and the hypochromic effects and the presence of the isosbestic point in the region of 200 – 210 nm. The association constants calculated by three linear methods: Benesi-Hildebrand, Scott and Scatchard, were two times higher for the systems with addition of 0.1% PVP than for the systems without it.

  12. Gel phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E.; Goldfeld, David J.; Mao, Jun; Heller, William T.; Prabhu, Vivek M.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Tirrell, Matthew V.

    2017-02-01

    Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated gels at low polymer concentrations (simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte complexation-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. Gel phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chain aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of complexation-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for gel formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics.

  13. The USP1-UAF1 complex interacts with RAD51AP1 to promote homologous recombination repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Scott; Lee, Euiho; Palumbo, Emily; Benavidez, Pamela; Moldovan, George-Lucian; Kee, Younghoon

    2016-10-01

    USP1 deubiquitinating enzyme and its stoichiometric binding partner UAF1 play an essential role in promoting DNA homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to various types of DNA damaging agents. Deubiquitination of FANCD2 may be attributed to the key role of USP1-UAF1 complex in regulating HR repair, however whether USP1-UAF1 promotes HR repair independently of FANCD2 deubiquitination is not known. Here we show evidence that the USP1-UAF1 complex has a FANCD2-independent function in promoting HR repair. Proteomic search of UAF1-interacting proteins revealed that UAF1 associates with RAD51AP1, a RAD51-interacting protein implicated in HR repair. We show that UAF1 mediates the interaction between USP1 and RAD51AP1, and that depletion of USP1 or UAF1 led to a decreased stability of RAD51AP1. Protein interaction mapping analysis identified some key residues within RAD51AP1 required for interacting with the USP1-UAF1 complex. Cells expressing the UAF1 interaction-deficient mutant of RAD51AP1 show increased chromosomal aberrations in response to Mitomycin C treatment. Moreover, similar to the RAD51AP1 depleted cells, the cells expressing UAF1-interaction deficient RAD51AP1 display persistent RAD51 foci following DNA damage exposure, indicating that these factors regulate a later step during the HR repair. These data altogether suggest that the USP1-UAF1 complex promotes HR repair via multiple mechanisms: through FANCD2 deubiquitination, as well as by interacting with RAD51AP1.

  14. Single-stranded nucleic acids promote SAMHD1 complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüngler, Victoria; Staroske, Wolfgang; Kind, Barbara; Dobrick, Manuela; Kretschmer, Stefanie; Schmidt, Franziska; Krug, Claudia; Lorenz, Mike; Chara, Osvaldo; Schwille, Petra; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae

    2013-06-01

    SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a dGTP-dependent triphosphohydrolase that degrades deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) thereby limiting the intracellular dNTP pool. Mutations in SAMHD1 cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), an inflammatory encephalopathy that mimics congenital viral infection and that phenotypically overlaps with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus. Both disorders are characterized by activation of the antiviral cytokine interferon-α initiated by immune recognition of self nucleic acids. Here we provide first direct evidence that SAMHD1 associates with endogenous nucleic acids in situ. Using fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, we demonstrate that SAMHD1 specifically interacts with ssRNA and ssDNA and establish that nucleic acid-binding and formation of SAMHD1 complexes are mutually dependent. Interaction with nucleic acids and complex formation do not require the SAM domain, but are dependent on the HD domain and the C-terminal region of SAMHD1. We finally demonstrate that mutations associated with AGS exhibit both impaired nucleic acid-binding and complex formation implicating that interaction with nucleic acids is an integral aspect of SAMHD1 function.

  15. A method for the calculation of the cumulative failure probability distribution of complex repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldarola, L.

    1976-01-01

    A method is proposed for the analytical evaluation of the cumulative failure probability distribution of complex repairable systems. The method is based on a set of integral equations each one referring to a specific minimal cut set of the system. Each integral equation links the unavailability of a minimal cut set to its failure probability density distribution and to the probability that the minimal cut set is down at the time t under the condition that it was down at time t'(t'<=t). The limitations for the applicability of the method are also discussed. It has been concluded that the method is applicable if the process describing the failure of a minimal cut set is a 'delayed semi-regenerative process'. (Auth.)

  16. A study on complex formation of cadmium (II) ions, 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Haruo

    1984-01-01

    Formation constants of cadmium (11) complexes with dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic, malonic, methylmalonic, succinic, and glutaric acids were determined in aqueous solutions containing 3 mol.dm -3 LiClO 4 as a constan ionic medium at 25 0 C by potentiometric titrations. It was reported in the previous works that cadmium (11)- aspartic acid complexes contained two chelate rings. However, a problem remained whether the second chelate ring could be formed by six membered-ring containing -O-Cd-N- bond or by seven membered-ring containing -O-Cd-O- bond. The results of the present work suggested that it would be formed by a six membered ring. Cadmium (11) ions were coordinated with a carboxylic group of the dicarboxylic acids studied, and formed no chelate ring within the complexes. The white precipitate appeared in the solution containing cadmium (11) ion and oxalic acid, in the pH range below 3.0, therefore, the chelate formation was not ascertained in this case. The formation constants, log βsub(pr)= log([Cdsub(p)Lsub(r)sup((2p-2r)+)]/([Cd 2+ ]sup(p)[L 2- ]sup(r))), of the complexes were: log β 11 = 1.98, log β 12 = 3.05 for cadmium (11)-malonic acid; log β 11 = 2.28, log β 12 = 3.06 for cadmium (11)-methylmalonic acid; log β 11 = 1.78, log β 12 = 3.08 for cadmium (11)-succinic acid; log β 11 = 1.85, log β 12 = 3.28 for cadmium (11)-glutaric acid complexes. (author)

  17. Mismatch repair deficiency commonly precedes adenoma formation in Lynch Syndrome-Associated colorectal tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Shigeki; Mori, Taisuke; Ogawa, Reiko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Takeshi; Sugano, Kokichi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Kato, Mamoru; Furukawa, Eisaku; Ochiai, Atsushi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Lynch syndrome is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR deficiency is a ubiquitous feature of Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal adenocarcinomas; however, it remains unclear when the MMR-deficient phenotype is acquired during tumorigenesis. To probe this issue, the present study examined genetic alterations and MMR statuses in Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas, in comparison with sporadic adenomas. Among the Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal tumors, 68 of 86 adenomas (79%) and all adenocarcinomas were MMR-deficient, whereas all the sporadic adenomas were MMR-proficient, as determined by microsatellite instability testing and immunohistochemistry for MMR proteins. Sequencing analyses identified APC or CTNNB1 mutations in the majority of sporadic adenomas (58/84, 69%) and MMR-proficient Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas (13/18, 72%). However, MMR-deficient Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas had less APC or CTNNB1 mutations (25/68, 37%) and frequent frameshift RNF43 mutations involving mononucleotide repeats (45/68, 66%). Furthermore, frameshift mutations affecting repeat sequences constituted 14 of 26 APC mutations (54%) in MMR-deficient adenomas whereas these frameshift mutations were rare in MMR-proficient adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome (1/12, 8%) and in sporadic adenomas (3/52, 6%). Lynch syndrome-associated adenocarcinomas exhibited mutation profiles similar to those of MMR-deficient adenomas. Considering that WNT pathway activation sufficiently drives colorectal adenoma formation, the distinct mutation profiles of WNT pathway genes in Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas suggest that MMR deficiency commonly precedes adenoma formation.

  18. Complex formation of americium (III) with humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjie; Zhao Xin; Wen Liansheng; Lin Zhangji

    2004-01-01

    The presence of humic substances in natural waters will modify the migration behavior of actinides in the geosphere due to the strong reaction properties of these ligands with actinides. Therefore, the possible reactions of humic acid with actinides have been studied widely in recent years. The complex formation of Am (III) with humic acid is studied with solvent extraction technique in this paper. The experiments are performed in the pH range from 4.0 to 8.0 in 0.1 M NaClO 4 solution at ambient temperature. Experimental results show that the complex formation constants of Am (III) with humic acid are varied with the variation of pH value in solution. 1:2 complex is obtained in the experiments and the complex formation constants determined at each pH are: lgβ 1 =6.56±0.05, lgβ 2 =10.77±0.31 at pH=4.0; lgβ 1 =7.94±0.11, lgβ 2 =11.80±0.21 at pH=5.0; lgβ 1 =10.74±0.28, lgβ 2 =12.88±0.49 at pH=6.0; lgβ 1 =12.85±0.30, lgβ 2 =14.80±0.62 at pH=7.0; lgβ 1 =14.88±0.48, lgβ 2 =15.65±0.69 at pH=8.0, respectively. The dependence of the complex of the complex formation constant on pH is: lgβ 1 =2.16(±0.98)pH-2.34(±1.03), lgβ 2 =1.28(±1.04)pH+5.52(±1.21), respectively. (author)

  19. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair

  20. Complex DNA repair pathways as possible therapeutic targets to overcome temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Koji; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Hata, Nobuhiro; Murata, Hideki; Hatae, Ryusuke; Amano, Toshiyuki; Nakamizo, Akira; Sasaki, Tomio

    2012-01-01

    Many conventional chemotherapeutic drugs exert their cytotoxic function by inducing DNA damage in the tumor cell. Therefore, a cell-inherent DNA repair pathway, which reverses the DNA-damaging effect of the cytotoxic drugs, can mediate therapeutic resistance to chemotherapy. The monofunctional DNA-alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug and the gold standard treatment for glioblastoma (GBM). Although the activity of DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been described as the main modulator to determine the sensitivity of GBM to TMZ, a subset of GBM does not respond despite MGMT inactivation, suggesting that another DNA repair mechanism may also modulate the tolerance to TMZ. Considerable interest has focused on MGMT, mismatch repair (MMR), and the base excision repair (BER) pathway in the mechanism of mediating TMZ resistance, but emerging roles for the DNA strand-break repair pathway have been demonstrated. In the first part of this review article, we briefly review the significant role of MGMT, MMR, and the BER pathway in the tolerance to TMZ; in the last part, we review the recent publications that demonstrate possible roles of DNA strand-break repair pathways, such as single-strand break repair and double-strand break repair, as well as the Fanconi anemia pathway in the repair process after alkylating agent-based therapy. It is possible that all of these repair pathways have a potential to modulate the sensitivity to TMZ and aid in overcoming the therapeutic resistance in the clinic.

  1. Complex DNA repair pathways as possible therapeutic targets to overcome temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimoto, Koji; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Hata, Nobuhiro; Murata, Hideki; Hatae, Ryusuke; Amano, Toshiyuki; Nakamizo, Akira; Sasaki, Tomio, E-mail: kyoshimo@ns.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-12-05

    Many conventional chemotherapeutic drugs exert their cytotoxic function by inducing DNA damage in the tumor cell. Therefore, a cell-inherent DNA repair pathway, which reverses the DNA-damaging effect of the cytotoxic drugs, can mediate therapeutic resistance to chemotherapy. The monofunctional DNA-alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug and the gold standard treatment for glioblastoma (GBM). Although the activity of DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been described as the main modulator to determine the sensitivity of GBM to TMZ, a subset of GBM does not respond despite MGMT inactivation, suggesting that another DNA repair mechanism may also modulate the tolerance to TMZ. Considerable interest has focused on MGMT, mismatch repair (MMR), and the base excision repair (BER) pathway in the mechanism of mediating TMZ resistance, but emerging roles for the DNA strand-break repair pathway have been demonstrated. In the first part of this review article, we briefly review the significant role of MGMT, MMR, and the BER pathway in the tolerance to TMZ; in the last part, we review the recent publications that demonstrate possible roles of DNA strand-break repair pathways, such as single-strand break repair and double-strand break repair, as well as the Fanconi anemia pathway in the repair process after alkylating agent-based therapy. It is possible that all of these repair pathways have a potential to modulate the sensitivity to TMZ and aid in overcoming the therapeutic resistance in the clinic.

  2. Microstructure Formation and Fracturing Characteristics of Grey Cast Iron Repaired Using Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Shi, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The repairing technology based on laser rapid fusion is becoming an important tool for fixing grey cast iron equipment efficiently. A laser repairing protocol was developed using Fe-based alloy powders as material. The microstructure and fracturing feature of the repaired zone (RZ) were analyzed. The results showed that regionally organized RZ with good density and reliable metallurgical bond can be achieved by laser repairing. At the bottom of RZ, dendrites existed in similar direction and extended to the secondary RZ, making the grains grow extensively with inheritance with isometric grains closer to the surface substrate. The strength of the grey cast iron base material was maintained by laser repairing. The base material and RZ were combined with robust strength and fracture resistance. The prevention and deflection of cracking process were analyzed using a cracking process model and showed that the overall crack toughness of the materials increased. PMID:25032230

  3. Single-row versus double-row capsulolabral repair: a comparative evaluation of contact pressure and surface area in the capsulolabral complex-glenoid bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo-Sup; Yoon, Yeo-Seung; Chung, Hoi-Jeong

    2011-07-01

    Despite the attention that has been paid to restoration of the capsulolabral complex anatomic insertion onto the glenoid, studies comparing the pressurized contact area and mean interface pressure at the anatomic insertion site between a single-row repair and a double-row labral repair have been uncommon. The purpose of our study was to compare the mean interface pressure and pressurized contact area at the anatomic insertion site of the capsulolabral complex between a single-row repair and a double-row repair technique. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders (mean age, 61 ± 8 years; range, 48-71 years) were used for this study. Two types of repair were performed on each specimen: (1) a single-row repair and (2) a double-row repair. Using pressure-sensitive films, we examined the interface contact area and contact pressure. The mean interface pressure was greater for the double-row repair technique (0.29 ± 0.04 MPa) when compared with the single-row repair technique (0.21 ± 0.03 MPa) (P = .003). The mean pressurized contact area was also significantly greater for the double-row repair technique (211.8 ± 18.6 mm(2), 78.4% footprint) compared with the single-row repair technique (106.4 ± 16.8 mm(2), 39.4% footprint) (P = .001). The double-row repair has significantly greater mean interface pressure and pressurized contact area at the insertion site of the capsulolabral complex than the single-row repair. The double-row repair may be advantageous compared with the single-row repair in restoring the native footprint area of the capsulolabral complex.

  4. The ribosome-associated complex antagonizes prion formation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Alvaro J; Castanzo, Dominic T; Delany, Sean P; Selechnik, Daniel M; van Ooy, Alex; Cameron, Dale M

    2015-01-01

    The number of known fungal proteins capable of switching between alternative stable conformations is steadily increasing, suggesting that a prion-like mechanism may be broadly utilized as a means to propagate altered cellular states. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which cells regulate prion formation and toxicity we examined the role of the yeast ribosome-associated complex (RAC) in modulating both the formation of the [PSI(+)] prion - an alternative conformer of Sup35 protein - and the toxicity of aggregation-prone polypeptides. The Hsp40 RAC chaperone Zuo1 anchors the RAC to ribosomes and stimulates the ATPase activity of the Hsp70 chaperone Ssb. We found that cells lacking Zuo1 are sensitive to over-expression of some aggregation-prone proteins, including the Sup35 prion domain, suggesting that co-translational protein misfolding increases in Δzuo1 strains. Consistent with this finding, Δzuo1 cells exhibit higher frequencies of spontaneous and induced prion formation. Cells expressing mutant forms of Zuo1 lacking either a C-terminal charged region required for ribosome association, or the J-domain responsible for Ssb ATPase stimulation, exhibit similarly high frequencies of prion formation. Our findings are consistent with a role for the RAC in chaperoning nascent Sup35 to regulate folding of the N-terminal prion domain as it emerges from the ribosome.

  5. Multi-Level Formation of Complex Software Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a multi-level formation model for complex software systems. The previous works extract the software systems to software networks for further studies, but usually investigate the software networks at the class level. In contrast to these works, our treatment of software systems as multi-level networks is more realistic. In particular, the software networks are organized by three levels of granularity, which represents the modularity and hierarchy in the formation process of real-world software systems. More importantly, simulations based on this model have generated more realistic structural properties of software networks, such as power-law, clustering and modularization. On the basis of this model, how the structure of software systems effects software design principles is then explored, and it could be helpful for understanding software evolution and software engineering practices.

  6. Simulations of photochemical smog formation in complex urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilwijk, C.; Schrijvers, P. J. C.; Wuerz, S.; Kenjereš, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the present study we numerically investigated the dispersion of photochemical reactive pollutants in complex urban areas by applying an integrated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Reaction Dynamics (CRD) approach. To model chemical reactions involved in smog generation, the Generic Reaction Set (GRS) approach is used. The GRS model was selected since it does not require detailed modeling of a large set of reactive components. Smog formation is modeled first in the case of an intensive traffic emission, subjected to low to moderate wind conditions in an idealized two-dimensional street canyon with a building aspect ratio (height/width) of one. It is found that Reactive Organic Components (ROC) play an important role in the chemistry of smog formation. In contrast to the NOx/O3 photochemical steady state model that predicts a depletion of the (ground level) ozone, the GRS model predicts generation of ozone. Secondly, the effect of direct sunlight and shadow within the street canyon on the chemical reaction dynamics is investigated for three characteristic solar angles (morning, midday and afternoon). Large differences of up to one order of magnitude are found in the ozone production for different solar angles. As a proof of concept for real urban areas, the integrated CFD/CRD approach is applied for a real scale (1 × 1 km2) complex urban area (a district of the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands) with high traffic emissions. The predicted pollutant concentration levels give realistic values that correspond to moderate to heavy smog. It is concluded that the integrated CFD/CRD method with the GRS model of chemical reactions is both accurate and numerically robust, and can be used for modeling of smog formation in complex urban areas.

  7. Theoretical study about L-arginine complexes formation with thiotriazolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain vascular diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity, mortality and disability of population in the industrialized countries of the world. An important element of this problem’s solution is the creation of new highly effective and safe drugs, which would lead to mortality reduction, to increase in life expectancy and quality of life. Therefore it is interesting to create a new combined drug based on L-arginine and thiotriazolin. Purpose of the study: to consider the possible structure and energy characteristics of complexes formed by L-arginine, 3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolyl-5-thioacetate (MTTA and morpholine. Calculation method. The initial approximation to the complex geometry was obtained using molecular docking with the help of AutoDock Vina program. The obtained ternary complexes were pre-optimized by semi-empirical PM7 method with modeling the impact of the environment by COSMO method. The calculations were carried out using MOPAC2012 program. Then they were optimized by B97-D3/SVP + COSMO (Water dispersion-corrected DFT-D with geometrical spreading correction on insufficiency of gCP basis set. A more accurate calculation of the solvation energy was conducted by SMD. The calculations by density functional method were carried out using the ORCA 3.0.3 software. Energy complex formation in solution was calculated as the difference of the Gibbs free energy of the solvated complex and its individual components. Results. Quantum chemical calculations show, that thiotriazolin and L-arginine are able to form ternary complexes, where molecules are linked by multiple hydrogen bonds. The calculation data suggest, that studied complexes are thermodynamically unstable in solution. The energies of them are positive, but rather low despite charge gain of a number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Finding. Based on the results of the conducted quantum-chemical study of a three components system (MTTA, morpholine, and L-arginine it is possible

  8. Complex formation between uranyl and various thiosemicarbazide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuguryan, D.G.; Dzyubenko, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    Complex formation between hexavalent uranium and salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (H 2 L), salicylaldehyde S-methyl-isothiosemicarbazone (H 2 Q), S-methyl-N 1 ,N 4 -bis(salicylidene)isothiosemicarbazide(H 2 Z), and thiosemicarbazidodiacetic acid (H 2 R) has been studied spectrophotometrically in solution. Stability constants for complexes having the composition UO 2 A have been calculated. Solid uranyl derivatives having the composition UO 2 L x 2H 2 O, UO 2 Q x 2H 2 O, UO 2 Z x 2H 2 O, and UO 2 R x 2H 2 O have been obtained. These derivatives were isolated and their IR spectroscopic behavior and thermal properties were investigated

  9. Complex formation in aqueous trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Johannes; Tielrooij, Klaas-Jan; Buchner, Richard; Bonn, Mischa; Bakker, Huib J

    2012-04-26

    We study aqueous solutions of the amphiphilic osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) using broadband dielectric spectroscopy and femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy. Both experiments provide strong evidence for distinctively slower rotation dynamics for water molecules interacting with the hydrophobic part of the TMAO molecules. Further, water is found to interact more strongly at the hydrophilic site of the TMAO molecules: we find evidence for the formation of stable, TMAO·2H2O and/or TMAO·3H2O complexes. While this coordination structure seems obvious, the lifetime of these complexes is found to be extraordinarily long (>50 ps). The existence of these long-lived complexes leads to pronounced parallel dipole correlations between water and TMAO, reflected in enhanced amplitudes in the dielectric spectra. The strong interaction between water and TMAO also results in a red-shifted band for the O-D stretching vibration of HDO molecules in an isotopically diluted aqueous TMAO solution. This O-D stretching vibration has a vibrational lifetime of 670 fs, which is significantly shorter than the lifetime of the O-D stretch vibration of bulk-like HDO molecules, presumably due to efficient coupling to vibrational modes of TMAO. The rotational dynamics of these O-D groups are slowed down dramatically, and are limited by the rotation of the whole complex, while the O-D vector oriented away from TMAO probably shows an accelerated reorientation.

  10. Characterization of Hydrogen Complex Formation in III-V Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Michael D

    2006-09-28

    Atomic hydrogen has been found to react with some impurity species in semiconductors. Hydrogenation is a methodology for the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the semiconductor for the express purpose of forming complexes within the material. Efforts to develop hydrogenation as an isolation technique for AlGaAs and Si based devices failed to demonstrate its commercial viability. This was due in large measure to the low activation energies of the formed complexes. Recent studies of dopant passivation in long wavelength (0.98 - 1.55m) materials suggested that for the appropriate choice of dopants much higher activation energies can be obtained. This effort studied the formation of these complexes in InP, This material is extensively used in optoelectronics, i.e., lasers, modulators and detectors. The experimental techniques were general to the extent that the results can be applied to other areas such as sensor technology, photovoltaics and to other material systems. The activation energies for the complexes have been determined and are reported in the scientific literature. The hydrogenation process has been shown by us to have a profound effect on the electronic structure of the materials and was thoroughly investigated. The information obtained will be useful in assessing the long term reliability of device structures fabricated using this phenomenon and in determining new device functionalities.

  11. Interference-mediated synaptonemal complex formation with embedded crossover designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangran; Espagne, Eric; de Muyt, Arnaud; Zickler, Denise; Kleckner, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Biological systems exhibit complex patterns at length scales ranging from the molecular to the organismic. Along chromosomes, events often occur stochastically at different positions in different nuclei but nonetheless tend to be relatively evenly spaced. Examples include replication origin firings, formation of chromatin loops along chromosome axes and, during meiosis, localization of crossover recombination sites (“crossover interference”). We present evidence in the fungus Sordaria macrospora that crossover interference is part of a broader pattern that includes synaptonemal complex (SC) nucleation. This pattern comprises relatively evenly spaced SC nucleation sites, among which a subset are crossover sites that show a classical interference distribution. This pattern ensures that SC forms regularly along the entire length of the chromosome as required for the maintenance of homolog pairing while concomitantly having crossover interactions locally embedded within the SC structure as required for both DNA recombination and structural events of chiasma formation. This pattern can be explained by a threshold-based designation and spreading interference process. This model can be generalized to give diverse types of related and/or partially overlapping patterns, in two or more dimensions, for any type of object. PMID:25380597

  12. G9a coordinates with the RPA complex to promote DNA damage repair and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaoyan; Zhu, Qian; Lu, Xiaopeng; Du, Yipeng; Cao, Linlin; Shen, Changchun; Hou, Tianyun; Li, Meiting; Li, Zhiming; Liu, Chaohua; Wu, Di; Xu, Xingzhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Haiying; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2017-07-25

    Histone methyltransferase G9a has critical roles in promoting cancer-cell growth and gene suppression, but whether it is also associated with the DNA damage response is rarely studied. Here, we report that loss of G9a impairs DNA damage repair and enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapeutics. In response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), G9a is phosphorylated at serine 211 by casein kinase 2 (CK2) and recruited to chromatin. The chromatin-enriched G9a can then directly interact with replication protein A (RPA) and promote loading of the RPA and Rad51 recombinase to DSBs. This mechanism facilitates homologous recombination (HR) and cell survival. We confirmed the interaction between RPA and G9a to be critical for RPA foci formation and HR upon DNA damage. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a regulatory pathway based on CK2-G9a-RPA that permits HR in cancer cells and provide further rationale for the use of G9a inhibitors as a cancer therapeutic.

  13. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail: shanthig@iastate.edu; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  14. Bioactive scaffolds for the controlled formation of complex skeletal tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, S.; Garcia-Fuentes, M.; Eberli, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue Engineering may offer new treatment alternatives for organ replacement or repair deteriorated organs. Among the clinical applications of Tissue Engineering are the production of artificial skin for burn patients, tissue engineered trachea, cartilage for knee-replacement procedures, urinary

  15. XRCC1 coordinates disparate responses and multiprotein repair complexes depending on the nature and context of the DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanssen-Bauer, Audun; Solvang-Garten, Karin; Sundheim, Ottar

    2011-01-01

    . We demonstrate that the laser dose used for introducing DNA damage determines the repertoire of DNA repair proteins recruited. Furthermore, we demonstrate that recruitment of POLß and PNK to regions irradiated with low laser dose requires XRCC1 and that inhibition of PARylation by PARP......-inhibitors only slightly reduces the recruitment of XRCC1, PNK, or POLß to sites of DNA damage. Recruitment of PCNA and FEN-1 requires higher doses of irradiation and is enhanced by XRCC1, as well as by accumulation of PARP-1 at the site of DNA damage. These data improve our understanding of recruitment of BER......XRCC1 is a scaffold protein capable of interacting with several DNA repair proteins. Here we provide evidence for the presence of XRCC1 in different complexes of sizes from 200 to 1500 kDa, and we show that immunoprecipitates using XRCC1 as bait are capable of complete repair of AP sites via both...

  16. DNA-membrane complex restoration in Micrococcus radiodurans after X-irradiation: relation to repair, DNA synthesis and DNA degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dardalhon-Samsonoff, M; Averbeck, D [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. Curie

    1980-07-01

    The DNA-membrane complex in Micrococcus radiodurans was shown to be essentially constituted of proteins, lipids and DNA. The complex was dissociated immediately after X-irradiation of cells and restored during post-incubation in complete medium. In X-irradiated protoplasts some DNA remained associated with the complex. Restoration of the complex during post-incubation was only seen in a medium favouring DNA polymerase and ligase activities. Under this condition no DNA synthesis occurred, suggesting that complex restoration may involve ligase activity. The complex restoration in the wild type and the X-ray sensitive mutant UV17 of M. radiodurans was strictly dependent on the X-ray dose. It was correlated with survival and DNA degradation but always preceded the onset of DNA synthesis after X-irradiation. At the same dose the complex restoration was about 2 fold lower in mutant than in wild type cells indicating that the restoration of the complex is related to repair capacity. The results are consistent with the idea that the complex protects X-irradiated DNA of M. radiodurans from further breakdown and, subsequently, permits DNA synthesis and repair to occur.

  17. Complex relationship between mismatch repair proteins and MBD4 during immunoglobulin class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigera, Fernando; Bellacosa, Alfonso; Kenter, Amy L

    2013-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) safeguards against genomic instability and is required for efficient Ig class switch recombination (CSR). Methyl CpG binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) binds to MutL homologue 1 (MLH1) and controls the post-transcriptional level of several MMR proteins, including MutS homologue 2 (MSH2). We show that in WT B cells activated for CSR, MBD4 is induced and interacts with MMR proteins, thereby implying a role for MBD4 in CSR. However, CSR is in the normal range in Mbd4 deficient mice deleted for exons 2-5 despite concomitant reduction of MSH2. We show by comparison in Msh2(+/-) B cells that a two-fold reduction of MSH2 and MBD4 proteins is correlated with impaired CSR. It is therefore surprising that CSR occurs at normal frequencies in the Mbd4 deficient B cells where MSH2 is reduced. We find that a variant Mbd4 transcript spanning exons 1,6-8 is expressed in Mbd4 deficient B cells. This transcript can be ectopically expressed and produces a truncated MBD4 peptide. Thus, the 3' end of the Mbd4 locus is not silent in Mbd4 deficient B cells and may contribute to CSR. Our findings highlight a complex relationship between MBD4 and MMR proteins in B cells and a potential reconsideration of their role in CSR.

  18. The effect of temperature and time on the formation of amylose- lysophosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi-Abhari, S.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.; Hamer, R.J.; Loos, K.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of amylose inclusion complexes could help to decrease the susceptibility of starch granules against amylase digestion. We studied the formation of amyloselysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) inclusion complexes at temperatures at and below the gelatinization temperature of starch, using DSC,

  19. Macular hole formation, progression, and surgical repair: case series of serial optical coherence tomography and time lapse morphing video study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background To use a new medium to dynamically visualize serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans in order to illustrate and elucidate the pathogenesis of idiopathic macular hole formation, progression, and surgical closure. Case Presentations Two patients at the onset of symptoms with early stage macular holes and one patient following repair were followed with serial OCTs. Images centered at the fovea and at the same orientation were digitally exported and morphed into an Audiovisual Interleaving (avi) movie format. Morphing videos from serial OCTs allowed the OCTs to be viewed dynamically. The videos supported anterior-posterior vitreofoveal traction as the initial event in macular hole formation. Progression of the macular hole occurred with increased cystic thickening of the fovea without evidence of further vitreofoveal traction. During cyst formation, the macular hole enlarged as the edges of the hole became elevated from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with an increase in subretinal fluid. Surgical repair of a macular hole revealed initial closure of the macular hole with subsequent reabsorption of the sub-retinal fluid and restoration of the foveal contour. Conclusions Morphing videos from serial OCTs are a useful tool and helped illustrate and support anterior-posterior vitreofoveal traction with subsequent retinal hydration as the pathogenesis of idiopathic macular holes. PMID:20849638

  20. Postreplicational formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli uvrB cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tzuchien V.; Smith, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    The number of DNA double-strand breaks formed in UV-irradiated uvrB recF recB cells correlates with the number of unrepaired DNA daughter-strand gaps, and is dependent on DNA synthesis after UV-irradiation. These results are consistent with the model that the DNA double-strand breaks that are produced in UV-irradiated excision-deficient cells occur as the result of breaks in the parental DNA opposite unrepaired DNA daughter-strand gaps. By employing a temperature-sensitive recA200 mutation, we have devised an improved assay for studying the formation and repair of these DNA double-strand breaks. Possible mechanisms for the postreplication repair of DNA double-strand breaks are discussed. (Auth.)

  1. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Spacecraft Circuit Diagnostics by Analog and Complex Signature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Wade, Raymond P.; Izadnegahdar, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is aimed at developing technologies that will enable space-flight crews to perform in situ component-level repair of electronics on Moon and Mars outposts, where there is no existing infrastructure for logistics spares. These technologies must provide effective repair capabilities yet meet the payload and operational constraints of space facilities. Effective repair depends on a diagnostic capability that is versatile but easy to use by crew members that have limited training in electronics. CLEAR studied two techniques that involve extensive precharacterization of "known good" circuits to produce graphical signatures that provide an easy-to-use comparison method to quickly identify faulty components. Analog Signature Analysis (ASA) allows relatively rapid diagnostics of complex electronics by technicians with limited experience. Because of frequency limits and the growing dependence on broadband technologies, ASA must be augmented with other capabilities. To meet this challenge while preserving ease of use, CLEAR proposed an alternative called Complex Signature Analysis (CSA). Tests of ASA and CSA were used to compare capabilities and to determine if the techniques provided an overlapping or complementary capability. The results showed that the methods are complementary.

  2. In vivo formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks after computed tomography examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbrich, Markus; Rief, Nicole; Kühne, Martin; Heckmann, Martina; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Rübe, Christian; Uder, Michael

    2005-06-21

    Ionizing radiation can lead to a variety of deleterious effects in humans, most importantly to the induction of cancer. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most significant genetic lesions introduced by ionizing radiation that can initiate carcinogenesis. We have enumerated gamma-H2AX foci as a measure for DSBs in lymphocytes from individuals undergoing computed tomography examination of the thorax and/or the abdomen. The number of DSBs induced by computed tomography examination was found to depend linearly on the dose-length product, a radiodiagnostic unit that is proportional to both the local dose delivered and the length of the body exposed. Analysis of lymphocytes sampled up to 1 day postirradiation provided kinetics for the in vivo loss of gamma-H2AX foci that correlated with DSB repair. Interestingly, in contrast to results obtained in vitro, normal individuals repair DSBs to background levels. A patient who had previously shown severe side effects after radiotherapy displayed levels of gamma-H2AX foci at various sampling times postirradiation that were several times higher than those of normal individuals. Gamma-H2AX and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of fibroblasts obtained from this patient confirmed a substantial DSB repair defect. Additionally, these fibroblasts showed significant in vitro radiosensitivity. These data show that the in vivo induction and repair of DSBs can be assessed in individuals exposed to low radiation doses, adding a further dimension to DSB repair studies and providing the opportunity to identify repair-compromised individuals after diagnostic irradiation procedures.

  3. MECHANISM OF FINANCIAL SAFETY FORMATION OF ENTERPRISES OF AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Khomenko

    2016-11-01

    answer their aims. As a result, depending on the worked out strategy of financial safety, it is possible to draw basic directions of guaranteeing his financial safety activity of enterprises of agro-industrial complex. Organizational-economic principles of forming of mechanism of financial safety of agricultural enterprises must be built on the basis of realization of its expressly certain strategy. It, in same queue, must go out from present of their production potential. This strategy is the basic internal reference-point of forming of financial safety of agricultural enterprise that sets the parameters of all her development. Practical implications. On financial safety of enterprises of agro-industrial complex testifies the conducted analysis of scientific researches, that without regard to the wide list of existing in economic literature researches on the mechanism of forming of enterprises’ financial safety, among scientific circles until now there is not a general idea. It requires forming of new knowledge’s in relation to forming of mechanism of enterprise financial safety, where not only the certain state of subject but also dynamic constituent of development must come forward as a priority lever, what is considered in this article. Value/originality. Creation of valuable mechanism of forming of financial safety of agro-industrial enterprises foresees formulation of criteria and principles of providing of financial safety of every enterprise, determinations of priority national interests in a financial sphere, realization of the permanent watching of factors, which cause a threat financial safety, and also acceptance of measures in relation to their warning and overcoming. The formed mechanism of financial safety of the agricultural formations is pre-condition of prevention of financial threats and negative financial phenomena in production activity of the agricultural formations, defence of their financial losses, and in future stabilizing of activity of the

  4. The Smart Residential Complex Effect on Personality Formation of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kasra Mirpadyab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between human beings and the environment has been a question of all times; however, the Industrial Revolution has begun to change its way. It can be seen that the human beings were a part of their environment in the past, but now with the advancement of knowledge and technology, the man can dominate in their environment. But today, the man’s needs should be well known about the interaction with the natural environment and with respect to the position of the residential complexes in the modern society, these buildings are designed to create the psychological comfort and the formation of the personality. The authors of this paper believe the mentioned event will be happening in the future generation of the buildings. These buildings will be equipped with smart automation system for all their activities. This research conducted by grounded theories about the explanation of the smart residential complexes equipped with the BMS, which can be effective for shaping the managerial character of the children in their future.

  5. Spectroscopic Studies on Complex Formation of U(VI)-thiosalicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Wan Sik; Cho, Hye Ryun; Park, Kyoung Kyun; Jung, Euo Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The dynamic interaction between radionuclides and organic ligands is largely dependent on the composition of functional groups in a ligand chemical structure. Therefore, the structural mimics of natural ligands possessing specific functional groups, such as hydroxy, phenol, carboxyl, thiol and amine groups, have been studied to understand their influence on the migration of radionuclides including actinide species under geological groundwater conditions. In previous studies, we demonstrated that the fraction of hydrolyzed U(VI) species occurring in weak acidic solutions (pH {approx}4.5) is significantly influenced by the presence of salicylate (Sal) ligand due to the simultaneous participation of both phenol and carboxyl groups in the formation of U(VI)-complexes. Thiosalicylic acid (TSalH{sub 2}) is a good model compound for studying the effects of both carboxyl and thiol (-SH) groups. The fraction of di-anionic ligand form (TSal{sup 2-}) is higher at near neutral pH due to the lower pKa ({approx} 8) of the thiol group than the case of salicylic acid (pKa, {approx}13 for salicylic -OH), despite the structural similarity. In addition, the redox capability of the thiol group is expected to influence the reducible radiouclides and the chemical structures of natural ligands by creating cross-linkage (-S-S-) upon oxidation. The goal of the present study is to investigate aqueous U(VI)-TSal complexation equilibrium via laser-based spectroscopic techniques including time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). In this preliminary work, we report the results of spectroscopic studies using conventional UVVis absorbance and fluorescence (FL) measurement methods. The photo-stability of U(VI)-TSal complex or ligand itself upon exposure to a series of laser pulses is estimated by monitoring the change in their absorption bands. Additionally, TSal FL-quenching effect by U(VI) ions is discussed in comparison with that of Sal FL-quenching

  6. Recombinational DNA repair is regulated by compartmentalization of DNA lesions at the nuclear pore complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Géli, Vincent; Lisby, Michael

    2015-01-01

    and colleagues shows that also physiological threats to genome integrity such as DNA secondary structure-forming triplet repeat sequences relocalize to the NPC during DNA replication. Mutants that fail to reposition the triplet repeat locus to the NPC cause repeat instability. Here, we review the types of DNA...... lesions that relocalize to the NPC, the putative mechanisms of relocalization, and the types of recombinational repair that are stimulated by the NPC, and present a model for NPC-facilitated repair....

  7. Complexity Quantification for Overhead Transmission Line Emergency Repair Scheme via a Graph Entropy Method Improved with Petri Net and AHP Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of emergency repair in overhead transmission line accidents, a complexity quantification method for emergency repair scheme is proposed based on the entropy method in software engineering, which is improved by using group AHP (analytical hierarchical process method and Petri net. Firstly, information structure chart model and process control flowchart model could be built by Petri net. Then impact factors on complexity of emergency repair scheme could be quantified into corresponding entropy values, respectively. Finally, by using group AHP method, weight coefficient of each entropy value would be given before calculating the overall entropy value for the whole emergency repair scheme. By comparing group AHP weighting method with average weighting method, experiment results for the former showed a stronger correlation between quantified entropy values of complexity and the actual consumed time in repair, which indicates that this new method is more valid.

  8. Computational study of hydration at the TD damaged site of DNA in complex with repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, Miroslav

    2000-02-01

    An analysis of the distribution of water around DNA surface focusing on the role of the distribution of water molecules in the proper recognition of damaged site by repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V was performed. The native DNA dodecamer, dodecamer with the thymine dimer (TD) and complex of DNA and part of repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V were examined throughout the 500 ps of molecular dynamics simulation. During simulation the number of water molecules close to the DNA atoms and the residence time were calculated. There is an increase in number of water molecules lying in the close vicinity to TD if compared with those lying close to two native thymines (TT). Densely populated area with water molecules around TD is one of the factors detected by enzyme during scanning process. The residence time was found higher for molecule of the complex and the six water molecules were found occupying the stabile positions between the TD and catalytic center close to atoms P, C3' and N3. These molecules originate water mediated hydrogen bond network that contribute to the stability of complex required for the onset of repair process. (author)

  9. Computational study of hydration at the TD damaged site of DNA in complex with repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinak, Miroslav [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-02-01

    An analysis of the distribution of water around DNA surface focusing on the role of the distribution of water molecules in the proper recognition of damaged site by repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V was performed. The native DNA dodecamer, dodecamer with the thymine dimer (TD) and complex of DNA and part of repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V were examined throughout the 500 ps of molecular dynamics simulation. During simulation the number of water molecules close to the DNA atoms and the residence time were calculated. There is an increase in number of water molecules lying in the close vicinity to TD if compared with those lying close to two native thymines (TT). Densely populated area with water molecules around TD is one of the factors detected by enzyme during scanning process. The residence time was found higher for molecule of the complex and the six water molecules were found occupying the stabile positions between the TD and catalytic center close to atoms P, C3' and N3. These molecules originate water mediated hydrogen bond network that contribute to the stability of complex required for the onset of repair process. (author)

  10. Phenotypic Analysis of ATM Protein Kinase in DNA Double-Strand Break Formation and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Elisabeth; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is involved in various regulatory processes in mammalian cells. Its best-known role is apical activation of the DNA damage response following generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). When DSBs appear, sensor and mediator proteins are recruited, activating transducers such as ATM, which in turn relay a widespread signal to a multitude of downstream effectors. ATM mutation causes Ataxia telangiectasia (AT), whereby the disease phenotype shows differing characteristics depending on the underlying ATM mutation. However, all phenotypes share progressive neurodegeneration and marked predisposition to malignancies at the organismal level and sensitivity to ionizing radiation and chromosome aberrations at the cellular level. Expression and localization of the ATM protein can be determined via western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy; however, detection of subtle alterations such as resulting from amino acid exchanges rather than truncating mutations requires functional testing. Previous studies on the role of ATM in DSB repair, which connects with radiosensitivity and chromosomal stability, gave at first sight contradictory results. To systematically explore the effects of clinically relevant ATM mutations on DSB repair, we engaged a series of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from AT patients and controls. To examine DSB repair both in a quantitative and qualitative manners, we used an EGFP-based assay comprising different substrates for distinct DSB repair mechanisms. In this way, we demonstrated that particular signaling defects caused by individual ATM mutations led to specific DSB repair phenotypes. To explore the impact of ATM on carcinogenic chromosomal aberrations, we monitored chromosomal breakage at a breakpoint cluster region hotspot within the MLL gene that has been associated with therapy-related leukemia. PCR-based MLL-breakage analysis of HeLa cells

  11. On determination of enthalpies of complex formation reactions by means of temperature coefficient of complexing degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povar, I.G.

    1995-01-01

    Equations describing the relation between temperature coefficient of ∂lnα/∂T complexing degree and the sum of changes in the enthalpy of complex formation of the composition M m L n δH mn multiplied by the weight coefficients k mm , are presented. A method to determine changes in the enthalpy of certain ΔH mm reactions from ∂lnα/∂T derivatives has been suggested. The best approximating equation from lnα/(T) dependence has been found. Errors of thus determined δH mm values are estimated and the results of calculation experiment for the system In 3+ -F - are provided. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Modulation of Wound Healing and Scar Formation by MG53 Protein-mediated Cell Membrane Repair*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M.; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53−/− mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing. PMID:26306047

  13. A UV-Induced Genetic Network Links the RSC Complex to Nucleotide Excision Repair and Shows Dose-Dependent Rewiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohith Srivas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient repair of UV-induced DNA damage requires the precise coordination of nucleotide excision repair (NER with numerous other biological processes. To map this crosstalk, we generated a differential genetic interaction map centered on quantitative growth measurements of >45,000 double mutants before and after different doses of UV radiation. Integration of genetic data with physical interaction networks identified a global map of 89 UV-induced functional interactions among 62 protein complexes, including a number of links between the RSC complex and several NER factors. We show that RSC is recruited to both silenced and transcribed loci following UV damage where it facilitates efficient repair by promoting nucleosome remodeling. Finally, a comparison of the response to high versus low levels of UV shows that the degree of genetic rewiring correlates with dose of UV and reveals a network of dose-specific interactions. This study makes available a large resource of UV-induced interactions, and it illustrates a methodology for identifying dose-dependent interactions based on quantitative shifts in genetic networks.

  14. Structural zinc(II thiolate complexes relevant to the modeling of Ada repair protein: Application toward alkylation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The TtZn(II-bound perchlorate complex [TtZn–OClO3] 1 (Ttxyly = hydrotris[N-xylyl-thioimidazolyl]borate was used for the synthesis of zinc(II-bound ethanthiothiol complex [TtZn–SCH2CH3] 2 and its hydrogen-bond containing analog Tt–ZnSCH2CH2–NH(COOC(CH33 3. These thiolate complexes were examined as structural models for the active sites of Ada repair protein toward methylation reactions. The Zn[S3O] coordination sphere in complex 1 includes three thione donors from the ligand Ttixyl and one oxygen donor from the perchlorate coligand in ideally tetrahedral arrangement around the zinc center. The average Zn(1–S(thione bond length is 2.344 Å, and the Zn(1–O(1 bond length is 1.917 Å.

  15. Endovascular Retrieval of Entrapped Elephant Trunk Graft During Complex Hybrid Aortic Arch Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodharan, Karthikeyan, E-mail: drdkarthik@hotmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Chao, Victor T. T., E-mail: victor.chao.t.t@singhealth.com.sg [National Heart Centre, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong, E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@singhealth.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2016-12-15

    Entrapment of the elephant trunk graft within the false lumen is a rare complication of surgical repair of an aortic dissection. This is normally retrieved by emergent open surgery. We describe a technique of endovascular retrieval of the dislodged graft, during hybrid aortic arch repair. The elephant trunk was cannulated through and through from a femoral access and the free end of the wire was snared and retrieved from a brachial access. The wire was externalised from both accesses and was used to reposition the graft into the true lumen using a body flossing technique.

  16. Complex formation of calcium with humic acid and polyacrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirishima, A.; Tanaka, K.; Niibori, Y.; Tochiyama, O. [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    In order to understand the migration behavior of radionuclides in the underground, it is also important to estimate the effect of the competing cations originally present in the groundwater. In this connection, the complexation of Ca(II) with Aldrich humic acid has been examined. For the study at trace concentrations ({proportional_to} 10{sup -10} M) of Ca(II), the solvent extraction of {sup 45}Ca with TTA and TOPO in cyclohexane has been used. At macro concentrations (10{sup -4} M) of Ca(II), the measurement of the free Ca{sup 2+} ion concentration with a calcium selective electrode has been conducted. To estimate the polyelectrolyte effect of humic acid separately from its heterogeneous composition effect, polyacrylic acid ([-CH{sub 2}CH(COOH)-]{sub n}) has been selected as a representative of the homogeneous polymeric weak acids and its complexation with Ca(II) has also been examined. The values of log {beta}{sub {alpha}} have been obtained at pH 5 {proportional_to} 7 in 0.1, 0.4 and 1.0 M NaCl, where {beta}{sub {alpha}} is the apparent formation constants defined by {beta}{sub {alpha}} = [ML]/([M][R]). In this definition, [ML] and [M] are the concentrations of bound and free Ca{sup 2+} respectively, [R] is the concentration of dissociated proton exchanging sites. log {beta}{sub {alpha}} of humate decreases from 2.19 {proportional_to} 2.92 (depending on pH and ionic strength 1.0 < I < 0.4) at pCa = 10 to 1.98 {proportional_to} 2.44 at pCa = 4, while the variation of pCa has no appreciable influence on the log {beta}{sub {alpha}} of polyacrylate (1.36 {proportional_to} 3.24 for I = 0.1 {proportional_to} 1.0). For both humate and polyacrylate, log {beta}{sub {alpha}} decreases linearly with log[Na{sup +}], where [Na{sup +}] is the bulk concentration of sodium ion. Their dependences of log {beta}{sub {alpha}} on ionic strength are stronger than those of log {beta} of monomeric carboxylates such as oxalate and EDTA, indicating the large electrostatic effect of

  17. Modulation of wound healing and scar formation by MG53 protein-mediated cell membrane repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-10-02

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53(-/-) mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Suberoylanilide Hydroxyamic Acid Modification of Chromatin Architecture Affects DNA Break Formation and Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sheetal; Le Hongan; Shih, S.-J.; Ho, Bay; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Chromatin-modifying compounds that inhibit the activity of histone deacetylases have shown potency as radiosensitizers, but the action of these drugs at a molecular level is not clear. Here we investigated the effect of suberoylanilide hydroxyamic acid (SAHA) on DNA breaks and their repair and induction of rearrangements. Methods and Materials: The effect of SAHA on both clonogenic survival and repair was assessed using cell lines SCC-25, MCF7, and TK6. In order to study unique DNA double-strand breaks, anti-CD95 antibody was employed to introduce a DNA double-strand break at a known location within the 11q23 region. The effects of SAHA on DNA cleavage and rearrangements were analyzed by ligation-mediated PCR and inverse PCR, respectively. Results: SAHA acts as radiosensitizer at 1 μM, with dose enhancement factors (DEFs) at 10% survival of: SCC-25 - 1.24 ± 0.05; MCF7 - 1.16 ± 0.09 and TK6 - 1.17 ± 0.05, and it reduced the capacity of SCC-25 cells to repair radiation induced lesions. Additionally, SAHA treatment diffused site-specific fragmentation over at least 1 kbp in TK6 cells. Chromosomal rearrangements produced in TK6 cells exposed to SAHA showed a reduction in microhomology at the breakpoint between 11q23 and partner chromosomes. Conclusions: SAHA shows efficacy as a radiosensitizer at clinically obtainable levels. In its presence, targeted DNA strand breaks occur over an expanded region, indicating increased chromatin access. The rejoining of such breaks is degraded by SAHA when measured as rearrangements at the molecular level and rejoining that contributes to cell survival.

  19. 3D printing of an aortic aneurysm to facilitate decision making and device selection for endovascular aneurysm repair in complex neck anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Matthew D B S; Laycock, Stephen D; Brown, James R I; Jakeways, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    To describe rapid prototyping or 3-dimensional (3D) printing of aneurysms with complex neck anatomy to facilitate endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). A 75-year-old man had a 6.6-cm infrarenal aortic aneurysm that appeared on computed tomographic angiography to have a sharp neck angulation of ~90°. However, although the computed tomography (CT) data were analyzed using centerline of flow, the true neck length and relations of the ostial origins were difficult to determine. No multidisciplinary consensus could be reached as to which stent-graft to use owing to these borderline features of the neck anatomy. Based on past experience with rapid prototyping technology, a decision was taken to print a model of the aneurysm to aid in visualization of the neck anatomy. The CT data were segmented, processed, and converted into a stereolithographic format representing the lumen as a 3D volume, from which a full-sized replica was printed within 24 hours. The model demonstrated that the neck was adequate for stent-graft repair using the Aorfix device. Rapid prototyping of aortic aneurysms is feasible and can aid decision making and device delivery. Further work is required to test the value of 3D replicas in planning procedures and their impact on procedure time, radiation dose, and procedure cost.

  20. Proteomics reveals dynamic assembly of repair complexes during bypass of DNA cross-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räschle, Markus; Smeenk, Godelieve; Hansen, Rebecca K

    2015-01-01

    DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) block replication fork progression by inhibiting DNA strand separation. Repair of ICLs requires sequential incisions, translesion DNA synthesis, and homologous recombination, but the full set of factors involved in these transactions remains unknown. We devised ...

  1. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Ye, G.

    2015-01-01

    In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio

  2. Single-stage soft tissue reconstruction and orbital fracture repair for complex facial injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng Sen; Matoo, Reshvin; Sun, Hong; Song, Li Yuan; Kikkawa, Don O; Lu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Orbital fractures with open periorbital wounds cause significant morbidity. Timing of debridement with fracture repair and soft tissue reconstruction is controversial. This study focuses on the efficacy of early single-stage repair in combined bony and soft tissue injuries. Retrospective review. Twenty-three patients with combined open soft tissue wounds and orbital fractures were studied for single-stage orbital reconstruction and periorbital soft tissue repair. Inclusion criteria were open soft tissue wounds with clinical and radiographic evidence of orbital fractures and repair performed within 48 h after injury. Surgical complications and reconstructive outcomes were assessed over 6 months. The main outcome measures were enophthalmos, pre- and post-CT imaging of orbits, scar evaluation, presence of diplopia, and eyelid position. Enophthalmos was corrected in 16/19 cases and improved in 3/19 cases. 3D reconstruction of CT images showed markedly improved orbital alignment with objective measurements of the optic foramen to cornea distance (mm) in reconstructed orbits relative to intact orbits of 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] (lower 0.33, upper 0.99) mm. The mean baseline of Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale was 0.6, 95%CI (0.30-0.92), and for 6 months, the mean score was 3.4, 95%CI (3.05-3.73). Residual diplopia in secondary gazes was present in two patients; one patient had ectropion. Complications included one case of local wound infection. An early single-stage repair of combined soft tissue and orbital fractures yields satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcomes. Complications are low and likely related to trauma severity. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Different roles of eukaryotic MutS and MutL complexes in repair of small insertion and deletion loops in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V Romanova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available DNA mismatch repair greatly increases genome fidelity by recognizing and removing replication errors. In order to understand how this fidelity is maintained, it is important to uncover the relative specificities of the different components of mismatch repair. There are two major mispair recognition complexes in eukaryotes that are homologues of bacterial MutS proteins, MutSα and MutSβ, with MutSα recognizing base-base mismatches and small loop mispairs and MutSβ recognizing larger loop mispairs. Upon recognition of a mispair, the MutS complexes then interact with homologues of the bacterial MutL protein. Loops formed on the primer strand during replication lead to insertion mutations, whereas loops on the template strand lead to deletions. We show here in yeast, using oligonucleotide transformation, that MutSα has a strong bias toward repair of insertion loops, while MutSβ has an even stronger bias toward repair of deletion loops. Our results suggest that this bias in repair is due to the different interactions of the MutS complexes with the MutL complexes. Two mutants of MutLα, pms1-G882E and pms1-H888R, repair deletion mispairs but not insertion mispairs. Moreover, we find that a different MutL complex, MutLγ, is extremely important, but not sufficient, for deletion repair in the presence of either MutLα mutation. MutSβ is present in many eukaryotic organisms, but not in prokaryotes. We suggest that the biased repair of deletion mispairs may reflect a critical eukaryotic function of MutSβ in mismatch repair.

  4. DNA damage and radical reactions: Mechanistic aspects, formation in cells and repair studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadet, J.; Ravanat, J.L.; Carell, T.; Cellai, L.; Chatgilialoglu, Ch.; Gimisis, Th.; Miranda, M.; O'Neill, P.; Robert, M.

    2008-01-01

    Several examples of oxidative and reductive reactions of DNA components that lead to single and tandem modifications are discussed in this review. These include nucleophilic addition reactions of the one-electron oxidation-mediated guanine radical cation and the one-electron reduced intermediate of 8-bromo-purine 2'-de-oxy-ribo-nucleosides that give rise to either an oxidizing guanine radical or related 5',8-cyclo-purine nucleosides. In addition, mechanistic insights into the reductive pathways involved in the photolyase induced reversal of cyclo-buta-cli-pyrimidine and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts are provided. Evidence for the occurrence and validation in cellular DNA of (OH) · radical degradation pathways of guanine that have been established in model systems has been gained from the accurate measurement of degradation products. Relevant information on biochemical aspects of the repair of single and clustered oxidatively generated damage to DNA has been gained from detailed investigations that rely on the synthesis of suitable modified probes. Thus the preparation of stable carbocyclic derivatives of purine nucleoside containing defined sequence oligonucleotides has allowed detailed crystallographic studies of the recognition step of the base damage by enzymes implicated in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Detailed insights are provided on the BER processing of non-double strand break bi-stranded clustered damage that may consist of base lesions, a single strand break or abasic sites and represent one of the main deleterious classes of radiation-induced DNA damage. (authors)

  5. Biomechanical Analysis of All-Inside, Arthroscopic Suture Repair Versus Extensor Retinaculum Capsulorrhaphy for Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears With Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amar A; Alhandi, Ali A; Milne, Edward; Dy, Christopher J; Latta, Loren L; Ouellette, E Anne

    2016-03-01

    To assess ulnocarpal joint stability after treatment of a peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury with all-inside arthroscopic suture repair (SR), extensor retinaculum capsulorrhaphy with the Herbert sling (HS), and a combination of both (SR+HS). Twelve fresh-frozen, age-matched, upper-extremity specimens intact from the distal humerus were prepared. Nondestructive mechanical testing was performed to assess native ulnocarpal joint stability and load-displacement curves were recorded. A peripheral, ulnar-sided TFCC injury was created with arthroscopic assistance, and mechanical testing was performed. Each specimen was treated with SR or HS and testing was repeated. The 6 specimens treated with SR were then treated with HS (SR+HS), and testing was repeated. We used paired Student t tests for statistical analysis within cohorts. For all cohorts, there was an average increase in ulnar translation after the creation of a peripheral TFCC injury and an average decrease after repair. Herbert sling decreased translation by 21%, SR decreased translation by 12%, and SR+HS decreased translation by 26%. Suture repair plus HS and HS reduce ulnar translation the most after a peripheral TFCC injury, followed by SR alone. Ulnocarpal joint stability should be assessed clinically in patients with peripheral TFCC injury, and consideration should be made for using extensor capsulorrhaphy in isolation or as an adjunct to SR as a treatment option. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Controlling meiotic recombinational repair - specifying the roles of ZMMs, Sgs1 and Mus81/Mms4 in crossover formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Oke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crossovers (COs play a critical role in ensuring proper alignment and segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. How the cell balances recombination between CO vs. noncrossover (NCO outcomes is not completely understood. Further lacking is what constrains the extent of DNA repair such that multiple events do not arise from a single double-strand break (DSB. Here, by interpreting signatures that result from recombination genome-wide, we find that synaptonemal complex proteins promote crossing over in distinct ways. Our results suggest that Zip3 (RNF212 promotes biased cutting of the double Holliday-junction (dHJ intermediate whereas surprisingly Msh4 does not. Moreover, detailed examination of conversion tracts in sgs1 and mms4-md mutants reveal distinct aberrant recombination events involving multiple chromatid invasions. In sgs1 mutants, these multiple invasions are generally multichromatid involving 3-4 chromatids; in mms4-md mutants the multiple invasions preferentially resolve into one or two chromatids. Our analysis suggests that Mus81/Mms4 (Eme1, rather than just being a minor resolvase for COs is crucial for both COs and NCOs in preventing chromosome entanglements by removing 3'- flaps to promote second-end capture. Together our results force a reevaluation of how key recombination enzymes collaborate to specify the outcome of meiotic DNA repair.

  7. Formation and repair of physically and chemically induced DNA damage in human cells. Final report, September 1, 1976-November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerutti, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    The major topic was the study of the formation and repair of DNA damage by energy related physical and chemical agents in cultured human cells. Two pathways of damage production were distinguished: (1) indirect action, i.e., attack of DNA by active oxygen species which are formed by the reaction of the primary agent with a non-DNA target; and (2) direct action, i.e., reaction of the primary agent or a chemical derivative of the primary agent with DNA usually resulting in the formation of a covalent adduct. Near-ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation were studied as agents which operate at least in part via indirect action and benzo(a)pyrene as chemical carcinogen operating mostly by direct action. The formation of monomeric thymine damage of the 5,6-dihydroxy-dihydrothymine type by γ-rays and ultraviolet light was investigated. Indirect action of near-ultraviolet light is also responsible for the induction of DNA single strand breaks. Their formation and repair following exposure to 313 nm light was studied in skin fibroblasts from patients with the hereditary disease Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). Excision repair of γ-ray induced 5,6-dihydroxy-dihydrothymine type lesions was studied in fibroblasts from Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) patients. The formation and repair of covalent purine adducts was studied in actively metabolizing rodent and human cells following treatment with the procarcinogen benzo(a)pyrene and with the ultimate metabolite benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide I

  8. Starch-lipid inclusion complexes for aerogel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently we reported that aqueous slurries of starch can be excess steam jet-cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of fatty acid salts to produce inclusion complexes between amylose and the fatty acid salt. These complexes can be simply prepared on large scale using commercially available steam ...

  9. A combined technique using a muscular flap and endobronchial stent to repair complex broncho-oesophageal fistulae supported by ECMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Jean-Marc; Haddad, Laura; Philouze, Guillaume

    2018-02-01

    Certain broncho-oesophageal fistulae require surgical repair. Herein, we describe an innovative surgical technique combining intercostal flap and endobronchial stenting. Two patients, each with a with complex broncho-oesophageal fistula 2 years after radio-chemotherapy, were hospitalised for severe respiratory infection and extension of the fistula despite previous endoscopic treatment. The first patient presented with respiratory distress (ARDS). She had emergency surgery under extra corporeal membrane oxygenation: oesophagectomy and reconstruction of the left bronchus by a vascularised intercostal flap. Stenting was performed on day 10, due to persistence of the fistula. At 3 months the bronchus was healed, but the patient died of cerebral bleeding. For the second patient, repair was proposed before severe ARDS with the same surgical and ventilatory strategy and a stent was preventively inserted after surgery. After 3 months, the stent was removed and the left bronchus was healed. Complex post-radiotherapy broncho-oesophageal fistulae should be treated surgically before respiratory complications arise, by combining reconstruction with a vascularised flap and transient stenting.

  10. The effect of temperature and time on the formation of amylose- lysophosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadiabhari, Salomeh; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Oudhuis, A. A. C. M. (Lizette); Hamer, Rob J.; Loos, Katja

    The formation of amylose inclusion complexes could help to decrease the susceptibility of starch granules against amylase digestion. We studied the formation of amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) inclusion complexes at temperatures at and below the gelatinization temperature of starch, using DSC,

  11. The effect of temperature and time on the formation of amylose–lysophosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi-Abhari, S.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.; Hamer, R.J.; Loos, K.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of amylose inclusion complexes could help to decrease the susceptibility of starch granules against amylase digestion. We studied the formation of amylose–lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) inclusion complexes at temperatures at and below the gelatinization temperature of starch, using DSC,

  12. Rac1 in podocytes promotes glomerular repair and limits the formation of sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Rin; Seki, Takuto; Takagi, Miyuki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Fumiko; Hosoe-Nagai, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Eriko; Trejo, Juan Alejandro Oliva; Yamamoto-Nonaka, Kanae; Sasaki, Yu; Hidaka, Teruo; Ueno, Takashi; Yanagita, Motoko; Suzuki, Yusuke; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Asanuma, Katsuhiko

    2018-03-22

    Rac1, a Rho family member, is ubiquitously expressed and participates in various biological processes. Rac1 expression is induced early in podocyte injury, but its role in repair is unclear. To investigate the role of Rac1 expression in podocytes under pathological conditions, we used podocyte-specific Rac1 conditional knock-out (cKO) mice administered adriamycin (ADR), which causes nephrosis and glomerulosclerosis. Larger areas of detached podocytes, more adhesion of the GBM to Bowman's capsule, and a higher ratio of sclerotic glomeruli were observed in Rac1 cKO mice than in control mice, whereas no differences were observed in glomerular podocyte numbers in both groups after ADR treatment. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which regulates the cell size, was more strongly suppressed in the podocytes of Rac1 cKO mice than in those of control mice under pathological conditions. In accordance with this result, the volumes of podocytes in Rac1 cKO mice were significantly reduced compared with those of control mice. Experiments using in vitro ADR-administered Rac1 knockdown podocytes also supported that a reduction in Rac1 suppressed mTOR activity in injured podocytes. Taken together, these data indicate that Rac1-associated mTOR activation in podocytes plays an important role in preventing the kidneys from developing glomerulosclerosis.

  13. Structure of p15PAF-PCNA complex and implications for clamp sliding during DNA replication and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Biasio, Alfredo; de Opakua, Alain Ibáñez; Mortuza, Gulnahar B

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsically disordered protein p15(PAF) regulates DNA replication and repair by binding to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp. We present the structure of the human p15(PAF)-PCNA complex. Crystallography and NMR show the central PCNA-interacting protein motif (PIP...... the DNA and facilitates the switch from replicative to translesion synthesis polymerase binding....... free and PCNA-bound p15(PAF) binds DNA mainly through its histone-like N-terminal tail, while PCNA does not, and a model of the ternary complex with DNA inside the PCNA ring is consistent with electron micrographs. We propose that p15(PAF) acts as a flexible drag that regulates PCNA sliding along...

  14. Electrolytic formation of technetium complexes with π-acceptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerda, F.; Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Kremer, E.

    1994-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction of pertechnetate was performed in aqueous solution containing π-acceptor ligands. Cyanide and 1,10-phenanthroline were the selected ligands. In both cases, electrolyses produced a cathodic TcO 2 deposit and soluble Tc complexes. When cyanide was the ligand, the complexes formed were [Tc(CN) 6 ] 5- and [TcO 2 (CN) 4 ] 3- . When working with the amine, [Tc(phen) 3 ] 2+ and another positively charged species were found after reaction. Results are compared with previous studies with amines, and the usefulness of the electrolytic route to obtain Tc complexes is evaluated. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Coexistence facilitates interspecific biofilm formation in complex microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Røder, Henriette Lyng; Russel, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions in which bacteria respond to one another by modifying their phenotype are central determinants of microbial communities. It is known that interspecific interactions influence the biofilm phenotype of bacteria; a phenotype that is central to the fitness of bacteria. However......, the underlying role of fundamental ecological factors, specifically coexistence and phylogenetic history, in biofilm formation remains unclear. This study examines how social interactions affect biofilm formation in multi-species co-cultures from five diverse environments. We found prevalence of increased...

  16. Influence of the Hydrophobicity of Polyelectrolytes on Polyelectrolyte Complex Formation and Complex Particle Structure and Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Petzold

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs were prepared by structural uniform and strongly charged cationic and anionic modified alternating maleic anhydride copolymers. The hydrophobicity of the polyelectrolytes was changed by the comonomers (ethylene, isobutylene and styrene. Additionally, the n−/n+ ratio of the molar charges of the polyelectrolytes and the procedure of formation were varied. The colloidal stability of the systems and the size, shape, and structure of the PEC particles were investigated by turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering (DLS and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Dynamic light scattering indicates that beside large PEC particle aggregates distinct smaller particles were formed by the copolymers which have the highest hydrophobicity (styrene. These findings could be proved by AFM. Fractal dimension (D, root mean square (RMS roughness and the surface profiles of the PEC particles adsorbed on mica allow the following conclusions: the higher the hydrophobicity of the polyelectrolytes, the broader is the particle size distribution and the minor is the swelling of the PEC particles. Hence, the most compact particles are formed with the very hydrophobic copolymer.

  17. Identification of a chemical that inhibits the mycobacterial UvrABC complex in nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum, Nayef; Stegman, Melanie A; Croteau, Deborah L; Van Houten, Bennett; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Ling, Yan; Dickinson, Caitlyn; Venugopal, Aditya; Towheed, Mohammad Atif; Nathan, Carl

    2011-03-01

    Bacterial DNA can be damaged by reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates (RNI and ROI) generated by host immunity, as well as by antibiotics that trigger bacterial production of ROI. Thus a pathogen's ability to repair its DNA may be important for persistent infection. A prominent role for nucleotide excision repair (NER) in disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was suggested by attenuation of uvrB-deficient Mtb in mice. However, it was unknown if Mtb's Uvr proteins could execute NER. Here we report that recombinant UvrA, UvrB, and UvrC from Mtb collectively bound and cleaved plasmid DNA exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation or peroxynitrite. We used the DNA incision assay to test the mechanism of action of compounds identified in a high-throughput screen for their ability to delay recovery of M. smegmatis from UV irradiation. 2-(5-Amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylbenzo[f]chromen-3-one) (ATBC) but not several closely related compounds inhibited cleavage of damaged DNA by UvrA, UvrB, and UvrC without intercalating in DNA and impaired recovery of M. smegmatis from UV irradiation. ATBC did not affect bacterial growth in the absence of UV exposure, nor did it exacerbate the growth defect of UV-irradiated mycobacteria that lacked uvrB. Thus, ATBC appears to be a cell-penetrant, selective inhibitor of mycobacterial NER. Chemical inhibitors of NER may facilitate studies of the role of NER in prokaryotic pathobiology.

  18. Grapevine species from varied native habitats exhibit differences in embolism formation/repair associated with leaf gas exchange and root pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Eustis, Ashley; Brodersen, Craig; Walker, Andrew M; McElrone, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Drought induces xylem embolism formation, but grapevines can refill non-functional vessels to restore transport capacity. It is unknown whether vulnerability to embolism formation and ability to repair differ among grapevine species. We analysed in vivo embolism formation and repair using x-ray computed microtomography in three wild grapevine species from varied native habitats (Vitis riparia, V. arizonica, V. champinii) and related responses to measurements of leaf gas exchange and root pressure. Vulnerability to embolism formation was greatest in V. riparia, intermediate in V. arizonica and lowest in V. champinii. After re-watering, embolism repair was rapid and pronounced in V. riparia and V. arizonica, but limited or negligible in V. champinii even after numerous days. Similarly, root pressure measured after re-watering was positively correlated with drought stress severity for V. riparia and V. arizonica (species exhibiting embolism repair) but not for V. champinii. Drought-induced reductions in transpiration were greatest for V. riparia and least in V. champinii. Recovery of transpiration after re-watering was delayed for all species, but was greatest for V. champinii and most rapid in V. arizonica. These species exhibit varied responses to drought stress that involve maintenance/recovery of xylem transport capacity coordinated with root pressure and gas exchange responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Use of M-FISH analysis of α-particle-induced chromosome aberrations for the assessment of chromosomal breakpoint distribution and complex aberration formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.M.; Sumption, N.D.; Papworth, D.G.; Goodhead, D.T.

    2003-01-01

    Double strand breaks (dsb) of varying complexity are an important class of damage induced after exposure to ionising radiation and are considered to be the critical lesion for the formation of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. Assuming the basic principles of the 'Breakage and Reunion' theory, dsb represent 'breakage' and aberrations are produced from the illegitimate repair (reunion) of the resulting dsb free-'ends'. Numerous questions relate to this process, in particular, (1) do chromosomal breakpoint 'hot-spots' that represent sensitive sites for breakage and/or regions of preferential repair/mis-repair, exist? (2) Considering that individual chromosomes and chromosome regions occupy discrete territories in the interphase nucleus, could rearrangements between specific chromosomes reflect domain organisation at the time of damage? (3) Assuming the topological constraints imposed on chromatin are not dramatically influenced by the presence of dsb, then how do multiple 'ends' from different chromosomes proximally associate for mis-repair as complex chromosome aberrations? To address these questions, we have analysed the chromosome aberrations induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes after exposure to 0.5 Gy α -particles (mean of 1 α -particle/cell) using the technique of M-FISH. This technique 'paints' all the human chromosomes (excluding homologues) uniquely, allowing chromosomal mis-repair to be visualised as differential colour-junctions and in addition, enhanced DAPI banding enables gross breakpoint assignation of these colour junctions. To test for non-randomness, we are comparing the frequency of occurrence of breakpoints obtained up to now with the F98 glioma model our knowledbased on chromosome length. Similarly, the involvement of each chromosome relative to other chromosomes within individual rearrangements can be determined by assuming the volume of chromosome domains is also proportional to their length. The current data to be presented will

  20. Quality Enhancement by Inclusion Complex Formation of Simvastatin Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emőke Rédai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simvastatin is an inhibitor of hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. To enhance its bioavailability by inclusion complexation, as host molecule randommethyl-β-cyclodextrin had been used. After evaluating the complexes we chose the kneading product in 1:2 molar ratio for incorporation of 10 mg simvastatin tablets. Materials and methods: We prepared homogenous mixtures of the inclusion complex and some excipients. The tablets were prepared by direct compression. The tablets were evaluated in regard to: weight uniformity, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution profile. Results: Weights are in the range of 196-208 mg, diameter 6.83-6.86 mm, height 3.86-4.01 mm, hardness 78.3-113.1 N, friability 0.75- 1.19 %, disintegration above 15 minutes. The dissolved amounts of simvastatin from the tablets are higher compared to the dissolution of pure simvastatin, but lower than the dissolution of the complex itself. Excipients, like disintegrants and lubricants greatly influence the dissolution properties of the tablets. Conclusions: According to our results, tablets containing inclusion complex of simvastatin exhibit better solubility, according to the dissolved amount of simvastatin, than pure drug alone. Proper physical parameters of the tablets are obtained by application of 5 % Primellose

  1. Formation of a Tc(III)-adenosine diphosphate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.; Kremer, C.; Kremer, E.

    1995-01-01

    A 99 Tc-ADP complex was prepared when KTcO 4 was reduced in aqueous medium by SnCl 2 , Na 2 S 2 O 4 , NaBH 4 or Zn in the presence of ADP in excess. The resulting solution was studied by chromatography and spectrophotometry. Electrochemical reduction and substitution on [Tc III (tu) 6 ] 3+ were investigated as alternative synthetic routes. The anionic Tc-ADP complex was isolated as a solid. Cerimetric titrations confirmed the oxidation state +3 for the central atom. IR and 1 H-NMR data showed that the purine base is bonded to the Tc central atom but not the ribose moiety. No oxo groups seemed to be directly bonded to the Tc atom. The complex is rather stable in neutral solutions. However, it decomposes to pertechnetate and TcO 2 at extreme pH values. (author). 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Crystal structures of complexes of NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase from methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 101 with formate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, E. V.; Polyakov, K. M.; Tikhonova, T. V.; Stekhanova, T. N.; Boiko, K. M.; Sadykhov, I. G.; Tishkov, V. I.; Popov, V. O.; Labru, N.

    2006-01-01

    Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from the methylotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 101 catalyzes oxidation of formate to NI 2 with the coupled reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ). The three-dimensional structures of the apo form (the free enzyme) and the holo form (the ternary FDH-NAD + -azide complex) of FDH have been established earlier. In the present study, the structures of FDH complexes with formate are solved at 2.19 and 2.28 A resolution by the molecular replacement method and refined to the R factors of 22.3 and 20.5%, respectively. Both crystal structures contain four protein molecules per asymmetric unit. These molecules form two dimers identical to the dimer of the apo form of FDH. Two possible formatebinding sites are found in the active site of the FDH structure. In the complexes the sulfur atom of residue Cys354 exists in the oxidized state

  3. Clinical experience with arthroscopically-assisted repair of peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex tears in adolescents--technique and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Sebastian; Zechmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Rudolf; Girsch, Werner

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to report our preliminary results after arthroscopically-assisted repair of peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears in adolescent patients. All children and adolescents who underwent arthroscopically-assisted repair of a Palmer 1B tear were identified and prospectively evaluated after a mean follow-up of 1.3 years. The postoperative assessment included documentation of clinical parameters, pain score (visual analogue scale, VAS), grip strength and completion of validated outcome scores (Modified Mayo Wrist Score, MMWS; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Inventory, DASH). A total of 12 patients (four males, eight females) with a mean age of 16.3 years at the time of surgery were evaluated. The mean VAS decreased significantly from 7.0 to 1.7 after the procedure. We observed a significant increase of the MMWS after surgery; however, MMWS was still significantly lower at final follow-up when compared to the contralateral side. A mean postoperative DASH score of 16 indicated an excellent outcome after the procedure. DASH Sports and Work Modules showed fair and good overall outcomes in the short-term, respectively. Grip strength averaged 86 % of the contralateral side at final follow-up, with no significant difference being found between both sides. Arthroscopically-assisted repair of peripheral TFCC tears in adolescents provided predictable pain relief and markedly improved functional outcome scores. Concomitant pathologies may have to be addressed at the same time to eventually achieve a satisfactory outcome. Sports participation, however, may be compromised in the short-term and should therefore be resumed six months postoperatively.

  4. Both hMutSα and hMutSß DNA mismatch repair complexes participate in 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Tajima

    Full Text Available Patients with advanced microsatellite unstable colorectal cancers do not show a survival benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-based chemotherapy. We and others have shown that the DNA mismatch repair (MMR complex hMutSα binds 5-FU incorporated into DNA. Although hMutSß is known to interact with interstrand crosslinks (ICLs induced by drugs such as cisplatin and psoralen, it has not been demonstrated to interact with 5-FU incorporated into DNA. Our aim was to examine if hMutSß plays a role in 5-FU recognition.We compared the normalized growth of 5-FU treated cells containing either or both mismatch repair complexes using MTT and clonogenic assays. We utilized oligonucleotides containing 5-FU and purified baculovirus-synthesized hMutSα and hMutSß in electromobility shift assays (EMSA and further analyzed binding using surface plasmon resonance.MTT and clonogenic assays after 5-FU treatment demonstrated the most cytotoxicity in cells with both hMutSα and hMutSß, intermediate cytotoxicity in cells with hMutSα alone, and the least cytotoxicity in cells with hMutSß alone, hMutSß binds 5-FU-modified DNA, but its relative binding is less than the binding of 5-FU-modified DNA by hMutSα.Cytotoxicity induced by 5-FU is dependent on intact DNA MMR, with relative cell death correlating directly with hMutSα and/or hMutSß 5-FU binding ability (hMutSα>hMutSß. The MMR complexes provide a hierarchical chemosensitivity for 5-FU cell death, and may have implications for treatment of patients with certain MMR-deficient tumors.

  5. Dynamics of Research Team Formation in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Wan, Yuzi; Chen, Yu

    Most organizations encourage the formation of teams to accomplish complicated tasks, and vice verse, effective teams could bring lots benefits and profits for organizations. Network structure plays an important role in forming teams. In this paper, we specifically study the dynamics of team formation in large research communities in which knowledge of individuals plays an important role on team performance and individual utility. An agent-based model is proposed, in which heterogeneous agents from research communities are described and empirically tested. Each agent has a knowledge endowment and a preference for both income and leisure. Agents provide a variable input (‘effort’) and their knowledge endowments to production. They could learn from others in their team and those who are not in their team but have private connections in community to adjust their own knowledge endowment. They are allowed to join other teams or work alone when it is welfare maximizing to do so. Various simulation experiments are conducted to examine the impacts of network topology, knowledge diffusion among community network, and team output sharing mechanisms on the dynamics of team formation.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF FORMATION CONSTANT OF COMPLEX OF A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Theory. For the first time Abdollahi used RAFA for determination of complex ... measure of the lack of fit of a principal component model to a data set. ..... Cantor, C.R.; Schimmel, P.R. Biophysical Chemistry, Freeman, W.H. Company: San.

  7. The Formation of the Self. Nietzsche and Complexity | Cilliers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our inquiry takes place from two perspectives: the first derived from the Nietzschean analysis of how one becomes what one is; the other from current developments in complexity theory. This two-angled approach opens up different, yet related dimensions of a non-essentialist understanding of the self that is none the less ...

  8. Complex Formation Between Iron(III) and Isonicotinohydroxamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    as a consequence of their biological importance which is related ... complexes with a series of metal ions via co- ordination ... water was added with stirring to a solution of ... Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity ... All are regarded as pathogenic to ... each agar dish and fresh bacteria suspension was .... Copper(II) Mixed.

  9. New understanding of the complex structure of knee menisci: implications for injury risk and repair potential for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, J B; Matyas, J R; Barclay, L; Holowaychuk, S; Sciore, P; Lo, I K Y; Shrive, N G; Frank, C B; Achari, Y; Hart, D A

    2011-08-01

    Menisci help maintain the structural integrity of the knee. However, the poor healing potential of the meniscus following a knee injury can not only end a career in sports but lead to osteoarthritis later in life. Complete understanding of meniscal structure is essential for evaluating its risk for injury and subsequent successful repair. This study used novel approaches to elucidate meniscal architecture. The radial and circumferential collagen fibrils in the meniscus were investigated using novel tissue-preparative techniques for light and electron microscopic studies. The results demonstrate a unique architecture based on differences in the packaging of the fundamental collagen fibrils. For radial arrays, the collagen fibrils are arranged in parallel into ∼10 μm bundles, which associate laterally to form flat sheets of varying dimensions that bifurcate and come together to form a honeycomb network within the body of the meniscus. In contrast, the circumferential arrays display a complex network of collagen fibrils arranged into ∼5 μm bundles. Interestingly, both types of architectural organization of collagen fibrils in meniscus are conserved across mammalian species and are age and sex independent. These findings imply that disruptions in meniscal architecture following an injury contribute to poor prognosis for functional repair. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. The Smc5-Smc6 complex and SUMO modification of Rad52 regulates recombinational repair at the ribosomal gene locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Rosell, Jordi; Sunjevaric, Ivana; De Piccoli, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    at an extranucleolar site. The nucleolar exclusion of Rad52 recombination foci entails Mre11 and Smc5-Smc6 complexes and depends on Rad52 SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) modification. Remarkably, mutations that abrogate these activities result in the formation of Rad52 foci within the nucleolus and cause r...

  11. Complex formation between glutamic acid and molybdenum (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, Farrokh; Khorrami, S.A.; Sharifi, Sasan

    1997-01-01

    Equilibria of the reaction of molybdenum (VI) with L-glutamic acid have been studied in aqueous solution in the pH range 2.5 to 9.5, using spectrophotometric and optical rotation methods at constant ionic strength (0.15 mol dm -3 sodium perchlorate) and temperature 25 ± 0.1 degC. Our studies have shown that glutamic acid forms a mononuclear complex with Mo(VI) of the type MoO 3 L 2- at pH 5.5. The stability constant of this complexation and the dissociation constants of L-glutamic acid have been determined. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Tube formation by complex cellular processes in Ciona intestinalis notochord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Horie, Takeo; Denker, Elsa; Kusakabe, Takehiro; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Smith, William C; Jiang, Di

    2009-06-15

    In the course of embryogenesis multicellular structures and organs are assembled from constituent cells. One structural component common to many organs is the tube, which consists most simply of a luminal space surrounded by a single layer of epithelial cells. The notochord of ascidian Ciona forms a tube consisting of only 40 cells, and serves as a hydrostatic "skeleton" essential for swimming. While the early processes of convergent extension in ascidian notochord development have been extensively studied, the later phases of development, which include lumen formation, have not been well characterized. Here we used molecular markers and confocal imaging to describe tubulogenesis in the developing Ciona notochord. We found that during tubulogenesis each notochord cell established de novo apical domains, and underwent a mesenchymal-epithelial transition to become an unusual epithelial cell with two opposing apical domains. Concomitantly, extracellular luminal matrix was produced and deposited between notochord cells. Subsequently, each notochord cell simultaneously executed two types of crawling movements bi-directionally along the anterior/posterior axis on the inner surface of notochordal sheath. Lamellipodia-like protrusions resulted in cell lengthening along the anterior/posterior axis, while the retraction of trailing edges of the same cell led to the merging of the two apical domains. As a result, the notochord cells acquired endothelial-like shape and formed the wall of the central lumen. Inhibition of actin polymerization prevented the cell movement and tube formation. Ciona notochord tube formation utilized an assortment of common and fundamental cellular processes including cell shape change, apical membrane biogenesis, cell/cell adhesion remodeling, dynamic cell crawling, and lumen matrix secretion.

  13. Distinct kinetics of DNA repair protein accumulation at DNA lesions and cell cycle-dependent formation of gammaH2AX- and NBS1-positive repair foci

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchánková, Jana; Kozubek, Stanislav; Legartová, Soňa; Sehnalová, Petra; Kuntzinger, T.; Bártová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 12 (2015), s. 440-454 ISSN 0248-4900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G157; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-07822S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Cell cycle * DNA repair * Interphase Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.552, year: 2015

  14. [Homeostasis and Disorder of Musculoskeletal System.Enthesis formation and repair:Current understanding and perspectives for the future regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Takuya; Arimura, Hitoshi; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Yuji; Shukunami, Chisa

    Tendons and ligaments are dense fibrous connective tissues mainly composed of type I collagen, aligned in highly ordered arrays along the axis of the tendon and ligament. The enthesis is defined as the attachment site of a tendon, ligament, joint capsule, or fascia to bone. During morphogenesis, the cell population co-expressing Scleraxis(Scx)and the SRY-box containing gene 9(Sox9)contributes to the formation of fibrocartilaginous entheses. Scx regulates tendon and ligament maturation, while Sox9 is a key regulatory factor for cartilage formation. The considerable mechanical forces transmitted through the enthesis and avascular properties of the tissue make it more prone to injuries and degenerative changes. Thus, integration of tendons or ligaments with bone following surgical repair remains a clinical challenge. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the formation, maintenance, damage, and repair of fibrocartilaginous entheses, focusing on the rotator cuff tendon-to-bone attachment sites.

  15. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the zygomaticoorbital complex: a rare location and ways of surgical repair of the area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. R. Ragimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the zygomaticoorbital region is a rare neoplasm of the head and neck. Due to the necessity for wide radical excision of a primary tumor, there may be serious functional and cosmetic disorders that substantially affect quality of life in patients. Restoration of this region is one of the challenges of reconstructive surgery because of the specific features of the relief of bone structures. The paper describes a clinical case of the site of primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the zygomaticoorbital complex and a method for repairing postresectional defect and completely recovering the function of the organ of vision and aesthetic parameters of the face.

  16. Reactivity of paraquat with sodium salicylate: Formation of stable complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Ferreira, Antonio Cesar Silva; Silva, Artur M.S.; Afonso, Carlos; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remiao, Fernando; Duarte, Jose Alberto; Carvalho, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Sodium salicylate (NaSAL) has been shown to be a promising antidote for the treatment of paraquat (PQ) poisonings. The modulation of the pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways, as well as the anti-thrombogenic properties of NaSAL are probably essential features for the healing effects provided by this drug. Nevertheless, a possible direct chemical reactivity between PQ and NaSAL is also a putative pathway to be considered, this hypothesis being the ground of the present study. In accordance, it is shown, for the first time that PQ and NaSAL react immediately in aqueous medium and within 2-3 min in the solid state. Photographs and scanning electron photomicrographs indicated that a new chemical entity is formed when both compounds are mixed. This assumption was corroborated by the evaluation of the melting point, and through several analytical techniques, namely ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS), liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS) and infrared spectroscopy, which revealed that stable charge-transfer complexes are formed when PQ is mixed with NaSAL. LC/ESI/MS/MS allowed obtaining the stoichiometry of the charge-transfer complexes. In order to increase resolution, single value decomposition, acting as a filter, showed that the charge-transfer complexes with m/z 483, 643 and 803 correspond to the pseudo-molecular ions, respectively 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 (PQ:NaSAL). In conclusion, these results provided a new and important mechanism of action of NaSAL against the toxicity mediated by PQ

  17. Recruitment kinetics of DNA repair proteins Mdc1 and Rad52 but not 53BP1 depend on damage complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Hable

    Full Text Available The recruitment kinetics of double-strand break (DSB signaling and repair proteins Mdc1, 53BP1 and Rad52 into radiation-induced foci was studied by live-cell fluorescence microscopy after ion microirradiation. To investigate the influence of damage density and complexity on recruitment kinetics, which cannot be done by UV laser irradiation used in former studies, we utilized 43 MeV carbon ions with high linear energy transfer per ion (LET = 370 keV/µm to create a large fraction of clustered DSBs, thus forming complex DNA damage, and 20 MeV protons with low LET (LET = 2.6 keV/µm to create mainly isolated DSBs. Kinetics for all three proteins was characterized by a time lag period T(0 after irradiation, during which no foci are formed. Subsequently, the proteins accumulate into foci with characteristic mean recruitment times τ(1. Mdc1 accumulates faster (T(0 = 17 ± 2 s, τ(1 = 98 ± 11 s than 53BP1 (T(0 = 77 ± 7 s, τ(1 = 310 ± 60 s after high LET irradiation. However, recruitment of Mdc1 slows down (T(0 = 73 ± 16 s, τ(1 = 1050 ± 270 s after low LET irradiation. The recruitment kinetics of Rad52 is slower than that of Mdc1, but exhibits the same dependence on LET. In contrast, the mean recruitment time τ(1 of 53BP1 remains almost constant when varying LET. Comparison to literature data on Mdc1 recruitment after UV laser irradiation shows that this rather resembles recruitment after high than low LET ionizing radiation. So this work shows that damage quality has a large influence on repair processes and has to be considered when comparing different studies.

  18. Social power and opinion formation in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the effects of social power on the evolution of opinions in model networks as well as in a number of real social networks. A continuous opinion formation model is considered and the analysis is performed through numerical simulation. Social power is given to a proportion of agents selected either randomly or based on their degrees. As artificial network structures, we consider scale-free networks constructed through preferential attachment and Watts-Strogatz networks. Numerical simulations show that scale-free networks with degree-based social power on the hub nodes have an optimal case where the largest number of the nodes reaches a consensus. However, given power to a random selection of nodes could not improve consensus properties. Introducing social power in Watts-Strogatz networks could not significantly change the consensus profile.

  19. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Lukovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c. This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d, the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning. From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice.

  20. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovic, Mladena; Ye, Guang

    2015-12-22

    In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c). This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d), the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning). From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids) can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice.

  1. Complex formation of transferrin with tetravalent plutonium and cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, M.S.; Oomen, I.K.

    1981-01-01

    Gel filtration experiments with 239 Pu labelled In Vitro bovine serum showed that the metal ion is bound to the transferrin of the serum proteins as in the case of iron labelled serum. This was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The ovotransferrin prepared from chicken egg white which was devoid of hemopexin contaminant was found to complex both tetravalent plutonium and cerium giving visible absorption peak at 365 and 435 nm respectively. The binding capacity of ovotransferrin with tetravalent plutonium and cerium, determined by spectrophotometric titration indicates that two metal ions are bound to each protein molecule as in the case of iron. The average molecular weight computed from this binding capacity measurements was found to be 71,000-75,000. The number of protons liberated for each metal ion bound was found to be three as in the case of iron. (author)

  2. Novel microspheres reduce the formation of deep venous thrombosis and repair the vascular wall in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bingyang; Li, Lan; Li, Qiangqiang; Song, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Dongyang; Dai, Jin; Yao, Yao; Yan, Wenjin; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Fang; Xu, Zhihong; Jiang, Qing

    2017-07-01

    : L-Arginine (L-arg), widely known as a substrate for endogenous nitric oxide synthesis, can improve endothelial function associated with the vasculature, inhibit platelet aggregation, and alter the activity of vascular smooth muscle cells. P-selectin is a membrane component of the platelet alpha-granule and the endothelial cell-specific Wiebel-Palade body that plays a central role in mediating interactions between platelets and both leukocytes and the endothelium. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of novel microspheres with L-arg targeting P-selectin on the formation of deep vein thrombosis and repair of vascular wall in a rat model. Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava was induced by applying a piece of filter paper (5 mm × 10 mm) saturated with 10% FeCl3 solution for 5 min. Targeted microspheres with L-arg, targeted microspheres with water, and saline were injected into the tail veins of the rats after 30 min of applying the filter paper saturated with 10% FeCl3 solution. The dry weight and length of the thrombus isolated from the inferior vena cava were significantly decreased in the group with L-arg in microsphere after 24 h. No significant differences in prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen among the groups were indicated. Images revealed that apoptosis in the vascular wall was less in the group injected with targeted microspheres with L-arg than in the other two groups at 1 and 8 d postsurgery. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was considerably excessive in the group injected with L-arg wrapped in targeted microspheres. Therefore, these novel microspheres could decrease the formation of thrombus in the early stages and in the subsequent periods of thrombosis. The microspheres can also enhance the vitality of impaired endothelial cells and reduce cell apoptosis.

  3. Investigation of complex formation processes of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and polymethacrylic acid in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Katayeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex formation process of hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC with polymethacrylic acid (PMA have been studied using methods of turbidimetric and viscosimetric titration. Position of maximum depending on polymer concentration and molecular mass of polysaccharide have different values.

  4. Investigation of complex formation processes of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and polymethacrylic acid in aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    M. Katayeva; R. Mangazbayeva; R. Abdykalykova

    2012-01-01

    The complex formation process of hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) with polymethacrylic acid (PMA) have been studied using methods of turbidimetric and viscosimetric titration. Position of maximum depending on polymer concentration and molecular mass of polysaccharide have different values.

  5. The mismatch repair and meiotic recombination endonuclease Mlh1-Mlh3 is activated by polymer formation and can cleave DNA substrates in trans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Carol M; Ni, Xiaodan; White, Martin A; Ortega, Joaquin; Surtees, Jennifer A; Alani, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Crossing over between homologs is initiated in meiotic prophase by the formation of DNA double-strand breaks that occur throughout the genome. In the major interference-responsive crossover pathway in baker's yeast, these breaks are resected to form 3' single-strand tails that participate in a homology search, ultimately forming double Holliday junctions (dHJs) that primarily include both homologs. These dHJs are resolved by endonuclease activity to form exclusively crossovers, which are critical for proper homolog segregation in Meiosis I. Recent genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies in yeast are consistent with the hypothesis of Mlh1-Mlh3 DNA mismatch repair complex acting as the major endonuclease activity that resolves dHJs into crossovers. However, the mechanism by which the Mlh1-Mlh3 endonuclease is activated is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that Mlh1-Mlh3 does not behave like a structure-specific endonuclease but forms polymers required to generate nicks in DNA. This conclusion is supported by DNA binding studies performed with different-sized substrates that contain or lack polymerization barriers and endonuclease assays performed with varying ratios of endonuclease-deficient and endonuclease-proficient Mlh1-Mlh3. In addition, Mlh1-Mlh3 can generate religatable double-strand breaks and form an active nucleoprotein complex that can nick DNA substrates in trans. Together these observations argue that Mlh1-Mlh3 may not act like a canonical, RuvC-like Holliday junction resolvase and support a novel model in which Mlh1-Mlh3 is loaded onto DNA to form an activated polymer that cleaves DNA.

  6. Dynamic Geometric Analysis of the Renal Arteries and Aorta following Complex Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Brant W; Suh, Ga-Young; Kim, John J; Lee, Jason T; Dalman, Ronald L; Cheng, Christopher P

    2017-08-01

    Aneurysm regression and target vessel patency during early and mid-term follow-up may be related to the effect of stent-graft configuration on the anatomy. We quantified geometry and remodeling of the renal arteries and aneurysm following fenestrated (F-) or snorkel/chimney (Sn-) endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Twenty-nine patients (mean age, 76.8 ± 7.8 years) treated with F- or Sn-EVAR underwent computed tomography angiography at preop, postop, and follow-up. Three-dimensional geometric models of the aorta and renal arteries were constructed. Renal branch angle was defined relative to the plane orthogonal to the aorta. End-stent angle was defined as the angulation between the stent and native distal artery. Aortic volumes were computed for the whole aorta, lumen, and their difference (excluded lumen). Renal patency, reintervention, early mortality, postoperative renal impairment, and endoleak were reviewed. From preop to postop, F-renal branches angled upward, Sn-renal branches angled downward (P renals exhibited increased end-stent angulation (12 ± 15°, P renals, whereas F-renals exhibited increased end-stent angulation (5 ± 10°, P renal stent patency was 94.1% and renal impairment occurred in 2 patients (6.7%). Although F- and Sn-EVAR resulted in significant, and opposite, changes to renal branch angle, only Sn-EVAR resulted in significant end-stent angulation increase. Longitudinal geometric analysis suggests that these anatomic alterations are primarily generated early as a consequence of the procedure itself and, although persistent, they show no evidence of continued significant change during the subsequent postoperative follow-up period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. OTDM-to-WDM Conversion of Complex Modulation Formats by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Richter, T.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information.......We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information....

  8. Complex formation between uranium(VI) and α-D-glucose 1-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koban, A.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.

    2003-01-01

    The complex formation of uranium(VI) with α-D-glucose 1-phosphate (C 6 H 11 O 6 PO 3 2- , G1P) was determined by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) at pH 4 and potentiometric titration in the pH range from 3 to 10. Both measurements show the formation of a 1 : 1 complex at lower pH values. The formation constant of UO 2 (C 6 H 11 O 6 PO 3 ) was calculated from TRLFS measurements to be log β 11 = 5.72±0.12, and from potentiometric titration log β 11 = 5.40±0.25, respectively. It was found by potentiometric titration that at higher pH values the complexation changes to a 1 : 2 complex. The stability constant for this complex was calculated to be log β 12 = 8.96±0.18. (orig.)

  9. Factors Influencing Adaptation and Performance at Physical Exercise in Complex Congenital Heart Diseases after Surgical Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Bassareo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last thirty years, steady progress in the diagnostic tools and care of subjects affected by congenital heart diseases (CHD has resulted in a significant increase in their survival to adulthood, even for those affected by complex CHD. Based on these premises, a number of teenagers and adults affected by corrected (surgically or through interventional techniques CHD ask to be allowed to undertake sporting activities, both at a recreational and competitive level. The purpose of this review is to examine the mechanisms influencing the adaption at physical exercise of patients suffering from complex CHD. The conclusion is that even if there are some modest risks with exercise, they should be seen in perspective, and the life-long benefits of regular exercise on general health, mood, and well-being should be emphasized.

  10. Determination of stability constants of lanthanide nitrate complex formation using a solvent extraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G.; Eberhardt, K.

    2006-01-01

    For lanthanides and actinides, nitrate complex formation is an important factor with respect to the reprocessing of nuclear fuels and in studies that treat partitioning and transmutation/conditioning. Different techniques, including microcalorimetry, various kinds of spectroscopy, ion-exchange and solvent extraction, can be used to determine stability constants of nitrate complex formation. However, it is uncommon that all lanthanides are studied at the same time, using the same experimental conditions and technique. The strengths of the complexes are different for lanthanides and actinides, a feature that may assist in the separation of the two groups. This paper deals with nitrate complex formation of lanthanides using a solvent extraction technique. Trace amounts of radioactive isotopes of lanthanides were produced at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor and at the Institutt for Energiteknikk in Kjeller, Norway (JEEP II reactor). The extraction of lanthanide ions into an organic phase consisting of 2, 6-bis-(benzoxazolyl)-4-dodecyloxylpyridine, 2-bromodecanoic acid and tert-butyl benzene as a function of nitrate ion concentration in the aqueous phase was studied in order to estimate the stability constants of nitrate complex formation. When the nitrate ion concentration is increased in the aqueous phase, the nitrate complex formation starts to compete with the extraction of metal ions. Thus the stability constants of nitrate complex formation can be estimated by measuring the decrease in extraction and successive fitting of an appropriate model. Extraction curves for La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho and Er were obtained and stability constants for their nitrate complex formation were estimated. Tb, Tm, Yb and Lu were also investigated, but no stability constants could be determined. The distribution ratios for the metal ions at low nitrate ion concentration were obtained at the same time, showing the effect of lanthanide contraction resulting in decreasing

  11. Structural characterization of Am(III) formate complexes. Combining EXAFS spectroscopy with DFT and thermodynamical calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossberg, Andre [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures; Froehlich, D.R. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisch-Chemisches Inst.

    2017-06-01

    We used iterative transformation factor analysis (ITFA) in order to isolate the EXAFS spectral contributions of the complexing ligand from a Am(III)/formate pH-series. Thermodynamic calculations were used as constraint for ITFA and for density functional theory (DFT) calculations to identify the coordination mode within the formed complexes.

  12. Trans-complex formation by proteolipid channels in the terminal phase of membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, C; Bayer, M J; Bühler, S

    2001-01-01

    -complex formation occurs downstream from trans-SNARE pairing, and depends on both the Rab-GTPase Ypt7 and calmodulin. The maintenance of existing complexes and completion of fusion are independent of trans-SNARE pairs. Reconstituted proteolipids form sealed channels, which can expand to form aqueous pores in a Ca2...

  13. Complex formation of technetium with the methyl esters of MAG2 and MAG1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, B.; Noll, S.; Grosse, B.; Johannsen, B.; Spies, H.

    1993-01-01

    Mercaptoacetylglycine methyl ester (MAG 2 ester) and mercaptoacetyldiglycine methyl ester (MAG 1 ester) were included to investigate complex formation of SH/amide ligands with technetium. The studies are aimed at finding out how blocking the carboxylic groups influences the complexation reaction, with a view to finding an approach to new lipophilic species. (orig./BBR)

  14. FORMATION AND ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF POLYION COMPLEXES FOR ELECTROCHROMIC DISPLAY MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Guoxiang; WANG Bing; DENG Zhenghua; LUO Chunqiao

    1988-01-01

    Formation of intermacromolecular complexes containing viologen and electron-transfer reaction occurred on the electrode modified by the complex films were studied. Compositions and morphology of the complexes depend on the properties of polyanion and chemical environment of complexation. The analytical results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk voltammetry(RDV) indicated: (1) active sites of viologen in network of complexes transferred single electron reversibly; (2) the redox peak currents showed excellent symmetry and stability; (3) redox potentials were related to properties of polyanions, varying from -0.4 to -0.6V (vs. SCE). Electrochromic materials with different displaying colors could be obtained by changing the structure of polyviologen.

  15. Repair of U/G and U/A in DNA by UNG2-associated repair complexes takes place predominantly by short-patch repair both in proliferating and growth-arrested cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mansour; Otterlei, Marit; Pena Diaz, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear uracil-DNA glycosylase UNG2 has an established role in repair of U/A pairs resulting from misincorporation of dUMP during replication. In antigen-stimulated B-lymphocytes UNG2 removes uracil from U/G mispairs as part of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination processes. Using......, PCNA and DNA ligase, the latter detected as activity. Short-patch repair was the predominant mechanism both in extracts and UNG2-ARC from proliferating and less BER-proficient growth-arrested cells. Repair of U/G mispairs and U/A pairs was completely inhibited by neutralizing UNG...

  16. Complex formation between menadione and cetylethylmorpholinium ethosulfate: effect on uv photodegradation of menadione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, C.R.; Ghandi, H.I.

    1975-01-01

    The process of menadione photodegradation can be enhanced or diminished by other compounds. The presence of the quaternary ammonium compound cetylethylmorpholinium ethosulfate (I) in solutions of menadione was found to slow the rate of photodegradation by uv light (253.7 nm). The mechanism of this effect may be due to complex formation between menadione and I. Complex formation was demonstrated by a shift in the absorption peaks of menadione from 245 and 260 nm to 251.5 and 261.5 nm, respectively. The equilibrium constant of this complex was calculated to be 1.647 M

  17. Study of the formation of soluble complexes of sodium caseinate and xanthan in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhannache, Bouchra; HadjSadok, Abdelkader; Touabet, Abdelkrim

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this work was to determinate the optimum conditions for the formation of soluble complexes between sodium caseinate and xanthan in solution at neutral pH, in the presence of the NaCl. The study of the influence of the concentrations of these three substances showed that salt was the most influent factor. It worsens the thermodynamic incompatibility of the two biopolymers in solution, when they are present at large amounts. However, it contributes to soluble complexes formation, when sodium caseinate concentration is below 5.5%. In this case, gels with enhanced rheological properties were obtained. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the complexes formation within these gels involves hydrophobic interactions. On the other hand, dynamic light scattering revealed that dilution cause their dissociation. These soluble complexes are promising ingredients to ensure new texturing properties.

  18. Formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of γ-irradiated bacteria depending on the function of fast repair processes of DNA single-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, S.I.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of γ-irradiated ( 60 Co)Ex coli bacteria depending on the function of fast repair processes of DNA single-strand breaks, is investigated. The profiles of sedimentation of DNA Ex coli cells, irradiated at 0-2 deg C in the salt medium and in EDTA-borate buffer, are presented. It is shown that when irradiating cells in EDTA-borate buffer, the output of single- and double strand breaks in DNA is much higher than in the case of their irradiation in the minimum salt medium. The dependence of output of single-strand and double-strand breaks depending on the radiatier doze of E coli cells in the salt medium and EDTA-borate buffer, is studied. The supposition is made on the presence of a regulative interaction between the accumulation of DNA single-breaks and their repair with the formation of double-strand breaks. The functionating of fast and superfast repair processes considerably affects the formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of a bacterium cell. A considerable amount of double-breaks registered immediately after irradiation forms due to a close position of single-strand breaks on the opposite DNA strands

  19. DNA double-strand-break complexity levels and their possible contributions to the probability for error-prone processing and repair pathway choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipler, Agnes; Iliakis, George

    2013-09-01

    Although the DNA double-strand break (DSB) is defined as a rupture in the double-stranded DNA molecule that can occur without chemical modification in any of the constituent building blocks, it is recognized that this form is restricted to enzyme-induced DSBs. DSBs generated by physical or chemical agents can include at the break site a spectrum of base alterations (lesions). The nature and number of such chemical alterations define the complexity of the DSB and are considered putative determinants for repair pathway choice and the probability that errors will occur during this processing. As the pathways engaged in DSB processing show distinct and frequently inherent propensities for errors, pathway choice also defines the error-levels cells opt to accept. Here, we present a classification of DSBs on the basis of increasing complexity and discuss how complexity may affect processing, as well as how it may cause lethal or carcinogenic processing errors. By critically analyzing the characteristics of DSB repair pathways, we suggest that all repair pathways can in principle remove lesions clustering at the DSB but are likely to fail when they encounter clusters of DSBs that cause a local form of chromothripsis. In the same framework, we also analyze the rational of DSB repair pathway choice.

  20. Complex 3D Vortex Lattice Formation by Phase-Engineered Multiple Beam Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the computational results on the formation of diverse complex 3D vortex lattices by a designed superposition of multiple plane waves. Special combinations of multiples of three noncoplanar plane waves with a designed relative phase shift between one another are perturbed by a nonsingular beam to generate various complex 3D vortex lattice structures. The formation of complex gyrating lattice structures carrying designed vortices by means of relatively phase-engineered plane waves is also computationally investigated. The generated structures are configured with both periodic as well as transversely quasicrystallographic basis, while these whirling complex lattices possess a long-range order of designed symmetry in a given plane. Various computational analytical tools are used to verify the presence of engineered geometry of vortices in these complex 3D vortex lattices.

  1. Asymmetry of limbic structure (hippocampal formation and amygdaloidal complex at PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Sarač-Hadžihalilović

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Defining exact position of weak anatomic function which is find in a base of neurological and psychiatric disorder is just became the subject of intensive research interest. For this purposes it is important to implement structural and functional MRI techniques, also for further lightening and seeing subject of this work, more concretely connected to PTSD. Therefore, exactly MRI gives most sensitive volumetric measuring of hippocampal formation and amygdaloidal complex.The goal of this work was to research asymmetry of hippocampal formation and amygdaloidal complex to the PTSD patients.Results showed that at the axial slice length of hippocampal formation on the left and right side of all patients are significantly asymmetric. At the sagittal slice from the left side of hippocampal formation is in many cases longer than right about 50 %. At the coronal slice, there are no significant differences toward patient proportion according to symm. / asymm. of the hippocampal formation width at the right and left side. Difference in volume average of hippocampal formation between right and left side for axial and coronal slice is not statistically significant, but it is significant for sagittal slice. In about amygdaloidal complex patients with PTSD toward symm. / asymm. Amygdaloidal complex at the right and left side of axial and sagittal slice in all three measurement shows asymmetry, what is especially shown at sagittal slice. Difference in average length of amygdaloidal complex at the right and left side is not statistically significant for no one slice.Therefore, results of a new research that are used MRI, showed smaller hippocampal level at PTSD (researched by Van der Kolka 1996, Pitman 1996, Bremner et al., 1995.. Application of MRI technique in research of asymmetry of hippocampal formation and amygdaloidal complex, which we used in our research, we recommend as a template for future researches in a sense of lightening anatomic function that is

  2. Cleavage and formation of molecular dinitrogen in a single system assisted by molybdenum complexes bearing ferrocenyldiphosphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takamasa; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Tanabe, Yoshiaki; Yuki, Masahiro; Nakajima, Kazunari; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-20

    The N≡N bond of molecular dinitrogen bridging two molybdenum atoms in the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl molybdenum complexes that bear ferrocenyldiphosphine as an auxiliary ligand is homolytically cleaved under visible light irradiation at room temperature to afford two molar molybdenum nitride complexes. Conversely, the bridging molecular dinitrogen is reformed by the oxidation of the molybdenum nitride complex at room temperature. This result provides a successful example of the cleavage and formation of molecular dinitrogen induced by a pair of two different external stimuli using a single system assisted by molybdenum complexes bearing ferrocenyldiphosphine under ambient conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Repairing Canada’s Mining-Tax System to Be Less Distorting and Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The province of Ontario ended its most recent fiscal year with a $12 billion deficit and the Fraser Institute has calculated that the province is in worse financial shape than even the fiscally appalling state of California. One would think that a province so financially debilitated would want to avoid giving unnecessary and wasteful tax breaks to resource companies. Yet, a review of the mining-tax regimes across the country finds that Ontario’s system — specifically its provincial resource allowance, which duplicates the allowances provided by Ottawa that shield miners from risk — is redundant, expensive and wasteful. Ontario is not the only province requiring a modernization of its mining-tax regime. In every province except Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, mining firms enjoy a lower marginal rate for taxes and royalties than for non-resource companies. The inevitable result has been a distortion of investment toward mining projects that might otherwise be economically inefficient. That means that in major oil-producing provinces, such as Alberta, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland, mining investment benefits from larger tax incentives than oil and gas investment. The reasons for favouring the mining of metal over oil are at least unclear and certainly economically unjustifiable. The federal government has already begun making several changes to its tax policies to scale back preferential and irrational inducements for mining investment, including, most recently, reducing accelerated depreciation allowances for certain mining assets and phasing out the corporate Mineral Exploration Tax Credit and the Atlantic Investment Tax Credit for resources. But Ottawa’s efforts to modernize Canada’s mining-tax structure can only go so far, when provinces continue to rely on what are often overly complex tax systems that have a distortionary effect on economic decisions being made by investors. The next step in modernizing Canada’s mining-tax system

  4. Control of cell fate by the formation of an architecturally complex bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamakis, Hera; Aguilar, Claudio; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2008-04-01

    Bacteria form architecturally complex communities known as biofilms in which cells are held together by an extracellular matrix. Biofilms harbor multiple cell types, and it has been proposed that within biofilms individual cells follow different developmental pathways, resulting in heterogeneous populations. Here we demonstrate cellular differentiation within biofilms of the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis, and present evidence that formation of the biofilm governs differentiation. We show that motile, matrix-producing, and sporulating cells localize to distinct regions within the biofilm, and that the localization and percentage of each cell type is dynamic throughout development of the community. Importantly, mutants that do not produce extracellular matrix form unstructured biofilms that are deficient in sporulation. We propose that sporulation is a culminating feature of biofilm formation, and that spore formation is coupled to the formation of an architecturally complex community of cells.

  5. Complexometric determination: Part I - EDTA and complex formation with the Cu2+ ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Compounds forming very stable complexes - chelates, have a wide field of application in analytical chemistry. The most famous group of these compounds are complexons. Complexons represent organic polyaminocarbonic acids as for example ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and its salts. The EDTA molecule has six coordinative sites. It is a hexadentate ligands i.e. it has two binding nitrogen atoms and four oxygen atoms from carboxyl groups and it forms complexes with almost all metal ions. EDTA as a tetraprotonic acid, H4Y disociates through four steps, yielding the ions HsY-, H2Y2-, HY3- and Y4-. Which of the EDTA forms will be encountered in a solution, depends on the pH. Due to the poor solubility of EDTA in pure water, as well as in most organic solvents, the disodium salt of EDTA Na2H2Y-2H2O, under the commercial name complexon III, is utilized for analytical determinations. In water, EDTA forms soluble, stabile chelate complexes with all cations, at the molar ratio 1:1, regardless of the charge of the metal ion. In contrast to other equilibria, which are mainly defined by Le Chatellier's principle, equilibria related to metal-EDTA complex formation are also dependent on the influence of the secondary equilibria of EDTA complex formation. Complexing reactions, which are equilibrium reactions, are simultaneously influenced by the following factors: solution pH and the presence of complexing agents which may also form a stabile complex with metal ions. The secondary reaction influence may be viewed and monitored through conditional stability constants. In the first part of the paper, the reaction of the formation of the Cu2+-ion complex with EDTA is analyzed beginning from the main reaction through various influences of secondary reactions on the complex Cu2+-EDTA: pH effect, complexation effect and hydrolysis effect. The equations are given for conditional stability constants, which include equilibrium reactions under actual conditions.

  6. Mechanisms Underlying the Formation of Complexes between Maize Starch and Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chen; Yu, Jinglin; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les; Wang, Shujun

    2018-01-10

    This study aimed to reveal the mechanism of formation of complexes between native maize starch (NMS) and different types of lipids, namely palmitic acid (PA), monopalmitate glycerol (MPG), dipalmitate glycerol (DPG), and tripalmitate glycerol (TPG). The complexing index followed the order of MPG (96.3%) > PA (41.8%) > TPG (8.3%) > DPG (1.1%), indicating that MPG formed more complexes with NMS than PA, and that few complexes were formed between NMS and DPG and TPG. The NMS-PA complex presented higher thermal transition temperatures and lower enthalpy change than the NMS-MPG complex, indicating that although MPG formed more starch complexes, they had less stable crystalline structures than the complex between NMS and PA. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy showed that both MPG and PA formed V-type crystalline structures with NMS, and confirmed that no complexes were formed between NMS and DPG and TPG. We conclude that the monoglyceride formed more starch-lipid complex with maize starch than PA, but that the monoglyceride complex had a less stable structure than that formed with PA. The di- and triglycerides did not form complexes with maize starch.

  7. Formation of mixed ligand complexes of UO22+ involving some nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mamta; Ram Nayan

    1996-01-01

    The complexation reactions of UO 2 2+ ion with nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands, 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulphonic acid, o-aminophenol (ap), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (sa), 3-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid (ss) and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (ca) have been investigated in aqueous solution employing the pH-titration technique. Analysis of the experimental data recorded at 25 degC and at an ionic strength of 0.10 M KNO 3 indicates formation of binary, hydroxo and ternary complexes of uranium. Formation constant values of the existing species have been evaluated and the results have been discussed. (author). 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Complex Formation of Selected Radionuclides with Ligands Commonly Found in Ground Water: Low Molecular Organic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bror Skytte; Jensen, H.

    1985-01-01

    A general approach to the analysis of potentiometric data on complex formation between cations and polybasic amphoteric acids is described. The method is used for the characterisation of complex formation between Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, La 3+, and Eu3+ with a α-hydroxy acids, tartaric acid and citric ac......, and with the α-amino acids, aspartic acid and L-cysteine. The cations have been chosen as typical components of reactor waste, and the acids because they are often found as products of microbial activity in pits or wherever organic material decays...

  9. Impact of DNA repair on the dose-response of colorectal cancer formation induced by dietary carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrer, Jörg; Kaina, Bernd

    2017-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers, which is causally linked to dietary habits, notably the intake of processed and red meat. Processed and red meat contain dietary carcinogens, including heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) and N-nitroso compounds (NOC). NOC are agents that induce various N-methylated DNA adducts and O 6 -methylguanine (O 6 -MeG), which are removed by base excision repair (BER) and O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), respectively. HCAs such as the highly mutagenic 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) cause bulky DNA adducts, which are removed from DNA by nucleotide excision repair (NER). Both O 6 -MeG and HCA-induced DNA adducts are linked to the occurrence of KRAS and APC mutations in colorectal tumors of rodents and humans, thereby driving CRC initiation and progression. In this review, we focus on DNA repair pathways removing DNA lesions induced by NOC and HCA and assess their role in protecting against mutagenicity and carcinogenicity in the large intestine. We further discuss the impact of DNA repair on the dose-response relationship in colorectal carcinogenesis in view of recent studies, demonstrating the existence of 'no effect' point of departures (PoDs), i.e. thresholds for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The available data support the threshold concept for NOC with DNA repair being causally involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Generating functional analysis of complex formation and dissociation in large protein interaction networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, A C C; Rabello, S

    2009-01-01

    We analyze large systems of interacting proteins, using techniques from the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of disordered many-particle systems. Apart from protein production and removal, the most relevant microscopic processes in the proteome are complex formation and dissociation, and the microscopic degrees of freedom are the evolving concentrations of unbound proteins (in multiple post-translational states) and of protein complexes. Here we only include dimer-complexes, for mathematical simplicity, and we draw the network that describes which proteins are reaction partners from an ensemble of random graphs with an arbitrary degree distribution. We show how generating functional analysis methods can be used successfully to derive closed equations for dynamical order parameters, representing an exact macroscopic description of the complex formation and dissociation dynamics in the infinite system limit. We end this paper with a discussion of the possible routes towards solving the nontrivial order parameter equations, either exactly (in specific limits) or approximately.

  11. Theoretical study of the possibility of glycin with thiotriazoline complexes formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain strokes are widely spread all over the world and are among the most dangerous for the population. Often it leads to death, complete or partial loss of ability to work. The correction of imbalance of Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems by activation of natural inhibitory processes is a promising direction of primary neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia. Particular attention is drawn to the natural inhibitory neurotransmitter – glycine and its role in the mechanisms of acute cerebral ischemia. There are data on the ability of the thiotriazoline antioxidant to potentiate the therapeutic effect of neurometabolic cerebroprotectors. Therefore, the creation of new combined preparation based on glycine with thiotriazoline is important today. Objective: to study the structure, and estimate the energy of formation and geometric characteristics of the intermolecular hydrogen bonds for complexes which are formed with glycine, 3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolyl-5-thioacetate (MTTA and morpholine. Method of calculation. The initial approximation to the structure of the complexes was obtained with the help of molecular docking procedure using the AutoDock Vina program. The resulting three-component complexes were preliminarily optimized by the semiempirical PM7 method, taking into account the outward influences, which was simulated by the COSMO method. The calculations were carried out using the MOPAC2012 program. The complexes were optimized using the density functional method with the empirical dispersion correction B97-D3/SVP+COSMO (Water using geometric correction for the incompleteness of the gCP basic set. A more accurate calculation of the solvation energy was carried out by SMD method. Calculations by the density functional method were carried out using the ORCA 3.0.3 program. The energy of formation of complexes in solution was calculated as the difference between the free Gibbs energies of the solvated complex and its individual solvated

  12. Complex formation constant and hydration number change of aqua-rare earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: It is now well established that the inner-sphere hydration number of aqua-rare earth ions changes from nine to eight in the middle of the rare earth series. This hydration number change greatly affects the complex formation of rare earth ions as we observe irregular variations in most series behaviours of the complex formation constant (K) in aqueous solution systems when K being plotted against 1/r or r (r is ionic radius of rare earth ion). Furthermore, it shows very anomalous concentration dependence in the sense that nona-aqua Ln 3+ ion increases in number with increase in salt concentration in aqueous rare earth salt solution (salt chloride, perchlorate). In this report, a theoretical derivation of the formation constant (K) for the inner-sphere complex formation of rare earth ions with a monodentate ligand was made by taking account of both the hydration number change in the middle of the series and its anomalous salt concentration dependence. The series behaviour of the formation constant against 1/r (or r) is successfully explained with using the empirical finding that K varies almost linearly with 1/r (or r) in the region where only one hydration number dominates. This success is also taken as evidence that the anomalous salt concentration dependence of the hydration number change is caused by the outer-sphere complex formation of rare earth ions with the condition that nona-aqua rare earth ions form outer-sphere complexes more easily than octa-aqua ions

  13. Double-stranded DNA translocase activity of transcription factor TFIIH and the mechanism of RNA polymerase II open complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, James; Tomko, Eric; Galburt, Eric; Hahn, Steven

    2015-03-31

    Formation of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) open complex (OC) requires DNA unwinding mediated by the transcription factor TFIIH helicase-related subunit XPB/Ssl2. Because XPB/Ssl2 binds DNA downstream from the location of DNA unwinding, it cannot function using a conventional helicase mechanism. Here we show that yeast TFIIH contains an Ssl2-dependent double-stranded DNA translocase activity. Ssl2 tracks along one DNA strand in the 5' → 3' direction, implying it uses the nontemplate promoter strand to reel downstream DNA into the Pol II cleft, creating torsional strain and leading to DNA unwinding. Analysis of the Ssl2 and DNA-dependent ATPase activity of TFIIH suggests that Ssl2 has a processivity of approximately one DNA turn, consistent with the length of DNA unwound during transcription initiation. Our results can explain why maintaining the OC requires continuous ATP hydrolysis and the function of TFIIH in promoter escape. Our results also suggest that XPB/Ssl2 uses this translocase mechanism during DNA repair rather than physically wedging open damaged DNA.

  14. The influence of atomic number on the complex formation constants by visible spectrophotometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samin; Kris-Tri-Basuki; Farida-Ernawati

    1996-01-01

    The influence of atomic number on the complex formation constants and it's application by visible spectrophotometric method has been carried out. The complex compound have been made of Y, Nd, Sm and Gd with alizarin red sulfonic in the mole fraction range of 0.20 - 0.53 and pH range of 3.5 - 5. The optimum condition of complex formation was found in the mole fraction range of 0.30 - 0.53, range of pH 3.75 - 5, and the total concentration was 0.00030 M. It was found that the formation constant (β) of alizarin red S. complex by continued variation and matrix disintegration techniques were β : (7.00 ± 0.64).10 9 of complex 3 9γ,β : (4.09±0.34).10 8 of 6 0Nd, β : (7.26 ± 0.42).10 8 of 62 S m and β : (8.38 ± 0.70).10 8 of 64 G d. It can be concluded that the atomic number of Nd is bigger than Sm which is bigger than Gd. The atomic number of Y is the smallest. (39) and the complex formation constant is a biggest. The complex compound can be used for sample analysis with limit detection of Y : 2.2 .10 -5 M, Nd : 2.9 .10 -5 M, Sm : 2.6 .10 -5 M and Gd : 2.4 .10 -5 M. The sensitivity of analysis are Y>Gd>Sm>Nd. The Y 2 O 3 sample of product result from xenotime sand contains Y 2 O 3 : 98.96 ± 1.40 % and in the filtrate (product of monazite sand) contains Nd : 0.27 ± 0.002 M

  15. Severe tracheobronchial compression in a patient with Turner′s syndrome undergoing repair of a complex aorto-subclavian aneurysm: Anesthesia perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C .C. Hudson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of severe tracheobronchial compression from a complex aorto-subclavian aneurysm in a patient with Turner′s syndrome undergoing open surgical repair. Significant airway compression is a challenging situation and requires careful preoperative preparation, maintenance of spontaneous breathing when possible, and consideration of having an alternative source of oxygenation and circulation established prior to induction of general anesthesia. Cardiopulmonary monitoring is essential for safe general anesthesia and diagnosis of unexpected intraoperative events.

  16. Study of factors that influence complex-formation of n-alkanes with crystal carbamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorodnova, V.S.; Korzhov, Yu.A.; Martynenko, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    Studies effect of temperature, solid phase content in the suspension and amount of MeOH on extent of n-alkane extraction during carbamide deparaffinization. A most thorough extraction of n-alkanes is achieved with a graduated temperature regimen of complex-formation.

  17. Computer analysis of potentiometric data of complexes formation in the solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzab, Renata; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata T.; Tylkowski, Bartosz; Odani, Akira

    2018-02-01

    The determination of equilibrium constants is an important process for many branches of chemistry. In this review we provide the readers with a discussion on computer methods which have been applied for elaboration of potentiometric experimental data generated during complexes formation in solution. The review describes both: general basis of modeling tools and examples of the use of calculated stability constants.

  18. Proton transfer and complex formation of angiotensin I ions with gaseous molecules at various temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonose, Shinji; Yamashita, Kazuki; Sudo, Ayako; Kawashima, Minami

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Proton transfer from angiotensin I ions (z = 2, 3) to gaseous molecules was studied. • Temperature dependence of absolute reaction rate constants was measured. • Remarkable changes were obtained for distribution of product ions and reaction rate constants. • Proton transfer reaction was enhanced and reduced by complex formation. • Conformation changes are induced by complex formation and or by thermal collision with He. - Abstract: Proton transfer reactions of angiotensin I ions for +2 charge state, [M + 2H] 2+ , to primary, secondary and aromatic amines were examined in the gas phase. Absolute reaction rate constants for proton transfer were determined from intensities of parent and product ions in the mass spectra. Temperature dependence of the reaction rate constants was measured. Remarkable change was observed for distribution of product ions and reaction rate constants. Proton transfer reaction was enhanced or reduced by complex formation of [M + 2H] 2+ with gaseous molecules. The results relate to conformation changes of [M + 2H] 2+ with change of temperature, which are induced by complex formation and or by thermal collision with He. Proton transfer reactions of angiotensin I ions for +3 charge state, [M + 3H] 3+ , were also studied. The reaction rates did not depend on temperature so definitely

  19. ZTF-8 interacts with the 9-1-1 complex and is required for DNA damage response and double-strand break repair in the C. elegans germline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Min Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in DNA repair genes are linked to tumor progression. Furthermore, failure in either activating a DNA damage checkpoint or repairing programmed meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs can impair chromosome segregation. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis for DNA damage response (DDR and DSB repair (DSBR within the germline is highly important. Here we define ZTF-8, a previously uncharacterized protein conserved from worms to humans, as a novel factor involved in the repair of both mitotic and meiotic DSBs as well as in meiotic DNA damage checkpoint activation in the C. elegans germline. ztf-8 mutants exhibit specific sensitivity to γ-irradiation and hydroxyurea, mitotic nuclear arrest at S-phase accompanied by activation of the ATL-1 and CHK-1 DNA damage checkpoint kinases, as well as accumulation of both mitotic and meiotic recombination intermediates, indicating that ZTF-8 functions in DSBR. However, impaired meiotic DSBR progression partially fails to trigger the CEP-1/p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint in late pachytene, also supporting a role for ZTF-8 in meiotic DDR. ZTF-8 partially co-localizes with the 9-1-1 DDR complex and interacts with MRT-2/Rad1, a component of this complex. The human RHINO protein rescues the phenotypes observed in ztf-8 mutants, suggesting functional conservation across species. We propose that ZTF-8 is involved in promoting repair at stalled replication forks and meiotic DSBs by transducing DNA damage checkpoint signaling via the 9-1-1 pathway. Our findings define a conserved function for ZTF-8/RHINO in promoting genomic stability in the germline.

  20. High-Frequency Promoter Firing Links THO Complex Function to Heavy Chromatin Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouaikel, John; Causse, Sébastien Z; Rougemaille, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The THO complex is involved in transcription, genome stability, and messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) formation, but its precise molecular function remains enigmatic. Under heat shock conditions, THO mutants accumulate large protein-DNA complexes that alter the chromatin density of target genes...... (heavy chromatin), defining a specific biochemical facet of THO function and a powerful tool of analysis. Here, we show that heavy chromatin distribution is dictated by gene boundaries and that the gene promoter is necessary and sufficient to convey THO sensitivity in these conditions. Single......-molecule fluorescence insitu hybridization measurements show that heavy chromatin formation correlates with an unusually high firing pace of the promoter with more than 20 transcription events per minute. Heavy chromatin formation closely follows the modulation of promoter firing and strongly correlates with polymerase...

  1. Quantum statistical vibrational entropy and enthalpy of formation of helium-vacancy complex in BCC W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Haohua [Sino-French Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, 519082, Zhuhai (China); Woo, C.H., E-mail: chung.woo@polyu.edu.hk [ME Department, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2016-12-15

    High-temperature advance-reactor design and operation require knowledge of in-reactor materials properties far from the thermal ground state. Temperature-dependence due to the effects of lattice vibrations is important to the understanding and formulation of atomic processes involved in irradiation-damage accumulation. In this paper, we concentrate on the formation of He-V complex. The free-energy change in this regard is derived via thermodynamic integration from the phase-space trajectories generated from MD simulations based on the quantum fluctuation-dissipation relation. The change of frequency distribution of vibration modes during the complex formation is properly accounted for, and the corresponding entropy change avoids the classical ln(T) divergence that violates the third law. The vibrational enthalpy and entropy of formation calculated this way have significant effects on the He kinetics during irradiation.

  2. Star-formation complexes in the `galaxy-sized' supergiant shell of the galaxy Holmberg I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Oleg V.; Lozinskaya, Tatiana A.; Moiseev, Alexei V.; Smirnov-Pinchukov, Grigory V.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of observations of the galaxy Holmberg I carried out at the Russian 6-m telescope in the narrow-band imaging, long-slit spectroscopy, and scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer modes. A detailed analysis of gas kinematics, ionization conditions, and metallicity of star-forming regions in the galaxy is presented. The aim of the paper is to analyse the propagation of star formation in the galaxy and to understand the role of the ongoing star formation in the evolution of the central `galaxy-sized' supergiant H I shell (SGS), where all regions of star formation are observed. We show that star formation in the galaxy occurs in large unified complexes rather than in individual giant H II regions. Evidence of the triggered star formation is observed both on scales of individual complexes and of the whole galaxy. We identified two supernova-remnant candidates and one late-type WN star and analysed their spectrum and surrounding-gas kinematics. We provide arguments indicating that the SGS in Holmberg I is destructing by the influence of star formation occurring on its rims.

  3. Complex formation between neptunium(V) and various thiosemicarbazide derivatives in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuguryan, D.G.; Dzyubenko, V.I.; Gerbeleu, N.V.

    1987-01-01

    Complex formation between neptunium(V) and various thiosemicarbazide derivatives in solution has been studied spectrophotometrically in the pH range 4-10. Stepwise formation of three types of complexes, with composition NpO 2 HA, NpO 2 A - , and NpOHA 2- , has been demonstrated with salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (H 2 L) and salicylaldehyde S-methyl-isothiosemicarbazone (H 2 Q) at t = 25 +/- 1 0 C and μ = 0.05. The logarithmic stability constants of the first two complexes are 5.14 +/- 0.06, 11.85 +/- 0.04 and 8.42 +/- 0.09, 13.33 +/- 0.015 for H 2 L and H 2 Q, respectively; equilibrium constants for the formation of hydroxo complexes of the form NpO 2 OHL 2- and NpO 2 OHQ 2- were also determined, and found to be equal to (2.23 +/-0.37) x 10 -5 and (5.02 +/- 0.9) x 10 -5 , respectively. In the case of S-methyl-N 1 ,N 4 -bis(salicylidene)isothiosemicarbazide (H 2 Z), only one type of complex is formed under these experimental conditions, namely, NpO 2 Z - , with a logarithmic stability constant of 4.78 +/- 0.03. Dissociation constants for H 2 Q and H 2 Z were also determined

  4. Formation of nitridotechnetium(VI) μ-oxo dimer complexes with EDTA and EDDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, T.; Kani, Y.; Sekine, T.; Kudo, H.; Yoshihara, K.

    1995-01-01

    Reactions of [ 99 TcNCl 4 ] - with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 4 (ETDA) and ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA) in a mixture of water and acetone gave Tc VI N-EDTA and Tc VI N-EDTA complexes. The infrared spectra of both reaction products showed the existence of the Tc≡N and C=O groups. The elemental analysis indicated the 1:1 TcN-ligand ratio in the EDTA and EDDA complexes. Electrophoresis showed that the Tc VI -EDTA complex was an anionic species in a perchlorate solution. For the Tc VI N-EDDA complex, neutral and anionic species were formed, depending on the pH of the solution. Formation of the μ-oxo dimer complexes was suggested from the UV-Vis absorption spectra. (author) 11 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  5. The carboxyl terminus of FANCE recruits FANCD2 to the Fanconi Anemia (FA) E3 ligase complex to promote the FA DNA repair pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, David; Cukras, Scott; Wang, Xiaozhe; Spence, Paige; Moreau, Lisa; D'Andrea, Alan D; Kee, Younghoon

    2014-03-07

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genome instability syndrome characterized by bone marrow failure and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. In response to DNA damage, the FA pathway is activated through the cooperation of 16 FA proteins. A central player in the pathway is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex or the FA core complex, which monoubiquitinates its substrates FANCD2 and FANCI. FANCE, a subunit of the FA core complex, plays an essential role by promoting the integrity of the complex and by directly recognizing FANCD2. To delineate its role in substrate ubiquitination from the core complex assembly, we analyzed a series of mutations within FANCE. We report that a phenylalanine located at the highly conserved extreme C terminus, referred to as Phe-522, is a critical residue for mediating the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2-FANCI complex. Using the FANCE mutant that specifically disrupts the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction as a tool, we found that the interaction-deficient mutant conferred cellular sensitivity in reconstituted FANCE-deficient cells to a similar degree as FANCE null cells, suggesting the significance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in promoting cisplatin resistance. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of the FANCE C terminus fragment alone in FA normal cells disrupts DNA repair, consolidating the importance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in the DNA cross-link repair.

  6. The Carboxyl Terminus of FANCE Recruits FANCD2 to the Fanconi Anemia (FA) E3 Ligase Complex to Promote the FA DNA Repair Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, David; Cukras, Scott; Wang, Xiaozhe; Spence, Paige; Moreau, Lisa; D'Andrea, Alan D.; Kee, Younghoon

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genome instability syndrome characterized by bone marrow failure and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. In response to DNA damage, the FA pathway is activated through the cooperation of 16 FA proteins. A central player in the pathway is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex or the FA core complex, which monoubiquitinates its substrates FANCD2 and FANCI. FANCE, a subunit of the FA core complex, plays an essential role by promoting the integrity of the complex and by directly recognizing FANCD2. To delineate its role in substrate ubiquitination from the core complex assembly, we analyzed a series of mutations within FANCE. We report that a phenylalanine located at the highly conserved extreme C terminus, referred to as Phe-522, is a critical residue for mediating the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2-FANCI complex. Using the FANCE mutant that specifically disrupts the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction as a tool, we found that the interaction-deficient mutant conferred cellular sensitivity in reconstituted FANCE-deficient cells to a similar degree as FANCE null cells, suggesting the significance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in promoting cisplatin resistance. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of the FANCE C terminus fragment alone in FA normal cells disrupts DNA repair, consolidating the importance of the FANCE-FANCD2 interaction in the DNA cross-link repair. PMID:24451376

  7. The role of plasma proteins in formation of obstructive protamine complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paulis, R.; Mohammad, S.F.; Chiariello, L.; Morea, M.; Olsen, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Formation of complexes between heparin and protamine (in saline), or heparin, plasma proteins, and protamine (in plasma) was assessed by measurements of light transmission through different test solutions. To examine the formation of these complexes, 125I-labeled protamine was used. Addition of 125I-protamine to plasma or blood resulted in the sedimentation of 125I-protamine in the form of insoluble complexes. This complex formation was not affected by the presence of heparin, suggesting that protamine-plasma protein interaction may be primarily responsible for precipitation of 125I-protamine. To assess the capability of these complexes to obstruct the pulmonary circulation, an in vitro experimental model was developed. Citrated serum, plasma, blood, or saline were allowed to flow through a glass bead column with the help of a peristaltic pump. A pressure transducer positioned before the column allowed pressure measurements at a constant flow rate during the experiment. Mixing of protamine with plasma or blood prior to their passage through the glass bead column resulted in a significant increase in pressure suggesting that the column was being clogged with insoluble complexes. The increase in pressure occurred both in the presence and absence of heparin in plasma or blood. Under identical experimental conditions, the increase in pressure was insignificant when protamine was added to saline or serum regardless of whether heparin was present or absent. This was further confirmed by the use of 125I-protamine. These observations suggest that protamine forms insoluble complexes with certain plasma proteins. Based on these observations, it is hypothesized that following intravenous administration, protamine immediately forms complexes in circulating blood

  8. Proximity of the Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex to Key Surrounding Structures and Safety Assessment of an Arthroscopic Repair Technique: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuremsky, Marshall A; Habet, Nahir; Peindl, Richard D; Gaston, R Glenn

    2016-12-01

    To quantify the distance of the dorsal ulnar sensory branch, floor of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) subsheath, and ulnar neurovascular bundles from the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), and secondarily to assess the safety of an all-inside arthroscopic repair of the TFCC with a commonly used meniscal repair device with respect to the aforementioned structures. A custom K-wire with 1-mm gradation was used to determine the distance of at-risk structures from the periphery of the TFCC in 13 above-elbow human cadaver specimens. An all-inside repair of the TFCC at the location of a Palmer 1B tear was then performed using a commonly employed meniscal repair device. The distance from the deployed devices to the structure in closest proximity was then measured using digital calipers. The mean distance from the deployed device to the nearest structure of concern for iatrogenic injury was 9.4 mm (range, 5-15 mm). The closest structure to iatrogenic injury was usually, but not always, the dorsal ulnar sensory nerve in 9 of 13 wrists (69.2%) at 9.3 mm (range, 5-15 mm); on 3 occasions it was instead the ulnar nerve (23.1%) at 9.5 mm (range, 9-10 mm), and on 1 occasion 6 mm from the flexor digitorum profundus to the little finger (7.7%). Forearm rotation had no significant effect on measured distances (ulnar nerve: P = .98; dorsal sensory: P = .89; ECU: P = .90). The largest influence of forearm rotation was a 0.4-mm difference between pronation and supination with respect to the distance of the TFCC periphery on the ECU subsheath. An all-inside arthroscopic TFCC repair using a commonly used meniscal repair device appears safe with respect to nearby neurovascular structures and tendons under typical arthroscopic conditions. An all-inside arthroscopic TFCC repair using a commonly employed meniscal repair device appears safe in terms of proximity to important structures although further clinical investigation is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy

  9. A spectrophotometric investigation of the complex formation between lanthanum (III) and eriochrome cyanine R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boodts, J.F.C.; Saffioti, W.

    1979-01-01

    The complex formation between La(III) and Eriochrome Cyanine R has been investigated. Three complexes have been detected. A first one (Complex I) in the pH range of 5.3-5.5 with lambda sub(max) = 460nm. a second one (Complex II) in the pH range of 6.2-6.5 with lambda sub(max) = 490nm and a third one (complex III) in the pH range of 8.2 - 9.0 with lambda sub(max) = 545nm and a shoulder between 570-580nm. The composition and stability constants of the complexes, respectively: complex I: La(ECR) 2 and 4.9 x 10 7 , complex II: La(ECR) 2 and 7.0 x 10 7 , complex III: La.ECR and 1.0 x 10 4 . All measurements were taken at 25.0 +- 0.1 0 C and μ = 0.2 (NaClO 4 ). (Author) [pt

  10. AREA 2: Novel Materials for Robust Repair of Leaky Wellbores in CO2 Storage Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balhoff, Matthew [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Tavassoli, Shayan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Fei Ho, Jostine [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-01-31

    The potential leakage of hydrocarbon fluids or CO2 out of subsurface formations through wells with fractured cement or debonded microannuli is a primary concern in oil and gas production and CO2 storage. The presence of fractures in a cement annulus with apertures on the order of 10–300 microns can pose a significant leakage danger with effective permeability in the range of 0.1–1 mD (millidarcy). Leakage pathways with small apertures are often difficult to repair using conventional oilfield cement, thus a low-viscosity sealant that can be easily placed into these fractures while providing an effective seal is desired. The development of a novel application using pH-triggered polymeric sealants could potentially be the solution to plugging these fractures and that was the research aim of this study. The application is based on the transport and reaction of a low-pH poly(acrylic acid) polymer through fractures in strongly alkaline cement. The pH-sensitive microgels viscosify upon neutralization with cement to become highly swollen gels with substantial yield stress that can block fluid flow. Experiments in a cement fracture determined the effects of the viscosification and gel deposition via real-time visual observation and measurements of pressure gradient and effluent pH. While the pH-triggered gelling mechanism and rheology measurements of the neutralized polymer gel show promising results, the polymer solution in contact with cement undergoes an undesirable reaction known as polymer syneresis. Syneresis is caused by the release of calcium cation from cement that collapses the polymer network. Syneresis produces an unstable calcium-precipitation byproduct that is detrimental to the strength and stability of the gel in place. As a result, gel-sealed leakage pathways that subjected to various degrees of syneresis often failed to hold back pressures. Several chemicals were studied to inhibit polymer syneresis and tested for pretreatment of

  11. Deficiency of PHB complex impairs respiratory supercomplex formation and activates mitochondrial flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Fengli; Hou, Tingting; Sun, Tao; Li, Jinghang; Cheng, Heping; Wang, Xianhua

    2017-08-01

    Prohibitins (PHBs; prohibitin 1, PHB1 or PHB, and prohibitin 2, PHB2) are evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial proteins. PHBs form multimeric ring complexes acting as scaffolds in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are newly discovered mitochondrial signaling events that reflect electrical and chemical excitations of the organelle. Here, we investigate the possible roles of PHBs in the regulation of mitoflash signaling. Downregulation of PHBs increases mitoflash frequency by up to 5.4-fold due to elevated basal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the mitochondria. Mechanistically, PHB deficiency impairs the formation of mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes (RSCs) without altering the abundance of individual respiratory complex subunits. These impairments induced by PHB deficiency are effectively rescued by co-expression of PHB1 and PHB2, indicating that the multimeric PHB complex acts as the functional unit. Furthermore, downregulating other RSC assembly factors, including SCAFI (also known as COX7A2L), RCF1a (HIGD1A), RCF1b (HIGD2A), UQCC3 and SLP2 (STOML2), all activate mitoflashes through elevating mitochondrial ROS production. Our findings identify the PHB complex as a new regulator of RSC formation and mitoflash signaling, and delineate a general relationship among RSC formation, basal ROS production and mitoflash biogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Uranium (VI) complexing by macrocyclic or chelating ligands in aqueous solutions stability, formation kinetics, polarographic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brighli, M.

    1984-07-01

    Stability of chelates (with EDTA,N,N ethylenediamine diacetic acid EDDA nitrilotriacetic acid NTA and iminodiacetic acid) of UO 2 2+ and UO 4 species of uranium VI is studied in aqueous solution (NaClO 4 3M at 25 deg celcius). Structure in solution are proposed and discussed for mononuclear species. Only complexing kinetics (formation and acid hydrolysis) of UO 4 with EDDA and NTA are studied by spectrophotometry (other reactions are too fast). Besides UO 2 2+ complexes are formed with crown ethers I5C5 and I8C6 in aqueous solution (TEA ClO 4 M/10 at 25 deg celcius. Complexes are probably stabilized by solvation. Results are confirmed by voltametry and reduction mechanisms of UO 2 2+ and its complexes on mercury drop are proposed. 143 refs [fr

  13. Thermodynamics of complex formation of natural iron(III)porphyrins with neutral ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, Nataliya Sh.; Yakubov, Sergey P.; Vyugin, Anatoly I.; Parfenyuk, Elena V.

    2003-01-01

    Calorimetric titrations in benzene and chloroform at 298.15 K have been performed to give the complexes stability constants and the thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation of nature iron(III)porphyrins with pyridine. Stoichimetry of the complexes formed has been determined. It has been found that the thermodynamic parameters obtained depend on nature of peripheral substituents of the porphyrins. The estimation of the influence of Cl - and Ac - ions on the processes studied has been carried out. Using thermodynamic analysis method, the crystallsolvates of nature iron(III)porphyrins with benzene have been studied. Stoichiometry, thermal and energetic stability of the π-π-complexes formed have been determined. The data obtained have been used to the estimate solvent effect on the thermodynamic parameters of axial coordination of pyridine on the iron(III)porphyrins in benzene

  14. Contemporary strategies for repair of complex thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: real-world experiences and multilayer stents as an alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Robert Kolvenbach

    Full Text Available Abstract Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA present special challenges for repair due to their extent, their distinctive pathology, and the fact that they typically cross the ostia of one or more visceral branch vessels. Historically, the established treatment for TAAA was open surgical repair, with the first procedure reported in 1955. Endovascular repair of TAAA with fenestrated and/ or branched endografts, has been studied since the beginning of the current century as a means of mechanical aneurysm exclusion. More recently, flow modulator stents have been employed with the aim at reducing shear stress on aortic aneurysmal wall. In this review we present technical and main results of these techniques, based on literature review and personal experience.

  15. Kinetic and mechanism formation reaction of complex compound Cu with di-n-buthildithiocarbamate (dbdtc) ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryani, S.; Kurniawan, C.; Kasmui

    2018-04-01

    Synthesis of complex compound is one field of research which intensively studied. Metal-dithiocarbamate complexes find wide-ranging applications in nanomaterial and metal separation science, and have potential use as chemotherapeutic, pesticides, and as additives to lubricants. However, the information about is reaction kinetic and mechanism are very much lacking. The research and analyzes results show that reaction synthesis ligand DBDTC and complex compounds Cu-DBDTC. Optimum reaction condition of formation of complex compounds Cu with DBDTC at pH=3, [DBDTC] = 4.10-3 M, and the time of reaction 5 minutes. Based the analysis varian reaction of complex compounds at pH 3 and 4, diffrence significance at the other pH: 5; 5,5; 6; 6,5 ; 7; and 8. The various of mole with reactants comosition difference sigbificance, those the time reaction for 5 and 6 minutes diffrence by significance with the other time, it is 3,4,8, and 10 minutes. The great product to at condition pH 6, the time optimum at 5 minutes and molar ratio of logam: ligand = 1:2. The reaction kinetic equation of complex compound Cu with chelathing ligand DBDTC is V=0.917106 [Cu2+]0.87921 [DBDTC]2.03021. Based on the kinetic data, and formed complex compounds estimation, the mechanism explaining by 2 stages. In the first stage formation of [Cu(DBDTC)], and then [Cu(DBDTC)2] with the last structure geomethry planar rectangle. The result of this research will be more useful if an effort is being done in reaction mechanism by chemical computation method for obtain intermediate, and for constant “k” in same stage, k1.k2. and compound complex constanta (β).

  16. Spectroscopic studies on U(VI)-salicylate complex formation with multiple equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, W.; Cho, H.R.; Jung, E.C.; Park, K.K.; Kim, W.H.; Song, K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear Chemistry Research Div.

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates multiple equilibria related to the formation of the U(VI)-salicylate complex in a pH range of 3.0-5.5 using UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence measurement techniques. The absorbance changes at the characteristic charge-transfer bands of the complex were monitored, and the results indicated the presence of multiple equilibria and the formation of both 1:1 and 1:2 (U(VI):salicylate) complexes possessing bi-dentate chelate structures. The determined step-wise formation constants (log K{sub 1:1} and log K{sub 1:2}) are as follows: 12.5 {+-} 0.1 and 11.4 {+-} 0.2 for salicylate, 11.2 {+-} 0.1 and 10.1 {+-} 0.2 for 5-sulfosalicylate, and 12.4 {+-} 0.1 and 11.4 {+-} 0.1 for 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, respectively. The molar absorptivities of the complexes are also provided. Furthermore, time-resolved laser-induced luminescence spectra of U(VI) species demonstrate the presence of both a dynamic and static quenching process upon the addition of a salicylate ligand. Particularly for the luminescent hydroxouranyl species, a strong static quenching effect is observed. The results suggest that both the UO{sub 2}(HSal){sup +} and the U(VI)-Sal chelate complexes serve as ground-state complexes that induce static quenching. The Stern-Volmer parameters were derived based on the measured luminescent intensity and lifetime data. The static quenching constants (log K{sub S}) obtained are 3.3 {+-} 0.1, 4.9 {+-} 0.1, and 4.4 {+-} 0.1 for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}{sup 2+} and (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup +}, respectively. (orig.)

  17. Spectroscopic studies on U(VI)-salicylate complex formation with multiple equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, W.; Cho, H.R.; Jung, E.C.; Park, K.K.; Kim, W.H.; Song, K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates multiple equilibria related to the formation of the U(VI)-salicylate complex in a pH range of 3.0-5.5 using UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence measurement techniques. The absorbance changes at the characteristic charge-transfer bands of the complex were monitored, and the results indicated the presence of multiple equilibria and the formation of both 1:1 and 1:2 (U(VI):salicylate) complexes possessing bi-dentate chelate structures. The determined step-wise formation constants (log K 1:1 and log K 1:2 ) are as follows: 12.5 ± 0.1 and 11.4 ± 0.2 for salicylate, 11.2 ± 0.1 and 10.1 ± 0.2 for 5-sulfosalicylate, and 12.4 ± 0.1 and 11.4 ± 0.1 for 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, respectively. The molar absorptivities of the complexes are also provided. Furthermore, time-resolved laser-induced luminescence spectra of U(VI) species demonstrate the presence of both a dynamic and static quenching process upon the addition of a salicylate ligand. Particularly for the luminescent hydroxouranyl species, a strong static quenching effect is observed. The results suggest that both the UO 2 (HSal) + and the U(VI)-Sal chelate complexes serve as ground-state complexes that induce static quenching. The Stern-Volmer parameters were derived based on the measured luminescent intensity and lifetime data. The static quenching constants (log K S ) obtained are 3.3 ± 0.1, 4.9 ± 0.1, and 4.4 ± 0.1 for UO 2 2+ , (UO 2 ) 2 (OH) 2 2+ and (UO 2 ) 3 (OH) 5 + , respectively. (orig.)

  18. The formation and repair of cisplatin-DNA adducts in wild-type and cisplatin-resistant L1210 cells : comparison of immunocytochemical determination with detection in isolated DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommaert, F.A.; Floot, B.G.J.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Berends, F.; Baan, R.A.; Schornagel, J.H.; Engelse, L. den; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the formation and repair of cisplatin-DNA adducts in wild-type mouse leukemia L1210/0 cells and in the sublines L1210/2 and L1210/5, which differ in cisplatin sensitivity. In a colony-formation assay these sublines were 9- and 22-fold more resistant compared to L1210/0, respectively.

  19. Thermodynamics of mixed-ligand complex formation of mercury (II) ethylenediaminetetraacetate with amino acids in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyreu, Dmitrii, E-mail: pyreu@mail.ru [Department of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry, Ivanovo State University, Ermak 39, Ivanovo 153025 (Russian Federation); Kozlovskii, Eugenii [Department of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry, Ivanovo State University, Ermak 39, Ivanovo 153025 (Russian Federation); Gruzdev, Matvei; Kumeev, Roman [Institute of Solution Chemistry, Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable mixed ligand complexes of HgEdta with amino acids at physiological pH value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamic and NMR data evident the ambidentate coordination mode of arginine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Participation of the guanidinic group of Arg in coordination process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binuclear complexes (HgEdta){sub 2}L with the bridging function of amino acid. - Abstract: The mixed-ligand complex formation in the systems Hg{sup 2+} - Edta{sup 4-} - L{sup -}(L = Arg, Orn, Ser) has been studied by means of calorimetry, pH-potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy in aqueous solution at 298.15 K and the ionic strength of I = 0.5 (KNO{sub 3}). The thermodynamic parameters of formation of the HgEdtaL, HgEdtaHL and (HgEdta){sub 2}L complexes have been determined. The most probable coordination mode for the complexone and the amino acid in the mixed-ligand complexes was discussed.

  20. Polarografic study about the complex formation between indium (III) and sodium azide, in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokoro, R.; Bertotti, M.

    1988-01-01

    The present work is a branch of the main work concerned with the complex formation between several metal cations and azide ligand in aqueous media. The polarographic behavior of indium in azide system showed the tendency of complexation. Using polarographic method to determine the half potential of indium at each analytical concentration afforded experimental data to evaluate the constants. The azide concentrations was modified from 1 m to 100 m , the ionic strength held at 2,0 M with sodium perchlorate, indium concentration 7.892 x 10 -4 M, and temperature kept constant at 25,0 0 C. (author) [pt

  1. Formation of multiple focal spots using a high NA lens with a complex spiral phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalithambigai, K.; Anbarasan, P. M.; Rajesh, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    The formation of a transversally polarized beam by transmitting a tightly focused double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam through a complex spiral phase mask and high numerical aperture lens is presented based on vector diffraction theory. The generation of transversally polarized focal spot segment splitting and multiple focal spots is illustrated numerically. Moreover, we found that a properly designed complex spiral phase mask can move the focal spots along the optical axis in the z direction. Therefore, one can achieve a focal segment of two, three or multiple completely transversely polarized focal spots, which finds applications in optical trapping and in material processing technologies.

  2. Regularity in the changes of the thermodynamic functions associated with the formation of mononuclear complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailov, M.H.; Mihailova, V.T.; Strezov, A.S.; Taskaeva, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    Regularities for the changes of the free energy ΔG, enthalpy ΔH enthropy ΔS have been derived, associated with the complex formation processes in metal-ligand systems whose stability constants of the consecutive mononuclear compelxes ML, ML 2 , ML 3 , ML 4 ...MLsub(n) satisfy the relation βn = A an/n (n = 1,2,3... N) where βn is the overall stability constant of the MLsub(n) complex, n is the number of ligands (1 [de

  3. Formation and repair of gamma-ray induced nucleic acid base damage in bacteria and mammalian cells. Final report, September 1, 1973--August 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerutti, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results are summarized from a three-year study of the formation and repair of γ-ray induced thymine damage in bacteria and mammalian cells. A systematic study was made of the formation of a specific type of ionizing radiation induced base damage under in vivo conditions. Assay for the determination of γ-ray products of the 5,6-dihydroxy-dihydrothymine type (alkaline-acid degradation assay) and a method for the determination of the formation of 5-methylene-uracil radicals (formation of ( 3 H)H 2 O from thymine-methyl ( 3 H)) are discussed. The radiation-chemical reactivity of thymine decreased according to the following pattern in different biological systems: phi X174-DNA greater than E. coli DNA = phi X174 phage much greater than HeLa chromatin greater than E. coli cells greater than human fibroblasts WI-38. In WI-38 the efficiency of formation of 5-methylene-uracil radicals was 1.6 x 10 -3 per Krad and 10 6 daltons DNA and of products of the 5,6-dihydroxy-dihydrothymine type 0.54 x 10 -3 per Krad per 10 6 daltons DNA (uncorrected). It was concluded that γ-rays produce DNA single strand breaks and (total) base damage with comparable efficiencies under in vivo conditions in cultured cells. A list is included of 18 published papers that report the findings in detail

  4. Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles via complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatimah, Is, E-mail: isfatimah@uii.ac.id; Yudha, Septian P.; Mutiara, Nur Afisa Lintang [Chemistry Department, Islamic University of Indonesia Kampus Terpadu UII, Jl. Kaliurang Km 14, Sleman, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles(NPs) were conducted via Zn(II) complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract as template. Curcuma longa extract has the ability to form zinc ions complex with curcumin as ligating agent. Study on synthesis was conducted by monitoring thermal degradation of the material. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by employing x-ray diffraction, surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) studies. From the XRD analysis it is denoted that ZnO in hexagonal wurtzite phase was formed and particle size was varied as varied temperature. The data are also confirmed by TEM analysis which shows the particle sie at the range 20-80nm. The NPs exhibited excelent photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation and also significant antibacterial activity for Eschericia coli. The activity in methylene blue degradation was also confirmed from fast chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction.

  5. Role of complex formation in the photosensitized degradation of DNA induced by N'-formylkynurenine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walrant, P.; Santus, R.; Charlier, M.

    1976-01-01

    N'-Formylkynurenine derivatives efficiently bind to DNA or polynucleotides. Homopolynucleotides and DNA displayed marked differences in the binding process. Association constants were derived which indicated that the oxidized indole ring is more strongly bound to DNA than the unoxidized one. Irradiation of such complexes with wavelengths greater than 320 nm induced pyrimidine dimer formation as well as DNA chain breaks. Complex formation is shown to play an important role in these photosensitized reactions. The photodynamic action of N-formylkynurenine on DNA constituents was negligible at neutral pH but guanine and xanthine derivatives were sensitizable at higher pH. Thymine dimer splitting can occur in aggregated frozen aqueous solutions of N'-formylkynurenine and thymine dimer but this photosensitized splitting was negligible in liquid solutions at room temperature. (author)

  6. Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles via complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatimah, Is; Yudha, Septian P.; Mutiara, Nur Afisa Lintang

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles(NPs) were conducted via Zn(II) complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract as template. Curcuma longa extract has the ability to form zinc ions complex with curcumin as ligating agent. Study on synthesis was conducted by monitoring thermal degradation of the material. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by employing x-ray diffraction, surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) studies. From the XRD analysis it is denoted that ZnO in hexagonal wurtzite phase was formed and particle size was varied as varied temperature. The data are also confirmed by TEM analysis which shows the particle sie at the range 20-80nm. The NPs exhibited excelent photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation and also significant antibacterial activity for Eschericia coli. The activity in methylene blue degradation was also confirmed from fast chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction

  7. Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles via complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Is; Yudha, Septian P.; Mutiara, Nur Afisa Lintang

    2016-02-01

    Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles(NPs) were conducted via Zn(II) complex formation by using Curcuma longa extract as template. Curcuma longa extract has the ability to form zinc ions complex with curcumin as ligating agent. Study on synthesis was conducted by monitoring thermal degradation of the material. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by employing x-ray diffraction, surface area analysis and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) studies. From the XRD analysis it is denoted that ZnO in hexagonal wurtzite phase was formed and particle size was varied as varied temperature. The data are also confirmed by TEM analysis which shows the particle sie at the range 20-80nm. The NPs exhibited excelent photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation and also significant antibacterial activity for Eschericia coli. The activity in methylene blue degradation was also confirmed from fast chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction.

  8. Formation constants of binary complexes of lanthanides with 2-hydroxymethyl-benzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagendram, A; Omprakash, K L; Chandra Pal, A V; Reddy, M L.N.

    1988-03-01

    Proton-ligand and metal-ligand formation constants of binary complexes of La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Gd(III), Dy(III) and Y(III) with 2-hydroxymethylbenzimidazole have been determined pH-metrically in 50 per cent v/v aq dioxane medium at 30deg, 40deg and 50degC and I=0.1 M (NaClO/sub 4/). The theromdynamic parameters of complex formation have been evaluated. Stabilities (log ..beta../sub 2/ values) of the chelates increase with decrease in ionic radius of the metal (Dy(III) > Gd(III) > Y(III) > Nd(III) > Pr(III) > La(III)). (author). 7 refs.

  9. Conformation-Directed Formation of Self-Healing Diblock Copolypeptide Hydrogels via Polyion Complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yintao; Wollenberg, Alexander L; O'Shea, Timothy Mark; Cui, Yanxiang; Zhou, Z Hong; Sofroniew, Michael V; Deming, Timothy J

    2017-10-25

    Synthetic diblock copolypeptides were designed to incorporate oppositely charged ionic segments that form β-sheet-structured hydrogel assemblies via polyion complexation when mixed in aqueous media. The observed chain conformation directed assembly was found to be required for efficient hydrogel formation and provided distinct and useful properties to these hydrogels, including self-healing after deformation, microporous architecture, and stability against dilution in aqueous media. While many promising self-assembled materials have been prepared using disordered or liquid coacervate polyion complex (PIC) assemblies, the use of ordered chain conformations in PIC assemblies to direct formation of new supramolecular morphologies is unprecedented. The promising attributes and unique features of the β-sheet-structured PIC hydrogels described here highlight the potential of harnessing conformational order derived from PIC assembly to create new supramolecular materials.

  10. Formation of Polyelectrolyte Complex Colloid Particles between Chitosan and Pectin with Different Degree of Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Sun, Hongyuan; He, Jieyu

    2017-12-01

    The effects of degree of esterification, pectin/chitosan ratio and pH on the formation of polyelectrolyte complex colloid particles between chitosan (CS) and pectin (PE) were investigated. Low methoxyl pectin (LPE) was achieved by de-esterifying high methoxyl pectin (HPE) with pectin methyl esterase. Turbidity titration and colorimetric method was used to determine the stability of complex colloid particles. The structure and morphology of complex particles were characterized by FTIR and TEM. When pectin solution was dropped into chitosan solution, complex colloidal dispersion was stable as PE/CS mass ratio was no more than 3:2. Colloidal particles of HPE-CS complex coagulated at larger ratio of PE/CS than LPE-CS. The maximum complex occurred at pH 6.1 for HPE-CS and pH 5.7 for LPE-CS, and decreasing pH leaded to the dissociation of complex particles. Electrostatic interactions between carboxyl groups on pectin and amino groups on chitosan were confirmed by FTIR. Colloidal particle sizes ranged from about 100 nm to 400 nm with spherical shape.

  11. EPR study of complex formation between copper (II) ions and sympathomimetic amines in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preoteasa, E.A. [Inst. of Atomic Physics, IFIN, Bucharest (Romania); Duliu, O.G.; Grecu, V.V. [Bucharest, Univ. (Romania). Dept. of Atomic and Nuclear Physics

    1997-07-01

    The complex formation between sympathomimetic amines (SA): adrenaline (AD), noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), ephedrine (ED) and p-tyramine (pTA), and Cu(II) ion in aqueous solution has been studied by X-band EPR at room temperature. Excepting pTA, all investigated SA yielded two types of complexes in different pH domains. All complexes consistent with a ligand fields having a distorted octahedral symmetry, i.e., hexacoordination of Cu(II). The covalence coefficient calculated from the isotropic g and A values has shown strong ionic sigma-type ligand bonds. A structural model with the Cu(II) ion bound by four catecholic O(hydroxy) atoms for the low pH complexes of AD, NA and DA is proposed. For the high pH complexes of the former compounds as well as for both Ed complexes, the authors suppose Cu(II) bound by two N (amino) and two O (hydroxy) atoms. The spectra are consistent to water binding on the longitudinal octahedron axis in all compounds excepting the high pH complex of Ed, where OH2- ions are bound. Possible implications for the SA-cell receptors interactions are discussed.

  12. Peculiarities of litter invertebrates’ multispecies complexes formation on the Khortitsa island (Zaporizhzhya province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. О. Fedorchenko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of litter invertebrates’ complexes formation under conditions of the Khortitsa National Reserve (Zaporizhzhya province are studied. The dispersion of taxonomic groups of different levels (families and species in litter mesofauna is swayed by the inter- and intrasystem factors; the largest influence has the power of litter and its humidity. The rate of ecological factors’ influence at different taxonomic levels may diverge.

  13. Cytochrome P-450 complex formation in rat liver by the antibiotic tiamulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Witkamp, R F; Nijmeijer, S M; van Miert, A S

    1996-01-01

    Tiamulin is a semisynthetic diterpene antibiotic frequently used in farm animals. The drug has been shown to produce clinically important--often lethal--interactions with other compounds. It has been suggested that this is caused by a selective inhibition of oxidative drug metabolism via the formation of a cytochrome P-450 metabolic intermediate complex. In the present study, rats were treated orally for 6 days with tiamulin at two different doses: 40 and 226 mg/kg of body weight. For compari...

  14. Current topics in DNA double-strand break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Junya; Takata, Minoru; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Tauchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) is one of the most critical types of damage which is induced by ionizing radiation. In this review, we summarize current progress in investigations on the function of DSB repair-related proteins. We focused on recent findings in the analysis of the function of proteins such as 53BP1, histone H2AX, Mus81-Eme1, Fanc complex, and UBC13, which are found to be related to homologous recombination repair or to non-homologous end joining. In addition to the function of these proteins in DSB repair, the biological function of nuclear foci formation following DSB induction is discussed. (author)

  15. Causes and consequences of plant radio-resistance. Formation of DNA basis lesions and self-repairing activity of one of them, the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dany, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    In this research thesis, the author first explains how and why DNA is injured when it is submitted to an oxidizing stress, and describes precisely the formation and the biological consequences of lesions of DNA bases, the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine (8-oxoGua). She describes the repairing activities of the oxidized DNA, and more particularly the repairing of 8-oxoGua, in prokaryotes as well as in yeast, mammals and plants. Methodologies used are described, together with the repair activities of the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine following a biochemical type approach and a molecular biology approach

  16. Simultaneous measurement of amyloid fibril formation by dynamic light scattering and fluorescence reveals complex aggregation kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Streets

    Full Text Available An apparatus that combines dynamic light scattering and Thioflavin T fluorescence detection is used to simultaneously probe fibril formation in polyglutamine peptides, the aggregating subunit associated with Huntington's disease, in vitro. Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder in a class of human pathologies that includes Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. These pathologies are all related by the propensity of their associated protein or polypeptide to form insoluble, β-sheet rich, amyloid fibrils. Despite the wide range of amino acid sequence in the aggregation prone polypeptides associated with these diseases, the resulting amyloids display strikingly similar physical structure, an observation which suggests a physical basis for amyloid fibril formation. Thioflavin T fluorescence reports β-sheet fibril content while dynamic light scattering measures particle size distributions. The combined techniques allow elucidation of complex aggregation kinetics and are used to reveal multiple stages of amyloid fibril formation.

  17. The Molecular Basis of Double-Strand DNA Break Repair: The Critical Structure of the RAD52/RPA Complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Dobra

    2001-01-01

    .... RAD52 has specific interactions with RAD51, RPA and DNA (1,2,3). The binding of RAD52 to ends of double-strand breaks has been found to be a key initiation step to DNA repair by homologous recombination...

  18. Nephrin regulates lamellipodia formation by assembling a protein complex that includes Ship2, filamin and lamellipodin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Venkatareddy

    Full Text Available Actin dynamics has emerged at the forefront of podocyte biology. Slit diaphragm junctional adhesion protein Nephrin is necessary for development of the podocyte morphology and transduces phosphorylation-dependent signals that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. The present study extends our understanding of Nephrin function by showing in cultured podocytes that Nephrin activation induced actin dynamics is necessary for lamellipodia formation. Upon activation Nephrin recruits and regulates a protein complex that includes Ship2 (SH2 domain containing 5' inositol phosphatase, Filamin and Lamellipodin, proteins important in regulation of actin and focal adhesion dynamics, as well as lamellipodia formation. Using the previously described CD16-Nephrin clustering system, Nephrin ligation or activation resulted in phosphorylation of the actin crosslinking protein Filamin in a p21 activated kinase dependent manner. Nephrin activation in cell culture results in formation of lamellipodia, a process that requires specialized actin dynamics at the leading edge of the cell along with focal adhesion turnover. In the CD16-Nephrin clustering model, Nephrin ligation resulted in abnormal morphology of actin tails in human podocytes when Ship2, Filamin or Lamellipodin were individually knocked down. We also observed decreased lamellipodia formation and cell migration in these knock down cells. These data provide evidence that Nephrin not only initiates actin polymerization but also assembles a protein complex that is necessary to regulate the architecture of the generated actin filament network and focal adhesion dynamics.

  19. FORMATION AND RECONDENSATION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES DURING PROTOSTELLAR LUMINOSITY OUTBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taquet, Vianney; Wirström, Eva S.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    During the formation of stars, the accretion of surrounding material toward the central object is thought to undergo strong luminosity outbursts followed by long periods of relative quiescence, even at the early stages of star formation when the protostar is still embedded in a large envelope. We investigated the gas-phase formation and recondensation of the complex organic molecules (COMs) di-methyl ether and methyl formate, induced by sudden ice evaporation processes occurring during luminosity outbursts of different amplitudes in protostellar envelopes. For this purpose, we updated a gas-phase chemical network forming COMs in which ammonia plays a key role. The model calculations presented here demonstrate that ion–molecule reactions alone could account for the observed presence of di-methyl ether and methyl formate in a large fraction of protostellar cores without recourse to grain-surface chemistry, although they depend on uncertain ice abundances and gas-phase reaction branching ratios. In spite of the short outburst timescales of about 100 years, abundance ratios of the considered species higher than 10% with respect to methanol are predicted during outbursts due to their low binding energies relative to water and methanol which delay their recondensation during cooling. Although the current luminosity of most embedded protostars would be too low to produce complex organics in the hot-core regions that are observable with current sub-millimetric interferometers, previous luminosity outburst events would induce the formation of COMs in extended regions of protostellar envelopes with sizes increasing by up to one order of magnitude

  20. Formation and Recondensation of Complex Organic Molecules during Protostellar Luminosity Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquet, Vianney; Wirström, Eva S.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-04-01

    During the formation of stars, the accretion of surrounding material toward the central object is thought to undergo strong luminosity outbursts followed by long periods of relative quiescence, even at the early stages of star formation when the protostar is still embedded in a large envelope. We investigated the gas-phase formation and recondensation of the complex organic molecules (COMs) di-methyl ether and methyl formate, induced by sudden ice evaporation processes occurring during luminosity outbursts of different amplitudes in protostellar envelopes. For this purpose, we updated a gas-phase chemical network forming COMs in which ammonia plays a key role. The model calculations presented here demonstrate that ion-molecule reactions alone could account for the observed presence of di-methyl ether and methyl formate in a large fraction of protostellar cores without recourse to grain-surface chemistry, although they depend on uncertain ice abundances and gas-phase reaction branching ratios. In spite of the short outburst timescales of about 100 years, abundance ratios of the considered species higher than 10% with respect to methanol are predicted during outbursts due to their low binding energies relative to water and methanol which delay their recondensation during cooling. Although the current luminosity of most embedded protostars would be too low to produce complex organics in the hot-core regions that are observable with current sub-millimetric interferometers, previous luminosity outburst events would induce the formation of COMs in extended regions of protostellar envelopes with sizes increasing by up to one order of magnitude.

  1. FORMATION AND RECONDENSATION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES DURING PROTOSTELLAR LUMINOSITY OUTBURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taquet, Vianney [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Wirström, Eva S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Charnley, Steven B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory and The Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Mailstop 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    During the formation of stars, the accretion of surrounding material toward the central object is thought to undergo strong luminosity outbursts followed by long periods of relative quiescence, even at the early stages of star formation when the protostar is still embedded in a large envelope. We investigated the gas-phase formation and recondensation of the complex organic molecules (COMs) di-methyl ether and methyl formate, induced by sudden ice evaporation processes occurring during luminosity outbursts of different amplitudes in protostellar envelopes. For this purpose, we updated a gas-phase chemical network forming COMs in which ammonia plays a key role. The model calculations presented here demonstrate that ion–molecule reactions alone could account for the observed presence of di-methyl ether and methyl formate in a large fraction of protostellar cores without recourse to grain-surface chemistry, although they depend on uncertain ice abundances and gas-phase reaction branching ratios. In spite of the short outburst timescales of about 100 years, abundance ratios of the considered species higher than 10% with respect to methanol are predicted during outbursts due to their low binding energies relative to water and methanol which delay their recondensation during cooling. Although the current luminosity of most embedded protostars would be too low to produce complex organics in the hot-core regions that are observable with current sub-millimetric interferometers, previous luminosity outburst events would induce the formation of COMs in extended regions of protostellar envelopes with sizes increasing by up to one order of magnitude.

  2. Thermodynamics of formation for the 18-crown-6-triglycine molecular complex in water-dimethylsulfoxide solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usacheva, T. R.; Lan, Pham Thi; Sharnin, V. A.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of a water-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solvent on the formation of a molecular complex of 18-crown-6 (18C6) with triglycine (diglycylglycine, 3Gly) is studied via calorimetric titration. It is found that switching from water to an H2O-DMSO mixture with DMSO mole fraction of 0.30 is accompanied by a monotonic increase in the stability of [3Gly18C6] complex, from log K ∘ = 1.10 to log K ∘ = 2.44, and an increase in the exothermicity of the reaction of its formation, from -5.9 to -16.9 kJ/mol. It is shown that the [3Gly18C6] complex exhibits enthalpy stabilization with negative values of enthalpy and entropy over the investigated range of H2O-DMSO solvents. Analysis of the reagents' solvation characteristics reveals that the increase in the reaction's exothermicity of transfer is due to differences in the solvation of [3Gly18C6] and 18C6 with a small solvation contribution from 3Gly. It is concluded that the change in the Gibbs energy of the reaction 3Glysolv + 18C6solv ↔ [3Gly18C6]solv is due to differences in the change in the solvation state of the complex and the peptide (Δtr G ∘([3Gly18C6])-Δtr G ∘(3Gly)).

  3. Accessibility of tyrosyl residues altered by formation of the histone 2A/2B complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.E.; Ho, Y.S.; DeLange, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The availability of tyrosyl residues to surface iodination was analyzed for histone 2A (H2A), histone 2B (H2B), and the H2A/H2B complex. When H2A is free in solution (200 mM NaCl, pH 7.4) tyrosine-39 and one or both tyrosines-50 and -57 were readily iodinated. Tyrosines-83 and -121 of H2B were iodinated, both when the histone was free in solution and when it was associated with H2A, while tyrosines-37, -40, and -42 of H2B were not iodinated under either condition. When H2A and H2B were associated or covalently cross-linked, all tyrosyl residues of H2A were unavailable for iodination. The authors also found that the iodination of nondenatured H2A and H2B did not inhibit formation of the H2A/H2B complex. These results indicate that the amino-terminal regions of the hydrophobic portions of H2A and H2B undergo significant conformational changes upon formation of the H2A/H2B complex. These conformational shifts occur in the same region of the H2A/H2B complex that contains a contact site between H2A and H2B in the nucleosome, thus indicating an involvement of this region in chromatin assembly

  4. Interdependency of formation and localisation of the Min complex controls symmetric plastid division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Jodi; Møller, Simon G

    2007-10-01

    Plastid division represents a fundamental biological process essential for plant development; however, the molecular basis of symmetric plastid division is unclear. AtMinE1 plays a pivotal role in selection of the plastid division site in concert with AtMinD1. AtMinE1 localises to discrete foci in chloroplasts and interacts with AtMinD1, which shows a similar localisation pattern. Here, we investigate the importance of Min protein complex formation during the chloroplast division process. Dissection of the assembly of the Min protein complex and determination of the interdependency of complex assembly and localisation in planta allow us to present a model of the molecular basis of selection of the division site in plastids. Moreover, functional analysis of AtMinE1 in bacteria demonstrates the level of functional conservation and divergence of the plastidic MinE proteins.

  5. The influence of the formation pitching angle on the area for employing the KM-103 complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulga, A I; Teryanik, V I

    1982-01-01

    Mining sections in which the KM-103 powered complexes are used should be selected and planned on the basis of the actual pitching angle of the formation, and the anticipated vertical and lateral rock displacement in the workings. With the shapes and dimensions characteristic of galley cross-sections which are reinforced by arched 3 and 5-arm supports, and with the anticipated values of rock displacement, a maximum pitching angle exists, above which it is difficult to facilitate the drives of stope face conveyors. For arch-shaped galleys, which are reinforced by an arched 5-arm support, the maximum pitching angle of the formation is greater than in galleys which are reinforced by arched three-arm supports, with equal cross-sections even with large rock displacements. An increase in the cross-section of upwards of 13 square meters does not result in an increase in the maximum pitching angle of the formation due to the extension of the support roof timber. In the trapezoidal workings which are supported by the KPS-3 supports and are worked without employing roof blasting, the maximum pitching angle of the formation is 12 degrees. The thickness of the formation worked must be less than 1.1 meter.

  6. Study of inclusion complex formation between chlorpromazine hydrochloride, as an antiemetic drug, and β-cyclodextrin, using conductometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafati, Amir Abbas; Hamnabard, Nazanin; Ghasemian, Ensieh; Nojini, Zabiolah Bolboli

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of micellization of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPH) as an antiemetic drug and its inclusion complex formation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was studied using conductometric technique. The binding or association constant of the complexation equilibrium is evaluated from conductometric measurements by using a nonlinear regression method. The resulting K values for micellization as well as complexation are analyzed. The experiments were carried out at different temperatures. It has been found that CPH form only the 1:1 complex. The association constant values are used for evaluation of thermodynamic parameters of complexation, such as ΔG complex o , ΔH complex o and ΔS complex o .

  7. Functional cooperation between FACT and MCM is coordinated with cell cycle and differential complex formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chih-Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional cooperation between FACT and the MCM helicase complex constitutes an integral step during DNA replication initiation. However, mode of regulation that underlies the proper functional interaction of FACT and MCM is poorly understood. Methods & Results Here we present evidence indicating that such interaction is coordinated with cell cycle progression and differential complex formation. We first demonstrate the existence of two distinct FACT-MCM subassemblies, FACT-MCM2/4/6/7 and FACT-MCM2/3/4/5. Both complexes possess DNA unwinding activity and are subject to cell cycle-dependent enzymatic regulation. Interestingly, analysis of functional attributes further suggests that they act at distinct, and possibly sequential, steps during origin establishment and replication initiation. Moreover, we show that the phosphorylation profile of the FACT-associated MCM4 undergoes a cell cycle-dependent change, which is directly correlated with the catalytic activity of the FACT-MCM helicase complexes. Finally, at the quaternary structure level, physical interaction between FACT and MCM complexes is generally dependent on persistent cell cycle and further stabilized upon S phase entry. Cessation of mitotic cycle destabilizes the complex formation and likely leads to compromised coordination and activities. Conclusions Together, our results correlate FACT-MCM functionally and temporally with S phase and DNA replication. They further demonstrate that enzymatic activities intrinsically important for DNA replication are tightly controlled at various levels, thereby ensuring proper progression of, as well as exit from, the cell cycle and ultimately euploid gene balance.

  8. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh; Xiang, Wenpei; Wang, Yinna; Zhang, Xiaoying; Billiar, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► cAMP blocks cell death induced by TNF and actinomycin D in cultured hepatocytes. ► cAMP blocks NF-κB activation induced by TNF and actinomycin D. ► cAMP blocks DISC formation following TNF and actinomycin D exposure. ► cAMP blocks TNF signaling at a proximal step. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found that cAMP exerts its affect at the proximal level of TNF signaling by inhibiting the formation of the DISC

  9. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Xiang, Wenpei [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yinna [Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 10051-5A BST 3, 3501 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Zhang, Xiaoying [Department of Medicine/Endocrinology Division, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop St., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Billiar, Timothy R., E-mail: billiartr@upmc.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks cell death induced by TNF and actinomycin D in cultured hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks NF-{kappa}B activation induced by TNF and actinomycin D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks DISC formation following TNF and actinomycin D exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks TNF signaling at a proximal step. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found

  10. Mutation of the mouse Syce1 gene disrupts synapsis and suggests a link between synaptonemal complex structural components and DNA repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Bolcun-Filas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the synaptonemal complex is a structure required to complete crossover recombination. Although suggested by cytological work, in vivo links between the structural proteins of the synaptonemal complex and the proteins of the recombination process have not previously been made. The central element of the synaptonemal complex is traversed by DNA at sites of recombination and presents a logical place to look for interactions between these components. There are four known central element proteins, three of which have previously been mutated. Here, we complete the set by creating a null mutation in the Syce1 gene in mouse. The resulting disruption of synapsis in these animals has allowed us to demonstrate a biochemical interaction between the structural protein SYCE2 and the repair protein RAD51. In normal meiosis, this interaction may be responsible for promoting homologous synapsis from sites of recombination.

  11. Formation constants of lanthanide(III)- aminopolycarboxylate- ATP mixed ligand complexes and their systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Sangeeta; Limaye, S.N.; Saxena, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Formation constants (log Ksub(MAL)sup(MA), log Ksub(ML)sup(M) and log Ksub(ML)sup(ML) of mixed ligand lanthanide(III) complexes of the type [Ln(III).A.ATP[ 2 , where LN(III)=La 3+ , Ce 3+ , Pr 3+ , Nd 3+ , Sm 3+ , Eu 3+ , Gd 3+ , Tb 3+ or Dy 3+ ' A=NTA(nitrilotriacetate) or HEDTA (2-hydroxyethylethylenediamine triacetate) and ATP=adenosine 5'-triphosphate (L), and of the binary [Ln(III).ATP[ and [Ln(III).(ATP) 2 [ complexes have been determined by potentiometric pH titrations using the Irving-Rossotti approach at three temperatures 20, 30 and 40 degC and at a fixed ionic strength, I=0.2 mol dm -3 (NAclO 4 ). The solution stabilities (log Ksub(MAL)sup(MA) values) are influenced by the electrostatic effect involved in ternary complexation and increase with temperature. The enthalpy factor (ΔH) has been found to be small but unfavourable and the entropy factor (ΔS) large and favourable. The log Ksub(MAL)sup(MA) values lie in the order NTA>HEDTA with respect to A and La 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ >Gd 3+ 3+ 3+ with respect to lanthanides. Tetrad effect is present in the formation constant values; its magnitude has been found to lie in the sequence f 7 >f 3 -f 4 ≅ f 10 -f 11 for the Ln(III) ions. Systematics in the formation constant values has been further studied by evaluating changes in the inter-electronic repulsion Racah parameters, extra stabilisation of specific 4f 9 -configurations and nephelauxetic ratio using experimental values of the formation constants. (author). 24 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Runx2 is required for early stages of endochondral bone formation but delays final stages of bone repair in Axin2-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Carpio, Lomeli R.; Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Dudakovic, Amel; Lian, Jane B.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Kakar, Sanjeev; Hsu, Wei; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Runx2 and Axin2 regulate skeletal development. We recently determined that Axin2 and Runx2 molecularly interact in differentiating osteoblasts to regulate intramembranous bone formation, but the relationship between these factors in endochondral bone formation was unresolved. To address this, we examined the effects of Axin2 deficiency on the cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) phenotype of Runx2+/− mice, focusing on skeletal defects attributed to improper endochondral bone formation. Axin2 deficiency unexpectedly exacerbated calvarial components of the CCD phenotype in the Runx2+/− mice; the endocranial layer of the frontal suture, which develops by endochondral bone formation, failed to mineralize in the Axin2−/−:Runx2+/− mice, resulting in a cartilaginous, fibrotic and larger fontanel than observed in Runx2+/− mice. Transcripts associated with cartilage development (e.g., Acan, miR140) were expressed at higher levels, whereas blood vessel morphogenesis transcripts (e.g., Slit2) were suppressed in Axin2−/−:Runx2+/− calvaria. Cartilage maturation was impaired, as primary chondrocytes from double mutant mice demonstrated delayed differentiation and produced less calcified matrix in vitro. The genetic dominance of Runx2 was also reflected during endochondral fracture repair, as both Runx2+/− and double mutant Axin2−/−:Runx2+/− mice had enlarged fracture calluses at early stages of healing. However, by the end stages of fracture healing, double mutant animals diverged from the Runx2+/− mice, showing smaller calluses and increased torsional strength indicative of more rapid end stage bone formation as seen in the Axin2−/− mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate a dominant role for Runx2 in chondrocyte maturation, but implicate Axin2 as an important modulator of the terminal stages of endochondral bone formation. PMID:24973690

  13. Analysis of the distribution of DNA repair patches in the DNA-nuclear matrix complex from human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullenders, L.H.F.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of ultraviolet-induced repair patches along DNA loops attached to the nuclear matrix, was investigated by digestion with DNA-degrading enzymes and neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation. When DNA was gradually removed by DNAase 1, pulse label incorporated by ultraviolet-irradiated cells during 10 min in the presence of hydroxyurea or hydroxyurea/arabinosylcytosine showed similar degradation kinetics as prelabelled DNA. No preferential association of pulse label with the nuclear matrix was observed, neither within 30 min nor 13 h after iiradiation. When the pulse label was incorporated by replicative synthesis under the same conditions, a preferential association of newly-synthesized DNA with the nuclear matrix was observed. Single-strand specific digestion with nuclease S 1 of nuclear lysates from ultraviolet-irradiated cells, pulse labelled in the presence of hydroxyurea/arabinosylcytosine, caused a release of about 70% of the prelabelled DNA and 90% of the pulse-labelled DNA from the rapidly sedimenting material in sucrose gradients. The results suggest no specific involvement of the nuclear matrix in repair synthesis, a random distribution of repair patches along the DNA loops, and simultaneously multiple incision events per DNA loop. (Auth.)

  14. Analysis of the distribution of DNA repair patches in the DNA-nuclear matrix complex from human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullenders, L.H.F. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Lab. voor Stralengenetica en Chemische Mutagenese); Zeeland, A.A. van; Natarajan, A.T. (Cohen (J.A.) Inst. voor Radiopathologie en Stralenbescherming, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1983-09-09

    The distribution of ultraviolet-induced repair patches along DNA loops attached to the nuclear matrix, was investigated by digestion with DNA-degrading enzymes and neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation. When DNA was gradually removed by DNAase 1, pulse label incorporated by ultraviolet-irradiated cells during 10 min in the presence of hydroxyurea or hydroxyurea/arabinosylcytosine showed similar degradation kinetics as prelabelled DNA. No preferential association of pulse label with the nuclear matrix was observed, neither within 30 min nor 13 h after irradiation. When the pulse label was incorporated by replicative synthesis under the same conditions, a preferential association of newly-synthesized DNA with the nuclear matrix was observed. Single-strand specific digestion with nuclease S/sub 1/ of nuclear lysates from ultraviolet-irradiated cells, pulse labelled in the presence of hydroxyurea/arabinosylcytosine, caused a release of about 70% of the prelabelled DNA and 90% of the pulse-labelled DNA from the rapidly sedimenting material in sucrose gradients. The results suggest no specific involvement of the nuclear matrix in repair synthesis, a random distribution of repair patches along the DNA loops, and simultaneously multiple incision events per DNA loop.

  15. The History and Rate of Star Formation within the G305 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faimali, Alessandro Daniele

    2013-07-01

    Within this thesis, we present an extended multiwavelength analysis of the rich massive Galactic star-forming complex G305. We have focused our attention on studying the both the embedded massive star-forming population within G305, while also identifying the intermediate-, to lowmass content of the region also. Though massive stars play an important role in the shaping and evolution of their host galaxies, the physics of their formation still remains unclear. We have therefore set out to studying the nature of star formation within this complex, and also identify the impact that such a population has on the evolution of G305. We firstly present a Herschel far-infrared study towards G305, utilising PACS 70, 160 micron and SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 micron observations from the Hi-GAL survey of the Galactic plane. The focus of this study is to identify the embedded massive star-forming population within G305, by combining far-infrared data with radio continuum, H2O maser, methanol maser, MIPS, and Red MSX Source survey data available from previous studies. From this sample we identify some 16 candidate associations are identified as embedded massive star-forming regions, and derive a two-selection colour criterion from this sample of log(F70/F500) >= 1 and log(F160/F350) >= 1.6 to identify an additional 31 embedded massive star candidates with no associated star-formation tracers. Using this result, we are able to derive a star formation rate (SFR) of 0.01 - 0.02 Msun/yr. Comparing this resolved star formation rate, to extragalactic star formation rate tracers (based on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation), we find the star formation activity is underestimated by a factor of >=2 in comparison to the SFR derived from the YSO population. By next combining data available from 2MASS and VVV, Spitzer GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL, MSX, and Herschel Hi-GAL, we are able to identify the low-, to intermediate-mass YSOs present within the complex. Employing a series of stringent colour

  16. CARBON DIOXIDE INFLUENCE ON THE THERMAL FORMATION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICE ANALOGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Fray, N.; Bouilloud, M.; Cottin, H. [LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris Est Créteil (UPEC), Université Paris Diderot (UPD), Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Labex ESEP, Paris (France); Duvernay, F.; Chiavassa, T., E-mail: vvinogradoff@mnhn.fr [PIIM, Laboratoire de Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moléculaires, Université Aix-Marseille, UMR CNRS 7345, Marseille (France)

    2015-08-20

    Interstellar ices are submitted to energetic processes (thermal, UV, and cosmic-ray radiations) producing complex organic molecules. Laboratory experiments aim to reproduce the evolution of interstellar ices to better understand the chemical changes leading to the reaction, formation, and desorption of molecules. In this context, the thermal evolution of an interstellar ice analogue composed of water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and formaldehyde is investigated. The ice evolution during the warming has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The formation of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and polymethylenimine (PMI) are observed in the organic refractory residue left after ice sublimation. A better understanding of this result is realized with the study of another ice mixture containing methylenimine (a precursor of HMT) with carbon dioxide and ammonia. It appears that carbamic acid, a reaction product of carbon dioxide and ammonia, plays the role of catalyst, allowing the reactions toward HMT and PMI formation. This is the first time that such complex organic molecules (HMT, PMI) are produced from the warming (without VUV photolysis or irradiation with energetic particles) of abundant molecules observed in interstellar ices (H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}CO). This result strengthens the importance of thermal reactions in the ices’ evolution. HMT and PMI, likely components of interstellar ices, should be searched for in the pristine objects of our solar system, such as comets and carbonaceous chondrites.

  17. CARBON DIOXIDE INFLUENCE ON THE THERMAL FORMATION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICE ANALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Fray, N.; Bouilloud, M.; Cottin, H.; Duvernay, F.; Chiavassa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar ices are submitted to energetic processes (thermal, UV, and cosmic-ray radiations) producing complex organic molecules. Laboratory experiments aim to reproduce the evolution of interstellar ices to better understand the chemical changes leading to the reaction, formation, and desorption of molecules. In this context, the thermal evolution of an interstellar ice analogue composed of water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and formaldehyde is investigated. The ice evolution during the warming has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The formation of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and polymethylenimine (PMI) are observed in the organic refractory residue left after ice sublimation. A better understanding of this result is realized with the study of another ice mixture containing methylenimine (a precursor of HMT) with carbon dioxide and ammonia. It appears that carbamic acid, a reaction product of carbon dioxide and ammonia, plays the role of catalyst, allowing the reactions toward HMT and PMI formation. This is the first time that such complex organic molecules (HMT, PMI) are produced from the warming (without VUV photolysis or irradiation with energetic particles) of abundant molecules observed in interstellar ices (H 2 O, NH 3 , CO 2 , H 2 CO). This result strengthens the importance of thermal reactions in the ices’ evolution. HMT and PMI, likely components of interstellar ices, should be searched for in the pristine objects of our solar system, such as comets and carbonaceous chondrites

  18. Young stellar population and star formation history ofW4 HII region/Cluster Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Neelam

    2018-04-01

    The HII region/cluster complex has been a subject of numerous investigations to study the feedback effect of massive stars on their surroundings. Massive stars not only alter the morphology of the parental molecular clouds, but also influence star formation, circumstellar disks and the mass function of low-mass stars in their vicinity. However, most of the studies of low-mass stellar content of the HII regions are limited only to the nearby regions. We study the star formation in the W4 HII region using deep optical observations obtained with the archival data from Canada - France - Hawaii Telescope, Two-Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, Herschel and Chandra. We investigate the spatial distribution of young stellar objects in the region, their association with the remnant molecular clouds, and search for the clustering to establish the sites of recent star formation. Our analysis suggests that the influence of massive stars on circumstellar disks is significant only to thei! r immediate neighborhood. The spatial correlation of the young stars with the distribution of gas and dust of the complex indicate that the clusters would have formed in a large filamentary cloud. The observing facilities at the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT), providing high-resolution spectral and imaging capabilities, will fulfill the major objectives in the study of HII regions.

  19. Young stellar population and ongoing star formation in the H II complex Sh2-252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Jessy; Pandey, A. K.; Samal, M. R.; Ojha, D. K.; Ogura, K.; Kim, J. S.; Kobayashi, N.; Goyal, A.; Chauhan, N.; Eswaraiah, C.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, an extensive survey of the star-forming complex Sh2-252 has been undertaken with an aim to explore its hidden young stellar population as well as to understand the structure and star formation history for the first time. This complex is composed of five prominent embedded clusters associated with the subregions A, C, E, NGC 2175s and Teu 136. We used Two Micron All Sky Survey-near-infrared and Spitzer-Infrared Array Camera, Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer photometry to identify and classify the young stellar objects (YSOs) by their infrared (IR) excess emission. Using the IR colour-colour criteria, we identified 577 YSOs, of which, 163 are Class I, 400 are Class II and 14 are transition disc YSOs, suggesting a moderately rich number of YSOs in this complex. Spatial distribution of the candidate YSOs shows that they are mostly clustered around the subregions in the western half of the complex, suggesting enhanced star formation activity towards its west. Using the spectral energy distribution and optical colour-magnitude diagram-based age analyses, we derived probable evolutionary status of the subregions of Sh2-252. Our analysis shows that the region A is the youngest (˜0.5 Myr), the regions B, C and E are of similar evolutionary stage (˜1-2 Myr) and the clusters NGC 2175s and Teu 136 are slightly evolved (˜2-3 Myr). Morphology of the region in the 1.1 mm map shows a semicircular shaped molecular shell composed of several clumps and YSOs bordering the western ionization front of Sh2-252. Our analyses suggest that next generation star formation is currently under way along this border and that possibly fragmentation of the matter collected during the expansion of the H II region as one of the major processes is responsible for such stars. We observed the densest concentration of YSOs (mostly Class I, ˜0.5 Myr) at the western outskirts of the complex, within a molecular clump associated with water and methanol masers and we suggest that it

  20. Thermodynamics of the complex formation between thorium(IV) and some polydentate ligands in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Bernado, P.; Cassol, A.; Tomat, G.; Bismondo, A.; Magon, L.

    1983-01-01

    The changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for the formation of thorium(IV)-oxydiacetate, -iminodiacetate, -thiodiacetate, and -succinate complexes have been determined by potentiometric and calorimetric titrations at 25 deg C in aqueous 1 mol dm - 3 sodium perchlorate. All the ligands form 1:1 chelate complexes with the thorium(IV) ion the stability of which is dependent on both the chelate ring dimensions and the nature of the donor group in the chain. The order of the relative stabilities (iminodiacetate > oxydiacetate > thiodiacetate > succinate) is mainly dependent on the reaction enthalpies, since the δS values are close to each other. In the thorium(IV)-oxydiacetate system the maximum number of three ligands for every metal ion was reached. Because of precipitation of solid compounds in the other systems, it was only possible to define complexes with a lower number of co-ordinated ligands: two for succinate and thiodiacetate, and one for iminodiacetate. Owing to the lower stability of the chelate ring of thiodiacetate and succinate complexes and the high basicity of the amino-group of iminodiacetate, these ligands form also unchelated protonated complexes. (author)

  1. Ternary complex formation of lanthanides and radiolanthanides with phosphate and serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, B.; Roesch, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radioyttrium was recently reported to form ternary complexes with phosphate and serum proteins in blood. In the present work it was investigated whether the trivalent radiolanthanides react in a chemically similar way. In systematic binding studies using gel filtration a ternary complex formation between different lanthanides, phosphate and serum proteins could be identified. The tendency to build a ternary compound of the type Ln III - phosphate - serum protein, however, is dependent on the ionic radii of the lanthanides. Whereas the light and transition lanthanides have a strong inclination to build a ternary complex, this tendency is weaker for the heavier ones. Taking into account the high content of phosphate in human blood, the corresponding ternary complexes of radiolanthanides represent an important transport form of these elements in blood. This finding may contribute to an understanding of the nuclear medical observation on the biodistribution of radiolanthanides. The heavy radiolanthanides can be classified as bone seeking metals, whereas the light and transition lanthanide elements accumulate mainly in the liver and the spleen. For the lighter radiolanthanides the corresponding ternary complexes thus represent an important transport form in blood. This physicochemical form of lanthanides mainly results in reticulo endothelial accumulation; on the other hand, the lower tendency of heavier lanthanides leads to preferential skeletal deposition. (orig.)

  2. Influence of structural features of carrageenan on the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volod'ko, A V; Davydova, V N; Glazunov, V P; Likhatskaya, G N; Yermak, I M

    2016-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) of carrageenans (CG)-κ-, κ/β-, λ-and x-CG with chitosan were obtained. The formation of PEC was detected by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and by centrifugation in a Percoll gradient. The influence of the structural peculiarities of CG on its interaction with chitosan was studied. The results of centrifugation showed that x-CG with a high degree of sulphation (SD) was completely bound to chitosan, unlike low SD κ-CG and κ/β-CG. Binding constant values showed there was a high affinity of CG for chitosan. CG with flexible macromolecule conformation and high SD exhibited the greatest binding affinity for chitosan. The full-atomic 3D-structures of the PEC κ-CG: chitosan in solution have been obtained by the experiments in silico for the first time. The amino groups of chitosan make the largest contribution to the energy of the complex formation by means of hydrogen and ionic bonds. The most probable complexes have stoichiometries of 1:1 and 1:1.5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantum-chemical analysis of formation reactions of Со2+ complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor F. Vargalyuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of quantum chemical calculations results (GAMESS, density functional theory, B3LYP method as to coordination compounds of Co2+ions with H2O, NH3, OH–, F–, Cl–, Br–, I–, CN–, Ac–, Ak– generally given by [Co(H2O6–nLn]2+nx, it has been demonstrated that within the selected series of ligands, there is no correlation between the amount of energy of monosubstituted cobalt aqua complexes formation(∆Е and pK1,just like between the effective nuclear charge of the central atom (z*Со and pK1. According to the behavior of ∆Е and z*Со,we identified two groups of ligands. The first group (OH–, F–, Ac–, Ak–, CN–, NH3 demonstrates logical ∆Е decrease caused by the growth of z*Со. On the contrary, the second group (Cl–, Br–, I– demonstrates ∆Е increase caused by the growth of z*Со. This phenomenon is explained by the change in electronegativity and polarizability of donor atoms in groups and periods of the periodic table. It is established that linear correlations given by lgK = A + B·z*Со can be actualized only for complexes having ligands with similar donor atoms. Referring to the literature on stepwise complex formation of hydroxide, amine and chloride cobalt complexes in combination with z*Со calculations results, we determined A and B constants of lgK, z*Со-correlations for the atoms of oxygen (30.2, –17.7; nitrogen (125.4, –69.9 and chlorine (–6.3, 5.8. The existence of the detected correlation series enables us to lean on lgK,z*М–dependence parameters for the fixed donor atom and to determine Kn values for various complexes with complex-based ligands using calculations and z*М data. This applies to complexes having central atoms of the same nature as well as simple monodentate ligands. The mentioned approach was used to calculate the stability constants for acrylate cobalt complexes (lgK1 = 1.2 и lgК2 = 4.3, which are not covered in literature.

  4. Cloud fluid compression and softening in spiral arms and the formation of giant molecular cloud complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    In this, the second paper of a series on the galactodynamics of the cloudy interstellar medium, we consider the response of such a gas to a forcing potential in the tight-winding density wave theory. The cloud fluid is treated in the hydrodynamic limit with an equation of state which softens at high densities. It is shown that in the inner regions of the galaxy, cooling of the cloud fluid in the arms can result in gravitational instability and the formation of large bound complexes of clouds which we identify with the giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Masses dimensions, distributions, and scale heights of the GMCs are predicted by the theory. It is suggested that the interstellar gas density in the disk is regulated by the gravitational instability mechanism in the arms which siphons material into star formation. Implications for the evolution of individual GMCs and for galactic morphology are discussed

  5. High-throughput metagenomic technologies for complex microbial community analysis: open and closed formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili; Yang, Yunfeng; Deng, Ye; Tringe, Susannah G; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2015-01-27

    Understanding the structure, functions, activities and dynamics of microbial communities in natural environments is one of the grand challenges of 21st century science. To address this challenge, over the past decade, numerous technologies have been developed for interrogating microbial communities, of which some are amenable to exploratory work (e.g., high-throughput sequencing and phenotypic screening) and others depend on reference genes or genomes (e.g., phylogenetic and functional gene arrays). Here, we provide a critical review and synthesis of the most commonly applied "open-format" and "closed-format" detection technologies. We discuss their characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages within the context of environmental applications and focus on analysis of complex microbial systems, such as those in soils, in which diversity is high and reference genomes are few. In addition, we discuss crucial issues and considerations associated with applying complementary high-throughput molecular technologies to address important ecological questions. Copyright © 2015 Zhou et al.

  6. Radiation accelerated formation of oxygen and carbon related complexes in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazrak, A.; Magnea, N.; Pautrat, J.L.

    1984-06-01

    During the pulling of silicon monocrystals by the Czochralsky method, oxygen is incorporated into the lattice. It is known from early works that low temperature annealings (400-1000 0 C) make this oxygen to precipitate and a number of different defects to be generated. In order to check whether the fast diffusivity of an oxygen silicon interstitial complex has to be taken in consideration it was interesting to examinate the possible role of radiation damage on the formation of oxygen related defects. Experimental results of an experiment are presented and discussed

  7. Electrochemistry of metal complexes applications from electroplating to oxide layer formation

    CERN Document Server

    Survila, Arvydas

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to sequentially cover all the major stages of electrochemical processes (mass transport, adsorption, charge transfer), with a special emphasis on their deep interrelation. Starting with general considerations on equilibria in solutions and at interfaces as well as on mass transport, the text acquaints readers with the theory and common experimental practice for studying electrochemical reactions of metals complexes. The core part of the book deals with all important aspects of electroplating, including a systematic discussion of co-deposition of metals and formation of alloys.

  8. The formation of super-dislocation/micropipe complexes in 6H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giocondi, J.; Rohrer, G.S.; Skowronski, M. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Balakrishna, V.; Augustine, G.; Hobgood, H.McD.; Hopkins, R.H. [Northrop Grumman Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Atomic force microscope images of surface/micropipe intersections on the (0001) growth surface of a 6H-SiC single crystal grown by the physical vapor transport method indicate that micropipes are associated with super-dislocations and that micron-scale deposits of a heterogeneous phase are frequently found in the vicinity of the defect. Based on our observations, we propose a model for the formation of super-dislocation/micropipe complexes that involves the coalescence of unit screw dislocations. The unit dislocations are forced together as large steps grow around heterogeneous material on the surface. (orig.) 5 refs.

  9. A Solution Study of Complex Formation of Some Diamines with Lanthanones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Vora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the metal ligand equilibrium in aqueous solution, the well known Irving-Rossotti titration method was used. The temperature selected is 30±0.10C at ionic strength 0.2 M (NaClO4 which was maintained constant through out the work. The binary metal complex (ML2 formation was studied. The metals selected are Sm3+, Gd3+, Dy3+ and Yb3+. The diamine ligands taken are ethylenediamine, 1,2 diamino propane, 1,3 diamino propane, N-N diethyl ethylenediamine and N-N -dimethyl ethylenediamine. Factors that affected the stability of the complexes are size and ionic potential of lanthanone ions, basicity of ligands, ring size and steric effect of ligands.

  10. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals

  11. CRISPR Technology Reveals RAD(51)-ical Mechanisms of Repair in Roundworms: An Educational Primer for Use with "Promotion of Homologous Recombination by SWS-1 in Complex with RAD-51 Paralogs in Caenorhabditis elegans".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Carolyn A; Andrews, Nicolas P; Sloat, Solomon A; Checchi, Paula M

    2016-11-01

    The mechanisms cells use to maintain genetic fidelity via DNA repair and the accuracy of these processes have garnered interest from scientists engaged in basic research to clinicians seeking improved treatment for cancer patients. Despite the continued advances, many details of DNA repair are still incompletely understood. In addition, the inherent complexity of DNA repair processes, even at the most fundamental level, makes it a challenging topic. This primer is meant to assist both educators and students in using a recent paper, "Promotion of homologous recombination by SWS-1 in complex with RAD-51 paralogs in Caenorhabditis elegans," to understand mechanisms of DNA repair. The goals of this primer are to highlight and clarify several key techniques utilized, with special emphasis on the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats technique and the ways in which it has revolutionized genetics research, as well as to provide questions for deeper in-class discussion. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Formation of stable nanoparticles via electrostatic complexation between sodium caseinate and gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Flanagan, John; Singh, Harjinder

    2006-06-05

    The formation of electrostatic complexes between sodium caseinate and gum arabic (GA) was studied as a function of pH (2.0-7.0), using slow acidification in situ with glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) or titration with HCl. The colloidal behavior of the complexes under specific conditions was investigated using absorbance measurements (at 515 or 810 nm) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). In contrast to the sudden increase in absorbance and subsequent precipitation of sodium caseinate solutions at pH sodium caseinate and GA increased to a level that was dependent on GA concentration at pH 5.4 (pH(c)). The absorbance values remained constant with further decreases in pH until a sudden increase in absorbance was observed (at pH(phi)). The pH(phi) was also dependent upon the GA concentration. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data showed that the sizes of the particles formed by the complexation of sodium caseinate and GA between pH(c) and pH(phi) were between 100 and 150 nm and these nanoparticles were visualized using negative staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Below pH(phi), the nanoparticles associated to form larger particles, causing phase separation. zeta-Potential measurements of the nanoparticles and chemical analysis after phase separation showed that phase separation was a consequence of charge neutralization. The formation of complexes between sodium caseinate and GA was inhibited at high ionic strength (>50 mM NaCl). It is postulated that the structure of the nanoparticles comprises an aggregated caseinate core, protected from further aggregation by steric repulsion of one, or more, electrostatically attached GA molecules. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Radiation increases the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazawa, Masaharu; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Saotome-Nakamura, Ai; Obara, Chizuka; Yasuda, Takeshi; Gotoh, Takaya; Tanaka, Izumi; Yakumaru, Haruko; Ishihara, Hiroshi; Tajima, Katsushi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation increases cellular uptake of exosomes. • Radiation induces colocalization of CD29 and CD81. • Exosomes selectively bind the CD29/CD81 complex. • Radiation increases the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation. - Abstract: Exosomes mediate intercellular communication, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or their secreted exosomes affect a number of pathophysiologic states. Clinical applications of MSC and exosomes are increasingly anticipated. Radiation therapy is the main therapeutic tool for a number of various conditions. The cellular uptake mechanisms of exosomes and the effects of radiation on exosome–cell interactions are crucial, but they are not well understood. Here we examined the basic mechanisms and effects of radiation on exosome uptake processes in MSC. Radiation increased the cellular uptake of exosomes. Radiation markedly enhanced the initial cellular attachment to exosomes and induced the colocalization of integrin CD29 and tetraspanin CD81 on the cell surface without affecting their expression levels. Exosomes dominantly bound to the CD29/CD81 complex. Knockdown of CD29 completely inhibited the radiation-induced uptake, and additional or single knockdown of CD81 inhibited basal uptake as well as the increase in radiation-induced uptake. We also examined possible exosome uptake processes affected by radiation. Radiation-induced changes did not involve dynamin2, reactive oxygen species, or their evoked p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent endocytic or pinocytic pathways. Radiation increased the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation. These findings provide essential basic insights for potential therapeutic applications of exosomes or MSC in combination with radiation

  14. Clinical and functional outcome of open primary repair of triangular fibrocartilage complex tears associated with distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johandi, Faisal; Sechachalam, Sreedharan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the clinical and functional outcome of open primary repair of acute TFCC tears in distal radius fracture, when there is gross intraoperative distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability after fixation of the distal radius, in the absence of an ulnar styloid fracture or when the ulnar fracture fragment is too small to be fixed. A retrospective review of our institution's distal radius fracture database over a 4-year period (January 2010 to December 2013). A total of 12 (1.38%) out of 3379 patients had an open TFCC repair in the same setting as fixation of distal radius. Assessment of outcome involved the analysis of objective and subjective clinical and functional outcomes. All patient regained Activities of Daily Living (ADL) independence; eleven out of 12 patients (91.7%) returned to pre-injury function and 8 out of 11 patients (72.7%) returned to their jobs. DRUJ stability was preserved in 10 patients (83.3%) with 10 patients (83.3%) having grip strength of at least 50%, compared to the uninjured hand, and 7 (58.3%) with grip strength of more than or equal to 75%. Complications of surgery identified can be classified into 4 broad categories: infection, neurological complications, persistent DRUJ instability and prolonged pain. The authors believe a primary open repair of the TFCC should be considered when patients present with instability during intra-operative DRUJ ballottement test after distal radius fixation, in the absence of an ulnar styloid fracture or when the ulnar fracture fragment is too small to be fixed.

  15. Zeaxanthin Radical Cation Formation in Minor Light-Harvesting Complexes of Higher Plant Antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenson, Thomas H.; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Zigmantas, Donatas; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Li, Zhirong; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-01-31

    Previous work on intact thylakoid membranes showed that transient formation of a zeaxanthin radical cation was correlated with regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting via energy-dependent quenching. A molecular mechanism for such quenching was proposed to involve charge transfer within a chlorophyll-zeaxanthin heterodimer. Using near infrared (880-1100 nm) transient absorption spectroscopy, we demonstrate that carotenoid (mainly zeaxanthin) radical cation generation occurs solely in isolated minor light-harvesting complexes that bind zeaxanthin, consistent with the engagement of charge transfer quenching therein. We estimated that less than 0.5percent of the isolated minor complexes undergo charge transfer quenching in vitro, whereas the fraction of minor complexes estimated to be engaged in charge transfer quenching in isolated thylakoids was more than 80 times higher. We conclude that minor complexes which bind zeaxanthin are sites of charge transfer quenching in vivo and that they can assume Non-quenching and Quenching conformations, the equilibrium LHC(N)<--> LHC(Q) of which is modulated by the transthylakoid pH gradient, the PsbS protein, and protein-protein interactions.

  16. Formation of protein-birnessite complex: XRD, FTIR, and AFM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidja, A; Liu, C; Huang, P M

    2002-07-01

    Limited information is available on formation chemistry of enzyme-Mn oxide complexes. Adsorption isotherm of protein molecules (tyrosinase) on birnessite (delta-MnO(2)) at pH 6.0 and room temperature (23 degrees C) was of H type, indicating a very high affinity of the enzyme protein molecules to the birnessite mineral surfaces. After thorough washing of the protein-mineral complex with deionized-distilled water, up to 89% of adsorbed protein molecules remained bound to the mineral surfaces. When a high amount of the protein was immobilized, the X-ray diffractogram shows a significant decrease in the intensity of characteristic d-spacings of birnessite. No shift to higher values of the d-spacings of protein-birnessite complex was observed, indicating that the enzyme molecules were not intercalated in the mineral structure but immobilized at the external surfaces and the edges of the mineral oxide. By comparison to the free enzyme, infrared absorption spectra of the protein-birnessite complexes show a shift by up to 11 cm(-1) to lower frequencies in the absorption bands characteristic of amide I and II modes of the polypeptides chains. The mineral surfaces exerted some strain on the protein structure, resulting in an alteration of the protein molecular conformation after binding to the mineral colloid surfaces. In the free state, the globular protein molecules had a spheroid shape with an average cross-sectional diameter of 70+/-6 nm. The unfolding and flattening of the protein molecules after immobilization is clearly shown in atomic force micrographs. Compared to the tyrosinase-birnessite complex, similar FTIR spectra and atomic force micrographs were observed for the pure protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), after immobilization on birnessite. The information obtained in this study is of fundamental significance for understanding birnessite as an adsorbent of biopolymers and the catalytic role of the enzyme-birnessite complex.

  17. Hormad1 mutation disrupts synaptonemal complex formation, recombination, and chromosome segregation in mammalian meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyun Shin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is unique to germ cells and essential for reproduction. During the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes pair, recombine, and form chiasmata. The homologues connect via axial elements and numerous transverse filaments to form the synaptonemal complex. The synaptonemal complex is a critical component for chromosome pairing, segregation, and recombination. We previously identified a novel germ cell-specific HORMA domain encoding gene, Hormad1, a member of the synaptonemal complex and a mammalian counterpart to the yeast meiotic HORMA domain protein Hop1. Hormad1 is essential for mammalian gametogenesis as knockout male and female mice are infertile. Hormad1 deficient (Hormad1(-/ (- testes exhibit meiotic arrest in the early pachytene stage, and synaptonemal complexes cannot be visualized by electron microscopy. Hormad1 deficiency does not affect localization of other synaptonemal complex proteins, SYCP2 and SYCP3, but disrupts homologous chromosome pairing. Double stranded break formation and early recombination events are disrupted in Hormad1(-/ (- testes and ovaries as shown by the drastic decrease in the γH2AX, DMC1, RAD51, and RPA foci. HORMAD1 co-localizes with γH2AX to the sex body during pachytene. BRCA1, ATR, and γH2AX co-localize to the sex body and participate in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing. Hormad1 deficiency abolishes γH2AX, ATR, and BRCA1 localization to the sex chromosomes and causes transcriptional de-repression on the X chromosome. Unlike testes, Hormad1(-/ (- ovaries have seemingly normal ovarian folliculogenesis after puberty. However, embryos generated from Hormad1(-/ (- oocytes are hyper- and hypodiploid at the 2 cell and 8 cell stage, and they arrest at the blastocyst stage. HORMAD1 is therefore a critical component of the synaptonemal complex that affects synapsis, recombination, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing.

  18. The Possibility of Ce3+ and Mn2+ Complex Ions Formation With Iodine Species in a Dushman Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurie Ungureanu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents investigations into possible effects of Ce3+ and Mn2+ on the reduction of UV-spectral signal for I3- observed e.g. in the Dushman reaction. The potential of the metal ions to form complexes with iodine-containing species was analysed. It was shown that no complex ions are formed between Ce3+ and Mn2+ metals ions with IO3-, I-, I2 species. Only the formation of a very weak CeI32+ complex ion was found to occur. An effect of a complex formation on the studied systems could be excluded.

  19. Study of the formation of complexes of nitrosyl-rhutenium nitrates with thiourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floh, B.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the treatment of spent uranium fuel is presented, based on the Purex process using thiourea to increase the ruthenium decontamination factor. Thiourea exhibits a strong tendency for the formation of coordination compounds in acidic media. This tendency serves as a basis to transform nitrosyl-ruthenium species into Ru/SC(NH)(NH 2 )/ 2+ and Ru/SC(NH)(NH 2 )/ 3 complexes which are unextractable by TBP-varsol. The best conditions for the ruthenium-thiourea complex formation were found to be: thiourea-ruthenium ratio (mass/mass) close to 42, at 75 0 C, 30 minutes reaction time and aging period of 60 minutes. The ruthenium decontamination factor for a single uranium extraction are ca. 80-100, not interfering with extraction of actinides. These values are rather high in comparison to those obtained using the conventional Purex process (e.g. F.D. sub(Ru)=10). For this reason, the method developed here is suitable for the treatment of spent uranium fuels. Thiourea (100 g/l) scrubbing experiments of ruthenium, partially co-extracted with actinides, confirmed the possibility of its removal from the extract. With this procedure a decontamination greater than 83,5% for ruthenium as fission product is obtained in two stages [pt

  20. Thermodynamics of HEDPA protonation in different media and complex formation with Mg2+ and Ca2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foti, Claudia; Giuffrè, Ottavia; Sammartano, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Acid–base properties of etidronic acid in different ionic media and at different ionic strengths. • Complex formation of etidronate with Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . • Dependence on ionic strength analysed by a Debye–Hückel type equation and the SIT approach. • Suggested protonation constants calculated at I = 0.1 mol · L −1 and t = 25 °C, in different ionic media. -- Abstract: Acid–base properties of etidronic acid [(1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diyil)bis(phosphonic acid), HEDPA] in different ionic media and at different ionic strengths (NaCl, KCl: I ⩽ 2 mol · L −1 ; (C 2 H 5 ) 4 NI: I ⩽ 1 mol · L −1 ) were studied at t = 25 °C, determining, by potentiometric and calorimetric techniques, protonation constants and enthalpy changes. The differences in the protonation constants in the different supporting electrolytes were also interpreted in terms of weak complex formation with M i L (with i = 1, 2), MLH j (with j = 1, 2, 3) and M 2 LH species (with L = HEDPA; M = Na + , K + ). The formation constants for the species of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , were determined by potentiometric titrations at different ionic strengths (0.1 ⩽ I/mol · L −1 ⩽ 1) in NaCl at t = 25 °C. The stability of these species is fairly high, as an example, at I = 0.1 mol · L −1 and t = 25 °C, for ML species, log β = 6.52 and 6.86, for Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , respectively, obtained by considering simultaneously HEDPA–Na + interactions. The dependence on ionic strength was analysed by a Debye–Hückel type equation and the SIT (Specific ion Interaction Theory) approach for protonation thermodynamic parameters and by a Debye–Hückel type equation for Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ complex formation. The sequestering ability of HEDPA toward Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ was also analysed. A comparison with literature data is given

  1. Discovery of Multiseeded Multimode Formation of Embedded Clusters in the Rosette Molecular Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Zeng; Smith, Michael D.

    2005-02-01

    An investigation based on data from the spatially complete Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) reveals that a remarkable burst of clustered star formation is taking place throughout the southeast quadrant of the Rosette Molecular Cloud. Compact clusters are forming in a multiseeded mode, in parallel and at various places. In addition, sparse aggregates of embedded young stars are extensively distributed. In this study we report the primary results and implications for high-mass and clustered star formation in giant molecular clouds. In particular, we incorporate for the first time the birth of medium- to low-mass stars into the scenario of sequential formation of OB clusters. Following the emergence of the young OB cluster NGC 2244, a variety of manifestations of forming clusters of medium to high mass appears in the vicinity of the swept-up layer of the H II region as well as farther into the molecular cloud. The embedded clusters appear to form in a structured manner, which suggests they follow tracks laid out by the decay of macroturbulence. We address the possible origins of the turbulence. This leads us to propose a tree model to interpret the neat spatial distribution of clusters within a large section of the Rosette complex. Prominent new-generation OB clusters are identified at the root of the tree pattern.

  2. Effect of fat type in baked bread on amylose-lipid complex formation and glycaemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    The formation of amylose-lipid complexes (ALC) had been associated with reduced starch digestibility. A few studies have directly characterised the extent of ALC formation with glycaemic response. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of using fats with varying degree of saturation and chain length on ALC formation as well as glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of bread. Healthy men consumed five test breads in a random order: control bread without any added fats (CTR) and breads baked with butter (BTR), coconut oil (COC), grapeseed oil (GRP) or olive oil (OLV). There was a significant difference in glycaemic response between the different test breads (P=0·002), primarily due to COC having a lower response than CTR (P=0·016), but no significant differences between fat types were observed. Insulinaemic response was not altered by the addition of fats/oils. Although BTR was more insulinotropic than GRP (Pfats/oils, with coconut oil showing the greatest attenuation of glycaemic response.

  3. Remarkable fluorescence enhancement versus complex formation of cationic porphyrins on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Aly, Shawkat Mohammede; Eita, Mohamed Samir; Khan, Jafar Iqbal; Alarousu, Erkki; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2014-01-01

    the first experimental measurements demonstrating a clear transition from pronounced fluorescence enhancement to charge transfer (CT) complex formation by simply changing the nature and location of the positive charge of the meso substituent of the cationic

  4. Neckteeth formation in two species of the Daphnia curvirostris complex (Crustacea: Cladocera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Jan JURAČKA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cladocerans of the genus Daphnia show different morphological adaptations against invertebrate predation. Among those, the formation of neckteeth has attracted substantial attention. Morphotypes exhibiting neckteeth better resist predation from larvae of phantom midges Chaoborus (Diptera. These morphological structures are known from several species of the Daphnia longispina and D. pulex complexes; recently they have also been reported in the D. curvirostris complex, within which they are well documented from the Far East species D. sinevi and from Central European D. hrbaceki. Much scarcer are indications of the formation of these structures in the widespread species D. curvirostris. Careful inspection of samples from pools with Chaoborus larvae nevertheless revealed that a small necktooth in the first few instars of D. curvirostris is not uncommon, but probably has been mostly overlooked in the past. Occasionally, even adult D. curvirostris males may carry this feature. We provide documentation, particularly by scanning electron micrographs, of neckteeth in field-collected D. curvirostris, and in juvenile individuals of its sister species D. hrbaceki. In addition, we tested the response of three clones each of D. curvirostris and D. hrbaceki to Chaoborus kairomones in laboratory experiments. Two clones of the former species and all three of the latter responded to this predator cue with neckteeth formation. First-instar juveniles of D. hrbaceki also occasionally carried neckteeth in control treatments without Chaoborus kairomones, but second and third instars did not. We also observed strong interclonal variation in neonate length in the presence of kairomones in this species. We provide a summary table listing all Daphnia species presently known to exhibit neckteeth, and propose that the ability to form these structures may be more widespread among common Daphnia species than previously assumed.

  5. Papillae formation on trichome cell walls requires the function of the mediator complex subunit Med25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornero, Christy; Suo, Bangxia; Zahde, Mais; Juveland, Katelyn; Kirik, Viktor

    2017-11-01

    Glassy Hair 1 (GLH1) gene that promotes papillae formation on trichome cell walls was identified as a subunit of the transcriptional mediator complex MED25. The MED25 gene is shown to be expressed in trichomes. The expression of the trichome development marker genes GLABRA2 (GL2) and Ethylene Receptor2 (ETR2) is not affected in the glh1 mutant. Presented data suggest that Arabidopsis MED25 mediator component is likely involved in the transcription of genes promoting papillae deposition in trichomes. The plant cell wall plays an important role in communication, defense, organization and support. The importance of each of these functions varies by cell type. Specialized cells, such as Arabidopsis trichomes, exhibit distinct cell wall characteristics including papillae. To better understand the molecular processes important for papillae deposition on the cell wall surface, we identified the GLASSY HAIR 1 (GLH1) gene, which is necessary for papillae formation. We found that a splice-site mutation in the component of the transcriptional mediator complex MED25 gene is responsible for the near papillae-less phenotype of the glh1 mutant. The MED25 gene is expressed in trichomes. Reporters for trichome developmental marker genes GLABRA2 (GL2) and Ethylene Receptor2 (ETR2) were not affected in the glh1 mutant. Collectively, the presented results show that MED25 is necessary for papillae formation on the cell wall surface of leaf trichomes and suggest that the Arabidopsis MED25 mediator component is likely involved in the transcription of a subset of genes that promote papillae deposition in trichomes.

  6. Studies on chalcone derivatives: Complex formation, thermal behavior, stability constant and antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Yusif S.; Gaber, M.

    2015-02-01

    The chalcone 3-[4‧-dimethylaminophenyl]-1-(2-pyridyl) prop-2-en-1-one (DMAPP) and 3-(4‧-diethylaminophenyl)-1-(2-pyridinyl) prop-2-en-1-one abbreviated as DEAPP have been synthesized and characterized with IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques as described previously (El-Daly et al., 2008; Gaber et al., 2009; El-Sayed, 2013). By using UV visible spectroscopy method the mole fraction ratio for copper with DMAPP and DEAPP complexes were determined and it was found to be 1:1. The stability constants of this complex have been determined by Job's method. The stability constant (Kf) of copper with DMAPP and DEAPP complexes in universal buffer pH = 3.2 was determined to be 9.9 × 104 and 5.2 × 104 respectively. The effect of Cu(II) ion on the emission spectrum of the free chalcone is also assigned. Adherence to Beer's law and Ringbom optimum concentration ranges are determined. The thermal decomposition of the metal complexes is studied by TGA technique. The kinetic parameters like activation energy, pre-exponential factor and entropy of activation are estimated. The structure of complexes was energetically optimized through molecular mechanics applying MM+ force field coupled with molecular dynamics simulation. The bond lengths and bond angles have been calculated to confirm the geometry of the ligands and their Cu(II) complexes. The mode of interaction of the chalcone to copper nanoparticles was studied. The apparent association constants of the colloidal copper nanoparticles:chalcone complexes in solution were evaluated using the spectral method and compared with the formation constant of the Cu(II) chalcone complexes. Antioxidant activity of these chalcones was evaluated by using 1,1‧-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPHrad) radicals scavenging method, which showed that the antioxidant activity of DMAPP has higher value than the DEAPP. Semi-empirical study results showed that DMAPP have higher dipole moment than DEAPP [1].

  7. Cytochrome P-450 complex formation in rat liver by the antibiotic tiamulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkamp, R F; Nijmeijer, S M; van Miert, A S

    1996-01-01

    Tiamulin is a semisynthetic diterpene antibiotic frequently used in farm animals. The drug has been shown to produce clinically important--often lethal--interactions with other compounds. It has been suggested that this is caused by a selective inhibition of oxidative drug metabolism via the formation of a cytochrome P-450 metabolic intermediate complex. In the present study, rats were treated orally for 6 days with tiamulin at two different doses: 40 and 226 mg/kg of body weight. For comparison, another group received 300 mg of triacetyloleandomycin (TAO) per kg, which is equivalent to the 226-mg/kg tiamulin group. Subsequently, microsomal P-450 contents, P-450 enzyme activities, metabolic intermediate complex spectra, and P-450 apoprotein concentrations were assessed. In addition, effects on individual microsomal P-450 activities were studied in control microsomes at different tiamulin and substrate concentrations. In the rats treated with tiamulin, a dose-dependent complex formation as evidenced by its absorption spectrum and an increase in cytochrome P-4503A1/2 contents as assessed by Western blotting (immunoblotting) were found. The effects were comparable to those of TAO. Tiamulin induced microsomal P-450 content, testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation rate, erythromycin N-demethylation rate, and the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. Other activities were not affected or decreased. When tiamulin was added to microsomes of control rats, the testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation rate and the erythromycin N-demethylation were strongly inhibited. It is concluded that tiamulin is a potent and selective inducer-inhibitor of cytochrome P-450. Though not belonging to the macrolides, the compound produces an effect on P-450 similar to those of TAO and related compounds.

  8. Formation and Atmosphere of Complex Organic Molecules of the HH 212 Protostellar Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hirano, Naomi; Shang, Hsien [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Zhang, Qizhou, E-mail: cflee@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    HH 212 is a nearby (400 pc) Class 0 protostellar system recently found to host a “hamburger”-shaped dusty disk with a radius of ∼60 au, deeply embedded in an infalling-rotating flattened envelope. We have spatially resolved this envelope-disk system with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at up to ∼16 au (0.″04) resolution. The envelope is detected in HCO{sup +} J = 4–3 down to the dusty disk. Complex organic molecules (COMs) and doubly deuterated formaldehyde (D{sub 2}CO) are detected above and below the dusty disk within ∼40 au of the central protostar. The COMs are methanol (CH{sub 3}OH), deuterated methanol (CH{sub 2}DOH), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}SH), and formamide (NH{sub 2}CHO, a prebiotic precursor). We have modeled the gas kinematics in HCO{sup +} and COMs and found a centrifugal barrier (CB) at a radius of ∼44 au, within which a Keplerian rotating disk is formed. This indicates that HCO{sup +} traces the infalling-rotating envelope down to the CB and COMs trace the atmosphere of a Keplerian rotating disk within the CB. The COMs are spatially resolved for the first time, both radially and vertically, in the atmosphere of a disk in the earliest, Class 0 phase of star formation. Our spatially resolved observations of COMs favor their formation in the disk rather than a rapidly infalling (warm) inner envelope. The abundances and spatial distributions of the COMs provide strong constraints on models of their formation and transport in low-mass star formation.

  9. Voltammetric investigation of avidin-biotin complex formation using an electroactive bisbiotinyl compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Shirotori, Tatsuya; Hirabayashi, George; Kamiya, Naoto; Kuramitz, Hideki; Tanaka, Shunitz

    2004-01-01

    Formation of avidin-biotin complex was investigated using bisbiotinyl thionine (BBT) by means of voltammetric techniques. Thionine is an electroactive compound and has two amino groups that are necessary for the reaction with a biotinylation reagent. The biotinylation of thionine produces a new reagent with two biotin moieties at each end of thionine. Three BBTs of different lengths of the spacer that connects the biotin moiety to the thionine moiety were prepared. The avidin-biotin binding assay was achieved by measuring the electrode response of the thionine moiety in BBT. The binding affinity and the conformation of complex, which depended on the length of spacer, are discussed. BBT in which the spacer is shortest (BBT-S, distance between carbonyl group of the two biotin moieties: 11 A) binds with only one avidin molecule. BBT with medium length of spacer (BBT-M, 28.8 A) forms the complex with two avidin molecules. BBT with the longest spacer (BBT-L, 46.6 A) allows binding with two avidin molecules as well as intramolecular binding within one avidin molecule. The affinity constants of BBT-S, BBT-M and BBT-L for avidin were estimated to be 7.0 x 10 12 M -1 , 3.2 x 10 12 M -1 and 4.0 x 10 12 M -1 , respectively

  10. Substrate-Na{sup +} complex formation: Coupling mechanism for {gamma}-aminobutyrate symporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallo, Anna; Simon, Agnes [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Bencsura, Akos [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Structural Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Heja, Laszlo [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Kardos, Julianna, E-mail: jkardos@chemres.hu [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary)

    2009-07-24

    Crystal structures of transmembrane transport proteins belonging to the important families of neurotransmitter-sodium symporters reveal how they transport neurotransmitters across membranes. Substrate-induced structural conformations of gated neurotransmitter-sodium symporters have been in the focus of research, however, a key question concerning the mechanism of Na{sup +} ion coupling remained unanswered. Homology models of human glial transporter subtypes of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter {gamma}-aminobutyric acid were built. In accordance with selectivity data for subtype 2 vs. 3, docking and molecular dynamics calculations suggest similar orthosteric substrate (inhibitor) conformations and binding crevices but distinguishable allosteric Zn{sup 2+} ion binding motifs. Considering the occluded conformational states of glial human {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transporter subtypes, we found major semi-extended and minor ring-like conformations of zwitterionic {gamma}-aminobutyric acid in complex with Na{sup +} ion. The existence of the minor ring-like conformation of {gamma}-aminobutyric acid in complex with Na{sup +} ion may be attributed to the strengthening of the intramolecular H-bond by the electrostatic effect of Na{sup +} ion. Coupling substrate uptake into cells with the thermodynamically favorable Na{sup +} ion movement through substrate-Na{sup +} ion complex formation may be a mechanistic principle featuring transmembrane neurotransmitter-sodium symporter proteins.

  11. Incorporation of polyoxotungstate complexes in silica spheres and in situ formation of tungsten trioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Haimei; Li, Wen; Bi, Lihua; Wang, Dejun; Wu, Lixin

    2010-09-21

    In this paper, we demonstrated a new convenient route for in situ fabrication of well separated small sized WO(3) nanoparticles in silica spheres, through a predeposition of surfactant encapsulated polyoxotungates as tungsten source, and followed by a calcination process. In a typical procedure, selected polyoxotungates with different charges were enwrapped with dioctadecyldimethylammonium cations through electrostatic interaction. Elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and spectral characterization confirmed the formation of prepared complexes with the anticipated chemical structure. The complexes were then phase-transferred into aqueous solution that predissolved surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and finally incorporated into silica spheres through a joint sol-gel reaction with tetraethyl orthosilicate in a well dispersed state under the protection of organic layer for polyoxotungates from the alkaline reaction condition. Transmission electron microscopic images illustrated the well dispersed WO(3) nanoparticles in the size range of ca. 2.2 nm in the silica spheres after the calcination at 465 °C. The sizes of both the silica spheres and WO(3) nanoparticles could be adjusted independently through changing the doping content to a large extent. Meanwhile, the doped polyoxotungate complexes acted as the template for the mesoporous structure in silica spheres after the calcination. Along with the increase of doping content and surfactant, the mesopore size changed little (2.0-2.9 nm), but the specific surface areas increased quite a lot. Importantly, the WO(3)-nanoparticle-doped silica spheres displayed an interesting photovoltaic property, which is favorable for the funtionalization of these nanomaterials.

  12. Colorimetric method for enzymatic screening assay of ATP using Fe(III)-xylenol orange complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Akihiko; Yamada, Yasuko; Kamidate, Tamio

    2008-11-01

    In hygiene management, recently there has been a significant need for screening methods for microbial contamination by visual observation or with commonly used colorimetric apparatus. The amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can serve as the index of a microorganism. This paper describes the development of a colorimetric method for the assay of ATP, using enzymatic cycling and Fe(III)-xylenol orange (XO) complex formation. The color characteristics of the Fe(III)-XO complexes, which show a distinct color change from yellow to purple, assist the visual observation in screening work. In this method, a trace amount of ATP was converted to pyruvate, which was further amplified exponentially with coupled enzymatic reactions. Eventually, pyruvate was converted to the Fe(III)-XO complexes through pyruvate oxidase reaction and Fe(II) oxidation. As the assay result, yellow or purple color was observed: A yellow color indicates that the ATP concentration is lower than the criterion of the test, and a purple color indicates that the ATP concentration is higher than the criterion. The method was applied to the assay of ATP extracted from Escherichia coli cells added to cow milk.

  13. A Natural Mutation Involving both Pathogenicity and Perithecium Formation in the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhisha Suga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex or FGSC are the primary pathogens causing Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley worldwide. A natural pathogenicity mutant (strain 0225022 was found in a sample of the Fg complex collected in Japan. The mutant strain did not induce symptoms in wheat spikes beyond the point of inoculation, and did not form perithecia. No segregation of phenotypic deficiencies occurred in the progenies of a cross between the mutant and a fully pathogenic wild-type strain, which suggested that a single genetic locus controlled both traits. The locus was mapped to chromosome 2 by using sequence-tagged markers; and a deletion of ∼3 kb was detected in the mapped region of the mutant strain. The wild-type strain contains the FGSG_02810 gene, encoding a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor protein, in this region. The contribution of FGSG_02810 to pathogenicity and perithecium formation was confirmed by complementation in the mutant strain using gene transfer, and by gene disruption in the wild-type strain.

  14. BAG3 regulates formation of the SNARE complex and insulin secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, V; Festa, M; Rosati, A; Hahne, M; Tiberti, C; Capunzo, M; De Laurenzi, V; Turco, M C

    2015-01-01

    Insulin release in response to glucose stimulation requires exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. Glucose stimulation of beta cells leads to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, which acts on the Rho family proteins (Rho, Rac and Cdc42) that direct F-actin remodeling. This process requires docking and fusion of secretory vesicles to the release sites at the plasma membrane and is a complex mechanism that is mediated by SNAREs. This transiently disrupts the F-actin barrier and allows the redistribution of the insulin-containing granules to more peripheral regions of the β cell, hence facilitating insulin secretion. In this manuscript, we show for the first time that BAG3 plays an important role in this process. We show that BAG3 downregulation results in increased insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation and in disruption of the F-actin network. Moreover, we show that BAG3 binds to SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1, two components of the t-SNARE complex preventing the interaction between SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1. Upon glucose stimulation BAG3 is phosphorylated by FAK and dissociates from SNAP-25 allowing the formation of the SNARE complex, destabilization of the F-actin network and insulin release. PMID:25766323

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of tizanidine and orphenadrine via ion pair complex formation using eosin Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eid Manal I

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of two skeletal muscle relaxants namely, tizanidine hydrochloride (I and orphenadrine citrate (II in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the formation of a binary complex between the studied drugs and eosin Y in aqueous buffered medium (pH 3.5. Under the optimum conditions, the binary complex showed absorption maxima at 545 nm for tizanidine and 542 nm for orphenadrine. The calibration plots were rectilinear over concentration range of 0.5-8 μg/mL and 1-12 μg/mL with limits of detection of 0.1 μg/mL and 0.3 μg/mL for tizanidine and orphenadrine respectively. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the complex were studied and optimized. The method was successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in their dosage forms; and to the content uniformity test of tizanidine in tablets.

  16. Complex formation of uranium(VI) with fructose and glucose phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koban, A.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.; Fanghaenel, T.

    2002-01-01

    scale, we obtain: log [UO 2 (lig) x (2-y)+ ]/ [UO 2 2+ ] = x log [lig(noncomplexed)] - y log [H + ] + log K. From this we conclude that the 1:1 uranyl sugar phosphate species UO 2 (ROPO 3 ) (R is either glucose or fructose) has formed. Using these data, the complex formation constants for the complexes were calculated to lie in the range of log K=3.7 for G6P and 3.2 for F6P. (author)

  17. Theoretical predictions of hydrolysis and complex formation of group-4 elements Zr, Hf and Rf in HF and HCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershina, V.; Trubert, D.; Le Naour, C.; Kratz, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    Fully relativistic molecular density-functional calculations of the electronic structures of hydrated, hydrolyzed and fluoride/chloride complexes have been performed for group-4 elements Zr, Hf, and element 104, Rf. Using the electronic density distribution data, relative values of the free energy change for hydrolysis and complex formation reactions were defined. The results show the following trend for the first hydrolysis step of the cationic species: Zr>Hf>Rf in agreement with experiments. For the complex formation in HF solutions, the trend to a decrease from Zr to Hf is continued with Rf, provided no hydrolysis takes place. At pH>0, further fluorination of hydrolyzed species or fluoro-complexes has an inversed trend in the group Rf≥Zr>Hf, with the difference between the elements being very small. For the complex formation in HCl solutions, the trend is continued with Rf, so that Zr>Hf>Rf independently of pH. A decisive energetic factor in hydrolysis or complex formation processes proved to be a predominant electrostatic metal-ligand interaction. Trends in the K d (distribution coefficient) values for the group-4 elements are expected to follow those of the complex formation

  18. Affinity purification and partial characterization of a yeast multiprotein complex for nucleotide excision repair using histidine-tagged Rad14 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, K.; Talamantez, J.; Huang, W.; Reed, S.H.; Wang, Z.; Chen, L.; Feaver, W.J.; Friedberg, E.C.; Tomkinson, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway of eukaryotes involves approximately 30 polypeptides. Reconstitution of this pathway with purified components is consistent with the sequential assembly of NER proteins at the DNA lesion. However, recent studies have suggested that NER proteins may be pre-assembled in a high molecular weight complex in the absence of DNA damage. To examine this model further, we have constructed a histidine-tagged version of the yeast DNA damage recognition protein Rad14. Affinity purification of this protein from yeast nuclear extracts resulted in the co-purification of Rad1, Rad7, Rad10, Rad16, Rad23, RPA, RPB1, and TFIIH proteins, whereas none of these proteins bound to the affinity resin in the absence of recombinant Rad14. Furthermore, many of the co-purifying proteins were present in approximately equimolar amounts. Co-elution of these proteins was also observed when the nuclear extract was fractionated by gel filtration, indicating that the NER proteins were associated in a complex with a molecular mass of >1000 kDa prior to affinity chromatography. The affinity purified NER complex catalyzed the incision of UV-irradiated DNA in an ATP-dependent reaction. We conclude that active high molecular weight complexes of NER proteins exist in undamaged yeast cells

  19. Application of computer-aided three-dimensional skull model with rapid prototyping technique in repair of zygomatico-orbito-maxillary complex fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei Zhong; Zhang, Mei Chao; Li, Shao Ping; Zhang, Lei Tao; Huang, Yu

    2009-06-01

    With the advent of CAD/CAM and rapid prototyping (RP), a technical revolution in oral and maxillofacial trauma was promoted to benefit treatment, repair of maxillofacial fractures and reconstruction of maxillofacial defects. For a patient with zygomatico-facial collapse deformity resulting from a zygomatico-orbito-maxillary complex (ZOMC) fracture, CT scan data were processed by using Mimics 10.0 for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The reduction design was aided by 3D virtual imaging and the 3D skull model was reproduced using the RP technique. In line with the design by Mimics, presurgery was performed on the 3D skull model and the semi-coronal incision was taken for reduction of ZOMC fracture, based on the outcome from the presurgery. Postoperative CT and images revealed significantly modified zygomatic collapse and zygomatic arch rise and well-modified facial symmetry. The CAD/CAM and RP technique is a relatively useful tool that can assist surgeons with reconstruction of the maxillofacial skeleton, especially in repairs of ZOMC fracture.

  20. H4K20me0 marks post-replicative chromatin and recruits the TONSL₋MMS22L DNA repair complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saredi, Giulia; Huang, Hongda; Hammond, Colin M.; Alabert, Constance; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Forne, Ignasi; Reverón-Gómez, Nazaret; Foster, Benjamin M.; Mlejnkova, Lucie; Bartke, Till; Cejka, Petr; Mailand, Niels; Imhof, Axel; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Groth, Anja [UCopenhagen; (MSKCC); (ICL); (LMU); (Zurich)

    2016-06-22

    Here, we report that after DNA replication, chromosomal processes including DNA repair and transcription take place in the context of sister chromatids. While cell cycle regulation can guide these processes globally, mechanisms to distinguish pre- and post-replicative states locally remain unknown. In this paper we reveal that new histones incorporated during DNA replication provide a signature of post-replicative chromatin, read by the human TONSL–MMS22L1, 2, 3, 4 homologous recombination complex. We identify the TONSL ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) as a reader of histone H4 tails unmethylated at K20 (H4K20me0), which are specific to new histones incorporated during DNA replication and mark post-replicative chromatin until the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Accordingly, TONSL–MMS22L binds new histones H3–H4 both before and after incorporation into nucleosomes, remaining on replicated chromatin until late G2/M. H4K20me0 recognition is required for TONSL–MMS22L binding to chromatin and accumulation at challenged replication forks and DNA lesions. Consequently, TONSL ARD mutants are toxic, compromising genome stability, cell viability and resistance to replication stress. Finally, together, these data reveal a histone-reader-based mechanism for recognizing the post-replicative state, offering a new angle to understand DNA repair with the potential for targeted cancer therapy.

  1. Altered left ventricular vortex ring formation by 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging after repair of atrioventricular septal defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkoen, Emmeline E; Elbaz, Mohammed S M; Westenberg, Jos J M; Kroft, Lucia J M; Hazekamp, Mark G; Roest, Arno A W; van der Geest, Rob J

    2015-11-01

    During normal left ventricular (LV) filling, a vortex ring structure is formed distal to the left atrioventricular valve (LAVV). Vortex structures contribute to efficient flow organization. We aimed to investigate whether LAVV abnormality in patients with a corrected atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) has an impact on vortex ring formation. Whole-heart 4D flow MRI was performed in 32 patients (age: 26 ± 12 years), and 30 healthy subjects (age: 25 ± 14 years). Vortex ring cores were detected at peak early (E-peak) and peak late filling (A-peak). When present, the 3-dimensional position and orientation of the vortex ring was defined, and the circularity index was calculated. Through-plane flow over the LAVV, and the vortex formation time (VFT), were quantified to analyze the relationship of vortex flow with the inflow jet. Absence of a vortex ring during E-peak (healthy subjects 0%, vs patients 19%; P = .015), and A-peak (healthy subjects 10% vs patients 44%; P = .008) was more frequent in patients. In 4 patients, this was accompanied by a high VFT (5.1-7.8 vs 2.4 ± 0.6 in healthy subjects), and in another 2 patients with abnormal valve anatomy. In patients compared with controls, the vortex cores had a more-anterior and apical position, closer to the ventricular wall, with a more-elliptical shape and oblique orientation. The shape of the vortex core closely resembled the valve shape, and its orientation was related to the LV inflow direction. This study quantitatively shows the influence of abnormal LAVV and LV inflow on 3D vortex ring formation during LV inflow in patients with corrected AVSD, compared with healthy subjects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Polysaccharide charge density regulating protein adsorption to air/water interfaces by protein/polysaccharide complex formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, R.A.; Kosters, H.; Vliet, T. van; Stuart, M.A.C.; Jongh, H.H.J. de

    2007-01-01

    Because the formation of protein/polysaccharide complexes is dominated by electrostatic interaction, polysaccharide charge density is expected to play a major role in the adsorption behavior of the complexes. In this study, pullulan (a non-charged polysaccharide) carboxylated to four different

  3. Formation of quinones, indanones and furans by the reaction of molybdenum carbene complexes with alkynes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doetz, K.H.; Larbig, H.

    1992-01-01

    (Alkoxy)carbene complexes of molybdenum react with terminal alkynes to give carbene annulation of cycloaddition products, the skeleton of which depends on the carbene substitution pattern and the alkyne used. (CO) 5 Mo=C(OMe)-p-tol undergoes carbene annulation upon reaction with trimethylsilylacetylene leading to naphthoquinone after oxidative work-up. Similar products are obtained from (CO) 5 Mo=C(OMe)2-furyl and hex-1-yne or oct-1-yne. The reaction of these alkynes results in the formation of indanones as five-membered annulation products. In the presence of 3.3-dimethylbut-1-yne the (phenyl) carbene ligands act as a C 1 -synthon, which is incorporated into the furan cycloaddition products

  4. Dimerisation, rhodium complex formation and rearrangements of N-heterocyclic carbenes of indazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Guan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deprotonation of indazolium salts at low temperatures gives N-heterocyclic carbenes of indazoles (indazol-3-ylidenes which can be trapped as rhodium complexes (X-ray analysis. In the absence of Rh, the indazol-3-ylidenes spontaneously dimerize under ring cleavage of one of the N,N-bonds and ring closure to an indazole–indole spiro compound which possesses an exocyclic imine group. The E/Z isomers of the imines can be separated by column chromatography when methanol is used as eluent. We present results of a single crystal X-ray analysis of one of the E-isomers, which equilibrate in solution as well as in the solid state. Heating of the indazole–indole spiro compounds results in the formation of quinazolines by a ring-cleavage/ring-closure sequence (X-ray analysis. Results of DFT calculations are presented.

  5. Complex formation of hypoxanthine and 6-mercaptopurine with Cd(II) ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perello, L.; Borras, J.; Soto, L.; Gordo, F.J.; Gordo, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Reaction of Cd(II) ion with hypoxanthine (H 2 Y) and with 6-mercaptopurine (H 2 MP) in dioxane-water (50%) leads to the formation of CdY x 2H 2 O and Cd(HMP) 2 x 2H 2 O, respectively. In methanolic medium Cd(II) and H 2 MP give Cd(MP) x H 2 O. These compounds have been characterized by chemical analysis, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. The stability constant of CdY complex at 25 +- 0.1 0 C and 1M ionic strength with NaClO 4 in dioxane-water medium is logβ = 10.25 +- 0.05. (Author)

  6. Complex formation of hypoxanthine and 6-mercaptopurine with Cd(II) ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perello, L.; Borras, J.; Soto, L.; Gordo, F.J.; Gordo, J.C. (Valencia Univ. (Spain))

    1984-01-01

    Reaction of Cd(II) ion with hypoxanthine (H/sub 2/Y) and with 6-mercaptopurine (H/sub 2/MP) in dioxane-water (50%) leads to the formation of CdY x 2H/sub 2/O and Cd(HMP)/sub 2/ x 2H/sub 2/O, respectively. In methanolic medium Cd(II) and H/sub 2/MP give Cd(MP) x H/sub 2/O. These compounds have been characterized by chemical analysis, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. The stability constant of CdY complex at 25 +- 0.1/sup 0/C and 1M ionic strength with NaClO/sub 4/ in dioxane-water medium is log..beta.. = 10.25 +- 0.05.

  7. Formation of ammonia complexes of alkaline earth elements in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padar, T.G.; Stupko, T.V.; Isaev, I.D.; Pashkov, G.L.; Mironov, V.E.

    1990-01-01

    Coefficients of ammonia distribution between aqueous solutions of calcium, strontium, barium and ammonium perchlorate mixtures at ionic strength - 0.50; 1.0 and 1.5 at 298.2 K and ammonia concentrations 0.2-10 mol/dm 3 are measured. Formation of ammonia complexes of M(NH 3 ) n 2+ composition is shown. Logarithms of stepped stability constants for solutions with zero ionic strength for Ca 2+ are: -0.13; -0.25; -0.52 and -0.77, where n=1-4; for Sr 2+ : -0.04; -0.42 and -0.70, where n=1-3 and for Ba 2+ : -0.11; -0.50 and 0.76, where n=1-3

  8. Hydration of the sulfuric acid-methylamine complex and implications for aerosol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Danielle J; Temelso, Berhane; Shields, George C

    2014-09-04

    The binary H2SO4-H2O nucleation is one of the most important pathways by which aerosols form in the atmosphere, and the presence of ternary species like amines increases aerosol formation rates. In this study, we focus on the hydration of a ternary system of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), methylamine (NH2CH3), and up to six waters to evaluate its implications for aerosol formation. By combining molecular dynamics (MD) sampling with high-level ab initio calculations, we determine the thermodynamics of forming H2SO4(NH2CH3)(H2O)n, where n = 0-6. Because it is a strong acid-base system, H2SO4-NH2CH3 quickly forms a tightly bound HSO4(-)-NH3CH3(+) complex that condenses water more readily than H2SO4 alone. The electronic binding energy of H2SO4-NH2CH3 is -21.8 kcal mol(-1) compared with -16.8 kcal mol(-1) for H2SO4-NH3 and -12.8 kcal mol(-1) for H2SO4-H2O. Adding one to two water molecules to the H2SO4-NH2CH3 complex is more favorable than adding to H2SO4 alone, yet there is no systematic difference for n ≥ 3. However, the average number of water molecules around H2SO4-NH2CH3 is consistently higher than that of H2SO4, and it is fairly independent of temperature and relative humidity.

  9. Formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with diethylaminoethyl dextran: charge ratio and molar mass effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cerf, Didier; Pepin, Anne Sophie; Niang, Pape Momar; Cristea, Mariana; Karakasyan-Dia, Carole; Picton, Luc

    2014-11-26

    The formation of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) between carboxymethyl pullulan and DEAE Dextran, was investigated, in dilute solution, with emphasis on the effect of charge density (molar ratio or pH) and molar masses. Electrophoretic mobility measurements have evidenced that insoluble PECs (neutral electrophoretic mobility) occurs for charge ratio between 0.6 (excess of polycation) and 1 (stoichiometry usual value) according to the pH. This atypical result is explained by the inaccessibility of some permanent cationic charge when screened by pH dependant cationic ones (due to the Hoffman alkylation). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicates an endothermic formation of PEC with a binding constant around 10(5) L mol(-1). Finally asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation coupled on line with static multi angle light scattering (AF4/MALS) evidences soluble PECs with very large average molar masses and size around 100 nm, in agreement with scrambled eggs multi-association between various polyelectrolyte chains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Teacher formation related to socio-scientific issues: complexity, contributions and limitations of an educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariuce Campos de Moraes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This reflection refers to teacher formation related to socio-scientific issues. Whereas such matters take into account the impact of scientific development in society, including ethical aspects and encompass dilemmas involving a wide range of prospects for its resolution, we propose analysis of the complexity that is inherent in their teaching. Thus, we aimed to analyze different spaces and teaching time that produce and are produced in close linkage between theory and practice, as well as their contributions and limitations. The study required a dynamic conversation system that led to the analysis indicators. The issue of sustainability was shown to be feasible for educational planning as cover technical and scientific knowledge, ethical, social and economic pressures. The collective production allowed understand arguments and reflective-creative processes. The lived relations in schools has accompanied and limited the ideas expressed on the socio-scientific issues. We understand that the simultaneity of research and reflection in the sociocultural context has strengthened teacher formation.

  11. Star Formation and Young Population of the H II Complex Sh2-294

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Chauhan, N.; Jose, J.; Pandey, B.

    2012-08-01

    The Sh2-294 H II region ionized by a single B0V star features several infrared excess sources, a photodissociation region, and also a group of reddened stars at its border. The star formation scenario in this region seems to be quite complex. In this paper, we present follow-up results of Sh2-294 H II region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), coupled with H2 (2.12 μm) observation, to characterize the young population of the region and to understand its star formation history. We identified 36 young stellar object (YSO, Class I, Class II, and Class I/II) candidates using IRAC color-color diagrams. It is found that Class I sources are preferentially located at the outskirts of the H II region and associated with enhanced H2 emission; none of them are located near the central cluster. Combining the optical to mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of the YSO candidates and using the spectral energy distribution fitting models, we constrained stellar parameters and the evolutionary status of 33 YSO candidates. Most of them are interpreted by the model as low-mass (<4 M ⊙) YSOs; however, we also detected a massive YSO (~9 M ⊙) of Class I nature, embedded in a cloud of visual extinction of ~24 mag. Present analysis suggests that the Class I sources are indeed a younger population of the region relative to Class II sources (age ~ 4.5 × 106 yr). We suggest that the majority of the Class I sources, including the massive YSOs, are second-generation stars of the region whose formation is possibly induced by the expansion of the H II region powered by a ~4 × 106 yr B0 main-sequence star.

  12. STAR FORMATION AND YOUNG POPULATION OF THE H II COMPLEX Sh2-294

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Chauhan, N.; Jose, J.; Ojha, D. K.; Pandey, B.

    2012-01-01

    The Sh2-294 H II region ionized by a single B0V star features several infrared excess sources, a photodissociation region, and also a group of reddened stars at its border. The star formation scenario in this region seems to be quite complex. In this paper, we present follow-up results of Sh2-294 H II region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), coupled with H 2 (2.12 μm) observation, to characterize the young population of the region and to understand its star formation history. We identified 36 young stellar object (YSO, Class I, Class II, and Class I/II) candidates using IRAC color-color diagrams. It is found that Class I sources are preferentially located at the outskirts of the H II region and associated with enhanced H 2 emission; none of them are located near the central cluster. Combining the optical to mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of the YSO candidates and using the spectral energy distribution fitting models, we constrained stellar parameters and the evolutionary status of 33 YSO candidates. Most of them are interpreted by the model as low-mass ( ☉ ) YSOs; however, we also detected a massive YSO (∼9 M ☉ ) of Class I nature, embedded in a cloud of visual extinction of ∼24 mag. Present analysis suggests that the Class I sources are indeed a younger population of the region relative to Class II sources (age ∼ 4.5 × 10 6 yr). We suggest that the majority of the Class I sources, including the massive YSOs, are second-generation stars of the region whose formation is possibly induced by the expansion of the H II region powered by a ∼4 × 10 6 yr B0 main-sequence star.

  13. Computational studies of radiation and oxidative damage to DNA and its recognition by repair enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinak, M. [Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is used to study the time evolution of the recognition processes and to construct a model of the specific DNA-repair enzyme' complexes. MD simulations of the following molecules were performed: DNA dodecamer with thymine dimer (TD), DNA 30-mer with thymine glycol (TG), and respective specific repair enzymes T4 Endonuclease V and Endonuclease III. Both DNA lesions are experimentally suggested to be mutagenic and carcinogenic unless properly recognized and repaired by repair enzymes. In the case of TD, there is detected a strong kink around the TD site, that is not observed in native DNA. In addition there is observed a different value of electrostatic energy at the TD site - negative '-9 kcal/mol', in contrast to the nearly neutral value of the native thymine site. These two factors - structural changes and specific electrostatic energy - seem to be important for proper recognition of a TD damaged site and for formation of DNA-enzyme complex. Formation of this complex is the onset of the repair of DNA. In the case of TG damaged DNA the structural characteristics of the TG were calculated (charges, bond lengths, bond angles, etc.). The formed TG was used to replace the native thymine and then submitted to the simulation in the system with a repair enzyme with Endonuclease III for the purpose of the study of the formation of the DNA-enzyme complex. (author)

  14. Formation of covalent complexes between human O sup 6 -alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase and BCNU-treated defined length synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, T.P.; Remack, J.S. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))

    1988-07-25

    Repair of chloroethylnitrosourea (CENU)-induced precursors of DNA interstrand cross-links by O{sup 6}-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (GAT or GATase) appears to be a factor in tumor resistance to therapy with this class of antineoplastic drugs. Since human GAT is highly specific for O{sup 6}-guanine, yet the probably cross-link structure is N{prime}-Guanine N{sup 3}cytosine ethane, rearrangement of the initial O{sup 6}-guanine adduct via O{sup 6},N{sup 1}ethanoguanine has been proposed. The authors suggested that GAT reaction with this intermediate would produce DNA covalently linked to protein through an ethane link from N{sup 1}-guanine to the alkylacceptor site on GAT. In preliminary studies they demonstrated a covalent complex between GAT and carmustine (BCNU)-treated DNA by a precipitation assay method. They have now developed a method for isolating the reaction product of BCNU-treated synthetic 14-mer ({sup 32}P)-labeled oligodeoxynucleotide and GAT using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This approach can be used to characterize the adducts induced by CENUs that lead to complex formation with GAT.

  15. Thermodynamic Investigation and Mixed Ligand Complex Formation of 1,4-Bis-(3-aminopropyl)-piperazine and Biorelevant Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Ahmed A; Shehata, Mohamed R; Shoukry, Mohamed M; Barakat, Mohammad H

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic parameters for protonation of 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)-piperazine (BAPP) and its metal complexation with some divalent metal ions were determined in aqueous solution at constant ionic strength (0.1 M NaNO(3)) using a potentiometric technique. The order of -ΔG(0) and -ΔH(0) was found to obey Co(2+) Zn(2+), in accordance with the Irving-Williams order. The formation equilibria of zinc (II) complexes and the ternary complexes Zn(BAPP)L, where L = amino acid, amides, or DNA constituents), have been investigated. Ternary complexes are formed by a simultaneous mechanism. The concentration distribution of the complexes in solution was evaluated as a function of pH. Stoichiometry and stability constants for the complexes formed are reported and discussed. The stability of ternary complexes was quantitatively compared with their corresponding binary complexes in terms of the parameter Δlog K.

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemifloxacin Mesylate in Pharmaceutical Formulations Through Ion-Pair Complex Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marothu Vamsi Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four simple and sensitive ion-pairing spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of gemifloxacin mesylate (GFX either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The developed methods involve formation of colored chloroform extractable ion-pair complexes of the drug with safranin O (SFN O and methylene blue (MB in basic medium; Napthol blue 12BR (NB 12BR and azocaramine G (AG in acidic medium. The extracted complexes showed absorbance maxima at 525, 650, 620 and 540 nm for SFN O, MB, NB 12BR and AG, respectively.Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 3-15, 4-20, 2-10 and 2-10 μg/mL with molar absorptivity of 2.81 × 104, 2.20 x 104, 4.02 × 104 and 4.15 × 104 L mole−1 cm−1 and relative standard deviation of 0.077, 0.104, 0.080 and 0.103% for SFN O, MB, NB 12BR and AG, respectively. These methods have been successfully applied for the assay of drug in pharmaceutical formulations. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. Results of analysis were validated statistically and through recovery studies.

  17. Enhanced conformational sampling to visualize a free-energy landscape of protein complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Shinji; Nakamura, Haruki; Higo, Junichi

    2016-06-15

    We introduce various, recently developed, generalized ensemble methods, which are useful to sample various molecular configurations emerging in the process of protein-protein or protein-ligand binding. The methods introduced here are those that have been or will be applied to biomolecular binding, where the biomolecules are treated as flexible molecules expressed by an all-atom model in an explicit solvent. Sampling produces an ensemble of conformations (snapshots) that are thermodynamically probable at room temperature. Then, projection of those conformations to an abstract low-dimensional space generates a free-energy landscape. As an example, we show a landscape of homo-dimer formation of an endothelin-1-like molecule computed using a generalized ensemble method. The lowest free-energy cluster at room temperature coincided precisely with the experimentally determined complex structure. Two minor clusters were also found in the landscape, which were largely different from the native complex form. Although those clusters were isolated at room temperature, with rising temperature a pathway emerged linking the lowest and second-lowest free-energy clusters, and a further temperature increment connected all the clusters. This exemplifies that the generalized ensemble method is a powerful tool for computing the free-energy landscape, by which one can discuss the thermodynamic stability of clusters and the temperature dependence of the cluster networks. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. RIT1 controls actin dynamics via complex formation with RAC1/CDC42 and PAK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Zum Büschenfelde, Uta; Brandenstein, Laura Isabel; von Elsner, Leonie; Flato, Kristina; Holling, Tess; Zenker, Martin; Rosenberger, Georg; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2018-05-01

    RIT1 belongs to the RAS family of small GTPases. Germline and somatic RIT1 mutations have been identified in Noonan syndrome (NS) and cancer, respectively. By using heterologous expression systems and purified recombinant proteins, we identified the p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) as novel direct effector of RIT1. We found RIT1 also to directly interact with the RHO GTPases CDC42 and RAC1, both of which are crucial regulators of actin dynamics upstream of PAK1. These interactions are independent of the guanine nucleotide bound to RIT1. Disease-causing RIT1 mutations enhance protein-protein interaction between RIT1 and PAK1, CDC42 or RAC1 and uncouple complex formation from serum and growth factors. We show that the RIT1-PAK1 complex regulates cytoskeletal rearrangements as expression of wild-type RIT1 and its mutant forms resulted in dissolution of stress fibers and reduction of mature paxillin-containing focal adhesions in COS7 cells. This effect was prevented by co-expression of RIT1 with dominant-negative CDC42 or RAC1 and kinase-dead PAK1. By using a transwell migration assay, we show that RIT1 wildtype and the disease-associated variants enhance cell motility. Our work demonstrates a new function for RIT1 in controlling actin dynamics via acting in a signaling module containing PAK1 and RAC1/CDC42, and highlights defects in cell adhesion and migration as possible disease mechanism underlying NS.

  19. Labeled EF-Tus for rapid kinetic studies of pretranslocation complex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Kavaliauskas, Darius; Schrader, Jared

    2014-01-01

    The universally conserved translation elongation factor EF-Tu delivers aminoacyl(aa)-tRNA in the form of an aa-tRNA·EF-Tu·GTP ternary complex (TC) to the ribosome where it binds to the cognate mRNA codon within the ribosomal A-site, leading to formation of a pretranslocation (PRE) complex. Here we...... describe preparation of QSY9 and Cy5 derivatives of the variant E348C-EF-Tu that are functional in translation elongation. Together with fluorophore derivatives of aa-tRNA and of ribosomal protein L11, located within the GTPase associated center (GAC), these labeled EF-Tus allow development of two new FRET...... assays that permit the dynamics of distance changes between EF-Tu and both L11 (Tu-L11 assay) and aa-tRNA (Tu-tRNA assay) to be determined during the decoding process. We use these assays to examine: (i) the relative rates of EF-Tu movement away from the GAC and from aa-tRNA during decoding, (ii...

  20. Spectrophotometric Determination of Terbutaline Sulphate and Tetracycline Hydrochloride via ion pair Complex Formation Using Eosin Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y. Dhamra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of terbutaline sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride drugs in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the formation of binary complexes between these drugs and eosin Y in aqueous acetate buffered medium. Under the optimum conditions, the binary complexes showed absorption maxima at 545 nm. Beer's law was rectilinear over concentration range of 0.5-10 and 5-45 μg/mL, R2 were 0.9984 and 0.9988, RSD were ≤ 0.72 and ≤ 0.19 (n=5 with average recovery % 101.42 % and 100.08 % and the average recovery values of pharmaceutical formulations 101.48 and 98.01 for above drugs respectively. The limit of detection (LOD were 0.030 and 0.613 μg/mL and limit of quantitation (LOQ were 0.103 and 2.00 μg/mL with molar absorptivity values 3.169  103 and 6.347  103 l. mol-1. cm-1 and the relative standard deviation values ≤0.720 and ≤ 0.19 for both drugs respectively. No interference was observed from the excipients that are commonly present in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of terbutaline sulphate tablet and tetracycline hydrochloride capsule in their dosage forms.

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of terbutaline sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride via ion pair complex formation using eosin y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamra, M.Y.; Sabha, T.N.A.; Ghabsha, T.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of terbutaline sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride drugs in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the formation of binary complexes between these drugs and eosin Y in aqueous acetate buffered medium. Under the optimum conditions, the binary complexes showed absorption maxima at 545 nm. Beer's law was rectilinear over concentration range of 0.5-10 and 5-45 micro g/mL, R/sub 2/ were 0.9984 and 0.9988, RSD were 0.72 and 0.19 (n=5) with average recovery 101.42 % and 100.08 % and the average recovery values of pharmaceutical formulations 101.48 and 98.01 for above drugs respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) were 0.030 and 0.613 micro g/mL and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.103 and 2.00 micro g/mL with molar absorptivity values 3.169 10/sup 3/ and 6.347 10/sup 3/l. mol/sup -1/. Cm/sup -1/ and the relative standard deviation values 0.720 and 0.19 for both drugs respectively. No interference was observed from the excipients that are commonly present in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of terbutaline sulphate tablet and tetracycline hydrochloride capsule in their dosage forms. (author)

  2. Preparation and evaluation of periodontal films based on polyelectrolyte complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Abeer Ahmed; Ismail, Fatma Ahmed; Naggar, Viviane Fahim; Aboulmagd, Elsayed

    2015-05-01

    Local intra-pocket drug delivery devices can provide an effective concentration of the antimicrobial agent at the site of action with avoidance of undesirable side effects. This study explored the application of chitosan-alginate and chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) films as drug release regulators for tetracycline HCl (Tc) to treat periodontal pockets. Periodontal films with 1:1 Tc:PEC ratio were prepared using 1:1 chitosan (Ch) to sodium alginate (A) or 1:3 Ch to pectin (P). The scanning electron microscope showed acceptable film appearance and differential scanning calorimetry analysis confirmed complex formation. The in vitro release studies for both films showed a burst drug release, followed by prolonged release for 70 h. A prolonged antibacterial activity of both films against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was observed over a period of 21 days. Aging studies indicated that the five months storage period in freezer did not significantly influence the drug release profile or the antibacterial activity of both films. Clinical evaluation showed a significant reduction in pocket depth (p < 0.0001) to their normal values (≤3 mm). PEC films could be exploited as a prolonged drug release devices for treatment of periodontal pockets.

  3. NMR and luminescence spectroscopy study of formation of mixed β-diketonate europium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavun, V.Ya.; Kalinovskaya, I.V.; Karasev, V.E.; Chernyshov, B.N.; Steblevskaya, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of NMR ('H, 19 F) and luminescent spectroscopy were applied to study ligand substitution in Eu(β-dik) 3 phen-CDCl 3 -(β-dik)' systems, where β-dik-acetylacetone (AA) and hexafluoroacetyl-acetone (HFAA), phen-1.10-phenathroline at different mole ratio (m) of competing ligands (m=AA/HFAA). Formation of mixed Eu(AA) 2 (HFAA)phen and Eu(AA)(HFAA) 2 phen complexes is proved; calculation of the stark structure of 5 D 0 - 7 F j (j=0,1,2) transitions in low-temperature luminescence spectra is conducted for these complexes. It is stated that at minimum HFAA concentration in the solution the latter replaces AA from europium coordination sphere. It is shown that depending on the value in substitution of acidoligands proceeds successfully by the equations Eu(AA) 3 phen+(NHFAA) n → Eu(AA) 3-n → (HFAA) n phen+(NAA) n ; (n=1,2,3)

  4. Influence of RNA Strand Rigidity on Polyion Complex Formation with Block Catiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kotaro; Chaya, Hiroyuki; Fukushima, Shigeto; Watanabe, Sumiyo; Takemoto, Hiroyasu; Osada, Kensuke; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Miyata, Kanjiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    Polyion complexes (b-PICs) are prepared by mixing single- or double-stranded oligo RNA (aniomer) with poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-PLL) (block catiomer) to clarify the effect of aniomer chain rigidity on association behaviors at varying concentrations. Here, a 21-mer single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) (persistence length: 1.0 nm) and a 21-mer double-stranded RNA (small interfering RNA, siRNA) (persistence length: 62 nm) are compared. Both oligo RNAs form a minimal charge-neutralized ionomer pair with a single PEG-PLL chain, termed unit b-PIC (uPIC), at low concentrations (<≈ 0.01 mg mL(-1)). Above the critical association concentration (≈ 0.01 mg mL(-1)), ssRNA b-PICs form secondary associates, PIC micelles, with sizes up to 30-70 nm, while no such multimolecular assembly is observed for siRNA b-PICs. The entropy gain associated with the formation of a segregated PIC phase in the multimolecular PIC micelles may not be large enough for rigid siRNA strands to compensate with appreciably high steric repulsion derived from PEG chains. Chain rigidity appears to be a critical parameter in polyion complex association. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Lateral Fluid Percussion Injury Impairs Hippocampal Synaptic Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor Complex Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun W. Carlson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI and the activation of secondary injury mechanisms have been linked to impaired cognitive function, which, as observed in TBI patients and animal models, can persist for months and years following the initial injury. Impairments in neurotransmission have been well documented in experimental models of TBI, but the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction are poorly understood. Formation of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE complex facilitates vesicular docking and neurotransmitter release in the synaptic cleft. Published studies highlight a direct link between reduced SNARE complex formation and impairments in neurotransmitter release. While alterations in the SNARE complex have been described following severe focal TBI, it is not known if deficits in SNARE complex formation manifest in a model with reduced severity. We hypothesized that lateral fluid percussion injury (lFPI reduces the abundance of SNARE proteins, impairs SNARE complex formation, and contributes to impaired neurobehavioral function. To this end, rats were subjected to lFPI or sham injury and tested for acute motor performance and cognitive function at 3 weeks post-injury. lFPI resulted in motor impairment between 1 and 5 days post-injury. Spatial acquisition and spatial memory, as assessed by the Morris water maze, were significantly impaired at 3 weeks after lFPI. To examine the effect of lFPI on synaptic SNARE complex formation in the injured hippocampus, a separate cohort of rats was generated and brains processed to evaluate hippocampal synaptosomal-enriched lysates at 1 week post-injury. lFPI resulted in a significant reduction in multiple monomeric SNARE proteins, including VAMP2, and α-synuclein, and SNARE complex abundance. The findings in this study are consistent with our previously published observations suggesting that impairments in hippocampal SNARE complex formation may contribute to

  6. Thermodynamic study on salt effects on complex formation of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins with p-aminobenzoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibunova, E.S.; Kumeev, R.S.; Terekhova, I.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic study on salt effects in CD/pABA complex formation was performed. • Effects of KCl, KH 2 PO 4 and K 2 SO 4 are insignificant and nonspecific. • Specific influence of KBr is caused by the ability of Br − to penetrate into CD cavity. • Coexistence of two complexation equilibria is accompanied by solvent reorganization. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to gain a deeper understanding of salt effects in the inclusion complex formation of cyclodextrins. For this purpose, thermodynamic study of complex formation of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins with p-aminobenzoic acid was carried out in water and solutions of KCl, KBr, KH 2 PO 4 and K 2 SO 4 (0.2 mol/kg). Stability constants were calculated from the binding isotherms obtained on the basis of 1 H NMR measurements. Enthalpy and entropy of complex formation were estimated from the van’t Hoff plots. It was found that effects of KCl, KH 2 PO 4 and K 2 SO 4 are insignificant, while the influence of KBr on complex formation of cyclodextrins with p-aminobenzoic acid is more pronounced and results in a decrease of the stability constants. Specific action of Br − is caused by the ability of these anions to penetrate into macrocyclic cavity. Coexistence of two complexation equilibria in KBr solution is accompanied by significant solvent reorganization originated from more intensive dehydration of the interacting species. This results in an increase of the enthalpy and entropy of complex formation. Manifestation of Br − effect was found to be the same in the binding of p-aminobenzoic acid with α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins.

  7. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-1 mediates assembly/disassembly of the CRL4–signalosome complex to regulate DNA repair and cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Feng; Xu, Jing; Khan, A. Basit; Gadalla, Moataz M.; Cha, Jiyoung Y.; Xu, Risheng; Tyagi, Richa; Dang, Yongjun; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2014-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphates containing an energetic pyrophosphate bond are formed primarily by a family of three inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) kinases (IP6K1–3). The Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) regulate diverse biological processes through substrate ubiquitylation. CRL4, comprising the scaffold Cullin 4A/B, the E2-interacting Roc1/2, and the adaptor protein damage-specific DNA-binding protein 1, is activated by DNA damage. Basal CRL4 activity is inhibited by binding to the COP9 signalosome (CSN). UV radiation and other stressors dissociate the complex, leading to E3 ligase activation, but signaling events that trigger signalosome dissociation from CRL4 have been unclear. In the present study, we show that, under basal conditions, IP6K1 forms a ternary complex with CSN and CRL4 in which IP6K1 and CRL4 are inactive. UV dissociates IP6K1 to generate IP7, which then dissociates CSN–CRL4 to activate CRL4. Thus, IP6K1 is a novel CRL4 subunit that transduces UV signals to mediate disassembly of the CRL4–CSN complex, thereby regulating nucleotide excision repair and cell death. PMID:25349427

  8. Comparison between open and arthroscopic-assisted foveal triangular fibrocartilage complex repair for post-traumatic distal radio-ulnar joint instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, R; Atzei, A; Cozzolino, R; Fairplay, T; Badur, N

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the objective and subjective functional outcomes after foveal reattachment of proximal or complete ulnar-sided triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions by two surgical procedures: an open technique or an arthroscopically assisted repair. The study was done prospectively on 49 wrists affected by post-traumatic distal radio-ulnar joint instability. Twenty-four patients were treated with the open technique (Group 1) and 25 by the arthroscopically assisted technique (Group 2). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a clear foveal detachment of the triangular fibrocartilage complex in 67% of the cases. Arthroscopy showed a positive ulnar-sided detachment of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (positive hook test) in all cases. Distal radio-ulnar joint stability was obtained in all but five patients at a mean follow-up of 6 months. Both groups had improvement of all parameters with significant differences in wrist pain scores, Mayo wrist score, Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire and Patient-Rated Wrist/Hand Evaluation questionnaire scores. There were no significant post-operative differences between the two groups in the outcome parameters except for the Disability of the Arm Shoulder and Hand questionnaire score, which was significantly better in Group 2 (p < 0.001). © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Engagement of Components of DNA-Break Repair Complex and NFκB in Hsp70A1A Transcription Upregulation by Heat Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Joyita; Mukherjee, Pooja; Ali, Asif; Poddar, Soumita; Pal, Mahadeb

    2017-01-01

    An involvement of components of DNA-break repair (DBR) complex including DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) in transcription regulation in response to distinct cellular signalling has been revealed by different laboratories. Here, we explored the involvement of DNA-PK and PARP-1 in the heat shock induced transcription of Hsp70A1A. We find that inhibition of both the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-PKc), and Ku70, a regulatory subunit of DNA-PK holo-enzyme compromises transcription of Hsp70A1A under heat shock treatment. In immunoprecipitation based experiments we find that Ku70 or DNA-PK holoenzyme associates with NFκB. This NFκB associated complex also carries PARP-1. Downregulation of both NFκB and PARP-1 compromises Hsp70A1A transcription induced by heat shock treatment. Alteration of three bases by site directed mutagenesis within the consensus κB sequence motif identified on the promoter affected inducibility of Hsp70A1A transcription by heat shock treatment. These results suggest that NFκB engaged with the κB motif on the promoter cooperates in Hsp70A1A activation under heat shock in human cells as part of a DBR complex including DNA-PK and PARP-1.

  10. MECHANISMS OF THE COMPLEX FORMATION BY d-METALS ON POROUS SUPPORTS AND THE CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF THE FORMED COMPLEXES IN REDOX REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakitskaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of supported complexes of d metals in redox reactions with participation of gaseous toxicants, PH3, CO, O3, and SO2, depends on their composition. Owing to the variety of physicochemical and structural-adsorption properties of available supports, their influence on complex formation processes, the composition and catalytic activity of metal complexes anchored on them varies over a wide range. The metal complex formation on sup-ports with weak ion-exchanging properties is similar to that in aqueous solutions. In this case, the support role mainly adds up to the ability to reduce the activity of water adsorbed on them. The interaction between a metal complex and a support surface occurs through adsorbed water molecules. Such supports can also affect complex formation processes owing to protolytic reactions on account of acidic properties of sorbents used as supports. The catalytic activity of metal complexes supported on polyphase natural sorbents considerably depends on their phase relationship. In the case of supports with the nonsimple structure and pronounced ion-exchanging properties, for instance, zeolites and laminar silicates, it is necessary to take into account the variety of places where metal ions can be located. Such location places determine distinctions in the coordination environment of the metal ions and the strength of their bonding with surface adsorption sites and, therefore, the catalytic activity of surface complexes formed by theses metal ions. Because of the energy surface inhomogeneity, it is important to determine a relationship between the strength of a metal complex bonding with a support surface and its catalytic activity. For example, bimetallic complexes are catalytically active in the reactions of oxidation of the above gaseous toxicants. In particular, in the case of carbon monoxide oxidation, the most catalytic activity is shown by palladium-copper complexes in which copper(II is strongly

  11. Evolution of multi-mineral formation evaluation using LWD data in complex carbonates offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, Paolo; Borovskaya, Irina [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Petrophysical Formation Evaluation using Logging While Drilling (LWD) measurements is a new requisite when drilling in carbonates reservoirs offshore Brazil. These reservoirs are difficult to characterize due to an unusual mixture of the minerals constituting the matrix and affecting rock texture. As wells are getting deeper and more expensive, an early identification of the drilled targets potential is necessary for valuable decisions. Brazil operators have been especially demanding towards service providers, pushing for development of suitable services able to positively identify and quantify not only the presence of hydrocarbons but also their flowing capability. In addition to the standard gamma ray / resistivity / porosity and density measurements, three new measurements have proven to be critical to evaluate complex carbonate formations: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Spectroscopy and Capture Cross-Section (sigma). Under appropriate logging conditions, NMR data provides lithology independent porosity, bound and free fluids fractions, reservoir texture and permeability. Capture Spectroscopy allows assessment of mineral composition in terms of calcite, dolomite, quartz and clay fractions, and in addition highlights presence of other heavier minerals. Finally, sigma allows performing a volumetric formation evaluation without requiring custom optimization of the classical exponents used in all forms of resistivity saturation equations. All these new measurements are inherently statistical and if provided by wireline after drilling the well they may result in significant usage of rig time. When acquired simultaneously while drilling they have three very clear advantages: 1) no extra rig time, 2) improved statistics due to long formation exposure (drilling these carbonates is a slow process and rate of penetration (ROP) rarely exceeds 10 m/hr), 3) less invasion effect and better hole condition. This paper describes the development of two LWD tools performing the

  12. Effect of microwave and ionizing radiation on formation of DNA of repair foci in lymphocytes from cord blood; Vplyv mikrovlnneho a ionizacneho ziarenia na tvorbu DNA opravnych fokusov v lymfocytoch z pupocnikovej krvi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durdik, M.; Markova, E.; Belyaev, I. [Slovenska akademia vied, Ustav experimentalnej onkologie, 83391 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    Different types of radiation are affecting us nowadays. Electromagnetic radiation which is produced mainly by mobile phones, Wi-fi and base stations is affecting us practically all of the time. Long term effects of this type of radiation are not fully examined. It is very important to know effects of radiation that influence us so much like electromagnetic radiation. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious types of DNA damage. Several proteins involved in DNA repair and DNA damage signaling have been shown to produce discrete foci in response to ionizing radiation. These foci are believed to co-localize to DSB and referred to as ionizing radiation-induced foci or DNA repair foci. Ionizing radiation is known to induce formation of radiation induced foci which are very hard to analyze exactly. That's why the second aim of this work was to compare two automatized systems for analysis of DNA repair foci, METAFER and ImageStream. (authors)

  13. DNA repair in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, J.D.; Carrier, W.L.; Kusano, I.; Furuno-Fukushi, I.; Dunn, W.C. Jr.; Francis, A.A.; Lee, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Our primary objective is to elucidate the molecular events in human cells when cellular macromolecules such as DNA are damaged by radiation or chemical agents. We study and characterize (i) the sequence of DNA repair events, (ii) the various modalities of repair, (iii) the genetic inhibition of repair due to mutation, (iv) the physiological inhibition of repair due to mutation, (v) the physiological inhibition of repair due to biochemical inhibitors, and (vi) the genetic basis of repair. Our ultimate goals are to (i) isolate and analyze the repair component of the mutagenic and/or carcinogenic event in human cells, and (ii) elucidate the magnitude and significance of this repair component as it impinges on the practical problems of human irradiation or exposure to actual or potential chemical mutagens and carcinogens. The significance of these studies lies in (i) the ubiquitousness of repair (most organisms, including man, have several complex repair systems), (ii) the belief that mutagenic and carcinogenic events may arise only from residual (nonrepaired) lesions or that error-prone repair systems may be the major induction mechanisms of the mutagenic or carcinogenic event, and (iii) the clear association of repair defects and highly carcinogenic disease states in man [xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)

  14. Potentiometric and spectral studies of complex formation of La(3), Pr(3) and Lu(3) with aspartic acid and asparagine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowska, A.; Lomozik, L.; Zielinski, S.

    1987-01-01

    The composition and stability of La 3+ , Pr 3+ and Lu 3+ complexes with aspartic acid and asparagine were analysed. The formation of complexes of the type ML and MHL was determined for La 3+ and Pr 3+ with aspartic acid, and of the type MHL for Lu 3+ with aspartic acid. For La 3+ , Pr 3+ and Lu 3+ with asparagine the formation of ML(OH) complexes was observed. By means of 1 HNMR and 13 CNMR studies the participation in the coordination of both -COOH groups was determined for aspartic acid, whereas for asparagine the participation of the -COOH group was determined in complexes with La 3+ , Pr 3+ , and of the -COOH and the -NH 2 groups in the complex with Lu 3+ . (Author)

  15. Quantum chemical and thermodynamic calculations of fulvic and humic copper complexes in reactions of malachite and azurite formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Vitaliy N.; Gogol, Daniil B.; Rozhkovoy, Ivan E.; Ponomarev, Dmitriy L.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a thermodynamic evaluation of the reactions of humic and fulvic acids in the process of malachite and azurite mineralogenesis. Semi-empirical methods AM/1, MNDO, PM3, PM5, PM6 and PM7 were used to compute the heat of formation, enthalpy and entropy for thermodynamic calculations of the reactions performed on the basis of Hess's law. It is shown that methods PM6 and PM7 in the MOPAC software package provide good compliance with experimental and calculated heats of formation for copper complexes and alkaline earth metal complexes with organic acids. It is found that the malachite and azurite formation processes involving humus complexing substances are thermodynamically possible. - Highlights: • Copper and alkali-earth metal complexes with humic and fulvic acids are considered. • Quantum chemical calculation of thermodynamics for the structures was performed. • Semi-empirical methods PM6 and PM7 provide best correlation for the properties. • Parameters of basic copper carbonate formation reactions were obtained by Hess's law. • Processes of malachite and azurite formation from humus complexes are possible.

  16. Double-decker phthalocyanine complex: Scanning tunneling microscopy study of film formation and spin properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeda, Tadahiro; Katoh, Keiichi; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    interesting spin configuration. The center metal atom, including a lanthanoid metal of Tb, tends to be 3+ cation, while the Pc ligand to be 2- anion. This realizes two-spin system, in which spins from 4f electrons and π radical coexist. Though the spins of 4f orbitals of those molecules have been studied, the importance of the π radicals has been highlighted recently from the measurement of electronic conductance properties of these molecules. In this article, recent researches on multi-decker Pc molecules are reviewed. The manuscript is organized with groups of chapters as follows: (1) Film formation, (2) Spin of TbPc2 film and Kondo resonance observation, (3) Rotation of double-decker Pc complex and chemical modification for spin control, (4) Device formation using double-decker Pc complex.

  17. Structure Formation of Ultrathin PEO Films at Solid Interfaces—Complex Pattern Formation by Dewetting and Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Hans-Georg; Meyer, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    The direct contact of ultrathin polymer films with a solid substrate may result in thin film rupture caused by dewetting. With crystallisable polymers such as polyethyleneoxide (PEO), molecular self-assembly into partial ordered lamella structures is studied as an additional source of pattern formation. Morphological features in ultrathin PEO films (thickness dewetting patterns and diffusion limited growth pattern of ordered lamella growing within the dewetting areas. Besides structure formation of hydrophilic PEO molecules, n-alkylterminated (hydrophobic) PEO oligomers are investigated with respect to self-organization in ultrathin films. Morphological features characteristic for pure PEO are not changed by the presence of the n-alkylgroups. PMID:23385233

  18. From PII signaling to metabolite sensing: a novel 2-oxoglutarate sensor that details PII-NAGK complex formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lüddecke

    Full Text Available The widespread PII signal transduction proteins are known for integrating signals of nitrogen and energy supply and regulating cellular behavior by interacting with a multitude of target proteins. The PII protein of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus forms complexes with the controlling enzyme of arginine synthesis, N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK in a 2-oxoglutarate- and ATP/ADP-dependent manner. Fusing NAGK and PII proteins to either CFP or YFP yielded a FRET sensor that specifically responded to 2-oxoglutarate. The impact of the fluorescent tags on PII and NAGK was evaluated by enzyme assays, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and isothermal calorimetric experiments. The developed FRET sensor provides real-time data on PII - NAGK interaction and its modulation by the effector molecules ATP, ADP and 2-oxoglutarate in vitro. Additionally to its utility to monitor 2-oxoglutarate levels, the FRET assay provided novel insights into PII - NAGK complex formation: (i It revealed the formation of an encounter-complex between PII and NAGK, which holds the proteins in proximity even in the presence of inhibitors of complex formation; (ii It revealed that the PII T-loop residue Ser49 is neither essential for complex formation with NAGK nor for activation of the enzyme but necessary to form a stable complex and efficiently relieve NAGK from arginine inhibition; (iii It showed that arginine stabilizes the NAGK hexamer and stimulates PII - NAGK interaction.

  19. Stabilization and activation of alpha-chymotrypsin in water-organic solvent systems by complex formation with oligoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, Elena V; Artemova, Tatiana M; Vinogradov, Alexei A; Gladilin, Alexander K; Mozhaev, Vadim V; Levashov, Andrey V

    2003-04-01

    Formation of enzyme-oligoamine complexes was suggested as an approach to obtain biocatalysts with enhanced resistance towards inactivation in water-organic media. Complex formation results in broadening (by 20-40% v/v ethanol) of the range of cosolvent concentrations where the enzyme retains its catalytic activity (stabilization effect). At moderate cosolvent concentrations (20-40% v/v) complex formation activates the enzyme (by 3-6 times). The magnitude of activation and stabilization effects increases with the number of possible electrostatic contacts between the protein surface and the molecules of oligoamines (OA). Circular dichroism spectra in the far-UV region show that complex formation stabilizes protein conformation and prevents aggregation in water-organic solvent mixtures. Two populations of the complexes with different thermodynamic stabilities were found in alpha-chymotrypsin (CT)-OA systems depending on the CT/OA ratio. The average dissociation constants and stoichiometries of both low- and high-affinity populations of the complexes were estimated. It appears that it is the low-affinity sites on the CT surface that are responsible for the activation effect.

  20. Nucleotide excision repair in the test tube.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe eukaryotic nucleotide excision-repair pathway has been reconstituted in vitro, an achievement that should hasten the full enzymological characterization of this highly complex DNA-repair pathway.

  1. Shock-induced kelyphite formation in the core of a complex impact crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deseta, Natalie; Boonsue, Suporn; Gibson, Roger L.; Spray, John G.

    2017-10-01

    We present a compositional and textural analysis of shock-induced microtextures in garnet porphyroblasts in migmatitic garnet-cordierite-biotite paragneisses from the centre of the Vredefort impact structure, South Africa. Detailed imaging and major element analysis of deformation features in, and adjacent to, the garnet porphyroblasts record a complex, heterogeneous distribution of shock effects at the microscale. As the most competent silicate mineral in the assemblage, with the highest Hugoniot Elastic Limit and a wide pressure-temperature stability field, the porphyroblastic garnet preserves a more diverse shock deformation response compared to minerals such as quartz and feldspar, which underwent more comprehensive shock metamorphism and subsequent annealing. The garnet porphyroblasts display pre-impact fractures that are overprinted by later intra-granular Hertzian and distinctive planar fractures associated with the impact event. Shock-induced strain localization occurred along internal slip planes and defects, including pre-existing fractures and inclusion boundaries in the garnet. Symplectitic (kelyphitic) coronas commonly enclose the garnet porphyroblasts, and inhabit intra-granular fractures. The kelyphite assemblage in fractures with open communication beyond garnet grain boundaries is characterized by orthopyroxene—cordierite—sapphirine. Conversely, the kelyphite assemblage in closed-off intra-granular fractures is highly variable, comprising spatially restricted combinations of a secondary garnet phase with a majoritic component, Al-rich orthopyroxene, sapphirine and cordierite. The impedance contrast between garnet porphyroblasts and their inclusions further facilitated the formation of shock-induced features (Al-rich orthopyroxene coronas). Together, the textural and mineralogical data suggest that these features provide a record of oscillatory shock perturbations initiated under confining pressure beneath the transient crater floor. This

  2. Formation of nano-hydroxyapatite crystal in situ in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junjie; Zhu Dunwan; Yin Jianwei; Liu Yuxi; Yao Fanglian; Yao Kangde

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)/polysaccharide composites have been widely used in bone tissue engineering due to their chemical similarity to natural bone. Polymer matrix-mediated synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite is one of the simplest models for biomimetic. In this article, the nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan-pectin (nHCP) composites were prepared through in situ mineralization of hydroxyapatite in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) network. The formation processes of nHCP were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The interactions between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC networks were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The morphology and structure of nHA crystal were characterized by XRD and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Results suggested that the interfacial interactions between nano-hydroxyapatite crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC network assist the site specific nucleation and growth of nHA nanoparticles. The nHA crystals grow along the c-axis. In this process, pH value is the main factor to control the nucleation and growth of nHA crystal in chitosan-pectin PEC networks, because both the interactions' strength between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin and diffusion rate of inorganic ions depend on the pH value of the reaction system. Apart from the pH value, the chitosan/pectin ratio and [Ca 2+ ] also take important effects on the formation of nHA crystal. An effective way to control the size of nHA crystal is to adjust the content of pectin and [Ca 2+ ]. It is interesting that the Zeta potential of nHCP composites is about - 30 mV when the chitosan/pectin ratio ≤ 1:1, and the dispersion solution of nHCP composites has higher stability, which provides the possibility to prepare 3D porous scaffolds with nHCP for bone tissue engineering.

  3. Swarming and complex pattern formation in Paenibacillus vortex studied by imaging and tracking cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Eshel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swarming motility allows microorganisms to move rapidly over surfaces. The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits advanced cooperative motility on agar plates resulting in intricate colonial patterns with geometries that are highly sensitive to the environment. The cellular mechanisms that underpin the complex multicellular organization of such a simple organism are not well understood. Results Swarming by P. vortex was studied by real-time light microscopy, by in situ scanning electron microscopy and by tracking the spread of antibiotic-resistant cells within antibiotic-sensitive colonies. When swarming, P. vortex was found to be peritrichously flagellated. Swarming by the curved cells of P. vortex occurred on an extremely wide range of media and agar concentrations (0.3 to 2.2% w/v. At high agar concentrations (> 1% w/v rotating colonies formed that could be detached from the main mass of cells by withdrawal of cells into the latter. On lower percentage agars, cells moved in an extended network composed of interconnected "snakes" with short-term collision avoidance and sensitivity to extracts from swarming cells. P. vortex formed single Petri dish-wide "supercolonies" with a colony-wide exchange of motile cells. Swarming cells were coupled by rapidly forming, reversible and non-rigid connections to form a loose raft, apparently connected via flagella. Inhibitors of swarming (p-Nitrophenylglycerol and Congo Red were identified. Mitomycin C was used to trigger filamentation without inhibiting growth or swarming; this facilitated dissection of the detail of swarming. Mitomycin C treatment resulted in malcoordinated swarming and abortive side branch formation and a strong tendency by a subpopulation of the cells to form minimal rotating aggregates of only a few cells. Conclusion P. vortex creates complex macroscopic colonies within which there is considerable reflux and movement and interaction of cells. Cell

  4. A Biomimetic Nickel Complex with a Reduced CO2 Ligand Generated by Formate Deprotonation and its Behaviour towards CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Christian; Zimmermann, Philipp; Hoof, Santina; Braun-Cula, Beatrice; Herwig, Christian

    2018-04-10

    Reduced CO2 species are key intermediates in a variety of natural and synthetic processes. In the majority of systems, however, they elude isolation or characterisation due to high reactivity or limited accessibility (heterogeneous systems) and thus formulations often remain uncertain or based on calculations only. We herein report on a Ni-CO22- complex that is unique in many ways. While its structural and electronic features help understanding the CO2 bound state in Ni,Fe carbon monoxide dehydrogenases, its reactivity sheds light on how CO2 can be converted into CO/CO32- by nickel complexes. In addition, the complex has been generated via a rare example of formate β deprotonation, a mechanistical step relevant to nickel catalysed conversion of HxCOyz- at electrodes and formate oxidation in formate dehydrogenases. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Band registration of tuneable frame format hyperspectral UAV imagers in complex scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkavaara, Eija; Rosnell, Tomi; Oliveira, Raquel; Tommaselli, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    A recent revolution in miniaturised sensor technology has provided markets with novel hyperspectral imagers operating in the frame format principle. In the case of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing, the frame format technology is highly attractive in comparison to the commonly utilised pushbroom scanning technology, because it offers better stability and the possibility to capture stereoscopic data sets, bringing an opportunity for 3D hyperspectral object reconstruction. Tuneable filters are one of the approaches for capturing multi- or hyperspectral frame images. The individual bands are not aligned when operating a sensor based on tuneable filters from a mobile platform, such as UAV, because the full spectrum recording is carried out in the time-sequential principle. The objective of this investigation was to study the aspects of band registration of an imager based on tuneable filters and to develop a rigorous and efficient approach for band registration in complex 3D scenes, such as forests. The method first determines the orientations of selected reference bands and reconstructs the 3D scene using structure-from-motion and dense image matching technologies. The bands, without orientation, are then matched to the oriented bands accounting the 3D scene to provide exterior orientations, and afterwards, hyperspectral orthomosaics, or hyperspectral point clouds, are calculated. The uncertainty aspects of the novel approach were studied. An empirical assessment was carried out in a forested environment using hyperspectral images captured with a hyperspectral 2D frame format camera, based on a tuneable Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) on board a multicopter and supported by a high spatial resolution consumer colour camera. A theoretical assessment showed that the method was capable of providing band registration accuracy better than 0.5-pixel size. The empirical assessment proved the performance and showed that, with the novel method, most parts of

  6. RIT1 controls actin dynamics via complex formation with RAC1/CDC42 and PAK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Meyer Zum Büschenfelde

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available RIT1 belongs to the RAS family of small GTPases. Germline and somatic RIT1 mutations have been identified in Noonan syndrome (NS and cancer, respectively. By using heterologous expression systems and purified recombinant proteins, we identified the p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1 as novel direct effector of RIT1. We found RIT1 also to directly interact with the RHO GTPases CDC42 and RAC1, both of which are crucial regulators of actin dynamics upstream of PAK1. These interactions are independent of the guanine nucleotide bound to RIT1. Disease-causing RIT1 mutations enhance protein-protein interaction between RIT1 and PAK1, CDC42 or RAC1 and uncouple complex formation from serum and growth factors. We show that the RIT1-PAK1 complex regulates cytoskeletal rearrangements as expression of wild-type RIT1 and its mutant forms resulted in dissolution of stress fibers and reduction of mature paxillin-containing focal adhesions in COS7 cells. This effect was prevented by co-expression of RIT1 with dominant-negative CDC42 or RAC1 and kinase-dead PAK1. By using a transwell migration assay, we show that RIT1 wildtype and the disease-associated variants enhance cell motility. Our work demonstrates a new function for RIT1 in controlling actin dynamics via acting in a signaling module containing PAK1 and RAC1/CDC42, and highlights defects in cell adhesion and migration as possible disease mechanism underlying NS.

  7. Theory Meets Experiment: Metal Ion Effects in HCV Genomic RNA Kissing Complex Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhen Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-range base pairing between the 5BSL3. 2 and 3′X domains in hepatitis C virus (HCV genomic RNA is essential for viral replication. Experimental evidence points to the critical role of metal ions, especially Mg2+ ions, in the formation of the 5BSL3.2:3′X kissing complex. Furthermore, NMR studies suggested an important ion-dependent conformational switch in the kissing process. However, for a long time, mechanistic understanding of the ion effects for the process has been unclear. Recently, computational modeling based on the Vfold RNA folding model and the partial charge-based tightly bound ion (PCTBI model, in combination with the NMR data, revealed novel physical insights into the role of metal ions in the 5BSL3.2-3′X system. The use of the PCTBI model, which accounts for the ion correlation and fluctuation, gives reliable predictions for the ion-dependent electrostatic free energy landscape and ion-induced population shift of the 5BSL3.2:3′X kissing complex. Furthermore, the predicted ion binding sites offer insights about how ion-RNA interactions shift the conformational equilibrium. The integrated theory-experiment study shows that Mg2+ ions may be essential for HCV viral replication. Moreover, the observed Mg2+-dependent conformational equilibrium may be an adaptive property of the HCV genomic RNA such that the equilibrium is optimized to the intracellular Mg2+ concentration in liver cells for efficient viral replication.

  8. Bacillus subtilis δ Factor Functions as a Transcriptional Regulator by Facilitating the Open Complex Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Ranjit Kumar; Sengupta, Shreya; Rudra, Paulami; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2016-01-15

    Most bacterial RNA polymerases (RNAP) contain five conserved subunits, viz. 2α, β, β', and ω. However, in many Gram-positive bacteria, especially in fermicutes, RNAP is associated with an additional factor, called δ. For over three decades since its identification, it had been thought that δ functioned as a subunit of RNAP to enhance the level of transcripts by recycling RNAP. In support of the previous observations, we also find that δ is involved in recycling of RNAP by releasing the RNA from the ternary complex. We further show that δ binds to RNA and is able to recycle RNAP when the length of the nascent RNA reaches a critical length. However, in this work we decipher a new function of δ. Performing biochemical and mutational analysis, we show that Bacillus subtilis δ binds to DNA immediately upstream of the promoter element at A-rich sequences on the abrB and rrnB1 promoters and facilitates open complex formation. As a result, δ facilitates RNAP to initiate transcription in the second scale, compared with minute scale in the absence of δ. Using transcription assay, we show that δ-mediated recycling of RNAP cannot be the sole reason for the enhancement of transcript yield. Our observation that δ does not bind to RNAP holo enzyme but is required to bind to DNA upstream of the -35 promoter element for transcription activation suggests that δ functions as a transcriptional regulator. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Stated Choice Experiments with Complex Ecosystem Changes: The Effect of Information Formats on Estimated Variances and Choice Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hoehn, John P.; Lupi, Frank; Kaplowitz, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Stated choice experiments about ecosystem changes involve complex information. This study examines whether the format in which ecosystem information is presented to respondents affects stated choice outcomes. Our analysis develops a utility-maximizing model to describe respondent behavior. The model shows how alternative questionnaire formats alter respondents’ use of filtering heuristics and result in differences in preference estimates. Empirical results from a large-scale stated choice e...

  10. Structure Formation of Ultrathin PEO Films at Solid Interfaces—Complex Pattern Formation by Dewetting and Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Braun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The direct contact of ultrathin polymer films with a solid substrate may result in thin film rupture caused by dewetting. With crystallisable polymers such as polyethyleneoxide (PEO, molecular self-assembly into partial ordered lamella structures is studied as an additional source of pattern formation. Morphological features in ultrathin PEO films (thickness < 10 nm result from an interplay between dewetting patterns and diffusion limited growth pattern of ordered lamella growing within the dewetting areas. Besides structure formation of hydrophilic PEO molecules, n-alkylterminated (hydrophobic PEO oligomers are investigated with respect to self-organization in ultrathin films. Morphological features characteristic for pure PEO are not changed by the presence of the n-alkylgroups.

  11. Formation of Mixed-Ligand Complexes of Metals(II) with Monoamine Complexones and Amino Acids in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyreu, D. F.; Gridchin, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    The formation of mixed-ligand complexes in the M(II)-Nta, Ida-L (M = Cu(II), Ni, Zn, Co(II), L = Ser, Thr, Asp, Arg, Asn) systems, where Ida and Nta are the residues of iminodiacetic and nitrilotriacetic acids, respectively, is studied using pH measurements, calorimetry and spectrophotometry. The thermodynamic parameters (log K, Δr G 0, Δr H, Δr S) of their formation at 298.15 K and ionic strength I = 0.5 (KNO3) are determined. The most likely scenario of amino acid residue coordination in the composition of mixed complexes is discussed.

  12. Apatite formation behaviour during metasomatism in the Bathtub Intrusion (Babbitt deposit, Duluth Complex, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raič, Sara; Mogessie, Aberra; Krenn, Kurt; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Tropper, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The mineralized troctolitic Bathtub intrusion (Duluth Complex, NE-Minnesota) is known for its famous Cu-Ni-Sulfide±PGM Babbitt deposit, where platinum group minerals (PGMs) are either hosted by primary magmatic sulfides (base metal sulfides) or associated with hydrothermally altered portions. This secondary generation of PGMs is present in alteration patches and suggests the involvement of hydrothermal fluids in the mobilization of platinum-group elements (PGEs). Accessory fluorapatite in these samples reveals besides H2O- and CO2-rich primary fluid inclusions, textural and compositional variations that also record magmatic and metasomatic events. Based on detailed back-scattered electron imaging (BSE) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), a primary magmatic origin is reflected by homogeneous or zoned grains, where zoning patterns are either concentric or oscillatory, with respect to LREE. Late magmatic to hydrothermal processes are indicated by grains with bright LREE-enriched rims or conversion textures with REE-enriched patches in the interior of the apatite. A metasomatic formation of monazite from apatite is documented by the presence of monazite inclusions in apatite and newly grown monazite at altered apatite rims. They formed by the release of REEs from the apatite during a fluid-induced alteration, based on the coupled substitution Ca2+ + P5+ = REE3+ + Si4+ (Rønsbo 1989; Rønsbo 2008). Samples with monazite inclusions in apatite further display occurrences of PGMs associated with hydrothermal alteration patches (chlorite + amphibole). The presence of H2O- and CO2-rich fluid inclusions in apatite, the metasomatically induced monazite growth, as well as the occurrence of PGMs in hydrothermally alteration zones, also suggest the involvement of aqueous chloride complexes in a H2O dominated fluid in the transportation of LREE and redistribution of the second generation of PGEs. Rønsbo, J.G. (1989): Coupled substitutions

  13. Formation of giant cloud complexes by the Parker-Jeans instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Parker-Jeans instability is considered as a possible mechanism for forming the giant cloud complexes observed near OB associations. We use a previously derived dispersion relation to evaluate the masses and growth times of the dominant modes in this instability. The results show that massive clouds (Mroughly-equal10 6 M/sub sun/) can form quickly (roughly-equal12 million yr) in the high density environments (5 cm -3 ) associated with spiral density wave shocks. For densities larger than about 3 cm -3 , these clouds form primarily as a result of the self-graviational forces in the interstellar medium. Lower mass clouds (Mroughly-equal10 5 M/sub sun/) can form in lower density environments as a result of the pure Parker instability. The masses of the clouds that form when the density exceeds about 3 cm -3 are insensitive to the magnetic field strength, cosmic ray pressure, and ambient density (even in compressed media.). These masses are essentially the Jeans mass in a magnetic interstellar medium. The occurrence of a characteristic mass may explain the similarity of the local OB associations. The role of the Parker-Jeans instability as part of a complete theory of cloud formation is summarized

  14. Modification of the SERS spectrum of cyanide traces due to complex formation between cyanide and silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao Dao, Tran; Kieu, Ngoc Minh; Quynh Ngan Luong, Truc; Cao, Tuan Anh; Hai Nguyen, Ngoc; Le, Van Vu

    2018-06-01

    It is well known that cyanide is an extremely toxic lethal poison with human death within minutes after exposure to only 300 ppm cyanide. On the other hand, cyanide is released into the environment (mainly through waste water) every day from various human activities. Therefore, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective cyanide trace detection is an urgent need. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a method that meets these requirements. It should be noted, however, that in this technique SERS substrates, which are usually made of gold or silver, will be leached with aqueous cyanide by the formation of complexes between gold or silver with cyanide. This will cause the SERS spectrum of cyanide to be modified. When determining cyanide concentrations by SERS analysis, this spectral modification should be taken into account. This report presents the SERS spectral modification of aqueous cyanide traces (in ppm and lower concentration range) when the SERS substrates used are flower-like silver micro-structures.

  15. Accelerated fluctuation analysis by graphic cards and complex pattern formation in financial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, Tobias; Virnau, Peter; Paul, Wolfgang; Schneider, Johannes J

    2009-01-01

    The compute unified device architecture is an almost conventional programming approach for managing computations on a graphics processing unit (GPU) as a data-parallel computing device. With a maximum number of 240 cores in combination with a high memory bandwidth, a recent GPU offers resources for computational physics. We apply this technology to methods of fluctuation analysis, which includes determination of the scaling behavior of a stochastic process and the equilibrium autocorrelation function. Additionally, the recently introduced pattern formation conformity (Preis T et al 2008 Europhys. Lett. 82 68005), which quantifies pattern-based complex short-time correlations of a time series, is calculated on a GPU and analyzed in detail. Results are obtained up to 84 times faster than on a current central processing unit core. When we apply this method to high-frequency time series of the German BUND future, we find significant pattern-based correlations on short time scales. Furthermore, an anti-persistent behavior can be found on short time scales. Additionally, we compare the recent GPU generation, which provides a theoretical peak performance of up to roughly 10 12 floating point operations per second with the previous one.

  16. Planktonic growth and biofilm formation profiles in Candida haemulonii species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Lívia S; Oliveira, Simone S C; Souto, Xênia M; Branquinha, Marta H; Santos, André L S

    2017-10-01

    Candida haemulonii species complex have emerged as multidrug-resistant yeasts able to cause fungemia worldwide. However, very little is known regarding their physiology and virulence factors. In this context, planktonic growth and biofilm formation of Brazilian clinical isolates of Candida haemulonii (n = 5), Candida duobushaemulonii (n = 4), and Candida haemulonii var. vulnera (n = 3) were reported. Overall, the fungal planktonic growth curves in Sabouraud dextrose broth reached the exponential phase in 48 h at 37°C. All the clinical isolates formed biofilm on polystyrene in a time-dependent event, as judged by the parameters evaluated: biomass (crystal violet staining), metabolic activity (XTT reduction), and extracellular matrix (safranin incorporation). No statistically significant differences were observed when the average measurements among the three Candida species were compared regarding both planktonic and biofilm lifestyles; however, typical isolate-specific differences were clearly noticed in fungal growth kinetics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Formation of wood secondary cell wall may involve two type cellulose synthase complexes in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wang; Song, Dongliang; Sun, Jiayan; Shen, Junhui; Li, Laigeng

    2017-03-01

    Cellulose biosynthesis is mediated by cellulose synthases (CesAs), which constitute into rosette-like cellulose synthase complexe (CSC) on the plasma membrane. Two types of CSCs in Arabidopsis are believed to be involved in cellulose synthesis in the primary cell wall and secondary cell walls, respectively. In this work, we found that the two type CSCs participated cellulose biosynthesis in differentiating xylem cells undergoing secondary cell wall thickening in Populus. During the cell wall thickening process, expression of one type CSC genes increased while expression of the other type CSC genes decreased. Suppression of different type CSC genes both affected the wall-thickening and disrupted the multilaminar structure of the secondary cell walls. When CesA7A was suppressed, crystalline cellulose content was reduced, which, however, showed an increase when CesA3D was suppressed. The CesA suppression also affected cellulose digestibility of the wood cell walls. The results suggest that two type CSCs are involved in coordinating the cellulose biosynthesis in formation of the multilaminar structure in Populus wood secondary cell walls.

  18. Modulation of Correlated Segment Fluctuations in IDPs upon Complex Formation as an Allosteric Regulatory Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Andreas; Schwarz, Thomas C; Kurzbach, Dennis; Platzer, Gerald; Tribuzio, Francesca; Konrat, Robert

    2018-05-05

    Molecular recognition of and by intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is an intriguing and still largely elusive phenomenon. Typically, protein recognition involving IDPs requires either folding upon binding or, alternatively, the formation of "fuzzy complexes." Here we show via correlation analyses of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement data unprecedented and striking alterations of the concerted fluctuations within the conformational ensemble of IDPs upon ligand binding. We study the binding of α-synuclein to calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, and the binding of the extracellular matrix IDP osteopontin to heparin, a mimic of the extracellular matrix ligand hyaluronic acid. In both cases, binding leads to reduction of correlated long-range motions in these two IDPs and thus indicates a loosening of structural compaction upon binding. Most importantly, however, the simultaneous presence of correlated and anti-correlated fluctuations in IDPs suggests the prevalence of "energetic frustration" and provides an explanation for the puzzling observation of disordered allostery in IDPs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Computation of infinite dilute activity coefficients of binary liquid alloys using complex formation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E., E-mail: draweoe2004@yahoo.com; Oshakuade, O.M.

    2016-04-15

    A new method for calculating Infinite Dilute Activity Coefficients (γ{sup ∞}s) of binary liquid alloys has been developed. This method is basically computing γ{sup ∞}s from experimental thermodynamic integral free energy of mixing data using Complex formation model. The new method was first used to theoretically compute the γ{sup ∞}s of 10 binary alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s have been determined by experiments. The significant agreement between the computed values and the available experimental values served as impetus for applying the new method to 22 selected binary liquid alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s are either nonexistent or incomplete. In order to verify the reliability of the computed γ{sup ∞}s of the 22 selected alloys, we recomputed the γ{sup ∞}s using three other existing methods of computing or estimating γ{sup ∞}s and then used the γ{sup ∞}s obtained from each of the four methods (the new method inclusive) to compute thermodynamic activities of components of each of the binary systems. The computed activities were compared with available experimental activities. It is observed that the results from the method being proposed, in most of the selected alloys, showed better agreement with experimental activity data. Thus, the new method is an alternative and in certain instances, more reliable approach of computing γ{sup ∞}s of binary liquid alloys.

  20. Decamethylytterbocene Complexes of Bipyridines and Diazabutadienes: Multiconfigurational Ground States and Open-Shell Singlet Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Corwin H.; Walter, Marc D.; Kazhdan, Daniel; Hu, Yung-Jin; Lukens, Wayne W.; Bauer, Eric D.; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile; Andersen, Richard A.

    2009-04-22

    Partial ytterbium f-orbital occupancy (i.e., intermediate valence) and open-shell singlet formation are established for a variety of bipyridine and diazabutadiene adducts with decamethylytterbocene, (C5Me5)2Yb, abbreviated as Cp*2Yb. Data used to support this claim include ytterbium valence measurements using Yb LIII-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) multiconfigurational calculations, as well as structural measurements compared to density functional theory calculations. The CASSCF calculations indicate that the intermediate valence is the result of a multiconfigurational ground-state wave function that has both an open-shell singlet f13(?*)1, where pi* is the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the bipyridine or dpiazabutadiene ligands, and a closed-shell singlet f14 component. A number of other competing theories for the unusual magnetism in these materials are ruled out by the lack of temperature dependence of the measured intermediate valence. These results have implications for understanding chemical bonding not only in organolanthanide complexes but also for f-element chemistry in general, as well as understanding magnetic interactions in nanoparticles and devices.

  1. Decamethylytterbocene complexes of bipyridines and diazabutadines: multiconfigurational ground states and open-shell singlet formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Eric D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booth, C H [LBNL; Walter, M D [LBNL; Kazhdan, D [LBNL; Hu, Y - J [LBNL; Lukens, Wayne [LBNL; Maron, Laurent [INSA TOULOUSE; Eisentein, Odile [UNIV MONTPELLIER 2; Anderson, Richard [LBNL

    2009-01-01

    Partial ytterbium f-orbital occupancy (i.e. intermediate valence) and open-shell singlet Draft 12/formation are established for a variety of bipyridine and diazabutadiene adducts to decamethylytterbocene, (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb or Cp*{sub 2}Yb. Data used to support this claim includes ytterbium valence measurements using Yb Lm-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility and Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) multi configurational calculations, as well as structural measurements compared to density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The CASSCF calculations indicate that the intermediate valence is the result of a multiconfigurational ground state wave function that has both an open-shell singlet f{sup 13} and a closed-shell singlet f{sup 14} component. A number of other competing theories for the unusual magnetism in these materials are ruled out by the presence of intermediate valence and its lack of any significant temperature dependence. These results have implications for understanding chemical bonding not only in organolanthanide complexes, but also for organometallic chemistry in general, as well as understanding magnetic interactions in nanopartic1es and devices.

  2. Effect of ultrasonic waves on the water turbidity during the oxidation of phenol. Formation of (hydro)peroxo complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villota, Natalia; Lomas, Jose M; Camarero, Luis M

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of the kinetics of aqueous phenol oxidation by a sono-Fenton process reveals that the via involving ortho-substituted intermediates prevails: catechol (25.0%), hydroquinone (7.7%) and resorcinol (0.6%). During the oxidation, water rapidly acquires color that reaches its maximum intensity at the maximum concentration of p-benzoquinone. Turbidity formation occurs at a slower rate. Oxidant dosage determines the nature of the intermediates, being trihydroxylated benzenes (pyrogallol, hydroxyhydroquinone) and muconic acid the main precursors causing turbidity. It is found that the concentration of iron species and ultrasonic waves affects the intensity of the turbidity. The pathway of (hydro)peroxo-iron(II) complexes formation is proposed. Operating with 20.0-27.8mgFe 2+ /kW rates leads to formation of (hydro)peroxo-iron(II) complexes, which induce high turbidity levels. These species would dissociate into ZZ-muconic acid and ferrous ions. Applying relationships around 13.9mgFe 2+ /kW, the formation of (hydro)peroxo-iron(III) complexes would occur, which could react with carboxylic acids (2,5-dioxo-3-hexenedioic acid). That reaction induces turbidity slower. This is due to the organic substrate reacting with two molecules of the (hydro)peroxo complex. Therefore, it is necessary to accelerate the iron regeneration, intensifying the ultrasonic irradiation. Afterwards, this complex would dissociate into maleic acid and ferric ions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of the stability constants of a number of metal fluoride complexes and their rates of formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    The stability constants of the fluoride complexes of Al +3 , H 3 BO 3 , Cr +3 , Cr +6 , Fe +3 , Gd +3 , Nb +5 , UO 2 +2 , and Zr +4 were determined in 0.96 and 2.88 M HNO 3 solutions in the temperature range 25 to 60 0 C with a fluoride specific ion electrode. These data can be used to calculate the concentration of chemical species in solution and will be used to correlate solution properties with solution composition. The solubilities of some fluoride precipitates were also measured in nitric acid solutions. The rates of formation of the fluoborates, aluminum fluoride, and zirconium fluoride complexes were measured with a fluoride specific ion electrode at 25, 35, and 45 0 C. The rates of formation of all complexes, except BF 4 - , AlF +2 , and a fluoride complex with aluminum containing more than three fluorides associated with it, were too fast to measure with the instrumentation used

  4. The effect of ligand efficacy on the formation and stability of a GPCR-G protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Xiao Jie; Vélez Ruiz, Gisselle; Whorton, Matthew R

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate the majority of physiologic responses to hormones and neurotransmitters. However, many GPCRs exhibit varying degrees of agonist-independent G protein activation. This phenomenon is referred to as basal or constitutive activity. For many of these GPCRs...... of an agonist, the beta(2)AR and Gs can be trapped in a complex by enzymatic depletion of guanine nucleotides. Formation of the complex is enhanced by the agonist isoproterenol, and it rapidly dissociates on exposure to concentrations of GTP and GDP found in the cytoplasm. The inverse agonist ICI prevents...... formation of the beta(2)AR-Gs complex, but has little effect on preformed complexes. These results provide insights into G protein-induced conformational changes in the beta(2)AR and the structural basis for ligand efficacy....

  5. Formation mechanism of a silane-PVA/PVAc complex film on a glass fiber surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovsky, Daniel; Jane, Eduard; Palszegi, Tibor; Slobodnik, Marek; Velic, Dusan

    2013-10-21

    Mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced composite materials are affected by fiber sizing. A complex film formation, based on a silane film and PVA/PVAc (polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl acetate) microspheres on a glass fiber surface is determined at 1) the nanoscale by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and 2) the macroscale by using the zeta potential. Silane groups strongly bind through the Si-O-Si bond to the glass surface, which provides the attachment mechanism as a coupling agent. The silane groups form islands, a homogeneous film, as well as empty sites. The average roughness of the silanized surface is 6.5 nm, whereas it is only 0.6 nm for the non-silanized surface. The silane film vertically penetrates in a honeycomb fashion from the glass surface through the deposited PVA/PVAc microspheres to form a hexagonal close pack structure. The silane film not only penetrates, but also deforms the PVA/PVAc microspheres from the spherical shape in a dispersion to a ellipsoidal shape on the surface with average dimensions of 300/600 nm. The surface area value Sa represents an area of PVA/PVAc microspheres that are not affected by the silane penetration. The areas are found to be 0.2, 0.08, and 0.03 μm(2) if the ellipsoid sizes are 320/570, 300/610, and 270/620 nm for silane concentrations of 0, 3.8, and 7.2 μg mL(-1), respectively. The silane film also moves PVA/PVAc microspheres in the process of complex film formation, from the low silane concentration areas to the complex film area providing enough silane groups to stabilize the structure. The values for the residual silane honeycomb structure heights (Ha ) are 6.5, 7, and 12 nm for silane concentrations of 3.8, 7.2, and 14.3 μg mL(-1), respectively. The pH-dependent zeta-potential results suggest a specific role of the silane groups with effects on the glass fiber surface and also on the PVA/PVAc microspheres. The non-silanized glass fiber surface and the silane film have similar zeta potentials ranging

  6. Formation of aqueous complexes of metal ions formed during the reprocessing of nuclear fuels with ortho-phenanthroline and dibutylphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Le Marois, G.; Racinoux, J.

    1979-01-01

    In this work the formation of aqueous complexes of metalions (lanthanides, actinides) was investigated that occurs during reprocessing of nuclear combustibles with ortho-phenanthroline and dibutylphosphate. Complexes with different ligand numbers and solubility are formed. Cationic and anionic forms according to the DBP concentration in the extraction solution. Acid-base titrations, absorption spectra and solubility determinations were used for the characterization. (RB) [de

  7. Thermodynamics of mixed-ligand complex formation of zinc nitrilotriacetate with amino acids and dipeptides in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyreu, Dmitrii; Gruzdev, Matvey; Kumeev, Roman; Gridchin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Stable mixed ligand complexes of ZnNta with amino acids and dipeptides. • Histamine-like coordination mode of His in the complex ZnNtaHis. • Glycine-like coordination of Lys and Orn in the complexes ZnNtaL and ZnNtaHL • NH 2 , CO-coordination mode of GlyGly in the complex ZnNtaGG. • NH 2 , N − or NH2, N − , COO-coordination modes of GlyGly in the complex ZnNtaGGH −1 . - Abstract: The isothermal calorimetry, pH-potentiometric titration and 1 H and 13 C NMR methods has been used to study the mixed-ligand complex formation in the systems Zn 2+ –Nta 3– –L − (L = His, Orn, Lys, GlyGly, AlaAla) in aqueous solution at 298.15 K and the ionic strength of I = 0.5 (KNO 3 ). The thermodynamic parameters of formation of the mixed complexes have been determined. The relationship between the probable coordination modes of the complexone and amino acid or dipeptide molecules in the mixed-ligand complex and the thermodynamic parameters has been discussed

  8. Thermodynamics of mixed-ligand complex formation of zinc nitrilotriacetate with amino acids and dipeptides in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyreu, Dmitrii, E-mail: pyreu@mail.ru [Department of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry, Ivanovo State UniversityErmak 39, Ivanovo 153025 (Russian Federation); Gruzdev, Matvey; Kumeev, Roman [G.A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Gridchin, Sergei [Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-20

    Highlights: • Stable mixed ligand complexes of ZnNta with amino acids and dipeptides. • Histamine-like coordination mode of His in the complex ZnNtaHis. • Glycine-like coordination of Lys and Orn in the complexes ZnNtaL and ZnNtaHL • NH{sub 2}, CO-coordination mode of GlyGly in the complex ZnNtaGG. • NH{sub 2}, N{sup −} or NH2, N{sup −}, COO-coordination modes of GlyGly in the complex ZnNtaGGH{sub −1}. - Abstract: The isothermal calorimetry, pH-potentiometric titration and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR methods has been used to study the mixed-ligand complex formation in the systems Zn{sup 2+}–Nta{sup 3–}–L{sup −} (L = His, Orn, Lys, GlyGly, AlaAla) in aqueous solution at 298.15 K and the ionic strength of I = 0.5 (KNO{sub 3}). The thermodynamic parameters of formation of the mixed complexes have been determined. The relationship between the probable coordination modes of the complexone and amino acid or dipeptide molecules in the mixed-ligand complex and the thermodynamic parameters has been discussed.

  9. A peroxynitrite complex of copper: formation from a copper-nitrosyl complex, transformation to nitrite and exogenous phenol oxidative coupling or nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ga Young; Deepalatha, Subramanian; Puiu, Simona C; Lee, Dong-Heon; Mondal, Biplab; Narducci Sarjeant, Amy A; del Rio, Diego; Pau, Monita Y M; Solomon, Edward I; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2009-11-01

    Reaction of nitrogen monoxide with a copper(I) complex possessing a tridentate alkylamine ligand gives a Cu(I)-(*NO) adduct, which when exposed to dioxygen generates a peroxynitrite (O=NOO(-))-Cu(II) species. This undergoes thermal transformation to produce a copper(II) nitrito (NO(2) (-)) complex and 0.5 mol equiv O(2). In the presence of a substituted phenol, the peroxynitrite complex effects oxidative coupling, whereas addition of chloride ion to dissociate the peroxynitrite moiety instead leads to phenol ortho nitration. Discussions include the structures (including electronic description) of the copper-nitrosyl and copper-peroxynitrite complexes and the formation of the latter, based on density functional theory calculations and accompanying spectroscopic data.

  10. Collectin-11/MASP complex formation triggers activation of the lectin complement pathway--the fifth lectin pathway initiation complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ying Jie; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Collectins and ficolins are important in the clearance of endogenous and exogenous danger materials. A new human collectin-11 was recently identified in low concentration in serum in complex with mannose-binding lectin (MBL)/ficolin-associated serine proteases. Collectin-11 binds to carbohydrate...... complement complex on C. albicans. Moreover, spiking collectin-11-depleted serum, which did not mediate complement activation, with recombinant collectin-11 restored the complement activation capability. These results define collectin-11 as the fifth recognition molecule in the lectin complement pathway...

  11. Methodological basis for formation of uniterruptible education content for future specialists of atomic-nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtebayev, N.; Burtebayeva, J.T.; Basharuly, R.; Altynsarin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    content for future specialists of atomic-nuclear complex at the particular science methodological level. It should be highlighted that the so called 'methods system' of teaching is the inseparable link of its subsequent backbone elements: aim, content, forms, methods and techniques of teaching. The creation of such methods system, consisting of above five elements assures the functional adequacy of specialists teaching, including nuclear profile personnel. Thereby, as the system methodological analysis shows, the determination of the content of uninterrupted education for nuclear profile specialists is only one of the tasks of united teaching methods system formation. Consequently, the development of other its backbone elements is the vital task of the training of atomic-nuclear complex specialists. These are the main approaches in general of theoretical-methodological provision of the training for future competitive capable specialists of nuclear profile in the national system of uninterrupted education in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Reference: 1. Basharuly R. Methodology of poly-cultural education development in Kazakhstan. Almaty: G ylym , 2002, p. 236.; 2. Sedov E.A. Again dialectics: truth and myths. // Pedagogic, 1993, No.3, pp.113-117.; 3. Lednev V.S. Education content. M.: High school. 1989, p.362. (authors)

  12. NOTCH1 Inhibits Activation of ATM by Impairing the Formation of an ATM-FOXO3a-KAT5/Tip60 Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Marek; Vermezovic, Jelena; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2016-08-23

    The DNA damage response (DDR) signal transduction pathway is responsible for sensing DNA damage and further relaying this signal into the cell. ATM is an apical DDR kinase that orchestrates the activation and the recruitment of downstream DDR factors to induce cell-cycle arrest and repair. We have previously shown that NOTCH1 inhibits ATM activation upon DNA damage, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that NOTCH1 does not impair ATM recruitment to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Rather, NOTCH1 prevents binding of FOXO3a and KAT5/Tip60 to ATM through a mechanism in which NOTCH1 competes with FOXO3a for ATM binding. Lack of FOXO3a binding to ATM leads to the loss of KAT5/Tip60 association with ATM. Moreover, expression of NOTCH1 or depletion of ATM impairs the formation of the FOXO3a-KAT5/Tip60 protein complex. Finally, we show that pharmacological induction of FOXO3a nuclear localization sensitizes NOTCH1-driven cancers to DNA-damage-induced cell death. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Formation of nano-hydroxyapatite crystal in situ in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Junjie [Department of Polymer Science and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Research Institute of Polymeric Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Zhu Dunwan [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Yin Jianwei; Liu Yuxi [Department of Polymer Science and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Yao Fanglian, E-mail: yaofanglian@tju.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Science and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Yao Kangde [Research Institute of Polymeric Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-07-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)/polysaccharide composites have been widely used in bone tissue engineering due to their chemical similarity to natural bone. Polymer matrix-mediated synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite is one of the simplest models for biomimetic. In this article, the nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan-pectin (nHCP) composites were prepared through in situ mineralization of hydroxyapatite in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) network. The formation processes of nHCP were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The interactions between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC networks were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The morphology and structure of nHA crystal were characterized by XRD and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Results suggested that the interfacial interactions between nano-hydroxyapatite crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC network assist the site specific nucleation and growth of nHA nanoparticles. The nHA crystals grow along the c-axis. In this process, pH value is the main factor to control the nucleation and growth of nHA crystal in chitosan-pectin PEC networks, because both the interactions' strength between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin and diffusion rate of inorganic ions depend on the pH value of the reaction system. Apart from the pH value, the chitosan/pectin ratio and [Ca{sup 2+}] also take important effects on the formation of nHA crystal. An effective way to control the size of nHA crystal is to adjust the content of pectin and [Ca{sup 2+}]. It is interesting that the Zeta potential of nHCP composites is about - 30 mV when the chitosan/pectin ratio {<=} 1:1, and the dispersion solution of nHCP composites has higher stability, which provides the possibility to prepare 3D porous scaffolds with nHCP for bone tissue engineering.

  14. Formation of different-ligand complexes of neodymium,-holmium- and erbium ions with diantipyrylmethane and gallic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimenko, G.I.; Tishchenko, M.A.; Poluehktov, N.S.

    1978-01-01

    Spectrometry has been used for studying the formation of different-ligand complexes of Nd 3+ , Ho 3+ , and Er 3+ with diantipyrylmethane (DAM) and gallic aicd (GA) at pH 10.0-12.0. It has been found that in the complex being formed one ion of rare earth element interacts with one molecule of DAM and three molecules of GA. The oscillator forces grow when passing from aquaions to compounds with gallic acid and then with DAM and GA. The oscillator forces of Nd 3+ and Er 3+ depend linearly on those of Ho 3+ in the solutions of complexes with DAM and GA

  15. Formative assessment in an online learning environment to support flexible on-the-job learning in complex professional domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamara van Gog; Desirée Joosten-ten Brinke; F. J. Prins; Dominique Sluijsmans

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a blueprint for an online learning environment that is based on prominent instructional design and assessment theories for supporting learning in complex domains. The core of this environment consists of formative assessment tasks (i.e., assessment for learning) that center on

  16. The role of territorial marketing in the formation of Russian Far East social and economic development complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacherikova M. L.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available the article describes those areas of marketing tools which used in the complex of measures on Far East development. The role of territory marketing in formation of conditions for social and economic development of Far East macroregion is determinated; proposals on marketing approach to territory management in order to increase its competitiveness and attractiveness are formulated.

  17. THE FORMATION OF THE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE ENTERPRISES OF MACHINE-BUILDING COMPLEX OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Zbyrannyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to analyse the existing approaches to determine the value of the production of innovative products and innovation in enterprises of machine-building complex of Ukraine in order to improve their level of competitiveness. Methodology. Statistical analysis and generalization of scientific approaches to the formation of the competitiveness of machine-building enterprises. Results of the of the analyzed approaches allowed to identify the cause of the imperfection of innovation policy in engineering. According to the research, the number of machine-building enterprises engaged in innovation activity, constantly shrinks; the share of innovative products in the total is only 3.5-4%, and the volume of imports of high-tech products exceeding the size of own production; the level of knowledge-intensive industrial production is only 0.3%. All this slows down the process of creating competitive products and as a result, the failure to provide highly own products to other industries, take a niche world of mechanical engineering. Practical implications. Ensure accelerated economic growth of the country as the defining condition for implementation of the European integration aspirations of Ukraine in the short term requires the intensification of innovative activity of the machine-building enterprises. The current state of innovation activity of enterprises in Ukraine is characterized by a number of negative factors: the internal environment of the majority of machine-building enterprises does not correspond to the market conditions of managing: high energy productions, the growth of the degree of wear and tear of fixed assets and reduce investment to update them, the lack of introduction of advanced production and resource-saving technologies, reducing innovation activity due to lack of financial resources significantly affect the level of the competitive machine-building enterprises. Value/ originality systematic approaches to determining the

  18. Formation of atoll garnets in the UHP eclogites of the Tso Morari Complex, Ladakh, Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Mallika K.; Karmalkar, Nitin R.; Duraiswami, Raymond A.; Harshe, Shivani; Gain, Sarah; Griffin, William L.

    2017-12-01

    The eclogites of the Tso Morari Complex, Ladakh, NW Himalayas preserve both garnets with spectacular atoll textures, as well as whole porphyroblastic garnets. Whole garnets are euhedral, idiomorphic and enclose inclusions of amphibole, phengite and zoisite within the cores, and omphacite and quartz/coesite towards the rims. Detailed electron microprobe analyses and back-scattered electron images show well-preserved prograde zoning in the whole garnets with an increase in Mg and decrease in Ca and Mn contents from the core to the rim. The atoll garnets commonly consist of euhedral ring over island/peninsular core containing inclusions of phengite, omphacite and rarely amphibole between the core and ring. Compositional profiles across the studied atoll grains show elemental variations with higher concentrations of Ca and Mn with low Mg at the peninsula/island cores; contrary to this low Ca, Mn and high Mg is observed at the outer rings. Temperature estimates yield higher values at the Mg-rich atoll garnet outer rings compared to the atoll cores. Atoll garnet formation was favoured by infiltration of fluid formed due to breakdown of hydrous phases, and/or the release of structurally bounded OH from nominally anhydrous minerals at the onset of exhumation. Infiltration of fluids along pre-existing fracture pathways and along mineral inclusion boundaries triggered breakdown of the original garnet cores and released elements which were subsequently incorporated into the newly-grown garnet rings. This breakdown of garnet cores and inward re-growth at the outer ring produced the atoll structure. Calibrated geo-thermobarometers and mineral equilibria reflect that the Tso Morari eclogites attain peak pressures prior to peak temperatures representing a clockwise path of evolution.

  19. Formation and past evolution of the showers of 96P/Machholz complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedin, Abedin; Wiegert, Paul; Janches, Diego; Pokorný, Petr; Brown, Peter; Hormaechea, Jose Luis

    2018-01-01

    In this work we model the dynamical evolution of meteoroid streams of comet 96P/Machholz, and the largest member of the Marsden sunskirters, comet P/1999 J6. We simultaneously fit the characteristics of eight meteor showers which have been proposed to be linked to the complex, using observations from a range of techniques - visual, video, TV and radar. The aim is to obtain a self-consistent scenario of past capture of a large comet into a short-period orbit, and its subsequent fragmentation history. Moreover, we also aim to constrain the dominant parent of these showers. The fit of our simulated shower characteristics to observations is consistent with the scenario of a capture of a proto-comet 96P/Machholz by Jupiter circa 20000 BCE, and a subsequent major breakup around 100-950 CE which resulted in the formation of the Marsden group of comets. We find that the Marsden group of comets are not the immediate parents of the daytime Arietids and Northern and Southern δ-Aquariids, as previously suggested. In fact, the hypothesis that the Northern δ-Aquariids are related to the Marsden group of comets is not supported by this study. The bulk of the observational characteristics of all eight showers can be explained by meteoroid ejection primarily from comet 96P/Machholz between 10000 BCE and 20000 BCE. Assuming the Marsden group of comets originated between 100 CE-950 CE, we conclude that sunskirting comets contribute mainly to the meteoroid stream near the time of the peak of the daytime Arietids, Southern δ-Aquariids, κ-Velids. Finally, we find that the meteor showers identified by Babadzhanov and Obrubov (1992) as the α-Cetids, the Ursids and Carinids correspond to the daytime λ-Taurids, the November ι-Draconids or December α-Draconids and the θ-Carinids.

  20. Protection of metal artefacts with the formation of metal-oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eJoseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated in vitro. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g.L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal-oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archaeological and modern metal artefacts. The production of copper-oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archaeological and modern. The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal-oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates and probably goethite. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. Silver nitrate was extracellularly reduced into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artefacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals.

  1. Characterizing Extragalactic Star Formation with GALEX Legacy Photometric Analysis of UV-Bright Stellar Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilker, David

    At the close of nearly a decade of observing, GALEX has accumulated an unprecedented archive of ultraviolet (UV) images revealing both the scope and intricacy of star formation (SF) in many thousands of galaxies inhabiting the local universe. If the observed hierarchical SF morphology can be quantified systematically, and physically interpreted with multi-wavelength ancillary data and modeling, then the low redshift GALEX legacy will approach completion. However, the GALEX GR6 pipeline database contains a highly incomplete census of young stellar complexes even for very well-studied galaxies. We propose to apply a dedicated photometry algorithm that has been optimized for measuring the properties of irregularly shaped sources in crowded galaxy images containing spatially variant, diffuse intra-clump emission. Structures will be selected in the UV, but we will compile UV-visible-MIR SEDs for each detection utilizing Pan-STARRS1+SDSS and WISE data. These SEDs will then be fit using population-synthesis models to derive estimated stellar mass, age, and extinction. Processing will be completed for the entire diameter-limited GALEX Large Galaxy Atlas (GLGA) sample of 20,000+ galaxies, at a variety of standardized spatial resolutions. Although the precise categorization of the cataloged substructures will depend on galaxy distance, the outcome of our analysis will be a catalog similar to the stellar association surveys of past decades for very nearby galaxies based on resolved stars (e.g. van den Bergh 1964, Hodge 1986, Efremov et al. 1987), except that our investigation will probe a galaxy sample of dramatically larger size using the integrated UV light from such groupings of young stars. Our algorithm is multi-scale in nature and will thus preserve the hierarchical properties of the stellar distribution, by linking sub-clumps to their larger-scale parent feature(s). The resulting database will be a fundamental resource for follow-up multi-wavelength studies probing SF

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of charge transfer complex formation between Silver Nitrate and Benzylcyanide in Solvent Ethylene Glycol

    CERN Document Server

    Modarress, H

    2003-01-01

    The formation constant for charge transfer complexes between electron acceptor (AgNo sub 3) and electron donor benzylcyanide (C sub 6 H sub 5 -CH sub 2 -C ident to N) in solvent ethyleneglycol [(CH sub 2 OH) sub 2] has been evaluated by using the nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of aromatic group of benzylcyanide measured against external references, tetramethylsilane, hexamethyldisilane and cyclohexane at 20 sup d ig sup C. The external referencing procedure eliminated the interference of internal reference in the course of complexation. The necessary bulk magnetic susceptibility corrections on the measured chemical shifts have been made. The solution nationalised and their effects on the formation constant have been considered and a new equation has been suggested to obtain the main ionic activity coefficient of AgNO sub 3 from nuclear magnetic resonance results. The mean ionic activity coefficient has been taken into account in the formation constant calculations. The results indicated that the a...

  3. Hemolymph Melanization in the Silkmoth Bombyx mori Involves Formation of a High Molecular Mass Complex That Metabolizes Tyrosine*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin D.; Strand, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The phenoloxidase (PO) cascade regulates the melanization of blood (hemolymph) in insects and other arthropods. Most studies indicate that microbial elicitors activate the PO cascade, which results in processing of the zymogen PPO to PO. PO is then thought to oxidize tyrosine and o-diphenols to quinones, which leads to melanin. However, different lines of investigation raise questions as to whether these views are fully correct. Here we report that hemolymph from the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, rapidly melanizes after collection from a wound site. Prior studies indicated that in vitro activated PPO hydroxylates Tyr inefficiently. Measurement of in vivo substrate titers, however, suggested that Tyr was the only PO substrate initially present in B. mori plasma and that it is rapidly metabolized by PO. Fractionation of plasma by gel filtration chromatography followed by bioassays indicated that melanization activity was primarily associated with a high mass complex (∼670 kDa) that contained PO. The prophenoloxidase-activating protease inhibitor Egf1.0 blocked formation of this complex and Tyr metabolism, but the addition of phenylthiourea to plasma before fractionation enhanced complex formation and Tyr metabolism. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the complex contained PO plus other proteins. Taken together, our results indicate that wounding alone activates the PO cascade in B. mori. They also suggest that complex formation is required for efficient use of Tyr as a substrate. PMID:23553628

  4. Determination of complex formation constants by phase sensitive alternating current polarography: Cadmium-polymethacrylic acid and cadmium-polygalacturonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigosa, Anna Maria; Gusmão, Rui; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2007-10-15

    The use of phase sensitive alternating current polarography (ACP) for the evaluation of complex formation constants of systems where electrodic adsorption is present has been proposed. The applicability of the technique implies the previous selection of the phase angle where contribution of capacitive current is minimized. This is made using Multivariate Curve Resolution by Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) in the analysis of ACP measurements at different phase angles. The method is checked by the study of the complexation of Cd by polymethacrylic (PMA) and polygalacturonic (PGA) acids, and the optimal phase angles have been ca. -10 degrees for Cd-PMA and ca. -15 degrees for Cd-PGA systems. The goodness of phase sensitive ACP has been demonstrated comparing the determined complex formation constants with those obtained by reverse pulse polarography, a technique that minimizes the electrode adsorption effects on the measured currents.

  5. Achaete-scute complex homolog-1 promotes DNA repair in the lung carcinogenesis through matrix metalloproteinase-7 and O(6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yang Wang

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Achaete-scute complex homolog-1 (Ascl1 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor family that has multiple functions in the normal and neoplastic lung such as the regulation of neuroendocrine differentiation, prevention of apoptosis and promotion of tumor-initiating cells. We now show that Ascl1 directly regulates matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7 and O(6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments in human bronchial epithelial and lung carcinoma cell lines revealed that Ascl1, MMP-7 and MGMT are able to protect cells from the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK-induced DNA damage and the alkylating agent cisplatin-induced apoptosis. We also examined the role of Ascl1 in NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in vivo. Using transgenic mice which constitutively expressed human Ascl1 in airway lining cells, we found that there was a delay in lung tumorigenesis. We conclude that Ascl1 potentially enhances DNA repair through activation of MMP-7 and MGMT which may impact lung carcinogenesis and chemoresistance. The study has uncovered a novel and unexpected function of Ascl1 which will contribute to better understanding of lung carcinogenesis and the broad implications of transcription factors in tobacco-related carcinogenesis.

  6. Formation and characterization of zein-propylene glycol alginate-surfactant ternary complexes: Effect of surfactant type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Sun, Cuixia; Wei, Yang; Zhan, Xinyu; Mao, Like; Gao, Yanxiang

    2018-08-30

    In this study, zein, propylene glycol alginate (PGA) and surfactant ternary complexes were fabricated by antisolvent co-precipitation method. Two types of surfactants (rhamnolipid and lecithin) were applied to generate zein-PGA-rhamnolipid (Z-P-R) and zein-PGA-lecithin (Z-P-L) ternary complexes, respectively. Results showed that the surfactant types significantly affected the properties of ternary complexes. The formation of ternary complexes was mainly due to the non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interactions among zein, PGA and surfactants. Moreover, the thermal stability of ternary complexes was enhanced with increasing the levels of both surfactants. Notably, ternary complex dispersions exhibited better stability against pH from 2 to 8. Furthermore, a compact network structure was observed in Z-P-R ternary complex, while Z-P-L ternary complex remained the spherical structure. These findings would provide new insights into the development of novel delivery system and expand the options, when zein-based complexes were utilized under different environment conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermodynamic model of Ni(II) solubility, hydrolysis and complex formation with ISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Siso, Maria Rosa; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi [Amphos21, Barcelona (Spain); Gaona, Xavier; Altmaier, Marcus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal

    2018-04-01

    The solubility of β-Ni(OH){sub 2}(cr) was investigated at T=(22±2) C in the absence and presence of α-isosaccharinic acid (ISA), the main degradation product of cellulose under alkaline pH conditions. Batch solubility experiments were performed from undersaturation conditions under inert gas (Ar) atmosphere. Solubility experiments in the absence of ISA were conducted in 0.5 and 3.0 M NaCl-NaOH solutions at 7.5 ≤ pH{sub m} ≤ 13 (with pH{sub m} = -log{sub 10}[H{sup +}]). XRD analyses of selected solid phases collected after completing the solubility experiments (∼300 days) confirmed that β-Ni(OH){sub 2}(cr) remains as solid phase controlling the solubility of Ni(II) in all investigated conditions. Based on the slope analysis (log{sub 10}[Ni] vs. pH{sub m}) of the solubility data and solid phase characterization, the equilibrium reactions β-Ni(OH){sub 2}(cr)+2 H{sup +} <=> Ni{sup 2+}+2 H{sub 2}O(l) and β-Ni(OH){sub 2}(cr) <=> Ni(OH){sub 2}(aq) were identified as controlling the solubility of Ni(II) within the investigated pH{sub m} region. The conditional equilibrium constants determined from the solubility experiments at different ionic strengths were evaluated with the specific ion interaction theory (SIT). In contrast to the current thermodynamic selection in the NEA-TDB, solubility data collected in the present work does not support the formation of the anionic hydrolysis species Ni(OH){sub 3}{sup -} up to pH{sub m} ≤ 13.0. Solubility experiments in the presence of ISA were conducted in 0.5 M NaCl-NaOH-NaISA solutions with 0.01 M ≤ [NaISA] ≤ 0.2 M and 9 ≤ pH{sub m} ≤ 13. XRD analyses confirmed that β-Ni(OH){sub 2}(cr) is also the solid phase controlling the solubility of Ni(II) in the presence of ISA. Solubility data of all investigated systems can be properly explained with chemical and thermodynamic models including the formation of the complexes NiOHISA(aq), Ni(OH){sub 2}ISA{sup -} and Ni(OH){sub 3}ISA{sup 2-}. The reported data confirm

  8. Advances in biologic augmentation for rotator cuff repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sahishnu; Gualtieri, Anthony P.; Lu, Helen H.; Levine, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Rotator cuff tear is a very common shoulder injury that often necessitates surgical intervention for repair. Despite advances in surgical techniques for rotator cuff repair, there is a high incidence of failure after surgery because of poor healing capacity attributed to many factors. The complexity of tendon-to-bone integration inherently presents a challenge for repair because of a large biomechanical mismatch between the tendon and bone and insufficient regeneration of native tissue, leading to the formation of fibrovascular scar tissue. Therefore, various biological augmentation approaches have been investigated to improve rotator cuff repair healing. This review highlights recent advances in three fundamental approaches for biological augmentation for functional and integrative tendon–bone repair. First, the exploration, application, and delivery of growth factors to improve regeneration of native tissue is discussed. Second, applications of stem cell and other cell-based therapies to replenish damaged tissue for better healing is covered. Finally, this review will highlight the development and applications of compatible biomaterials to both better recapitulate the tendon–bone interface and improve delivery of biological factors for enhanced integrative repair. PMID:27750374

  9. FANCG promotes formation of a newly identified protein complex containing BRCA2, FANCD2 and XRCC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J B; Yamamoto, K; Marriott, A S; Hussain, S; Sung, P; Hoatlin, M E; Mathew, C G; Takata, M; Thompson, L H; Kupfer, G M; Jones, N J

    2008-06-12

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a human disorder characterized by cancer susceptibility and cellular sensitivity to DNA crosslinks and other damages. Thirteen complementation groups and genes are identified, including BRCA2, which is defective in the FA-D1 group. Eight of the FA proteins, including FANCG, participate in a nuclear core complex that is required for the monoubiquitylation of FANCD2 and FANCI. FANCD2, like FANCD1/BRCA2, is not part of the core complex, and we previously showed direct BRCA2-FANCD2 interaction using yeast two-hybrid analysis. We now show in human and hamster cells that expression of FANCG protein, but not the other core complex proteins, is required for co-precipitation of BRCA2 and FANCD2. We also show that phosphorylation of FANCG serine 7 is required for its co-precipitation with BRCA2, XRCC3 and FANCD2, as well as the direct interaction of BRCA2-FANCD2. These results argue that FANCG has a role independent of the FA core complex, and we propose that phosphorylation of serine 7 is the signalling event required for forming a discrete complex comprising FANCD1/BRCA2-FANCD2-FANCG-XRCC3 (D1-D2-G-X3). Cells that fail to express either phospho-Ser7-FANCG, or full length BRCA2 protein, lack the interactions amongst the four component proteins. A role for D1-D2-G-X3 in homologous recombination repair (HRR) is supported by our finding that FANCG and the RAD51-paralog XRCC3 are epistatic for sensitivity to DNA crosslinking compounds in DT40 chicken cells. Our findings further define the intricate interface between FANC and HRR proteins in maintaining chromosome stability.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of charge transfer complex formation between Silver Nitrate and Benzylcyanide in Solvent Ethylene Glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarress, H.; Shekaari, H.

    2003-01-01

    The formation constant for charge transfer complexes between electron acceptor (AgNo 3 ) and electron donor benzylcyanide (C 6 H 5 -CH 2 -C≡N) in solvent ethyleneglycol [(CH 2 OH) 2 ] has been evaluated by using the nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of aromatic group of benzylcyanide measured against external references, tetramethylsilane, hexamethyldisilane and cyclohexane at 20 d ig C . The external referencing procedure eliminated the interference of internal reference in the course of complexation. The necessary bulk magnetic susceptibility corrections on the measured chemical shifts have been made. The solution nationalised and their effects on the formation constant have been considered and a new equation has been suggested to obtain the main ionic activity coefficient of AgNO 3 from nuclear magnetic resonance results. The mean ionic activity coefficient has been taken into account in the formation constant calculations. The results indicated that the appropriate formation constant should be expressed in terms of activities. Also an equation have been derived to eliminate the undesirable effects on the nuclear magnetic resonance measured chemical shifts in calculating the constant. The selection of concentration domains and its effect on the calculated formation constant has been discussed and the new equation is modified to be independent of the concentration domains. In this equation the solution nationalised, by considering coefficients, have been taken in to account

  11. THE FORMATION OF DESIGN AND ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL DECISIONS OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF HIGH-RISE MULTIPURPOSE COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The formation of the many ways the construction of high-rise multipurpose complexes. Methodology. The formation of system implementation variants of creation and functioning of high-rise multipurpose complexes using combinatorial morphological analysis and synthesis. Findings. Many life cycle options of high-rise multipurpose complexes. Originality. The developed method of formation of organizational and technological solutions adapted to the conditions of the construction of high-rise multipurpose complexes, which provides the opportunity for multi-variant conditions, taking into account regulatory requirements for fire safety, insolation of buildings and premises, protection against noise and vibration, energy efficiency, infrastructure and population density of a residential district with a full range of institutions and enterprises of local significance, within existing resource constraints, to ensure the commissioning of objects with specified technical and economic characteristics. Practical value. The proposed model and the methodology allow to determine a rational variant of high-rise building according to specified criteria and constraints.

  12. Recombinational repair: workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard-Flanders, P.

    1983-01-01

    Recombinational repair may or may not be synonymous with postreplication repair. Considerable progress has been made in the study of the relevant enzymes, particularly those from bacteria. In this workshop we focus on the recombination enzyme RecA protein. What structural changes take place in the protein and in DNA during repair. How does homologous pairing take place. How is ATP hydrolysis coupled to the stand exchange reaction and the formation of heteroduplx DNA. Turning to another enzyme needed for certain kinds of bacterial recombination, we will ask whether the purified recB protein and recC protein complement each other and are sufficient for exonuclease V activity. In higher cells, we would like to know whether sister exchanges, which occur in bacteria after uv irradiation, are also seen in animal cells

  13. Organizational-economic model of formation of socio-commercial multifunctional complex in the construction of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Ariadna; Prytkova, Oksana O.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to the features of the formation of the organizational and economic model of the construction of a socio-commercial multifunctional complex for high-rise construction. Authors have given examples of high-altitude multifunctional complexes in Moscow, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages in the implementation of multifunctional complexes, stressed the need for a holistic strategic approach, allowing to take into account the prospects for the development of the city and the creation of a comfortable living environment. Based on the analysis of multifunctional complexes features, a matrix of SWOT analysis was compiled. For the development of cities and improving the quality of life of the population, it is proposed to implement a new type of multifunctional complexes of a joint social and commercial direction, including, along with the implementation of office areas - schools, polyclinics, various sports facilities and cultural and leisure centers (theatrical, dance, studio, etc.). The approach proposed in the article for developing the model is based on a comparative evaluation of the multifunctional complex project of a social and commercial direction implemented at the expense of public-private partnership in the form of a concession agreement and a commercial multifunctional complex being built at the expense of the investor. It has been proved by calculations that the obtained indicators satisfy the conditions of expediency of the proposed organizational-economic model and the project of the social and commercial multifunctional complex is effective.

  14. Organizational-economic model of formation of socio-commercial multifunctional complex in the construction of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillova Ariadna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the features of the formation of the organizational and economic model of the construction of a socio-commercial multifunctional complex for high-rise construction. Authors have given examples of high-altitude multifunctional complexes in Moscow, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages in the implementation of multifunctional complexes, stressed the need for a holistic strategic approach, allowing to take into account the prospects for the development of the city and the creation of a comfortable living environment. Based on the analysis of multifunctional complexes features, a matrix of SWOT analysis was compiled. For the development of cities and improving the quality of life of the population, it is proposed to implement a new type of multifunctional complexes of a joint social and commercial direction, including, along with the implementation of office areas - schools, polyclinics, various sports facilities and cultural and leisure centers (theatrical, dance, studio, etc.. The approach proposed in the article for developing the model is based on a comparative evaluation of the multifunctional complex project of a social and commercial direction implemented at the expense of public-private partnership in the form of a concession agreement and a commercial multifunctional complex being built at the expense of the investor. It has been proved by calculations that the obtained indicators satisfy the conditions of expediency of the proposed organizational-economic model and the project of the social and commercial multifunctional complex is effective.

  15. Entropy-driven complex formation of malvidin-3- O-glucoside with common polyphenols in ethanol-water binary solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Ortmann, Erika; Kollár, László; Nikfardjam, Martin Pour

    2008-09-01

    The complex formation of malvidin-3- O-glucoside with several polyphenols, the so-called "copigmentation" phenomenon, was studied in aqueous solutions. To simulate the copigmentation process during fermentation, the stability of the formed complexes was examined in dependence of the ethanol content of the aqueous solution. Results indicate that stronger and larger complexes are formed, when the ethanol content exceeds a critical margin of 8 vol.% However, the size of complexes of malvidin/procyanidin and malvidin/epicatechin is drastically reduced above this critical concentration. Fluorescence lifetime and solvent relaxation measurements give insight into the particular processes at molecular level and will help us comprehend the first important steps during winemaking in order to recommend an optimized winemaking technology to ensure extraordinary colour stability in red wines.

  16. [Complex formation between alpha-chymotrypsin and block copolymers based on ethylene and propylene oxide, induced by high pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topchieva, I N; Sorokina, E M; Kurganov, B I; Zhulin, V M; Makarova, Z G

    1996-06-01

    A new method of formation of non-covalent adducts based on an amphiphilic diblock copolymer of ethylene and propylene oxides with molecular mass of 2 kDa and alpha-chymotrypsin (ChT) under high pressure, has been developed. The composition of the complexes corresponds to seven polymer molecules per one ChT molecule in the pressure range of 1.1 to 400 MPa. The complexes fully retain the catalytic activity. Kinetic constants (Km and kcat) for enzymatic hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester catalyzed by the complexes are identical with the corresponding values for native ChT. Analysis of kinetics of thermal inactivation of the complexes revealed that the constant of the rate of the slow inactivation step is markedly lower than for ChT.

  17. Thermodynamic Characteristics of Reactions of the Formation of Complexes between Triglycine and Ni2+ Ions in Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.; Bychkova, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal effects of reactions of the formation of complexes between Ni(II) and triglycine are determined via direct calorimetry in aqueous solutions at 298.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 (KNO3). Standard thermodynamic characteristics (Δr H°, Δr G°, Δr S°) of complexing processes in the investigated systems are calculated. The structures of triglycinate complexes NiL+, NiH-1L, NiL2, NiH-2L2- 2, NiL- 3, and NiH-3L4- 3 are introduced to compare the obtained values and data on the thermodynamics of triglycinate complexes of Ni(II).

  18. Meningocele repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is surgery to repair birth defects of the spine and spinal membranes. Meningocele and myelomeningocele ... is covered by a sterile dressing. Your child may then be transferred to a neonatal intensive ...

  19. Mechanical and mechanobiological influences on bone fracture repair : identifying important cellular characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaksson, H.E.

    2007-01-01

    Fracture repair is a complex and multifactorial process, which involves a well-programmed series of cellular and molecular events that result in a combination of intramembranous and endochondral bone formation. The vast majority of fractures is treated successfully. They heal through ‘secondary

  20. Formation of W(3)A(1) electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF) hydroquinone in the trimethylamine dehydrogenase x ETF protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, M H; Scrutton, N S; Hille, R

    2000-04-28

    The electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF) from Methylophilus methylotrophus (sp. W(3)A(1)) exhibits unusual oxidation-reduction properties and can only be reduced to the level of the semiquinone under most circumstances (including turnover with its physiological reductant, trimethylamine dehydrogenase (TMADH), or reaction with strong reducing reagents such as sodium dithionite). In the present study, we demonstrate that ETF can be reduced fully to its hydroquinone form both enzymatically and chemically when it is in complex with TMADH. Quantitative titration of the TMADH x ETF protein complex with sodium dithionite shows that a total of five electrons are taken up by the system, indicating that full reduction of ETF occurs within the complex. The results indicate that the oxidation-reduction properties of ETF are perturbed upon binding to TMADH, a conclusion further supported by the observation of a spectral change upon formation of the TMADH x ETF complex that is due to a change in the environment of the FAD of ETF. The results are discussed in the context of ETF undergoing a conformational change during formation of the TMADH x ETF electron transfer complex, which modulates the spectral and oxidation-reduction properties of ETF such that full reduction of the protein can take place.

  1. The Mechanism of Redox Reaction between Palladium(II Complex Ions and Potassium Formate in Acidic Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojnicki M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics studies of redox reaction between palladium(II chloride complex ions and potassium formate in acidic aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown, that the reduction reaction of Pd(II is selective in respect to Pd(II complex structure. The kinetic of the process was monitored spectrophotometrically. The influence of chloride ions concentration, Pd(II initial concentration, reductant concentration, ionic strength as well as the temperature were investigated in respect to the process dynamics. Arrhenius equation parameters were determined and are equal to 65.8 kJ/mol, and A = 1.12×1011 s−1.

  2. Some regularities in formation and solvent extraction of complexes in metal-salicylic acid or its derivative- organic base systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimarin, I.P.; Fadeeva, V.I.; Tikhomirova, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of concentrations of the reagents, pH and solvent on the conditions for the formation and extraction of Sc, Ti, Zr, Hf, Th complexes has been examined in salicylic acid (H 2 Sal)-heterocyclic amine systems. The extraction chemism and factors, which affect the reactions between the metal ions and the ligands, are discussed. It has been shown that Zr, Hf, Ti form species of ion associate type, Sc and Th form different-ligand complexes under conditions for interphase equilibrium in a Me-H 2 Sal-heterocyclic amine system

  3. Predicted formation constants using the unified theory of metal ion complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.L.; Wanner, H.

    1987-01-01

    Formation constants are listed for standard conditions, i.e., 298.15K (25 0 C), 10 5 Pa, and zero ionic strength for a number of species containing selected elements (Am, Cs, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Pu, Ra, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U) and ligands (hydroxide, fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, iodate, sulphate, ammonia, nitrate, hydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, carbonate, bicarbonate, oxalate, formate, thiocyanate, acetate, benzoate, catecholate, ethylenediamine, glycinate, glycollate and phenolate) that have been considered important for nuclear technology. 16 refs

  4. Microbial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Microfiltration Membranes: A Detailed Characterization Using Model Organisms with Increasing Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vanysacker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since many years, membrane biofouling has been described as the Achilles heel of membrane fouling. In the present study, an ecological assay was performed using model systems with increasing complexity: a monospecies assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli separately, a duospecies assay using both microorganisms, and a multispecies assay using activated sludge with or without spiked P. aeruginosa. The microbial adhesion and biofilm formation were evaluated in terms of bacterial cell densities, species richness, and bacterial community composition on polyvinyldifluoride, polyethylene, and polysulfone membranes. The data show that biofouling formation was strongly influenced by the kind of microorganism, the interactions between the organisms, and the changes in environmental conditions whereas the membrane effect was less important. The findings obtained in this study suggest that more knowledge in species composition and microbial interactions is needed in order to understand the complex biofouling process. This is the first report describing the microbial interactions with a membrane during the biofouling development.

  5. Microbial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Microfiltration Membranes: A Detailed Characterization Using Model Organisms with Increasing Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanysacker, L.; Denis, C.; Declerck, P.; Piasecka, A.; Vankelecom, I. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Since many years, membrane biofouling has been described as the Achilles heel of membrane fouling. In the present study, an ecological assay was performed using model systems with increasing complexity: a monospecies assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli separately, a duospecies assay using both microorganisms, and a multispecies assay using activated sludge with or without spiked P. aeruginosa. The microbial adhesion and biofilm formation were evaluated in terms of bacterial cell densities, species richness, and bacterial community composition on polyvinyldifluoride, polyethylene, and polysulfone membranes. The data show that biofouling formation was strongly influenced by the kind of microorganism, the interactions between the organisms, and the changes in environmental conditions whereas the membrane effect was less important. The findings obtained in this study suggest that more knowledge in species composition and microbial interactions is needed in order to understand the complex biofouling process. This is the first report describing the microbial interactions with a membrane during the biofouling development. PMID:23986906

  6. Co-adsorption of NH3 and SO2 on quartz : Formation of a stabilized complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grecea, M.L.; Gleeson, M.A.; van Schaik, W.; Kleyn, A.W.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the co-adsorption of NH3 and SO2 on the quartz(0 0 0 1) surface by TPD and RAIRS. A surface complex is formed as a result of various relative exposures of NH3 and SO2, irrespective of dosage order. However, the relative molecular composition of the complex is dependent on the

  7. Formation of inclusion complexes between high amylose starch and octadecyl ferulate via steam jet cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose can form inclusion complexes with guest molecules and represents an interesting approach to deliver bioactive molecules. However, ferulic acid has been shown not to form single helical inclusion complexes with amylose. To overcome this problem a ferulic acid ester, octadecyl ferulate, posses...

  8. Complex Formation by the mrpABCDEFG Gene Products, Which Constitute a Principal Na+/H+ Antiporter in Bacillus subtilis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kajiyama, Yusuke; Otagiri, Masato; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Kosono, Saori; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2007-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis Mrp (also referred to as Sha) is a particularly unusual Na+/H+ antiporter encoded by mrpABCDEFG. Using His tagging of Mrp proteins, we showed complex formation by the mrpABCDEFG gene products by pull-down and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses. This is the first molecular evidence that the Mrp is a multicomponent antiporter in the cation-proton antiporter 3 family.

  9. X-ray crystallography, electrochemistry, spectral and thermal analysis of some tetradentate schiff base complexes and formation constant measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Asadi, Z.; Savarypour, N.; Dušek, Michal; Eigner, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 11 (2017), s. 1501-1508 ISSN 2470-1556 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12653S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : X-ray crystallography * transition metal Schiff base complexes * thermogravimetry * electrochemistry * formation constant measurements Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)

  10. Shatter Complex Formation in the Twin Craters Lava Flow, Zuni-Bandera Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Meerscheidt, H. C.; Bleacher, J. E.; Brand, B. D.; deWet, A.; Samuels, R.; Hamilton, C.; Garry, W. B.; Bandfield, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    . Prominent ';a';a channels travel around the bluff, leaving a 'wake' of uncovered ground on the downstream side. We interpret this shatter area to have been a branching tube network within an active sheet. The limestone bluff acted as an obstacle that caused a backup of lava within the tubes, driving episodes of shattering. The mounds likely represent earlier solidified sections between active, possibly braided, tube branches, which remained as mounds within the shatter area after the adjacent crust subsided. When lava broke out from the pressurized sheet-like lobe, it formed the ';a';a channels. This section of the flow field is interpreted using inferences from shatter ring formation, but is perhaps better termed a shatter sheet or shatter complex. This study has implications for understanding lava flow dynamics at constriction points, as well as the evolution and morphology of shatter rings.

  11. Oxo-group-14-element bond formation in binuclear uranium(V) pacman complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Guy M.; Arnold, Polly L.; Love, Jason B.

    2013-01-01

    Simple and versatile routes to the functionalization of uranyl-derived U"V-oxo groups are presented. The oxo-lithiated, binuclear uranium(V)-oxo complexes [{(py)_3LiOUO}_2(L)] and [{(py)_3LiOUO}(OUOSiMe_3)(L)] were prepared by the direct combination of the uranyl(VI) silylamide ''ate'' complex [Li(py)_2][(OUO)(N'')_3](N''=N(SiMe_3)_2) with the polypyrrolic macrocycle H_4L or the mononuclear uranyl (VI) Pacman complex [UO_2(py)(H_2L)], respectively. These oxo-metalated complexes display distinct U-O single and multiple bonding patterns and an axial/equatorial arrangement of oxo ligands. Their ready availability allows the direct functionalization of the uranyl oxo group leading to the binuclear uranium(V) oxo-stannylated complexes [{(R_3Sn)OUO}_2(L)] (R=nBu, Ph), which represent rare examples of mixed uranium/tin complexes. Also, uranium-oxo-group exchange occurred in reactions with [TiCl(OiPr)_3] to form U-O-C bonds [{(py)_3LiOUO}(OUOiPr)(L)] and [(iPrOUO)_2(L)]. Overall, these represent the first family of uranium(V) complexes that are oxo-functionalised by Group 14 elements. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Formation of inclusion complexes between high amylose starch and octadecyl ferulate via steam jet cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenar, James A; Compton, David L; Little, Jeanette A; Peterson, Steve C

    2016-04-20

    Amylose-ligand inclusion complexes represent an interesting approach to deliver bioactive molecules. However, ferulic acid has been shown not to form single helical inclusion complexes with amylose from high amylose maize starch. To overcome this problem a lipophilic ferulic acid ester, octadecyl ferulate, was prepared and complexed with amylose via excess steam jet cooking. Jet-cooking octadecyl ferulate and high amylose starch gave an amylose-octadecyl ferulate inclusion complex in 51.0% isolated yield. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed that a 61 V-type inclusion complex was formed. Amylose and extraction assays showed the complex to be enriched in amylose (91.9±4.3%) and contain 70.6±5.6mgg(-1) octadecyl ferulate, although, minor hydrolysis (∼4%) of the octadecyl ferulate was observed under the excess steam jet-cooking conditions utilized. This study demonstrates that steam jet cooking is a rapid and scalable process in which to prepare amylose-octadecyl ferulate inclusion complexes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeeland, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this chapter a series of DNA repair pathways are discussed which are available to the cell to cope with the problem of DNA damaged by chemical or physical agents. In the case of microorganisms our knowledge about the precise mechanism of each DNA repair pathway and the regulation of it has been improved considerably when mutants deficient in these repair mechanisms became available. In the case of mammalian cells in culture, until recently there were very little repair deficient mutants available, because in almost all mammalian cells in culture at least the diploid number of chromosomes is present. Therefore the frequency of repair deficient mutants in such populations is very low. Nevertheless because replica plating techniques are improving some mutants from Chinese hamsters ovary cells and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells are now available. In the case of human cells, cultures obtained from patients with certain genetic diseases are available. A number of cells appear to be sensitive to some chemical or physical mutagens. These include cells from patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum, Ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi's anemia, Cockayne's syndrome. However, only in the case of xeroderma pigmentosum cells, has the sensitivity to ultraviolet light been clearly correlated with a deficiency in excision repair of pyrimidine dimers. Furthermore the work with strains obtained from biopsies from man is difficult because these cells generally have low cloning efficiencies and also have a limited lifespan in vitro. It is therefore very important that more repair deficient mutants will become available from established cell lines from human or animal origin

  14. Reactions of guanine with methyl chloride and methyl bromide: O6-methylation versus charge transfer complex formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.; Mishra, P. C.; Suhai, S.

    Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31+G* and B3LYP/AUG-cc-pVDZ levels was employed to study O6-methylation of guanine due to its reactions with methyl chloride and methyl bromide and to obtain explanation as to why the methyl halides cause genotoxicity and possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Geometries of the various isolated species involved in the reactions, reactant complexes (RCs), and product complexes (PCs) were optimized in gas phase. Transition states connecting the reactant complexes with the product complexes were also optimized in gas phase at the same levels of theory. The reactant complexes, product complexes, and transition states were solvated in aqueous media using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) of the self-consistent reaction field theory. Zero-point energy (ZPE) correction to total energy and the corresponding thermal energy correction to enthalpy were made in each case. The reactant complexes of the keto form of guanine with methyl chloride and methyl bromide in water are appreciably more stable than the corresponding complexes involving the enol form of guanine. The nature of binding in the product complexes was found to be of the charge transfer type (O6mG+ · X-, X dbond Cl, Br). Binding of HCl, HBr, and H2O molecules to the PCs obtained with the keto form of guanine did not alter the positions of the halide anions in the PCs, and the charge transfer character of the PCs was also not modified due to this binding. Further, the complexes obtained due to the binding of HCl, HBr, and H2O molecules to the PCs had greater stability than the isolated PCs. The reaction barriers involved in the formation of PCs were found to be quite high (?50 kcal/mol). Mechanisms of genotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis caused by the methyl halides appear to involve charge transfer-type complex formation. Thus the mechanisms of these processes involving the methyl halides appear to be quite different from those that involve the

  15. In vitro complex formation and inhibition of hepatic cytochrome P450 activity by different macrolides and tiamulin in goats and cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweers-Zeilmaker, W.M.; Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van; Horbach, G.J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    In humans, clinically relevant drug–drug interactions occur with some macrolide antibiotics via the formation of stable metabolic intermediate (MI) complexes with enzymes of the cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) subfamily. The formation of such complexes can result in a decreased biotransformation rate of

  16. Hydrogen exchange kinetics changes upon formation of the soybean trypsin inhibitor: trypsin complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, C.K.; Ellis, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The hydrogen exchange kinetics of the complex of trypsin--soybean trypsin inhibitor (Kunitz) have been compared to the calculated sum of the exchange kinetics for the inhibitor and trypsin measured separately. The exchange rates observed for the complex are substantially less than the sum of the exchange rates in the two individual proteins. These results cannot be accounted for by changes in intermolecular or intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The decrease in exchange rates in the complex are ascribed to changes in solvent accessibility in the component proteins. (U.S.)

  17. Nitrosothiol formation and protection against Fenton chemistry by nitric oxide-induced dinitrosyliron complex formation from anoxia-initiated cellular chelatable iron increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Chuanyu; Mahtani, Harry K; Du, Jian; Patel, Aashka R; Lancaster, Jack R

    2014-07-18

    Dinitrosyliron complexes (DNIC) have been found in a variety of pathological settings associated with (•)NO. However, the iron source of cellular DNIC is unknown. Previous studies on this question using prolonged (•)NO exposure could be misleading due to the movement of intracellular iron among different sources. We here report that brief (•)NO exposure results in only barely detectable DNIC, but levels increase dramatically after 1-2 h of anoxia. This increase is similar quantitatively and temporally with increases in the chelatable iron, and brief (•)NO treatment prevents detection of this anoxia-induced increased chelatable iron by deferoxamine. DNIC formation is so rapid that it is limited by the availability of (•)NO and chelatable iron. We utilize this ability to selectively manipulate cellular chelatable iron levels and provide evidence for two cellular functions of endogenous DNIC formation, protection against anoxia-induced reactive oxygen chemistry from the Fenton reaction and formation by transnitrosation of protein nitrosothiols (RSNO). The levels of RSNO under these high chelatable iron levels are comparable with DNIC levels and suggest that under these conditions, both DNIC and RSNO are the most abundant cellular adducts of (•)NO. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Nitrosothiol Formation and Protection against Fenton Chemistry by Nitric Oxide-induced Dinitrosyliron Complex Formation from Anoxia-initiated Cellular Chelatable Iron Increase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Chuanyu; Mahtani, Harry K.; Du, Jian; Patel, Aashka R.; Lancaster, Jack R.

    2014-01-01

    Dinitrosyliron complexes (DNIC) have been found in a variety of pathological settings associated with •NO. However, the iron source of cellular DNIC is unknown. Previous studies on this question using prolonged •NO exposure could be misleading due to the movement of intracellular iron among different sources. We here report that brief •NO exposure results in only barely detectable DNIC, but levels increase dramatically after 1–2 h of anoxia. This increase is similar quantitatively and temporally with increases in the chelatable iron, and brief •NO treatment prevents detection of this anoxia-induced increased chelatable iron by deferoxamine. DNIC formation is so rapid that it is limited by the availability of •NO and chelatable iron. We utilize this ability to selectively manipulate cellular chelatable iron levels and provide evidence for two cellular functions of endogenous DNIC formation, protection against anoxia-induced reactive oxygen chemistry from the Fenton reaction and formation by transnitrosation of protein nitrosothiols (RSNO). The levels of RSNO under these high chelatable iron levels are comparable with DNIC levels and suggest that under these conditions, both DNIC and RSNO are the most abundant cellular adducts of •NO. PMID:24891512

  19. Interaction of phosphorus dendrimers with HIV peptides—Fluorescence studies of nano-complexes formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciepluch, Karol, E-mail: ciepluch@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska Street 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Ionov, Maksim [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska Street 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Majoral, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination du CNRS (LCC), 205 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Angeles [Laboratorio InmunoBiología Molecular, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Bryszewska, Maria [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska Street 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2014-04-15

    In this study, dendrimers emerge as an alternative approach for delivery of HIV peptides to dendritic cells. Gp160, NH-EIDNYTNTIYTLLEE-COOH; P24, NH-DTINEEAAEW-COOH and Nef, NHGMDDPEREVLEWRFDSRLAF-COOH peptides were complexed with two types of positively charged phosphorus-containing dendrimers (CPD). Fluorescence polarization, dynamic light scattering, transmission and electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were chosen to evaluate the dendriplexes stability. We were able to show that complexes were stable in time and temperature. This is crucial for using these peptide/dendrimer nano-complexes in a new vaccine against HIV-1 infection. -- Highlights: • The phosphorus dendrimers as nanocarriers of HIV-peptides are proposed. • The complexes of dendrimers and HIV-peptides were stable in time, temperature. • The results convince that phosphorus dendrimers could be consider as anti-HIV vaccine candidates.

  20. Interaction of phosphorus dendrimers with HIV peptides—Fluorescence studies of nano-complexes formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciepluch, Karol; Ionov, Maksim; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Angeles; Bryszewska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this study, dendrimers emerge as an alternative approach for delivery of HIV peptides to dendritic cells. Gp160, NH-EIDNYTNTIYTLLEE-COOH; P24, NH-DTINEEAAEW-COOH and Nef, NHGMDDPEREVLEWRFDSRLAF-COOH peptides were complexed with two types of positively charged phosphorus-containing dendrimers (CPD). Fluorescence polarization, dynamic light scattering, transmission and electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were chosen to evaluate the dendriplexes stability. We were able to show that complexes were stable in time and temperature. This is crucial for using these peptide/dendrimer nano-complexes in a new vaccine against HIV-1 infection. -- Highlights: • The phosphorus dendrimers as nanocarriers of HIV-peptides are proposed. • The complexes of dendrimers and HIV-peptides were stable in time, temperature. • The results convince that phosphorus dendrimers could be consider as anti-HIV vaccine candidates

  1. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  2. THE ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL COMPLEXES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PARTNERSHIP MODEL FORMATION OF THE NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina V. Gileva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to define potential of modern educational complexes in the field of formation of national system of qualifications on the basis of interpretation of procedures changes in regulation of social and labour relations. Methods. The methods involve analysis, generalisation, ordering and a technique of modelling of processes.Results. The authors describe key positions of the theory of the continuous education that provides rapprochement of requirements of employers with quality of vocational training and the content of educational process in the branch educational institutions. The possible contribution of educational complexes to creation of national system of qualifications and professional standards is considered. In this connection various forms of partnership of the given complexes with public authorities, public structures, and also employers are described.Scientific novelty. The concept of business competence characterising ability of system of vocational training is offered to satisfy the requirement of a labour market by means of active integration of educational, innovative and labour processes.Practical significance. The presented model of interaction of educational complexes and subjects of a labour market can be realised by working out of professional standards, creation of the expert centers and the innovative platforms intended to realisation of advisory activity on the basis of high schools; and also organizational-methodical support of processes of professional certification system formation. According to authors, this model will help to co-ordinate the content of professional and Federal State Educational Standards (FSES. 

  3. Formation of poly(ethylene glycol) inclusion complexes in aqueous solutions of mixed cyclodextrins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horský, Jiří; Walterová, Zuzana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 203, - (2003), s. 259-264 ISSN 1022-1360. [International Conference on Polymer-Solvent Complexes and Intercalates /4./. Prague, 22.07.2002-25.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1050101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : cyclodextrins * inclusion complexes * phase separation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2003

  4. In vitro formation of metabolic-intermediate cytochrome P450 complexes in rabbit liver microsomes by tiamulin and various macrolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletti, Monica; Gusson, Federica; Zaghini, Anna; Dacasto, Mauro; Marvasi, Luigi; Nebbia, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Tiamulin and a number of macrolides were evaluated as to their ability in forming metabolic-intermediate (MI) complexes with cytochrome P450 in liver microsomes from rabbits bred for meat production. Complex formation, which occurred only in preparations where the expression of P450 3A was increased as the result of rifampicin pre-treatment and with different kinetics, was in the order tiamulin > erythromycin > TAO approximately roxithromycin approximately tylosin and did not take place with tilmicosin and spiramycin. Most of the tested compounds underwent an oxidative N-dealkylation and a good relationship could be found between the rate of N-dealkylase activity in induced preparations and the aptitude in generating MI complexes. Although the results from in vitro studies should be interpreted with caution, it is suggested that the potential for in vivo drug interactions also exists in the rabbit for tiamulin and for four out of the six tested macrolides.

  5. Complex formation of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) anthocyanins during freeze-drying and its influence on their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Betanzo, Julieta; Padmanabhan, Priya; Corredig, Milena; Subramanian, Jayasankar; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2015-03-25

    Biological activity of polyphenols is influenced by their uptake and is highly influenced by their interactions with the food matrix. This study evaluated the complex formation of blueberry polyphenols with fruit matrixes such as pectin and cellulose and their effect on the biological and antiproliferative properties of human colon cell lines HT-29 and CRL 1790. Free or complexed polyphenols were isolated by dialyzing aqueous or methanolic blueberry homogenates. Seven phenolic compounds and thirteen anthocyanins were identified in blueberry extracts. Blueberry extracts showed varying degrees of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, as well as α-glucosidase activity. Fruit matrix containing cellulose and pectin, or purified polygalacturonic acid and cellulose, did not retain polyphenols and showed very low antioxidant or antiproliferative activities. These findings suggest that interactions between polyphenols and the food matrix may be more complex than a simple association and may play an important role in the bioefficacy of blueberry polyphenols.

  6. In vitro formation of the Merkel cell-neurite complex in embryonic mouse whiskers using organotypic co-cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kentaro; Saito, Tetsuichiro; Mitsui, Toshiyuki

    2018-06-01

    A Merkel cell-neurite complex is a touch receptor composed of specialized epithelial cells named Merkel cells and peripheral sensory nerves in the skin. Merkel cells are found in touch-sensitive skin components including whisker follicles. The nerve fibers that innervate Merkel cells of a whisker follicle extend from the maxillary branch of the trigeminal ganglion. Whiskers as a sensory organ attribute to the complicated architecture of the Merkel cell-neurite complex, and therefore it is intriguing how the structure is formed. However, observing the dynamic process of the formation of a Merkel cell-neurite complex in whiskers during embryonic development is still difficult. In this study, we tried to develop an organotypic co-culture method of a whisker pad and a trigeminal ganglion explant to form the Merkel cell-neurite complex in vitro. We initially developed two distinct culture methods of a single whisker row and a trigeminal ganglion explant, and then combined them. By dissecting and cultivating a single row from a whisker pad, the morphogenesis of whisker follicles could be observed under a microscope. After the co-cultivation of the whisker row with a trigeminal ganglion explant, a Merkel cell-neurite complex composed of Merkel cells, which were positive for both cytokeratin 8 and SOX2, Neurofilament-H-positive trigeminal nerve fibers and Schwann cells expressing Nestin, SOX2 and SOX10 was observed via immunohistochemical analyses. These results suggest that the process for the formation of a Merkel cell-neurite complex can be observed under a microscope using our organotypic co-culture method. © 2018 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  7. Sensitivity and repair of DNA-membrane complex of E.coli B/r and E.coli B/sub(S-1) irradiated with gamma-quanta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I.I.; Sulimova, T.V.; Ryabchenko, N.I.; Myasnik, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    Irradiation of E. coli B/r and E. coli Bsub(S-1) with gamma-quanta (14 to 42 krad) in Tris buffer at 0 deg C causes a 85% release of DNA molecules from a DNA: membrane complex which is partly repaired on incubation of cells in Tris buffer, pH 8.1, at 37 deg C. A short-term (2 min) addition of nutrient medium to irradiated cells also rises the radioresistance of DNA: membrane complex while further treatment of bacteria under similar conditions causes no additional rejoining of DNA with membranes

  8. Professional Motivation Formation of Future Specialists under the Conditions of Regional Educational Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargina, Elena Mikhaylovna

    2015-01-01

    Motivation plays the leading role in the organization of the personality structure. It is a driving force of the activity. Motivation accounts for the behavior and activity and has a great impact on professional self-determination and person's satisfaction with the work. The problem of professional motivation formation of a future specialist is…

  9. A First Step Towards Synthesising Rubrics and Video for the Formative Assessment of Complex Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, Kevin; Rusman, Ellen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Specht, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The performance objectives used for the formative assessment of com- plex skills are generally set through text-based analytic rubrics[1]. Moreover, video modeling examples are a widely applied method of observational learning, providing students with context-rich modeling examples of

  10. Complex formation in mixtures of lysozyme-stabilized emulsions and human saliva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, E.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Norde, W.; Aken, van G.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the interaction between human unstimulated saliva and lysozyme-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt/wt% oil phase, 10 mM NaCl, pH 6.7), to reveal the driving force for flocculation of these emulsions. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) showed formation of

  11. Oxo-group-14-element bond formation in binuclear uranium(V) pacman complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Guy M.; Arnold, Polly L.; Love, Jason B. [EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-29

    Simple and versatile routes to the functionalization of uranyl-derived U{sup V}-oxo groups are presented. The oxo-lithiated, binuclear uranium(V)-oxo complexes [{(py)_3LiOUO}{sub 2}(L)] and [{(py)_3LiOUO}(OUOSiMe{sub 3})(L)] were prepared by the direct combination of the uranyl(VI) silylamide ''ate'' complex [Li(py){sub 2}][(OUO)(N''){sub 3}](N''=N(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}) with the polypyrrolic macrocycle H{sub 4}L or the mononuclear uranyl (VI) Pacman complex [UO{sub 2}(py)(H{sub 2}L)], respectively. These oxo-metalated complexes display distinct U-O single and multiple bonding patterns and an axial/equatorial arrangement of oxo ligands. Their ready availability allows the direct functionalization of the uranyl oxo group leading to the binuclear uranium(V) oxo-stannylated complexes [{(R_3Sn)OUO}{sub 2}(L)] (R=nBu, Ph), which represent rare examples of mixed uranium/tin complexes. Also, uranium-oxo-group exchange occurred in reactions with [TiCl(OiPr){sub 3}] to form U-O-C bonds [{(py)_3LiOUO}(OUOiPr)(L)] and [(iPrOUO){sub 2}(L)]. Overall, these represent the first family of uranium(V) complexes that are oxo-functionalised by Group 14 elements. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Formation and stabilization of anionic metal complexes in concentrated aqueous quaternary ammonium salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, F.L.; Hwang, L.L.Y.; Ronca, N.; Solomon, N.A.; Steigman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Anionic complexes of transition metals were stabilized in aqueous solutions containing high concentrations of various short-chain quaternary ammonium salts. Compounds with longer paraffin chains were effective in much less concentrated solution. Complex ions were detected spectrophotometrically. FeCl 4 - , which is usually formed in concentrated HCl, was the predominant Fe(III) complex in 30 m choline chloride containing only 0.12 M HCl. A yellow transitory Tc(VII) chloro-addition intermediate, formed in the reduction of TcO 4 - by concentrated HCl, was stabilized when the solution also contained 25 m choline chloride. Its spectrum, as well as the isolation of an already known Tc(VII) bipyridyl complex, is reported. Concentrated organic electrolytes also stabilized Tc(V) oxide halides against disproportionation and Tc(IV) hexahalides against hydrolysis. Halochromates of Cr(VI) were formed and stabilized in dilute acid containing quaternary ammonium salts. Their UV spectra showed the well-resolved vibronic fine structure associated with the symmetric chromium-to-oxygen charge-transfer band. It is known that these progressions are resolved in aprotic solvents, but not in aqueous acidic solution alone, and that the loss of fine structure in aqueous media is due to hydrogen bonding. The stabilization of anionic metal complexes and the resolution of vibronic structure in halochromates are probably consequences of water-structure-enforced ion paring. The present work suggests that the water molecules in immediate contact with the complex anions are more strongly hydrogen bonded to each other than to the complex. 21 references, 4 figures

  13. Regulation of Botulinum Neurotoxin Synthesis and Toxin Complex Formation by Arginine and Glucose in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, Chase M; Lin, Guangyun; Johnson, Eric A

    2017-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), produced by neurotoxigenic clostridia, is the most potent biological toxin known and the causative agent of the paralytic disease botulism. The nutritional, environmental, and genetic regulation of BoNT synthesis, activation, stability, and toxin complex (TC) formation is not well studied. Previous studies indicated that growth and BoNT formation were affected by arginine and glucose in Clostridium botulinum types A and B. In the present study, C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was grown in toxin production medium (TPM) with different levels of arginine and glucose and of three products of arginine metabolism, citrulline, proline, and ornithine. Cultures were analyzed for growth (optical density at 600 nm [OD 600 ]), spore formation, and BoNT and TC formation by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation and for BoNT activity by mouse bioassay. A high level of arginine (20 g/liter) repressed BoNT production approximately 1,000-fold, enhanced growth, slowed lysis, and reduced endospore production by greater than 1,000-fold. Similar effects on toxin production were seen with equivalent levels of citrulline but not ornithine or proline. In TPM lacking glucose, levels of formation of BoNT/A1 and TC were significantly decreased, and extracellular BoNT and TC proteins were partially inactivated after the first day of culture. An understanding of the regulation of C. botulinum growth and BoNT and TC formation should be valuable in defining requirements for BoNT formation in foods and clinical samples, improving the quality of BoNT for pharmaceutical preparations, and elucidating the biological functions of BoNTs for the bacterium. IMPORTANCE Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a major food safety and bioterrorism concern and is also an important pharmaceutical, and yet the regulation of its synthesis, activation, and stability in culture media, foods, and clinical samples is not well understood. This paper provides insights into the effects of critical

  14. Roles of mono-ubiquitinated Smad4 in the formation of Smad transcriptional complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bei; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Mitsuyasu

    2008-01-01

    TGF-β activates receptor-regulated Smad (R-Smad) through phosphorylation by type I receptors. Activated R-Smad binds to Smad4 and the complex translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the transcription of target genes through association with co-activators including p300. It is not clear, however, how activated Smad complexes are removed from target genes. In this study, we show that TGF-β enhances the mono-ubiquitination of Smad4. Smad4 mono-ubiquitination was promoted by p300 and suppressed by the c-Ski co-repressor. Smad4 mono-ubiquitination disrupted the interaction with Smad2 in the presence of constitutively active TGF-β type I receptor. Furthermore, mono-ubiquitinated Smad4 was not found in DNA-binding Smad complexes. A Smad4-Ubiquitin fusion protein, which mimics mono-ubiquitinated Smad4, enhanced localization to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that mono-ubiquitination of Smad4 occurs in the transcriptional activator complex and facilitates the turnover of Smad complexes at target genes

  15. Formation of stable and functional HIV-1 nucleoprotein complexes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanchou, V; Gabus, C; Rogemond, V; Darlix, J L

    1995-10-06

    HIV genomic RNA resides within the nucleocapsid, in the interior of the virus, which serves to protect the RNA against nuclease degradation and to promote its reverse transcription. To investigate the role of nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) in the stability and replication of genomic RNA within the nucleocapsid, we used NCp7, reverse transcriptase (RT) and RNAs representing the 5' and 3' regions of the genome to reconstitute functional HIV-1 nucleocapsids. The nucleoprotein complexes generated in vitro were found to be stable, which, according to biochemical and genetic data, probably results from the tight binding of NCp7 molecules to the RNA and strong NCp7/NCp7 interactions. The nucleoprotein complexes efficiently protected viral RNA against RNase degradation and, at the same time, promoted viral DNA synthesis by RT. DNA strand transfer from the 5' to the 3' RNA template was very efficient in nucleoprotein complexes formed in the presence of both RNAs, but not when the RNAs were in separate complexes. These results indicate that the in vitro reconstituted HIV-1 nucleoprotein complexes function like virion nucleocapsids and thus provide a way to study at the molecular level this viral substructure and the synthesis of proviral DNA, and to search for new anti-HIV agents.

  16. Carboxyl-modified single-wall carbon nanotubes improve bone tissue formation in vitro and repair in an in vivo rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrientos-Durán A

    2014-09-01

    combination of demineralized bone matrix or cartilage particles with SWCNTs were implanted into nude rats, and ectopic bone formation was analyzed. Histological analysis of both types of implants showed high permeability and pore connectivity of the carbon nanotube-soaked implants. Numerous vascularization channels appeared in the formed tissue, additional progenitor cells were recruited, and areas of de novo ossification were found 4 weeks post-implantation. Induction of the expression of bone-related genes and the presence of secreted osteopontin protein were also confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunofluorescence, respectively. In summary, these results are in line with prior contributions that highlight the suitability of SWCNTs as scaffolds with high bone-inducing capabilities both in vitro and in vivo, confirming them as alternatives to current bone-repair therapies. Keywords: human allografts, demineralized bone matrix, cartilage particles, bone regeneration

  17. Directed formation of micro- and nanoscale patterns of functional light-harvesting LH2 complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Nicholas P; Janusz, Stefan; Escalante-Marun, Maryana; Timney, John; Ducker, Robert E; Olsen, John D; Otto, Cees; Subramaniam, Vinod; Leggett, Graham J; Hunter, C Neil

    2007-11-28

    The precision placement of the desired protein components on a suitable substrate is an essential prelude to any hybrid "biochip" device, but a second and equally important condition must also be met: the retention of full biological activity. Here we demonstrate the selective binding of an optically active membrane protein, the light-harvesting LH2 complex from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, to patterned self-assembled monolayers at the micron scale and the fabrication of nanometer-scale patterns of these molecules using near-field photolithographic methods. In contrast to plasma proteins, which are reversibly adsorbed on many surfaces, the LH2 complex is readily patterned simply by spatial control of surface polarity. Near-field photolithography has yielded rows of light-harvesting complexes only 98 nm wide. Retention of the native optical properties of patterned LH2 molecules was demonstrated using in situ fluorescence emission spectroscopy.

  18. The complex formation-partition and partition-association models of solvent extraction of ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siekierski, S.

    1976-01-01

    Two models of the extraction process have been proposed. In the first model it is assumed that the partitioning neutral species is at first formed in the aqueous phase and then transferred into the organic phase. The second model is based on the assumption that equivalent amounts of cations are at first transferred from the aqueous into the organic phase and then associated to form a neutral molecule. The role of the solubility parameter in extraction and the relation between the solubility of liquid organic substances in water and the partition of complexes have been discussed. The extraction of simple complexes and complexes with organic ligands has been discussed using the first model. Partition coefficients have been calculated theoretically and compared with experimental values in some very simple cases. The extraction of ion pairs has been discussed using the partition-association model and the concept of single-ion partition coefficients. (author)

  19. Complex formation of trivalent americium with salicylic acid at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanie Mueller; Margret Acker; Steffen Taut; Gert Bernhard; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, the complexation of americium(III) with salicylic acid was studied at trace metal concentrations using a 2.0 m Long Path Flow Cell for UV-vis spectroscopy. The detection limit of Am(III) in aqueous solution at pH 3.0 was found to be 5 x 10 -9 M. Two Am(III)-salicylate complexes were formed at pH 5.0 in 0.1 M NaClO 4 , indicated by a clear red shift of the absorption maximum. The absorption spectra obtained from spectrophotometric titration were analyzed by means of factor analysis and complex stabilities were calculated to be log β 110 = 2.56 ± 0.08 and log β 120 = 3.93 ± 0.19. (author)

  20. Thermodynamics of formation of cadmium dicarboxylate and carboxylate mixed complexes with benzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharitonov, G V; Bolotov, V M; Kharitonova, R I [Voronezhskij Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1980-01-01

    Thermodynamic parameters of the mixed complexing of cadmium propionate, butyrate, valerate, succinate, maleinate and malate with benzimidazole in 20 % aqUeous-ethanol solution of 0.1 M KNO/sub 3/ are studied using polarographic method. It is shown that stability of mixed complexes of cadmium carboxylates with benzimidazole is connected with the process enthalpy and is determined by covalency of the metal-carboxylate bond. Increasing length of hydrocarbon chain of acyl group of monobasic acids hampers amine coordination with central complexing agent (..delta..S<0). The presence of dicarboxylate-ion in the inner coordination sphere decreases the enthalpy and increases the entropy of the process (..delta..S>0).

  1. Formation of a dinuclear complex in collisions between light nuclei and entrance channel limitations to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, D.; Shivakumar, B.; Ayik, S.; Harmon, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    A model for fusion of light nuclei has been proposed recently wherein fusion progresses through nucleus-nucleus capture via a dinuclear stage which acts as a doorway to fusion. While this model accounts for the fusion cross sections, it makes no attempt at predicting observables associated with the non-fusion part of the captured flux. A study of products from the decay of the dinuclear complex into non-fusion channels can provide a stringent test for such a model. In this contribution a model which addresses both the binary decay and the fusion of a dinuclear complex formed in the collision is described and model predictions are compared with data. Accompanying contributions discuss the formalism which is used to describe the evolution of the dinuclear complex and present new data which provide information that helps justify the approximations made in applying this model

  2. Excited-state complex formation between aqua-uranyl (VI) and thallous ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschaux, M.; Marcantonatos, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of the non-radiative *(UO 2 Tl) 3+ exciplex occurs in aqueous solution by a less involved mechanism than that of the *(UO 2 Ag) 3+ exciplex. This is shown to be due to the absence of a primary hydration shell for Tl + and to the energy and expansion of its 6s 2 pair, which are more suitable for electron transfer than Ag + . (author)

  3. Repair process and a repaired component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Simpson, Stanley F.

    2018-02-20

    Matrix composite component repair processes are disclosed. The matrix composite repair process includes applying a repair material to a matrix composite component, securing the repair material to the matrix composite component with an external securing mechanism and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component during the securing by the external securing mechanism. The matrix composite component is selected from the group consisting of a ceramic matrix composite, a polymer matrix composite, and a metal matrix composite. In another embodiment, the repair process includes applying a partially-cured repair material to a matrix composite component, and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component, an external securing mechanism securing the repair material throughout a curing period, In another embodiment, the external securing mechanism is consumed or decomposed during the repair process.

  4. Mixed ligand complex formation of Fe with boric acid and typical N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine (L) in different molar ratios provides ... the complexes at 25 ± 0⋅1°C in aqueous solution at a fixed ionic strength,. I = 0⋅1 mol ... acid–base, ion exchange and complexometric titrations5. ... concentrations of H+ ion corresponding to the pH-meter readings were obtained by the.

  5. Formation of competitive potential of the machine-building complex of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ivanovich Botkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of competitive potential of regional machine-building complex in a globalized world economy. The purpose of the research is the development of theoretically reasonable economic basis of the machine-building complex considering  the  features of business in the conditions of the WTO. In the work, the hypothesis of a special role of the external economic factors locates in development of the enterprises of regional industrial complexes. The study of the theoretical provisions defining the development of the region revealed the factors determining influence of the international trade agreements on spatial localization of the industry. The main attention is paid to an analytical assessment of the current state and the trends, which have developed in the period of post-crisis economic recovery. Analysis of the main indicators of attractiveness has revealed the weak position of local industrial enterprises in the WTO. The directions of strengthening of the competitive capacity of the local industrial enterprises are defined. The obtained results allow us to increase the sustainability of the industry by means of effective management mechanism improvements and to create favorable operating conditions of a machine-building complex of the region

  6. A pulse radiolysis study of the formation and reactions of reduced metal EDTA complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitenhuis, R.

    1977-01-01

    The construction of a computerized pulse radiolysis system with available means appropriate for the wavelength interval between 300 and 1000 nm is described. The investigation of the radiolysis of aqueous solutions of EDTA complexes in the presence of alcohols is discussed

  7. Study of the competitive reaction ability of harmine and harmaline during complex formation with transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepulsky, S.A.; Kadirova, Z.Ch.; Parpiev, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    New coordination compounds of d-metals (Zn(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Mo(VI), Cr(VI)) β-carboline alkaloids were synthesized. The structure of obtained substances was established by IR, PMR spectroscopy. The quantum-chemical assessment of the harmine and harmaline reactivity in complexation reactions with d-metals was carried out. (author)

  8. Copper(II) complex as a precursor for formation of cyano-bridged ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemsci

    structural similarities to the natural hexaazamacrocyclic complexes such as heme in human red blood cell, chlorophyll A and B, and vitamin B12.1 ...... and phenolic contents of medicinal plants used by the. Venda people for conditions related ...

  9. Viewbrics: Formative Assessment of Complex Skills with Video-Enhanced Rubrics (VER) in Dutch Secondary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Nadolski, Rob; Boon, Jo; Ackermans, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    To learn complex skills, like collaboration, learners need to acquire a concrete and consistent mental model of what it means to master this skill. If learners know their current mastery level and know their targeted mastery level, they can better determine their subsequent learning activities.

  10. Mixed-ligand complex formation equilibria of Cu with biguanide in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    by potentiometric investigation on the decomposi- tion of the corresponding complexes with acid.16–18. Literature ... the molecular mechanism of actions of biguanide derivatives as drugs. Results of such investigation .... tems, higher values may be possible. For the ternary. 1 : 1 : 1 CuII : Bg : HG system, p = q = r = 1 and for.

  11. MOOC design analysis - Constructive alignment, interactions, task complexity, formative assessment & feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasch, Julia; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Kalz, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) hold the potential of providing education at large scale. However, the challenge lies in the scalability of their educational design. It is unclear whether and to what extent MOOCs to provide active and complex learning activities, support and feedback to large

  12. Formation of lactoferrin/sodium caseinate complexes and their adsorption behaviour at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanyang; Zhao, Zhengtao

    2017-10-01

    This research investigated the complexation behaviour between lactoferrin (Lf) and sodium caseinate (NaCas) before and after heat treatment. The results showed that heating facilitated their interaction and different complexes were formed at different Lf/NaCas ratios. The presence of low concentrations of NaCas resulted in the rapid precipitation of Lf, while no precipitation was observed at the NaCas concentrations higher than Lf/NaCas ratio of 2:1. The formed complexes at the ratio of 2:1 have an average diameter of 194±9.0nm and they exhibited a great capacity in lowering the air/water interfacial tension. Further increase of NaCas concentration to ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 resulted in the formation of smaller complexes with average diameters of 60±2.5nm. The complexes formed at these two ratios showed similar adsorption behaviour at the air/water interface and they exhibited lower capacity in decreasing the interfacial tension than the ratio of 2:1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermodynamics of inclusion complex formation of β-cyclodextrin with a variety of surfactants differing in the nature of headgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkő, Mária; Király, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Inclusion complexation of β-cyclodextrins with various surfactants. ► Thermodynamic parameters determined by titration microcalorimetry. ► Stoichiometry of complexation is 1:1. ► The binding constant decreases linearly with increasing temperature. ► Enthalpy–entropy compensation is independent of the nature of the headgroup. - Abstract: The inclusion complexation of β-cyclodextrin with various surfactants, possessing the same alkyl chain length but differing in the hydrophilic headgroup, was investigated by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. Sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecyl sulfonate, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide and dodecyl(dimethyl)amine oxide were investigated. The major aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of temperature and the nature of the headgroup on the complex formation. Thermometric titrations were effected between the temperatures (288 and 348) K. The results provided the stoichiometry, the equilibrium constant and the reaction enthalpy of complexation. Changes in Gibbs energy, entropy and van’t Hoff enthalpy were additionally calculated.

  14. Studies on Ternary Complex Formation of U(VI)-salicylate by Using Time-resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Wan Sik; Cho, H. R.; Park, K. K.; Kim, W. H.; Jung, E. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Organic ligands containing carboxylic and phenolic functional groups naturally occur in groundwater environment, particularly in forms of polyelectrolytes such as humic and fulvic acids, from microbial degradation of biomass, e.g., plant and animal tissues. These ligands play important roles in dissolution and migration of actinide radionuclide species since they can form stable ternary actinide complexes with common inorganic ions like hydroxides and carbonates. Therefore, model ternary complexes of lanthanides and actinides have been targets of studies to understand their chemical behaviors under near-neutral pH groundwater conditions. Previous model carboxylic ligands include phthalates, maleic acids, or alpha- substituted carboxylic acids. However, majority of previous studies investigated binary systems or used potentiometric titration method that requires high ligand concentration in mM levels. Recently, highly sensitive time-resolved laserinduced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) has been used to investigate lower concentration (e.g., a few {mu}M levels) reactions of binary complexes between of ligands and metal ions. This technique provides information regarding electronic structures and complexation constants as well as fluorescence quenching mechanism. In the present study, we studied the U(VI)-OH-salicylate (SA) ternary complex formation at higher pH (> 4) via TRLF spectrum and UV-Vis absorbance measurement. Preliminary studies show that the fluorescence (FL) intensity of hydroxouranyl species at pH 4.5 decreases as SA concentration elevates in aqueous solution. Fluorescence quenching mechanism by SA is suggested based on FL intensity (I) and lifetime (tau) measurement via TRLFS

  15. Heteroprotein Complex Formation of Bovine Lactoferrin and Pea Protein Isolate: A Multiscale Structural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adal, Eda; Sadeghpour, Amin; Connell, Simon; Rappolt, Michael; Ibanoglu, Esra; Sarkar, Anwesha

    2017-02-13

    Associative electrostatic interactions between two oppositely charged globular proteins, lactoferrin (LF) and pea protein isolate (PPI), the latter being a mixture of vicilin, legumin, and convicilin, was studied with a specific PPI/LF molar ratio at room temperature. Structural aspects of the electrostatic complexes probed at different length scales were investigated as a function of pH by means of different complementary techniques, namely, with dynamic light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), turbidity measurements, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Irrespective of the applied techniques, the results consistently displayed that complexation between LF and PPI did occur. In an optimum narrow range of pH 5.0-5.8, a viscous liquid phase of complex coacervate was obtained upon mild centrifugation of the turbid LF-PPI mixture with a maximum R h , turbidity and the ζ-potential being close to zero observed at pH 5.4. In particular, the SAXS data demonstrated that the coacervates were densely assembled with a roughly spherical size distribution exhibiting a maximum extension of ∼80 nm at pH 5.4. Equally, AFM image analysis showed size distributions containing most frequent cluster sizes around 40-80 nm with spherical to elliptical shapes (axis aspect ratio ≤ 2) as well as less frequent elongated to chainlike structures. The most frequently observed compact complexes, we identify as mainly leading to LF-PPI coacervation, whereas for the less frequent chain-like aggregates, we hypothesize that additionally PPI-PPI facilitated complexes exist.

  16. Concomitant carboxylate and oxalate formation from the activation of CO{sub 2} by a thorium(III) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formanuik, Alasdair; Ortu, Fabrizio; Mills, David P. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Inman, Christopher J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Kerridge, Andrew [Department of Chemistry, Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Castro, Ludovic; Maron, Laurent [LPCNO, CNRA et INSA, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    2016-12-12

    Improving our comprehension of diverse CO{sub 2} activation pathways is of vital importance for the widespread future utilization of this abundant greenhouse gas. CO{sub 2} activation by uranium(III) complexes is now relatively well understood, with oxo/carbonate formation predominating as CO{sub 2} is readily reduced to CO, but isolated thorium(III) CO{sub 2} activation is unprecedented. We show that the thorium(III) complex, [Th(Cp''){sub 3}] (1, Cp''={C_5H_3(SiMe_3)_2-1,3}), reacts with CO{sub 2} to give the mixed oxalate-carboxylate thorium(IV) complex [{Th(Cp'')_2[κ"2-O_2C{C_5H_3-3,3'-(SiMe_3)_2}]}{sub 2}(μ-κ{sup 2}:κ{sup 2}-C{sub 2}O{sub 4})] (3). The concomitant formation of oxalate and carboxylate is unique for CO{sub 2} activation, as in previous examples either reduction or insertion is favored to yield a single product. Therefore, thorium(III) CO{sub 2} activation can differ from better understood uranium(III) chemistry. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.)

  17. Formation of Shc-Grb2 complexes is necessary to induce neoplastic transformation by overexpression of Shc proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salcini, A E; McGlade, J; Pelicci, G

    1994-01-01

    The mammalian SHC gene encodes three overlapping proteins which all contain a carboxy-terminal SH2 domain. Shc proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine by a variety of receptor and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Phosphorylated Shc proteins form a complex with the SH2-SH3 containing Grb2 protein which...... of Grb2 to Shc proteins requires phosphorylation of Shc at Tyr317, which lies within the high affinity binding motif for the Grb2 SH2 domain, pYVNV, where Asn at the +2 position is crucial for complex formation. In vivo, Tyr317 is the major, but not the only, site for Shc phosphorylation, and is the sole...... aminoterminal deletion, but retain the Tyr317 site and the SH2 domain conserve the capacity to be phosphorylated, to bind to Grb2 and to induce cell transformation. These data indicate that the formation of the Shc-Grb2 complex is a crucial event in the transformation induced by overexpression of Shc...

  18. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  19. Formation of Hg(II) Tetrathiolate Complexes with Cysteine at Neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Thomas; Jalilehvand, Farideh

    2016-04-01

    Mercury(II) ions precipitate from aqueous cysteine (H 2 Cys) solutions containing H 2 Cys/Hg(II) mole ratio ≥ 2.0 as Hg( S -HCys) 2 . In absence of additional cysteine, the precipitate dissolves at pH ~12 with the [Hg( S,N -Cys) 2 ] 2- complex dominating. With excess cysteine (H 2 Cys/Hg(II) mole ratio ≥ 4.0), higher complexes form and the precipitate dissolves at lower pH values. Previously, we found that tetrathiolate [Hg( S -Cys) 4 ] 6- complexes form at pH = 11.0; in this work we extend the investigation to pH values of physiological interest. We examined two series of Hg(II)-cysteine solutions in which C Hg(II) varied between 8 - 9 mM and 80 - 100 mM, respectively, with H 2 Cys/Hg(II) mole ratios from 4 to ~20. The solutions were prepared in the pH range 7.1 - 8.8, at the pH at which the initial Hg( S -HCys) 2 precipitate dissolved. The variations in the Hg(II) speciation were followed by 199 Hg NMR, X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic techniques. Our results show that in the dilute solutions ( C Hg(II) = 8 - 9 mM), mixtures of di-, tri- (major) and tetrathiolate complexes exist at moderate cysteine excess ( C H2Cys ~ 0.16 M) at pH 7.1. In the more concentrated solutions ( C Hg(II) = 80 - 100 mM) with high cysteine excess ( C H2Cys > 0.9 M), tetrathiolate [Hg( S -cysteinate) 4 ] m -6 ( m = 0 - 4) complexes dominate in the pH range 7.3 - 7.8, with lower charge than for the [Hg( S -Cys) 4 ] 6- complex due to protonation of some ( m ) of the amino groups of the coordinated cysteine ligands. The results of this investigation could provide a key to the mechanism of biosorption and accumulation of Hg(II) ions in biological / environmental systems.

  20. Tetrapeptide-coumarin conjugate 3D networks based on hydrogen-bonded charge transfer complexes: gel formation and dye release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zongxia; Gong, Ruiying; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Xiaobo

    2015-08-14

    Oligopeptide-based derivatives are important synthons for bio-based functional materials. In this article, a Gly-(L-Val)-Gly-(L-Val)-coumarin (GVGV-Cou) conjugate was synthesized, which forms 3D networks in ethanol. The gel nanostructures were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM and TEM. It is suggested that the formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes between the coumarin moieties is the main driving force for the gel formation. The capability of the gel to encapsulate and release dyes was explored. Both Congo Red (CR) and Methylene Blue (MB) can be trapped in the CT gel matrix and released over time. The present gel might be used as a functional soft material for guest encapsulation and release.

  1. A Low-Complexity Subgroup Formation with QoS-Aware for Enhancing Multicast Services in LTE Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algharem, M.; Omar, M. H.; Rahmat, R. F.; Budiarto, R.

    2018-03-01

    The high demand of Multimedia services on in Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond networks forces the networks operators to find a solution that can handle the huge traffic. Along with this, subgroup formation techniques are introduced to overcome the limitations of the Conventional Multicast Scheme (CMS) by splitting the multicast users into several subgroups based on the users’ channels quality signal. However, finding the best subgroup configuration with low complexity is need more investigations. In this paper, an efficient and simple subgroup formation mechanisms are proposed. The proposed mechanisms take the transmitter MAC queue in account. The effectiveness of the proposed mechanisms is evaluated and compared with CMS in terms of throughput, fairness, delay, Block Error Rate (BLER).

  2. ON MAGNETIC ACTIVITY BAND OVERLAP, INTERACTION, AND THE FORMATION OF COMPLEX SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Leamon, Robert J., E-mail: mscott@hao.ucar.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Recent work has revealed a phenomenological picture of the how the ∼11 yr sunspot cycle of the Sun arises. The production and destruction of sunspots is a consequence of the latitudinal-temporal overlap and interaction of the toroidal magnetic flux systems that belong to the 22 yr magnetic activity cycle and are rooted deep in the Sun's convective interior. We present a conceptually simple extension of this work, presenting a hypothesis on how complex active regions can form as a direct consequence of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction taking place in the solar interior. Furthermore, during specific portions of the sunspot cycle, we anticipate that those complex active regions may be particularly susceptible to profoundly catastrophic breakdown, producing flares and coronal mass ejections of the most severe magnitude.

  3. Spectrophotometric Determination of Metoprolol Tartrate in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms on Complex Formation with Cu(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Cesme

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the assay of metoprolol tartrate (MPT, which is based on the complexation of drug with copper(II [Cu(II] at pH 6.0, using Britton-Robinson buffer solution, to produce a blue adduct. The latter has a maximum absorbance at 675 nm and obeys Beer’s law within the concentration range 8.5-70 mg/mL. Regression analysis of the calibration data showed a good correlation coefficient (r = 0.998 with a limit of detection of 5.56 mg/mL. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of this drug in its tablets. In addition, the spectral data and stability constant for the binuclear copper(II complex of MPT (Cu2MPT2Cl2 have been reported.

  4. Diastereoselective formation of metallamacrocyclic (arene)Ru(II) and CpRh(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehaire, Marie-Line; Scopelliti, Rosario; Herdeis, Lorenz; Polborn, Kurt; Mayer, Peter; Severin, Kay

    2004-03-08

    The reaction of [(arene)RuCl(2)](2) (arene = cymene, 1,3,5-C(6)H(3)Me(3)) and [CpRhCl(2)](2) half-sandwich complexes with tridentate heterocyclic ligands in the presence of base has been investigated. In all cases, the chloro-ligands were substituted to give metallacyclic products with ring sizes between 4 and 18 atoms. The cyclization occurs in a highly diastereoselective fashion with chiral recognition between the different metal fragments. The complexes were comprehensively characterized by elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray crystallography. For 2-hydroxy-nicotinic acid and 2-amino-nicotinic acid, dinuclear structures were obtained (15-17) whereas for 2,3-dihydroxyquinoline, 2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline, and 6-methyl-2,3-phenazinediol, trimeric assemblies were found (19-22), and for 4-imidazolecarboxylic acid, a tetrameric assembly (18) was found.

  5. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  6. Formation and stability of calcium complexes of dimethyl sulfoxide in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakl, M.; Straka, Michal; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Roithová, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 360, č. 1 (2014), s. 8-14 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-21409P Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0539 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : bonding energies * DFT * ESI-MS * complexation * speciation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.972, year: 2014

  7. Chabazite and dolomite formation in a dolocrete profile: An example of a complex alkaline paragenesis in Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarza, Ana M.; Bustamante, Leticia; Huerta, Pedro; Rodríguez-Berriguete, Álvaro; Huertas, María José

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies the weathering and soil formation processes operating on detrital sediments containing alkaline volcanic rock fragments of the Mirador del Río dolocrete profile. The profile consists of a lower horizon of removilised weathered basalts, an intermediate red sandy mudstones horizon with irregular carbonate layers and a topmost horizon of amalgamated carbonate layers with root traces. Formation occurred in arid to semiarid climates, giving place to a complex mineralogical association, including Mg-carbonates and chabazite, rarely described in cal/dolocretes profiles. Initial vadose weathering processes occurred in the basalts and in directly overlying detrital sediments, producing (Stage 1) red-smectites and dolomicrite. Dominant phreatic (Stage 2) conditions allowed precipitation of coarse-zoned dolomite and chabazite filling porosities. In Stages 3 and 4, mostly pedogenic, biogenic processes played an important role in dolomite and calcite accumulation in the profile. Overall evolution of the profile and its mineralogical association involved initial processes dominated by alteration of host rock, to provide silica and Mg-rich alkaline waters, suitable for chabazite and dolomite formation, without a previous carbonate phase. Dolomite formed both abiogenically and biogenically, but without a previous carbonate precursor and in the absence of evaporites. Dominance of calcite towards the profile top is the result of Mg/Ca decrease in the interstitial meteoric waters due to decreased supply of Mg from weathering, and increased supply of Ca in aeolian dust. Meteoric origin of the water is confirmed by C and O isotope values, which also indicate lack of deep sourced CO2. The dolocrete studied and its complex mineral association reveal the complex interactions that occur at surface during weathering and pedogenesis of basalt-sourced rocks.

  8. Comparisons of radiosensitivity and damage repair potential between mutants from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain of yeast and laboratory-bred wild yeasts with particular attention being given to giant cell formation after X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Yeast cells were exposed to X-rays at dose levels up to 10 kGy to induce damage to the DNA and investigate its effects on cellular growth patterns. For this purpose, comparisons were carried out between one diploid strain and six haploid strains of the Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae species, which permitted the individual recovery and damage repair pathways to be described in more detail. The laboratory-bred wild strains ATCC 9080, 211 and 706 were judged to have unimpaired repair mechanisms as compared to the auxotrophs, which fact was evident from the higher radiosensitivity of the latter. A further parameter in this evaluation of growth behaviours was giant cell formation. The results here provided evidence in confirmation of deviations between wild strains and mutants. Even though the ceiling values for the formation of giant cells were similarly high in all strains, impairments of cell division and initial development were observed for the mutants already at considerably lower dose levels. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Application of rank annihilation factor analysis to the spectrophotometric determination of the formation constant of complex of a new synthesized tripodal ligand with Co2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Golbedaghi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The complex formation between a new synthesized tripodal ligand (L22py and the cation Co2+ in water was studied spectrophotometrically using rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA. According to molar ratio data the stoichiometry of complexation between the ligand and the cation Co2+ was 1:1. Formation constant of this complex was derived using RAFA on spectrophotometric data. In this process the contribution of ligand is removed from the absorbance data matrix when the complex stability constant acts as an optimizing object and simply combined with the pure spectrum of ligand, the rank of original data matrix can be reduced by one by annihilating the information of the ligand from the original data matrix. The effect of ethanol, dimethylformamide (DMF and acetonitrile (AN was investigated on the formation constant of the Co2+ complex. Complex formation constant in water was estimated as log Kf = 5.09 ± 0.02. In mixtures of solvents of water and DMF and water and AN, the formation constant of the complex was increased because of lowering donor number of the solvent and in mixture of water and ethanol, the complex formation constant was decreased because of lowering of dielectric constant of the solvent.

  10. Analysis of the complex formation of heparin with protamine by light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation: implications for blood coagulation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jürgen; Haselbach, Stephanie; Klein, Oliver; Baykut, Doan; Vogel, Vitali; Mäntele, Werner

    2011-02-02

    Heparin, a linear glycosaminoglycan, is used in different forms in anticoagulation treatment. Protamine, a highly positive charged peptide containing about 32 amino acids, acts as an antagonist for heparin to restore normal blood coagulation. The complex formation of protamine with heparin was analyzed by a combination of analytical ultracentrifugation and light scattering. Titration of heparin with protamine in blood plasma preparations results in a drastic increase of turbidity, indicating the formation of nanoscale particles. A similar increase of turbidity was observed in physiological saline solution with or without human serum albumin (HSA). Particle size analysis by analytical ultracentrifugation revealed a particle radius of approximately 30 nm for unfractionated heparin and of approximately 60 nm for low molecular weight heparin upon complexation with excess protamine, in agreement with atomic force microscopy data. In the absence of HSA, larger and more heterogeneous particles were observed. The particles obtained were found to be stable for hours. The particle formation kinetics was analyzed by light scattering at different scattering angles and was found to be complete within several minutes. The time course of particle formation suggests a condensation reaction, with sigmoidal traces for low heparin concentrations and quasi-first-order reaction for high heparin concentrations. Under all conditions, the final scattering intensity reached after several minutes was found to be proportional to the amount of heparin in the blood plasma or buffer solution, provided that excess protamine was available and no multiple scattering occurred. On the basis of a direct relation between particle concentration and the heparin concentration present before protaminization, a light scattering assay was developed which permits the quantitative analysis of the heparin concentration in blood plasma and which could complement or even replace the activated clotting time test

  11. Ammonia formation by a thiolate-bridged diiron amide complex as a nitrogenase mimic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Ying; Wang, Baomin; Luo, Yi; Yang, Dawei; Tong, Peng; Zhao, Jinfeng; Luo, Lun; Zhou, Yuhan; Chen, Si; Cheng, Fang; Qu, Jingping

    2013-04-01

    Although nitrogenase enzymes routinely convert molecular nitrogen into ammonia under ambient temperature and pressure, this reaction is currently carried out industrially using the Haber-Bosch process, which requires extreme temperatures and pressures to activate dinitrogen. Biological fixation occurs through dinitrogen and reduced NxHy species at multi-iron centres of compounds bearing sulfur ligands, but it is difficult to elucidate the mechanistic details and to obtain stable model intermediate complexes for further investigation. Metal-based synthetic models have been applied to reveal partial details, although most models involve a mononuclear system. Here, we report a diiron complex bridged by a bidentate thiolate ligand that can accommodate HN=NH. Following reductions and protonations, HN=NH is converted to NH3 through pivotal intermediate complexes bridged by N2H3- and NH2- species. Notably, the final ammonia release was effected with water as the proton source. Density functional theory calculations were carried out, and a pathway of biological nitrogen fixation is proposed.

  12. Snapin mediates insulin secretory granule docking, but not trans-SNARE complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somanath, Sangeeta [Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Partridge, Christopher J. [Diabetes Research Laboratories, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom); Marshall, Catriona [Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Rowe, Tony [CSL Limited, 45 Poplar Road, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Turner, Mark D., E-mail: mark.turner@ntu.ac.uk [Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-29

    Secretory granule exocytosis is a tightly regulated process requiring granule targeting, tethering, priming, and membrane fusion. At the heart of this process is the SNARE complex, which drives fusion through a coiled-coil zippering effect mediated by the granule v-SNARE protein, VAMP2, and the plasma membrane t-SNAREs, SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1A. Here we demonstrate that in pancreatic β-cells the SNAP-25 accessory protein, snapin, C-terminal H2 domain binds SNAP-25 through its N-terminal Sn-1 domain. Interestingly whilst snapin binds SNAP-25, there is only modest binding of this complex with syntaxin-1A under resting conditions. Instead synataxin-1A appears to be recruited in response to secretory stimulation. These results indicate that snapin plays a role in tethering insulin granules to the plasma membrane through coiled coil interaction of snapin with SNAP-25, with full granule fusion competency only resulting after subsequent syntaxin-1A recruitment triggered by secretory stimulation. - Highlights: • Snapin mediates granule docking. • Snapin binds SNAP-25. • SNARE complex forms downstream.

  13. Metamorphic core complex formation by density inversion and lower-crust extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F; Goodliffe, A M; Taylor, B

    2001-06-21

    Metamorphic core complexes are domal uplifts of metamorphic and plutonic rocks bounded by shear zones that separate them from unmetamorphosed cover rocks. Interpretations of how these features form are varied and controversial, and include models involving extension on low-angle normal faults, plutonic intrusions and flexural rotation of initially high-angle normal faults. The D'Entrecasteaux islands of Papua New Guinea are actively forming metamorphic core complexes located within a continental rift that laterally evolves to sea-floor spreading. The continental rifting is recent (since approximately 6 Myr ago), seismogenic and occurring at a rapid rate ( approximately 25 mm yr-1). Here we present evidence-based on isostatic modelling, geological data and heat-flow measurements-that the D'Entrecasteaux core complexes accommodate extension through the vertical extrusion of ductile lower-crust material, driven by a crustal density inversion. Although buoyant extrusion is accentuated in this region by the geological structure present-which consists of dense ophiolite overlaying less-dense continental crust-this mechanism may be generally applicable to regions where thermal expansion lowers crustal density with depth.

  14. Snapin mediates insulin secretory granule docking, but not trans-SNARE complex formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somanath, Sangeeta; Partridge, Christopher J.; Marshall, Catriona; Rowe, Tony; Turner, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Secretory granule exocytosis is a tightly regulated process requiring granule targeting, tethering, priming, and membrane fusion. At the heart of this process is the SNARE complex, which drives fusion through a coiled-coil zippering effect mediated by the granule v-SNARE protein, VAMP2, and the plasma membrane t-SNAREs, SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1A. Here we demonstrate that in pancreatic β-cells the SNAP-25 accessory protein, snapin, C-terminal H2 domain binds SNAP-25 through its N-terminal Sn-1 domain. Interestingly whilst snapin binds SNAP-25, there is only modest binding of this complex with syntaxin-1A under resting conditions. Instead synataxin-1A appears to be recruited in response to secretory stimulation. These results indicate that snapin plays a role in tethering insulin granules to the plasma membrane through coiled coil interaction of snapin with SNAP-25, with full granule fusion competency only resulting after subsequent syntaxin-1A recruitment triggered by secretory stimulation. - Highlights: • Snapin mediates granule docking. • Snapin binds SNAP-25. • SNARE complex forms downstream.

  15. Weak bases and formation of a less soluble lauryl sulfate salt/complex in sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) containing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachar, Shobha N; Risley, Donald S; Werawatganone, Pornpen; Aburub, Aktham

    2011-06-30

    This work reports on the solubility of two weakly basic model compounds in media containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Results clearly show that the presence of SLS in the media (e.g. simulated gastric fluid or dissolution media) can result in an underestimation of solubility of some weak bases. We systematically study this phenomenon and provide evidence (chromatography and pXRD) for the first time that the decrease in solubility is likely due to formation of a less soluble salt/complex between the protonated form of the weak base and lauryl sulfate anion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation and uranium explorating prospect of sub-volcanic granitic complex and rich uranium ore deposit in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yusheng

    1997-01-01

    The rich uranium ore deposits are all closely related to tecto-magmatism of late-magmatic cycle whether volcanic types or granitic types in south China. Volcanic type rich uranium deposit has closely relationship with sub-volcanic activity, and granitic type rich uranium deposit is also closely related to mid-fine, unequal particle small massif in late main invasion stage. Based on characteristics of magmatism, we name the rock sub-volcanic granite complex, which is a unique style and closely related to the formation of rich uranium ore deposit

  17. Unusual C-C bond cleavage in the formation of amine-bis(phenoxy) group 4 benzyl complexes: Mechanism of formation and application to stereospecific polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Gowda, Ravikumar R.

    2014-08-11

    Group 4 tetrabenzyl compounds MBn4 (M = Zr, Ti), upon protonolysis with an equimolar amount of the tetradentate amine-tris(phenol) ligand N[(2,4-tBu2C6H2(CH 2)OH]3 in toluene from -30 to 25 °C, unexpectedly lead to amine-bis(phenoxy) dibenzyl complexes, BnCH2N[(2,4- tBu2C6H2(CH2)O] 2MBn2 (M = Zr (1), Ti (2)) in 80% (1) and 75% (2) yields. This reaction involves an apparent cleavage of the >NCH2-ArOH bond (loss of the phenol in the ligand) and formation of the >NCH 2-CH2Bn bond (gain of the benzyl group in the ligand). Structural characterization of 1 by X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the complex formed is a bis(benzyl) complex of Zr coordinated by a newly derived tridentate amine-bis(phenoxy) ligand arranged in a mer configuration in the solid state. The abstractive activation of 1 and 2 with B(C6F 5)3·THF in CD2Cl2 at room temperature generates the corresponding benzyl cations {BnCH2N[(2,4- tBu2C6H2(CH2)O] 2MBn(THF)}+[BnB(C6F5) 3]- (M = Zr (3), Ti, (4)). These cationic complexes, along with their analogues derived from (imino)phenoxy tri- and dibenzyl complexes, [(2,6-iPr2C6H3)N=C(3,5- tBu2C6H2)O]ZrBn3 (5) and [2,4-Br2C6H2(O)(6-CH2(NC 5H9))CH2N=CH(2-adamantyl-4-MeC 6H2O)]ZrBn2 (6), have been found to effectively polymerize the biomass-derived renewable β-methyl-α-methylene- γ-butyrolactone (βMMBL) at room temperature into the highly stereoregular polymer PβMMBL with an isotacticity up to 99% mm. A combined experimental and DFT study has yielded a mechanistic pathway for the observed unusual C-C bond cleavage in the present protonolysis reaction between ZrBn4 and N[(2,4-tBu2C 6H2(CH2)OH]3 for the formation of complex 1, which involves the benzyl radical and the Zr(III) species, resulting from thermal and photochemical decomposition of ZrBn4, followed by a series of reaction sequences consisting of protonolysis, tautomerization, H-transfer, oxidation, elimination, and radical coupling. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Thymidine phosphorylase exerts complex effects on bone resorption and formation in myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Du, Juan; He, Jin; Lin, Pei; Amini, Behrang; Starbuck, Michael W; Novane, Nora; Shah, Jatin J; Davis, Richard E; Hou, Jian; Gagel, Robert F; Yang, Jing

    2016-08-24

    Myelomatous bone disease is characterized by the development of lytic bone lesions and a concomitant reduction in bone formation, leading to chronic bone pain and fractures. To understand the underlying mechanism, we investigated the contribution of myeloma-expressed thymidine phosphorylase (TP) to bone lesions. In osteoblast progenitors, TP up-regulated the methylation of RUNX2 and osterix, leading to decreased bone formation. In osteoclast progenitors, TP up-regulated the methylation of IRF8 and thereby enhanced expression of NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 protein), leading to increased bone resorption. TP reversibly catalyzes thymidine into thymine and 2-deoxy-d-ribose (2DDR). Myeloma-secreted 2DDR bound to integrin αVβ3/α5β1 in the progenitors, activated PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt signaling, and increased DNMT3A (DNA methyltransferase 3A) expression, resulting in hypermethylation of RUNX2, osterix, and IRF8 This study elucidates an important mechanism for myeloma-induced bone lesions, suggesting that targeting TP may be a viable approach to healing resorbed bone in patients. Because TP overexpression is common in bone-metastatic tumors, our findings could have additional mechanistic implications. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Ising-based model of opinion formation in a complex network of interpersonal interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, A.; Kosiński, R. A.

    2006-03-01

    In our work the process of opinion formation in the human population, treated as a scale-free network, is modeled and investigated numerically. The individuals (nodes of the network) are characterized by their authorities, which influence the interpersonal interactions in the population. Hierarchical, two-level structures of interpersonal interactions and spatial localization of individuals are taken into account. The effect of the mass media, modeled as an external stimulation acting on the social network, on the process of opinion formation is investigated. It was found that in the time evolution of opinions of individuals critical phenomena occur. The first one is observed in the critical temperature of the system TC and is connected with the situation in the community, which may be described by such quantifiers as the economic status of people, unemployment or crime wave. Another critical phenomenon is connected with the influence of mass media on the population. As results from our computations, under certain circumstances the mass media can provoke critical rebuilding of opinions in the population.

  20. Complex Formation and Liquid-Liquid Extraction in the Niobium(V) - 2,4-Dihydroxythiophenol - Hydrophobic Amines System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalov, A.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The formation and solvent extraction of new ion-association complexes between anionic chelat of niobium(V) with 2,4-dihydroxy-thio-phenol (DHTP) and hydrophobic amines (HAs). The HAs were aniline (An), N-methyl-aniline (MAn), N,N-dimethylaniline (DAn). The optimum conditions for the extraction of mixed ligand complexes (MLC) (organic solvent, extraction time, acidity of the aqueous phase, concentration of reagents), some key constants (association constant (β), extraction constant (Kex)) and analytical characteristics were determined. The molar absorptivities of MLC were calculated ε =(3.5-3.9) * 10/sup 4/ L mol /sup -1/ cm/sup -1/ . The Beer law was applicable in the range of 2.2-100 μg/mL. (author)

  1. Formation and annealing of metastable (interstitial oxygen)-(interstitial carbon) complexes in n- and p-type silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, L F; Lastovskii, S B; Murin, L I; Moll, M; Pintilie, I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown experimentally that, in contrast to the stable configuration of (interstitial carbon)-(interstitial oxygen) complexes (CiOi), the corresponding metastable configuration (CiOi{*}) cannot be found in n-Si based structures by the method of capacitance spectroscopy. The rates of transformation CiOi{*} -> CiOi are practically the same for both n- and p-Si with a concentration of charge carriers of no higher than 10(13) cm(-3). It is established that the probabilities of the simultaneous formation of stable and metastable configurations of the complex under study in the case of the addition of an atom of interstitial carbon to an atom of interstitial oxygen is close to 50\\%. This is caused by the orientation dependence of the interaction potential of an atom of interstitial oxygen with an interstitial carbon atom, which diffuses to this oxygen atom.

  2. A Submillimetre Study of Massive Star Formation Within the W51 Complex and Infrared Dark Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Harriet Alice Louise

    Despite its importance the fundamental question of how massive stars form remains unanswered, with improvements to both models and observations having crucial roles to play. To quote Bate et al. (2003) computational models of star formation are limited because "conditions in molecular clouds are not sufficiently well understood to be able to select a representative sample of cloud cores for the initial conditions". It is this notion that motivates the study of the environments within Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) and Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), known sites of massive star formation, at the clump and core level. By studying large populations of these objects, it is possible to make conclusions based on global properties. With this in mind I study the dense molecular clumps within one of the most massive GMCs in the Galaxy: the W51 GMC. New observations of the W51 GMC in the 12CO, 13CO and C18O (3-2) transitions using the HARP instrument on the JCMT are presented. With the help of the clump finding algorithm CLUMPFIND a total of 1575 dense clumps are identified of which 1130 are associated with the W51 GMC, yielding a dense mass reservoir of 1.5 × 10^5 M contained within these clumps. Of these clumps only 1% by number are found to be super-critical, yielding a super-critical clump formation efficiency of 0.5%, below current SFE estimates of the region. This indicates star formation within the W51 GMC will diminish over time although evidence from the first search for molecular outflows presents the W51 GMC in an active light with a lower limit of 14 outflows. The distribution of the outflows within the region searched found them concentrated towards the W51A region. Having much smaller sizes and masses, obtaining global properties of clumps and cores within IRDCs required studying a large sample of these objects. To do this pre-existing data from the SCUBA Legacy Catalogue was utilised to study IRDCs within a catalogues based on 8 μm data. This data identified

  3. H4K20me0 marks post-replicative chromatin and recruits the TONSL–MMS22L DNA repair complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saredi, Giulia; Huang, Hongda; Hammond, Colin M

    2016-01-01

    After DNA replication, chromosomal processes including DNA repair and transcription take place in the context of sister chromatids. While cell cycle regulation can guide these processes globally, mechanisms to distinguish pre- and post-replicative states locally remain unknown. Here we reveal...

  4. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Homoepitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-07-01

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on surfaces of face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline conducting substrates under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast edge diffusion direction. For larger-than-critical island sizes on {110 } and {100 } fcc substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including not-simply-connected void-containing islands mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The evolution of the average island size follows a universal power-law scaling relation, and the evolution of the total edge length of the islands in the complex pattern follows Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetics. Our study makes a strong case for the use of electric fields, as precisely controlled macroscopic forcing, toward surface patterning involving complex nanoscale features.

  5. Module-based complexity formation: periodic patterning in feathers and hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism’s lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specific number, size, and spacing.We explorehowa field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical–chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators/inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (microenvironment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macroenvironment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by cellular automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to ‘organ metamorphosis’, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential novel evolutionary steps using this module-based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Consequences of intramolecular dityrosine formation on a DNA-protein complex: a molecular modeling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, Julien; Sy, Denise; Eon, Severine; Charlier, Michel; Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    Irradiation of the free lac repressor with γ-rays abolishes protein's ability to specifically bind operator DNA. A possible radiation-induced protein damage is a dityrosine (DTyr) formed by two spatially close radiation-induced tyrosyl radicals. We performed the molecular modeling of complexes between operator DNA and DTyr-bearing parts (headpieces) of the repressor. The presence of DTyr affects the structure and the interactions between partners. A detailed analysis allows to conclude this damage can partially account for the loss of repressor ability to bind DNA

  7. ALMA Reveals Sequential High-mass Star Formation in the G9.62+0.19 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Lacy, John [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Li, Pak Shing [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wang, Ke [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str.2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Qin, Sheng-Li [Department of Astronomy, Yunnan University, and Key Laboratory of Astroparticle Physics of Yunnan Province, Kunming, 650091 (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Qingfeng [Astronomy Department, University of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 210008 (China); Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Hirota, Tomoya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ren, Zhiyuan; Li, Di [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Huei-Ru; Su, Yu-Nung, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2017-11-01

    Stellar feedback from high-mass stars (e.g., H ii regions) can strongly influence the surrounding interstellar medium and regulate star formation. Our new ALMA observations reveal sequential high-mass star formation taking place within one subvirial filamentary clump (the G9.62 clump) in the G9.62+0.19 complex. The 12 dense cores (MM1–MM12) detected by ALMA are at very different evolutionary stages, from the starless core phase to the UC H ii region phase. Three dense cores (MM6, MM7/G, MM8/F) are associated with outflows. The mass–velocity diagrams of the outflows associated with MM7/G and MM8/F can be well-fit by broken power laws. The mass–velocity diagram of the SiO outflow associated with MM8/F breaks much earlier than other outflow tracers (e.g., CO, SO, CS, HCN), suggesting that SiO traces newly shocked gas, while the other molecular lines (e.g., CO, SO, CS, HCN) mainly trace the ambient gas continuously entrained by outflow jets. Five cores (MM1, MM3, MM5, MM9, MM10) are massive starless core candidates whose masses are estimated to be larger than 25 M {sub ☉}, assuming a dust temperature of ≤20 K. The shocks from the expanding H ii regions (“B” and “C”) to the west may have a great impact on the G9.62 clump by compressing it into a filament and inducing core collapse successively, leading to sequential star formation. Our findings suggest that stellar feedback from H ii regions may enhance the star formation efficiency and suppress low-mass star formation in adjacent pre-existing massive clumps.

  8. A strategy for complex dimer formation when biomimicry fails: total synthesis of ten coccinellid alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Trevor C; Trotta, Adam H; Snyder, Scott A

    2014-07-09

    Although dimeric natural products can often be synthesized in the laboratory by directly merging advanced monomers, these approaches sometimes fail, leading instead to non-natural architectures via incorrect unions. Such a situation arose during our studies of the coccinellid alkaloids, when attempts to directly dimerize Nature's presumed monomeric precursors in a putative biomimetic sequence afforded only a non-natural analogue through improper regiocontrol. Herein, we outline a unique strategy for dimer formation that obviates these difficulties, one which rapidly constructs the coccinellid dimers psylloborine A and isopsylloborine A through a terminating sequence of two reaction cascades that generate five bonds, five rings, and four stereocenters. In addition, a common synthetic intermediate is identified which allows for the rapid, asymmetric formal or complete total syntheses of eight monomeric members of the class.

  9. Formation of binary and ternary complexes of mercaptobenzimidazoles with lanthanides in presence of aminopolycarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshi Reddy, P; Manwal, D D; Chandra Pal, A V [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-05-01

    The formation constants of 1:1 and 1:2 binary Ln (III)-2-mercaptomethylbenzimidazole (MMB), Ln (III)-2-mercapto-ethylbenzimidazole (MEB) and 1:1:1 ternary [Ln (III)-A-MMB], [Ln (III)-A-MEB] chelates [where Ln(III) = Pr, Nd, Gd, Dy and Y; A = iminodiacetic acid (IMDA), hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HIMDA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)] have been determined pH-metrically in 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol medium at 30 degC and I = 0.1 M (NaClO{sub 4}). The ligands MMB and MEB coordinates as secondary ligands in presence of IMDA, HIMDA and NTA with metal ions. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Membrane complexes of Syntrophomonas wolfei involved in syntrophic butyrate degradation and hydrogen formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Regis Crable

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Syntrophic butyrate metabolism involves the thermodynamically unfavorable production of hydrogen and/or formate from the high potential electron donor, butyryl-CoA. Such redox reactions can occur only with energy input by a process called reverse electron transfer. Previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen production from butyrate requires the presence of a proton gradient, but the biochemical machinery involved has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, the gene and enzyme systems involved in reverse electron transfer by Syntrophomonas wolfei were investigated using proteomic and gene expression approaches. S. wolfei was grown in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei or Dehalococcoides mccartyi under conditions requiring reverse electron transfer and compared to both axenic S. wolfei cultures and cocultures grown in conditions that do not require reverse electron transfer. Blue native gel analysis of membranes solubilized from syntrophically grown cells revealed the presence of a membrane-bound hydrogenase, Hyd2, which exhibited hydrogenase activity during in gel assays. Bands containing a putative iron-sulfur (FeS oxidoreductase were detected in membranes of crotonate-grown and butyrate grown S. wolfei cells. The genes for the corresponding hydrogenase subunits, hyd2ABC, were differentially expressed at higher levels during syntrophic butyrate growth when compared to growth on crotonate. The expression of the FeS oxidoreductase gene increased when S. wolfei was grown with M. hungatei. Additional membrane-associated proteins detected included FoF1 ATP synthase subunits and several membrane transporters that may aid syntrophic growth. Furthermore, syntrophic butyrate metabolism can proceed exclusively by interspecies hydrogen transfer, as demonstrated by growth with D. mccartyi, which is unable to use formate. These results argue for the importance of Hyd2 and FeS oxidoreductase in reverse electron transfer during syntrophic

  11. Mechanisms of defect complex formation and environmental-assisted fracture behavior of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, B.R.; Muratov, L.S.; Kang, B.S.J.; Li, K.Z. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide has excellent corrosion resistance in high-temperature oxidizing-sulfidizing environments; however, there are problems at room and medium temperature with hydrogen embrittlement as related to exposure to moisture. In this research, a coordinated computational modeling/experimental study of mechanisms related to environmental-assisted fracture behavior of selected iron aluminides is being undertaken. The modeling and the experimental work will connect at the level of coordinated understanding of the mechanisms for hydrogen penetration and for loss of strength and susceptibility to fracture. The focus of the modeling component at this point is on the challenging question of accurately predicting the iron vacancy formation energy in Fe{sub 3}A{ell} and the subsequent tendency, if present, for vacancy clustering. The authors have successfully performed, on an ab initio basis, the first calculation of the vacancy formation energy in Fe{sub 3}A{ell}. These calculations include lattice relaxation effects which are quite large. This has significant implications for vacancy clustering effects with consequences to be explored for hydrogen diffusion. The experimental work at this stage has focused on the relationship of the choice and concentration of additives to the improvement of resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and hence to the fracture behavior. For this reason, comparative crack growth tests of FA-186, FA-187, and FA-189 iron aluminides (all with basic composition of Fe-28A{ell}-5Cr, at % with micro-alloying additives of Zr, C or B) under, air, oxygen, or water environment have been performed. These tests showed that the alloys are susceptible to room temperature hydrogen embrittlement in both B2 and DO{sub 3} conditions. Test results indicated that FA-187, and FA-189 are intrinsically more brittle than FA-186.

  12. Inelastic scattering and endohedral complex formation in high-energy collisions of fullerenes with He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, J.H.; Mowrey, R.C.; Ross, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    Since the original postulation of its icosahedral structure by Smalley and Kroto in 1985, C 60 (also known as buckminsterfullerene) has fascinated investigators in a variety of fields. With the publication of a synthetic method for the bulk production of C 60 , there has been an explosion of research interest in this molecule. A number of intriguing experimental results have been published, including work in the area of mass spectrometry. For example, at a workshop at the 1991 ASMS meeting, Schwartz and coworkers reported a remarkable result. They showed that high energy collisions of C 60 + with He resulted not only in the expected formation of collision-induced dissociation (CID) products such as C 56 + and C 58 + (C 2 loss is the main fragmentation pathway for C 60 ), but also in the formation of products such as C 56 + + 4 and C 58 + + 4. Careful experiments with He showed that the products were C 56 He + and C 58 He + , most likely formed by the uptake of He by C 60 + during the collision. Subsequent experiments in this laboratory were able to directly observe the C 60 He + product, the product ion shifts in kinetic energy by an amount equal to the center-of-mass collision energy, consistent with kinematic arguments. C 60 He + was also observed by the Gross group and the Schwarz group. Gross and coworkers also showed that inelastic scattering processes can be observed in the collision spectrum. More recently, the Anderson group has studied reverse processes, in which ions such as He + , Li + , and C + undergo collisions with C 60 and are taken up in the collision

  13. Formation of carbonato and hydroxo complexes in the reaction of platinum anticancer drugs with carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasqua, Anthony J; Centerwall, Corey R; Kerwood, Deborah J; Dabrowiak, James C

    2009-02-02

    The second-generation Pt(II) anticancer drug carboplatin is here shown to react with carbonate, which is present in blood, interstitial fluid, cytosol, and culture medium, to produce platinum-carbonato and -hydroxo complexes. Using [(1)H-(15)N] HSQC NMR and (15)N-labeled carboplatin, we observe that cis-[Pt(CBDCA-O)(OH)(NH(3))(2)](-), cis-[Pt(OH)(2)(NH(3))(2)], cis-[Pt(CO(3))(OH)(NH(3))(2)](-), and what may be cis-[Pt(CO(3))(NH(3))(2)] are produced when 1 is allowed to react in 23.8 mM carbonate buffer. When (15)N-labeled carboplatin is allowed to react in 0.5 M carbonate buffer, these platinum species, as well as other hydroxo and carbonato species, some of which may be dinuclear complexes, are produced. Furthermore, we show that the carbonato species cis-[Pt(CO(3))(OH)(NH(3))(2)](-) is also produced when cisplatin is allowed to react in carbonate buffer. The study outlines the conditions under which carboplatin and cisplatin form carbonato and aqua/hydroxo species in carbonate media.

  14. Conformational co-dependence between Plasmodium berghei LCCL proteins promotes complex formation and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sadia; Tremp, Annie Z; Dessens, Johannes T

    2012-10-01

    Malaria parasites express a conserved family of LCCL-lectin adhesive-like domain proteins (LAPs) that have essential functions in sporozoite transmission. In Plasmodium falciparum all six family members are expressed in gametocytes and form a multi-protein complex. Intriguingly, knockout of P. falciparum LCCL proteins adversely affects expression of other family members at protein, but not at mRNA level, a phenomenon termed co-dependent expression. Here, we investigate this in Plasmodium berghei by crossing a PbLAP1 null mutant parasite with a paras